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Sample records for molecular motor kif3

  1. Kinesin superfamily protein 3 (KIF3) motor transports fodrin-associating vesicles important for neurite building.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Yamazaki, H; Seog, D H; Kanai, Y; Terada, S; Hirokawa, N

    2000-03-20

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) comprise several dozen molecular motor proteins. The KIF3 heterotrimer complex is one of the most abundantly and ubiquitously expressed KIFs in mammalian cells. To unveil the functions of KIF3, microinjection of function-blocking monovalent antibodies against KIF3 into cultured superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was carried out. They significantly blocked fast axonal transport and brought about inhibition of neurite extension. A yeast two-hybrid binding assay revealed the association of fodrin with the KIF3 motor through KAP3. This was further confirmed by using vesicles collected from large bundles of axons (cauda equina), from which membranous vesicles could be prepared in pure preparations. Both immunoprecipitation and immunoelectron microscopy indicated the colocalization of fodrin and KIF3 on the same vesicles, the results reinforcing the evidence that the cargo of the KIF3 motor consists of fodrin-associating vesicles. In addition, pulse-labeling study implied partial comigration of both molecules as fast flow components. Taken together, the KIF3 motor is engaged in fast axonal transport that conveys membranous components important for neurite extension. PMID:10725338

  2. Molecular cloning and expression of the KIF3A gene in the frog brain and testis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, T; Miura, I; Kashiwagi, A; Nakamura, M

    1997-12-01

    KIF3A is a member of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), but its gene has been cloned only in mouse and sea urchin. We have cloned a homolog of KIF3A from the frog, Rana rugosa (rrKIF3A). The sequence encoded a 699 amino acid protein that shares 93% similarity with mouse KIF3A (mKIF3A) and 69% with sea urchin kinesin-related protein (SpKRP85). The putative ATP-binding domain was completely identical to that of mKIF3A and SpKRP85. The level of rrKIF3A mRNA appeared to be high in the brain and testis of adult frogs, but low in the heart, lung and kidney. The results suggest that the rrKIF3A gene is expressed in the brain and testis more than other tissues of adult frogs examined, and that KIF3A is widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. PMID:9520632

  3. KIF3C and KIF3A Form a Novel Neuronal Heteromeric Kinesin That Associates with Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Muresan, Virgil; Abramson, Tatiana; Lyass, Asya; Winter, Dirk; Porro, Elena; Hong, Filbert; Chamberlin, Nancy L.; Schnapp, Bruce J.

    1998-01-01

    We have cloned from rat brain the cDNA encoding an 89,828-Da kinesin-related polypeptide KIF3C that is enriched in brain, retina, and lung. Immunocytochemistry of hippocampal neurons in culture shows that KIF3C is localized to cell bodies, dendrites, and, in lesser amounts, to axons. In subcellular fractionation experiments, KIF3C cofractionates with a distinct population of membrane vesicles. Native KIF3C binds to microtubules in a kinesin-like, nucleotide-dependent manner. KIF3C is most similar to mouse KIF3B and KIF3A, two closely related kinesins that are normally present as a heteromer. In sucrose density gradients, KIF3C sediments at two distinct densities, suggesting that it may be part of two different multimolecular complexes. Immunoprecipitation experiments show that KIF3C is in part associated with KIF3A, but not with KIF3B. Unlike KIF3B, a significant portion of KIF3C is not associated with KIF3A. Consistent with these biochemical properties, the distribution of KIF3C in the CNS has both similarities and differences compared with KIF3A and KIF3B. These results suggest that KIF3C is a vesicle-associated motor that functions both independently and in association with KIF3A. PMID:9487132

  4. Suppression of motor protein KIF3C expression inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in breast cancer by inhibiting TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengqin; Wang, Chenggang; Wei, Zhimin; Li, Yujun; Wang, Wenhong; Li, Xia; Zhao, Jing; Zhou, Xuan; Qu, Xun; Xiang, Fenggang

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death among women. KIF3C, a member of kinesin superfamily, functions as a motor protein involved in axonal transport in neuronal cells. To explore the expression, regulation and mechanism of KIF3C in breast cancer, 4 breast cancer cell lines and 93 cases of primary breast cancer and paired adjacent tissues were examined. Immunohistochemistry, Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, flow cytometry, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), colony formation techniques and xenograft mice model were used. We found that KIF3C was over-expressed in breast cancer tissues and such high KIF3C expression was also associated with tumor recurrence and lymph node metastasis. Silencing of KIF3C by shRNA inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by inhibiting TGF-β signaling and suppressed breast cancer cell proliferation through inducing G2/M phase arrest. The tumor size was smaller and the number of lung metastatic nodules was less in KIF3C depletion MDA-MB-231 cell xenograft mice than in negative control group. These results suggested that high expression of KIF3C in breast cancer may be associated with the tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:26272184

  5. Heterotrimeric kinesin-2 (KIF3) mediates transition zone and axoneme formation of mouse photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Wei, Yuxiao; Ronquillo, Cecinio C; Marc, Robert E; Yoder, Bradley K; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2015-05-15

    Anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) employing kinesin-2 molecular motors has been implicated in trafficking of photoreceptor outer segment proteins. We generated embryonic retina-specific (prefix "emb") and adult tamoxifen-induced (prefix "tam") deletions of KIF3a and IFT88 in adult mice to study photoreceptor ciliogenesis and protein trafficking. In (emb)Kif3a(-/-) and in (emb)Ift88(-/-) mice, basal bodies failed to extend transition zones (connecting cilia) with outer segments, and visual pigments mistrafficked. In contrast, (tam)Kif3a(-/-) and (tam)Ift88(-/-) photoreceptor axonemes disintegrated slowly post-induction, starting distally, but rhodopsin and cone pigments trafficked normally for more than 2 weeks, a time interval during which the outer segment is completely renewed. The results demonstrate that visual pigments transport to the retinal outer segment despite removal of KIF3 and IFT88, and KIF3-mediated anterograde IFT is responsible for photoreceptor transition zone and axoneme formation. PMID:25825494

  6. Fast or Slow, Either Head Can Start the Processive Run of Kinesin-2 KIF3AC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengwei; Rayment, Ivan; Gilbert, Susan P

    2016-02-26

    Mammalian KIF3AC contains two distinct motor polypeptides and is best known for its role in organelle transport in neurons. Our recent studies showed that KIF3AC is as processive as conventional kinesin-1, suggesting that their ATPase mechanochemistry may be similar. However, the presence of two different motor polypeptides in KIF3AC implies that there must be a cellular advantage for the KIF3AC heterodimer. The hypothesis tested was whether there is an intrinsic bias within KIF3AC such that either KIF3A or KIF3C initiates the processive run. To pursue these experiments, a mechanistic approach was used to compare the pre-steady-state kinetics of KIF3AC to the kinetics of homodimeric KIF3AA and KIF3CC. The results indicate that microtubule collision at 11.4 μm(-1) s(-1) coupled with ADP release at 78 s(-1) are fast steps for homodimeric KIF3AA. In contrast, KIF3CC exhibits much slower microtubule association at 2.1 μm(-1) s(-1) and ADP release at 8 s(-1). For KIF3AC, microtubule association at 6.6 μm(-1) s(-1) and ADP release at 51 s(-1) are intermediate between the constants for KIF3AA and KIF3CC. These results indicate that either KIF3A or KIF3C can initiate the processive run. Surprisingly, the kinetics of the initial event of microtubule collision followed by ADP release for KIF3AC is not equivalent to 1:1 mixtures of KIF3AA plus KIF3CC homodimers at the same motor concentration. These results reveal that the intermolecular communication within the KIF3AC heterodimer modulates entry into the processive run regardless of whether the run is initiated by the KIF3A or KIF3C motor domain. PMID:26710851

  7. Stability and specificity of heterodimer formation for the coiled-coil neck regions of the motor proteins Kif3A and Kif3B: the role of unstructured oppositely charged regions

    PubMed Central

    Chana, M.S.; Tripet, B.P.; Mant, C.T.; Hodges, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the folding, stability, and specificity of dimerization of the neck regions of the kinesin-like proteins Kif3A (residues 356–416) and Kif3B (residues 351–411). We showed that the complementary charged regions found in the hinge regions (which directly follow the neck regions) of these proteins do not adopt any secondary structure in solution. We then explored the ability of the complementary charged regions to specify heterodimer formation for the neck region coiled-coils found in Kif3A and Kif3B. Redox experiments demonstrated that oppositely charged regions specified the formation of a heterodimeric coiled-coil. Denaturation studies with urea demonstrated that the negatively charged region of Kif3A dramatically destabilized its neck coiled-coil (urea1/2 value of 3.9 m compared with 6.7 m for the coiled-coil alone). By comparison, the placement of a positively charged region C-terminal to the neck coiled-coil of Kif3B had little effect on stability (urea1/2 value of 8.2 m compared with 8.8 m for the coiled-coil alone). The pairing of complementary charged regions leads to specific heterodimer formation where the stability of the heterodimeric neck coiled-coil with charged regions had similar stability (urea1/2 value of 7.8 m) to the most stable homodimer (Kif3B) with charged regions (urea1/2 value of 8.0 m) and dramatically more stable than the Kif3A homodimer with charged regions (urea1/2, value of 3.9 m). The heterodimeric coiled-coil with charged extensions has essentially the same stability as the heterodimeric coiled-coil on its own (urea1/2 values of 7.8 and 8.1 m, respectively) suggesting that specificity of heterodimerization is driven by non-specific attraction of the oppositely unstructured charged regions without affecting stability of the heterodimeric coiled-coil. PMID:15705165

  8. KIF2 is a new microtubule-based anterograde motor that transports membranous organelles distinct from those carried by kinesin heavy chain or KIF3A/B.

    PubMed

    Noda, Y; Sato-Yoshitake, R; Kondo, S; Nangaku, M; Hirokawa, N

    1995-04-01

    Kinesin is known as a representative cytoskeletal motor protein that is engaged in cell division and axonal transport. In addition to the mutant assay, recent advances using the PCR cloning technique have elucidated the existence of many kinds of kinesin-related proteins in yeast, Drosophila, and mice. We previously cloned five different members of kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) in mouse brain (Aizawa, H., Y. Sekine, R. Takemura, Z. Zhang, M. Nangaku, and N. Hirokawa. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 119:1287-1296) and demonstrated that one of them, KIF3A, is an anterograde motor (Kondo, S., R. Sato-Yashitake, Y. Noda, H. Aizawa, T. Nakata, Y. Matsuura, and N. Hirokawa. J. Cell Biol. 1994. 125:1095-1107). We have now characterized another axonal transport motor, KIF2. Different from other KIFs, KIF2 is a central type motor, since its motor domain is located in the center of the molecule. Recombinant KIF2 exists as a dimer with a bigger head and plus-end directionally moves microtubules at a velocity of 0.47 +/- 0.11 microns/s, which is two thirds that of kinesin's. Immunocytological examination showed that native KIF2 is abundant in developing axons and that it accumulates in the proximal region of the ligated nerves after a 20-h ligation. Soluble KIF2 exists without a light chain, and KIF2's associated-vesicles, immunoprecipitated by anti-KIF2 antibody, are different from those carried by existing motors such as kinesin and KIF3A. They are also distinct from synaptic vesicles, although KIF2 is accumulated in so-called synaptic vesicle fractions and embryonal growth cone particles. Our results strongly suggest that KIF2 functions as a new anterograde motor, being specialized for a particular group of membranous organelles involved in fast axonal transport. PMID:7535303

  9. Kinesin-2 KIF3AC and KIF3AB Can Drive Long-Range Transport along Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Guzik-Lendrum, Stephanie; Rank, Katherine C; Bensel, Brandon M; Taylor, Keenan C; Rayment, Ivan; Gilbert, Susan P

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian KIF3AC is classified as a heterotrimeric kinesin-2 that is best known for organelle transport in neurons, yet in vitro studies to characterize its single molecule behavior are lacking. The results presented show that a KIF3AC motor that includes the native helix α7 sequence for coiled-coil formation is highly processive with run lengths of ∼1.23 μm and matching those exhibited by conventional kinesin-1. This result was unexpected because KIF3AC exhibits the canonical kinesin-2 neck-linker sequence that has been reported to be responsible for shorter run lengths observed for another heterotrimeric kinesin-2, KIF3AB. However, KIF3AB with its native neck linker and helix α7 is also highly processive with run lengths of ∼1.62 μm and exceeding those of KIF3AC and kinesin-1. Loop L11, a component of the microtubule-motor interface and implicated in activating ADP release upon microtubule collision, is significantly extended in KIF3C as compared with other kinesins. A KIF3AC encoding a truncation in KIF3C loop L11 (KIF3ACΔL11) exhibited longer run lengths at ∼1.55 μm than wild-type KIF3AC and were more similar to KIF3AB run lengths, suggesting that L11 also contributes to tuning motor processivity. The steady-state ATPase results show that shortening L11 does not alter kcat, consistent with the observation that single molecule velocities are not affected by this truncation. However, shortening loop L11 of KIF3C significantly increases the microtubule affinity of KIF3ACΔL11, revealing another structural and mechanistic property that can modulate processivity. The results presented provide new, to our knowledge, insights to understand structure-function relationships governing processivity and a better understanding of the potential of KIF3AC for long-distance transport in neurons. PMID:26445448

  10. Kif3a interacts with Dynactin subunit p150 Glued to organize centriole subdistal appendages.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Andrew; Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, Maria; Seol, Allen; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2013-02-20

    Formation of cilia, microtubule-based structures that function in propulsion and sensation, requires Kif3a, a subunit of Kinesin II essential for intraflagellar transport (IFT). We have found that, Kif3a is also required to organize centrioles. In the absence of Kif3a, the subdistal appendages of centrioles are disorganized and lack p150(Glued) and Ninein. Consequently, microtubule anchoring, centriole cohesion and basal foot formation are abrogated by loss of Kif3a. Kif3a localizes to the mother centriole and interacts with the Dynactin subunit p150(Glued). Depletion of p150(Glued) phenocopies the effects of loss of Kif3a, indicating that Kif3a recruitment of p150(Glued) is critical for subdistal appendage formation. The transport functions of Kif3a are dispensable for subdistal appendage organization as mutant forms of Kif3a lacking motor activity or the motor domain can restore p150(Glued) localization. Comparison to cells lacking Ift88 reveals that the centriolar functions of Kif3a are independent of IFT. Thus, in addition to its ciliogenic roles, Kif3a recruits p150(Glued) to the subdistal appendages of mother centrioles, critical for centrosomes to function as microtubule-organizing centres. PMID:23386061

  11. Critical role for the kinesin KIF3A in the HIV life cycle in primary human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Raphaël; Cunha de Alencar, Bruna; Jouve, Mabel; Bèrre, Stefano; Le Bouder, Emmanuel; Schindler, Michael; Varthaman, Aditi; Gobert, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are long-lived target cells for HIV infection and are considered viral reservoirs. HIV assembly in macrophages occurs in virus-containing compartments (VCCs) in which virions accumulate and are stored. The regulation of the trafficking and release of these VCCs remains unknown. Using high resolution light and electron microscopy of HIV-1–infected primary human macrophages, we show that the spatial distribution of VCCs depended on the microtubule network and that VCC-limiting membrane was closely associated with KIF3A+ microtubules. Silencing KIF3A strongly decreased virus release from HIV-1–infected macrophages, leading to VCC accumulation intracellularly. Time-lapse microscopy further suggested that VCCs and associated KIF3A move together along microtubules. Importantly, KIF3A does not play a role in HIV release from T cells that do not possess VCCs. These results reveal that HIV-1 requires the molecular motor KIF3 to complete its cycle in primary macrophages. Targeting this step may lead to novel strategies to eliminate this viral reservoir. PMID:23091068

  12. Differential expression of molecular motors in the motor cortex of sporadic ALS.

    PubMed

    Pantelidou, Maria; Zographos, Spyros E; Lederer, Carsten W; Kyriakides, Theodore; Pfaffl, Michael W; Santama, Niovi

    2007-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective neurodegeneration of motor neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are inadequately understood. Recent breakthroughs have implicated impaired axonal transport, mediated by molecular motors, as a key element for disease onset and progression. The current work identifies the expression of 15 kinesin-like motors in healthy human motor cortex, including three novel isoforms. Our comprehensive quantitative mRNA analysis in control and sporadic ALS (SALS) motor cortex specimens detects SALS-specific down-regulation of KIF1Bbeta and novel KIF3Abeta, two isoforms we show to be enriched in the brain, and also of SOD1, a key enzyme linked to familial ALS. This is accompanied by a marked reduction of KIF3Abeta protein levels. In the motor cortex KIF3Abeta localizes in cholinergic neurons, including upper motor neurons. No mutations causing splicing defects or altering protein-coding sequences were identified in the genes of the three proteins. The present study implicates two motor proteins as possible candidates in SALS pathology. PMID:17418584

  13. Disruption of KIF3A in patient-derived glioblastoma cells: effects on ciliogenesis, hedgehog sensitivity, and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hoang-Minh, Lan B.; Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Siebzehnrubl, Dorit; Ugartemendia, George; Futch, Hunter; Griffith, Benjamin; Breunig, Joshua J.; De Leon, Gabriel; Mitchell, Duane A.; Semple-Rowland, Susan; Reynolds, Brent A.; Sarkisian, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    KIF3A, a component of the kinesin-2 motor, is necessary for the progression of diverse tumor types. This is partly due to its role in regulating ciliogenesis and cell responsiveness to sonic hedgehog (SHH). Notably, primary cilia have been detected in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor biopsies and derived cell lines. Here, we asked whether disrupting KIF3A in GBM cells affected ciliogenesis, in vitro growth and responsiveness to SHH, or tumorigenic behavior in vivo. We used a lentiviral vector to create three patient-derived GBM cell lines expressing a dominant negative, motorless form of Kif3a (dnKif3a). In all unmodified lines, we found that most GBM cells were capable of producing ciliated progeny and that dnKif3a expression in these cells ablated ciliogenesis. Interestingly, unmodified and dnKif3a-expressing cell lines displayed differential sensitivities and pathway activation to SHH and variable tumor-associated survival following mouse xenografts. In one cell line, SHH-induced cell proliferation was prevented in vitro by either expressing dnKif3a or inhibiting SMO signaling using cyclopamine, and the survival times of mice implanted with dnKif3a-expressing cells were increased. In a second line, expression of dnKif3a increased the cells' baseline proliferation while, surprisingly, sensitizing them to SHH-induced cell death. The survival times of mice implanted with these dnKif3a-expressing cells were decreased. Finally, expression of dnKif3a in a third cell line had no effect on cell proliferation, SHH sensitivity, or mouse survival times. These findings indicate that KIF3A is essential for GBM cell ciliogenesis, but its role in modulating GBM cell behavior is highly variable. PMID:26760767

  14. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  15. Functional Analysis of KIF3A and KIF3B during Spermiogenesis of Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Qi; Wang, Da-Hui; Zhou, Hong; Hu, Yan-Jun; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background Spermatogenesis represents the transformation process at the level of cellular development. KIF3A and KIF3B are believed to play some roles in the assembly and maintenance of flagella, intracellular transport of materials including organelles and proteins, and other unknown functions during this process. During spermatogenesis in Eriocheir sinensis, if the sperm shaping machinery is dependent on KIF3A and KIF3B remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The cDNA of KIF3A and KIF3B were obtained by designing degenerate primers, 3′RACE, and 5′RACE. We detected the genetic presence of kif3a and kif3b in the heart, muscle, liver, gill, and testis of E. sinensis through RT-PCR. By western blot analysis, the protein presence of KIF3A and KIF3B in heart, muscle, gill, and testis reflected the content in protein level. Using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we could track the dynamic location of KIF3A and KIF3B during different developmental phases of sperm. KIF3A and KIF3B were found surrounding the nucleus in early spermatids. In intermediate spermatids, these proteins expressed at high levels around the nucleus and extended to the final phase. During the nuclear shaping period, KIF3A and KIF3B reached their maximum in the late spermatids and were located around the nucleus and concentrated in the acrosome to some extent. Conclusions/Significance Our results revealed that KIF3A and KIF3B were involved in the nuclear and cellular morphogenesis at the levels of mRNA and protein. These proteins can potentially facilitate the intracellular transport of organelles, proteins, and other cargoes. The results represent the functions of KIF3A and KIF3B in the spermatogenesis of Crustacea and clarify phylogenetic relationships among the Decapoda. PMID:24870586

  16. The mechanochemical cycle of mammalian kinesin-2 KIF3A/B under load

    PubMed Central

    Andreasson, Johan O.L.; Shastry, Shankar; Hancock, William O.; Block, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The response of motor proteins to external loads underlies their ability to work in teams and determines the net speed and directionality of cargo transport. The mammalian kinesin-2, KIF3A/B, is a heterotrimeric motor involved in intraflagellar transport and vesicle motility in neurons. Bidirectional cargo transport is known to result from the opposing activities of KIF3A/B and dynein bound to the same cargo, but the load-dependent properties of kinesin-2 are poorly understood. We used a feedback-controlled optical trap to probe the velocity, run length and unbinding kinetics of mouse KIF3A/B under various loads and nucleotide conditions. The kinesin-2 motor velocity is less sensitive than kinesin-1 to external forces, but its processivity diminishes steeply with load, and the motor was observed occasionally to slip and reattach. Each motor domain was characterized by studying homodimeric constructs, and a global fit to the data resulted in a comprehensive pathway that quantifies the principal force-dependent kinetic transitions. The properties of the KIF3A/B heterodimer are intermediate between the two homodimers, and the distinct load-dependent behavior is attributable to the properties of the motor domains, and not to the neck-linkers or the coiled-coil stalk. We conclude that the force-dependent movement of KIF3A/B differs significantly from conventional kinesin-1. Against opposing dynein forces, KIF3A/B motors are predicted to rapidly unbind and rebind, resulting in qualitatively different transport behavior from kinesin-1. PMID:25866395

  17. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B)

    SciTech Connect

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} Impaired trafficking of kAE1 causes distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). {yields} The interaction between kAE1 and kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) is reported. {yields} The co-localization between kAE and KIF3B was detected in human kidney tissues. {yields} A marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane was observed when KIF3B was knockdown. {yields} KFI3B plays an important role in trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of {alpha}-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange and the failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells.

  18. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B).

    PubMed

    Duangtum, Natapol; Junking, Mutita; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Cheunsuchon, Boonyarit; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2011-09-16

    Impaired trafficking of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) to the basolateral membrane of α-intercalated cells of the kidney collecting duct leads to the defect of the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange and the failure of proton (H(+)) secretion at the apical membrane of these cells, causing distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). In the sorting process, kAE1 interacts with AP-1 mu1A, a subunit of AP-1A adaptor complex. However, it is not known whether kAE1 interacts with motor proteins in its trafficking process to the plasma membrane or not. We report here that kAE1 interacts with kinesin family member 3B (KIF3B) in kidney cells and a dileucine motif at the carboxyl terminus of kAE1 contributes to this interaction. We have also demonstrated that kAE1 co-localizes with KIF3B in human kidney tissues and the suppression of endogenous KIF3B in HEK293T cells by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases membrane localization of kAE1 but increases its intracellular accumulation. All results suggest that KIF3B is involved in the trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane of human kidney α-intercalated cells. PMID:21871436

  19. Left-right asymmetry and kinesin superfamily protein KIF3A: new insights in determination of laterality and mesoderm induction by kif3A-/- mice analysis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Yonekawa, Y; Tanaka, Y; Okada, Y; Nonaka, S; Hirokawa, N

    1999-05-17

    KIF3A is a classical member of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), ubiquitously expressed although predominantly in neural tissues, and which forms a heterotrimeric KIF3 complex with KIF3B or KIF3C and an associated protein, KAP3. To elucidate the function of the kif3A gene in vivo, we made kif3A knockout mice. kif3A-/- embryos displayed severe developmental abnormalities characterized by neural tube degeneration and mesodermal and caudal dysgenesis and died during the midgestational period at approximately 10.5 dpc (days post coitum), possibly resulting from cardiovascular insufficiency. Whole mount in situ hybridization of Pax6 revealed a normal pattern while staining by sonic hedgehog (shh) and Brachyury (T) exhibited abnormal patterns in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction at both mesencephalic and thoracic levels. These results suggest that KIF3A might be involved in mesodermal patterning and in turn neurogenesis. PMID:10330409

  20. Disruption of Kif3a in osteoblasts results in defective bone formation and osteopenia

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ni; Xiao, Zhousheng; Cao, Li; Buechel, Meagan M.; David, Valentin; Roan, Esra; Quarles, L. Darryl

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether Kif3a in osteoblasts has a direct role in regulating postnatal bone formation. We conditionally deleted Kif3a in osteoblasts by crossing osteocalcin (Oc; also known as Bglap)–Cre with Kif3aflox/null mice. Conditional Kif3a-null mice (Kif3aOc-cKO) had a 75% reduction in Kif3a transcripts in bone and osteoblasts. Conditional deletion of Kif3a resulted in the reduction of primary cilia number by 51% and length by 27% in osteoblasts. Kif3aOc-cKO mice developed osteopenia by 6 weeks of age unlike Kif3aflox/+ control mice, as evidenced by reductions in femoral bone mineral density (22%), trabecular bone volume (42%) and cortical thickness (17%). By contrast, Oc-Cre;Kif3aflox/+ and Kif3aflox/null heterozygous mice exhibited no skeletal abnormalities. Loss of bone mass in Kif3aOc-cKO mice was associated with impaired osteoblast function in vivo, as reflected by a 54% reduction in mineral apposition rate and decreased expression of Runx2, osterix (also known as Sp7 transcription factor 7; Sp7), osteocalcin and Dmp1 compared with controls. Immortalized osteoblasts from Kif3aOc-cKO mice exhibited increased cell proliferation, impaired osteoblastic differentiation, and enhanced adipogenesis in vitro. Osteoblasts derived from Kif3aOc-cKO mice also had lower basal cytosolic calcium levels and impaired intracellular calcium responses to fluid flow shear stress. Sonic hedgehog-mediated Gli2 expression and Wnt3a-mediated β-catenin and Axin2 expression were also attenuated in Kif3aOc-cKO bone and osteoblast cultures. These data indicate that selective deletion of Kif3a in osteoblasts disrupts primary cilia formation and/or function and impairs osteoblast-mediated bone formation through multiple pathways including intracellular calcium, hedgehog and Wnt signaling. PMID:22357948

  1. Processivity of the Kinesin-2 KIF3A Results from Rear Head Gating and Not Front Head Gating*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Geng-Yuan; Arginteanu, David F. J.; Hancock, William O.

    2015-01-01

    The kinesin-2 family motor KIF3A/B works together with dynein to bidirectionally transport intraflagellar particles, melanosomes, and neuronal vesicles. Compared with kinesin-1, kinesin-2 is less processive, and its processivity is more sensitive to load, suggesting that processivity may be controlled by different gating mechanisms. We used stopped-flow and steady-state kinetics experiments, along with single-molecule and multimotor assays to characterize the entire kinetic cycle of a KIF3A homodimer that exhibits motility similar to that of full-length KIF3A/B. Upon first encounter with a microtubule, the motor rapidly exchanges both mADP and mATP. When adenosine 5′-[(β,γ)-imido]triphosphate was used to entrap the motor in a two-head-bound state, exchange kinetics were unchanged, indicating that rearward strain in the two-head-bound state does not alter nucleotide binding to the front head. A similar lack of front head gating was found when intramolecular strain was enhanced by shortening the neck linker domain from 17 to 14 residues. In single-molecule assays in ADP, the motor dissociates at 2.1 s−1, 20-fold slower than the stepping rate, demonstrating the presence of rear head gating. In microtubule pelleting assays, the KDMt is similar in ADP and ATP. The data and accompanying simulations suggest that, rather than KIF3A processivity resulting from strain-dependent regulation of nucleotide binding (front head gating), the motor spends a significant fraction of its hydrolysis cycle in a low affinity state but dissociates only slowly from this state. This work provides a mechanism to explain differences in the load-dependent properties of kinesin-1 and kinesin-2. PMID:25657001

  2. Disruption of kif3a results in defective osteoblastic differentiation in dental mesenchymal stem/precursor cells via the Wnt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sicong; Chen, Guoqing; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Yu, Mei; Bao, Jinku; Tian, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The anterograde intraflagellar transport motor protein, kif3a, regulates the integrity of primary cilia and various cellular functions, however, the role of kif3a in dental mesenchymal stem/precursor cell differentiation remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of kif3a was knocked down in human dental follicle cells (hDFCs) and human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) using short hairpin RNA. The results of subsequent immunofluorescence revealed that knocking down kif3a resulted in the loss of primary cilia, which led to impairment of substantial mineralization and expression of the differentiation-associated markers, including alkaline phosphatase, Runt-related transcription factor 2, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in the hDFCs and hDPCs. The results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that the expression levels of Wnt3a-mediated active β-catenin and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 were attenuated, whereas the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β was enhanced, in the kif3a-knockdown cells. In addition, exogenous Wnt3a partially rescued osteoblastic differentiation in the hDFCs and hDPCs. These results demonstrated that inhibition of kif3a in the hDFCs and hDPCs disrupted primary cilia formation and/or function, and indicated that kif3a is important in the differentiation of hDFCs and hDPCs through the Wnt pathway. These findings not only enhance current understanding of tooth development and diseases of tooth mineralization, but also indicate possible strategies to regulate mineralization during tooth repair and regeneration. PMID:27432616

  3. Disruption of kif3a results in defective osteoblastic differentiation in dental mesenchymal stem/precursor cells via the Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sicong; Chen, Guoqing; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Yu, Mei; Bao, Jinku; Tian, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    The anterograde intraflagellar transport motor protein, kif3a, regulates the integrity of primary cilia and various cellular functions, however, the role of kif3a in dental mesenchymal stem/precursor cell differentiation remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the expression of kif3a was knocked down in human dental follicle cells (hDFCs) and human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) using short hairpin RNA. The results of subsequent immunofluorescence revealed that knocking down kif3a resulted in the loss of primary cilia, which led to impairment of substantial mineralization and expression of the differentiation‑associated markers, including alkaline phosphatase, Runt‑related transcription factor 2, dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein in the hDFCs and hDPCs. The results of reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses showed that the expression levels of Wnt3a‑mediated active β‑catenin and lymphoid enhancer‑binding factor 1 were attenuated, whereas the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β was enhanced, in the kif3a‑knockdown cells. In addition, exogenous Wnt3a partially rescued osteoblastic differentiation in the hDFCs and hDPCs. These results demonstrated that inhibition of kif3a in the hDFCs and hDPCs disrupted primary cilia formation and/or function, and indicated that kif3a is important in the differentiation of hDFCs and hDPCs through the Wnt pathway. These findings not only enhance current understanding of tooth development and diseases of tooth mineralization, but also indicate possible strategies to regulate mineralization during tooth repair and regeneration. PMID:27432616

  4. mRNA expression of KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF2, KIF3A, KIF3B, KIF4, KIF5, and cytoplasmic dynein during axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Takemura, R; Nakata, T; Okada, Y; Yamazaki, H; Zhang, Z; Hirokawa, N

    1996-01-01

    Mouse brain expresses multiple kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), which are involved in vesicle transport. The expression of KIFs is developmentally regulated, and both the mRNA and proteins of KIF2 and KIF4 are expressed abundantly in the juvenile brain. To elucidate the role of individual kinesin superfamily motor proteins during regenerative outgrowth of axons, we examined the mRNA expression of KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF2, KIF3A, KIF3B, KIF4, and KIF5 in adult mouse dorsal root ganglion cells after sciatic nerve crush. Seven to fourteen days after the nerve crush, the mRNA expression pattern of neurofilament and beta-tubulin isotypes suggested that the regenerative outgrowth of axons was active. At these stages, levels of mRNA for KIF1A, KIF1B, KIF2, KIF3A, KIF3B, KIF4, and KIF5 were 50.80% of control. The levels of mRNA for KIF4, which are detected in juvenile brain but not in the adult, were under the detection limit in both control and regenerating dorsal root ganglion cells. Because mRNA of neither KIF2 nor KIF4 increased significantly, the results suggest that the gene expression of KIFs during regeneration does not recapitulate the embryonic development and support the hypothesis that different series of events take place during the regenerative and embryonic outgrowths of axons. In contrast, mRNA for cytoplasmic dynein was slightly increased, up to 140%. This is consistent with the hypothesis that retrograde transport plays critical roles in regeneration such as the transport of neurotrophic factors. PMID:8613797

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 US3 Phosphorylates Cellular KIF3A To Downregulate CD1d Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ran; Rao, Ping; Kim, Seil; Li, Michelle; Wen, Xiangshu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes one of the most prevalent herpesviral infections in humans and is the leading etiological agent of viral encephalitis and eye infections. Our understanding of how HSV-1 interacts with the host at the cellular and organismal levels is still limited. We and others previously reported that, upon infection, HSV-1 rapidly and efficiently downregulates CD1d cell surface expression and suppresses the function of NKT cells, a group of innate T cells with critical immunoregulatory function. The viral protein kinase US3 plays a major role in this immune evasion mechanism, and its kinase activity is required for this function. In this study, we investigated the cellular substrate(s) phosphorylated by US3 and how it mediates US3 suppression of CD1d recycling. We identified the type II kinesin motor protein KIF3A as a critical kinesin factor in the cell surface expression of CD1d. Interestingly, KIF3A is phosphorylated by US3 both in vitro and in infected cells. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified KIF3A showed that it is phosphorylated predominantly at serine 687 by US3. Ablation of this phosphorylation abolished US3-mediated downregulation of CD1d expression, suggesting that phosphorylation of KIF3A is the primary mechanism of HSV-1 suppression of CD1d expression by US3 protein. Understanding of the precise mechanism of viral modulation of CD1d expression will help to develop more efficient vaccines in the future to boost host NKT cell-mediated immune responses against herpesviruses. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is among the most common human pathogens. Little is known regarding the exact mechanism by which this virus evades the human immune system, particularly the innate immune system. We previously reported that HSV-1 employs its protein kinase US3 to modulate the expression of the key antigen-presenting molecule CD1d to evade the antiviral function of NKT cells. Here we identified the key cellular motor protein

  6. Abnormal photoreceptor outer segment development and early retinal degeneration in kif3a mutant zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Raghupathy, Rakesh K; Zhang, Xun; Alhasani, Reem H; Zhou, Xinzhi; Mullin, Margaret; Reilly, James; Li, Wenchang; Liu, Mugen; Shu, Xinhua

    2016-08-01

    Photoreceptors are highly specialized sensory neurons that possess a modified primary cilium called the outer segment. Photoreceptor outer segment formation and maintenance require highly active protein transport via a process known as intraflagellar transport. Anterograde transport in outer segments is powered by the heterotrimeric kinesin II and coordinated by intraflagellar transport proteins. Here, we describe a new zebrafish model carrying a nonsense mutation in the kinesin II family member 3A (kif3a) gene. Kif3a mutant zebrafish exhibited curved body axes and kidney cysts. Outer segments were not formed in most parts of the mutant retina, and rhodopsin was mislocalized, suggesting KIF3A has a role in rhodopsin trafficking. Both rod and cone photoreceptors degenerated rapidly between 4 and 9 days post fertilization, and electroretinography response was not detected in 7 days post fertilization mutant larvae. Loss of KIF3A in zebrafish also resulted in an intracellular transport defect affecting anterograde but not retrograde transport of organelles. Our results indicate KIF3A plays a conserved role in photoreceptor outer segment formation and intracellular transport. PMID:27470972

  7. Molecular motors: Dynein's gearbox.

    PubMed

    Cross, R A

    2004-05-01

    A new optical trapping study shows that the stepsize of cytoplasmic dynein varies according to the applied force, suggesting that this motor can change gear. Complementary biochemical kinetic work on yeast dynein mutants hints at the allosteric mechanisms involved. PMID:15120091

  8. Combined Deletion of Vhl and Kif3a Accelerates Renal Cyst Formation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Holger; Vicari, Daniele; Wild, Peter J; Frew, Ian J

    2015-11-01

    A subset of familial and sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) is believed to develop from cystic precursor lesions. Loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene (VHL) predisposes renal epithelial cells to loss of the primary cilium in response to specific signals. Because the primary cilium suppresses renal cyst formation, loss of the cilium may be an initiating event in the formation of ccRCC. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the consequences of inducible renal epithelium-specific deletion of Vhl together with ablation of the primary cilium via deletion of the kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a) gene. We developed a microcomputed tomography-based imaging approach to allow quantitative longitudinal monitoring of cystic burden, revealing that combined loss of Vhl and Kif3a shortened the latency of cyst initiation, increased the number of cysts per kidney, and increased the total cystic burden. In contrast with findings in other cystic models, cysts in Kif3a mutant mice did not display accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1α), and deletion of both Hif1a and Kif3a did not affect cyst development or progression. Vhl/Kif3a double mutation also increased the frequency of cysts that displayed multilayered epithelial growth, which correlated with an increased frequency of misoriented cystic epithelial cell divisions. These results argue against the involvement of HIF1α in promoting renal cyst growth and suggest that the formation of simple and atypical renal cysts that resemble ccRCC precursor lesions is greatly accelerated by the combined loss of Vhl and the primary cilium. PMID:25788526

  9. Combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Kif3a causes cystic and neoplastic renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Anna; Lehmann, Holger; Wild, Peter J; Frew, Ian J

    2016-07-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor gene is bi-allelically inactivated in the majority of cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC); however, Vhl knockout mouse models do not recapitulate human ccRCC, implying that additional mutations are required for tumour formation. Mutational inactivation of VHL sensitises renal epithelial cells to lose the primary cilium in response to other mutations or extracellular stimuli. Loss of cilia is believed to represent a second hit in VHL mutant cells that causes the development of cystic lesions that, in some cases, can progress to ccRCC. Supporting this idea, genetic ablation of the primary cilium by deletion of the kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a) gene cooperates with loss of Vhl to accelerate cyst formation in mouse kidneys. Additionally, aged Vhl/Trp53 double-mutant mice develop renal cysts and tumours at a relatively low incidence, suggesting that there is a genetic cooperation between VHL and TP53 mutation in the development of ccRCC. Here we generated renal epithelium-specific Kif3a/Trp53 and Vhl/Kif3a/Trp53 mutant mice to investigate whether primary cilium deletion would accelerate the development of cystic precursor lesions or cause their progression to ccRCC. Longitudinal microcomputed tomography (μCT) imaging and histopathological analyses revealed an increased rate of cyst formation, increased proportion of cysts with proliferating cells, higher frequency of atypical cysts as well as the development of neoplasms in Vhl/Kif3a/Trp53 mutant kidneys compared to Kif3a/Trp53 or Vhl/Kif3a mutant kidneys. These findings demonstrate that primary cilium loss, in addition to Vhl and Trp53 losses, promotes the transition towards malignancy and provide further evidence that the primary cilium functions as a tumour suppressor organelle in the kidney. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27126173

  10. Nanotechnology Review: Molecular Electronics to Molecular Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Reviewing the status of current approaches and future projections, as already published in scientific journals and books, the talk will summarize the direction in which computational and experimental nanotechnologies are progressing. Examples of nanotechnological approaches to the concepts of design and simulation of carbon nanotube based molecular electronic and mechanical devices will be presented. The concepts of nanotube based gears and motors will be discussed. The above is a non-technical review talk which covers long term precompetitive basic research in already published material that has been presented before many US scientific meeting audiences.

  11. Molecular motors and their functions in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors that hydrolyze ATP and use the derived energy to generate force are involved in a variety of diverse cellular functions. Genetic, biochemical, and cellular localization data have implicated motors in a variety of functions such as vesicle and organelle transport, cytoskeleton dynamics, morphogenesis, polarized growth, cell movements, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear fusion, and signal transduction. In non-plant systems three families of molecular motors (kinesins, dyneins, and myosins) have been well characterized. These motors use microtubules (in the case of kinesines and dyneins) or actin filaments (in the case of myosins) as tracks to transport cargo materials intracellularly. During the last decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the structure and function of various motors in animals. These studies are yielding interesting insights into the functions of molecular motors and the origin of different families of motors. Furthermore, the paradigm that motors bind cargo and move along cytoskeletal tracks does not explain the functions of some of the motors. Relatively little is known about the molecular motors and their roles in plants. In recent years, by using biochemical, cell biological, molecular, and genetic approaches a few molecular motors have been isolated and characterized from plants. These studies indicate that some of the motors in plants have novel features and regulatory mechanisms. The role of molecular motors in plant cell division, cell expansion, cytoplasmic streaming, cell-to-cell communication, membrane trafficking, and morphogenesis is beginning to be understood. Analyses of the Arabidopsis genome sequence database (51% of genome) with conserved motor domains of kinesin and myosin families indicates the presence of a large number (about 40) of molecular motors and the functions of many of these motors remain to be discovered. It is likely that many more motors with novel regulatory

  12. Ratchet models of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaster, Nicole

    2003-09-01

    Transport processes in and of cells are of major importance for the survival of the organism. Muscles have to be able to contract, chromosomes have to be moved to opposing ends of the cell during mitosis, and organelles, which are compartments enclosed by membranes, have to be transported along molecular tracks. Molecular motors are proteins whose main task is moving other molecules.For that purpose they transform the chemical energy released in the hydrolysis of ATP into mechanical work. The motors of the cytoskeleton belong to the three super families myosin, kinesin and dynein. Their tracks are filaments of the cytoskeleton, namely actin and the microtubuli. Here, we examine stochastic models which are used for describing the movements of these linear molecular motors. The scale of the movements comprises the regime of single steps of a motor protein up to the directed walk along a filament. A single step bridges around 10 nm, depending on the protein, and takes about 10 ms, if there is enough ATP available. Our models comprise M states or conformations the motor can attain during its movement along a one-dimensional track. At K locations along the track transitions between the states are possible. The velocity of the protein depending on the transition rates between the single states can be determined analytically. We calculate this velocity for systems of up to four states and locations and are able to derive a number of rules which are helpful in estimating the behaviour of an arbitrary given system. Beyond that we have a look at decoupled subsystems, i.e., one or a couple of states which have no connection to the remaining system. With a certain probability a motor undergoes a cycle of conformational changes, with another probability an independent other cycle. Active elements in real transport processes by molecular motors will not be limited to the transitions between the states. In distorted networks or starting from the discrete Master equation of the

  13. Molecular Motors: Power Strokes Outperform Brownian Ratchets.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Jason A; Dill, Ken A

    2016-07-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy (typically from ATP hydrolysis) to directed motion and mechanical work. Their actions are often described in terms of "Power Stroke" (PS) and "Brownian Ratchet" (BR) mechanisms. Here, we use a transition-state model and stochastic thermodynamics to describe a range of mechanisms ranging from PS to BR. We incorporate this model into Hill's diagrammatic method to develop a comprehensive model of motor processivity that is simple but sufficiently general to capture the full range of behavior observed for molecular motors. We demonstrate that, under all conditions, PS motors are faster, more powerful, and more efficient at constant velocity than BR motors. We show that these differences are very large for simple motors but become inconsequential for complex motors with additional kinetic barrier steps. PMID:27136319

  14. Experimental thermodynamics of single molecular motor

    PubMed Central

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2013-01-01

    Molecular motor is a nano-sized chemical engine that converts chemical free energy to mechanical motions. Hence, the energetics is as important as kinetics in order to understand its operation principle. We review experiments to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of a rotational F1-ATPase motor (F1-motor) at a single-molecule level. We show that the F1-motor achieves 100% thermo dynamic efficiency at the stalled state. Furthermore, the motor reduces the internal irreversible heat inside the motor to almost zero and achieves a highly-efficient free energy transduction close to 100% during rotations far from quasistatic process. We discuss the mechanism of how the F1-motor achieves such a high efficiency, which highlights the remarkable property of the nano-sized engine F1-motor. PMID:27493546

  15. Molecular Switches and Motors on Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathem, Bala Krishna; Claridge, Shelley A.; Zheng, Yue Bing; Weiss, Paul S.

    2013-04-01

    Molecular switches and motors respond structurally, electronically, optically, and/or mechanically to external stimuli, testing and potentially enabling extreme miniaturization of optoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems, and medical devices. The assembly of motors and switches on surfaces makes it possible both to measure the properties of individual molecules as they relate to their environment and to couple function between assembled molecules. In this review, we discuss recent progress in assembling molecular switches and motors on surfaces, measuring static and dynamic structures, understanding switching mechanisms, and constructing functional molecular materials and devices. As demonstrative examples, we choose a representative molecule from three commonly studied classes including molecular switches, photochromic molecules, and mechanically interlocked molecules. We conclude by offering perspectives on the future of molecular switches and motors on surfaces.

  16. Molecular motors in conservative and dissipative regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Carrasco, R.; Sancho, J. M.

    2011-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of a rotatory molecular motor under a conservative torque regime. We show that conservative and dissipative regimes present a different observable phenomenology. Our approach starts with a preliminary deterministic calculation of the motor cycle, which is complemented with stochastic simulations of a Langevin equation under a flashing ratchet potential. Finally, by using parameter values obtained from independent experimental information, our theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data of the F1-ATPase motor of the Bacillus PS3.

  17. Molecular Motors and Synaptic Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qian; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Proper synaptic function requires the seamless integration of the transport, assembly, and regulation of synaptic components and structures. Inasmuch as the synapse is often distant from the neuronal cell body, newly synthesized synaptic proteins, the precursors of synaptic vesicles, active zone compartments, channels and receptors, and mitochondria, must be transported along lengthy neuronal processes to participate in synaptogenesis. Neuronal transport is mediated by motor proteins that associate with their cargoes via adaptors (or receptors) and that travel along the cytoskeleton network within the neuronal processes. Thus, the identity of membranous protein cargoes and the specificity of motor-cargo interactions are critical for correctly targeting cargoes and properly assembling synapses in developing neurons and in remodeling synapses of mature neurons in response to neuronal activity. In this article, the authors review recent progress in characterizing microtubule- and actin-based motor proteins that are involved in delivering synaptic components and discuss potential mechanisms underlying the formation of motor- receptor-cargo complexes that contribute to synaptogenesis and activity-induced synaptic plasticity. PMID:19218232

  18. Molecular motors: forty years of interdisciplinary research

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.

    2011-01-01

    A mere forty years ago it was unclear what motor molecules exist in cells that could be responsible for the variety of nonmuscle cell movements, including the “saltatory cytoplasmic particle movements” apparent by light microscopy. One wondered whether nonmuscle cells might have a myosin-like molecule, well known to investigators of muscle. Now we know that there are more than a hundred different molecular motors in eukaryotic cells that drive numerous biological processes and organize the cell's dynamic city plan. Furthermore, in vitro motility assays, taken to the single-molecule level using techniques of physics, have allowed detailed characterization of the processes by which motor molecules transduce the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical movement. Molecular motor research is now at an exciting threshold of being able to enter into the realm of clinical applications. PMID:22039067

  19. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, Jos C M; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings--like wheels on an axle--demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system. PMID:26492009

  20. Unidirectional rotary motion in achiral molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Štacko, Peter; Visser, Johan; Feringa, Ben L.

    2015-11-01

    Control of the direction of motion is an essential feature of biological rotary motors and results from the intrinsic chirality of the amino acids from which the motors are made. In synthetic autonomous light-driven rotary motors, point chirality is transferred to helical chirality, and this governs their unidirectional rotation. However, achieving directional rotary motion in an achiral molecular system in an autonomous fashion remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we report an achiral molecular motor in which the presence of a pseudo-asymmetric carbon atom proved to be sufficient for exclusive autonomous disrotary motion of two appended rotor moieties. Isomerization around the two double bonds enables both rotors to move in the same direction with respect to their surroundings—like wheels on an axle—demonstrating that autonomous unidirectional rotary motion can be achieved in a symmetric system.

  1. Universal optimal working cycles of molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Artem; Wang, Zhisong

    2011-04-01

    Molecular motors capable of directional track-walking or rotation are abundant in living cells, and inspire the emerging field of artificial nanomotors. Some biomotors can convert 90% of free energy from chemical fuels into usable mechanical work, and the same motors still maintain a speed sufficient for cellular functions. This study exposed a new regime of universal optimization that amounts to a thermodynamically best working regime for molecular motors but is unfamiliar in macroscopic engines. For the ideal case of zero energy dissipation, the universally optimized working cycle for molecular motors is infinitely slow like Carnot cycle for heat engines. But when a small amount of energy dissipation reduces energy efficiency linearly from 100%, the speed is recovered exponentially due to Boltzmann's law. Experimental data on a major biomotor (kinesin) suggest that the regime of universal optimization has been largely approached in living cells, underpinning the extreme efficiency-speed trade-off in biomotors. The universal optimization and its practical approachability are unique thermodynamic advantages of molecular systems over macroscopic engines in facilitating motor functions. The findings have important implications for the natural evolution of biomotors as well as the development of artificial counterparts. PMID:21359395

  2. KIF3A binds to β-arrestin for suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signalling independently of primary cilia in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsuh; Suh, Young-Ah; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Bo Ra; Kim, Joon; Jang, Se Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signalling is implicated in the progression of several human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, mutations in Wnt/β-catenin pathway components are uncommon in NSCLC, and their epigenetic control remains unclear. Here, we show that KIF3A, a member of the kinesin-2 family, plays a role in suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signalling in NSCLC cells. KIF3A knockdown increases both β-catenin levels and transcriptional activity with concomitant promotion of malignant potential, such as increased proliferation and migration and upregulation of stemness markers. Because KIF3A binds β-arrestin, KIF3A depletion allows β-arrestin to form a complex with DVL2 and axin, stabilizing β-catenin. Although primary cilia, whose biogenesis requires KIF3A, are thought to restrain the Wnt response, pharmacological inhibition of ciliogenesis failed to increase β-catenin activity in NSCLC cells. A correlation between KIF3A loss and a poorer NSCLC prognosis as well as β-catenin and cyclin D1 upregulation further suggests that KIF3A suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signalling and tumourigenesis in NSCLC. PMID:27596264

  3. KIF3A binds to β-arrestin for suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signalling independently of primary cilia in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsuh; Suh, Young-Ah; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Bo Ra; Kim, Joon; Jang, Se Jin

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Wnt/β-catenin signalling is implicated in the progression of several human cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, mutations in Wnt/β-catenin pathway components are uncommon in NSCLC, and their epigenetic control remains unclear. Here, we show that KIF3A, a member of the kinesin-2 family, plays a role in suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signalling in NSCLC cells. KIF3A knockdown increases both β-catenin levels and transcriptional activity with concomitant promotion of malignant potential, such as increased proliferation and migration and upregulation of stemness markers. Because KIF3A binds β-arrestin, KIF3A depletion allows β-arrestin to form a complex with DVL2 and axin, stabilizing β-catenin. Although primary cilia, whose biogenesis requires KIF3A, are thought to restrain the Wnt response, pharmacological inhibition of ciliogenesis failed to increase β-catenin activity in NSCLC cells. A correlation between KIF3A loss and a poorer NSCLC prognosis as well as β-catenin and cyclin D1 upregulation further suggests that KIF3A suppresses Wnt/β-catenin signalling and tumourigenesis in NSCLC. PMID:27596264

  4. Optimizing rotary processes in synthetic molecular motors

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, Edzard M.; van der Molen, Sense Jan; Martens, Marco; Feringa, Ben L.

    2009-01-01

    We deal with the issue of quantifying and optimizing the rotation dynamics of synthetic molecular motors. For this purpose, the continuous four-stage rotation behavior of a typical light-activated molecular motor was measured in detail. All reaction constants were determined empirically. Next, we developed a Markov model that describes the full motor dynamics mathematically. We derived expressions for a set of characteristic quantities, i.e., the average rate of quarter rotations or “velocity,” V, the spread in the average number of quarter rotations, D, and the dimensionless Péclet number, Pe = V/D. Furthermore, we determined the rate of full, four-step rotations (Ωeff), from which we derived another dimensionless quantity, the “rotational excess,” r.e. This quantity, defined as the relative difference between total forward (Ω+) and backward (Ω−) full rotations, is a good measure of the unidirectionality of the rotation process. Our model provides a pragmatic tool to optimize motor performance. We demonstrate this by calculating V, D, Pe, Ωeff, and r.e. for different rates of thermal versus photochemical energy input. We find that for a given light intensity, an optimal temperature range exists in which the motor exhibits excellent efficiency and unidirectional behavior, above or below which motor performance decreases. PMID:19805100

  5. Optimizing rotary processes in synthetic molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Edzard M; van der Molen, Sense Jan; Martens, Marco; Feringa, Ben L

    2009-10-01

    We deal with the issue of quantifying and optimizing the rotation dynamics of synthetic molecular motors. For this purpose, the continuous four-stage rotation behavior of a typical light-activated molecular motor was measured in detail. All reaction constants were determined empirically. Next, we developed a Markov model that describes the full motor dynamics mathematically. We derived expressions for a set of characteristic quantities, i.e., the average rate of quarter rotations or "velocity," V, the spread in the average number of quarter rotations, D, and the dimensionless Péclet number, Pe = V/D. Furthermore, we determined the rate of full, four-step rotations (Omega(eff)), from which we derived another dimensionless quantity, the "rotational excess," r.e. This quantity, defined as the relative difference between total forward (Omega(+)) and backward (Omega(-)) full rotations, is a good measure of the unidirectionality of the rotation process. Our model provides a pragmatic tool to optimize motor performance. We demonstrate this by calculating V, D, Pe, Omega(eff), and r.e. for different rates of thermal versus photochemical energy input. We find that for a given light intensity, an optimal temperature range exists in which the motor exhibits excellent efficiency and unidirectional behavior, above or below which motor performance decreases. PMID:19805100

  6. Cooperative cargo transport by several molecular motors

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    The transport of cargo particles that are pulled by several molecular motors in a cooperative manner is studied theoretically in this article. The transport properties depend primarily on the maximal number N of motor molecules that may pull simultaneously on the cargo particle. Because each motor must unbind from the filament after a finite number of steps but can also rebind to it again, the actual number of pulling motors is not constant but varies with time between zero and N. An increase in the maximal number N leads to a strong increase of the average walking distance (or run length) of the cargo particle. If the cargo is pulled by up to N kinesin motors, for example, the walking distance is estimated to be 5N–1/N micrometers, which implies that seven or eight kinesin molecules are sufficient to attain an average walking distance in the centimeter range. If the cargo particle is pulled against an external load force, this force is shared between the motors, which provides a nontrivial motor–motor coupling and a generic mechanism for nonlinear force–velocity relationships. With increasing load force, the probability distribution of the instantaneous velocity is shifted toward smaller values, becomes broader, and develops several peaks. Our theory is consistent with available experimental data and makes quantitative predictions that are accessible to systematic in vitro experiments. PMID:16287974

  7. Mechanoregulation of molecular motors in flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadelha, Hermes

    2014-11-01

    Molecular motors are nano-biological machines responsible for exerting forces that drive movement in living organisms, from cargo transport to cell division and motility. Interestingly, despite the inherent complexity of many interacting motors, order and structure may arise naturally, as exemplified by the harmonic, self-organized undulatory motion of the flagellum. The real mechanisms behind this collective spontaneous oscillation are still unknown, and it is challenging task to measure experimentally the molecular motor dynamics within the flagellar structure in real time. In this talk we will explore different competing hypotheses that are capable of generating flagellar bending waves that ``resemble'' in-vitro observations, emphasizing the need for further mathematical analysis and model validation. It also highlight that this is a fertile and challenging area of inter-disciplinary research for applied mathematicians and demonstrates the importance of future observational and theoretical studies in understanding the underlying mechanics of these motile cell appendages.

  8. Loss of Glis2/NPHP7 causes kidney epithelial cell senescence and suppresses cyst growth in the Kif3a mouse model of cystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dongmei; Rauhauser, Alysha; Li, Binghua; Ren, Chongyu; McEnery, Kayla; Zhu, Jili; Chaki, Moumita; Vadnagara, Komal; Elhadi, Sarah; Jetten, Anton M; Igarashi, Peter; Attanasio, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Enlargement of kidney tubules is a common feature of multiple cystic kidney diseases in humans and mice. However, while some of these pathologies are characterized by cyst expansion and organ enlargement, in others, progressive interstitial fibrosis and kidney atrophy prevail. The Kif3a knockout mouse is an established non-orthologous mouse model of cystic kidney disease. Conditional inactivation of Kif3a in kidney tubular cells results in loss of primary cilia and rapid cyst growth. Conversely, loss of function of the gene GLIS2/NPHP7 causes progressive kidney atrophy, interstitial inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Kif3a null tubular cells have unrestrained proliferation and reduced stabilization of p53 resulting in a loss of cell cycle arrest in the presence of DNA damage. In contrast, loss of Glis2 is associated with activation of checkpoint kinase 1, stabilization of p53, and induction of cell senescence. Interestingly, the cystic phenotype of Kif3a knockout mice is partially rescued by genetic ablation of Glis2 and pharmacological stabilization of p53. Thus, Kif3a is required for cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response, whereas cell senescence is significantly enhanced in Glis2 null cells. Hence, cell senescence is a central feature in nephronophthisis type 7 and Kif3a is unexpectedly required for efficient DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest. PMID:27181777

  9. Single-Molecule Studies of Rotary Molecular Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilizota, Teuta; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Berry, Richard M.

    Rotary molecular motors are protein complexes that transform chemical or electrochemical energy into mechanical work. There are five known rotary molecular motors in nature; the bacterial flagellar motor, and two motors in each of ATP-synthase and V-ATPase. Rotation of the flagellar motor drives a helical propeller that powers bacterial swimming. The function of the other rotary motors is to couple electrochemical ion gradients to synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP, and rotation is a detail of the coupling mechanism rather than the ultimate purpose of the motors. Much has been learned about the mechanism of the F1 part of ATP-synthase and the flagellar motor by measuring the rotation of single motors with a variety of techniques under a wide range of conditions. This chapter will review the structures of ATP-synthase and the flagellar motor, and what has been learned about their mechanisms using single molecule techniques.

  10. Exact dynamic properties of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, N. J.; Hoyle, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    Molecular motors play important roles within a biological cell, performing functions such as intracellular transport and gene transcription. Recent experimental work suggests that there are many plausible biochemical mechanisms that molecules such as myosin-V could use to achieve motion. To account for the abundance of possible discrete-stochastic frameworks that can arise when modeling molecular motor walks, a generalized and straightforward graphical method for calculating their dynamic properties is presented. It allows the calculation of the velocity, dispersion, and randomness ratio for any proposed system through analysis of its structure. This article extends work of King and Altman ["A schematic method of deriving the rate laws of enzyme-catalyzed reactions," J. Phys. Chem. 60, 1375-1378 (1956)], 10.1021/j150544a010 on networks of enzymatic reactions by calculating additional dynamic properties for spatially hopping systems. Results for n-state systems are presented: single chain, parallel pathway, divided pathway, and divided pathway with a chain. A novel technique for combining multiple system architectures coupled at a reference state is also demonstrated. Four-state examples illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of these methods.

  11. Exact dynamic properties of molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Boon, N J; Hoyle, R B

    2012-08-28

    Molecular motors play important roles within a biological cell, performing functions such as intracellular transport and gene transcription. Recent experimental work suggests that there are many plausible biochemical mechanisms that molecules such as myosin-V could use to achieve motion. To account for the abundance of possible discrete-stochastic frameworks that can arise when modeling molecular motor walks, a generalized and straightforward graphical method for calculating their dynamic properties is presented. It allows the calculation of the velocity, dispersion, and randomness ratio for any proposed system through analysis of its structure. This article extends work of King and Altman ["A schematic method of deriving the rate laws of enzyme-catalyzed reactions," J. Phys. Chem. 60, 1375-1378 (1956)] on networks of enzymatic reactions by calculating additional dynamic properties for spatially hopping systems. Results for n-state systems are presented: single chain, parallel pathway, divided pathway, and divided pathway with a chain. A novel technique for combining multiple system architectures coupled at a reference state is also demonstrated. Four-state examples illustrate the effectiveness and simplicity of these methods. PMID:22938213

  12. Theoretical analysis of dynamic processes for interacting molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Mehrabiani, Kareem

    2015-02-01

    Biological transport is supported by the collective dynamics of enzymatic molecules that are called motor proteins or molecular motors. Experiments suggest that motor proteins interact locally via short-range potentials. We investigate the fundamental role of these interactions by carrying out an analysis of a new class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes, in which interactions are accounted for in a thermodynamically consistent fashion. This allows us to explicitly connect microscopic features of motor proteins with their collective dynamic properties. A theoretical analysis that combines various mean-field calculations and computer simulations suggests that the dynamic properties of molecular motors strongly depend on the interactions, and that the correlations are stronger for interacting motor proteins. Surprisingly, it is found that there is an optimal strength of interactions (weak repulsion) that leads to a maximal particle flux. It is also argued that molecular motor transport is more sensitive to attractive interactions. Applications of these results for kinesin motor proteins are discussed.

  13. Cytoskeleton Molecular Motors: Structures and Their Functions in Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qingpin; Hu, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhiyi; Tam, Kin Yip

    2016-01-01

    Cells make use of molecular motors to transport small molecules, macromolecules and cellular organelles to target region to execute biological functions, which is utmost important for polarized cells, such as neurons. In particular, cytoskeleton motors play fundamental roles in neuron polarization, extension, shape and neurotransmission. Cytoskeleton motors comprise of myosin, kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. F-actin filaments act as myosin track, while kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein move on microtubules. Cytoskeleton motors work together to build a highly polarized and regulated system in neuronal cells via different molecular mechanisms and functional regulations. This review discusses the structures and working mechanisms of the cytoskeleton motors in neurons. PMID:27570482

  14. Molecular motor driven transportation on microtubule loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Aurelien; Federici, Filippo; Kim, Kyongwan; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Hwang, Wonmuk; Teizer, Winfried

    2015-03-01

    Molecular motors such as kinesin are naturally fitted for the transport of cargo. By offering an unlimited path, microtubule loops allow the study of kinesin motility on distances exceeding that offered by a single microtubule. Moreover, the periodicity of the path allows the comparisons of trajectories between laps. Here we study the motility of quantum dot labeled kinesin on microtubule loops. Motility of kinesins over multiple laps is observed and their trajectories are extracted from kymograph using a custom algorithm. Distribution of velocities at given locations do not vary randomly but show a correlation with the presence of obstacles. Possible mechanisms responsible for the long range transport are discussed in the context of available theories.

  15. Kinesin-2 Family Motors in the Unusual Photoreceptor Cilium

    PubMed Central

    Malicki, Jarema; Besharse, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of kinesin-2 family motors in vertebrate photoreceptor development. Zebrafish photoreceptors develop by the 3rd day of embryogenesis, making it possible to study mutant phenotypes without the use of conditional alleles. Recent work using a zebrafish kif3b mutant allele validates the concept that the heterotrimeric kinesin II motor is generally required for ciliogenesis. In zebrafish photoreceptors, however, loss of kif3b function delays but does not block cilium formation. This is thought to occur because both kif3b or kif3c can dimerize with kif3a and function redundantly. The second ciliary kinesin thought to function in photoreceptor cells is kif17. Prior work has shown that either morpholino knockdown of this gene or the overexpression of its dominant negative form can reduce or delay photoreceptor cilium development without any evident impact on ciliogenesis in general. This has led to the idea that kif17 may play an important role only in some specialized cilium types, such the one in photoreceptor cells. In a recently identified kif17 mutant, however, photoreceptor outer segments are formed by 5 dpf and an obvious delay of outer segment formation is seen only at the earliest stage analyzed (3 dpf). This work suggests that kif17 plays a significant role mainly at an early stage of photoreceptor development. Taken together, these studies lead to an intriguing concept that as they differentiate photoreceptors alter their kinesin repertoire. PMID:23123805

  16. Kinesin-2 family motors in the unusual photoreceptor cilium.

    PubMed

    Malicki, Jarema; Besharse, Joseph C

    2012-12-15

    This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of kinesin-2 family motors in vertebrate photoreceptor development. Zebrafish photoreceptors develop by the 3rd day of embryogenesis, making it possible to study mutant phenotypes without the use of conditional alleles. Recent work using a zebrafish kif3b mutant allele validates the concept that the heterotrimeric kinesin II motor is generally required for ciliogenesis. In zebrafish photoreceptors, however, loss of kif3b function delays but does not block cilium formation. This is thought to occur because both kif3b or kif3c can dimerize with kif3a and function redundantly. The second ciliary kinesin thought to function in photoreceptor cells is kif17. Prior work has shown that either morpholino knockdown of this gene or the overexpression of its dominant negative form can reduce or delay photoreceptor cilium development without any evident impact on ciliogenesis in general. This has led to the idea that kif17 may play an important role only in some specialized cilium types, such the one in photoreceptor cells. In a recently identified kif17 mutant, however, photoreceptor outer segments are formed by 5 dpf and an obvious delay of outer segment formation is seen only at the earliest stage analyzed (3 dpf). This work suggests that kif17 plays a significant role mainly at an early stage of photoreceptor development. Taken together, these studies lead to an intriguing concept that as they differentiate photoreceptors alter their kinesin repertoire. PMID:23123805

  17. Helicases as molecular motors: An insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tuteja, Renu

    2006-12-01

    Helicases are one of the smallest motors of biological system, which harness the chemical free energy of ATP hydrolysis to catalyze the opening of energetically stable duplex nucleic acids and thereby are involved in almost all aspect of nucleic acid metabolism including replication, repair, recombination, transcription, translation, and ribosome biogenesis. Basically, they break the hydrogen bonding between the duplex helix and translocate unidirectionally along the bound strand. Mostly all the helicases contain some conserved signature motifs, which act as an engine to power the unwinding. After the discovery of the first prokaryotic DNA helicase from Escherichia coli bacteria in 1976 and the first eukaryotic one from the lily plant in 1978, many more (>100) have been isolated. All the helicases share some common properties, including nucleic acid binding, NTP hydrolysis and unwinding of the duplex. Many helicases have been crystallized and their structures have revealed an underlying common structural fold for their function. The defects in helicases gene have also been reported to be responsible for variety of human genetic disorders, which can lead to cancer, premature aging or mental retardation. Recently, a new role of a helicase in abiotic stress signaling in plant has been discovered. Overall, helicases act as essential molecular tools for cellular machinery and help in maintaining the integrity of genome. Here an overview of helicases has been covered which includes history, biochemical assay, properties, classification, role in human disease and mechanism of unwinding and translocation.

  18. Molecular motor traffic: From biological nanomachines to macroscopic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowsky, Reinhard; Chai, Yan; Klumpp, Stefan; Liepelt, Steffen; Müller, Melanie J. I.

    2006-12-01

    All cells of animals and plants contain complex transport systems based on molecular motors which walk along cytoskeletal filaments. These motors are rather small and have a size of 20-100 nm but are able to pull vesicles, organelles and other types of cargo over large distances, from micrometers up to meters. There are several families of motors: kinesins, dyneins, and myosins. Most of these motors have two heads which are used as legs and perform discrete steps along the filaments. Several aspects of the motor behavior will be discussed: motor cycles of two-headed motors; walks of single motors or cargo particles which consist of directed movements interrupted by random, diffusive motion; cargo transport through tube-like compartments; active diffusion of cargo particles in slab-like compartments; cooperative transport of cargo by several motors which may be uni- or bi-directional; and systems with many interacting motors that exhibit traffic jams, self-organized density and flux patterns, and traffic phase transitions far from equilibrium. It is necessary to understand these traffic phenomena in a quantitative manner in order to construct and optimize biomimetic transport systems based on motors and filaments with many possible applications in bioengineering, pharmacology, and medicine.

  19. Molecular motors: a traffic cop within?

    PubMed

    Welte, M A; Gross, S P

    2008-08-01

    Intracellular transport along microtubules is often bidirectional, employing multiple plus- and minus-end directed motors. How cells regulate such transport in time and space is a fundamental but unsolved question in cell biology. A recent paper presents a new modeling approach to predict how much of transport can be understood just from our knowledge of the motors involved. The model can generate strikingly complex patterns of motion, mimicking key aspects of cargo transport in vivo. Previous studies had inferred that plus-end motors on bidirectional cargoes are usually turned off when the minus-end motors are engaged (and vice versa). In the model, such motor coordination can arise from motors competing in a tug-of-war, without help from additional regulators. This new theoretical framework should stimulate much research that will help unravel whether regulation of intracellular transport is dominated by higher-order control mechanisms or is achieved simply by tuning basic properties of the motors themselves. PMID:19404428

  20. Towards synthetic molecular motors: a model elastic-network study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Amartya; Flechsig, Holger; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-04-01

    Protein molecular motors play a fundamental role in biological cells and development of their synthetic counterparts is a major challenge. Here, we show how a model motor system with the operation mechanism resembling that of muscle myosin can be designed at the concept level, without addressing the implementation aspects. The model is constructed as an elastic network, similar to the coarse-grained descriptions used for real proteins. We show by numerical simulations that the designed synthetic motor can operate as a deterministic or Brownian ratchet and that there is a continuous transition between such two regimes. The motor operation under external load, approaching the stall condition, is also analysed.

  1. Molecular crowding creates traffic jams of kinesin motors on microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Leduc, Cécile; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Varga, Vladimír; Helbing, Dirk; Diez, Stefan; Howard, Jonathon

    2012-01-01

    Despite the crowdedness of the interior of cells, microtubule-based motor proteins are able to deliver cargoes rapidly and reliably throughout the cytoplasm. We hypothesize that motor proteins may be adapted to operate in crowded environments by having molecular properties that prevent them from forming traffic jams. To test this hypothesis, we reconstituted high-density traffic of purified kinesin-8 motor protein, a highly processive motor with long end-residency time, along microtubules in a total internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy assay. We found that traffic jams, characterized by an abrupt increase in the density of motors with an associated abrupt decrease in motor speed, form even in the absence of other obstructing proteins. To determine the molecular properties that lead to jamming, we altered the concentration of motors, their processivity, and their rate of dissociation from microtubule ends. Traffic jams occurred when the motor density exceeded a critical value (density-induced jams) or when motor dissociation from the microtubule ends was so slow that it resulted in a pileup (bottleneck-induced jams). Through comparison of our experimental results with theoretical models and stochastic simulations, we characterized in detail under which conditions density- and bottleneck-induced traffic jams form or do not form. Our results indicate that transport kinesins, such as kinesin-1, may be evolutionarily adapted to avoid the formation of traffic jams by moving only with moderate processivity and dissociating rapidly from microtubule ends. PMID:22431622

  2. Crowding of Molecular Motors Determines Microtubule Depolymerization

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Louis; Melbinger, Anna; Frey, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    The assembly and disassembly dynamics of microtubules (MTs) is tightly controlled by MT-associated proteins. Here, we investigate how plus-end-directed depolymerases of the kinesin-8 family regulate MT depolymerization dynamics. Using an individual-based model, we reproduce experimental findings. Moreover, crowding is identified as the key regulatory mechanism of depolymerization dynamics. Our analysis reveals two qualitatively distinct regimes. For motor densities above a particular threshold, a macroscopic traffic jam emerges at the plus-end and the MT dynamics become independent of the motor concentration. Below this threshold, microscopic traffic jams at the tip arise that cancel out the effect of the depolymerization kinetics such that the depolymerization speed is solely determined by the motor density. Because this density changes over the MT length, length-dependent regulation is possible. Remarkably, motor cooperativity affects only the end-residence time of depolymerases and not the depolymerization speed. PMID:22067158

  3. Biophysical Studies of Membranes and Molecular Motors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Karel

    This thesis consists of several preprints and reprints (sections) organized in thematically disparate chapters. Each section is self-contained and therefore a bit of duplication has crept in, especially in Chapters 1 & 2. In keeping with contemporary scientific style, the prose is dense, dry, and humourless. In the first chapter I discuss optical trapping. A review of optical trapping is presented, particularly focusing on optical tweezers. An unexpected twist on conventional trapping wisdom is that, in the Rayleigh size regime, gold particles can be trapped much more strongly than latex particles. The ratio of trapping forces is equal to the ratio of particle polarizabilities. This demonstrates that gradient forces dominate all other radiation and thermal forces. In Chapter 2, the central part of the thesis, I present measurements of steps, forces, and other mechanochemical properties of the molecular motor kinesin using optical tweezers and laser interferometry. The kinesin step size measured ~8 nm, and the stall force was 5-6 pN. Comparisons of force-velocity curves at saturating and limiting ATP concentrations demonstrated that kinesin is a loosely coupled machine. The variance in displacement was smaller than expected for a stepper with exponentially distributed step times. This unexpected finding has interesting implications for kinesin kinetics and mechanochemistry. Chapter 3 deals with some attempts to derive structural information from measurements of time-dependent diffusion in a biological model system. Pulsed field gradient NMR can be used to measure the momentum space diffusion propagator of water molecules, M(k,t). We measured M(k,t) in well -characterized samples of packed red blood cells. At short times, the time-dependent diffusion coefficient decreased from its bulk value with a sqrt{t} behavior, and the coefficient of this term was used to obtain the cell surface-to-volume ratio, S/V. Using a new effective medium theory, the membrane permeability

  4. Molecular motors and the 2nd law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong

    2014-03-01

    Molecular motors from biology and nanotechnology often operate on chemical energy of fuel molecules in an isothermal environment, unlike macroscopic heat engines that draw energy from a heat flow between two temperatures. Nevertheless, isothermal molecular motors are still subject to the 2nd law of thermodynamics in a fundamental way: their directional motion must cost a finite amount of energy other than the environmental heat even though no work is done; otherwise the 2nd law would be violated. Hence the 2nd law requires a finite energy price for pure direction of molecular motors. But what is the lowest price of direction allowed by the 2nd law? And how does the 2nd law-decreed price of direction limit performance of molecular motors? In the talk, I shall present our theoretical study of the 2nd law-molecular motor link on basis of the accumulated biomotor phenomenology, and also introduce our experimental effort to develop biomimetic DNA bipedal nanomotors following the mechanistic guidelines out of the theoretical study. [Main contents of this talk are from references:] This work is partially supported by FRC grants R-144-000-259-112, R-144-000-290-112 and R-144-000-320-112.

  5. Controlled Rotation and Manipulation of Individual Molecular Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersell, Heath; Perera, U. G. E.; Ample, F.; Zhang, Y.; Vives, G.; Echeverria, J.; Grisolia, M.; Rapenne, G.; Joachim, C.; Hla, S.-W.

    2015-03-01

    The design of artificial molecular machines often takes inspiration from macroscopic machines, but the parallels between the two are frequently only superficial because many molecular machines are governed by quantum processes. Previously, chemically and light driven rotary molecular motors have been developed. For electrically driven motors, tunneling electrons from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) have been used to drive rotation in a simple rotor into a single direction and to move a wheeled molecule across a surface. Here, we show that a single standalone molecular motor adsorbed on a gold surface can be made to rotate in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction [1] by selective inelastic electron tunneling through different sub-units of the motor. Our motor is composed of a tripodal stator for vertical positioning, a five-arm rotator for controlled rotations, and a Ru atomic ball bearing connecting the static and rotational parts. The directional rotation originates from saw-tooth-like rotational potentials, which are determined by the internal molecular structure and are independent of the surface adsorption site. This project is supported by the US DOE, BES grant: DE-FG02-02ER46012.

  6. In control of the speed of rotation in molecular motors. Unexpected retardation of rotary motion.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Edzard M; Koumura, Nagatoshi; ter Wiel, Matthijs K J; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2002-12-21

    Surprisingly, a new motor with a tetrahydronaphthalene upper part rotates slower than the original molecular motor with a tetrahydrophenanthrene upper part despite decreased steric hindrance. PMID:12536767

  7. Understanding molecular motor walking along a microtubule: a themosensitive asymmetric Brownian motor driven by bubble formation.

    PubMed

    Arai, Noriyoshi; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koishi, Takahiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2013-06-12

    The "asymmetric Brownian ratchet model", a variation of Feynman's ratchet and pawl system, is invoked to understand the kinesin walking behavior along a microtubule. The model system, consisting of a motor and a rail, can exhibit two distinct binding states, namely, the random Brownian state and the asymmetric potential state. When the system is transformed back and forth between the two states, the motor can be driven to "walk" in one direction. Previously, we suggested a fundamental mechanism, that is, bubble formation in a nanosized channel surrounded by hydrophobic atoms, to explain the transition between the two states. In this study, we propose a more realistic and viable switching method in our computer simulation of molecular motor walking. Specifically, we propose a thermosensitive polymer model with which the transition between the two states can be controlled by temperature pulses. Based on this new motor system, the stepping size and stepping time of the motor can be recorded. Remarkably, the "walking" behavior observed in the newly proposed model resembles that of the realistic motor protein. The bubble formation based motor not only can be highly efficient but also offers new insights into the physical mechanism of realistic biomolecule motors. PMID:23721590

  8. Kinesin molecular motor Eg5 functions during polypeptide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, Kristen M.; Jakovljevic, Jelena; Woolford, John L.; Saunders, William S.

    2011-01-01

    The kinesin-related molecular motor Eg5 plays roles in cell division, promoting spindle assembly. We show that during interphase Eg5 is associated with ribosomes and is required for optimal nascent polypeptide synthesis. When Eg5 was inhibited, ribosomes no longer bound to microtubules in vitro, ribosome transit rates slowed, and polysomes accumulated in intact cells, suggesting defects in elongation or termination during polypeptide synthesis. These results demonstrate that the molecular motor Eg5 associates with ribosomes and enhances the efficiency of translation. PMID:21795388

  9. Collective transport of weakly interacting molecular motors with Langmuir kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandel, Sameep; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Muhuri, Sudipto

    2015-04-01

    Filament-based intracellular transport involves the collective action of molecular motor proteins. Experimental evidences suggest that microtubule (MT) filament bound motor proteins such as kinesins weakly interact among themselves during transport and with the surrounding cellular environment. Motivated by these observations we study a driven lattice gas model for collective unidirectional transport of molecular motors on open filament. This model incorporates short-range next-nearest-neighbour (NNN) interactions between the motors and couples the transport process on filament with surrounding cellular environment through adsorption-desorption Langmuir kinetics (LK) of the motors. We analyse this model within the framework of a mean-field (MF) theory in the limit of weak interactions between the motors. We point to the mapping of this model with the non-conserved version of the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn (KLS) model. The system exhibits rich phase behavior with a variety of inhomogeneous phases including localized shocks in the bulk of the filament. We obtain the steady-state density and current profiles, analyse their variation as a function of the strength of interaction and construct the non-equilibrium MF phase diagram. We compare these MF results with Monte Carlo simulations and find that the MF analysis shows reasonably good agreement with simulation results as long as the motors are weakly interacting. For sufficently strong NNN interaction between the motors, the mean-field results deviate significantly, and for very strong NNN interaction in the absence of LK, the current in the lattice is determined solely by the NNN interaction parameter and it becomes independent of entry and exit rates of motors at the filament boundaries.

  10. Control of rotor motion in a light-driven molecular motor: towards a molecular gearbox.

    PubMed

    Ter Wiel, Matthijs K J; van Delden, Richard A; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2005-11-21

    Controlled intramolecular movement and coupling of motor and rotor functions is exerted by this new molecular device. The rate of rotation of the rotor part of the molecule can be adjusted by alteration of the conformation of the motor part of the molecule. For all states of the motor part, different rates of rotation were measured for the rotor part. Conversion between the four propeller orientations was achieved by irradiation and heating. PMID:16267585

  11. Molecular motors one at a time: FIONA to the rescue.

    PubMed

    Kural, Comert; Balci, Hamza; Selvin, Paul R

    2005-11-30

    Processive molecular motors act as intracellular transporters of a broad range of cargoes varying from organelles to messenger RNAs. Due to the nanometre range movements and complex dynamics of these motors, highly specialized tools are required to study them, in particular at the single-molecule level. Such tools are what physicists are providing for understanding these biological systems. Fluorescence based real-time localization techniques, with 1 nm spatial resolution and down to 1 ms temporal resolution (FIONA: fluorescence imaging with one-nanometre accuracy), and their applications to a group of molecular motors (myosin V, myosin VI, kinesin, and dynein) are the topics of this paper. In addition to the well established in vitro studies, the recent applications of these techniques to the much more challenging, but also more informative, in vivo realm will be discussed. PMID:21690736

  12. Time-dependent motor properties of multipedal molecular spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samii, Laleh; Blab, Gerhard A.; Bromley, Elizabeth H. C.; Linke, Heiner; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Forde, Nancy R.

    2011-09-01

    Molecular spiders are synthetic biomolecular walkers that use the asymmetry resulting from cleavage of their tracks to bias the direction of their stepping motion. Using Monte Carlo simulations that implement the Gillespie algorithm, we investigate the dependence of the biased motion of molecular spiders, along with binding time and processivity, on tunable experimental parameters, such as number of legs, span between the legs, and unbinding rate of a leg from a substrate site. We find that an increase in the number of legs increases the spiders’ processivity and binding time but not their mean velocity. However, we can increase the mean velocity of spiders with simultaneous tuning of the span and the unbinding rate of a spider leg from a substrate site. To study the efficiency of molecular spiders, we introduce a time-dependent expression for the thermodynamic efficiency of a molecular motor, allowing us to account for the behavior of spider populations as a function of time. Based on this definition, we find that spiders exhibit transient motor function over time scales of many hours and have a maximum efficiency on the order of 1%, weak compared to other types of molecular motors.

  13. Biased motion and molecular motor properties of bipedal spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samii, Laleh; Linke, Heiner; Zuckermann, Martin J.; Forde, Nancy R.

    2010-02-01

    Molecular spiders are synthetic molecular motors featuring multiple legs that each can interact with a substrate through binding and cleavage. Experimental studies suggest the motion of the spider in a matrix is biased toward uncleaved substrates and that spider properties such as processivity can be altered by changing the binding strength of the legs to substrate [R. Pei, S. K. Taylor, D. Stefanovic, S. Rudchenko, T. E. Mitchell, and M. N. Stojanovic, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12693 (2006)]. We investigate the origin of biased motion and molecular motor properties of bipedal spiders using Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations combine a realistic chemical kinetic model, hand-over-hand or inchworm modes of stepping, and the use of a one-dimensional track. We find that stronger binding to substrate, cleavage and spider detachment from the track are contributing mechanisms to population bias. We investigate the contributions of stepping mechanism to speed, randomness parameter, processivity, coupling, and efficiency, and comment on how these molecular motor properties can be altered by changing experimentally tunable kinetic parameters.

  14. Myosin-I molecular motors at a glance.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Betsy B; Ostap, E Michael

    2016-07-15

    Myosin-I molecular motors are proposed to play various cellular roles related to membrane dynamics and trafficking. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we review and illustrate the proposed cellular functions of metazoan myosin-I molecular motors by examining the structural, biochemical, mechanical and cell biological evidence for their proposed molecular roles. We highlight evidence for the roles of myosin-I isoforms in regulating membrane tension and actin architecture, powering plasma membrane and organelle deformation, participating in membrane trafficking, and functioning as a tension-sensitive dock or tether. Collectively, myosin-I motors have been implicated in increasingly complex cellular phenomena, yet how a single isoform accomplishes multiple types of molecular functions is still an active area of investigation. To fully understand the underlying physiology, it is now essential to piece together different approaches of biological investigation. This article will appeal to investigators who study immunology, metabolic diseases, endosomal trafficking, cell motility, cancer and kidney disease, and to those who are interested in how cellular membranes are coupled to the underlying actin cytoskeleton in a variety of different applications. PMID:27401928

  15. Molecular motors in neuronal development, intracellular transport and diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Takemura, Reiko

    2004-10-01

    Molecular motors such as kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs), dynein superfamily proteins and myosin superfamily proteins have diverse and fundamental roles in many cellular processes, including neuronal development and the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases. During neuronal development, KIFs take significant roles in the regulation of axon-collateral branch extension, which is essential for brain wiring. Cytoplasmic dynein together with LIS1 takes pivotal roles in neocortical layer formation. In axons, anterograde transport is mediated by KIFs, whereas retrograde transport is mediated mainly by cytoplasmic dynein, and dysfunction of motors results in neurodegenerative diseases. In dendrites, the transport of NMDA and AMPA receptors is mediated by KIFs, and the motor has been shown to play a significant part in establishing learning and memory. PMID:15464889

  16. Molecular Motors and Efficient Motion in a Viscoelastic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Keith

    2005-11-01

    Molecular motors perform many critical functions for cells, including chromosome separation during mitosis, vesicle transport, and muscle contraction. In this talk, we will discuss the ways in which physics concepts and instrumentation are being used to determine the forces and efficiencies of two of these motors, kinesin and dynein, in cells. We will emphasize a) studies at Wake Forest University that focus on the force versus velocity curves (load curves) of kinesin in the neurites of live PC12 cells, and b) work at UNC-Chapel Hill that measures the forces developed by dynein motors within beating cilia on the outer surfaces of live lung cells during mucus transport. We will show how the viscoelastic properties of cytoplasm and mucus can be determined from the Brownian motion of vesicles and beads in these media.. We find that the load on these motors in vivo may exceed that in vitro by a factor of 1000, and that several motors can share the task of moving a single vesicle.

  17. Energy transfer in a molecular motor in the Kramers regime.

    PubMed

    Challis, K J; Jack, Michael W

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical treatment of energy transfer in a molecular motor described in terms of overdamped Brownian motion on a multidimensional tilted periodic potential. The tilt represents a thermodynamic force driving the system out of equilibrium and, for nonseparable potentials, energy transfer occurs between degrees of freedom. For deep potential wells, the continuous theory transforms to a discrete master equation that is tractable analytically. We use this master equation to derive formal expressions for the hopping rates, drift and diffusion, and the efficiency and rate of energy transfer in terms of the thermodynamic force. These results span both strong and weak coupling between degrees of freedom, describe the near and far from equilibrium regimes, and are consistent with generalized detailed balance and the Onsager relations. We thereby derive a number of diverse results for molecular motors within a single theoretical framework. PMID:24229123

  18. Tracking a Molecular Motor with a Nanoscale Optical Encoder

    PubMed Central

    Wickersham, Charles E.; Cash, Kevin J.; Pfeil, Shawn H.; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.; Plaxco, Kevin W.; Lipman, Everett A.

    2010-01-01

    Optical encoders are commonly used in macroscopic machines to make precise measurements of distance and velocity by translating motion into a periodic signal. Here we show how Förster resonance energy transfer can be used to implement this technique at the single-molecule scale. We incorporate a series of acceptor dye molecules into self-assembling DNA, and the periodic signal resulting from unhindered motion of a donor-labeled molecular motor provides nanometer-scale resolution in milliseconds. PMID:20121107

  19. Microtubules and associated molecular motors in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa Reyna; Riquelme, Meritxell; Callejas-Negrete, Olga Alicia; Galván-Mendoza, José Iván

    2016-05-01

    The cytoskeleton provides structure, shape and movement to various cells. Microtubules (MTs) are tubular structures made of α and β-tubulin heterodimers organized in 13 protofilaments, forming a hollow cylinder. A vast group of MT-associated proteins determines the function, behavior and interaction of the MTs with other cellular components. Among these proteins, molecular motors such as the dynein-dynactin complex and kinesin superfamily play roles in MT organization and organelle transport. This article focuses on the MT cytoskeleton and associated molecular motors in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa In addition to reviewing current available information for this fungus and contrasting it with knowledge of other fungal species, we present new experimental results that support the role of dynein, dynactin and conventional kinesin in MT organization, dynamics and transport of subcellular structures (nuclei and secretory vesicles). In wild type hyphae of N. crassa, cytoplasmic MTs are arranged longitudinally along hyphae and display a helical curvature. They interlace with one another to form a network throughout the cytoplasm. N. crassa dynein and dynactin mutants have a scant and disorganized MT cytoskeleton, an erratic and reduced Spitzenkörper (Spk) and distorted hyphal morphology. In contrast, hyphae of mutants with defective conventional kinesin exhibit only minor disruptions in MT and Spk organization. Although nuclear positioning is affected in all mutants, the MT-associated motor proteins are not major contributors to nuclear movement during hyphal growth. Cytoplasmic bulk flow is the vehicle for nuclear displacement in growing hyphal regions of N. crassa Motors are involved in nuclei saltatory movements in both retrograde or anterograde direction. In the dynein and kinesin mutants, micro and macrovesicles can reach the Spk, although growth is slightly impaired and the Spk displays an erratic path. Hyphal growth requires MTs, and their associated

  20. Extracting Dwell Time Sequences from Processive Molecular Motor Data

    PubMed Central

    Milescu, Lorin S.; Yildiz, Ahmet; Selvin, Paul R.; Sachs, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Processive molecular motors, such as kinesin, myosin, or dynein, convert chemical energy into mechanical energy by hydrolyzing ATP. The mechanical energy is used for moving in discrete steps along the cytoskeleton and carrying a molecular load. Single-molecule recordings of motor position along a substrate polymer appear as a stochastic staircase. Recordings of other single molecules, such as F1-ATPase, RNA polymerase, or topoisomerase, have the same appearance. We present a maximum likelihood algorithm that extracts the dwell time sequence from noisy data, and estimates state transition probabilities and the distribution of the motor step size. The algorithm can handle models with uniform or alternating step sizes, and reversible or irreversible kinetics. A periodic Markov model describes the repetitive chemistry of the motor, and a Kalman filter allows one to include models with variable step size and to correct for baseline drift. The data are optimized recursively and globally over single or multiple data sets, making the results objective over the full scale of the data. Local binary algorithms, such as the t-test, do not represent the behavior of the whole data set. Our method is model-based, and allows rapid testing of different models by comparing the likelihood scores. From data obtained with current technology, steps as small as 8 nm can be resolved and analyzed with our method. The kinetic consequences of the extracted dwell sequence can be further analyzed in detail. We show results from analyzing simulated and experimental kinesin and myosin motor data. The algorithm is implemented in the free QuB software. PMID:16905607

  1. Chemical and thermal modulation of molecular motor activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Weili

    Molecular motors of kinesin and dynein families are responsible for various intracellular activities, from long distance movement of organelles, vesicles, protein complexes, and mRNAs to powering mitotic processes. They can take nanometer steps using chemical energy from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), and their dysfunction is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases that require long distance transport of cargos. Here I report on the study of the properties of molecular motors at a single-molecule level using optical trappings. I first studied the inhibition properties of kinesin motors by marine natural compound adociasulfates. I showed that adociasulfates compete with microtubules for binding to kinesins and thus inhibit kinesins' activity. Although adociasulfates are a strong inhibitor for all kinesin members, they show a much higher inhibition effect for conventional kinesins than for mitotic kinesins. Thus adociasulfates can be used to specifically inhibit conventional kinesins. By comparing the inhibition of kinesins by two structurally similar adociasulfates, one can see that the negatively charged sulfate residue of adociasulfates can be replaced by other negative residues and thus make it possible for adociasulfate-derived compounds to be more cell permeable. Kinesins and dyneins move cargos towards opposite directions along a microtubule. Cargos with both kinesins and dyneins attached often move bidirectionally due to undergoing a tug-of-war between the oppositely moving kinesin and dynein motors. Here I studied the effect of temperature on microtubule-based kinesin and dynein motor transport. While kinesins' and dyneins' velocities are closely matched above 15 °C, below this temperature the dyneins' velocity decreases much faster than the kinesins'. The kinesins' and dyneins' forces do not measurably change with temperature. The results suggest that temperature has significant effects on bidirectional transport and can be used to

  2. Optogenetic Control of Molecular Motors and Organelle Distributions in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Liting; Che, Daphne; Zhang, Kai; Ong, Qunxiang; Guo, Shunling; Cui, Bianxiao

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Intracellular transport and distribution of organelles play important roles in diverse cellular functions, including cell polarization, intracellular signaling, cell survival and apoptosis. Here we report an optogenetic strategy to control the transport and distribution of organelles by light. This is achieved by optically recruiting molecular motors onto organelles through the heterodimerization of Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) and its interacting partner CIB1. CRY2 and CIB1 dimerize within subseconds upon blue light exposure, which requires no exogenous ligands and low intensity of light. We demonstrate that mitochondria, peroxisomes, and lysosomes can be driven towards the cell periphery upon light-induced recruitment of kinesin, or towards the cell nucleus upon recruitment of dynein. Light-induced motor recruitment and organelle movements are repeatable, reversible and can be achieved at subcellular regions. This light-controlled organelle redistribution provides a new strategy for studying the causal roles of organelle transport and distribution in cellular functions in living cells. PMID:25963241

  3. Optical traps to study properties of molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Spudich, James A; Rice, Sarah E; Rock, Ronald S; Purcell, Thomas J; Warrick, Hans M

    2011-11-01

    In vitro motility assays enabled the analysis of coupling between ATP hydrolysis and movement of myosin along actin filaments or kinesin along microtubules. Single-molecule assays using laser trapping have been used to obtain more detailed information about kinesins, myosins, and processive DNA enzymes. The combination of in vitro motility assays with laser-trap measurements has revealed detailed dynamic structural changes associated with the ATPase cycle. This article describes the use of optical traps to study processive and nonprocessive molecular motor proteins, focusing on the design of the instrument and the assays to characterize motility. PMID:22046048

  4. Optical Traps to Study Properties of Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.; Rice, Sarah E.; Rock, Ronald S.; Purcell, Thomas J.; Warrick, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro motility assays enabled the analysis of coupling between ATP hydrolysis and movement of myosin along actin filaments or kinesin along microtubules. Single-molecule assays using laser trapping have been used to obtain more detailed information about kinesins, myosins, and processive DNA enzymes. The combination of in vitro motility assays with laser-trap measurements has revealed detailed dynamic structural changes associated with the ATPase cycle. This article describes the use of optical traps to study processive and nonprocessive molecular motor proteins, focusing on the design of the instrument and the assays to characterize motility. PMID:22046048

  5. Dwell Time Symmetry in Random Walks and Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, Martin; Wallin, Mats

    2007-01-01

    The statistics of steps and dwell times in reversible molecular motors differ from those of cycle completion in enzyme kinetics. The reason is that a step is only one of several transitions in the mechanochemical cycle. As a result, theoretical results for cycle completion in enzyme kinetics do not apply to stepping data. To allow correct parameter estimation, and to guide data analysis and experiment design, a theoretical treatment is needed that takes this observation into account. In this article, we model the distribution of dwell times and number of forward and backward steps using first passage processes, based on the assumption that forward and backward steps correspond to different directions of the same transition. We extend recent results for systems with a single cycle and consider the full dwell time distributions as well as models with multiple pathways, detectable substeps, and detachments. Our main results are a symmetry relation for the dwell time distributions in reversible motors, and a relation between certain relative step frequencies and the free energy per cycle. We demonstrate our results by analyzing recent stepping data for a bacterial flagellar motor, and discuss the implications for the efficiency and reversibility of the force-generating subunits. PMID:17369422

  6. Actin-based motility propelled by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadyayula, Sai Pramod; Rangarajan, Murali

    2012-09-01

    Actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes propelled by filament end-tracking molecular motors has been simulated. Such systems may act as potential nanoscale actuators and shuttles useful in sorting and sensing biomolecules. Filaments are modeled as three-dimensional elastic springs distributed on one end of the capsule and persistently attached to the motile bacterial surface through an end-tracking motor complex. Filament distribution is random, and monomer concentration decreases linearly as a function of position on the bacterial surface. Filament growth rate increases with monomer concentration but decreases with the extent of compression. The growing filaments exert push-pull forces on the bacterial surface. In addition to forces, torques arise due to two factors—distribution of motors on the bacterial surface, and coupling of torsion upon growth due to the right-handed helicity of F-actin—causing the motile object to undergo simultaneous translation and rotation. The trajectory of the bacterium is simulated by performing a force and torque balance on the bacterium. All simulations use a fixed value of torsion. Simulations show strong alignment of the filaments and the long axis of the bacterium along the direction of motion. In the absence of torsion, the bacterial surface essentially moves along the direction of the long axis. When a small amount of the torsion is applied to the bacterial surface, the bacterium is seen to move in right-handed helical trajectories, consistent with experimental observations.

  7. Molecular Architecture of the Bacterial Flagellar Motor in Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The flagellum is one of the most sophisticated self-assembling molecular machines in bacteria. Powered by the proton-motive force, the flagellum rapidly rotates in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, which ultimately controls bacterial motility and behavior. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica have served as important model systems for extensive genetic, biochemical, and structural analysis of the flagellum, providing unparalleled insights into its structure, function, and gene regulation. Despite these advances, our understanding of flagellar assembly and rotational mechanisms remains incomplete, in part because of the limited structural information available regarding the intact rotor–stator complex and secretion apparatus. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has become a valuable imaging technique capable of visualizing the intact flagellar motor in cells at molecular resolution. Because the resolution that can be achieved by cryo-ET with large bacteria (such as E. coli and S. enterica) is limited, analysis of small-diameter bacteria (including Borrelia burgdorferi and Campylobacter jejuni) can provide additional insights into the in situ structure of the flagellar motor and other cellular components. This review is focused on the application of cryo-ET, in combination with genetic and biophysical approaches, to the study of flagellar structures and its potential for improving the understanding of rotor–stator interactions, the rotational switching mechanism, and the secretion and assembly of flagellar components. PMID:24697492

  8. Synthesis of peptide-conjugated light-driven molecular motors and evaluation of their DNA-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Nagatsugi, Fumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kuwahara, Shunsuke; Kusano, Shuhei; Chikuni, Tomoko; Hagihara, Shinya; Harada, Nobuyuki

    2013-05-01

    Synthetic light-driven molecular motors are molecular machines capable of rotation under photo-irradiation. In this paper, we report the synthesis of peptide-conjugated molecular motors and evaluate their DNA-binding properties. PMID:23324812

  9. Kinesin molecular motors: Transport pathways, receptors, and human disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2001-06-01

    Kinesin molecular motor proteins are responsible for many of the major microtubule-dependent transport pathways in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Elucidating the transport pathways mediated by kinesins, the identity of the cargoes moved, and the nature of the proteins that link kinesin motors to cargoes are areas of intense investigation. Kinesin-II recently was found to be required for transport in motile and nonmotile cilia and flagella where it is essential for proper left-right determination in mammalian development, sensory function in ciliated neurons, and opsin transport and viability in photoreceptors. Thus, these pathways and proteins may be prominent contributors to several human diseases including ciliary dyskinesias, situs inversus, and retinitis pigmentosa. Kinesin-I is needed to move many different types of cargoes in neuronal axons. Two candidates for receptor proteins that attach kinesin-I to vesicular cargoes were recently found. One candidate, sunday driver, is proposed to both link kinesin-I to an unknown vesicular cargo and to bind and organize the mitogen-activated protein kinase components of a c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling module. A second candidate, amyloid precursor protein, is proposed to link kinesin-I to a different, also unknown, class of axonal vesicles. The finding of a possible functional interaction between kinesin-I and amyloid precursor protein may implicate kinesin-I based transport in the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. F(1)-ATPase: a prototypical rotary molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Kinosita, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    F(1)-ATPase, the soluble portion of ATP synthase, has been shown to be a rotary molecular motor in which the central γ subunit rotates inside the cylinder made of α(3)β(3) subunits. The rotation is powered by ATP hydrolysis in three catalytic sites, and reverse rotation of the γ subunit by an external force leads to ATP synthesis in the catalytic sites. Here I look back how our lab became involved in the study of this marvelous rotary machine, and discuss some aspects of its rotary mechanism while confessing we are far from understanding. This article is a very personal essay, not a scientific review, for this otherwise viral machines book. PMID:22297508

  11. Intra-cellular traffic: bio-molecular motors on filamentary tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, D.; Basu, A.; Garai, A.; Greulich, P.; Nishinari, K.; Schadschneider, A.; Tripathi, T.

    2008-08-01

    Molecular motors are macromolecular complexes which use some form of input energy to perform mechanical work. The filamentary tracks, on which these motors move, are made of either proteins (e.g., microtubules) or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). Often, many such motors move simultaneously on the same track and their collective properties have superficial similarities with vehicular traffic on highways. The models we have developed provide "unified" description: in the low-density limit, a model captures the transport properties of a single motor while, at higher densities the same model accounts for the collective spatio-temporal organization of interacting motors. By drawing analogy with vehicular traffic, we have introduced novel quantities for characterizing the nature of the spatio-temporal organization of molecular motors on their tracks. We show how the traffic-like intracellular collective phenomena depend on the mechano-chemistry of the corresponding individual motors.

  12. Simulation studies of self-organization of microtubules and molecular motors.

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, Z.; Karpeev, D.; Aranson, I. S.; Bates, P. W.; Michigan State Univ.

    2008-05-01

    We perform Monte Carlo type simulation studies of self-organization of microtubules interacting with molecular motors. We model microtubules as stiff polar rods of equal length exhibiting anisotropic diffusion in the plane. The molecular motors are implicitly introduced by specifying certain probabilistic collision rules resulting in realignment of the rods. This approximation of the complicated microtubule-motor interaction by a simple instant collision allows us to bypass the 'computational bottlenecks' associated with the details of the diffusion and the dynamics of motors and the reorientation of microtubules. Consequently, we are able to perform simulations of large ensembles of microtubules and motors on a very large time scale. This simple model reproduces all important phenomenology observed in in vitro experiments: Formation of vortices for low motor density and raylike asters and bundles for higher motor density.

  13. Simulation studies of self-organization of microtubules and molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhiyuan; Karpeev, Dmitry; Aranson, Igor S.; Bates, Peter W.

    2008-05-01

    We perform Monte Carlo type simulation studies of self-organization of microtubules interacting with molecular motors. We model microtubules as stiff polar rods of equal length exhibiting anisotropic diffusion in the plane. The molecular motors are implicitly introduced by specifying certain probabilistic collision rules resulting in realignment of the rods. This approximation of the complicated microtubule-motor interaction by a simple instant collision allows us to bypass the “computational bottlenecks” associated with the details of the diffusion and the dynamics of motors and the reorientation of microtubules. Consequently, we are able to perform simulations of large ensembles of microtubules and motors on a very large time scale. This simple model reproduces all important phenomenology observed in in vitro experiments: Formation of vortices for low motor density and raylike asters and bundles for higher motor density.

  14. Mechanism of Cooperative Behavior in Systems of Slow and Fast Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Adam G.; Landahl, Eric C.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Two recent theoretical advances have described cargo transport by multiple identical motors and by multiple oppositely directed, but otherwise identical motors [1, 2]. Here we combine a similar theoretical approach with a simple experiment to describe the behavior of a system comprised of slow and fast molecular motors having the same directionality. We observed the movement of microtubules by mixtures of slow and fast kinesin motors attached to a glass coverslip in a classic sliding filament assay. The motors are identical, except that the slow ones contain five point mutations that collectively reduce their velocity ∼15-fold without compromising maximal ATPase activity. Our results indicate that a small fraction of fast motors are able to accelerate the dissociation of slow motors from microtubules. Because of this, a sharp, highly cooperative transition occurs from slow to fast microtubule movement as the relative number of fast motors in the assay is increased. Microtubules move at half-maximal velocity when only 15% of the motors in the assay are fast. Our model indicates that this behavior depends primarily on the relative motor velocities and the asymmetry between their forward and backward dissociation forces. It weakly depends on the number of motors and their processivity. We predict that movement of cargoes bound to two types of motors having very different velocities will be dominated by one or the other motor. Therefore, cargoes can potentially undergo abrupt changes in movement in response to regulatory mechanisms acting on only a small fraction of motors. PMID:19506764

  15. Enantiopure Functional Molecular Motors Obtained by a Switchable Chiral-Resolution Process.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Thomas; Gan, Jefri; Kistemaker, Jos C M; Pizzolato, Stefano F; Chang, Mu-Chieh; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-05-17

    Molecular switches, rotors, and motors play an important role in the development of nano-machines and devices, as well as responsive and adaptive functional materials. For unidirectional rotors based on chiral overcrowded alkenes, their stereochemical homogeneity is of crucial importance. Herein, a method to obtain new and functionalizable overcrowded alkenes in enantiopure form is presented. The procedure involves a short synthesis of three steps and a solvent-switchable chiral resolution by using a readily available resolving agent. X-ray crystallography revealed the mode of binding of the motor with the resolving agent, as well as the absolute configuration of the motor. (1) H NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy techniques were used to determine the dynamic behavior of this molecular motor. This method provides rapid access to ample amounts of enantiopure molecular motors, which will greatly facilitate the further development of responsive molecular systems based on chiral overcrowded alkenes. PMID:27072290

  16. Network Complexity and Parametric Simplicity for Cargo Transport by Two Molecular Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Corina; Berger, Florian; Liepelt, Steffen; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Cargo transport by two molecular motors is studied by constructing a chemomechanical network for the whole transport system and analyzing the cargo and motor trajectories generated by this network. The theoretical description starts from the different nucleotide states of a single motor supplemented by chemical and mechanical transitions between these states. As an instructive example, we focus on kinesin-1, for which a detailed single-motor network has been developed previously. This network incorporates the chemical transitions arising from ATP hydrolysis on both motor heads. In addition, both the chemical and the mechanical transition rates of a single kinesin motor were found to depend on the load force experienced by the motor. When two such motors are attached via their stalks to a cargo particle, they become elastically coupled. This coupling can be effectively described by an elastic spring between the two motors. The spring extension, which is given by the deviation of the actual spring length from its rest length, determines the mutual interaction force between the motors and, thus, affects all chemical and mechanical transition rates of both motors. As a result, cargo transport by two motors leads to a combined chemomechanical network, which is quite complex and contains a large number of motor cycles. However, apart from the single motor parameters, this complex network involves only two additional parameters: (i) the spring constant of the elastic coupling between the motors and (ii) the rebinding rate for an unbound motor. We show that these two parameters can be determined directly from cargo trajectories and/or trajectories of individual motors. Both types of trajectories are accessible to experiment and, thus, can be used to obtain a complete set of parameters for cargo transport by two motors.

  17. Coarse-Grained Structural Modeling of Molecular Motors Using Multibody Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Parker, David; Bryant, Zev; Delp, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and computational approaches are needed to uncover the mechanisms by which molecular motors convert chemical energy into mechanical work. In this article, we describe methods and software to generate structurally realistic models of molecular motor conformations compatible with experimental data from different sources. Coarse-grained models of molecular structures are constructed by combining groups of atoms into a system of rigid bodies connected by joints. Contacts between rigid bodies enforce excluded volume constraints, and spring potentials model system elasticity. This simplified representation allows the conformations of complex molecular motors to be simulated interactively, providing a tool for hypothesis building and quantitative comparisons between models and experiments. In an example calculation, we have used the software to construct atomically detailed models of the myosin V molecular motor bound to its actin track. The software is available at www.simtk.org. PMID:20428469

  18. How Molecular Motors Are Arranged on a Cargo Is Important for Vesicular Transport

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Robert P.; Jia, Zhiyuan; Gross, Steven P.; Yu, Clare C.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial organization of the cell depends upon intracellular trafficking of cargos hauled along microtubules and actin filaments by the molecular motor proteins kinesin, dynein, and myosin. Although much is known about how single motors function, there is significant evidence that cargos in vivo are carried by multiple motors. While some aspects of multiple motor function have received attention, how the cargo itself —and motor organization on the cargo—affects transport has not been considered. To address this, we have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of motors transporting a spherical cargo, subject to thermal fluctuations that produce both rotational and translational diffusion. We found that these fluctuations could exert a load on the motor(s), significantly decreasing the mean travel distance and velocity of large cargos, especially at large viscosities. In addition, the presence of the cargo could dramatically help the motor to bind productively to the microtubule: the relatively slow translational and rotational diffusion of moderately sized cargos gave the motors ample opportunity to bind to a microtubule before the motor/cargo ensemble diffuses out of range of that microtubule. For rapidly diffusing cargos, the probability of their binding to a microtubule was high if there were nearby microtubules that they could easily reach by translational diffusion. Our simulations found that one reason why motors may be approximately 100 nm long is to improve their ‘on’ rates when attached to comparably sized cargos. Finally, our results suggested that to efficiently regulate the number of active motors, motors should be clustered together rather than spread randomly over the surface of the cargo. While our simulation uses the specific parameters for kinesin, these effects result from generic properties of the motors, cargos, and filaments, so they should apply to other motors as well. PMID:21573204

  19. Force and motion generation of molecular motors: A generic description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jülicher, Frank

    We review the properties of biological motor proteins which move along linear filaments that are polar and periodic. The physics of the operation of such motors can be described by simple stochastic models which are coupled to a chemical reaction. We analyze the essential features of force and motion generation and discuss the general properties of single motors in the framework of two-state models. Systems which contain large numbers of motors such as muscles and flagella motivate the study of many interacting motors within the framework of simple models. In this case, collective effects can lead to new types of behaviors such as dynamic instabilities of the steady states and oscillatory motion.

  20. Dissipation in an electric field-driven synthetic rotary caltrop-based molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Corina; Crespi, Vincent

    2008-03-01

    A molecular caltrop has a three-legged base for attachment to a substrate and a vertical molecular shaft functionalized with a dipole-carrying molecular rotor at the upper end. The desired rotational motion of the rotor can generate dissipation when the motor is driven at frequencies which are close to the natural frequencies of soft vibrational modes in the structure or librational of the rotator about field direction. Classical molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the role of these resonances and investigate motor performance under external drive.

  1. Enhanced Diffusion of Molecular Motors in the Presence of Adenosine Triphosphate and External Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinagawa, Ryota; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The diffusion of a molecular motor in the presence of a constant external force is considered on the basis of a simple theoretical model. The motor is represented by a Brownian particle moving in a series of parabolic potentials placed periodically on a line, and the potential is switched stochastically from one parabola to another by a chemical reaction, which corresponds to the hydrolysis or synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in motor proteins. It is found that the diffusion coefficient as a function of the force exhibits peaks. The mechanism of this diffusion enhancement and the possibility of observing it in F1-ATPase, a biological rotary motor, are discussed.

  2. Computational Design of a Family of Light-Driven Rotary Molecular Motors with Improved Quantum Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two new light-driven molecular rotary motors based on the N-alkylated indanylidene benzopyrrole frameworks are proposed and studied using quantum chemical calculations and nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations. These new motors perform pure axial rotation, and the photochemical steps of the rotary cycle are dominated by the fast bond-length-alternation motion that enables ultrafast access to the S1/S0 intersection. The new motors are predicted to display a quantum efficiency higher than that of the currently available synthetic all-hydrocarbon motors. Remarkably, the quantum efficiency is not governed by the topography (peaked versus sloped) of the minimum-energy conical intersection, whereas the S1 decay time depends on the topography as well as on the energy of the intersection relative to the S1 minimum. It is the axial chirality (helicity), rather than the point chirality, that controls the sense of rotation of the motor. PMID:26670164

  3. Correlations and symmetry of interactions influence collective dynamics of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis-Garza, Daniel; Teimouri, Hamid; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-04-01

    Enzymatic molecules that actively support many cellular processes, including transport, cell division and cell motility, are known as motor proteins or molecular motors. Experimental studies indicate that they interact with each other and they frequently work together in large groups. To understand the mechanisms of collective behavior of motor proteins we study the effect of interactions in the transport of molecular motors along linear filaments. It is done by analyzing a recently introduced class of totally asymmetric exclusion processes that takes into account the intermolecular interactions via thermodynamically consistent approach. We develop a new theoretical method that allows us to compute analytically all dynamic properties of the system. Our analysis shows that correlations play important role in dynamics of interacting molecular motors. Surprisingly, we find that the correlations for repulsive interactions are weaker and more short-range than the correlations for the attractive interactions. In addition, it is shown that symmetry of interactions affect dynamic properties of molecular motors. The implications of these findings for motor proteins transport are discussed. Our theoretical predictions are tested by extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations.

  4. Mechanism of cooperative behaviour in systems of slow and fast molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Larson, Adam G; Landahl, Eric C; Rice, Sarah E

    2009-06-28

    Two recent theoretical advances have described cargo transport by multiple identical motors and by multiple oppositely directed, but otherwise identical motors [M. J. Muller, S. Klumpp and R. Lipowsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2008, 105(12), 4609-4614; S. Klumpp and R. Lipowsky, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2005, 102(48), 17284-17289]. Here, we combine a similar theoretical approach with a simple experiment to describe the behaviour of a system comprised of slow and fast molecular motors having the same directionality. We observed the movement of microtubules by mixtures of slow and fast kinesin motors attached to a glass coverslip in a classic sliding filament assay. The motors are identical, except that the slow ones contain five point mutations that collectively reduce their velocity approximately 15-fold without compromising maximal ATPase activity. Our results indicate that a small fraction of fast motors are able to accelerate the dissociation of slow motors from microtubules. Because of this, a sharp, highly cooperative transition occurs from slow to fast microtubule movement as the relative number of fast motors in the assay is increased. Microtubules move at half-maximal velocity when only 15% of the motors in the assay are fast. Our model indicates that this behaviour depends primarily on the relative motor velocities and the asymmetry between their forward and backward dissociation forces. It weakly depends on the number of motors and their processivity. We predict that movement of cargoes bound to two types of motors having very different velocities will be dominated by one or the other motor. Therefore, cargoes can potentially undergo abrupt changes in movement in response to regulatory mechanisms acting on only a small fraction of motors. PMID:19506764

  5. Sunlight-powered kHz rotation of a hemithioindigo-based molecular motor

    PubMed Central

    Guentner, Manuel; Schildhauer, Monika; Thumser, Stefan; Mayer, Peter; Stephenson, David; Mayer, Peter J.; Dube, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Photodriven molecular motors are able to convert light energy into directional motion and hold great promise as miniaturized powering units for future nanomachines. In the current state of the art, considerable efforts have still to be made to increase the efficiency of energy transduction and devise systems that allow operation in ambient and non-damaging conditions with high rates of directional motions. The need for ultraviolet light to induce the motion of virtually all available light-driven motors especially hampers the broad applicability of these systems. We describe here a hemithioindigo-based molecular motor, which is powered exclusively by nondestructive visible light (up to 500 nm) and rotates completely directionally with kHz frequency at 20 °C. This is the fastest directional motion of a synthetic system driven by visible light to date permitting materials and biocompatible irradiation conditions to establish similarly high speeds as natural molecular motors. PMID:26411883

  6. Pattern Formations in Polymer-Molecular Motor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Humphrey, David; Duggan, Cynthia; Käs, Josef

    2001-03-01

    In previous studies with the microtubule-kinesin system, organized patterns such as asters and rotating vortices have been seen (Nedelec et al, Nature 1997), which were of a dynamic nature and dependent on active motors. A similar system was constructed using actin and myosin, which displays similar patterns, however, with drastically different dynamics. These patterns arise independent of the initial amount of immediate use energy (in the form of ATP), assembling only upon the near exhaustion of available ATP. Further studies have clearly shown that in fact these patterns are not dependent upon the motor activity of the myosin but its propensity to serve as a cross-linking element in an actin network, with the motor activity serving to prevent the arising of order in the system. We believe the dynamic differences inherent between the two polymer-motor systems studied lies primarily in the structural nature of the motor complexes, with the kinesin complex ordering the system by pushing multiple filaments in a parallel direction, and the myosin complexes disordering the system by pushing filaments in an antiparallel manner.

  7. Biophysics of filament length regulation by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, M. D.

    2013-06-01

    Regulating physical size is an essential problem that biological organisms must solve from the subcellular to the organismal scales, but it is not well understood what physical principles and mechanisms organisms use to sense and regulate their size. Any biophysical size-regulation scheme operates in a noisy environment and must be robust to other cellular dynamics and fluctuations. This work develops theory of filament length regulation inspired by recent experiments on kinesin-8 motor proteins, which move with directional bias on microtubule filaments and alter microtubule dynamics. Purified kinesin-8 motors can depolymerize chemically-stabilized microtubules. In the length-dependent depolymerization model, the rate of depolymerization tends to increase with filament length, because long filaments accumulate more motors at their tips and therefore shorten more quickly. When balanced with a constant filament growth rate, this mechanism can lead to a fixed polymer length. However, the mechanism by which kinesin-8 motors affect the length of dynamic microtubules in cells is less clear. We study the more biologically realistic problem of microtubule dynamic instability modulated by a motor-dependent increase in the filament catastrophe frequency. This leads to a significant decrease in the mean filament length and a narrowing of the filament length distribution. The results improve our understanding of the biophysics of length regulation in cells.

  8. Intrinsic irreversibility limits the efficiency of multidimensional molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, M. W.; Tumlin, C.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the efficiency limits of Brownian motors able to extract work from the temperature difference between reservoirs or from external thermodynamic forces. These systems can operate in a variety of modes, including as isothermal engines, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps. We derive analytical results showing that certain classes of multidimensional Brownian motor, including the Smoluchowski-Feynman ratchet, are unable to attain perfect efficiency (Carnot efficiency for heat engines). This demonstrates the presence of intrinsic irreversibilities in their operating mechanism. We present numerical simulations showing that in some cases the loss process that limits efficiency is associated with vortices in the probability current.

  9. Interplay between crosslinkers and dynamic molecular motor-induced instabilities in the moderation of biopolymer organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Humphrey, David; Ziebert, Falko; Zimmermann, Walter; Käs, Josef

    2006-03-01

    Structure and function of biological cells rely on the highly-dynamic self-organization of protein filaments to an intracellular cytoskeleton responsive to mechanical and chemical stimuli. While dissolving these complex cellular structures through Brownian motion is inherently slow (tens of minutes), changes in the activity of the molecular motor myosin II cause rapid order-disorder transitions within 1-2 minutes in reconstituted cytoskeletal actin networks. When motor-induced filament sliding decreases, actin network structure rapidly and reversibly self-organizes into various assemblies triggered by a nonlinear instability. Modulation of static crosslinker concentrations allow for a wide phase space of order ranging from nematics to compact asters & dense packing of motor-filament clusters. The observed isothermal transitions between disorder and self-organization illustrate that molecular motors can substantially contribute to dynamic cellular organization.

  10. Stepping and Crowding of Molecular Motors: Statistical Kinetics from an Exclusion Process Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ciandrini, Luca; Romano, M. Carmen; Parmeggiani, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Motor enzymes are remarkable molecular machines that use the energy derived from the hydrolysis of a nucleoside triphosphate to generate mechanical movement, achieved through different steps that constitute their kinetic cycle. These macromolecules, nowadays investigated with advanced experimental techniques to unveil their molecular mechanisms and the properties of their kinetic cycles, are implicated in many biological processes, ranging from biopolymerization (e.g., RNA polymerases and ribosomes) to intracellular transport (motor proteins such as kinesins or dyneins). Although the kinetics of individual motors is well studied on both theoretical and experimental grounds, the repercussions of their stepping cycle on the collective dynamics still remains unclear. Advances in this direction will improve our comprehension of transport process in the natural intracellular medium, where processive motor enzymes might operate in crowded conditions. In this work, we therefore extend contemporary statistical kinetic analysis to study collective transport phenomena of motors in terms of lattice gas models belonging to the exclusion process class. Via numerical simulations, we show how to interpret and use the randomness calculated from single particle trajectories in crowded conditions. Importantly, we also show that time fluctuations and non-Poissonian behavior are intrinsically related to spatial correlations and the emergence of large, but finite, clusters of comoving motors. The properties unveiled by our analysis have important biological implications on the collective transport characteristics of processive motor enzymes in crowded conditions. PMID:25185553

  11. Motor properties from persistence: a linear molecular walker lacking spatial and temporal asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckermann, Martin J.; Angstmann, Christopher N.; Schmitt, Regina; Blab, Gerhard A.; Bromley, Elizabeth HC; Forde, Nancy R.; Linke, Heiner; Curmi, Paul MG

    2015-05-01

    The stepping direction of linear molecular motors is usually defined by a spatial asymmetry of the motor, its track, or both. Here we present a model for a molecular walker that undergoes biased directional motion along a symmetric track in the presence of a temporally symmetric chemical cycle. Instead of using asymmetry, directionality is achieved by persistence. At small load force the walker can take on average thousands of steps in a given direction until it stochastically reverses direction. We discuss a specific experimental implementation of a synthetic motor based on this design and find, using Langevin and Monte Carlo simulations, that a realistic walker can work against load forces on the order of picoNewtons with an efficiency of ∼18%, comparable to that of kinesin. In principle, the walker can be turned into a permanent motor by externally monitoring the walker’s momentary direction of motion, and using feedback to adjust the direction of a load force. We calculate the thermodynamic cost of using feedback to enhance motor performance in terms of the Shannon entropy, and find that it reduces the efficiency of a realistic motor only marginally. We discuss the implications for natural protein motor performance in the context of the strong performance of this design based only on a thermal ratchet.

  12. Self-organization of waves and pulse trains by molecular motors in cellular protrusions.

    PubMed

    Yochelis, A; Ebrahim, S; Millis, B; Cui, R; Kachar, B; Naoz, M; Gov, N S

    2015-01-01

    Actin-based cellular protrusions are an ubiquitous feature of cells, performing a variety of critical functions ranging from cell-cell communication to cell motility. The formation and maintenance of these protrusions relies on the transport of proteins via myosin motors, to the protrusion tip. While tip-directed motion leads to accumulation of motors (and their molecular cargo) at the protrusion tip, it is observed that motors also form rearward moving, periodic and isolated aggregates. The origins and mechanisms of these aggregates, and whether they are important for the recycling of motors, remain open puzzles. Motivated by novel myosin-XV experiments, a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed. The model incorporates a non-linear cooperative interaction between motors, which converts them between an active and an inactive state. Specifically, the type of aggregate formed (traveling waves or pulse-trains) is linked to the kinetics of motors at the protrusion tip which is introduced by a boundary condition. These pattern selection mechanisms are found not only to qualitatively agree with empirical observations but open new vistas to the transport phenomena by molecular motors in general. PMID:26335545

  13. Self-organization of waves and pulse trains by molecular motors in cellular protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Yochelis, A.; Ebrahim, S.; Millis, B.; Cui, R.; Kachar, B.; Naoz, M.; Gov, N. S.

    2015-01-01

    Actin-based cellular protrusions are an ubiquitous feature of cells, performing a variety of critical functions ranging from cell-cell communication to cell motility. The formation and maintenance of these protrusions relies on the transport of proteins via myosin motors, to the protrusion tip. While tip-directed motion leads to accumulation of motors (and their molecular cargo) at the protrusion tip, it is observed that motors also form rearward moving, periodic and isolated aggregates. The origins and mechanisms of these aggregates, and whether they are important for the recycling of motors, remain open puzzles. Motivated by novel myosin-XV experiments, a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model is proposed. The model incorporates a non-linear cooperative interaction between motors, which converts them between an active and an inactive state. Specifically, the type of aggregate formed (traveling waves or pulse-trains) is linked to the kinetics of motors at the protrusion tip which is introduced by a boundary condition. These pattern selection mechanisms are found not only to qualitatively agree with empirical observations but open new vistas to the transport phenomena by molecular motors in general. PMID:26335545

  14. Properties of tug-of-war model for cargo transport by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2009-06-01

    Molecular motors are essential components for the biophysical functions of the cell. Current quantitative understanding of how multiple motors move along a single track is not complete, even though models and theories for a single motor mechanochemistry abound. Recently, Müller have developed a tug-of-war model to describe the bidirectional movement of the cargo [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 4609 (2008)]. They found that the tug-of-war model exhibits several qualitative different motility regimes, which depend on the precise value of single motor parameters, and they suggested that the sensitivity can be used by a cell to regulate its cargo traffic. In the present paper, we will carry out a detailed theoretical analysis of a special case of tug-of-war model: in which the numbers of the two different motor species which bound to the cargo tend to infinite. Through the analysis, all the stable, i.e., biophysically observable, steady states and their stability domains can be obtained. Depending on values of the several parameters, the tug-of-war model exhibits uni-, bi-, or tristability. The steady-state movement of the cargo, which is transported by two different molecular motor species, is determined by the initial numbers of the motors which bound to the track.

  15. Influence of molecular motors on the motion of particles in viscoelastic media.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, Sebastián

    2014-06-01

    We study theoretically and by numerical simulations the motion of particles driven by molecular motors in a viscoelastic medium representing the cell cytoplasm. For this, we consider a generalized Langevin equation coupled to a stochastic stepping dynamics for the motors that takes into account the action of each motor separately. In the absence of motors, the model produces subdiffusive motion of particles characterized by a power-law scaling of the mean square displacement versus the lag time as t^{α}, with 0<α<1, similar to that observed in cells. Our results show how the action of the motors can induce a transition to a superdiffusive regime at large lag times with the characteristics of those found in experiments reported in the literature. We also show that at small lag times, the motors can act as static crosslinkers that slow down the natural subdiffusive transport. An analysis of previously reported experimental data in the relevant time scales provides evidence of this phenomenon. Finally, we study the effect of a harmonic potential representing an optical trap, and we show a way to approach to a macroscopic description of the active transport in cells. This last point stresses the relevance of the molecular motors for generating not only directed motion to specific targets, but also fast diffusivelike random motion. PMID:25019814

  16. Reversing the direction in a light-driven rotary molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangsupapichat, Nopporn; Pollard, Michael M.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2011-01-01

    Biological rotary motors can alter their mechanical function by changing the direction of rotary motion. Achieving a similar reversal of direction of rotation in artificial molecular motors presents a fundamental stereochemical challenge: how to change from clockwise to anticlockwise motion without compromising the autonomous unidirectional rotary behaviour of the system. A new molecular motor with multilevel control of rotary motion is reported here, in which the direction of light-powered rotation can be reversed by base-catalysed epimerization. The key steps are deprotonation and reprotonation of the photochemically generated less-stable isomers during the 360° unidirectional rotary cycle, with complete inversion of the configuration at the stereogenic centre. The ability to change directionality is an essential step towards mechanical molecular systems with adaptive functional behaviour.

  17. New mechanistic insight in the thermal helix inversion of second-generation molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Klok, Martin; Walko, Martin; Geertsema, Edzard M; Ruangsupapichat, Nopporn; Kistemaker, Jos C M; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of dibenzocyclohepten-5-ylidene as part of a unidirectional light-driven molecular motor allows a more complete picture of the pathway of thermal helix inversion to be developed. The most stable conformation is similar to that found in related motors in that it has, overall, an anti-folded structure with the substituent at the stereogenic centre adopting an axial orientation. Photochemical cis/trans isomerisation at -40 degrees C results in the formation of an isomer in a syn-folded conformation with the methyl group in an axial orientation. This contrasts with previous studies on related molecular rotary motors. The conformation of the higher energy intermediate typically observed for this class of compound is the anti-folded conformation, in which the methyl group is in an equatorial orientation. This conformation is available through an energetically uphill upper half ring inversion of the observed photochemical product. However, this pathway competes with a second process that leads to the more stable anti-folded conformation in which the methyl group is oriented axially. It has been shown that the conformations and pathways available for second-generation molecular motors can be described by using similar overall geometries. Differences in the metastable high-energy species are attributable to the relative energy and position on the reaction coordinate of the transition states. Kinetic studies on these new molecular motors thus provide important insights into the conformational dynamics of the rotation cycle. PMID:18979464

  18. Ultra-fast force-clamp laser trapping of single molecular motors and DNA binding proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitanio, Marco; Monico, Carina; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2013-09-01

    Forces play a fundamental role in a wide array of biological processes, regulating enzymatic activity, kinetics of molecular bonds, and molecular motors mechanics. Single molecule force spectroscopy techniques have enabled the investigation of such processes, but they are inadequate to probe short-lived (millisecond and sub-millisecond) molecular complexes. We developed an ultrafast force-clamp spectroscopy technique that uses a dual trap configuration to apply constant loads to a single intermittently interacting biological polymer and a binding protein. Our system displays a delay of only ˜10 μs between formation of the molecular bond and application of the force and is capable of detecting interactions as short as 100 μs. The force-clamp configuration in which our assay operates allows direct measurements of load-dependence of lifetimes of single molecular bonds. Moreover, conformational changes of single proteins and molecular motors can be recorded with sub-nanometer accuracy and few tens of microseconds of temporal resolution. We demonstrate our technique on molecular motors, using myosin II from fast skeletal muscle and on protein-DNA interaction, specifically on Lactose repressor (LacI). The apparatus is stabilized to less than 1 nm with both passive and active stabilization, allowing resolving specific binding regions along the actin filament and DNA molecule. Our technique extends single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to molecular complexes that have been inaccessible up to now, opening new perspectives for the investigation of the effects of forces on biological processes.

  19. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-01

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F 0 F 1-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C 2 (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  20. Bidirectional Transport by Molecular Motors: Enhanced Processivity and Response to External Forces

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Melanie J.I.; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Intracellular transport along cytoskeletal filaments is often mediated by two teams of molecular motors that pull on the same cargo and move in opposite directions along the filaments. We have recently shown theoretically that this bidirectional transport can be understood as a stochastic tug-of-war between the two motor teams. Here, we further develop our theory to investigate the experimentally accessible dynamic behavior of cargos transported by strong motors such as kinesin-1 or cytoplasmic dynein. By studying the run and binding times of such a cargo, we show that the properties of biological motors, such as the large ratio of stall/detachment force and the small ratio of superstall backward/forward velocity, are favorable for bidirectional cargo transport, leading to fast motion and enhanced diffusion. In addition, cargo processivity is shown to be strongly enhanced by transport via several molecular motors even if these motors are engaged in a tug-of-war. Finally, we study the motility of a bidirectional cargo under force. Frictional forces arising, e.g., from the viscous cytoplasm, lead to peaks in the velocity distribution, while external forces as exerted, e.g., by an optical trap, lead to hysteresis effects. Our results, in particular our explicit expressions for the cargo binding time and the distance of the peaks in the velocity relation under friction, are directly accessible to in vitro as well as in vivo experiments. PMID:20513405

  1. Assembly of bipolar microtubule structures by passive cross-linkers and molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johann, D.; Goswami, D.; Kruse, K.

    2016-06-01

    During cell division, sister chromatids are segregated by the mitotic spindle, a bipolar assembly of interdigitating antiparallel polar filaments called microtubules. The spindle contains the midzone, a stable region of overlapping antiparallel microtubules, that is essential for maintaining bipolarity. Although a lot is known about the molecular players involved, the mechanism underlying midzone formation and maintenance is still poorly understood. We study the interaction of polar filaments that are cross-linked by molecular motors moving directionally and by passive cross-linkers diffusing along microtubules. Using a particle-based stochastic model, we find that the interplay of motors and passive cross-linkers can generate a stable finite overlap between a pair of antiparallel polar filaments. We develop a mean-field theory to study this mechanism in detail and investigate the influence of steric interactions between motors and passive cross-linkers on the overlap dynamics. In the presence of interspecies steric interactions, passive cross-linkers mimic the behavior of molecular motors and stable finite overlaps are generated even for non-cross-linking motors. Finally, we develop a mean-field theory for a bundle of aligned polar filaments and show that they can self-organize into a spindlelike pattern. Our work suggests possible ways as to how cells can generate spindle midzones and control their extensions.

  2. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS Molecular energy transducers of the living cell. Proton ATP synthase: a rotating molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, Yurii M.; Tikhonov, Alexander N.

    2010-12-01

    The free energy released upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the main source of energy for the functioning of the living cell and all multicellular organisms. The overwhelming majority of ATP molecules are formed by proton ATP synthases, which are the smallest macromolecular electric motors in Nature. This paper reviews the modern concepts of the molecular structure and functioning of the proton ATP synthase, and real-time biophysical experiments on the rotation of the 'rotor' of this macromolecular motor. Some mathematical models describing the operation of this nanosized macromolecular machine are described.

  3. Effective rates from thermodynamically consistent coarse-graining of models for molecular motors with probe particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Eva; Seifert, Udo

    2015-02-01

    Many single-molecule experiments for molecular motors comprise not only the motor but also large probe particles coupled to it. The theoretical analysis of these assays, however, often takes into account only the degrees of freedom representing the motor. We present a coarse-graining method that maps a model comprising two coupled degrees of freedom which represent motor and probe particle to such an effective one-particle model by eliminating the dynamics of the probe particle in a thermodynamically and dynamically consistent way. The coarse-grained rates obey a local detailed balance condition and reproduce the net currents. Moreover, the average entropy production as well as the thermodynamic efficiency is invariant under this coarse-graining procedure. Our analysis reveals that only by assuming unrealistically fast probe particles, the coarse-grained transition rates coincide with the transition rates of the traditionally used one-particle motor models. Additionally, we find that for multicyclic motors the stall force can depend on the probe size. We apply this coarse-graining method to specific case studies of the F1-ATPase and the kinesin motor.

  4. Molecular motor powered nanotransportation guided by carbon nanotubes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, A.; Ramon-Azcon, J.; Kim, K.; Reaves, K.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Kumagai, I.; Adschiri, T.; Shiku, H.; Matsue, T.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2014-03-01

    Due to a decrease in the channel size of nanodevices, pressure-driven transport is increasingly limited by the fluid viscosity. This can be overcome by utilizing the motor protein kinesin that can walk processively along the microtubule filaments for active transport. However, using the kinesin-based transport system requires the ability to control the location and orientation of microtubules. We introduce functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) tracks, aligned by dielectrophoresis, to guide kinesin powered microtubule shuttles. In order to resist shear flow and the force exerted by an electric field, the MWNT are attached to the surface via a biotin/streptavidin link. The configuration of the aligned MWNT is investigated using scanning electron microscopy and the guiding performance of the MWNT tracks is studied using fluorescence microscopy.

  5. Force Generation by Molecular-Motor-Powered Microtubule Bundles; Implications for Neuronal Polarization and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Jakobs, Maximilian; Franze, Kristian; Zemel, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    The heavily cross-linked microtubule (MT) bundles found in neuronal processes play a central role in the initiation, growth and maturation of axons and dendrites; however, a quantitative understanding of their mechanical function is still lacking. We here developed computer simulations to investigate the dynamics of force generation in 1D bundles of MTs that are cross-linked and powered by molecular motors. The motion of filaments and the forces they exert are investigated as a function of the motor type (unipolar or bipolar), MT density and length, applied load, and motor connectivity. We demonstrate that only unipolar motors (e.g., kinesin-1) can provide the driving force for bundle expansion, while bipolar motors (e.g., kinesin-5) oppose it. The force generation capacity of the bundles is shown to depend sharply on the fraction of unipolar motors due to a percolation transition that must occur in the bundle. Scaling laws between bundle length, force, MT length and motor fraction are presented. In addition, we investigate the dynamics of growth in the presence of a constant influx of MTs. Beyond a short equilibration period, the bundles grow linearly in time. In this growth regime, the bundle extends as one mass forward with most filaments sliding with the growth velocity. The growth velocity is shown to be dictated by the inward flux of MTs, to inversely scale with the load and to be independent of the free velocity of the motors. These findings provide important molecular-level insights into the mechanical function of the MT cytoskeleton in normal axon growth and regeneration after injury. PMID:26617489

  6. Hydrodynamics and rheology of mixtures of biopolymers and molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Aphrodite

    I use tools and concepts from non-equilibrium statistical physics and polymer physics to describe the large-scale collective behavior of solutions of polar biofilaments and crosslinkers, in both quiescent and flowing solvents. I model the system as a polar liquid crystal with both excluded volume, and active interactions due to the crosslinkers. The role of mobile and stationary crosslinkers, which can induce filament alignment promoting polar or nematic order, in analogy with liquid crystalline phases, is taken into account. I start from a Smoluchowski equation for rigid filaments in solutions where pairwise crosslink-mediated interactions among the filaments yield translational and rotational currents. The large-scale properties of the system are described in terms of continuum equations for filament and motor densities, polarization and alignment tensor obtained by coarse-graining the Smoluchowski equation. The possible homogeneous states of the systems are obtained as stable solutions of the dynamical equations and are characterized in terms of experimentally accessible parameters. The activity of mobile crosslinkers, which cause exchange of forces and torques among the filaments, renders the homogeneous states unstable via filament bundling. Furthermore, I incorporate the coupling of the orientational order to flow into the hydrodynamic equations, and take into account the exchange of momentum between the filaments and the flowing solvent. Flow enhances the orientational order and suppresses orientational instability in the ordered states. This model allows for an estimate of the various parameters in the hydrodynamic equations in terms of physical properties of the crosslinkers. Introducing a unified microscopic model to describe the non-equilibrium system of polar biofilaments and motor proteins with experimentally accessible parameters is the central result of this work.

  7. Low processivity for DNA translocation by the ISWI molecular motor.

    PubMed

    Eastlund, Allen; Al-Ani, Gada; Fischer, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    The motor protein ISWI (Imitation SWItch) is the conserved catalytic ATPase domain of the ISWI family of chromatin remodelers. Members of the ISWI family are involved in regulating the structure of cellular chromatin during times of transcription, translation, and repair. Current models for the nucleosome repositioning activity of ISWI and other chromatin remodelers require the translocation of the remodeling protein along double-stranded DNA through an ATP-dependent mechanism. Here we report results from spectrofluorometric stopped-flow experiments which demonstrate that ISWI displays very low processivity for free DNA translocation. By combining these results with those from experiments monitoring the DNA stimulated ATPase activity of ISWI we further demonstrate that the DNA translocation by ISWI is tightly coupled to ATP hydrolysis. The calculated coupling efficiency of 0.067±0.018 ATP/ISWI/bp is seemingly quite low in comparison to similar DNA translocases and we present potential models to account for this. Nevertheless, the tight coupling of ATP hydrolysis to DNA translocation suggests that DNA translocation is not energetically rate limiting for nucleosome repositioning by ISWI. PMID:26116984

  8. Macroscopic contraction of a gel induced by the integrated motion of light-driven molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quan; Fuks, Gad; Moulin, Emilie; Maaloum, Mounir; Rawiso, Michel; Kulic, Igor; Foy, Justin T.; Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2015-02-01

    Making molecular machines that can be useful in the macroscopic world is a challenging long-term goal of nanoscience. Inspired by the protein machinery found in biological systems, and based on the theoretical understanding of the physics of motion at the nanoscale, organic chemists have developed a number of molecules that can produce work by contraction or rotation when triggered by various external chemical or physical stimuli. In particular, basic molecular switches that commute between at least two thermodynamic minima and more advanced molecular motors that behave as dissipative units working far from equilibrium when fuelled with external energy have been reported. However, despite recent progress, the ultimate challenge of coordinating individual molecular motors in a continuous mechanical process that can have a measurable effect at the macroscale has remained elusive. Here, we show that by integrating light-driven unidirectional molecular rotors as reticulating units in a polymer gel, it is possible to amplify their individual motions to achieve macroscopic contraction of the material. Our system uses the incoming light to operate under far-from-equilibrium conditions, and the work produced by the motor in the photostationary state is used to twist the entangled polymer chains up to the collapse of the gel. Our design could be a starting point to integrate nanomotors in metastable materials to store energy and eventually to convert it.

  9. Measuring the number and spacing of molecular motors propelling a gliding microtubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallesen, Todd L.; Macosko, Jed C.; Holzwarth, G.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular motor gliding assay, in which a microtubule or other filament moves across a surface coated with motors, has provided much insight into how molecular motors work. The kinesin-microtubule system is also a strong candidate for the job of nanoparticle transporter in nanotechnology devices. In most cases, several motors transport each filament. Each motor serves both to bind the microtubule to a stationary surface and to propel the microtubule along the surface. By applying a uniform transverse force of 4-19 pN to a superparamagnetic bead attached to the trailing end of the microtubule, we have measured the distance d between binding points (motors). The average value of d was determined as a function of motor surface density σ. The measurements agree well with the scaling model of Duke, Holy, and Liebler, which predicts that ~σ-2/5 if 0.05⩽σ⩽20μm-2 [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.74.330 74, 330 (1995)]. The distribution of d fits an extension of the model. The radius of curvature of a microtubule bent at a binding point by the force of the magnetic bead was ≈1 μm, 5000-fold smaller than the radius of curvature of microtubules subjected only to thermal forces. This is evidence that at these points of high bending stress, generated by the force on the magnetic bead, the microtubule is in the more flexible state of a two-state model of microtubule bending proposed by Heussinger, Schüller, and Frey [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.81.021904 81, 021904 (2010)].

  10. Memory, bias, and correlations in bidirectional transport of molecular-motor-driven cargoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Deepak; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj

    2013-10-01

    Molecular motors are specialized proteins that perform active, directed transport of cellular cargoes on cytoskeletal filaments. In many cases, cargo motion powered by motor proteins is found to be bidirectional, and may be viewed as a biased random walk with fast unidirectional runs interspersed with slow tug-of-war states. The statistical properties of this walk are not known in detail, and here, we study memory and bias, as well as directional correlations between successive runs in bidirectional transport. We show, based on a study of the direction-reversal probabilities of the cargo using a purely stochastic (tug-of-war) model, that bidirectional motion of cellular cargoes is, in general, a correlated random walk. In particular, while the motion of a cargo driven by two oppositely pulling motors is a Markovian random walk, memory of direction appears when multiple motors haul the cargo in one or both directions. In the latter case, the Markovian nature of the underlying single-motor processes is hidden by internal transitions between degenerate run and pause states of the cargo. Interestingly, memory is found to be a nonmonotonic function of the number of motors. Stochastic numerical simulations of the tug-of-war model support our mathematical results and extend them to biologically relevant situations.

  11. Coordination of Molecular Motors: From in vitro Assays to Intracellular Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Holzbaur, Erika L.F.; Goldman, Yale E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary New technologies have emerged that enable the tracking of molecular motors and their cargos with very high resolution both in vitro and in live cells. Classic in vitro motility assays are being supplemented with assays of increasing complexity that more closely model the cellular environment. In cells, the introduction of probes such as quantum dots allows the high resolution tracking of both motors and vesicular cargos. The “bottom up” enhancement of in vitro assays and the “top down” analysis of motility inside cells are likely to converge over the next few years. Together, these studies are providing new insights into the coordination of motors during intracellular transport. PMID:20102789

  12. Analysis of persistence during intracellular actin-based transport mediated by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, C.; Despósito, M. A.; Levi, V.; Bruno, L.

    2010-09-01

    The displacement of particles or probes in the cell cytoplasm as a function of time is characterized by different anomalous diffusion regimes. The transport of large cargoes, such as organelles, vesicles or large proteins, involves the action of ATP-consuming molecular motors. We investigate the motion of pigment organelles driven by myosin-V motors in Xenopus laevis melanocytes using a high spatio-temporal resolution tracking technique. By analyzing the turning angles (phi) of the obtained 2D trajectories as a function of the time lag, we determine the critical time of the transition between anticorrelated and directed motion as the time when the turning angles begin to concentrate around phi = 0. We relate this transition with the crossover from subdiffusive to superdiffusive behavior observed in a previous work [5]. We also assayed the properties of the trajectories in cells with inhibited myosin activity, and we can compare the results in the presence and absence of active motors.

  13. Towards artificial molecular motor-based electroactive/photoactive biomimetic muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tony Jun

    2007-04-01

    Artificial molecular motors have recently attracted considerable interest from the nanoscience and nanoengineering community. These molecular-scale systems utilize a 'bottom-up' technology centered around the design and manipulation of molecular assemblies, and are potentially capable of delivering efficient actuations at dramatically reduced length scales when compared to traditional microscale actuators. When stimulated by light, electricity, or chemical reagents, a group of artificial molecular motors called bistable rotaxanes - which are composed of mutually recognizable and intercommunicating ring and dumbbell-shaped components - experience relative internal motions of their components just like the moving parts of macroscopic machines. Bistable rotaxanes' ability to precisely and cooperatively control mechanical motions at the molecular level reveals the potential of engineering systems that operate with the same elegance, efficiency, and complexity as biological motors function within the human body. We are in a process of developing a new class of bistable rotaxane-based electroactive/photoactive biomimetic muscles with unprecedented performance (strain: 40-60%, operating frequency: up to 1 MHz, energy density: ~50 J/cm 3, multi-stimuli: chemical, electricity, light). As a substantial step towards this longterm objective, we have proven, for the first time, that rotaxanes are mechanically switchable in condensed phases on solid substrates. We have further developed a rotaxane-powered microcantilever actuator utilizing an integrated approach that combines "bottom-up" assembly of molecular functionality with "top-down" micro/nano fabrication. By harnessing the nanoscale mechanical motion from artificial molecular machines and eliciting a nanomechanical response in a microscale device, this system mimics natural skeletal muscle and provides a key component for the development of nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS).

  14. Transition to superdiffusive behavior in intracellular actin-based transport mediated by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, L.; Levi, V.; Brunstein, M.; Despósito, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    Intracellular transport of large cargoes, such as organelles, vesicles, or large proteins, is a complex dynamical process that involves the interplay of adenosine triphosphate-consuming molecular motors, cytoskeleton filaments, and the viscoelastic cytoplasm. In this work we investigate the motion of pigment organelles (melanosomes) driven by myosin-V motors in Xenopus laevis melanocytes using a high-spatio-temporal resolution tracking technique. By analyzing the obtained trajectories, we show that the melanosomes mean-square displacement undergoes a transition from a subdiffusive to a superdiffusive behavior. A stochastic theoretical model, which explicitly considers the collective action of the molecular motors, is introduced to generalize the interpretation of our data. Starting from a generalized Langevin equation, we derive an analytical expression for the mean square displacement, which also takes into account the experimental noise. By fitting theoretical expressions to experimental data we were able to discriminate the exponents that characterize the passive and active contributions to the dynamics and to estimate the “global” motor forces correctly. Then, our model gives a quantitative description of active transport in living cells with a reduced number of parameters.

  15. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Aldrete, Emilio; Sherman, Michael B.; Woodson, Michael; Atz, Rockney; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Morais, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring, and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate. PMID:26904950

  16. Structural and Molecular Basis for Coordination in a Viral DNA Packaging Motor.

    PubMed

    Mao, Huzhang; Saha, Mitul; Reyes-Aldrete, Emilio; Sherman, Michael B; Woodson, Michael; Atz, Rockney; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Morais, Marc C

    2016-03-01

    Ring NTPases are a class of ubiquitous molecular motors involved in basic biological partitioning processes. dsDNA viruses encode ring ATPases that translocate their genomes to near-crystalline densities within pre-assembled viral capsids. Here, X-ray crystallography, cryoEM, and biochemical analyses of the dsDNA packaging motor in bacteriophage phi29 show how individual subunits are arranged in a pentameric ATPase ring and suggest how their activities are coordinated to translocate dsDNA. The resulting pseudo-atomic structure of the motor and accompanying functional analyses show how ATP is bound in the ATPase active site; identify two DNA contacts, including a potential DNA translocating loop; demonstrate that a trans-acting arginine finger is involved in coordinating hydrolysis around the ring; and suggest a functional coupling between the arginine finger and the DNA translocating loop. The ability to visualize the motor in action illuminates how the different motor components interact with each other and with their DNA substrate. PMID:26904950

  17. Physical aspects of the structure and function of helicases as rotary molecular motors

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, S. A.

    2009-11-15

    Helicases were shown to have common physical properties with rotary molecular motors, such as F{sub 0}F{sub 1}-ATP synthase and type I restriction-modification (RM) enzymes. The necessary conditions for action of molecular motors are chirality, the presence of the C{sub 2} (or lower) symmetry axis within rather large atomic groups, and polarization properties. The estimates were made for the material parameters of helicases, which translocate DNA due to moving chiral kinks without DNA cleavage and are characterized by higher viscosity, low mobility, and smaller chiral kinetic coefficients than type II RM enzymes. This paper discusses the efficiency of helicases with opposite polarities that drive DNA translocation in opposite directions.

  18. How molecular motors extract order from chaos (a key issues review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Peter M.

    2016-03-01

    Molecular motors are the workhorses of living cells. Seemingly by ‘magic’, these molecules are able to complete purposeful tasks while being immersed in a sea of thermal chaos. Here, we review the current understanding of how these machines work, present simple models based on thermal ratchets, discuss implications for statistical physics, and provide an overview of ongoing research in this important and fascinating field of study.

  19. How molecular motors extract order from chaos (a key issues review).

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Peter M

    2016-03-01

    Molecular motors are the workhorses of living cells. Seemingly by 'magic', these molecules are able to complete purposeful tasks while being immersed in a sea of thermal chaos. Here, we review the current understanding of how these machines work, present simple models based on thermal ratchets, discuss implications for statistical physics, and provide an overview of ongoing research in this important and fascinating field of study. PMID:26863000

  20. Magnetic capture from blood rescues molecular motor function in diagnostic nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Introduction of effective point-of-care devices for use in medical diagnostics is part of strategies to combat accelerating health-care costs. Molecular motor driven nanodevices have unique potentials in this regard due to unprecedented level of miniaturization and independence of external pumps. However motor function has been found to be inhibited by body fluids. Results We report here that a unique procedure, combining separation steps that rely on antibody-antigen interactions, magnetic forces applied to magnetic nanoparticles (MPs) and the specificity of the actomyosin bond, can circumvent the deleterious effects of body fluids (e.g. blood serum). The procedure encompasses the following steps: (i) capture of analyte molecules from serum by MP-antibody conjugates, (ii) pelleting of MP-antibody-analyte complexes, using a magnetic field, followed by exchange of serum for optimized biological buffer, (iii) mixing of MP-antibody-analyte complexes with actin filaments conjugated with same polyclonal antibodies as the magnetic nanoparticles. This causes complex formation: MP-antibody-analyte-antibody-actin, and magnetic separation is used to enrich the complexes. Finally (iv) the complexes are introduced into a nanodevice for specific binding via actin filaments to surface adsorbed molecular motors (heavy meromyosin). The number of actin filaments bound to the motors in the latter step was significantly increased above the control value if protein analyte (50–60 nM) was present in serum (in step i) suggesting appreciable formation and enrichment of the MP-antibody-analyte-antibody-actin complexes. Furthermore, addition of ATP demonstrated maintained heavy meromyosin driven propulsion of actin filaments showing that the serum induced inhibition was alleviated. Detailed analysis of the procedure i-iv, using fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy identified main targets for future optimization. Conclusion The results demonstrate a promising approach for

  1. Chaperone-enhanced purification of unconventional myosin 15, a molecular motor specialized for stereocilia protein trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bird, Jonathan E; Takagi, Yasuharu; Billington, Neil; Strub, Marie-Paule; Sellers, James R; Friedman, Thomas B

    2014-08-26

    Unconventional myosin 15 is a molecular motor expressed in inner ear hair cells that transports protein cargos within developing mechanosensory stereocilia. Mutations of myosin 15 cause profound hearing loss in humans and mice; however, the properties of this motor and its regulation within the stereocilia organelle are unknown. To address these questions, we expressed a subfragment 1-like (S1) truncation of mouse myosin 15, comprising the predicted motor domain plus three light-chain binding sites. Following unsuccessful attempts to express functional myosin 15-S1 using the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9)-baculovirus system, we discovered that coexpression of the muscle-myosin-specific chaperone UNC45B, in addition to the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) significantly increased the yield of functional protein. Surprisingly, myosin 15-S1 did not bind calmodulin with high affinity. Instead, the IQ domains bound essential and regulatory light chains that are normally associated with class II myosins. We show that myosin 15-S1 is a barbed-end-directed motor that moves actin filaments in a gliding assay (∼ 430 nm · s(-1) at 30 °C), using a power stroke of 7.9 nm. The maximum ATPase rate (k(cat) ∼ 6 s(-1)) was similar to the actin-detachment rate (k(det) = 6.2 s(-1)) determined in single molecule optical trapping experiments, indicating that myosin 15-S1 was rate limited by transit through strongly actin-bound states, similar to other processive myosin motors. Our data further indicate that in addition to folding muscle myosin, UNC45B facilitates maturation of an unconventional myosin. We speculate that chaperone coexpression may be a simple method to optimize the purification of other myosin motors from Sf9 insect cells. PMID:25114250

  2. Stochastic dynamics of small ensembles of non-processive molecular motors: The parallel cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Thorsten; Albert, Philipp J.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2013-11-01

    Non-processive molecular motors have to work together in ensembles in order to generate appreciable levels of force or movement. In skeletal muscle, for example, hundreds of myosin II molecules cooperate in thick filaments. In non-muscle cells, by contrast, small groups with few tens of non-muscle myosin II motors contribute to essential cellular processes such as transport, shape changes, or mechanosensing. Here we introduce a detailed and analytically tractable model for this important situation. Using a three-state crossbridge model for the myosin II motor cycle and exploiting the assumptions of fast power stroke kinetics and equal load sharing between motors in equivalent states, we reduce the stochastic reaction network to a one-step master equation for the binding and unbinding dynamics (parallel cluster model) and derive the rules for ensemble movement. We find that for constant external load, ensemble dynamics is strongly shaped by the catch bond character of myosin II, which leads to an increase of the fraction of bound motors under load and thus to firm attachment even for small ensembles. This adaptation to load results in a concave force-velocity relation described by a Hill relation. For external load provided by a linear spring, myosin II ensembles dynamically adjust themselves towards an isometric state with constant average position and load. The dynamics of the ensembles is now determined mainly by the distribution of motors over the different kinds of bound states. For increasing stiffness of the external spring, there is a sharp transition beyond which myosin II can no longer perform the power stroke. Slow unbinding from the pre-power-stroke state protects the ensembles against detachment.

  3. Stochastic dynamics of small ensembles of non-processive molecular motors: The parallel cluster model

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Thorsten; Albert, Philipp J.; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2013-11-07

    Non-processive molecular motors have to work together in ensembles in order to generate appreciable levels of force or movement. In skeletal muscle, for example, hundreds of myosin II molecules cooperate in thick filaments. In non-muscle cells, by contrast, small groups with few tens of non-muscle myosin II motors contribute to essential cellular processes such as transport, shape changes, or mechanosensing. Here we introduce a detailed and analytically tractable model for this important situation. Using a three-state crossbridge model for the myosin II motor cycle and exploiting the assumptions of fast power stroke kinetics and equal load sharing between motors in equivalent states, we reduce the stochastic reaction network to a one-step master equation for the binding and unbinding dynamics (parallel cluster model) and derive the rules for ensemble movement. We find that for constant external load, ensemble dynamics is strongly shaped by the catch bond character of myosin II, which leads to an increase of the fraction of bound motors under load and thus to firm attachment even for small ensembles. This adaptation to load results in a concave force-velocity relation described by a Hill relation. For external load provided by a linear spring, myosin II ensembles dynamically adjust themselves towards an isometric state with constant average position and load. The dynamics of the ensembles is now determined mainly by the distribution of motors over the different kinds of bound states. For increasing stiffness of the external spring, there is a sharp transition beyond which myosin II can no longer perform the power stroke. Slow unbinding from the pre-power-stroke state protects the ensembles against detachment.

  4. Molecular interactions and residues involved in force generation in the T4 viral DNA packaging motor.

    PubMed

    Migliori, Amy D; Smith, Douglas E; Arya, Gaurav

    2014-12-12

    Many viruses utilize molecular motors to package their genomes into preformed capsids. A striking feature of these motors is their ability to generate large forces to drive DNA translocation against entropic, electrostatic, and bending forces resisting DNA confinement. A model based on recently resolved structures of the bacteriophage T4 motor protein gp17 suggests that this motor generates large forces by undergoing a conformational change from an extended to a compact state. This transition is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions between complementarily charged residues across the interface between the N- and C-terminal domains of gp17. Here we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate in detail the molecular interactions and residues involved in such a compaction transition of gp17. We find that although electrostatic interactions between charged residues contribute significantly to the overall free energy change of compaction, interactions mediated by the uncharged residues are equally if not more important. We identify five charged residues and six uncharged residues at the interface that play a dominant role in the compaction transition and also reveal salt bridging, van der Waals, and solvent hydrogen-bonding interactions mediated by these residues in stabilizing the compact form of gp17. The formation of a salt bridge between Glu309 and Arg494 is found to be particularly crucial, consistent with experiments showing complete abrogation in packaging upon Glu309Lys mutation. The computed contributions of several other residues are also found to correlate well with single-molecule measurements of impairments in DNA translocation activity caused by site-directed mutations. PMID:25311860

  5. Gamma-diketone axonopathy: analyses of cytoskeletal motors and highways in CNS myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P; LoPachin, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in cosedimentation assays using microtubules and NFs prepared from spinal cord of rats intoxicated at different daily dose rates (175 and 400 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that HD did not alter the presence of alpha- or beta-tubulins in these preparations, nor were changes noted in the distribution of either anterograde (KIF1A, KIF3, KIF5) or retrograde (dynein) molecular motors. The cosedimentation of dynactin, a dynein-associated protein, also was not affected. Immunoblot analysis of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule preparations revealed substantial reductions (45-80%) in MAP1A, MAP1B heavy chain, MAP2, and tau regardless of HD dose rate. MAP1B light chain content was not altered. Finally, HD intoxication did not influence native NF protein content in either preparation. As per previous research, microtubule and NF preparations were enriched in high-molecular weight NF species. However, these NF derivatives were common to both HD and control samples, suggesting a lack of pathognomonic relevance. These data indicate that, although motor proteins were not affected, HD selectively impaired MAP-microtubule binding, presumably through adduction of lysine residues that mediate such interactions. Given their critical role in cytoskeletal physiology, MAPs could represent a relevant target for the induction of gamma-diketone axonopathy. PMID:20554699

  6. γ-Diketone Axonopathy: Analyses of Cytoskeletal Motors and Highways in CNS Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; LoPachin, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in cosedimentation assays using microtubules and NFs prepared from spinal cord of rats intoxicated at different daily dose rates (175 and 400 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that HD did not alter the presence of α- or β-tubulins in these preparations, nor were changes noted in the distribution of either anterograde (KIF1A, KIF3, KIF5) or retrograde (dynein) molecular motors. The cosedimentation of dynactin, a dynein-associated protein, also was not affected. Immunoblot analysis of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule preparations revealed substantial reductions (45–80%) in MAP1A, MAP1B heavy chain, MAP2, and tau regardless of HD dose rate. MAP1B light chain content was not altered. Finally, HD intoxication did not influence native NF protein content in either preparation. As per previous research, microtubule and NF preparations were enriched in high–molecular weight NF species. However, these NF derivatives were common to both HD and control samples, suggesting a lack of pathognomonic relevance. These data indicate that, although motor proteins were not affected, HD selectively impaired MAP-microtubule binding, presumably through adduction of lysine residues that mediate such interactions. Given their critical role in cytoskeletal physiology, MAPs could represent a relevant target for the induction of γ-diketone axonopathy. PMID:20554699

  7. Discrete Step Sizes of Molecular Motors Lead to Bimodal Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions under Force.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huong T; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D

    2016-08-12

    Fluctuations in the physical properties of biological machines are inextricably linked to their functions. Distributions of run lengths and velocities of processive molecular motors, like kinesin-1, are accessible through single-molecule techniques, but rigorous theoretical models for these probabilities are lacking. Here, we derive exact analytic results for a kinetic model to predict the resistive force (F)-dependent velocity [P(v)] and run length [P(n)] distribution functions of generic finitely processive molecular motors. Our theory quantitatively explains the zero force kinesin-1 data for both P(n) and P(v) using the detachment rate as the only parameter. In addition, we predict the F dependence of these quantities. At nonzero F, P(v) is non-Gaussian and is bimodal with peaks at positive and negative values of v, which is due to the discrete step size of kinesin-1. Although the predictions are based on analyses of kinesin-1 data, our results are general and should hold for any processive motor, which walks on a track by taking discrete steps. PMID:27564000

  8. Molecular motor-induced instabilities and cross linkers determine biopolymer organization.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.; Ziebert, F.; Humphrey, D.; Duggan, C.; Steinbeck, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Kas, J.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of Leipzig; Univ. of Texas at Austin; Univ. Bayreuth

    2007-01-01

    All eukaryotic cells rely on the active self-organization of protein filaments to form a responsive intracellular cytoskeleton. The necessity of motility and reaction to stimuli additionally requires pathways that quickly and reversibly change cytoskeletal organization. While thermally driven order-disorder transitions are, from the viewpoint of physics, the most obvious method for controlling states of organization, the timescales necessary for effective cellular dynamics would require temperatures exceeding the physiologically viable temperature range. We report a mechanism whereby the molecular motor myosin II can cause near-instantaneous order-disorder transitions in reconstituted cytoskeletal actin solutions. When motor-induced filament sliding diminishes, the actin network structure rapidly and reversibly self-organizes into various assemblies. Addition of stable cross linkers was found to alter the architectures of ordered assemblies. These isothermal transitions between dynamic disorder and self-assembled ordered states illustrate that the interplay between passive crosslinking and molecular motor activity plays a substantial role in dynamic cellular organization.

  9. Discrete Step Sizes of Molecular Motors Lead to Bimodal Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions under Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Huong T.; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2016-08-01

    Fluctuations in the physical properties of biological machines are inextricably linked to their functions. Distributions of run lengths and velocities of processive molecular motors, like kinesin-1, are accessible through single-molecule techniques, but rigorous theoretical models for these probabilities are lacking. Here, we derive exact analytic results for a kinetic model to predict the resistive force (F )-dependent velocity [P (v )] and run length [P (n )] distribution functions of generic finitely processive molecular motors. Our theory quantitatively explains the zero force kinesin-1 data for both P (n ) and P (v ) using the detachment rate as the only parameter. In addition, we predict the F dependence of these quantities. At nonzero F , P (v ) is non-Gaussian and is bimodal with peaks at positive and negative values of v , which is due to the discrete step size of kinesin-1. Although the predictions are based on analyses of kinesin-1 data, our results are general and should hold for any processive motor, which walks on a track by taking discrete steps.

  10. Mechanochemical coupling of the motion of molecular motors to ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Astumian, R D; Bier, M

    1996-01-01

    The typical biochemical paradigm for coupling between hydrolysis of ATP and the performance of chemical or mechanical work involves a well-defined sequence of events (a kinetic mechanism) with a fixed stoichiometry between the number of ATP molecules hydrolyzed and the turnover of the output reaction. Recent experiments show, however, that such a deterministic picture of coupling may not be adequate to explain observed behavior of molecular motor proteins in the presence of applied forces. Here we present a general model in which the binding of ATP and release of ADP serve to modulate the binding energy of a motor protein as it travels along a biopolymer backbone. The mechanism is loosely coupled--the average number of ATPs hydrolyzed to cause a single step from one binding site to the next depends strongly on the magnitude of an applied force and on the effective viscous drag force. The statistical mechanical perspective described here offers insight into how local anisotrophy along the "track" for a molecular motor, combined with an energy-releasing chemical reaction to provide a source of nonequilibrium fluctuations, can lead to macroscopic motion. Images Scheme 1 FIGURE 1 PMID:8789082

  11. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics and Motors: A View from Classical and Quantum Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The tubular forms of fullerenes popularly known as carbon nanotubes are experimentally produced as single-, multiwall, and rope configurations. The nanotubes and nanoropes have shown to exhibit unusual mechanical and electronic properties. The single wall nanotubes exhibit both semiconducting and metallic behavior. In short undefected lengths they are the known strongest fibers which are unbreakable even when bent in half. Grown in ropes their tensile strength is approximately 100 times greater than steel at only one sixth the weight. Employing large scale classical and quantum molecular dynamics simulations we will explore the use of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube junctions in 2-, 3-, and 4-point molecular electronic device components, dynamic strength characterization for compressive, bending and torsional strains, and chemical functionalization for possible use in a nanoscale molecular motor. The above is an unclassified material produced for non-competitive basic research in the nanotechnology area.

  12. The Role of Molecular Microtubule Motors and the Microtubule Cytoskeleton in Stress Granule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, Kristen M.; Bishop, Darryl L.; Saunders, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic foci that appear in cells exposed to stress-induced translational inhibition. SGs function as a triage center, where mRNAs are sorted for storage, degradation, and translation reinitiation. The underlying mechanisms of SGs dynamics are still being characterized, although many key players have been identified. The main components of SGs are stalled 48S preinitiation complexes. To date, many other proteins have also been found to localize in SGs and are hypothesized to function in SG dynamics. Most recently, the microtubule cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins have been demonstrated to function in SG dynamics. In this paper, we will discuss current literature examining the function of microtubules and the molecular microtubule motors in SG assembly, coalescence, movement, composition, organization, and disassembly. PMID:21760798

  13. Molecular motor proteins of the kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs): structure, cargo and disease.

    PubMed

    Seog, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Dae-Ho; Lee, Sang-Kyoung

    2004-02-01

    Intracellular organelle transport is essential for morphogenesis and functioning of the cell. Kinesins and kinesin-related proteins make up a large superfamily of molecular motors that transport cargoes such as vesicles, organelles (e.g. mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes), protein complexes (e.g. elements of the cytoskeleton, virus particles), and mRNAs in a microtubule- and ATP-dependent manner in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Until now, more than 45 kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) have been identified in the mouse and human genomes. Elucidating the transport pathways mediated by kinesins, the identities of the cargoes moved, and the nature of the proteins that link kinesin motors to cargoes are areas of intense investigation. This review focuses on the structure, the binding partners of kinesins and kinesin-based human diseases. PMID:14966333

  14. Thermal fluctuation statistics in a molecular motor described by a multidimensional master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, K. J.; Jack, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of thermal fluctuation statistics in a molecular motor. Energy transfer in the motor is described using a multidimensional discrete master equation with nearest-neighbor hopping. In this theory, energy transfer leads to statistical correlations between thermal fluctuations in different degrees of freedom. For long times, the energy transfer is a multivariate diffusion process with constant drift and diffusion. The fluctuations and drift align in the strong-coupling limit enabling a one-dimensional description along the coupled coordinate. We derive formal expressions for the probability distribution and simulate single trajectories of the system in the near- and far-from-equilibrium limits both for strong and weak coupling. Our results show that the hopping statistics provide an opportunity to distinguish different operating regimes.

  15. Quantification of the effects of molecular marker oxidation on source apportionment estimates for motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anirban A.; Wagstrom, Kristina M.; Adams, Peter J.; Pandis, Spyros N.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-06-01

    Molecular markers are individual organic compounds used in receptor models to apportion fine particulate matter to sources. These models currently assume that molecular markers are chemically stable; however, recent laboratory experiments suggest they may be significantly oxidized on atmospherically relevant time scales. To investigate the effects of photo-oxidation, we extended a 3-D chemical transport model (PMCAMx) to simulate norhopane concentrations over the eastern United States during July 2001. Norhopane is an important molecular marker for motor vehicle exhaust. We examined eight different simulation scenarios, using different combinations of reaction rates and source profiles. The simulations including norhopane oxidation better reproduced the observed spatial patterns of norhopane concentrations than the non-reactive cases. Chemical mass balance (CMB) analysis was performed using the PMCAMx-predicted motor vehicle norhopane and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations to quantify the bias caused by oxidation on source apportionment estimates. Norhopane oxidation caused CMB to underestimate total vehicle OC by 10-50%, with larger biases in rural areas. This underestimation was largely due to changes in the amount of OC apportioned to gasoline vehicles which was reduced by as much as 100%. The OC apportioned to diesel vehicle emissions was relatively insensitive to norhopane reaction. Therefore, oxidation can substantially alter CMB estimates regarding the relative importance of gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions.

  16. From lipid second messengers to molecular motors: microtubule-organizing center reorientation in T cells

    PubMed Central

    Huse, Morgan; Le Floc'h, Audrey; Liu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Summary In T lymphocytes, polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) to the immunological synapse enables the directional secretion of cytokines, cytolytic factors, and other soluble molecules toward the antigen-presenting cell. This is likely to be crucial for maintaining the specificity of T-cell effector responses. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of MTOC reorientation in T cells, focusing first on the importance of diacylglycerol and protein kinase C isozymes and then on the molecular motor proteins that function downstream to drive MTOC movement. PMID:24117815

  17. Molecular genetics of myosin motors in Arabidopsis. Final report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, J.

    1997-02-01

    The normal growth and development of plant cells depends on the precise organization and distribution of the cellular contents. The basic goal of this investigation was to define a group of the molecules that are involved in organizing and transporting plant cell components. Based largely on studies of animal and fungal cells, one of the molecules thought to be involved in intracellular trafficking in plants is the actin-based motor protein myosin. Therefore, the major aim of this study was to isolate and analyze plant genes encoding myosin proteins. The plant of choice for these experiments was Arabidopsis thaliana, which offers numerous advantages for molecular genetics research.

  18. Statistical analysis of the motility of nano-objects propelled by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Raquel C.; Bakewell, David; Nicolau, Dan

    2008-02-01

    Motility assays are the tools of choice for the studies regarding the motility of protein molecular motors in vitro. Despite their wide usage, some simple, but fundamental issues still need to be specifically addressed in order to achieve the best and the most meaningful motility analyses. Several tracking methods used for the study of motility have been compared. By running different statistical analyses, the impact of space versus time resolution was also studied. It has been found that for a space resolution of 80 nm and 145 nm per pixel for kinesin-microtubule and actomyosin assays, respectively, the best time resolution was ~0.9 and ~10 frame per second, respectively. A rough relationship - Ratio A and Ratio M - between space and time resolutions and velocity for actin filaments and microtubules, respectively, was found. The motility parameters such as velocity, acceleration and deflection angle were statistically analysed in frequency distribution and time domain graphs for both motors assays. One of the aims of these analyses was to study if one or two populations were present in either assay. Particularly for actomyosin assays, electric fields varying from 0 to ~10000 Vm -1 were applied and the previous parameters and the angle between filaments motion and the electric field vector were also statistically analysed. It was observed that this angle was reduced by ~55º with ~5900 Vm -1. The overall behaviour of the motors was discussed bearing in mind both present and previous results and some physio-biological characteristics. Kinesin-microtubule and actomyosin (simple and electric fields) assays were compared. Some new experiments are suggested in order to accomplish a better understanding of these motors and optimise their role in the applications that depend on them.

  19. Totally asymmetric simple exclusion process simulations of molecular motor transport on random networks with asymmetric exit rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, D. V.; Miedema, D. M.; Nienhuis, B.; Schall, P.

    2015-11-01

    Using the totally asymmetric simple-exclusion-process and mean-field transport theory, we investigate the transport in closed random networks with simple crossing topology—two incoming, two outgoing segments, as a model for molecular motor motion along biopolymer networks. Inspired by in vitro observation of molecular motor motion, we model the motor behavior at the intersections by introducing different exit rates for the two outgoing segments. Our simulations of this simple network reveal surprisingly rich behavior of the transport current with respect to the global density and exit rate ratio. For asymmetric exit rates, we find a broad current plateau at intermediate motor densities resulting from the competition of two subnetwork populations. This current plateau leads to stabilization of transport properties within such networks.

  20. Mouse Myosin-19 Is a Plus-end-directed, High-duty Ratio Molecular Motor*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zekuan; Ma, Xiao-Nan; Zhang, Hai-Man; Ji, Huan-Hong; Ding, Hao; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Dan; Sun, Yujie; Li, Xiang-dong

    2014-01-01

    Class XIX myosin (Myo19) is a vertebrate-specific unconventional myosin, responsible for the transport of mitochondria. To characterize biochemical properties of Myo19, we prepared recombinant mouse Myo19-truncated constructs containing the motor domain and the IQ motifs using the baculovirus/Sf9 expression system. We identified regulatory light chain (RLC) of smooth muscle/non-muscle myosin-2 as the light chain of Myo19. The actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding velocity of Myo19-truncated constructs were about one-third and one-sixth as those of myosin-5a, respectively. The apparent affinity of Myo19 to actin was about the same as that of myosin-5a. The RLCs bound to Myo19 could be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase, but this phosphorylation had little effect on the actin-activated ATPase activity and the actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Using dual fluorescence-labeled actin filaments, we determined that Myo19 is a plus-end-directed molecular motor. We found that, similar to that of the high-duty ratio myosin, such as myosin-5a, ADP release rate was comparable with the maximal actin-activated ATPase activity of Myo19, indicating that ADP release is a rate-limiting step for the ATPase cycle of acto-Myo19. ADP strongly inhibited the actin-activated ATPase activity and actin-gliding activity of Myo19-truncated constructs. Based on the above results, we concluded that Myo19 is a high-duty ratio molecular motor moving to the plus-end of the actin filament. PMID:24825904

  1. Molecular Motor Propelled Filaments Reveal Light-Guiding in Nanowire Arrays for Enhanced Biosensing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays offer significant potential for biosensing applications with optical read-out due to their high surface area and due to the unique optical properties of one-dimensional materials. A challenge for optical read-out of analyte-binding to the nanowires is the need to efficiently collect and detect light from a three-dimensional volume. Here we show that light from fluorophores attached along several μm long vertical Al2O3 coated gallium phosphide nanowires couples into the wires, is guided along them and emitted at the tip. This enables effective collection of light emitted by fluorescent analytes located at different focal planes along the nanowire. We unequivocally demonstrate the light-guiding effect using a novel method whereby the changes in emitted fluorescence intensity are observed when fluorescent cytoskeletal filaments are propelled by molecular motors along the wires. The findings are discussed in relation to nanobiosensor developments, other nanotechnological applications, and fundamental studies of motor function. PMID:24367994

  2. Elastic properties of dynein motor domain obtained from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Narutoshi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Takano, Yu; Kon, Takahide; Kurisu, Genji; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    Dyneins are large microtubule motor proteins that convert ATP energy to mechanical power. High-resolution crystal structures of ADP-bound cytoplasmic dynein have revealed the organization of the motor domain, comprising the AAA+ ring, the linker, the stalk/strut and the C sequence. Recently, the ADP.vanadate-bound structure, which is similar to the ATP hydrolysis transition state, revealed how the structure of dynein changes upon ATP binding. Although both the ADP- and ATP-bound state structures have been resolved, the dynamic properties at the atomic level remain unclear. In this work, we built two models named ‘the ADP model’ and ‘the ATP model’, where ADP and ATP are bound to AAA1 in the AAA+ ring, respectively, to observe the initial procedure of the structural change from the unprimed to the primed state. We performed 200-ns molecular dynamics simulations for both models and compared their structures and dynamics. The motions of the stalk, consisting of a long coiled coil with a microtubule-binding domain, significantly differed between the two models. The elastic properties of the stalk were analyzed and compared with the experimental results. PMID:27334455

  3. Elastic properties of dynein motor domain obtained from all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Narutoshi; Mashimo, Tadaaki; Takano, Yu; Kon, Takahide; Kurisu, Genji; Nakamura, Haruki

    2016-08-01

    Dyneins are large microtubule motor proteins that convert ATP energy to mechanical power. High-resolution crystal structures of ADP-bound cytoplasmic dynein have revealed the organization of the motor domain, comprising the AAA(+) ring, the linker, the stalk/strut and the C sequence. Recently, the ADP.vanadate-bound structure, which is similar to the ATP hydrolysis transition state, revealed how the structure of dynein changes upon ATP binding. Although both the ADP- and ATP-bound state structures have been resolved, the dynamic properties at the atomic level remain unclear. In this work, we built two models named 'the ADP model' and 'the ATP model', where ADP and ATP are bound to AAA1 in the AAA(+) ring, respectively, to observe the initial procedure of the structural change from the unprimed to the primed state. We performed 200-ns molecular dynamics simulations for both models and compared their structures and dynamics. The motions of the stalk, consisting of a long coiled coil with a microtubule-binding domain, significantly differed between the two models. The elastic properties of the stalk were analyzed and compared with the experimental results. PMID:27334455

  4. Reaction-diffusion-advection approach to spatially localized treadmilling aggregates of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yochelis, Arik; Bar-On, Tomer; Gov, Nir S.

    2016-04-01

    Unconventional myosins belong to a class of molecular motors that walk processively inside cellular protrusions towards the tips, on top of actin filament. Surprisingly, in addition, they also form retrograde moving self-organized aggregates. The qualitative properties of these aggregates are recapitulated by a mass conserving reaction-diffusion-advection model and admit two distinct families of modes: traveling waves and pulse trains. Unlike the traveling waves that are generated by a linear instability, pulses are nonlinear structures that propagate on top of linearly stable uniform backgrounds. Asymptotic analysis of isolated pulses via a simplified reaction-diffusion-advection variant on large periodic domains, allows to draw qualitative trends for pulse properties, such as the amplitude, width, and propagation speed. The results agree well with numerical integrations and are related to available empirical observations.

  5. Molecular motor KIF1C is not essential for mouse survival and motor-dependent retrograde Golgi apparatus-to-endoplasmic reticulum transport.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuo; Takei, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yosuke; Nakagawa, Terunaga; Nakata, Takao; Noda, Yasuko; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2002-02-01

    KIF1C is a new member of the kinesin superfamily of proteins (KIFs), which act as microtubule-based molecular motors involved in intracellular transport. We cloned full-length mouse kif1C cDNA, which turned out to have a high homology to a mitochondrial motor KIF1Balpha and to be expressed ubiquitously. To investigate the in vivo significance of KIF1C, we generated kif1C(-/-) mice by knocking in the beta-galactosidase gene into the motor domain of kif1C gene. On staining of LacZ, we detected its expression in the heart, liver, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Unexpectedly, kif1C(-/-) mice were viable and showed no obvious abnormalities. Because immunocytochemistry showed partial colocalization of KIF1C with the Golgi marker protein, we compared the organelle distribution in primary lung fibroblasts from kif1C(+/+) and kif1C(-/-) mice. We found that there was no significant difference in the distribution of the Golgi apparatus or in the transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) facilitated by brefeldin A between the two cells. This retrograde membrane transport was further confirmed to be normal by time-lapse analysis. Consequently, KIF1C is dispensable for the motor-dependent retrograde transport from the Golgi apparatus to the ER. PMID:11784862

  6. Specific Transformation of Assembly with Actin Filaments and Molecular Motors in a Cell-Sized Self-Emerged Liposome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiguchi, Kingo; Negishi, Makiko; Tanaka-Takiguchi, Yohko; Hayashi, Masahito; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2014-12-01

    Eukaryotes, by the same combination of cytoskeleton and molecular motor, for example actin filament and myosin, can generate a variety of movements. For this diversity, the organization of biological machineries caused by the confinement and/or crowding effects of internal living cells, may play very important roles.

  7. The Utilization of Sensori-motor Experiences for Introducing Young Pupils to Molecular Motion: A Report of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2002-01-01

    Does a sensori-motor experience help a physics student understand the movement of molecules in solids, liquids, and gases? Students aged 9-10 were given either traditional demonstrations of solids, liquids, and gases and the variation of molecular motion with temperature (iconic presentation), or they were involved in physical activities as they…

  8. The Molecular Basis of Frictional Loads in the In Vitro Motility Assay with Applications to the Study of the Loaded Mechanochemistry of Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael J.; Moore, Jeffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy into mechanical movement, generating forces necessary to accomplish an array of cellular functions. Since molecular motors generate force, they typically work under loaded conditions where the motor mechanochemistry is altered by the presence of a load. Several biophysical techniques have been developed to study the loaded behavior and force generating capabilities of molecular motors yet most of these techniques require specialized equipment. The frictional loading assay is a modification to the in vitro motility assay that can be performed on a standard epifluorescence microscope, permitting the high-throughput measurement of the loaded mechanochemistry of molecular motors. Here, we describe a model for the molecular basis of the frictional loading assay by modeling the load as a series of either elastic or viscoelastic elements. The model, which calculates the frictional loads imposed by different binding proteins, permits the measurement of isotonic kinetics, force-velocity relationships, and power curves in the motility assay. We show computationally and experimentally that the frictional load imposed by alpha-actinin, the most widely employed actin binding protein in frictional loading experiments, behaves as a viscoelastic rather than purely elastic load. As a test of the model, we examined the frictional loading behavior of rabbit skeletal muscle myosin under normal and fatigue-like conditions using alpha-actinin as a load. We found that, consistent with fiber studies, fatigue-like conditions cause reductions in myosin isometric force, unloaded sliding velocity, maximal power output, and shift the load at which peak power output occurs. PMID:20191566

  9. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Ryan M.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Pereira, Fred A.; Raphael, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- an C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity. PMID:21651892

  10. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Ryan M; Silberg, Jonathan J; Pereira, Fred A; Raphael, Robert M

    2011-06-24

    Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity. PMID:21651892

  11. Parallel computation with molecular-motor-propelled agents in nanofabricated networks

    PubMed Central

    Nicolau, Dan V.; Lard, Mercy; Korten, Till; van Delft, Falco C. M. J. M.; Persson, Malin; Bengtsson, Elina; Månsson, Alf; Diez, Stefan; Linke, Heiner; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2016-01-01

    The combinatorial nature of many important mathematical problems, including nondeterministic-polynomial-time (NP)-complete problems, places a severe limitation on the problem size that can be solved with conventional, sequentially operating electronic computers. There have been significant efforts in conceiving parallel-computation approaches in the past, for example: DNA computation, quantum computation, and microfluidics-based computation. However, these approaches have not proven, so far, to be scalable and practical from a fabrication and operational perspective. Here, we report the foundations of an alternative parallel-computation system in which a given combinatorial problem is encoded into a graphical, modular network that is embedded in a nanofabricated planar device. Exploring the network in a parallel fashion using a large number of independent, molecular-motor-propelled agents then solves the mathematical problem. This approach uses orders of magnitude less energy than conventional computers, thus addressing issues related to power consumption and heat dissipation. We provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of such a device by solving, in a parallel fashion, the small instance {2, 5, 9} of the subset sum problem, which is a benchmark NP-complete problem. Finally, we discuss the technical advances necessary to make our system scalable with presently available technology. PMID:26903637

  12. Parallel computation with molecular-motor-propelled agents in nanofabricated networks.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Dan V; Lard, Mercy; Korten, Till; van Delft, Falco C M J M; Persson, Malin; Bengtsson, Elina; Månsson, Alf; Diez, Stefan; Linke, Heiner; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-03-01

    The combinatorial nature of many important mathematical problems, including nondeterministic-polynomial-time (NP)-complete problems, places a severe limitation on the problem size that can be solved with conventional, sequentially operating electronic computers. There have been significant efforts in conceiving parallel-computation approaches in the past, for example: DNA computation, quantum computation, and microfluidics-based computation. However, these approaches have not proven, so far, to be scalable and practical from a fabrication and operational perspective. Here, we report the foundations of an alternative parallel-computation system in which a given combinatorial problem is encoded into a graphical, modular network that is embedded in a nanofabricated planar device. Exploring the network in a parallel fashion using a large number of independent, molecular-motor-propelled agents then solves the mathematical problem. This approach uses orders of magnitude less energy than conventional computers, thus addressing issues related to power consumption and heat dissipation. We provide a proof-of-concept demonstration of such a device by solving, in a parallel fashion, the small instance {2, 5, 9} of the subset sum problem, which is a benchmark NP-complete problem. Finally, we discuss the technical advances necessary to make our system scalable with presently available technology. PMID:26903637

  13. Physics of transport and traffic phenomena in biology: from molecular motors and cells to organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Schadschneider, Andreas; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2005-12-01

    Traffic-like collective movements are observed at almost all levels of biological systems. Molecular motor proteins like, for example, kinesin and dynein, which are the vehicles of almost all intra-cellular transport in eukaryotic cells, sometimes encounter traffic jam that manifests as a disease of the organism. Similarly, traffic jam of collagenase MMP-1, which moves on the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix of vertebrates, has also been observed in recent experiments. Novel efforts have been made to utilize some uni-cellular organisms as “micro-transporters”. Traffic-like movements of social insects like ants and termites on trails are, perhaps, more familiar in our everyday life. Experimental, theoretical and computational investigations in the last few years have led to a deeper understanding of the generic or common physical principles involved in these phenomena. In this review we critically examine the current status of our understanding, expose the limitations of the existing methods, mention open challenging questions and speculate on the possible future directions of research in this interdisciplinary area where physics meets not only chemistry and biology but also (nano-)technology.

  14. Covalent Immobilization of Microtubules on Glass Surfaces for Molecular Motor Force Measurements and Other Single-Molecule Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Rao, Lu; Gennerich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Rigid attachment of microtubules (MTs) to glass cover slip surfaces is a prerequisite for a variety of microscopy experiments in which MTs are used as substrates for MT-associated proteins, such as the molecular motors kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. We present an MT-surface coupling protocol in which aminosilanized glass is formylated using the cross-linker glutaraldehyde, fluorescence-labeled MTs are covalently attached, and the surface is passivated with highly pure beta-casein. The technique presented here yields rigid MT immobilization while simultaneously blocking the remaining glass surface against nonspecific binding by polystyrene optical trapping microspheres. This surface chemistry is straightforward and relatively cheap and uses a minimum of specialized equipment or hazardous reagents. These methods provide a foundation for a variety of optical tweezers experiments with MT-associated molecular motors and may also be useful in other assays requiring surface-immobilized proteins. PMID:24633798

  15. Synchronization of elastically coupled processive molecular motors and regulation of cargo transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Felix; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The collective work of motor proteins plays an important role in cellular transport processes. Since measuring intermotor coupling and hence a comparison to theoretical predictions is difficult, we introduce the synchronization as an alternative observable for motor cooperativity. This synchronization can be determined from the ratio of the mean times of motor resting and stepping. Results from a multistate Markov chain model and Brownian dynamics simulations, describing the elastically coupled motors, coincide well. Our model can explain the experimentally observed effect of strongly increased transport velocities and powers by the synchronization and coupling of myosin V and kinesin I.

  16. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Ryan M.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Pereira, Fred A.; Raphael, Robert M.

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Trafficking to the plasma membrane is required for prestin function. {yields} Biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) was fused to prestin through a transmembrane domain. {yields} BAP-prestin can be metabolically labeled with biotin in HEK293 cells. {yields} Biotin-BAP-prestin allows for selective imaging of fully trafficked prestin. {yields} The biotin-BAP-prestin displays voltage-sensitive activity. -- Abstract: Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity.

  17. The molecular motor F-ATP synthase is targeted by the tumoricidal protein HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Ho, James; Sielaff, Hendrik; Nadeem, Aftab; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard

    2015-05-22

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) interacts with multiple tumor cell compartments, affecting cell morphology, metabolism, proteasome function, chromatin structure and viability. This study investigated if these diverse effects of HAMLET might be caused, in part, by a direct effect on the ATP synthase and a resulting reduction in cellular ATP levels. A dose-dependent reduction in cellular ATP levels was detected in A549 lung carcinoma cells, and by confocal microscopy, co-localization of HAMLET with the nucleotide-binding subunits α (non-catalytic) and β (catalytic) of the energy converting F1F0 ATP synthase was detected. As shown by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, HAMLET binds to the F1 domain of the F1F0 ATP synthase with a dissociation constant (KD) of 20.5μM. Increasing concentrations of the tumoricidal protein HAMLET added to the enzymatically active α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase lowered its ATPase activity, demonstrating that HAMLET binding to the F-ATP synthase effects the catalysis of this molecular motor. Single-molecule analysis was applied to study HAMLET-α3β3γ complex interaction. Whereas the α3β3γ complex of the F-ATP synthase rotated in a counterclockwise direction with a mean rotational rate of 3.8±0.7s(-1), no rotation could be observed in the presence of bound HAMLET. Our findings suggest that direct effects of HAMLET on the F-ATP synthase may inhibit ATP-dependent cellular processes. PMID:25681694

  18. Kinetic modeling of molecular motors: pause model and parameter determination from single-molecule experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, José A.; Ibarra, Borja; Cao, Francisco J.

    2016-05-01

    Single-molecule manipulation experiments of molecular motors provide essential information about the rate and conformational changes of the steps of the reaction located along the manipulation coordinate. This information is not always sufficient to define a particular kinetic cycle. Recent single-molecule experiments with optical tweezers showed that the DNA unwinding activity of a Phi29 DNA polymerase mutant presents a complex pause behavior, which includes short and long pauses. Here we show that different kinetic models, considering different connections between the active and the pause states, can explain the experimental pause behavior. Both the two independent pause model and the two connected pause model are able to describe the pause behavior of a mutated Phi29 DNA polymerase observed in an optical tweezers single-molecule experiment. For the two independent pause model all parameters are fixed by the observed data, while for the more general two connected pause model there is a range of values of the parameters compatible with the observed data (which can be expressed in terms of two of the rates and their force dependencies). This general model includes models with indirect entry and exit to the long-pause state, and also models with cycling in both directions. Additionally, assuming that detailed balance is verified, which forbids cycling, this reduces the ranges of the values of the parameters (which can then be expressed in terms of one rate and its force dependency). The resulting model interpolates between the independent pause model and the indirect entry and exit to the long-pause state model

  19. Mechanical Operation and Intersubunit Coordination of Ring-Shaped Molecular Motors: Insights from Single-Molecule Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shixin; Chistol, Gheorghe; Bustamante, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Ring NTPases represent a large and diverse group of proteins that couple their nucleotide hydrolysis activity to a mechanical task involving force generation and some type of transport process in the cell. Because of their shape, these enzymes often operate as gates that separate distinct cellular compartments to control and regulate the passage of chemical species across them. In this manner, ions and small molecules are moved across membranes, biopolymer substrates are segregated between cells or moved into confined spaces, double-stranded nucleic acids are separated into single strands to provide access to the genetic information, and polypeptides are unfolded and processed for recycling. Here we review the recent advances in the characterization of these motors using single-molecule manipulation and detection approaches. We describe the various mechanisms by which ring motors convert chemical energy to mechanical force or torque and coordinate the activities of individual subunits that constitute the ring. We also examine how single-molecule studies have contributed to a better understanding of the structural elements involved in motor-substrate interaction, mechanochemical coupling, and intersubunit coordination. Finally, we discuss how these molecular motors tailor their operation—often through regulation by other cofactors—to suit their unique biological functions. PMID:24806916

  20. Towards a molecular understanding of the apicomplexan actin motor: on a road to novel targets for malaria remedies?

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpula, Esa-Pekka; Kursula, Inari

    2015-04-16

    In this review, current structural understanding of the apicomplexan glideosome and actin regulation is described. Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of notorious human and animal diseases that give rise to considerable human suffering and economic losses worldwide. The most prominent parasites of this phylum are the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, which are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, and Toxoplasma gondii, which infects one third of the world’s population. These parasites share a common form of gliding motility which relies on an actin–myosin motor. The components of this motor and the actin-regulatory proteins in Apicomplexa have unique features compared with all other eukaryotes. This, together with the crucial roles of these proteins, makes them attractive targets for structure-based drug design. In recent years, several structures of glideosome components, in particular of actins and actin regulators from apicomplexan parasites, have been determined, which will hopefully soon allow the creation of a complete molecular picture of the parasite actin–myosin motor and its regulatory machinery. Here, current knowledge of the function of this motor is reviewed from a structural perspective.

  1. Towards a molecular understanding of the apicomplexan actin motor: on a road to novel targets for malaria remedies?

    PubMed Central

    Kumpula, Esa-Pekka; Kursula, Inari

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of notorious human and animal diseases that give rise to considerable human suffering and economic losses worldwide. The most prominent parasites of this phylum are the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, which are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, and Toxoplasma gondii, which infects one third of the world’s population. These parasites share a common form of gliding motility which relies on an actin–myosin motor. The components of this motor and the actin-regulatory proteins in Apicomplexa have unique features compared with all other eukaryotes. This, together with the crucial roles of these proteins, makes them attractive targets for structure-based drug design. In recent years, several structures of glideosome components, in particular of actins and actin regulators from apicomplexan parasites, have been determined, which will hopefully soon allow the creation of a complete molecular picture of the parasite actin–myosin motor and its regulatory machinery. Here, current knowledge of the function of this motor is reviewed from a structural perspective. PMID:25945702

  2. The role of the cytoskeleton and molecular motors in endosomal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Granger, Elizabeth; McNee, Gavin; Allan, Victoria; Woodman, Philip

    2014-07-01

    The endocytic pathway is essential for processes that define how cells interact with their environment, including receptor signalling, cell adhesion and migration, pathogen entry, membrane protein turnover and nutrient uptake. The spatial organisation of endocytic trafficking requires motor proteins that tether membranes or transport them along the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Microtubules, actin filaments and motor proteins also provide force to deform and assist in the scission of membranes, thereby facilitating endosomal sorting and the generation of transport intermediates. PMID:24727350

  3. The role of the cytoskeleton and molecular motors in endosomal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Granger, Elizabeth; McNee, Gavin; Allan, Victoria; Woodman, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The endocytic pathway is essential for processes that define how cells interact with their environment, including receptor signalling, cell adhesion and migration, pathogen entry, membrane protein turnover and nutrient uptake. The spatial organisation of endocytic trafficking requires motor proteins that tether membranes or transport them along the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Microtubules, actin filaments and motor proteins also provide force to deform and assist in the scission of membranes, thereby facilitating endosomal sorting and the generation of transport intermediates. PMID:24727350

  4. Distal hereditary motor neuropathy with vocal cord paresis: from difficulty in choral singing to a molecular genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Gillian; Barwick, Katy E S; Hartley, Louise; McEntagart, Meriel; Crosby, Andrew H; Llewelyn, Gareth; Morris, Huw R

    2016-06-01

    Patients presenting with distal weakness can be a diagnostic challenge; the eventual diagnosis often depends upon accurate clinical phenotyping. We present a mother and daughter with a rare form of distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 7 in whom the diagnosis became apparent by initial difficulty in singing, from early vocal cord dysfunction. This rare neuropathy has now been identified in two apparently unrelated families in Wales. This family's clinical presentation is typical of distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 7, and they have the common truncating mutation in the SLC5A7 gene. Advances in genetic analysis of these rare conditions broaden our understanding of their potential molecular mechanisms and may allow more directed therapy. PMID:26786006

  5. On the possibility to accelerate the thermal isomerizations of overcrowded alkene-based rotary molecular motors with electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents.

    PubMed

    Oruganti, Baswanth; Durbeej, Bo

    2016-09-01

    We employ computational methods to investigate the possibility of using electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents to reduce the free-energy barriers of the thermal isomerizations that limit the rotational frequencies achievable by synthetic overcrowded alkene-based molecular motors. Choosing as reference systems one of the fastest motors known to date and two variants thereof, we consider six new motors obtained by introducing electron-donating methoxy and dimethylamino or electron-withdrawing nitro and cyano substituents in conjugation with the central olefinic bond connecting the two (stator and rotator) motor halves. Performing density functional theory calculations, we then show that electron-donating (but not electron-withdrawing) groups at the stator are able to reduce the already small barriers of the reference motors by up to 18 kJ mol(-1). This result outlines a possible strategy for improving the rotational frequencies of motors of this kind. Furthermore, exploring the origin of the catalytic effect, it is found that electron-donating groups exert a favorable steric influence on the thermal isomerizations, which is not manifested by electron-withdrawing groups. This finding suggests a new mechanism for controlling the critical steric interactions of these motors. Graphical Abstract The introduction of electron-donating groups in one of the fastest rotary molecular motors known to date is found to reduce the free-energy barriers of the thermal steps that limit the rotational frequencies by up to 18 kJ mol(-1). PMID:27553304

  6. Forced desorption of semiflexible polymers, adsorbed and driven by molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Debasish

    2016-02-21

    We formulate and characterize a model to describe the dynamics of semiflexible polymers in the presence of activity due to motor proteins attached irreversibly to a substrate, and a transverse pulling force acting on one end of the filament. The stochastic binding-unbinding of the motor proteins and their ability to move along the polymer generate active forces. As the pulling force reaches a threshold value, the polymer eventually desorbs from the substrate. Performing underdamped Langevin dynamics simulation of the polymer, and with stochastic motor activity, we obtain desorption phase diagrams. The correlation time for fluctuations in the desorbed fraction increases as one approaches complete desorption, captured quantitatively by a power law spectral density. We present theoretical analysis of the phase diagram using mean field approximations in the weakly bending limit of the polymer and performing linear stability analysis. This predicts an increase in the desorption force with the polymer bending rigidity, active velocity and processivity of the motor proteins to capture the main features of the simulation results. PMID:26750537

  7. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel molecular motor, Leishmania myosin-XXI.

    PubMed

    Batters, Christopher; Woodall, Katy A; Toseland, Christopher P; Hundschell, Christian; Veigel, Claudia

    2012-08-10

    The genome of the Leishmania parasite contains two classes of myosin. Myosin-XXI, seemingly the only myosin isoform expressed in the protozoan parasite, has been detected in both the promastigote and amastigote stages of the Leishmania life cycle. It has been suggested to perform a variety of functions, including roles in membrane anchorage, but also long-range directed movements of cargo. However, nothing is known about the biochemical or mechanical properties of this motor. Here we designed and expressed various myosin-XXI constructs using a baculovirus expression system. Both full-length (amino acids 1-1051) and minimal motor domain constructs (amino acids 1-800) featured actin-activated ATPase activity. Myosin-XXI was soluble when expressed either with or without calmodulin. In the presence of calcium (pCa 4.1) the full-length motor could bind a single calmodulin at its neck domain (probably amino acids 809-823). Calmodulin binding was required for motility but not for ATPase activity. Once bound, calmodulin remained stably attached independent of calcium concentration (pCa 3-7). In gliding filament assays, myosin-XXI moved actin filaments at ∼15 nm/s, insensitive to both salt (25-1000 mm KCl) and calcium concentrations (pCa 3-7). Calmodulin binding to the neck domain might be involved in regulating the motility of the myosin-XXI motor for its various cellular functions in the different stages of the Leishmania parasite life cycle. PMID:22718767

  8. Quasi-steady state reduction of molecular motor-based models of directed intermittent search.

    PubMed

    Newby, Jay M; Bressloff, Paul C

    2010-10-01

    We present a quasi-steady state reduction of a linear reaction-hyperbolic master equation describing the directed intermittent search for a hidden target by a motor-driven particle moving on a one-dimensional filament track. The particle is injected at one end of the track and randomly switches between stationary search phases and mobile nonsearch phases that are biased in the anterograde direction. There is a finite possibility that the particle fails to find the target due to an absorbing boundary at the other end of the track. Such a scenario is exemplified by the motor-driven transport of vesicular cargo to synaptic targets located on the axon or dendrites of a neuron. The reduced model is described by a scalar Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, which has an additional inhomogeneous decay term that takes into account absorption by the target. The FP equation is used to compute the probability of finding the hidden target (hitting probability) and the corresponding conditional mean first passage time (MFPT) in terms of the effective drift velocity V, diffusivity D, and target absorption rate λ of the random search. The quasi-steady state reduction determines V, D, and λ in terms of the various biophysical parameters of the underlying motor transport model. We first apply our analysis to a simple 3-state model and show that our quasi-steady state reduction yields results that are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the full system under physiologically reasonable conditions. We then consider a more complex multiple motor model of bidirectional transport, in which opposing motors compete in a "tug-of-war", and use this to explore how ATP concentration might regulate the delivery of cargo to synaptic targets. PMID:20169417

  9. Torque, chemistry and efficiency in molecular motors: a study of the rotary-chemical coupling in F1-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shayantani; Bora, Ram Prasad; Warshel, Arieh

    2015-11-01

    Detailed understanding of the action of biological molecular machines must overcome the challenge of gaining a clear knowledge of the corresponding free-energy landscape. An example for this is the elucidation of the nature of converting chemical energy to torque and work in the rotary molecular motor of F1-ATPase. A major part of the challenge involves understanding the rotary-chemical coupling from a non-phenomenological structure/energy description. Here we focused on using a coarse-grained model of F1-ATPase to generate a structure-based free-energy landscape of the rotary-chemical process of the whole system. In particular, we concentrated on exploring the possible impact of the position of the catalytic dwell on the efficiency and torque generation of the molecular machine. It was found that the experimentally observed torque can be reproduced with landscapes that have different positions for the catalytic dwell on the rotary-chemical surface. Thus, although the catalysis is undeniably required for torque generation, the experimentally observed position of the catalytic dwell at 80° might not have a clear advantage for the force generation by F1-ATPase. This further implies that the rotary-chemical couplings in these biological motors are quite robust and their efficiencies do not depend explicitly on the position of the catalytic dwells. Rather, the specific positioning of the dwells with respect to the rotational angle is a characteristic arising due to the structural construct of the molecular machine and might not bear any clear connection to the thermodynamic efficiency for the system. PMID:26537397

  10. Testing a structural model for viral DNA packaging motor function by optical tweezers measurements, site directed mutagenesis, and molecular dynamics calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Nicholas A.; Migliori, Amy D.; Arya, Gaurav; Rao, Venigalla B.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2013-09-01

    Many double-stranded DNA viruses employ a molecular motor to package DNA into preformed capsid shells. Based on structures of phage T4 motor proteins determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, Rao, Rossmann and coworkers recently proposed a structural model for motor function. They proposed that DNA is ratcheted by a large conformational change driven by electrostatic interactions between charged residues at an interface between two globular domains of the motor protein. We have conducted experiments to test this model by studying the effect on packaging under applied load of site-directed changes altering these residues. We observe significant impairment of packaging activity including reductions in packaging rate, percent time packaging, and time active under high load. We show that these measured impairments correlate well with alterations in free energies associated with the conformational change predicted by molecular dynamics simulations.

  11. Coupling mechanical forces to electrical signaling: molecular motors and the intracellular transport of ion channels.

    PubMed

    Barry, Joshua; Gu, Chen

    2013-04-01

    Proper localization of various ion channels is fundamental to neuronal functions, including postsynaptic potential plasticity, dendritic integration, action potential initiation and propagation, and neurotransmitter release. Microtubule-based forward transport mediated by kinesin motors plays a key role in placing ion channel proteins to correct subcellular compartments. PDZ- and coiled-coil-domain proteins function as adaptor proteins linking ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors to various kinesin motors, respectively. Recent studies show that several voltage-gated ion channel/transporter proteins directly bind to kinesins during forward transport. Three major regulatory mechanisms underlying intracellular transport of ion channels are also revealed. These studies contribute to understanding how mechanical forces are coupled to electrical signaling and illuminating pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22910031

  12. Molecular classification of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by unsupervised clustering of gene expression in motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Aronica, Eleonora; Baas, Frank; Iyer, Anand; ten Asbroek, Anneloor L M A; Morello, Giovanna; Cavallaro, Sebastiano

    2015-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease, caused by the loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Although 10% of ALS cases are familial (FALS), the majority are sporadic (SALS) and probably associated to a multifactorial etiology. Currently there is no cure or prevention for ALS. A prerequisite to formulating therapeutic strategies is gaining understanding of its etio-pathogenic mechanisms. In this study we analyzed whole-genome expression profiles of 41 motor cortex samples of control (10) and sporadic ALS (31) patients. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was able to separate control from SALS patients. In addition, SALS patients were subdivided in two different groups that were associated to different deregulated pathways and genes, some of which were previously associated to familiar ALS. These experiments are the first to highlight the genomic heterogeneity of sporadic ALS and reveal new clues to its pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25500340

  13. Coupling Mechanical Forces to Electrical Signaling: Molecular Motors and the Intracellular Transport of Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Joshua; Gu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Proper localization of various ion channels is fundamental to neuronal functions, including postsynaptic potential plasticity, dendritic integration, action potential initiation and propagation, and neurotransmitter release. Microtubule-based forward transport mediated by kinesin motors plays a key role in placing ion channel proteins to correct subcellular compartments. PDZ- and coiled-coil-domain proteins function as adaptor proteins linking ionotropic glutamate and GABA receptors to various kinesin motors, respectively. Recent studies show that several voltage-gated ion channel/transporter proteins directly bind to kinesins during forward transport. Three major regulatory mechanisms underlying intracellular transport of ion channels are also revealed. These studies contribute to understanding how mechanical forces are coupled to electrical signaling and illuminating pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22910031

  14. Nanofabrication and Detection of Molecular Shuttles powered by Kinesin Motor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Daniel; Domyoung, Kim; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Teizer, Winfried

    2011-03-01

    The intracellular cargo delivery performed by kinesin motor proteins can be biomimetically employed to engineer tailor-made artificial nanotransport systems. Kinesin (expressed on an Escherichia coli system) and microtubules (obtained from the polymerization of tubulin proteins) were prepared and characterized. We report recent results and explore the aim of the construction of Nanoelectromechanical Systems and their potential applications, e.g. as drug delivery systems. This work was supported by the WPI Program.

  15. Ensemble velocity of non-processive molecular motors with multiple chemical states

    PubMed Central

    Vilfan, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    We study the ensemble velocity of non-processive motor proteins, described with multiple chemical states. In particular, we discuss the velocity as a function of ATP concentration. Even a simple model which neglects the strain dependence of transition rates, reverse transition rates and nonlinearities in the elasticity can show interesting functional dependencies, which deviate significantly from the frequently assumed Michaelis–Menten form. We discuss how the order of events in the duty cycle can be inferred from the measured dependence. The model also predicts the possibility of velocity reversal at a certain ATP concentration if the duty cycle contains several conformational changes of opposite directionalities. PMID:25485083

  16. Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry based Molecular Histology of Human Spinal Cord Tissue and Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hanrieder, Jörg; Malmberg, Per; Lindberg, Olle R.; Fletcher, John S.; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry is a powerful method for imaging biological samples with high spatial resolution. Whole section ToF SIMS scans and multivariate data analysis have been performed on human spinal cord in order to delineate anatomical regions of interest based on their chemical distribution pattern. ToF SIMS analysis of thoracic spinal cord sections was performed at 5µm resolution within 2 hours. Multivariate image analysis by means of principal component analysis and maximum auto correlation factor analysis resulted in detection of more than 400 m/z peaks that were found to be significantly changed. Here, the results show characteristic biochemical distributions that are well in line with major histological regions, including grey and white matter. As an approach for iterative segmentation, we further evaluated previously outlined regions of interest as identified by multivariate image analysis. Here, further discrimination of the grey matter into ventral, lateral and dorsal neuroanatomical regions was observed. TOF SIMS imaging has been carried out at submicron resolution obtaining localization and characterization of spinal motor neurons based on their chemical fingerprint, including neurotransmitter precursors that serve as molecular indicators for motor neuron integrity. Thus, TOF SIMS can be used as an approach for chemical histology and pathology. SIMS holds immense potential for investigating the subcellular mechanisms underlying spinal cord related diseases including chronic pain and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23947367

  17. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies: Understanding molecular pathogenesis could lead to future treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Jerath, Nivedita U; Shy, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Inherited peripheral neuropathies, like many other degenerative disorders, have been challenging to treat. At this point, there is little specific therapy for the inherited neuropathies other than genetic counseling as well as symptomatic treatment and rehabilitation. In the past, ascorbic acid, progesterone antagonists, and subcutaneous neurotrophin-3 (NT3) injections have demonstrated improvement in animal models of CMT 1A, the most common inherited neuropathy, but have failed to translate any effect in humans. Given the difficulty in treatment, it is important to understand the molecular pathogenesis of hereditary neuropathies in order to strategize potential future therapies. The hereditary neuropathies are in an era of molecular insight and over the past 20 years, more than 78 subtypes of Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) have been identified and extensively studied to understand the biological pathways in greater detail. Next generation molecular sequencing has also improved the diagnosis as well as the understanding of CMT. A greater understanding of the molecular pathways will help pave the way to future therapeutics of CMT. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. PMID:25108281

  18. Length regulation of microtubules by molecular motors: exact solution and density profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Chikashi; Lück, Alexander; Santen, Ludger

    2015-06-01

    In this work we study a microtubule (MT) model, whose length is regulated by the action of processive kinesin motors. We treat the case of infinite processivity, i.e. particle exchange in the bulk is neglected. The exact results can be obtained for model parameters which correspond to a finite length of the MT. In contrast to the model with particle exchange we find that the lengths of the MT are exponentially distributed in this parameter regime. The remaining parameter space of the model, which corresponds to diverging MT lengths, is analyzed by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and a macroscopic approach. For divergent MTs we find a complex structure of the phase diagram in terms of shapes of the density profile.

  19. Visible-Light-Driven Photoisomerization and Increased Rotation Speed of a Molecular Motor Acting as a Ligand in a Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Wezenberg, Sander J; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-09-21

    Toward the development of visible-light-driven molecular rotary motors, an overcrowded alkene-based ligand and the corresponding ruthenium(II) complex is presented. In our design, a 4,5-diazafluorenyl coordination motif is directly integrated into the motor function. The photochemical and thermal isomerization behavior has been studied by UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopy. Upon coordination to a Ru(II) bipyridine complex, the photoisomerization process can be driven by visible (λmax = 450 nm) instead of UV light and furthermore, a large increase of the speed of rotation is noted. DFT calculations point to a contraction of the diazafluorenyl lower half upon metal-coordination resulting in reduced steric hindrance in the "fjord region" of the molecule. Consequently, it is shown that metal-ligand interactions can play an important role in the adjustment of both photophysical and thermodynamic properties of molecular motors. PMID:26271465

  20. From Computational Photobiology to the Design of Vibrationally Coherent Molecular Devices and Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivucci, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    In the past multi-configurational quantum chemical computations coupled with molecular mechanics force fields have been employed to investigate spectroscopic, thermal and photochemical properties of visual pigments. Here we show how the same computational technology can nowadays be used to design, characterize and ultimately, prepare light-driven molecular switches which mimics the photophysics of the visual pigment bovine rhodopsin (Rh). When embedded in the protein cavity the chromophore of Rh undergoes an ultrafast and coherent photoisomerization. In order to design a synthetic chromophore displaying similar properties in common solvents, we recently focused on indanylidene-pyrroline (NAIP) systems. We found that these systems display light-induced ground state coherent vibrational motion similar to the one detected in Rh. Semi-classical trajectories provide a mechanistic description of the structural changes associated to the observed coherent motion which is shown to be ultimately due to periodic changes in the π-conjugation.

  1. Molecular genetics of myosin motors in Arabidopsis. Progress report, [July 1, 1992--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    We have evidence for at least nine myosin-like genes in Arbidopsis, six of which have been cloned by a PCR-based method from genomic DNA, two have been isolated by genomic DNA cloning, and four have been identified by cDNA cloning. Most of our attention has been focused on the four myosin genes for which we have cDNA clones, and these cDNAs have now been sequenced to completion. Each of these myosins is similar in overall structure, with each containing the characteristic myosin head (motor) domain, which possesses ATP- and actin-binding motifs, a series of IQ repeats, which may be involved in calmodulin binding, a domain with a high probability of forming an alpha-helical coiled-coil secondary structure, which may allow the polypeptides to form dimers, and a variable tail domain, which may serve to define the specific cellular component that each myosin interacts with. One of these myosin genes, called MYA1, displays structural similarity to class of myosins that includes the yeast MYO2, mouse Dilute, and chicken p190 proteins, and this group of myosins is thought to play a role in intracellular trafficking of organelles. Because MYA1 is similar to this interesting class of myosins, we have chosen to conduct detailed studies of MYA1.

  2. Myosin Vc Is a Molecular Motor That Functions in Secretory Granule Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Damon T.; Weigert, Roberto; Grode, Kyle D.; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2009-01-01

    Class V myosins are actin-based motor proteins that have critical functions in organelle trafficking. Of the three class V myosins expressed in mammals, relatively little is known about Myo5c except that it is abundant in exocrine tissues. Here we use MCF-7 cells to identify the organelles that Myo5c associates with, image the dynamics of Myo5c in living cells, and test the functions of Myo5c. Endogenous Myo5c localizes to two distinct compartments: small puncta and slender tubules. Myo5c often exhibits a highly polarized distribution toward the leading edge in migrating cells and is clearly distinct from the Myo5a or Myo5b compartments. Imaging with GFP-Myo5c reveals that Myo5c puncta move slowly (∼30 nm/s) and microtubule independently, whereas tubules move rapidly (∼440 nm/s) and microtubule dependently. Myo5c puncta colocalize with secretory granule markers such as chromogranin A and Rab27b, whereas Myo5c tubules are labeled by Rab8a. TIRF imaging indicates that the granules can be triggered to undergo secretion. To test if Myo5c functions in granule trafficking, we used the Myo5c tail as a dominant negative and found that it dramatically perturbs the distribution of granule markers. These results provide the first live-cell imaging of Myo5c and indicate that Myo5c functions in secretory granule trafficking. PMID:19741097

  3. Engineering of a novel Ca{sup 2+}-regulated kinesin molecular motor using a calmodulin dimer linker

    SciTech Connect

    Shishido, Hideki; Maruta, Shinsaku

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engineered kinesin-M13 and calmodulin involving single cysteine were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaM mutant was cross-linked to dimer by bifunctional thiol reactive reagent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinesin-M13 was dimerized via CaM dimer in the presence of calcium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Function of the engineered kinesin was regulated by a Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin dimer linker. -- Abstract: The kinesin-microtubule system holds great promise as a molecular shuttle device within biochips. However, one current barrier is that such shuttles do not have 'on-off' control of their movement. Here we report the development of a novel molecular motor powered by an accelerator and brake system, using a kinesin monomer and a calmodulin (CaM) dimer. The kinesin monomer, K355, was fused with a CaM target peptide (M13 peptide) at the C-terminal part of the neck region (K355-M13). We also prepared CaM dimers using CaM mutants (Q3C), (R86C), or (A147C) and crosslinkers that react with cysteine residues. Following induction of K355-M13 dimerization with CaM dimers, we measured K355-M13 motility and found that it can be reversibly regulated in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner. We also found that velocities of K355-M13 varied depending on the type and crosslink position of the CaM dimer used; crosslink length also had a moderate effect on motility. These results suggest Ca{sup 2+}-dependent dimerization of K355-M13 could be used as a novel molecular shuttle, equipped with an accelerator and brake system, for biochip applications.

  4. Molecular Mapping of Movement-Associated Areas in the Avian Brain: A Motor Theory for Vocal Learning Origin

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Liedvogel, Miriam; Rivas, Miriam; Zapka, Manuela; Horita, Haruhito; Hara, Erina; Wada, Kazuhiro; Mouritsen, Henrik; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2008-01-01

    Vocal learning is a critical behavioral substrate for spoken human language. It is a rare trait found in three distantly related groups of birds-songbirds, hummingbirds, and parrots. These avian groups have remarkably similar systems of cerebral vocal nuclei for the control of learned vocalizations that are not found in their more closely related vocal non-learning relatives. These findings led to the hypothesis that brain pathways for vocal learning in different groups evolved independently from a common ancestor but under pre-existing constraints. Here, we suggest one constraint, a pre-existing system for movement control. Using behavioral molecular mapping, we discovered that in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds, all cerebral vocal learning nuclei are adjacent to discrete brain areas active during limb and body movements. Similar to the relationships between vocal nuclei activation and singing, activation in the adjacent areas correlated with the amount of movement performed and was independent of auditory and visual input. These same movement-associated brain areas were also present in female songbirds that do not learn vocalizations and have atrophied cerebral vocal nuclei, and in ring doves that are vocal non-learners and do not have cerebral vocal nuclei. A compilation of previous neural tracing experiments in songbirds suggests that the movement-associated areas are connected in a network that is in parallel with the adjacent vocal learning system. This study is the first global mapping that we are aware for movement-associated areas of the avian cerebrum and it indicates that brain systems that control vocal learning in distantly related birds are directly adjacent to brain systems involved in movement control. Based upon these findings, we propose a motor theory for the origin of vocal learning, this being that the brain areas specialized for vocal learning in vocal learners evolved as a specialization of a pre-existing motor pathway that controls

  5. Motor phenotypes and molecular networks associated with germline deficiency of Ciz1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianfeng; Vemula, Satya R; Xue, Yi; Khan, Mohammad M; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Marquez-Lona, Esther M; Cobb, Madison R; LeDoux, Mark S

    2016-09-01

    A missense mutation in CIZ1 (c.790A>G, p.S264G) was linked to autosomal dominant cervical dystonia in a large multiplex Caucasian pedigree (OMIM614860, DYT23). CIZ1 is a p21((Cip1/Waf1)) -interacting zinc finger protein, widely expressed in neural and extra-neural tissues, and plays a role in DNA synthesis at the G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint. The role of CIZ1 in the nervous system and relative contributions of gain- or loss- of function to the pathogenesis of CIZ1-associated dystonia remain indefinite. Using relative quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, cerebellum showed the highest expression levels of Ciz1 in adult mouse brain, over two fold higher than liver, and higher than striatum, midbrain and cerebral cortex. Overall, neural expression of Ciz1 increased with postnatal age. A Ciz1 gene-trap knock-out (KO) mouse model (Ciz1(-/-)) was generated to examine the functional role(s) of CIZ1 in the sensorimotor nervous system and contributions of CIZ1 to cell-cycle control in the mammalian brain. Ciz1 transcripts were absent in Ciz1(-/-) mice and reduced by approximately 50% in Ciz1(+/-) mice. Ciz1(-/-) mice were fertile but smaller than wild-type (WT) littermates. Ciz1(-/-) mice did not manifest dystonia, but exhibited mild motoric abnormalities on balance, open-field activity, and gait. To determine the effects of germline KO of Ciz1 on whole-genome gene expression in adult brain, total RNA from mouse cerebellum was harvested from 6 10-month old Ciz1(-/-) mice and 6 age- and gender- matched WT littermates for whole-genome gene expression analysis. Based on whole-genome gene-expression analyses, genes involved in cellular movement, cell development, cellular growth, cellular morphology and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction were up-regulated in Ciz1(-/-) mice. The top up-regulated pathways were metabolic and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions. Down-regulated genes were involved in cell cycle, cellular development, cell death and survival, gene expression

  6. M(o)TOR of aging: MTOR as a universal molecular hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-07-01

    A recent ground-breaking publication described hypothalamus-driven programmatic aging. As a Russian proverb goes "everything new is well-forgotten old". In 1958, Dilman proposed that aging and its related diseases are programmed by the hypothalamus. This theory, supported by beautiful experiments, remained unnoticed just to be re-discovered recently. Yet, it does not explain all manifestations of aging. And would organism age without hypothalamus? Do sensing pathways such as MTOR (mechanistic Target of Rapamycin) and IKK-beta play a role of a "molecular hypothalamus" in every cell? Are hypothalamus-driven alterations simply a part of quasi-programmed aging manifested by hyperfunction and secondary signal-resistance? Here are some answers. PMID:23872658

  7. Electromagnetic probes of molecular motors in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and chloroplasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. H., Jr.; Nawarathna, D.; Vajrala, V.; Gardner, J.; Widger, W. R.

    2005-12-01

    We report on measurements of harmonics generated by whole cells, mitochondria, and chloroplasts in response to applied sinusoidal electric fields. The frequency- and amplitude-dependence of the induced harmonics exhibit features that correlate with physiological processes. Budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) cells produce numerous harmonics, the amplitudes of which depend strongly on frequency. When the second or third harmonic amplitude is plotted vs. applied frequency, we observe two peaks, around 3 kHz and 12 kHz, which are suppressed by respiratory inhibitors. We observe similar peaks when measuring the harmonic response of B. indicas, a relative of the mitochondrial ancestor. In uncoupled mitochondria, in which most of the electron transport chain is active but the ATP-synthase molecular turbine is inactive, only one (lower frequency) of the two peaks is present. Finally, we find that harmonics generated by chloroplasts depend dramatically on incident light, and vanish in the absence of light.

  8. Taking a molecular motor for a spin: helicase mechanism studied by spin labeling and PELDOR.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Schiemann, Olav; Naismith, James H; White, Malcolm F

    2016-01-29

    The complex molecular motions central to the functions of helicases have long attracted attention. Protein crystallography has provided transformative insights into these dynamic conformational changes, however important questions about the true nature of helicase configurations during the catalytic cycle remain. Using pulsed EPR (PELDOR or DEER) to measure interdomain distances in solution, we have examined two representative helicases: PcrA from superfamily 1 and XPD from superfamily 2. The data show that PcrA is a dynamic structure with domain movements that correlate with particular functional states, confirming and extending the information gleaned from crystal structures and other techniques. XPD in contrast is shown to be a rigid protein with almost no conformational changes resulting from nucleotide or DNA binding, which is well described by static crystal structures. Our results highlight the complimentary nature of PELDOR to crystallography and the power of its precision in understanding the conformational changes relevant to helicase function. PMID:26657627

  9. Taking a molecular motor for a spin: helicase mechanism studied by spin labeling and PELDOR

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Schiemann, Olav; Naismith, James H.; White, Malcolm F.

    2016-01-01

    The complex molecular motions central to the functions of helicases have long attracted attention. Protein crystallography has provided transformative insights into these dynamic conformational changes, however important questions about the true nature of helicase configurations during the catalytic cycle remain. Using pulsed EPR (PELDOR or DEER) to measure interdomain distances in solution, we have examined two representative helicases: PcrA from superfamily 1 and XPD from superfamily 2. The data show that PcrA is a dynamic structure with domain movements that correlate with particular functional states, confirming and extending the information gleaned from crystal structures and other techniques. XPD in contrast is shown to be a rigid protein with almost no conformational changes resulting from nucleotide or DNA binding, which is well described by static crystal structures. Our results highlight the complimentary nature of PELDOR to crystallography and the power of its precision in understanding the conformational changes relevant to helicase function. PMID:26657627

  10. Elasticity of a semiflexible filament with a discontinuous tension due to a cross-link or a molecular motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the stretching elasticity of a wormlike chain with a tension discontinuity resulting from a Hookean spring connecting its backbone to a fixed point. The elasticity of isolated semiflexible filaments has been the subject in a significant body of literature, primarily because of its relevance to the mechanics of biological matter. In real systems, however, these filaments are usually part of supramolecular structures involving cross-linkers or molecular motors, which cause tension discontinuities. Our model is intended as a minimal structural element incorporating such a discontinuity. We obtain analytical results in the weakly bending limit of the filament, concerning its force-extension relation and the response of the two parts in which the filament is divided by the spring. For a small tension discontinuity, the linear response of the filament extension to this discontinuity strongly depends on the external tension. For large external tension f , the spring force contributes a subdominant correction ˜1 /f3 /2 to the well-known ˜1 /√{f } -dependence of the end-to-end extension.

  11. Nonlinear electromagnetic responses of active molecular motors in live cells and organelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawarathna, Dharmakirthi; Gardner, Jeffrey; Cardenas, Gustavo; Warmflash, David; Miller, John; Widger, William; Claycomb, James

    2006-03-01

    The response of biological cells to an oscillatory electric field contains both linear and nonlinear (eg. induced harmonic) components. At low frequencies (about 10Hz), harmonic generation by budding yeast cells is observed. These induced harmonics are sensitive to sodium metavanadate, an inhibitor, and glucose, a substrate, respectively, of P-type ATPase membrane pumps. At higher frequencies, two peaks, around 3kHz and 12kHz, are observed in the frequency-dependent harmonic responses. These are sensitive to potassium cyanide, a respiratory inhibitor that blocks cytochrome c oxidase, an enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We have also measured the response of uncoupled mitochondria extracted from bovine heart cells, for which a second harmonic sensitive to pericidin A and carboxin is detected at applied frequencies of 3-4kHz. Finally, in coupled mouse mitochondria, an ADP sensitive peak (12-15kHz) is observed, likely due to the F0 domain of ATP synthase, which acts as a molecular turbine.

  12. fMRI as a molecular imaging procedure for the functional reorganization of motor systems in chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    LAZARIDOU, ASIMINA; ASTRAKAS, LOUKAS; MINTZOPOULOS, DIONYSSIOS; KHANCHICEH, AZADEH; SINGHAL, ANEESH; MOSKOWITZ, MICHAEL; ROSEN, BRUCE; TZIKA, ARIA

    2013-01-01

    Previous brain imaging studies suggest that stroke alters functional connectivity in motor execution networks. Moreover, current understanding of brain plasticity has led to new approaches in stroke rehabilitation. Recent studies showed a significant role of effective coupling of neuronal activity in the SMA (supplementary motor area) and M1 (primary motor cortex) network for motor outcome in patients after stroke. After a subcortical stroke, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during movement reveals cortical reorganization that is associated with the recovery of function. The aim of the present study was to explore connectivity alterations within the motor-related areas combining motor fMRI with a novel MR-compatible hand-induced robotic device (MR_CHIROD) training. Patients completed training at home and underwent serial MR evaluation at baseline and after 8 weeks of training. Training at home consisted of squeezing a gel exercise ball with the paretic hand at ~75% of maximum strength for 1 h/day, 3 days/week. The fMRI analysis revealed alterations in M1, SMA, PMC (premotor cortex) and Cer (cerebellum) in both stroke patients and healthy controls after the training. Findings of the present study suggest that enhancement of SMA activity could benefit M1 dysfunction in stroke survivors. These results also indicate that connectivity alterations between motor areas might assist the counterbalance of a functionally abnormal M1 in chronic stroke survivors and possibly other patients with motor dysfunction. PMID:23900349

  13. Molecular motor efficiency is maximized in the presence of both power-stroke and rectification through feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, R. K.; Parrondo, J. M. R.; Linke, H.; Johansson, J.

    2015-06-01

    We present a model for a feedback-controlled ratchet consisting of a Brownian particle and a moving, finite barrier that is shifted by an external agent depending on the position of the particle. By modifying the value of a single parameter of the feedback protocol, the model can act either as a pure rectifier, a power-stroke (PS) motor, or a combination of both. Interestingly, in certain situations the motor reaches a maximum efficiency for an intermediate value of that parameter, i.e., for a combination of the information ratchet and the PS mechanisms. We relate our results to the biological motors kinesin, myosin II, and myosin V, finding that these motors operate in a regime of length scales and forces where the efficiency is maximized for a combination of rectification and PS mechanisms.

  14. Controlled Directional Motions of Molecular Vehicles, Rotors, and Motors: From Metallic to Silicon Surfaces, a Strategy to Operate at Higher Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Chérioux, Frédéric; Galangau, Olivier; Palmino, Frank; Rapenne, Gwénaël

    2016-06-17

    In the last decade, many nanomachines with controlled molecular motions have been studied, mainly on metallic surfaces, which are easy to obtain very clean, and are stable over months. However, the studies of mechanical properties of nanomachines are mainly performed at very low temperatures, usually between 5 and 80 K, which prevents any kind of applications. In this Minireview, we will present our strategy to operate at higher temperatures, in particular through the use of semiconducting silicon surfaces. We also review our best achievements in the field through some examples of rotating molecular machines that have been designed, synthesized, and studied in our groups. On metallic surfaces, the nanovehicles are molecules with two or four triptycenes as wheels and the molecular motor is built around a ruthenium organometallic center with a piano-stool geometry and peripheric ferrocenyl groups. On semiconducting silicon surfaces, vehicles are also made from triptycene fragments and the rotor is a pentaphenylbenzene molecule. PMID:26604073

  15. Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

    2014-12-01

    The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca²⁺/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean

  16. Elements in nucleotide sensing and hydrolysis of the AAA+ disaggregation machine ClpB: a structure-based mechanistic dissection of a molecular motor

    SciTech Connect

    Zeymer, Cathleen Barends, Thomas R. M.; Werbeck, Nicolas D.; Schlichting, Ilme; Reinstein, Jochen

    2014-02-01

    High-resolution crystal structures together with mutational analysis and transient kinetics experiments were utilized to understand nucleotide sensing and the regulation of the ATPase cycle in an AAA+ molecular motor. ATPases of the AAA+ superfamily are large oligomeric molecular machines that remodel their substrates by converting the energy from ATP hydrolysis into mechanical force. This study focuses on the molecular chaperone ClpB, the bacterial homologue of Hsp104, which reactivates aggregated proteins under cellular stress conditions. Based on high-resolution crystal structures in different nucleotide states, mutational analysis and nucleotide-binding kinetics experiments, the ATPase cycle of the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2), one of the motor subunits of this AAA+ disaggregation machine, is dissected mechanistically. The results provide insights into nucleotide sensing, explaining how the conserved sensor 2 motif contributes to the discrimination between ADP and ATP binding. Furthermore, the role of a conserved active-site arginine (Arg621), which controls binding of the essential Mg{sup 2+} ion, is described. Finally, a hypothesis is presented as to how the ATPase activity is regulated by a conformational switch that involves the essential Walker A lysine. In the proposed model, an unusual side-chain conformation of this highly conserved residue stabilizes a catalytically inactive state, thereby avoiding unnecessary ATP hydrolysis.

  17. Low molecular weight species of TDP-43 generated by abnormal splicing form inclusions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and result in motor neuron death.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shangxi; Sanelli, Teresa; Chiang, Helen; Sun, Yulong; Chakrabartty, Avijit; Keith, Julia; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Zinman, Lorne; Robertson, Janice

    2015-07-01

    The presence of lower molecular weight species comprising the C-terminal region of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a characteristic of TDP-43 proteinopathy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Here, we have identified a novel splice variant of TDP-43 that is upregulated in ALS and generates a 35-kDa N-terminally truncated species through use of an alternate translation initiation codon (ATG(Met85)), denoted here as Met(85)-TDP-35. Met(85)-TDP-35 expressed ectopically in human neuroblastoma cells exhibited reduced solubility, cytoplasmic distribution, and aggregation. Furthermore, Met(85)-TDP-35 sequestered full-length TDP-43 from the nucleus to form cytoplasmic aggregates. Expression of Met(85)-TDP-35 in primary motor neurons resulted in the formation of Met(85)-TDP-35-positive cytoplasmic aggregates and motor neuron death. A neo-epitope antibody specific for Met(85)-TDP-35 labeled the 35-kDa lower molecular weight species on immunoblots of urea-soluble extracts from ALS-FTLD disease-affected tissues and co-labeled TDP-43-positive inclusions in ALS spinal cord sections, confirming the physiological relevance of this species. These results show that the 35-kDa low molecular weight species in ALS-FTLD can be generated from an abnormal splicing event and use of a downstream initiation codon and may represent a mechanism by which TDP-43 elicits its pathogenicity. PMID:25788357

  18. A reconsideration of the link between the energetics of water and of ATP hydrolysis energy in the power strokes of molecular motors in protein structures.

    PubMed

    Widdas, Wilfred F

    2008-09-01

    Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick's work, energetics were revised by Joule's experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration. PMID:19325829

  19. A Reconsideration of the Link between the Energetics of Water and of ATP Hydrolysis Energy in the Power Strokes of Molecular Motors in Protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Widdas, Wilfred F.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Fick’s work, energetics were revised by Joule’s experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration. PMID:19325829

  20. Optimized efficiency and figure of merit for a tight-coupling molecular motor: their bounds and phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekele, Mulugeta; Nuru, Tadle

    2014-03-01

    We consider a model translational motor that consumes one fuel molecule against a given amount of load at the same physiological temperature. Taking the chemical step to be tightlly coupled to the mechanical step, we derive thermodynamic quantities such as input and output power as well as power efficiency. Using optimization criteria of energy utilization, we determine the motor's optimized efficiency as well as its figure of merit. Bounds and phase daigrams of these quantities are studied. International Science Program, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

  1. Application of molecular modeling to analysis of inhibition of kinesin motor proteins of the BimC subfamily by monastrol and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Bevan, David R; Garst, James F; Osborne, Caroline K; Sims, Angela M

    2005-11-01

    Application of molecular modeling approaches has potential to contribute to rational drug design. These approaches may be especially useful when attempting to elucidate the structural features associated with novel drug targets. In this study, molecular docking and molecular dynamics were applied to studies of inhibition of the human motor protein denoted HsEg5 and other homologues in the BimC subfamily. These proteins are essential for mitosis, so compounds that inhibit their activity may have potential as anticancer therapeutics. The discovery of a small-molecule cell-permeable inhibitor, monastrol, has stimulated research in this area. Interestingly, monastrol is reported to inhibit the human and Xenopus forms of Eg5, but not those from Drosophila and Aspergillus. In this study, homology modeling was used to generate models of the Xenopus, Drosophila, and Aspergillus homologues, using the crystal structure of the human protein in complex with monastrol as a template. A series of known inhibitors was docked into each of the homologues, and the differences in binding energies were consistent with reported experimental data. Molecular dynamics revealed significant changes in the structure of the Aspergillus homologue that may contribute to its relative insensitivity to monastrol and related compounds. PMID:17191952

  2. The role of molecular motors in the mechanics of active gels and the effects of inertia, hydrodynamic interaction and compressibility in passive microrheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Andres Cordoba

    The mechanical properties of soft biological materials are essential to their physiological function and cannot easily be duplicated by synthetic materials. The study of the mechanical properties of biological materials has lead to the development of new rheological characterization techniques. In the technique called passive microbead rheology, the positional autocorrelation function of a micron-sized bead embedded in a viscoelastic fluid is used to infer the dynamic modulus of the fluid. Single particle microrheology is limited to fluids were the microstructure is much smaller than the size of the probe bead. To overcome this limitation in two-bead microrheology the cross-correlated thermal motion of pairs of tracer particles is used to determine the dynamic modulus. Here we present a time-domain data analysis methodology and generalized Brownian dynamics simulations to examine the effects of inertia, hydrodynamic interaction, compressibility and non-conservative forces in passive microrheology. A type of biological material that has proven specially challenging to characterize are active gels. They are formed by semiflexible polymer filaments driven by motor proteins that convert chemical energy from the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to mechanical work and motion. Active gels perform essential functions in living tissue. Here we introduce a single-chain mean-field model to describe the mechanical properties of active gels. We model the semiflexible filaments as bead-spring chains and the molecular motors are accounted for by using a mean-field approach. The level of description of the model includes the end-to-end length and attachment state of the filaments, and the motor-generated forces, as stochastic state variables which evolve according to a proposed differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. The model allows accounting for physics that are not available in models that have been postulated on coarser levels of description. Moreover it allows

  3. Chemistry: No turning back for motorized molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayden, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Two molecular motors have been developed that use chemical energy to drive rotational motion in a single direction. The findings bring the prospect of devices powered by such motors a tantalizing step closer. See Letter p.235

  4. The Botulinum Toxin as a Therapeutic Agent: Molecular Structure and Mechanism of Action in Motor and Sensory Systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Dhaliwal, Harkiran Preet; Kukreja, Roshan Vijay; Singh, Bal Ram

    2016-02-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by Clostridium botulinum is the most potent molecule known to mankind. Higher potency of BoNT is attributed to several factors, including structural and functional uniqueness, target specificity, and longevity. Although BoNT is an extremely toxic molecule, it is now increasingly used for the treatment of disorders related to muscle hyperactivity and glandular hyperactivity. Weakening of muscles due to peripheral action of BoNT produces a therapeutic effect. Depending on the target tissue, BoNT can block the cholinergic neuromuscular or cholinergic autonomic innervation of exocrine glands and smooth muscles. In recent observations of the analgesic properties of BoNT, the toxin modifies the sensory feedback loop to the central nervous system. Differential effects of BoNT in excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide a unique therapeutic tool. In this review the authors briefly summarize the structure and mechanism of actions of BoNT on motor and sensory neurons to explain its therapeutic effects and future potential. PMID:26866491

  5. Second generation light-driven molecular motors. Unidirectional rotation controlled by a single stereogenic center with near-perfect photoequilibria and acceleration of the speed of rotation by structural modification.

    PubMed

    Koumura, Nagatoshi; Geertsema, Edzard M; van Gelder, Marc B; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2002-05-01

    Nine new molecular motors, consisting of a 2,3-dihydro-2-methylnaphtho[2,1-b]thiopyran or 2,3-dihydro-3-methylphenanthrene upper part and a (thio)xanthene, 10,10-dimethylanthracene, or dibenzocycloheptene lower part, connected by a central double bond, were synthesized. A single stereogenic center, bearing a methyl substituent, is present in each of the motors. MOPAC93-AM1 calculations, NMR studies, and X-ray analysis revealed that these compounds have stable isomers with pseudoaxial orientation of the methyl substituent and less-stable isomers with pseudoequatorial orientation of the methyl substituent. The photochemical and thermal isomerization processes of the motors were studied by NMR and CD spectroscopy. The new molecular motors all show two cis-trans isomerizations upon irradiation, each followed by a thermal helix inversion, resulting in a 360 degrees rotation around the central double bond of the upper part with respect to the lower part. The direction of rotation is controlled by a single stereogenic center created by the methyl substituent at the upper part. The speed of rotation, governed by the two thermal steps, was adjusted to a great extent by structural modifications, with half-lives for the thermal isomerization steps ranging from t(1/2)(theta) 233-0.67 h. The photochemical conversions of two new motors proceeded with near-perfect photoequilibria of 1:99. PMID:11982368

  6. Molecular, Physiological, and Motor Performance Defects in DMSXL Mice Carrying >1,000 CTG Repeats from the Human DM1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Huguet, Aline; Medja, Fadia; Nicole, Annie; Vignaud, Alban; Guiraud-Dogan, Céline; Ferry, Arnaud; Decostre, Valérie; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Metzger, Friedrich; Hoeflich, Andreas; Baraibar, Martin; Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Puymirat, Jack; Bassez, Guillaume; Furling, Denis; Munnich, Arnold; Gourdon, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion in the 3′UTR of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. DMPK transcripts carrying CUG expansions form nuclear foci and affect splicing regulation of various RNA transcripts. Furthermore, bidirectional transcription over the DMPK gene and non-conventional RNA translation of repeated transcripts have been described in DM1. It is clear now that this disease may involve multiple pathogenic pathways including changes in gene expression, RNA stability and splicing regulation, protein translation, and micro–RNA metabolism. We previously generated transgenic mice with 45-kb of the DM1 locus and >300 CTG repeats (DM300 mice). After successive breeding and a high level of CTG repeat instability, we obtained transgenic mice carrying >1,000 CTG (DMSXL mice). Here we described for the first time the expression pattern of the DMPK sense transcripts in DMSXL and human tissues. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that DMPK antisense transcripts are expressed in various DMSXL and human tissues, and that both sense and antisense transcripts accumulate in independent nuclear foci that do not co-localize together. Molecular features of DM1-associated RNA toxicity in DMSXL mice (such as foci accumulation and mild missplicing), were associated with high mortality, growth retardation, and muscle defects (abnormal histopathology, reduced muscle strength, and lower motor performances). We have found that lower levels of IGFBP-3 may contribute to DMSXL growth retardation, while increased proteasome activity may affect muscle function. These data demonstrate that the human DM1 locus carrying very large expansions induced a variety of molecular and physiological defects in transgenic mice, reflecting DM1 to a certain extent. As a result, DMSXL mice provide an animal tool to decipher various aspects of the disease mechanisms. In addition, these mice can be used to test the preclinical impact of systemic therapeutic

  7. The Autophagy Receptor TAX1BP1 and the Molecular Motor Myosin VI Are Required for Clearance of Salmonella Typhimurium by Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tumbarello, David A; Manna, Paul T; Allen, Mark; Bycroft, Mark; Arden, Susan D; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2015-10-01

    Autophagy plays a key role during Salmonella infection, by eliminating these pathogens following escape into the cytosol. In this process, selective autophagy receptors, including the myosin VI adaptor proteins optineurin and NDP52, have been shown to recognize cytosolic pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that myosin VI and TAX1BP1 are recruited to ubiquitylated Salmonella and play a key role in xenophagy. The absence of TAX1BP1 causes an accumulation of ubiquitin-positive Salmonella, whereas loss of myosin VI leads to an increase in ubiquitylated and LC3-positive bacteria. Our structural studies demonstrate that the ubiquitin-binding site of TAX1BP1 overlaps with the myosin VI binding site and point mutations in the TAX1BP1 zinc finger domains that affect ubiquitin binding also ablate binding to myosin VI. This mutually exclusive binding and the association of TAX1BP1 with LC3 on the outer limiting membrane of autophagosomes may suggest a molecular mechanism for recruitment of this motor to autophagosomes. The predominant role of TAX1BP1, a paralogue of NDP52, in xenophagy is supported by our evolutionary analysis, which demonstrates that functionally intact NDP52 is missing in Xenopus and mice, whereas TAX1BP1 is expressed in all vertebrates analysed. In summary, this work highlights the importance of TAX1BP1 as a novel autophagy receptor in myosin VI-mediated xenophagy. Our study identifies essential new machinery for the autophagy-dependent clearance of Salmonella typhimurium and suggests modulation of myosin VI motor activity as a potential therapeutic target in cellular immunity. PMID:26451915

  8. The Autophagy Receptor TAX1BP1 and the Molecular Motor Myosin VI Are Required for Clearance of Salmonella Typhimurium by Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Tumbarello, David A.; Manna, Paul T.; Allen, Mark; Bycroft, Mark; Arden, Susan D.; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy plays a key role during Salmonella infection, by eliminating these pathogens following escape into the cytosol. In this process, selective autophagy receptors, including the myosin VI adaptor proteins optineurin and NDP52, have been shown to recognize cytosolic pathogens. Here, we demonstrate that myosin VI and TAX1BP1 are recruited to ubiquitylated Salmonella and play a key role in xenophagy. The absence of TAX1BP1 causes an accumulation of ubiquitin-positive Salmonella, whereas loss of myosin VI leads to an increase in ubiquitylated and LC3-positive bacteria. Our structural studies demonstrate that the ubiquitin-binding site of TAX1BP1 overlaps with the myosin VI binding site and point mutations in the TAX1BP1 zinc finger domains that affect ubiquitin binding also ablate binding to myosin VI. This mutually exclusive binding and the association of TAX1BP1 with LC3 on the outer limiting membrane of autophagosomes may suggest a molecular mechanism for recruitment of this motor to autophagosomes. The predominant role of TAX1BP1, a paralogue of NDP52, in xenophagy is supported by our evolutionary analysis, which demonstrates that functionally intact NDP52 is missing in Xenopus and mice, whereas TAX1BP1 is expressed in all vertebrates analysed. In summary, this work highlights the importance of TAX1BP1 as a novel autophagy receptor in myosin VI-mediated xenophagy. Our study identifies essential new machinery for the autophagy-dependent clearance of Salmonella typhimurium and suggests modulation of myosin VI motor activity as a potential therapeutic target in cellular immunity. PMID:26451915

  9. The Interrelationship of Helicase and Nuclease Domains during DNA Translocation by the Molecular Motor EcoR124I

    PubMed Central

    Šišáková, Eva; Weiserová, Marie; Dekker, Cees; Seidel, Ralf; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The type I restriction–modification enzyme EcoR124I comprises three subunits with the stoichiometry HsdR2/HsdM2/HsdS1. The HsdR subunits are archetypical examples of the fusion between nuclease and helicase domains into a single polypeptide, a linkage that is found in a great many other DNA processing enzymes. To explore the interrelationship between these physically linked domains, we examined the DNA translocation properties of EcoR124I complexes in which the HsdR subunits had been mutated in the RecB-like nuclease motif II or III. We found that nuclease mutations can have multiple effects on DNA translocation despite being distinct from the helicase domain. In addition to reductions in DNA cleavage activity, we also observed decreased translocation and ATPase rates, different enzyme populations with different characteristic translocation rates, a tendency to stall during initiation and altered HsdR turnover dynamics. The significance of these observations to our understanding of domain interactions in molecular machines is discussed. PMID:18952104

  10. Motor Starters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  11. Motor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances. PMID:22377850

  12. Molecular Motor MYO1C, Acetyltransferase KAT6B and Osteogenetic Transcription Factor RUNX2 Expression in Human Masseter Muscle Contributes to Development of Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Desh, Heather; Gray, S Lauren; Horton, Michael J; Raoul, Gwenael; Rowlerson, Anthea M; Ferri, Joel; Vieira, Alexandre R; Sciote, James J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Type I myosins are molecular motors necessary for glucose transport in the cytoplasm and initiation of transcription in the nucleus. Two of these, MYO1H and MYO1C, are paralogs which may be important in the development of malocclusion. The objective of this study was to investigate their gene expression in the masseter muscle of malocclusion subjects. Two functionally related proteins known to contribute to malocclusion were also investigated: KAT6B (a chromatin remodeling epigenetic enzyme which is activated by MYO1C) and RUNX2 (a transcription factor regulating osteogenesis which is activated by KAT6B). Design Masseter muscle samples and malocclusion classifications were obtained from orthognathic surgery subjects. Muscle was sectioned and immunostained to determine fiber type properties. RNA was isolated from the remaining sample to determine expression levels for the four genes by TaqMan® RT-PCR. Fiber type properties, gene expression quantities and malocclusion classification were compared. Results There were very significant associations (P<0.0000001) between MYO1C and KAT6B expressions. There were also significant associations (P<0.005) between RUNX2 expression and masseter muscle type II fiber properties. Very few significant associations were identified between MYO1C and masseter muscle fiber type properties. Conclusions The relationship between MYO1C and KAT6B suggests that the two are interacting in chromatin remodeling for gene expression. This is the nuclear myosin1 (NM1) function of MYO1C. A surprising finding is the relationship between RUNX2 and type II masseter muscle fibers, since RUNX2 expression in mature muscle was previously unknown. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the role of RUNX2 in adult masseter muscle. PMID:24698832

  13. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  14. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  15. Hybrid survival motor neuron genes in patients with autosomal recessive spinal muscular atrophy: New insights into molecular mechanisms responsible for the disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahnen, E.; Schoenling, J.; Zerres, K.

    1996-11-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a frequent autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder leading to weakness and atrophy of voluntary muscles. The survival motor-neuron gene (SMN), a strong candidate for SMA, is present in two highly homologous copies (telSMN and cenSMN) within the SMA region. Only five nucleotide differences within the region between intron 6 and exon 8 distinguish these homologues. Independent of the severity of the disease, 90%-98% of all SMA patients carry homozygous deletions in telSMN, affecting either exon 7 or both exons 7 and 8. We present the molecular analysis of 42 SMA patients who carry homozygous deletions of telSMN exon 7 but not of exon 8. The question arises whether in these cases the telSMN is truncated upstream of exon 8 or whether hybrid SMN genes exist that are composed of centromeric and telomeric sequences. By a simple PCR-based assay we demonstrate that in each case the remaining telSMN exon 8 is part of a hybrid SMN gene. Sequencing of cloned hybrid SMN genes from seven patients revealed the same composition in all but two patients: the base-pair differences in introns 6 and 7 and exon 7 are of centromeric origin whereas exon 8 is of telomeric origin. Nonetheless, haplotype analysis with polymorphic multicopy markers, Ag1-CA and C212, localized at the 5{prime} end of the SMN genes, suggests different mechanisms of occurrence, unequal rearrangements, and gene conversion involving both copies of the SMN genes. In approximately half of all patients, we identified a consensus haplotype, suggesting a common origin. Interestingly, we identified a putative recombination hot spot represented by recombination-simulating elements (TGGGG and TGAGGT) in exon 8 that is homologous to the human deletion-hot spot consensus sequence in the immunoglobulin switch region, the {alpha}-globin cluster, and the polymerase {alpha} arrest sites. This may explain why independent hybrid SMN genes show identical sequences. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Chaotic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, C.; Labbé, R.; Pétrélis, F.; Fauve, S.

    2012-02-01

    We show that electric motors and dynamos can be used to illustrate most elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses on nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. These examples are easier to understand and display a richer behavior than the ones commonly used from mechanics, electronics, hydrodynamics, lasers, chemical reactions, and population dynamics. In particular, an electric motor driven by a dynamo can display stationary, Hopf, and codimension-two bifurcations by tuning the driving speed of the dynamo and the electric current in the stator of the electric motor. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque instead of constant rotation rate, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. Simple deterministic models are presented which capture the observed dynamical regimes.

  17. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  18. Motor Planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. PMID:24981338

  19. Human Spinal Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-07-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. Humans have direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. PMID:27023730

  20. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  1. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  2. Unexpected Roles for Ciliary Kinesins and Intraflagellar Transport Proteins.

    PubMed

    Pooranachandran, Niedharsan; Malicki, Jarema J

    2016-06-01

    Transport of proteins in the ciliary shaft is driven by microtubule-dependent motors, kinesins. Prior studies suggested that the heterotrimeric ciliary kinesin may be dispensable for certain aspects of transport in specialized cilia of vertebrate photoreceptor cells. To test this possibility further, we analyzed the mutant phenotype of the zebrafish kif3a gene, which encodes the common motor subunit of heterotrimeric ciliary kinesins. Cilia are absent in all organs examined, leading to the conclusion that kif3a is indispensable for ciliogenesis in all cells, including photoreceptors. Unexpectedly, kif3a function precedes ciliogenesis as ciliary basal bodies are mispositioned in mutant photoreceptors. This phenotype is much less pronounced in intraflagellar transport (IFT) mutants and reveals that kif3a has a much broader role than previously assumed. Despite the severity of their basal body phenotype, kif3a mutant photoreceptors survive longer compared to those in IFT mutants, which display much weaker basal body mispositioning. This effect is absent in kif3a;IFT double mutants, indicating that IFT proteins have ciliary transport-independent roles, which add to the severity of their photoreceptor phenotype. kif3a is dispensable for basal body docking in otic vesicle sensory epithelia and, surprisingly, short cilia form in mechanosensory cristae even in the absence of kif3a In contrast to Kif3a, the functions of the Kif3c-related protein, encoded by the kif3c-like (kif3cl) gene, and the homodimeric ciliary kinesin, kif17, are dispensable for photoreceptor morphogenesis. These studies demonstrate unexpected new roles for both ciliary heterotrimeric kinesins and IFT particle genes and clarify the function of kif17, the homodimeric ciliary kinesin gene. PMID:27038111

  3. Locomotion of chemically powered autonomous nanowire motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Longqiu; Li, Tianlong; Zhang, Guangyu; Sun, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Physical insights on the hydrodynamics and locomotion of self-propelled nanowire motor under nonequilibrium steady state are investigated using finite element method in accordance with hybrid molecular dynamics/multiparticle collision dynamics and rigid body dynamics. Nanowire motor is discretized into finite segments, and forces of solvent molecule acting on the motor are assumed to be the sum of forces acting on all segments of the motor. We show that the locomotion of nanowire motor is mainly determined by the imbalance forces acting on the catalytic and noncatalytic segments. The average velocity along the axis increases significantly as a function of time prior to reaching equilibrium. The length of nanowire motor shows negligible effect on the velocity of the motor. Preliminary experimental results are provided to validate the current model.

  4. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  5. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons ) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons ...

  6. A microrotary motor powered by bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Yuichi; Miyata, Makoto; Tada, Tetsuya; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2006-01-01

    Biological molecular motors have a number of unique advantages over artificial motors, including efficient conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work and the potential for self-assembly into larger structures, as is seen in muscle sarcomeres and bacterial and eukaryotic flagella. The development of an appropriate interface between such biological materials and synthetic devices should enable us to realize useful hybrid micromachines. Here we describe a microrotary motor composed of a 20-μm-diameter silicon dioxide rotor driven on a silicon track by the gliding bacterium Mycoplasma mobile. This motor is fueled by glucose and inherits some of the properties normally attributed to living systems. PMID:16950878

  7. The Molecular Motor KIF1A Transports the TrkA Neurotrophin Receptor and Is Essential for Sensory Neuron Survival and Function.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Niwa, Shinsuke; Dong, Ming; Farkhondeh, Atena; Wang, Li; Zhou, Ruyun; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2016-06-15

    KIF1A is a major axonal transport motor protein, but its functional significance remains elusive. Here we show that KIF1A-haploinsufficient mice developed sensory neuropathy. We found progressive loss of TrkA(+) sensory neurons in Kif1a(+/-) dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). Moreover, axonal transport of TrkA was significantly disrupted in Kif1a(+/-) neurons. Live imaging and immunoprecipitation assays revealed that KIF1A bound to TrkA-containing vesicles through the adaptor GTP-Rab3, suggesting that TrkA is a cargo of the KIF1A motor. Physiological measurements revealed a weaker capsaicin response in Kif1a(+/-) DRG neurons. Moreover, these neurons were hyposensitive to nerve growth factor, which could explain the reduced neuronal survival and the functional deficiency of the pain receptor TRPV1. Because phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling significantly rescued these phenotypes and also increased Kif1a mRNA, we propose that KIF1A is essential for the survival and function of sensory neurons because of the TrkA transport and its synergistic support of the NGF/TrkA/PI3K signaling pathway. PMID:27263974

  8. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  9. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  10. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  11. Modulation of septin and molecular motor recruitment in the microtubule environment of the Taxol-resistant human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    PubMed

    Froidevaux-Klipfel, Laurence; Poirier, Florence; Boursier, Céline; Crépin, Ronan; Poüs, Christian; Baudin, Bruno; Baillet, Anita

    2011-10-01

    Cell resistance to low doses of paclitaxel (Taxol) involves a modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics. We applied a proteomic approach based on 2-DE coupled with MS to identify changes in the MT environment of Taxol-resistant breast cancer cells. Having established a proteomic pattern of the microtubular proteins extracted from MDA-MB-231 cells, we verified by Western blotting that in resistant cells, α- and β-tubulins (more specifically the βIII and βIV isotypes) increased. Interestingly, four septins (SEPT2, 8, 9 and 11), which are GTPases involved in cytokinesis and in MT/actin cytoskeleton organization, were overexpressed and enriched in the MT environment of Taxol-resistant cells compared to their sensitive counterpart. Changes in the MT proteome of resistant cells also comprised increased kinesin-1 heavy chain expression and recruitment on MTs while dynein light chain-1 was downregulated. Modulation of motor protein recruitment around MTs might reflect their important role in controlling MT dynamics via the organization of signaling pathways. The identification of proteins previously unknown to be linked to taxane-resistance could also be valuable to identify new biological markers of resistance. PMID:21761557

  12. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  13. Kinesin family 17 (osmotic avoidance abnormal-3) is dispensable for photoreceptor morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Tam, Beatrice M; Ying, Guoxing; Wu, Sen; Hauswirth, William W; Frederick, Jeanne M; Moritz, Orson L; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2015-12-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, homodimeric [kinesin family (KIF) 17, osmotic avoidance abnormal-3 (OSM-3)] and heterotrimeric (KIF3) kinesin-2 motors are required to establish sensory cilia by intraflagellar transport (IFT) where KIF3 and KIF17 cooperate to build the axoneme core and KIF17 builds the distal segments. However, the function of KIF17 in vertebrates is unresolved. We expressed full-length and motorless KIF17 constructs in mouse rod photoreceptors using adeno-associated virus in Xenopus laevis rod photoreceptors using a transgene and in ciliated IMCD3 cells. We found that tagged KIF17 localized along the rod outer segment axoneme when expressed in mouse and X. laevis photoreceptors, whereas KIF3A was restricted to the proximal axoneme. Motorless KIF3A and KIF17 mutants caused photoreceptor degeneration, likely through dominant negative effects on IFT. KIF17 mutant lacking the motor domain translocated to nuclei after exposure of a C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Germ-line deletion of Kif17 in mouse did not affect photoreceptor function. A rod-specific Kif3/Kif17 double knockout mouse demonstrated that KIF17 and KIF3 do not act synergistically and did not prevent rhodopsin trafficking to rod outer segments. In summary, the nematode model of KIF3/KIF17 cooperation apparently does not apply to mouse photoreceptors in which the photosensory cilium is built exclusively by KIF3. PMID:26229057

  14. A microrotary motor powered by bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Yuichi; Miyata, Makoto; Tada, Tetsuya; Uyeda, Taro Q. P.

    2006-09-01

    Biological molecular motors have a number of unique advantages over artificial motors, including efficient conversion of chemical energy into mechanical work and the potential for self-assembly into larger structures, as is seen in muscle sarcomeres and bacterial and eukaryotic flagella. The development of an appropriate interface between such biological materials and synthetic devices should enable us to realize useful hybrid micromachines. Here we describe a microrotary motor composed of a 20-μm-diameter silicon dioxide rotor driven on a silicon track by the gliding bacterium Mycoplasma mobile. This motor is fueled by glucose and inherits some of the properties normally attributed to living systems. glucose | micro actuator | motor protein | nanobiotechnology | Mycoplasma gliding

  15. Dynamic Concentration of Motors in Microtubule Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nédélec, François; Surrey, Thomas; Maggs, A. C.

    2001-04-01

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of the dynamics of molecular motors in microtubule arrays and asters. By solving a convection-diffusion equation we find that the density profile of motors in a two-dimensional aster is characterized by continuously varying exponents. Simulations are used to verify the assumptions of the continuum model. We observe the concentration profiles of kinesin moving in quasi-two-dimensional artificial asters by fluorescent microscopy and compare with our theoretical results.

  16. Traffic of cytoskeletal motors with disordered attachment rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzeschik, H.; Harris, R. J.; Santen, L.

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by experimental results on the interplay between molecular motors and tau proteins, we extend lattice-based models of intracellular transport to include a second species of particle which locally influences the motor-filament attachment rate. We consider various exactly solvable limits of a stochastic multiparticle model before focusing on the low-motor-density regime. Here, an approximate treatment based on the random-walk behavior of single motors gives good quantitative agreement with simulation results for the tau dependence of the motor current. Finally, we discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.

  17. Peripheral Facial Nerve Axotomy in Mice Causes Sprouting of Motor Axons Into Perineuronal Central White Matter: Time Course and Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Makwana, Milan; Werner, Alexander; Acosta-Saltos, Alejandro; Gonitel, Roman; Pararajasingham, Abirami; Ruff, Crystal; Rumajogee, Prakasham; Cuthill, Dan; Galiano, Mathias; Bohatschek, Marion; Wallace, Adam S; Anderson, Patrick N; Mayer, Ulrike; Behrens, Axel; Raivich, Gennadij

    2010-01-01

    Generation of new axonal sprouts plays an important role in neural repair. In the current study, we examined the appearance, composition and effects of gene deletions on intrabrainstem sprouts following peripheral facial nerve axotomy. Axotomy was followed by the appearance of galanin+ and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)+ sprouts peaking at day 14, matching both large, neuropeptide+ subpopulations of axotomized facial motoneurons, but with CGRP+ sprouts considerably rarer. Strong immunoreactivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and retrogradely transported MiniRuby following its application on freshly cut proximal facial nerve stump confirmed their axotomized motoneuron origin; the sprouts expressed CD44 and alpha7beta1 integrin adhesion molecules and grew apparently unhindered along neighboring central white matter tracts. Quantification of the galanin+ sprouts revealed a stronger response following cut compared with crush (day 7–14) as well as enhanced sprouting after recut (day 8 + 6 vs. 14; 14 + 8 vs. 22), arguing against delayed appearance of sprouting being the result of the initial phase of reinnervation. Sprouting was strongly diminished in brain Jun-deficient mice but enhanced in alpha7 null animals that showed apparently compensatory up-regulation in beta1, suggesting important regulatory roles for transcription factors and the sprout-associated adhesion molecules. Analysis of inflammatory stimuli revealed a 50% reduction 12–48 hours following systemic endotoxin associated with neural inflammation and a tendency toward more sprouts in TNFR1/2 null mutants (P = 10%) with a reduced inflammatory response, indicating detrimental effects of excessive inflammation. Moreover, the study points to the usefulness of the facial axotomy model in exploring physiological and molecular stimuli regulating central sprouting. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:699–721, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20034058

  18. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions and their isotopic signatures (H/D) from a motor vehicle: implications on atmospheric H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M. K.; Walter, S.; Bond, S. W.; Soltic, P.; Röckmann, T.

    2010-02-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its isotopic signature (deuterium/hydrogen, δD), carbon monoxide (CO) and other compounds were studied in the exhaust of a passenger car engine fuelled with gasoline or methane and run under variable air-fuel ratios and operating modes. H2 and CO concentrations were largely reduced downstream of the three-way catalytic converter (TWC) compared to levels upstream, and showed a strong dependence on the air-fuel ratio (expressed as lambda, λ). The isotopic composition of H2 ranged from δD=-140‰ to δD=-195‰ upstream of the TWC but these values decreased to -270‰ to -370‰ after passing through the TWC. Post-TWC δD values for the fuel-rich range showed a strong dependence on TWC temperature with more negative δD for lower temperatures. These effects are attributed to a rapid temperature-dependent H-D isotope equilibration between H2 and water (H2O). In addition, post TWC δD in H2 showed a strong dependence on the fraction of removed H2, suggesting isotopic enrichment during catalytic removal of H2 with enrichment factors (ɛ) ranging from -39.8‰ to -15.5‰ depending on the operating mode. Our results imply that there may be considerable variability in real-world δD emissions from vehicle exhaust, which may mainly depend on TWC technology and exhaust temperature regime. This variability is suggestive of a δD from traffic that varies over time, by season, and by geographical location. An earlier-derived integrated pure (end-member) δD from anthropogenic activities of -270‰ (Rahn et al., 2002) can be explained as a mixture of mainly vehicle emissions from cold starts and fully functional TWCs, but enhanced δD values by >50‰ are likely for regions where TWC technology is not fully implemented. Our results also suggest that a full hydrogen isotope analysis on fuel and exhaust gas may greatly aid at understanding process-level reactions in the exhaust gas, in particular in the TWC.

  19. Molecular hydrogen (H2) emissions and their isotopic signatures (H/D) from a motor vehicle: implications on atmospheric H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M. K.; Walter, S.; Bond, S. W.; Soltic, P.; Röckmann, T.

    2010-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2), its isotopic signature (deuterium/hydrogen, δD), carbon monoxide (CO), and other compounds were studied in the exhaust of a passenger car engine fuelled with gasoline or methane and run under variable air-fuel ratios and operating modes. H2 and CO concentrations were largely reduced downstream of the three-way catalytic converter (TWC) compared to levels upstream, and showed a strong dependence on the air-fuel ratio (expressed as lambda, λ). The isotopic composition of H2 ranged from δD = -140‰ to δD = -195‰ upstream of the TWC but these values decreased to -270‰ to -370‰ after passing through the TWC. Post-TWC δD values for the fuel-rich range showed a strong dependence on TWC temperature with more negative δD for lower temperatures. These effects are attributed to a rapid temperature-dependent H-D isotope equilibration between H2 and water (H2O). In addition, post TWC δD in H2 showed a strong dependence on the fraction of removed H2, suggesting isotopic enrichment during catalytic removal of H2 with enrichment factors (ɛ) ranging from -39.8‰ to -15.5‰ depending on the operating mode. Our results imply that there may be considerable variability in real-world δD emissions from vehicle exhaust, which may mainly depend on TWC technology and exhaust temperature regime. This variability is suggestive of a δD from traffic that varies over time, by season, and by geographical location. An earlier-derived integrated pure (end-member) δD from anthropogenic activities of -270‰ (Rahn et al., 2002) can be explained as a mixture of mainly vehicle emissions from cold starts and fully functional TWCs, but enhanced δD values by >50‰ are likely for regions where TWC technology is not fully implemented. Our results also suggest that a full hydrogen isotope analysis on fuel and exhaust gas may greatly aid at understanding process-level reactions in the exhaust gas, in particular in the TWC.

  20. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  1. Gamma and alpha motor neurons distinguished by expression of transcription factor Err3.

    PubMed

    Friese, Andreas; Kaltschmidt, Julia A; Ladle, David R; Sigrist, Markus; Jessell, Thomas M; Arber, Silvia

    2009-08-11

    Spinal motor neurons are specified to innervate different muscle targets through combinatorial programs of transcription factor expression. Whether transcriptional programs also establish finer aspects of motor neuron subtype identity, notably the prominent functional distinction between alpha and gamma motor neurons, remains unclear. In this study, we identify DNA binding proteins with complementary expression profiles in alpha and gamma motor neurons, providing evidence for molecular distinctions in these two motor neuron subtypes. The transcription factor Err3 is expressed at high levels in gamma but not alpha motor neurons, whereas the neuronal DNA binding protein NeuN marks alpha but not gamma motor neurons. Signals from muscle spindles are needed to support the differentiation of Err3(on)/NeuN(off) presumptive gamma motor neurons, whereas direct proprioceptive sensory input to a motor neuron pool is apparently dispensable. Together, these findings provide evidence that transcriptional programs define functionally distinct motor neuron subpopulations, even within anatomically defined motor pools. PMID:19651609

  2. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  3. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods. PMID:16385137

  4. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  5. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  6. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

    1985-12-03

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  7. Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  8. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  9. The Genetic Engineering of Motor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartz, Rachael M.

    Molecular motors are a remarkable feature within living organisms that are responsible for directional mechanical motion, which is driven by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. Actin-binding molecular motors are of specific interest in the field of nanotechnology as filamentous actin is capable of carrying cargo, such as quantum dots, while it is translocated along a motor coated surface. The binding regions of motor proteins, which are known to interact with actin, such as Myosin, have been thoroughly examined and identified. Rapid genetic engineering of the ATP-hydrolyzing enzyme, adenosine kinase, to incorporate these binding regions is possible through the use of site- directed mutagenesis. The sequences, which were mutated into the ADK wt gene, were incorporated in an unstructured loop region. During the phosphate transfer, the mutants switch between open and closed conformational states. The binding affinity of the sequences to the actin is altered during this conformational switch, thus causing the motor to move along actin filament. The ADK mutants and their interaction with filamentous actin was monitored by an in vitro motility assay. Two different mutants of ADK were found to have retained enzymatic functionality after the mutagenesis as well as function as actin-based motor proteins.

  10. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  11. Sticks in honey - Motor-connected Microtubules at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Rotem S.; Leshansky, Alex; Avron, Joseph E.

    2010-11-01

    It is known that suspensions of microtubules (MTs) and molecular motors spontaneously form ordered asters and vortices. We consider the motion of MTs' assemblages connected by molecular motors at low Reynolds number. The MTs are modeled as rigid sticks and their hydrodynamic interaction with the medium is determined using slender body approximation. The motors are modeled as moving points which provide kinematic constrains for the sticks' motion. The hydrodynamic alignment of a pair of MTs for two possible motor connections is considered: a single head motor connection, in which the motor moves on one of the sticks and carries the other one, and a dual head motor connection whereas the motor advances on both sticks. We further address the formation of an aster from the vortex of inter-connected MTs. The forces the motors need to exert on the MTs in the course of closing the vortex and their dependence on the number of MTs are computed.

  12. Solid propellant motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, J. I.; Marsh, H. E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A case bonded end burning solid propellant rocket motor is described. A propellant with sufficiently low modulus to avoid chamber buckling on cooling from cure and sufficiently high elongation to sustain the stresses induced without cracking is used. The propellant is zone cured within the motor case at high pressures equal to or approaching the pressure at which the motor will operate during combustion. A solid propellant motor with a burning time long enough that its spacecraft would be limited to a maximum acceleration of less than 1 g is provided by one version of the case bonded end burning solid propellant motor of the invention.

  13. Motor/generator

    DOEpatents

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  14. Motor degradation prediction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  15. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2001-01-01

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  16. Motorized support jack

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe

    2003-05-13

    A compact, vacuum compatible motorized jack for supporting heavy loads and adjusting their positions is provided. The motorized jack includes: (a) a housing having a base; (b) a first roller device that provides a first slidable surface and that is secured to the base; (c) a second roller device that provides a second slidable surface and that has an upper surface; (d) a wedge that is slidably positioned between the first roller device and the second roller device so that the wedge is in contact with the first slidable surface and the second slidable surface; (e) a motor; and (d) a drive mechanism that connects the motor and the wedge to cause the motor to controllably move the wedge forwards or backwards. Individual motorized jacks can support and lift of an object at an angle. Two or more motorized jacks can provide tip, tilt and vertical position adjustment capabilities.

  17. Theory of self-assembly of microtubules and motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor S.; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2006-09-01

    We derive a model describing spatiotemporal organization of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with a generic anisotropic interaction kernel, we obtain a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes an orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments. We derive the specific form of the interaction kernel from the detailed analysis of microscopic interaction of two filaments mediated by a moving molecular motor and extend our results to include variable motor density and motor attachment to the substrate.

  18. Theory of self-assembly of microtubules and motors.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. California at San Diego

    2006-01-01

    We derive a model describing spatiotemporal organization of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with a generic anisotropic interaction kernel, we obtain a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes an orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments. We derive the specific form of the interaction kernel from the detailed analysis of microscopic interaction of two filaments mediated by a moving molecular motor and extend our results to include variable motor density and motor attachment to the substrate.

  19. Piezoelectric Motors and Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchino, K.

    Piezoelectric ceramics forms a new field between electronic and structural ceramics [1-4]. Application fields are classified into three categories: positioners, motors, and vibration suppressors. From the market research result for 80 Japanese component industries in 1992, tiny motors in the range of 5-8 mm are required in large numbers for office and portable equipment; the conventional electromagnetic (EM) motors are rather difficult to produce in this size with sufficient energy efficiency, while Silicon MEMS actuators are too small to be used in practice. Piezoelectric ultrasonic motors whose efficiency is insensitive to size are superior in the millimeter motor area. The manufacturing precision of optical instruments such as lasers and cameras, and the positioning accuracy for fabricating semiconductor chips are of the order of 0.1μm which is much smaller than the backlash of the EM motors. Vibration suppression in space structures and military vehicles also require compact but mighty piezoelectric actuators.

  20. Multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Muley, Suraj Ashok; Parry, Gareth J

    2012-09-01

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) was first described in 1988 as a purely motor neuropathy affecting multiple motor nerves. The diagnosis was based entirely on demonstrating electrophysiological evidence of a conduction block (CB) that selectively affected motor axons, with sparing of sensory axons even through the site of motor CB. Subsequently, a similar disorder was reported but with absence of demonstrable CB on routine nerve conduction studies and there is still some debate as to whether MMN without CB is related to MMN. MMN is thought to be an inflammatory neuropathy related to an immune attack on motor nerves. The conventional hypothesis is that the primary pathology is segmental demyelination, but recent research raises the possibility of a primary axonopathy. Anti-GM1 antibodies can be found in some patients but it is unclear whether these antibodies are pathogenic. Intravenous immunoglobulin is the mainstay of treatment but other immunosuppressive treatments can also be effective. PMID:22743043

  1. Parametric electric motor study

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Stahura, D.

    1995-04-30

    Technology for the axial gap motor was developed by DOE with an investment of approximately $15 million. This development effort is for motor technologies of high power density and high efficiency. Such motors that are also small and light-weight are not available on the commercial market because high-power motors have typically been used in large industrial applications where small size and light weight are not requirements. AC Delco has been developing motors since 1918 and is interested in leveraging its research and development dollars to produce an array of motor systems for vehicles and to develop a future line of propulsion products. The DOE focus of the study was applied to machining applications. The most attractive feature of this motor is the axial air gap, which may make possible the removal of the motor`s stationary component from a total enclosure of the remainder of the machine if the power characteristics are adequate. The objectives of this project were to evaluate alternative electric drive systems for machine tools and automotive electric drive systems and to select a best machine type for each of those applications. A major challenge of this project was to produce a small, light-weight, highly efficient motor at a cost-effective price. The project developed machine and machine drive systems and design criteria for the range of applications. The final results included the creation of a baseline for developing electric vehicle powertrain system designs, conventional vehicle engine support system designs, and advanced machine tool configurations. In addition, an axial gap permanent magnet motor was built and tested, and gave, said one engineer involved, a sterling performance. This effort will commercialize advanced motor technology and extend knowledge and design capability in the most efficient electric machine design known today.

  2. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  3. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  4. Self-assembly of microtubules and motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor; Tsimring, Lev

    2005-03-01

    We derive a model describing spatio-temporal assembly of an array of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with a generic anisotropic interaction kernel we obtain a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments.

  5. Self-organization of microtubules and motors.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. of California at San Diego

    2006-01-01

    Here we introduce a model for spatio-temporal self-organization of an ensemble of microtubules interacting via molecular motors. Starting from a generic stochastic model of inelastic polar rods with an anisotropic interaction kernel we derive a set of equations for the local rods concentration and orientation. At large enough mean density of rods and concentration of motors, the model describes orientational instability. We demonstrate that the orientational instability leads to the formation of vortices and (for large density and/or kernel anisotropy) asters seen in recent experiments. The corresponding phase diagram of vortexasters transitions is in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  6. Collective Dynamics of Elastically Coupled Myosin V Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Efremov, Artem K.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Krementsova, Elena B.; Driver, Jonathan W.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Diehl, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the collective behaviors of different classes of processive motor proteins has become increasingly important to understand various intracellular trafficking and transport processes. This work examines the dynamics of structurally-defined motor complexes containing two myosin Va (myoVa) motors that are linked together via a molecular scaffold formed from a single duplex of DNA. Dynamic changes in the filament-bound configuration of these complexes due to motor binding, stepping, and detachment were monitored by tracking the positions of different color quantum dots that report the position of one head of each myoVa motor on actin. As in studies of multiple kinesins, the run lengths produced by two myosins are only slightly larger than those of single motor molecules. This suggests that internal strain within the complexes, due to asynchronous motor stepping and the resultant stretching of motor linkages, yields net negative cooperative behaviors. In contrast to multiple kinesins, multiple myosin complexes move with appreciably lower velocities than a single-myosin molecule. Although similar trends are predicted by a discrete state stochastic model of collective motor dynamics, these analyses also suggest that multiple myosin velocities and run lengths depend on both the compliance and the effective size of their cargo. Moreover, it is proposed that this unique collective behavior occurs because the large step size and relatively small stalling force of myoVa leads to a high sensitivity of motor stepping rates to strain. PMID:22718762

  7. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

  8. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... from motor vehicle crashes. Trying to prevent these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to be safer on the road: Make sure your vehicle is safe and in working order Use car seats for children Wear your seat belt Don' ...

  9. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  10. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  11. Hybrid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A 10,000-pound thrust hybrid rocket motor is tested at Stennis Space Center's E-1 test facility. A hybrid rocket motor is a cross between a solid rocket and a liquid-fueled engine. It uses environmentally safe solid fuel and liquid oxygen.

  12. Organizing motor imageries.

    PubMed

    Hanakawa, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few decades, motor imagery has attracted the attention of researchers as a prototypical example of 'embodied cognition' and also as a basis for neuro-rehabilitation and brain-machine interfaces. The current definition of motor imagery is widely accepted, but it is important to note that various abilities rather than a single cognitive entity are dealt with under a single term. Here, motor imagery has been characterized based on four factors: (1) motor control, (2) explicitness, (3) sensory modalities, and (4) agency. Sorting out these factors characterizing motor imagery may explain some discrepancies and variability in the findings from previous studies and will help to optimize a study design in accordance with the purpose of each study in the future. PMID:26602980

  13. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  14. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  15. Induction motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  16. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  17. Self-organization of microtubules and motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlec, F. J.; Surrey, T.; Maggs, A. C.; Leibler, S.

    1997-09-01

    Cellular structures are established and maintained through a dynamic interplay between assembly and regulatory processes. Self-organization of molecular components provides a variety of possible spatial structures: the regulatory machinery chooses the most appropriate to express a given cellular function. Here we study the extent and the characteristics of self-organization using microtubules and molecular motors as a model system. These components are known to participate in the formation of many cellular structures, such as the dynamic asters found in mitotic and meiotic spindles. Purified motors and microtubules have previously been observed to form asters in vitro. We have reproduced this result with a simple system consisting solely of multi-headed constructs of the motor protein kinesin and stabilized microtubules. We show that dynamic asters can also be obtained from a homogeneous solution of tubulin and motors. By varying the relative concentrations of the components, we obtain a variety of self-organized structures. Further, by studying this process in a constrained geometry of micro-fabricated glass chambers, we demonstrate that the same final structure can be reached through different assembly `pathways'.

  18. The induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redinz, José Arnaldo

    2015-09-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the torques and angular speed of an induction motor with a simple geometry, resembling the geometry of the first induction motor investigated by Arago in 1824. The rotor is a conducting disc rotating between the magnetic poles of two off-axis solenoids, displaced in space by 90^\\circ from each other. We apply our results to discuss a theory for the ubiquitous electromechanical watt-hour meter. For comparison of the theoretical result for the angular speed with measurements, we propose a simple experiment in which an induction motor with an aluminum disc rotor is constructed.

  19. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  20. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  1. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  2. Hybrid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Stennis Space Center conducts a test on a hybrid rocket motor fed by a liquid oxygen turbopump. The test occurred at the E-1 test facility. The test was believed to be the first of its kind in the world.

  3. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start at age 5 or 6 and get worse until age 12. They often improve during adulthood.

  4. Motor Vehicle Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... these crashes is one part of motor vehicle safety. Here are some things you can do to ... speed or drive aggressively Don't drive impaired Safety also involves being aware of others. Share the ...

  5. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  6. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  7. Booster separation motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, testing, evaluation and flight qualification of the space shuttle booster separation motor is discussed. Delivery of flight hardware to support the research and development flights of the space shuttle is discussed.

  8. Gigahertz resonance characteristics of nanotube linear motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jeong-Won; Choi, Young Gyu; Ryu, Gi Han; Won, Chung Sang

    2008-08-01

    We investigated a linear carbon nanotube motor serving as the key building block for nanoscale motion control by using molecular dynamics simulations. This linear nanomotor, is based on the electrostatically telescoping multi-walled carbon-nanotube with ultralow intershell sliding friction, is controlled by the gate potential with the capacitance feedback sensing. The resonant harmonic peaks are induced by the interference between the driving frequencies and its self-frequency. The temperature is very important factor to operate this nanomotor.

  9. Cooperative protofilament switching emerges from inter-motor interference in multiple-motor transport.

    PubMed

    Ando, David; Mattson, Michelle K; Xu, Jing; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Within living cells, the transport of cargo is accomplished by groups of molecular motors. Such collective transport could utilize mechanisms which emerge from inter-motor interactions in ways that are yet to be fully understood. Here we combined experimental measurements of two-kinesin transport with a theoretical framework to investigate the functional ramifications of inter-motor interactions on individual motor function and collective cargo transport. In contrast to kinesin's low sidestepping frequency when present as a single motor, with exactly two kinesins per cargo, we observed substantial motion perpendicular to the microtubule. Our model captures a surface-associated mode of kinesin, which is only accessible via inter-motor interference in groups, in which kinesin diffuses along the microtubule surface and rapidly "hops" between protofilaments without dissociating from the microtubule. Critically, each kinesin transitions dynamically between the active stepping mode and this weak surface-associated mode enhancing local exploration of the microtubule surface, possibly enabling cellular cargos to overcome macromolecular crowding and to navigate obstacles along microtubule tracks without sacrificing overall travel distance. PMID:25434968

  10. High Power Density Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    With the growing concerns of global warming, the need for pollution-free vehicles is ever increasing. Pollution-free flight is one of NASA's goals for the 21" Century. , One method of approaching that goal is hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbo- generators to develop electric power that can drive electric motors that turn the aircraft's propulsive fans or propellers. Hydrogen fuel would likely be carried as a liquid, stored in tanks at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are far too heavy (for a given horsepower) to use on aircraft. Fortunately the liquid hydrogen fuel can provide essentially free refrigeration that can be used to cool the windings of motors before the hydrogen is used for fuel. Either High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) or high purity metals such as copper or aluminum may be used in the motor windings. Superconductors have essentially zero electrical resistance to steady current. The electrical resistance of high purity aluminum or copper near liquid hydrogen temperature can be l/lOO* or less of the room temperature resistance. These conductors could provide higher motor efficiency than normal room-temperature motors achieve. But much more importantly, these conductors can carry ten to a hundred times more current than copper conductors do in normal motors operating at room temperature. This is a consequence of the low electrical resistance and of good heat transfer coefficients in boiling LH2. Thus the conductors can produce higher magnetic field strengths and consequently higher motor torque and power. Designs, analysis and actual cryogenic motor tests show that such cryogenic motors could produce three or more times as much power per unit weight as turbine engines can, whereas conventional motors produce only 1/5 as much power per weight as turbine engines. This summer work has been done with Litz wire to maximize the current density. The current is limited by the amount of heat it

  11. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  12. Rocket Motor Microphone Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, Debbie; Herrera, Eric; Gee, Kent L.; Giraud, Jerom H.; Young, Devin J.

    2010-01-01

    At ATK's facility in Utah, large full-scale solid rocket motors are tested. The largest is a five-segment version of the reusable solid rocket motor, which is for use on the Ares I launch vehicle. As a continuous improvement project, ATK and BYU investigated the use of microphones on these static tests, the vibration and temperature to which the instruments are subjected, and in particular the use of vent tubes and the effects these vents have at low frequencies.

  13. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  14. Kinesin superfamily motor proteins and intracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Nobutaka; Noda, Yasuko; Tanaka, Yosuke; Niwa, Shinsuke

    2009-10-01

    Intracellular transport is fundamental for cellular function, survival and morphogenesis. Kinesin superfamily proteins (also known as KIFs) are important molecular motors that directionally transport various cargos, including membranous organelles, protein complexes and mRNAs. The mechanisms by which different kinesins recognize and bind to specific cargos, as well as how kinesins unload cargo and determine the direction of transport, have now been identified. Furthermore, recent molecular genetic experiments have uncovered important and unexpected roles for kinesins in the regulation of such physiological processes as higher brain function, tumour suppression and developmental patterning. These findings open exciting new areas of kinesin research. PMID:19773780

  15. Patterns and intrinsic fluctuations in semi-dilute motor-filament systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Karpeev, D.; Northwestern Univ.; UMR CNRS Gulliver

    2010-04-01

    We perform Brownian dynamics simulations of molecular motor-induced ordering and structure formations in semi-dilute cytoskeletal filament solutions. In contrast to the previously studied dilute case where binary filament interactions prevail, the semi-dilute regime is characterized by multiple motor-mediated interactions. Moreover, the forces and torques exerted by motors on filaments are intrinsically fluctuating quantities. We incorporate the influences of thermal and motor fluctuations into our model as additive and multiplicative noises, respectively. Numerical simulations reveal that filament bundles and vortices emerge from a disordered initial state. Subsequent analysis of motor noise effects reveals: (i) Pattern formation is very robust against fluctuations in motor force; (ii) bundle formation is associated with a significant reduction of the motor fluctuation contributions; (iii) the time scale of vortex formation and coalescence decreases with increases in motor noise amplitude.

  16. Rationales for improving motor function.

    PubMed

    Hummelsheim, H

    1999-12-01

    New findings in basic neuroscience, and the growing knowledge regarding neuroplasticity and motor learning have exerted influence and have provided stimuli for motor rehabilitation research. Repeated motor practice has been identified as crucial for motor recovery. Further novel and scientifically based therapeutic approaches have been developed: constraint-induced movement therapy, electromyogram-initiated neuromuscular stimulation, motor imagery and music therapy are all discussed in the present review. PMID:10676751

  17. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    SciTech Connect

    Colberg, Peter H. Kapral, Raymond

    2015-11-14

    Self-propelled chemically powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. This paper considers even smaller Ångström-size synthetic motors. Such very small motors in bulk solution display effects arising from their self-propulsion. Recent experiments have shown that small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to their chemical activity. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of very small Ångström-size synthetic chemically powered sphere-dimer motors in a simple atomic-like solvent confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent depletion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation, and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research provides information needed for potential applications that use molecular-scale motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

  18. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  19. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  20. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-03-01

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force-velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the 'tug-of-war' of the multiple opposing motors.

  1. Robust transport by multiple motors with nonlinear force–velocity relations and stochastic load sharing

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ambarish; Mogilner, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Transport by processive molecular motors plays an important role in many cell biological phenomena. In many cases, motors work together to transport cargos in the cell, so it is important to understand the mechanics of the multiple motors. Based on earlier modeling efforts, here we study effects of nonlinear force–velocity relations and stochastic load sharing on multiple motor transport. We find that when two or three motors transport the cargo, then the nonlinear and stochastic effects compensate so that the mechanical properties of the transport are robust. Similarly, the transport is insensitive to compliance of the cargo-motor links. Furthermore, the rate of movement against moderate loads is not improved by increasing the small number of motors. When the motor number is greater than 4, correlations between the motors become negligible, and the earlier analytical mean-field theory of the multiple motor transport holds. We predict that the effective diffusion of the cargo driven by the multiple motors under load increases by an order of magnitude compared to that for the single motor. Finally, our simulations predict that the stochastic effects are responsible for a significant dispersion of velocities generated by the ‘tug-of-war’ of the multiple opposing motors. PMID:20147778

  2. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mu-Jie; Kapral, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  3. A catalytic oligomeric motor that walks along a filament track

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Mu-Jie Kapral, Raymond

    2015-06-28

    Most biological motors in the cell execute chemically powered conformational changes as they walk on biopolymer filaments in order to carry out directed transport functions. Synthetic motors that operate in a similar manner are being studied since they have the potential to perform similar tasks in a variety of applications. In this paper, a synthetic nanomotor that moves along a filament track, without invoking motor conformational changes, is constructed and its properties are studied in detail. The motor is an oligomer comprising three linked beads with specific binding properties. The filament track is a stiff polymer chain, also described by a linear chain of linked coarse-grained molecular groups modeled as beads. Reactions on the filament that are catalyzed by a motor bead and use fuel in the environment, in conjunction within the binding affinities of the motor beads to the filament beads, lead to directed motion. The system operates out of equilibrium due to the state of the filament and supply of fuel. The motor, filament, and surrounding medium are all described at microscopic level that permits a full analysis of the motor motion. A stochastic model that captures the main trends seen in the simulations is also presented. The results of this study point to some of the key features that could be used to construct nanomotors that undergo biased walks powered by chemical reactions on filaments.

  4. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  5. Motor considerations for turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Halfpap, R.F.; Brotherhood, R. )

    1995-02-01

    Customers who use large rotating equipment realize motors can be subjected to hostile environmental conditions, nonstandard voltage levels and a variety of load requirements. The motor specifications they write reflect this change and have become far more detailed. Too often in the past, when large projects were being organized and highly technical equipment purchased, induction motors were thought of as standard pieces of equipment not requiring much in the way of specialized design. High-speed compressor applications are good examples of the need for specific compressor torque characteristics and starting requirements to allow for proper motor design. Not only different compressor designs, but adjustments in compressor valves and changes in gas process conditions, can produce a diversity of speed-torque curves. Therefore, it is not practical for a motor designer to be told to assume a standard compressor load torque during acceleration. An example of compressor speed-torque curves illustrates this point. The paper also presents the example of centrifugal pumps to further illustrate the need for properly matching driver torque and power requirements.

  6. Magnetostrictive direct drive motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Highly magnetostrictive materials such as Tb.3Dy.7Fe2, commercially known as TERFENOL-D, have been used to date in a variety of devices such as high power actuators and linear motors. The larger magnetostriction available in twinned single crystal TERFENOL-D, approx. 2000 ppm at moderate magnetic field strengths, makes possible a new generation of magnetomechanical devices. NASA researchers are studying the potential of this material as the basis for a direct microstepping rotary motor with torque densities on the order of industrial hydraulics and five times greater than that of the most efficient, high power electric motors. Such a motor would be a micro-radian stepper, capable of precision movements and self-braking in the power-off state. Innovative mechanical engineering techniques are juxtaposed on proper magnetic circuit design to reduce losses in structural flexures, inertias, thermal expansions, eddy currents, and magneto-mechanical coupling, thus optimizing motor performance and efficiency. Mathematical models are presented, including magnetic, structural, and both linear and nonlinear dynamic calculations and simulations. In addition, test results on prototypes are presented.

  7. An autonomous chemically fuelled small-molecule motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Miriam R.; Solà, Jordi; Carlone, Armando; Goldup, Stephen M.; Lebrasseur, Nathalie; Leigh, David A.

    2016-06-01

    Molecular machines are among the most complex of all functional molecules and lie at the heart of nearly every biological process. A number of synthetic small-molecule machines have been developed, including molecular muscles, synthesizers, pumps, walkers, transporters and light-driven and electrically driven rotary motors. However, although biological molecular motors are powered by chemical gradients or the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), so far there are no synthetic small-molecule motors that can operate autonomously using chemical energy (that is, the components move with net directionality as long as a chemical fuel is present). Here we describe a system in which a small molecular ring (macrocycle) is continuously transported directionally around a cyclic molecular track when powered by irreversible reactions of a chemical fuel, 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride. Key to the design is that the rate of reaction of this fuel with reactive sites on the cyclic track is faster when the macrocycle is far from the reactive site than when it is near to it. We find that a bulky pyridine-based catalyst promotes carbonate-forming reactions that ratchet the displacement of the macrocycle away from the reactive sites on the track. Under reaction conditions where both attachment and cleavage of the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl groups occur through different processes, and the cleavage reaction occurs at a rate independent of macrocycle location, net directional rotation of the molecular motor continues for as long as unreacted fuel remains. We anticipate that autonomous chemically fuelled molecular motors will find application as engines in molecular nanotechnology.

  8. An autonomous chemically fuelled small-molecule motor.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Miriam R; Solà, Jordi; Carlone, Armando; Goldup, Stephen M; Lebrasseur, Nathalie; Leigh, David A

    2016-06-01

    Molecular machines are among the most complex of all functional molecules and lie at the heart of nearly every biological process. A number of synthetic small-molecule machines have been developed, including molecular muscles, synthesizers, pumps, walkers, transporters and light-driven and electrically driven rotary motors. However, although biological molecular motors are powered by chemical gradients or the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), so far there are no synthetic small-molecule motors that can operate autonomously using chemical energy (that is, the components move with net directionality as long as a chemical fuel is present). Here we describe a system in which a small molecular ring (macrocycle) is continuously transported directionally around a cyclic molecular track when powered by irreversible reactions of a chemical fuel, 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride. Key to the design is that the rate of reaction of this fuel with reactive sites on the cyclic track is faster when the macrocycle is far from the reactive site than when it is near to it. We find that a bulky pyridine-based catalyst promotes carbonate-forming reactions that ratchet the displacement of the macrocycle away from the reactive sites on the track. Under reaction conditions where both attachment and cleavage of the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl groups occur through different processes, and the cleavage reaction occurs at a rate independent of macrocycle location, net directional rotation of the molecular motor continues for as long as unreacted fuel remains. We anticipate that autonomous chemically fuelled molecular motors will find application as engines in molecular nanotechnology. PMID:27279219

  9. Molecular-beam gas-sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. S.; Knuth, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    A molecular beam mass spectrometer system for rocket motor combustion chamber sampling is described. The history of the sampling system is reviewed. The problems associated with rocket motor combustion chamber sampling are reported. Several design equations are presented. The results of the experiments include the effects of cooling water flow rates, the optimum separation gap between the end plate and sampling nozzle, and preliminary data on compositions in a rocket motor combustion chamber.

  10. Micromachine Wedge Stepping Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.J.; Schriner, H.K.

    1998-11-04

    A wedge stepping motor, which will index a mechanism, has been designed and fabricated in the surface rnicromachine SUMMiT process. This device has demonstrated the ability to index one gear tooth at a time with speeds up to 205 teeth/see. The wedge stepper motor has the following features, whi:h will be useful in a number of applications. o The ability to precisely position mechanical components. . Simple pulse signals can be used for operation. o Only 2 drive signals are requixed for operation. o Torque and precision capabilities increase with device size . The device to be indexed is restrained at all times by the wedge shaped tooth that is used for actuation. This paper will discuss the theory of operation and desi=m of the wedge stepping motor. The fabrication and testing of I he device will also be presented.

  11. Rocket motor aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, U. G.; Strahle, W. C.

    1983-10-01

    Vibration problems in solid propellant rocket motors are investigated. A class of interior flows modelled to simulate flow conditions inside rocket motor cavities is considered. Turbulence generated pressure fluctuations are shown to consist of two components - acoustic and hydrodynamics. The Bernoulli enthalpy theory of aeroacoustics is employed to extract acoustic pressure spectra from experimentally obtained turbulence data and acoustic impedance values at flow boundaries. The effects of turbulence intensities, sidewall acoustic impedance, axial mass blowing distribution, length to diameter ratio of the cavity and different mass flux on the acoustic pressure level are investigated. Typical pressure levels, under rocket motor conditions, are calculated using the A/B model of propellant response. Estimates of the hydrodynamic component of the pressure fluctuation are provided for the case of fully developed turbulent pipe flow terminated by a choked nozzle.

  12. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  13. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    Developing magnetostrictive direct drive research motors to power robot joints is discussed. These type motors are expected to produce extraordinary torque density, to be able to perform microradian incremental steps and to be self-braking and safe with the power off. Several types of motor designs have been attempted using magnetostrictive materials. One of the candidate approaches (the magnetostrictive roller drive) is described. The method in which the design will function is described as is the reason why this approach is inherently superior to the other approaches. Following this, the design will be modelled and its expected performance predicted. This particular candidate design is currently undergoing detailed engineering with prototype construction and testing scheduled for mid 1991.

  14. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  15. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training: a comparison between motor execution and motor imagery of sequential finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hang; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2011-03-01

    Motor imagery training, as an effective strategy, has been more and more applied to mental disorders rehabilitation and motor skill learning. Studies on the neural mechanism underlying motor imagery have suggested that such effectiveness may be related to the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery. However, as compared to the studies on motor imagery, the studies on motor imagery training are much fewer. The functional alterations associated with motor imagery training and the effectiveness of motor imagery training on motor performance improvement still needs further investigation. Using fMRI, we employed a sequential finger tapping paradigm to explore the functional alterations associated with motor imagery training in both motor execution and motor imagery task. We hypothesized through 14 consecutive days motor imagery training, the motor performance could be improved and the functional congruence between motor execution and motor imagery would be sustained form pre-training phase to post-training phase. Our results confirmed the effectiveness of motor imagery training in improving motor performance and demonstrated in both pre and post-training phases, motor imagery and motor execution consistently sustained the congruence in functional neuroanatomy, including SMA (supplementary motor cortex), PMA (premotor area); M1( primary motor cortex) and cerebellum. Moreover, for both execution and imagery tasks, a similar functional alteration was observed in fusiform through motor imagery training. These findings provided an insight into the effectiveness of motor imagery training and suggested its potential therapeutic value in motor rehabilitation.

  16. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  17. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.

  18. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  19. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  1. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  2. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b)...

  3. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  4. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOEpatents

    Kueck, John D.; Otaduy, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  5. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives - Motor Tip Sheet #13

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Alternating current electric motors rotate at a nearly constant speed that is determined by motor design and line frequency. Energy savings of 50% or more may be available when fixed speed systems are modified to allow the motor speed to match variable load requirements of a centrifugal fan or pump.

  6. Electric motor model repair specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    These model repair specifications list the minimum requirements for repair and overhaul of polyphase AC squireel cage induction motors. All power ranges, voltages, and speeds of squirrel cage motors are covered.

  7. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  8. Perceptual-Motor Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Jean L.

    Discussed are theoretical and treatment aspects of perceptual motor dysfunction and rehabilitation in 4- to 12-year-old academically failing children involved in a 3-year investigation at the University of Kansas. The program is said to stress increasing the amount of stimulation received by sensory receptors of the vestibular, reflex, and haptic…

  9. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  10. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  11. Solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Ronn L.

    1993-01-01

    Structural requirements, materials and, especially, processing are critical issues that will pace the introduction of new types of solid rocket motors. Designers must recognize and understand the drivers associated with each of the following considerations: (1) cost; (2) energy density; (3) long term storage with use on demand; (4) reliability; (5) safety of processing and handling; (6) operability; and (7) environmental acceptance.

  12. Velocity Fluctuations in Kinesin-1 Gliding Motility Assays Originate in Motor Attachment Geometry Variations.

    PubMed

    Palacci, Henri; Idan, Ofer; Armstrong, Megan J; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Nitta, Takahiro; Hess, Henry

    2016-08-01

    Motor proteins such as myosin and kinesin play a major role in cellular cargo transport, muscle contraction, cell division, and engineered nanodevices. Quantifying the collective behavior of coupled motors is critical to our understanding of these systems. An excellent model system is the gliding motility assay, where hundreds of surface-adhered motors propel one cytoskeletal filament such as an actin filament or a microtubule. The filament motion can be observed using fluorescence microscopy, revealing fluctuations in gliding velocity. These velocity fluctuations have been previously quantified by a motional diffusion coefficient, which Sekimoto and Tawada explained as arising from the addition and removal of motors from the linear array of motors propelling the filament as it advances, assuming that different motors are not equally efficient in their force generation. A computational model of kinesin head diffusion and binding to the microtubule allowed us to quantify the heterogeneity of motor efficiency arising from the combination of anharmonic tail stiffness and varying attachment geometries assuming random motor locations on the surface and an absence of coordination between motors. Knowledge of the heterogeneity allows the calculation of the proportionality constant between the motional diffusion coefficient and the motor density. The calculated value (0.3) is within a standard error of our measurements of the motional diffusion coefficient on surfaces with varying motor densities calibrated by landing rate experiments. This allowed us to quantify the loss in efficiency of coupled molecular motors arising from heterogeneity in the attachment geometry. PMID:27414063

  13. Self-organized pattern formation in motor-microtubule mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankararaman, Sumithra; Menon, Gautam I.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.

    2004-09-01

    We model the stable self-organized patterns obtained in the nonequilibrium steady states of mixtures of molecular motors and microtubules. In experiments [Nédélec , Nature (London) 389, 305 (1997); Surrey , Science 292, 1167 (2001)] performed in a quasi-two-dimensional geometry, microtubules are oriented by complexes of motor proteins. This interaction yields a variety of patterns, including arrangements of asters, vortices, and disordered configurations. We model this system via a two-dimensional vector field describing the local coarse-grained microtubule orientation and two scalar density fields associated to molecular motors. These scalar fields describe motors which either attach to and move along microtubules or diffuse freely within the solvent. Transitions between single aster, spiral, and vortex states are obtained as a consequence of confinement, as parameters in our model are varied. For systems in which the effects of confinement can be neglected, we present a map of nonequilibrium steady states, which includes arrangements of asters and vortices separately as well as aster-vortex mixtures and fully disordered states. We calculate the steady state distribution of bound and free motors in aster and vortex configurations of microtubules and compare these to our simulation results, providing qualitative arguments for the stability of different patterns in various regimes of parameter space. We study the role of crowding or “saturation” effects on the density profiles of motors in asters, discussing the role of such effects in stabilizing single asters. We also comment on the implications of our results for experiments.

  14. Rotary torque produced by proton motive force in FoF{sub 1} motor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yinghao; Wang Jun; Cui Yuanbo; Yue Jiachang . E-mail: yuejc@sun5.ibp.ac.cn; Fang Xiaohong

    2005-05-27

    We have attempted direct observation of the light-driven rotation of a FoF{sub 1}-ATP motor. The FoF{sub 1}-ATP motor was co-reconstituted by the deletion-{delta} subunit of FoF{sub 1}-ATP synthase with bacteriorhodopsins (BRs) into a liposome. The BR converts radiation energy into electrochemical gradient of proton to drive the FoF{sub 1}-ATP motor. Therefore, the light-driven rotation of FoF{sub 1}-ATP motor has been directly observed by a fluorescence microscopy using a fluorescent actin filament connected to {beta}-subunit as a marker of its orientation. The rotational torque value of the Fo motor was calculated as 27.93 {+-} 1.88 pN nm. The ATP motor is expected to be a promising rotary molecular motor in the development of nanodevices.

  15. Motor Education: Educational Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansley, A. E.

    This booklet presents educational programs and activities focusing on motor skills for 5- to 9-year-old children and older children with learning problems. The premise of the activities is that the acquisition of motor skills is essential to basic learning. The role of language as a mediator and controller of motor development is emphasized. The…

  16. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  17. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  18. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  19. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  20. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. PMID:24411324

  1. Measuring the Limping of Processive Motor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunxin; Fisher, Michael E.

    2011-04-01

    The cells of all living creatures rely on a host of molecular scale machines to perform vital tasks. In the spirit of this special issue of J. Stat. Phys., we describe briefly the background concerning one class of these machines, namely, processive motor proteins such as, specifically, conventional kinesin, myosin V, and cytoplasmic dynein. These single-molecule motors tow cellular cargoes under load along oriented linear molecular tracks within the cell taking many hundreds of consecutive discrete steps. Experiments aimed at understanding the mechanism of the stepping process have recently led to observations of ``limping" in which alternate steps are found to be slow or fast, respectively. Reliable experimental measurements of the ``true" or intrinsic limping factor, L 0, understood as the ideal overall ratio of the longer dwell times prior to one set of steps to the shorter times for the interlaced steps, provide a route to improving appropriate biomechanochemical models. These, in turn, may help reveal and quantify details of the underlying asymmetric walking mechanisms. However, a difficulty is posed in measuring L 0 by the inescapable thermal fluctuations that act on an individual motor molecule that takes only a finite number, say, n odd and n even steps under fixed load, etc. Accordingly, we treat the stochastic issues theoretically for some basic kinetic motor models and experimental procedures, obtaining various exact bounds and explicit results for distributions and their moments. Typically for n≲10 the observed mean values, < L n >, significantly overestimate L 0. However, the medians and rescaled means, {overline{L}}n^{ *}=< Lnrangle(n-1)/n, provide better guides to the value of L 0 provided it is not too close to unity. Separately, we present figures, a table, and approximate formulas intended to assist practically those designing, undertaking, and assessing experiments on limping.

  2. Motor Controller System For Large Dynamic Range of Motor Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Paulson, Mitchell Scott (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A motor controller system uses a rotary sensor with a plurality of signal conditioning units, coupled to the rotary sensor. Each of these units, which is associated with a particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates, generate a feedback signal indicative of the position of the motor s output shaft. A controller (i) converts a selected motor output shaft rotation rate to a corresponding incremental amount of rotational movement for a selected fixed time period, (ii) selects, at periodic completions of the selected fixed time period, the feedback signal from one of the signal conditioning units for which the particular range of motor output shaft rotation rates associated therewith encompasses the selected motor output shaft rotation rate, and (iii) generates a motor drive signal based on a difference between the incremental amount of rotational movement and the feedback signal from the selected one of the signal conditioning Units.

  3. Motor-driven intracellular transport powers bacterial gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingzhai; Wartel, Morgane; Cascales, Eric; Shaevitz, Joshua W; Mignot, Tâm

    2011-05-01

    Protein-directed intracellular transport has not been observed in bacteria despite the existence of dynamic protein localization and a complex cytoskeleton. However, protein trafficking has clear potential uses for important cellular processes such as growth, development, chromosome segregation, and motility. Conflicting models have been proposed to explain Myxococcus xanthus motility on solid surfaces, some favoring secretion engines at the rear of cells and others evoking an unknown class of molecular motors distributed along the cell body. Through a combination of fluorescence imaging, force microscopy, and genetic manipulation, we show that membrane-bound cytoplasmic complexes consisting of motor and regulatory proteins are directionally transported down the axis of a cell at constant velocity. This intracellular motion is transmitted to the exterior of the cell and converted to traction forces on the substrate. Thus, this study demonstrates the existence of a conserved class of processive intracellular motors in bacteria and shows how these motors have been adapted to produce cell motility. PMID:21482768

  4. Processive cytoskeletal motors studied with single-molecule fluorescence techniques

    PubMed Central

    Belyy, Vladislav; Yildiz, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Processive cytoskeletal motors from the myosin, kinesin, and dynein families walk on actin filaments and microtubules to drive cellular transport and organization in eukaryotic cells. These remarkable molecular machines are able to take hundreds of successive steps at speeds of up to several microns per second, allowing them to effectively move vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm. Here, we focus on single-molecule fluorescence techniques and discuss their wide-ranging applications to the field of cytoskeletal motor research. We cover both traditional fluorescence and sub-diffraction imaging of motors, providing examples of how fluorescence data can be used to measure biophysical parameters of motors such as coordination, stepping mechanism, gating, and processivity. We also outline some remaining challenges in the field and suggest future directions. PMID:24882363

  5. A synthetic DNA motor that transports nanoparticles along carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Tae-Gon; Pan, Jing; Chen, Haorong; Salgado, Janette; Li, Xiang; Mao, Chengde; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular protein motors have evolved to perform specific tasks critical to the function of cells such as intracellular trafficking and cell division. Kinesin and dynein motors, for example, transport cargoes in living cells by walking along microtubules powered by adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. These motors can make discrete 8 nm centre-of-mass steps and can travel over 1 µm by changing their conformations during the course of adenosine triphosphate binding, hydrolysis and product release. Inspired by such biological machines, synthetic analogues have been developed including self-assembled DNA walkers that can make stepwise movements on RNA/DNA substrates or can function as programmable assembly lines. Here, we show that motors based on RNA-cleaving DNA enzymes can transport nanoparticle cargoes--CdS nanocrystals in this case--along single-walled carbon nanotubes. Our motors extract chemical energy from RNA molecules decorated on the nanotubes and use that energy to fuel autonomous, processive walking through a series of conformational changes along the one-dimensional track. The walking is controllable and adapts to changes in the local environment, which allows us to remotely direct `go' and `stop' actions. The translocation of individual motors can be visualized in real time using the visible fluorescence of the cargo nanoparticle and the near-infared emission of the carbon-nanotube track. We observed unidirectional movements of the molecular motors over 3 µm with a translocation velocity on the order of 1 nm min-1 under our experimental conditions.

  6. Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C.

    2010-04-01

    We formulate the 'tug-of-war' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron's dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model).

  7. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Brian J.; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. PMID:24717348

  8. Motor technology for mining applications advances

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15

    AC motors are steadily replacing DC motors in mining and mineral processing equipment, requiring less maintenance. The permanent magnet rotor, or the synchronous motor, has enabled Blador to introduce a line of cooling tower motors. Synchronous motors are soon likely to take over from the induction motor. 1 photo.

  9. Big Savings from Smart Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Chesebrough-Pond's operates 32 plants across the nation and in those plants are more than 10,000 electric motors. In an effort to cut down on waste of electrical power used by these motors, Chesebrough organized a Corporate Advanced Technology Group to devise ways of improving productivity and cut manufacturing costs. Chesebrough used NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Power Factor Controller technology as a departure point for development of their own computerized motor controller that enables motors to operate at maximum efficiency regardless of the motor's applications or operating condition.

  10. Current-Driven Supramolecular Motor with In Situ Surface Chiral Directionality Switching.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Puneet; Hill, Jonathan P; Vijayaraghavan, Saranyan; Van Rossom, Wim; Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Grisolia, Maricarmen; Echeverria, Jorge; Ono, Teruo; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Joachim, Christian; Uchihashi, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Surface-supported molecular motors are nanomechanical devices of particular interest in terms of future nanoscale applications. However, the molecular motors realized so far consist of covalently bonded groups that cannot be reconfigured without undergoing a chemical reaction. Here we demonstrate that a platinum-porphyrin-based supramolecularly assembled dimer supported on a Au(111) surface can be rotated with high directionality using the tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Rotational direction of this molecular motor is determined solely by the surface chirality of the dimer, and most importantly, the chirality can be inverted in situ through a process involving an intradimer rearrangement. Our result opens the way for the construction of complex molecular machines on a surface to mimic at a smaller scale versatile biological supramolecular motors. PMID:26098301

  11. Wholly Synthetic Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-06-17

    The past quarter of a century has witnessed an increasing engagement on the part of physicists and chemists in the design and synthesis of molecular machines de novo. This minireview traces the development of artificial molecular machines from their prototypes in the form of shuttles and switches to their emergence as motors and pumps where supplies of energy in the form of chemical fuel, electrochemical potential and light activation become a minimum requirement for them to function away from equilibrium. The challenge facing this rapidly growing community of scientists and engineers today is one of putting wholly synthetic molecules to work, both individually and as collections. Here, we highlight some of the recent conceptual and practical advances relating to the operation of wholly synthetic rotary and linear motors. PMID:26833859

  12. Prospective errors determine motor learning.

    PubMed

    Takiyama, Ken; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    Diverse features of motor learning have been reported by numerous studies, but no single theoretical framework concurrently accounts for these features. Here, we propose a model for motor learning to explain these features in a unified way by extending a motor primitive framework. The model assumes that the recruitment pattern of motor primitives is determined by the predicted movement error of an upcoming movement (prospective error). To validate this idea, we perform a behavioural experiment to examine the model's novel prediction: after experiencing an environment in which the movement error is more easily predictable, subsequent motor learning should become faster. The experimental results support our prediction, suggesting that the prospective error might be encoded in the motor primitives. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this model has a strong explanatory power to reproduce a wide variety of motor-learning-related phenomena that have been separately explained by different computational models. PMID:25635628

  13. Motor proficiency relationships among siblings.

    PubMed

    Wrotniak, Brian H; Salvy, Sarah J; Lazarus, Laura; Epstein, Leonard H

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motor proficiency relations of siblings. 23 sibling pairs ages 5 to 13 years were studied. Motor proficiency was assessed by the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Short Form of 14 items, adjusting for Body Mass Index percentile, age, and sex. The association among siblings' overall motor proficiency was not statistically significant. When each of the 14 items in the test was examined separately, significant associations were found. Items positively associated among siblings included walking on a balance beam, tapping feet and making circles, and sorting shape cards. Copying a picture of overlapping pencils and making dots in circles were inversely related. The results indicate that siblings may share certain motor-skill components of balance, bilateral coordination, and upper limb speed or dexterity, but do not necessarily have the same global motor competence. Additional research is needed to explain relations in motor skills among siblings. PMID:19425452

  14. Motor learning by observing.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Gribble, Paul L

    2005-04-01

    Learning complex motor behaviors like riding a bicycle or swinging a golf club is based on acquiring neural representations of the mechanical requirements of movement (e.g., coordinating muscle forces to control the club). Here we provide evidence that mechanisms matching observation and action facilitate motor learning. Subjects who observed a video depicting another person learning to reach in a novel mechanical environment (imposed by a robot arm) performed better when later tested in the same environment than subjects who observed similar movements but no learning; moreover, subjects who observed learning of a different environment performed worse. We show that this effect is not based on conscious strategies but instead depends on the implicit engagement of neural systems for movement planning and control. PMID:15820701

  15. Dynamically Timed Electric Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor. a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  16. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  17. Dynamically timed electric motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Ann M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention disclosed in this document is a brushless DC motor including a housing having an end cap secured thereto. The housing encloses a rotor, a stator and a rotationally displaceable commutation board having 5 sensors secured thereon and spaced around the periphery of the rotor. An external rotational force is applied to the commutation board for displacement of the sensors to various positions whereby varying feedback signals are generated by the positioning of the sensors relative to the rotating rotor. The commutation board is secured in a fixed position in response to feedback signals indicative of optimum sensor position being determined. The rotation of the commutation board and the securing of the sensors in the desired fixed position is accomplished without requiring the removal of the 5 end cap and with the DC motor operating.

  18. Motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for understanding motor skill and the process by which it is acquired. A selective historical overview is presented to demonstrate how the study of movement is a necessary preliminary to the study of motor skill learning. The phenomenon of skill is explored as an inherent feature of goal-directed organisms whose effective functioning depends on achieving a degree of competence in solving problems that are encountered in the everyday world. The relationship between problems and solutions is discussed. Movement is examined as a problem-solving tool and as the means by which the individual expresses skill. Factors that influence the individual's level of skill are fully explored, along with the implications for functional behavior. The creative use of resources in problem solving is thoroughly examined, and tasks are discussed in terms of the demands imposed on the individual. PMID:1989008

  19. Advanced Motor Drives Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsani, M.; Tchamdjou, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of advanced motor drive systems as a replacement for the hydrazine fueled APU units. The replacement technology must meet several requirements which are particular to the space applications and the Orbiter in general. Some of these requirements are high efficiency, small size, high power density. In the first part of the study several motors are compared, based on their characteristics and in light of the Orbiter requirements. The best candidate, the brushless DC is chosen because of its particularly good performance with regards to efficiency. Several power electronics drive technologies including the conventional three-phase hard switched and several soft-switched inverters are then presented. In the last part of the study, a soft-switched inverter is analyzed and compared to its conventional hard-switched counterpart. Optimal efficiency is a basic requirement for space applications and the soft-switched technology represents an unavoidable trend for the future.

  20. Ironless armature torque motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four iron-less armature torque motors, four Hall device position sensor assemblies, and two test fixtures were fabricated. The design approach utilized samarium cobalt permanent magnets, a large airgap, and a three-phase winding in a stationary ironless armature. Hall devices were employed to sense rotor position. An ironless armature torque motor having an outer diameter of 4.25 inches was developed to produce a torque constant of 65 ounce-inches per ampere with a resistance of 20.5 ohms. The total weight, including structural elements, was 1.58 pounds. Test results indicated that all specifications were met except for generated voltage waveform. It is recommended that investigations be made concerning the generated voltage waveform to determine if it may be improved.

  1. Libert-E Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  2. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  3. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components and with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives functionally-required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g. powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf life characteristics.

  4. EPDM rocket motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, David G. (Inventor); Harvey, Albert R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A novel and improved EPDM formulation for a solid propellant rocket motor is described wherein hexadiene EPDM monomer components are replaced by alkylidene norbornene components, and, with appropriate adjustment of curing and other additives, functionally required rheological and physical characteristics are achieved with the desired compatibility with any one of a plurality of solid filler materials, e.g., powder silica, carbon fibers or aramid fibers, and with appropriate adhesion and extended storage or shelf-life characteristics.

  5. Hydraulic motor for cars

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, D.C.

    1986-09-02

    A hydraulic motor for a car is described comprising, in combination, an automotive vehicle engine for travel self-propulsion, including a block, a plurality of cylinders in the block, a piston slidable in each cylinder, a crankshaft in the block, a piston rod connected between the crankshaft and each of the pistons, a power take-off gear on the crankshaft for the travel self-propulsion, and the engine including a hydraulic means for driving the pistons in the cylinders.

  6. The St. Louis Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-10-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock of them in the back room.

  7. Dyspraxia, motor function and visual-motor integration in autism.

    PubMed

    Miller, M; Chukoskie, L; Zinni, M; Townsend, J; Trauner, D

    2014-08-01

    This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis. PMID:24742861

  8. Dyspraxia, Motor Function and Visual-Motor Integration in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M.; Chukoskie, L.; Zinni, M.; Townsend, J.; Trauner, D.

    2014-01-01

    This project assessed dyspraxia in high-functioning school aged children with autism with a focus on Ideational Praxis. We examined the association of specific underlying motor function including eye movement with ideational dyspraxia (sequences of skilled movements) as well as the possible role of visual-motor integration in dyspraxia. We found that compared to IQ-, sex- and age-matched typically developing children, the children with autism performed significantly worse on: Ideational and Buccofacial praxis; a broad range of motor tests, including measures of simple motor skill, timing and accuracy of saccadic eye movements and motor coordination; and tests of visual-motor integration. Impairments in individual children with autism were heterogeneous in nature, although when we examined the praxis data as a function of a qualitative measure representing motor timing, we found that children with poor motor timing performed worse on all praxis categories and had slower and less accurate eye movements while those with regular timing performed as well as typical children on those same tasks. Our data provide evidence that both motor function and visual-motor integration contribute to dyspraxia. We suggest that dyspraxia in autism involves cerebellar mechanisms of movement control and the integration of these mechanisms with cortical networks implicated in praxis. PMID:24742861

  9. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  10. Performance Comparison between a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor and an Induction Motor as a Traction Motor for High Speed Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Minoru; Kawamura, Junya; Terauchi, Nobuo

    Performance tests are carried out to demonstrate the superiority of a permanent magnet synchronous motor to an induction motor as a traction motor for high-speed train. A prototype motor was manufactured by replacing the rotor of a conventional induction motor. The test results show that the permanent magnet motor is lighter, efficient and more silent than the induction motor because of the different rotor structure.

  11. Coordinated Switching of Bacterial Flagellar Motors: Evidence for Direct Motor-Motor Coupling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Tu, Yuhai

    2013-04-01

    The swimming of Escherichia coli is powered by its multiple flagellar motors. Each motor spins either clockwise or counterclockwise, under the control of an intracellular regulator, CheY-P. There can be two mechanisms (extrinsic and intrinsic) to coordinate the switching of bacterial motors. The extrinsic one arises from the fact that different motors in the same cell sense a common input (CheY-P) which fluctuates near the motors’ response threshold. An alternative, intrinsic mechanism is direct motor-motor coupling which makes synchronized switching energetically favorable. Here, we develop simple models for both mechanisms and uncover their different hallmarks. A quantitative comparison to the recent experiments suggests that the direct coupling mechanism may be accountable for the observed sharp correlation between motors in a single Escherichia coli. Possible origins of this coupling (e.g., hydrodynamic interaction) are discussed.

  12. Wind motor applications for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Lysenko, G.P.; Grigoriev, B.V.; Karpin, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    Motion equation for a vehicle equipped with a wind motor allows, taking into account the drag coefficients, to determine the optimal wind drag velocity in the wind motor`s plane, and hence, obtain all the necessary data for the wind wheel blades geometrical parameters definition. This optimal drag velocity significantly differs from the flow drag velocity which determines the maximum wind motor power. Solution of the motion equation with low drag coefficients indicates that the vehicle speed against the wind may be twice as the wind speed. One of possible transportation wind motor applications is its use on various ships. A ship with such a wind motor may be substantially easier to steer, and if certain devices are available, may proceed in autonomous control mode. Besides, it is capable of moving within narrow fairways. The cruise speed of a sailing boat and wind-motored ship were compared provided that the wind velocity direction changes along a harmonic law with regard to the motion direction. Mean dimensionless speed of the wind-motored ship appears to be by 20--25% higher than that of a sailing boat. There was analyzed a possibility of using the wind motors on planet rovers in Mars or Venus atmospheric conditions. A Mars rover power and motor system has been assessed for the power level of 3 kW.

  13. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

    2006-09-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  14. Stepwise translocation of nucleic acid motors

    PubMed Central

    Myong, Sua; Ha, Taekjip

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent single molecule studies have made a significant contribution to the understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in the movement of motor proteins which process DNA and RNA. Measurement of stepsize in two disparate motors, NS3 helicase and ribosome both revealed three basepair steps which consist of three hidden substeps. Combined with previous structural studies, NS3 is likely taking a single nucleotide step of translocation coupled to one ATP binding event and this mode may be conserved in multitude of helicases. Such a stepwise translocation movement appears to occur through main contacts with the phosphate backbone. Double stranded RNA and DNA motor, RIG-I and Φ29 respectively showed translocation on a duplex while tracking exclusively a single stranded RNA/DNA in a directional manner, 5′ to 3′ in both cases. Spontaneous dynamics displayed by ribosome ratcheting and SSB (single stranded DNA binding protein) diffusing on DNA were rectified by interacting cofactors and proteins, EF-G and RecA respectively. PMID:20061135

  15. Flagellar motor based micro hybrid devices.

    PubMed

    Tung, S; Kim, J-W

    2004-01-01

    We are in the process of developing a series of micro hybrid devices based on tethered flagellar motors. Examples of the devices include a microfluidic pump and a micro AC dynamo. The microfluidic pump is realized through the tethering of a harmless strain of Escherichia coli cells to a MEMS based micro channel. Each E. coli cell is about 3 mum long and 1 mum in diameter, with several flagella that are driven at the base by molecular rotary motors. The operational principle of the micro pump is based on the viscous pumping effect where continuous rotation of the tethered cells forms a fluidic conveyor belt that 'drags' fluid from one end of the channel to the other. We used hydrodynamic loading to synchronize cell rotation in order to maximize the fluid pumping capability. The micro dynamo is realized through the integration of tethered flagellar motors with micro ferromagnetic beads and micro copper coils. The micro dynamo generates AC power by using the tethered cells to create a rotating magnetic field around the copper coils. Preliminary result indicates a high power density when compared to other biologically based micro power generators. PMID:17270806

  16. Force per cross-sectional area from molecules to muscles: a general property of biological motors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    We propose to formally extend the notion of specific tension, i.e. force per cross-sectional area—classically used for muscles, to quantify forces in molecular motors exerting various biological functions. In doing so, we review and compare the maximum tensions exerted by about 265 biological motors operated by about 150 species of different taxonomic groups. The motors considered range from single molecules and motile appendages of microorganisms to whole muscles of large animals. We show that specific tensions exerted by molecular and non-molecular motors follow similar statistical distributions, with in particular, similar medians and (logarithmic) means. Over the 1019 mass (M) range of the cell or body from which the motors are extracted, their specific tensions vary as Mα with α not significantly different from zero. The typical specific tension found in most motors is about 200 kPa, which generalizes to individual molecular motors and microorganisms a classical property of macroscopic muscles. We propose a basic order-of-magnitude interpretation of this result. PMID:27493785

  17. Multimotor Driven Cargos: From Single Motor under Load to the Role of Motor-Motor Coupling.

    PubMed

    Peker, Itay; Granek, Rony

    2016-07-01

    Motor proteins constitute an essential part of the cellular machinery. They have been the subject of intensive studies in the past two decades. Yet, when several motors simultaneously carry a single cargo, the effect of motor-motor coupling, such as mutual stalling and jamming, remains unclear. We commence by constructing a general model for single motor motion, which is a product of a derived load-dependent expression and a phenomenological motor specific function. Forming the latter according to recent single molecule measurements for a given load, the model correctly predicts the motor full step-size distribution for all other measured loads. We then use our proposed model to predict transport properties of multimotor complexes, with particular attention to 1-dimensional constructs with variable flexibility, motor density, and number of motors: (i) a chain of motors connected by springs, a recently studied construction of a pair, and (ii) an array of motors all connected by identical springs to a stiff rod, which is essentially a mirror image of standard gliding motility assays. In both systems, and for any number of carrying motors, we find that, while low flexibility results in a strongly damped velocity, increased flexibility renders an almost single motor velocity. Comparing our model based simulations to recent gliding assays we find remarkable qualitative agreement. We also demonstrate consistency with other multimotor motility assays. In all cases, the characteristic spring constant, that controls the crossover behavior between high and low velocity regimes, is found to be the stalling force divided by the mean step size. We conjecture that this characteristic spring constant can serve as a tool for engineering multimotor complexes. PMID:27044876

  18. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  19. Redundant motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A drive system characterized by a base supporting a pair of pillars arranged in spaced parallelism, a shaft extended between and supported by the pillars for rotation about the longitudinal axis thereof, a worm gear affixed to the shaft and supported in coaxial relation therewith is described. A bearing housing of a sleeve like configuration is concentrically related to the shaft and is supported thereby for free rotation. A first and a second quiescent drive train, alternatively activatable, is provided for imparting rotation into said bearing housing. Each of the drive trains is characterized by a selectively energizable motor connected to a spur gear.

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Impairs Motor Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Wei; Li, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhao-Tao; Jia, Wei-Qiang; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The cerebellum plays an essential role in balance and motor coordination. Purkinje cells (PCs) are the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex and are critical for the execution of its functions, including motor coordination. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is involved in the innate immune response and is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system; however, little is known about its role in cerebellum-related motor functions. To address this question, we evaluated motor behavior in TLR4 deficient mice. We found that TLR4−∕− mice showed impaired motor coordination. Morphological analyses revealed that TLR4 deficiency was associated with a reduction in the thickness of the molecular layer of the cerebellum. TLR4 was highly expressed in PCs but not in Bergmann glia or cerebellar granule cells; however, loss of TLR4 decreased the number of PCs. These findings suggest a novel role for TLR4 in cerebellum-related motor coordination through maintenance of the PC population. PMID:26909014

  1. Model Studies of the Dynamics of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, F; Lo, C; Berry, R; Xing, J

    2009-03-19

    The Bacterial Flagellar Motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments which propel swimming bacteria. Extensive experimental and theoretical studies exist on the structure, assembly, energy input, power generation and switching mechanism of the motor. In our previous paper, we explained the general physics underneath the observed torque-speed curves with a simple two-state Fokker-Planck model. Here we further analyze this model. In this paper we show (1) the model predicts that the two components of the ion motive force can affect the motor dynamics differently, in agreement with the latest experiment by Lo et al.; (2) with explicit consideration of the stator spring, the model also explains the lack of dependence of the zero-load speed on stator number in the proton motor, recently observed by Yuan and Berg; (3) the model reproduces the stepping behavior of the motor even with the existence of the stator springs and predicts the dwelling time distribution. Predicted stepping behavior of motors with two stators is discussed, and we suggest future experimental verification.

  2. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation. PMID:26274218

  3. Catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation during skeletal muscle contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chenling; Chen, Bin

    2015-07-01

    It is intriguing how multiple molecular motors can perform coordinated and synchronous functions, which is essential in various cellular processes. Recent studies on skeletal muscle might have shed light on this issue, where rather precise motor force regulation was partly attributed to the specific stochastic features of a single attached myosin motor. Though attached motors can randomly detach from actin filaments either through an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis cycle or through "catch-slip bond" breaking, their respective contribution in motor force regulation has not been clarified. Here, through simulating a mechanical model of sarcomere with a coupled Monte Carlo method and finite element method, we find that the stochastic features of an ATP hydrolysis cycle can be sufficient while those of catch-slip bonds can be dispensable for motor force regulation.

  4. [Esophageal motor disturbances in sclerodermia].

    PubMed

    Stanciu, C; Cijevschi, C; Dobrescu, A; Petrescu, Z

    1981-01-01

    By the manometric method the esophageal motility in 14 patients with sclerodermia was studied. All patients presented an esophageal motor dysfunction characterized by the decrease in amplitude of the spohageal contractions, presence of aperistaltic contractions, decrease of basal pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and its incomplete relaxation at deglutition. These esophageal motor disturbances may appear in association or separately in the same patient. The pathogenesis of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia is not yet fully understood. Besides the theoretical interest, the knowledge of the esophageal motor dysfunction in sclerodermia has also a practical value in respect of the tretment which is to be set up. PMID:25528800

  5. Cytoskeletal motor-driven active self-assembly in in vitro systems.

    PubMed

    Lam, A T; VanDelinder, V; Kabir, A M R; Hess, H; Bachand, G D; Kakugo, A

    2016-01-28

    Molecular motor-driven self-assembly has been an active area of soft matter research for the past decade. Because molecular motors transform chemical energy into mechanical work, systems which employ molecular motors to drive self-assembly processes are able to overcome kinetic and thermodynamic limits on assembly time, size, complexity, and structure. Here, we review the progress in elucidating and demonstrating the rules and capabilities of motor-driven active self-assembly. We focus on the types of structures created and the degree of control realized over these structures, and discuss the next steps necessary to achieve the full potential of this assembly mode which complements robotic manipulation and passive self-assembly. PMID:26576824

  6. 76 FR 12792 - Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Petition for Exemption From the Federal Motor Vehicle Motor Theft Prevention Standard; General Motors Corporation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic.... SUMMARY: This document grants in full the petition of General Motors Corporation's (GM) petition for...

  7. Modeling the mechanochemistry of the ϕ29 DNA translocation motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Carrasco, R.; Fiasconaro, A.; Falo, F.; Sancho, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    We present a study of the DNA translocation of the bacteriophage ϕ29 packaging molecular motor. From the available experimental information we present a model system based on a stochastic flashing potential, which reproduces the experimental observations such as detailed trajectories, steps and substeps, spatial correlation, and velocity. Moreover, the model allows the evaluation of the power and efficiency of this motor. We have found that the maximum power regime does not correspond with that of the maximum efficiency. This information can stimulate further experiments.

  8. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in underground...) Small motors (alternating- and direct-current). Motors having internal free volume not exceeding...

  9. Infranuclear ocular motor disorders.

    PubMed

    Lueck, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers the very large number of possible disorders that can affect the three ocular motor nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles. Conditions affecting the nerves are discussed under two major headings: those in which the site of damage can be anatomically localized (e.g., fascicular lesions and lesions occurring in the subarachnoid space, the cavernous sinus, the superior orbital fissure, or the orbit) and those in which the site of the lesion is either nonspecific or variable (e.g., vascular lesions, tumors, "ophthalmoplegic migraine," and congenital disorders). Specific comments on the diagnosis and management of disorders of each of the three nerves follow. Ocular motor synkineses (including Duane's retraction syndrome and aberrant regeneration) and disorders resulting in paroxysms of excess activity (e.g., neuromyotonia) are then covered, followed by myasthenia gravis and other disorders that affect the neuromuscular junction. A final section discusses disorders of the extraocular muscles themselves, including thyroid disease, orbital myositis, mitochondrial disease, and the muscular dystrophies. PMID:21601071

  10. 27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View, looking north, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  11. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. PMID:25463957

  12. Motor power control circuit for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A motor power control of the type which functions by controlling the power factor wherein one of the parameters of power factor current on time is determined by the on time of a triac through which current is supplied to the motor. By means of a positive feedback circuit, a wider range of control is effected.

  13. Motor-operated valve (MOV) actuator motor and gearbox testing

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1997-07-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory tested the performance of electric motors and actuator gearboxes typical of the equipment installed on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plants. Using a test stand that simulates valve closure loads against flow and pressure, the authors tested five electric motors (four ac and one dc) and three gearboxes at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. They also monitored the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. All five motors operated at or above their rated starting torque during tests at normal voltages and temperatures. For all five motors, actual torque losses due to voltage degradation were greater than the losses calculated by methods typically used for predicting motor torque at degraded voltage conditions. For the dc motor the actual torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures were greater than the losses calculated by the typical predictive method. The actual efficiencies of the actuator gearboxes were generally lower than the running efficiencies published by the manufacturer and were generally nearer the published pull-out efficiencies. Operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency.

  14. Motor neurons and the generation of spinal motor neuron diversity

    PubMed Central

    Stifani, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Motor neurons (MNs) are neuronal cells located in the central nervous system (CNS) controlling a variety of downstream targets. This function infers the existence of MN subtypes matching the identity of the targets they innervate. To illustrate the mechanism involved in the generation of cellular diversity and the acquisition of specific identity, this review will focus on spinal MNs (SpMNs) that have been the core of significant work and discoveries during the last decades. SpMNs are responsible for the contraction of effector muscles in the periphery. Humans possess more than 500 different skeletal muscles capable to work in a precise time and space coordination to generate complex movements such as walking or grasping. To ensure such refined coordination, SpMNs must retain the identity of the muscle they innervate. Within the last two decades, scientists around the world have produced considerable efforts to elucidate several critical steps of SpMNs differentiation. During development, SpMNs emerge from dividing progenitor cells located in the medial portion of the ventral neural tube. MN identities are established by patterning cues working in cooperation with intrinsic sets of transcription factors. As the embryo develop, MNs further differentiate in a stepwise manner to form compact anatomical groups termed pools connecting to a unique muscle target. MN pools are not homogeneous and comprise subtypes according to the muscle fibers they innervate. This article aims to provide a global view of MN classification as well as an up-to-date review of the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of SpMN diversity. Remaining conundrums will be discussed since a complete understanding of those mechanisms constitutes the foundation required for the elaboration of prospective MN regeneration therapies. PMID:25346659

  15. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  16. Conical Bearingless Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, P.; Jansen, R.; Dever, T.

    2008-01-01

    Motor/generators based on conical magnetic bearings have been invented as an improved alternative to prior such machines based, variously, on radial and/or axial magnetic bearings. Both the present and prior machines are members of the class of so-called bearingless or self bearing (in the sense of not containing mechanical bearings) rotary machines. Each motor/generator provides both a torque and force allowing it to either function as a motor and magnetic bearing or a generator and magnetic bearing concurrently. Because they are not subject to mechanical bearing wear, these machines have potentially long operational lives and can function without lubrication and over wide ranges of speed and temperature that include conditions under which lubricants would become depleted, degraded, or ineffective and mechanical bearings would fail. The figure shows three typical configurations of conical bearingless motor/generators. The main elements of each motor/generator are concentric rotor and stator portions having conically tapered surfaces facing each other across a gap. Because a conical motor/generator imposes both radial and axial magnetic forces, it acts, in effect, as a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing. Therefore, only two conical motor/generators - one at each end of a rotor - are needed to effect complete magnetic leviation of the rotor, whereas previously, it was necessary to use a combination of an axial and a radial magnetic bearing at each end of the rotor to achieve complete magnetic levitation and a separate motor to provide torque.

  17. [Motor neuron disease: metabolic evaluation].

    PubMed

    Godoy, J M; Skacel, M; Balassiano, S L; Neves, J R

    1992-03-01

    The authors studied serum and urinary calcium and phosphorus levels, as well as abnormalities on the spine of 30 patients with motor neuron disease. The authors believe in multifactorial aspects in the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease, calling special attention to toxic and metabolic factors. PMID:1307483

  18. Power control for ac motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, R. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A motor controller employing a triac through which power is supplied to a motor is described. The open circuit voltage appearing across the triac controls the operation of a timing circuit. This timing circuit triggers on the triac at a time following turn off which varies inversely as a function of the amplitude of the open circuit voltage of the triac.

  19. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  20. Alternative Motor Fuel Use Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-11-16

    AMFU is a tool for the analysis and prediction of motor fuel use by highway vehicles. The model advances the art of vehicle stock modeling by including a representation of the choice of motor fuel for flexible and dual fuel vehicles.

  1. Advanced solid propellant motor insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. L.; Russ, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An advanced lightweight insulation system suitable for use in long duration, low pressure planetary orbiter-type motor applications was developed. Experiments included the screening of various filler and binder materials with optimization studies combining the best of each. Small scale test motor data were used to judge the degree of success.

  2. Computational approaches to motor control

    PubMed Central

    Flash, Tamar; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-01-01

    New concepts and computational models that integrate behavioral and neurophysiological observations have addressed several of the most fundamental long-standing problems in motor control. These problems include the selection of particular trajectories among the large number of possibilities, the solution of inverse kinematics and dynamics problems, motor adaptation and the learning of sequential behaviors. PMID:11741014

  3. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  4. Motors and Bulbs in Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

  5. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  6. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  7. Motor-operator gearbox efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-06-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, we compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators we tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  8. Fine-tuning motor torque

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, L.

    1996-01-01

    Direct-torque control, a new method of regulating the output of ac induction motors, provides a swift response to input commands. A new variable-speed ac motor drive system that responds to torque input commands 10 times faster than current state-of-the-art drives has been developed by ABB Industrial Systems Inc. in New Berlin, Wis. The new control system, called the ACS 600, provides an alternative to drive systems that use sophisticated flux vector control or more routine pulse width modulation--the primary methods of regulating the output of ac induction motors. The ACS 600 is suitable for use in single motor applications that require a standard level of performance, such as conveyors, fans, and pumps. But it will likely be more valuable in applications that require the linking of multiple motors, such as textile production, and in applications that require tight control over torque, such as cranes, elevators, and centrifuges.

  9. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ORF45 Interacts with Kinesin-2 Transporting Viral Capsid-Tegument Complexes along Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, Narayanan; Zhu, Fan Xiu; Yuan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Open reading frame (ORF) 45 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a tegument protein. A genetic analysis with a null mutant suggested a possible role for this protein in the events leading to viral egress. In this study, ORF45 was found to interact with KIF3A, a kinesin-2 motor protein that transports cargoes along microtubules to cell periphery in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The association was confirmed by both co-immunoprecipitation and immunoflorescence approaches in primary effusion lymphoma cells following virus reactivation. ORF45 principally mediated the docking of entire viral capsid-tegument complexes onto the cargo-binding domain of KIF3A. Microtubules served as the major highways for transportation of these complexes as evidenced by drastically reduced viral titers upon treatment of cells with a microtubule depolymerizer, nocodazole. Confocal microscopic images further revealed close association of viral particles with microtubules. Inhibition of KIF3A–ORF45 interaction either by the use of a headless dominant negative (DN) mutant of KIF3A or through shRNA-mediated silencing of endogenous KIF3A expression noticeably decreased KSHV egress reflecting as appreciable reductions in the release of extracellular virions. Both these approaches, however, failed to impact HSV-1 egress, demonstrating the specificity of KIF3A in KSHV transportation. This study thus reports on transportation of KSHV viral complexes on microtubules by KIF3A, a kinesin motor thus far not implicated in virus transportation. All these findings shed light on the understudied but significant events in the KSHV life cycle, delineating a crucial role of a KSHV tegument protein in cellular transport of viral particles. PMID:19282970

  10. Reciprocating linear motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  11. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, Philip A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing assembly (10) has an intermediate rotatable section (33) having an outer cylindrical member (30) coaxially suspended by a torsion wire (72) around an axially polarized cylindrical magnet (32). Axial alignment between the pole faces (40-43) of the intermediate section (33) and end surfaces (50-53) of opposed end bells (20, 22) provides a path of least reluctance across intervening air gaps (60-63) for the magnetic flux emanating from magnet (32). Radial dislocation increases the reluctance and creates a radial restoring force. Substitution of radially polarized magnets 107 fixed to a magnetically permeable cylinder (32') and insertion of pairs of armature coil windings (109-112) between the cylinder pair (33') provides an integral magnetic bearing and torsion motor (100) able to provide arcuately limited rotational drive.

  12. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  13. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOEpatents

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2003-02-11

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  14. Magnetostrictive roller drive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    A magnetostrictive drive motor is disclosed which has a rotary drive shaft in the form of a drum which is encircled by a plurality of substantially equally spaced roller members in the form of two sets of cones which are in contact with the respective cam surfaces on the inside surface of an outer drive ring. The drive ring is attached to sets of opposing pairs of magnetostrictive rods. Each rod in a pair is mutually positioned end to end within respective energizing coils. When one of the coils in an opposing pair is energized, the energized rod expands while the other rod is caused to contract, causing the drive ring to rock, i.e., rotate slightly in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction, depending upon which rod in a pair is energized. As the drive ring is activated in repetitive cycles in either direction, one set of drive cones attempts to roll up their respective cam surface but are pinned between the drive shaft drum and the drive ring. As the frictional force preventing sliding builds up, the cones become locked, setting up reaction forces including a tangential component which is imparted to the drive shaft drum to provide a source of motor torque. Simultaneously the other set of cones are disengaged from the drive shaft drum. Upon deactivation of the magnetostrictive rod coils, the force on the drive cones is released, causing the system to return to an initial rest position. By repetitively cycling the energization of the magnetostrictive rods, the drive shaft drum indexes in microradian rotational steps.

  15. Closed-Loop Motor-Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew A.; Delcher, Ray C.; Huston, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic motor-speed control circuit designed to operate in electrically noisy environment. Includes optoelectronic pick-up device, placed inside motor housing to provide speed feedback signal. Automatically maintains speed motor at commanded value. Measures speed of motor in terms of frequency of pulses of infrared light chopped by fan blades of motor. Difference between measured and commanded speeds serves as control signal for external amplifier driving motor. Major advantage of circuit is low cost.

  16. Translational studies exploring neuroplasticity associated with motor skill learning and the regulatory role of the dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Diaz Heijtz, Rochellys; Forssberg, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders associated with lifelong motor impairment and disability. Current intervention programmes aim to capitalize on the neuroplasticity of the undamaged part of the brain to improve motor functions, by engaging individuals in active motor learning and training. In this review, we highlight recent animal studies (1) exploring cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to neuroplasticity during motor training, (2) assessing the functional role of the mesocortical dopaminergic system in motor skill learning, and (3) exploring the impact of naturally occurring genetic variation in dopamine-related gene expression on the acquisition and performance of fine motor skills. Finally, the potential influence of the dopamine system on the outcome of motor learning interventions in cerebral palsy is discussed. PMID:25690110

  17. Quantitative Determination of the Probability of Multiple-Motor Transport in Bead-Based Assays.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaochu; King, Stephen J; Gopinathan, Ajay; Xu, Jing

    2016-06-21

    With their longest dimension typically being less than 100 nm, molecular motors are significantly below the optical-resolution limit. Despite substantial advances in fluorescence-based imaging methodologies, labeling with beads remains critical for optical-trapping-based investigations of molecular motors. A key experimental challenge in bead-based assays is that the number of motors on a bead is not well defined. Particularly for single-molecule investigations, the probability of single- versus multiple-motor events has not been experimentally investigated. Here, we used bead travel distance as an indicator of multiple-motor transport and determined the lower-bound probability of bead transport by two or more motors. We limited the ATP concentration to increase our detection sensitivity for multiple- versus single-kinesin transport. Surprisingly, for all but the lowest motor number examined, our measurements exceeded estimations of a previous model by ≥2-fold. To bridge this apparent gap between theory and experiment, we derived a closed-form expression for the probability of bead transport by multiple motors, and constrained the only free parameter in this model using our experimental measurements. Our data indicate that kinesin extends to ∼57 nm during bead transport, suggesting that kinesin exploits its conformational flexibility to interact with microtubules at highly curved interfaces such as those present for vesicle transport in cells. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first experimentally constrained guide for estimating the probability of multiple-motor transport in optical trapping studies. The experimental approach utilized here (limiting ATP concentration) may be generally applicable to studies in which molecular motors are labeled with cargos that are artificial or are purified from cellular extracts. PMID:27332130

  18. Recent Advances of Reluctance Torque Assisted Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Kazunobu

    The history of motor technology began with the discovery of electromagnetic induction by Faraday. Various kinds of motors were developed by the recent progress of the fundamental technology (magnetic structure, magnetic material, drive circuit, control method). Especially, motors using the reluctance torque have many advantages and some of them are used as high efficient motors. This paper overviews recent advances of reluctance torque assisted motors such as Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM), Synchronous Reluctance Motor (SynRM) and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM).

  19. Conformational Transitions in Molecular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, M.; Janke, W.

    2008-11-01

    Proteins are the "work horses" in biological systems. In almost all functions specific proteins are involved. They control molecular transport processes, stabilize the cell structure, enzymatically catalyze chemical reactions; others act as molecular motors in the complex machinery of molecular synthetization processes. Due to their significance, misfolds and malfunctions of proteins typically entail disastrous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, the understanding of the trinity of amino acid composition, geometric structure, and biological function is one of the most essential challenges for the natural sciences. Here, we glance at conformational transitions accompanying the structure formation in protein folding processes.

  20. The Neurospora organelle motor: a distant relative of conventional kinesin with unconventional properties.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, G; Schliwa, M

    1995-01-01

    The "conventional" kinesins comprise a conserved family of molecular motors for organelle transport that have been identified in various animal species. Organelle motors from other phyla have not yet been analyzed at the molecular level. Here we report the identification, biochemical and immunological characterization, and molecular cloning of a cytoplasmic motor in a "lower" eukaryote, the Ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa. This motor, termed Nkin (for Neurospora kinesin), exhibits several unique structural and functional features, including a high rate of microtubule transport, a lack of copurifying light chains, a second P-loop motif, and an overall sequence organization reminiscent of a kinesin-like protein. However, a greater than average sequence homology in the motor domain and the presence of a highly conserved region in the C-terminus identify Nkin as a distant relative of the family of conventional kinesins. A molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests Nkin to have diverged early in the evolution of this family of motors. The discovery of Nkin may help identify domains important for specific biological functions in conventional kinesins. Images PMID:8589459

  1. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-10-07

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

  2. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

  3. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.; Nyilas, Charles P.; Denmeade, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  4. Solid rocket motor witness test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Christopher S.

    1991-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Witness Test was undertaken to examine the potential for using thermal infrared imagery as a tool for monitoring static tests of solid rocket motors. The project consisted of several parts: data acquisition, data analysis, and interpretation. For data acquisition, thermal infrared data were obtained of the DM-9 test of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor on December 23, 1987, at Thiokol, Inc. test facility near Brigham City, Utah. The data analysis portion consisted of processing the video tapes of the test to produce values of temperature at representative test points on the rocket motor surface as the motor cooled down following the test. Interpretation included formulation of a numerical model and evaluation of some of the conditions of the motor which could be extracted from the data. These parameters included estimates of the insulation remaining following the tests and the thickness of the charred layer of insulation at the end of the test. Also visible was a temperature signature of the star grain pattern in the forward motor segment.

  5. Terminal decline in motor function.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Boyle, Patricia A; Hizel, Loren P; Bennett, David A

    2012-12-01

    The study aim was to test the hypothesis that motor function undergoes accelerated decline proximate to death. As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, 124 older Roman Catholic nuns, priests, and monks completed at least 7 annual clinical evaluations, died, and underwent brain autopsy and uniform neuropathologic examination. Each evaluation included administration of 11 motor tests and 19 cognitive tests from which global measures of motor and cognitive function were derived. The global motor measure (baseline M = 0.82, SD = 0.21) declined a mean 0.024 unit per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.032, -0.016) until a mean of 2.46 years (95% CI: -2.870, -2.108) before death when rate of decline increased nearly fivefold to -0.117 unit per year (95% CI: -0.140, -0.097). The global cognitive measure (baseline M = 0.07, SD = 0.45) declined a mean of 0.027-unit per year (95% CI: -0.041, -0.014) until a mean of 2.76 years (95% CI: -3.157, -2.372) before death when rate of decline increased more than 13-fold to -0.371 unit per year (95% CI: -0.443, -0.306). Onset of terminal motor decline was highly correlated with onset of terminal cognitive decline (r = .94, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), but rates of motor and cognitive change were not strongly correlated (preterminal r = .20, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.38; terminal r = .34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). Higher level of plaques and tangles was associated with earlier onset of terminal decline in motor function, but no pathologic measures were associated with rate of preterminal or terminal motor decline. The results demonstrate that motor and cognitive functions both undergo a period of accelerated decline in the last few years of life. PMID:22612603

  6. Motor and non-motor behaviour in experimental Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Zeef, Dagmar H; Vlamings, Rinske; Lim, Lee Wei; Tan, Sonny; Janssen, Marcus L F; Jahanshahi, Ali; Hoogland, Govert; Prickaerts, Jos; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Temel, Yasin

    2012-01-15

    In this study, we investigated motor and non-motor behaviour in the transgenic rat model of Huntington's disease (tgHD). In particular, we were interested in the development and changes of motor and non-motor features (anxiety, motivation and hedonia) of disease over time and their interactions. We found tgHD animals to be hyperkinetic in the open field test compared to their wild-type littermates at all ages tested, which was accompanied by reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the open field test and the elevated zero maze, but not in the home cage emergence test. No major changes were found in hedonia (sucrose intake test) and motivation for food (food intake test). Our data suggest that hyperkinetic features and reduced-anxiety in the tgHD rats are associated behaviours and are seen in the earlier stages of the disease. PMID:22001615

  7. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOEpatents

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  8. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  9. Hybrid deorbit motor design feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Joseph H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the feasibility of using a hybrid rocket motor to deorbit the large booster stage of the proposed NLS. A hybrid motor was of interest because it could utilize the residual low pressure Gox from the boosters main engine Lox tank. The resulting study determines that the concept would be feasible and should be given further consideration. Also, a preliminary design for a deorbit motor was proposed which would weigh much less than an equivalent hypergolic system. The hybrid deorbit concept and design has the potential of yielding a simpler cost effective system that could also be applicable to future launch systems with similar missions.

  10. Hybrid deorbit motor design feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Joseph H.

    1993-06-01

    This paper addresses the feasibility of using a hybrid rocket motor to deorbit the large booster stage of the proposed NLS. A hybrid motor was of interest because it could utilize the residual low pressure Gox from the boosters main engine Lox tank. The resulting study determines that the concept would be feasible and should be given further consideration. Also, a preliminary design for a deorbit motor was proposed which would weigh much less than an equivalent hypergolic system. The hybrid deorbit concept and design has the potential of yielding a simpler cost effective system that could also be applicable to future launch systems with similar missions.

  11. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Royce E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) that is being developed to replace, in 1997, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor which currently boosts the Space Shuttle. The ASRM will contain features to improve motor safety (fewer potential leak paths, improved seal materials, stronger case material, and fewer nozzle and case joints), an improved ignition system using through-bulkhead initiators, and highly reproducible manufacturing and inspection techniques with a large number of automated procedures. The ASRM will be able to deliver 12,000 lbs greater payloads to any given orbit of the Shuttle. There are also environmental improvements, realized by waste propellant recovery.

  12. Bifurcation of Velocity Distributions in Cooperative Transport of Filaments by Fast and Slow Motors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Kierfeld, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Several intracellular processes are governed by two different species of molecular motors, fast and slow ones, that both move in the same direction along the filaments but with different velocities. The transport of filaments arising from the cooperative action of these motors has been recently studied by three in vitro experiments, in which the filament velocity was measured for varying fraction of the fast motors adsorbed onto substrate surfaces in a gliding assay. As the fast motor fraction was increased, two experiments found a smooth change whereas the third one observed an abrupt increase of the filament velocity. Here, we show that all of these experimental results reflect the competition between fast and slow motors and can be understood in terms of an underlying saddle-node bifurcation. The comparison between theory and experiment leads to predictions for the detachment forces of the two motor species. Our theoretical study shows the existence of three different motility regimes: 1), fast transport with a single velocity; 2), slow transport with a single velocity; and 3), bistable transport, where the filament velocity stochastically switches between fast and slow transport. We determine the parameter regions for these regimes in terms of motility diagrams as a function of the surface fraction of fast motors and microscopic single-motor parameters. An abrupt increase of the filament velocity for an increasing fraction of fast motors is associated with the occurrence of bistable transport. PMID:23442917

  13. 26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. View, looking east, of motor house; the electric motor and electric-powered winch are housed in section of building to the left. The U-bolt and concrete deadman which anchors the cable of the tramway is to the right. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  14. Turn Motors Off When Not in Use - Motor Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Motors use no energy when turned off. Reducing motor operating time by just 10% usually saves more energy than replacing a standard efficiency motor with a NEMA Premium® efficiency motor. In fact, given that 97% of the life cycle cost of purchasing and operating a motor is energy-related, turning a motor off 10% of the time could reduce energy costs enough to purchase three new motors.

  15. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  16. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  17. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  18. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  19. Mechanical thermal motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for converting thermal energy such as solar energy into mechanical motion for driving fluid pumps and similar equipment. The thermal motor comprises an inner concentric cylinder carried by a stationary core member. The core member has a cylindrical disc plate fixed adjacent to a lower portion and extending radially from it. An outer concentric cylinder rotatably carried on the disc plate defining a space between the inner and outer concentric cylinders. A spiral tubular member encircles the inner concentric cylinder and is contained within the space between the inner and outer cylinders. One portion is connected to the inner concentric cylinder and a second portion connected to the outer concentric cylinder. A heated fluid is conveyed through the tubular member and is periodically cooled causing the tubular member to expand and contract. This causes the outer concentric cylinder to reciprocally rotate on the base plate accordingly. The reciprocating motion of the outer concentric cylinder is then utilized to drive a pump member in a pump chamber.

  20. Magnetic bearing and motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A magnetic bearing for passively suspending a rotatable element subjected to axial and radial thrust forces is disclosed. The magnetic bearing employs a taut wire stretched along the longitudinal axis of the bearing between opposed end pieces and an intermediate magnetic section. The intermediate section is segmented to provide oppositely directed magnetic flux paths between the end pieces and may include either an axially polarized magnets interposed between the segments. The end pieces, separated from the intermediate section by air gaps, control distribution of magnetic flux between the intermediate section segments. Coaxial alignment of the end pieces with the intermediate section minimizes magnetic reluctance in the flux paths endowing the bearing with self-centering characteristics when subjected to radial loads. In an alternative embodiment, pairs of oppositely wound armature coils are concentrically interposed between segments of the intermediate section in concentric arcs adjacent to radially polarized magnets to equip a magnetic bearing as a torsion drive motor. The magnetic suspension bearing disclosed provides long term reliability without maintenance with application to long term space missions such as the VISSR/VAS scanning mirror instrument in the GOES program.

  1. Plasma motor generator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hite, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    The significant potential advantages of a plasma motor generator system over conventional systems for the generation of electrical power and propulsion for spacecraft in low Earth orbits warrants its further investigation. The two main components of such a system are a long insulated wire and the plasma generating hollow cathodes needed to maintain electrical contact with the ionosphere. Results of preliminary theoretical and experimental investigations of this system are presented. The theoretical work involved the equilibrium configurations of the wire and the nature of small oscillation about these equilibrium positions. A particularly interesting result was that two different configurations are allowed when the current is above a critical value. Experimental investigations were made of the optimal starting and running conditions for the proposed, low current hollow cathodes. Although optimal ranges of temperature, argon pressure and discharge voltage were identified, start up became progressively more difficult. This supposed depletion or contamination of the emissive surface could be countered by the addition of new emissive material.

  2. Useful signals from motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Andrew B

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the motor cortical function has been explained as a funnel to muscle activation. This invokes the idea that motor cortical neurons, or ‘upper motoneurons’, directly cause muscle contraction just like spinal motoneurons. Thus, the motor cortex and muscle activity are inextricably entwined like a puppet master and his marionette. Recently, this concept has been challenged by current experimentation showing that many behavioural aspects of action are represented in motor cortical activity. Although this activity may still be related to muscle activation, the relation between the two is likely to be indirect and complex, whereas the relation between cortical activity and kinematic parameters is simple and robust. These findings show how to extract useful signals that help explain the underlying process that generates behaviour and to harness these signals for potentially therapeutic applications. PMID:17255162

  3. Small Solid Rocket Motor Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    It was three-two-one to brilliant fire as NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center tested a small solid rocket motor designed to mimic NASA's Space Launch System booster. The Mar. 14 test provides a qui...

  4. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  5. Force generation by cellular motors.

    PubMed

    Wanka, Friedrich; Van Zoelen, Everardus J J

    2003-01-01

    Cell motility processes in non-muscle cells depend on the activity of motor proteins that bind to either microtubules or actin filaments. From presently available data it must be concluded that the driving force is generated by transient interaction of the respective motors with microtubules or actin filaments which then activates the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. This reaction results in an abrupt discharge of the motor molecule, the direction of which is determined by the spatial orientation of its binding to the helical and polar vehicle. The latter is thereby propelled in its length direction and simultaneously undergoes an axial rotation, while the expelled motor exerts an oppositely directed current in the surrounding fluid, comparable to jet propulsion. Force production, propulsion velocities and energy requirements known from in vitro studies comply with those derived from the theory. The theory opens new ways for the understanding of cellular activities such as particle transport, mitosis and morphodynamics. PMID:14668925

  6. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Coughlin, Peter K.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  7. Solid rocket motor internal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Twichell, S. E. (Editor); Keller, R. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Internal insulation in a solid rocket motor is defined as a layer of heat barrier material placed between the internal surface of the case propellant. The primary purpose is to prevent the case from reaching temperatures that endanger its structural integrity. Secondary functions of the insulation are listed and guidelines for avoiding critical problems in the development of internal insulation for rocket motors are presented.

  8. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  9. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  10. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  11. Meissner-Effect Stepping Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed stepping motor derives torque from diamagnetic repulsion produced by Meissner effect - exclusion of magnetic field from interior of superconductor. Design of motor takes advantage of silver-doped YB2Cu3O and other compounds superconductive at temperatures as high as that of liquid nitrogen. Skin of rotor cooled below its superconducting-transition temperature by liquid nitrogen. O-rings prevent leaks of liquid nitrogen from rotor. Weight, cost, and maintenance reduced.

  12. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothesis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consisted of responding to the visual presentation of regularly appearing stimuli by either: (1) pointing with a whole-body movement, (2) pointing only with the arm, (3) imagining pointing with a whole-body movement, (4) simply watching the stimulus presentation, (5) pointing with a whole-body movement in response to a target that appeared at irregular intervals (6) reading a newspaper. Participants performing a motor activity in response to the regular target showed significant improvements in judgment times compared to individuals with no associated motor activity. Individuals who only imagined pointing with a whole-body movement also showed significant improvements. No improvements were observed in the group that trained with a motor response to an irregular stimulus, hence eliminating the explanation that the improved temporal expectations of the other motor training groups was purely due to an improved motor capacity to press the response button. All groups performed a secondary task equally well, hence indicating that our results could not simply be attributed to differences in attention between the groups. Our results show that motor activity, even when it does not play a causal or corrective role, can lead to improved interval timing judgments. PMID:25806813

  13. A soft and dexterous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Iain A.; Tse, Tony Chun Hin; Inamura, Tokushu; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; McKay, Thomas; Gisby, Todd

    2011-03-01

    We present a soft, bearing-free artificial muscle motor that cannot only turn a shaft but also grip and reposition it through a flexible gear. The bearing-free operation provides a foundation for low complexity soft machines, with multiple degree-of-freedom actuation, that can act simultaneously as motors and manipulators. The mechanism also enables an artificial muscle controlled gear change. Future work will include self-sensing feedback for precision, multidegree-of-freedom operation.

  14. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1998-01-01

    A positive-drive field actuator motor including a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately.

  15. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C; Schindler, Tony D; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears--speed up, slow down or switch directions--when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  16. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells1,2. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems3,4. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  17. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in...

  18. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in...

  19. 30 CFR 18.34 - Motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motors. 18.34 Section 18.34 Mineral Resources... PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.34 Motors. Explosion-proof electric motor assemblies intended for use in approved equipment in...

  20. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    DOEpatents

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  1. LTD, RP, and Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tomoo; Yamazaki, Yoshito; Nakamura, Yoji

    2016-02-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory synapses between parallel fibers and a Purkinje cell has been regarded as a critical cellular mechanism for motor learning. However, it was demonstrated that normal motor learning occurs under LTD suppression, suggesting that cerebellar plasticity mechanisms other than LTD also contribute to motor learning. One candidate for such plasticity is rebound potentiation (RP), which is long-term potentiation at inhibitory synapses between a stellate cell and a Purkinje cell. Both LTD and RP are induced by the increase in postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentration, and work to suppress the activity of a Purkinje cell. Thus, LTD and RP might work synergistically, and one might compensate defects of the other. RP induction is dependent on the interaction between GABAA receptor and GABAA receptor binding protein (GABARAP). Transgenic mice expressing a peptide which inhibits binding of GABARAP and GABAA receptor only in Purkinje cells show defects in both RP and adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), a motor learning paradigm. However, another example of motor learning, adaptation of optokinetic response (OKR), is normal in the transgenic mice. Both VOR and OKR are reflex eye movements suppressing the slip of visual image on the retina during head movement. Previously, we reported that delphilin knockout mice show facilitated LTD induction and enhanced OKR adaptation, but we recently found that VOR adaptation was not enhanced in the knockout mice. These results together suggest that animals might use LTD and RP differently depending on motor learning tasks. PMID:26160222

  2. Precision stop control for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

  3. Motor mapping in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, George F

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of motor deficits in individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) has been largely based on clinical criteria. Yet functional imaging and non-invasive stimulation methods provide a means to measure directly abnormalities of the motor system. The size and location of muscles and movement representations can be determined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetics resonance imaging. Thus the homunculus can be individually mapped in children with CP. Because size of representation within the homunculus relates to quality of motor control, measurement of the distance between body parts provides a metric that may be useful in classifying deficits. Bilateral motor control in one hemisphere, while normal in neonates, persists variably in CP, providing another physiological metric. In this study, we used TMS to measure hand and ankle representations in a convenience sample of children with spastic CP. Overlapping thumb and ankle maps were found in children with both hemiplegia and diplegia, and these maps may be from either side of the body. While more participants are required to make conclusions about disability and compression/bilaterality of the homunculus, it appears as if TMS-derived metrics relate to motor abnormalities. These abnormal motor maps also are a therapeutic target, as stimulation methods are being developed as adjuncts to physical means of rehabilitation. PMID:19740221

  4. Nucleic acid based molecular devices.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Yamuna; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2011-03-28

    In biology, nucleic acids are carriers of molecular information: DNA's base sequence stores and imparts genetic instructions, while RNA's sequence plays the role of a messenger and a regulator of gene expression. As biopolymers, nucleic acids also have exciting physicochemical properties, which can be rationally influenced by the base sequence in myriad ways. Consequently, in recent years nucleic acids have also become important building blocks for bottom-up nanotechnology: as molecules for the self-assembly of molecular nanostructures and also as a material for building machinelike nanodevices. In this Review we will cover the most important developments in this growing field of nucleic acid nanodevices. We also provide an overview of the biochemical and biophysical background of this field and the major "historical" influences that shaped its development. Particular emphasis is laid on DNA molecular motors, molecular robotics, molecular information processing, and applications of nucleic acid nanodevices in biology. PMID:21432950

  5. On helicases and other motor proteins.

    PubMed

    Enemark, Eric J; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2008-04-01

    Helicases are molecular machines that utilize energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to move along nucleic acids and to separate base-paired nucleotides. The movement of the helicase can also be described as a stationary helicase that pumps nucleic acid. Recent structural data for the hexameric E1 helicase of papillomavirus in complex with single-stranded DNA and MgADP has provided a detailed atomic and mechanistic picture of its ATP-driven DNA translocation. The structural and mechanistic features of this helicase are compared with the hexameric helicase prototypes T7gp4 and SV40 T-antigen. The ATP-binding site architectures of these proteins are structurally similar to the sites of other prototypical ATP-driven motors such as F1-ATPase, suggesting related roles for the individual site residues in the ATPase activity. PMID:18329872

  6. Intraoperative monitoring of motor function by magnetic motor evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Lee, W Y; Hou, W Y; Yang, L H; Lin, S M

    1995-03-01

    Under etomidate anesthesia, motor evoked potentials produced by magnetic stimulation were successfully recorded from 10 thenar muscles and 10 anterior tibial muscles of eight patients who had undergone surgery on the medulla oblongata and the cervical and thoracic spinal cords. Recordings taken before placing the neural tissue at risk were assessed for variability in amplitude and latency. The lower limit in amplitude was approximately one-third (25-43%) of the baseline. The latencies were more difficult to monitor than were the amplitudes. The latency variations were 2.56 +/- 0.50 milliseconds for the hand and 6.84 +/- 1.37 milliseconds for the leg. During surgery, the unilateral recordings of two patients were transiently lost but partially recovered after a pause in the operation. No obvious postoperative weaknesses in the corresponding limbs occurred. One patient, who showed a permanent loss of unilateral recording, had transient monoplegia with a complete recovery. None of the remaining five patients who had amplitudes larger than one-third of the baseline at the end of the operation had additional motor deficits. Our conclusions are that under etomidate anesthesia, the magnetic motor evoked potentials can be convenient and reliable monitors of motor function, that changes in the amplitude may be superior to those in the latency for intraoperative warning, that the criterion for potential neural damage under magnetic motor evoked potential monitoring might be an amplitude reduction of two-thirds of the control value, and that the magnetic stimulation seems to be more sensitive than the electrical stimulation in the monitoring of motor function and also allows more time and opportunities for the motor function to recover. PMID:7753349

  7. The Infant Motor Profile: A Standardized and Qualitative Method to Assess Motor Behaviour in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and valid instrument to assess neuromotor condition in infancy is a prerequisite for early detection of developmental motor disorders. We developed a video-based assessment of motor behaviour, the Infant Motor Profile (IMP), to evaluate motor abilities, movement variability, ability to select motor strategies, movement symmetry, and…

  8. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  9. 41 CFR 102-34.85 - What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What motor vehicles require motor vehicle identification? 102-34.85 Section 102-34.85 Public Contracts and Property Management... 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Identifying and Registering Motor Vehicles Motor Vehicle...

  10. Bio-Hybrid Micro/Nanodevices Powered by Flagellar Motor: Challenges and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Tung, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Molecular motors, which are precision engineered by nature, offer exciting possibilities for bio-hybrid engineered systems. They could enable real applications ranging from micro/nano fluidics, to biosensing, to medical diagnoses. This review describes the fundamental biological insights and fascinating potentials of these remarkable sensing and actuation machines, in particular, bacterial flagellar motors, as well as their engineering perspectives with regard to applications in bio-engineered hybrid systems. PMID:26284237

  11. Motoric cognitive risk syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Annweiler, Cedric; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Beauchet, Olivier; Bennett, David A.; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A.; Buchman, Aron S.; Callisaya, Michele L.; Camicioli, Richard; Capistrant, Benjamin; Chatterji, Somnath; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Giladi, Nir; Guralnik, Jack M.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Holtzer, Roee; Kim, Ki Woong; Kowal, Paul; Kressig, Reto W.; Lim, Jae-Young; Lord, Susan; Meguro, Kenichi; Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Muir-Hunter, Susan W.; Noone, Mohan L.; Rochester, Lynn; Srikanth, Velandai; Wang, Cuiling

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective is to report prevalence of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a newly described predementia syndrome characterized by slow gait and cognitive complaints, in multiple countries, and its association with dementia risk. Methods: Pooled MCR prevalence analysis of individual data from 26,802 adults without dementia and disability aged 60 years and older from 22 cohorts from 17 countries. We also examined risk of incident cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination decline ≥4 points) and dementia associated with MCR in 4,812 individuals without dementia with baseline Mini-Mental State Examination scores ≥25 from 4 prospective cohort studies using Cox models adjusted for potential confounders. Results: At baseline, 2,808 of the 26,802 participants met MCR criteria. Pooled MCR prevalence was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2%–11.2%). MCR prevalence was higher with older age but there were no sex differences. MCR predicted risk of developing incident cognitive impairment in the pooled sample (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.7–2.4); aHRs were 1.5 to 2.7 in the individual cohorts. MCR also predicted dementia in the pooled sample (aHR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5–2.3). The results persisted even after excluding participants with possible cognitive impairment, accounting for early dementia, and diagnostic overlap with other predementia syndromes. Conclusion: MCR is common in older adults, and is a strong and early risk factor for cognitive decline. This clinical approach can be easily applied to identify high-risk seniors in a wide variety of settings. PMID:25031288

  12. Space shuttle booster separation motor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  13. Motor-mediated microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Ziebert, F.; Aranson, I. S.; Karpeev, D.

    2011-01-01

    We study molecular motor-induced microtubule self-organization in dilute and semi-dilute filament solutions. In the dilute case, we use a probabilistic model of microtubule interaction via molecular motors to investigate microtubule bundle dynamics. Microtubules are modeled as polar rods interacting through fully inelastic, binary collisions. Our model indicates that initially disordered systems of interacting rods exhibit an orientational instability resulting in spontaneous ordering. We study the existence and dynamic interaction of microtubule bundles analytically and numerically. Our results reveal a long term attraction and coalescing of bundles indicating a clear coarsening in the system; microtubule bundles concentrate into fewer orientations on a slow logarithmic time scale. In semi-dilute filament solutions, multiple motors can bind a filament to several others and, for a critical motor density, induce a transition to an ordered phase with a nonzero mean orientation. Motors attach to a pair of filaments and walk along the pair bringing them into closer alignment. We develop a spatially homogenous, mean-field theory that explicitly accounts for a force-dependent detachment rate of motors, which in turn affects the mean and the fluctuations of the net force acting on a filament. We show that the transition to the oriented state can be both continuous and discontinuous when the force-dependent detachment of motors is important.

  14. Microtubules and motor proteins: Mechanically regulated self-organization in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, S. K.; Pavin, N.; Maghelli, N.; Jülicher, F.; Tolić-Nørrelykke, I. M.

    2009-11-01

    A key aspect of life is sexual reproduction, which requires concerted movement. For successful mixing of the genetic material, molecular motors move the nucleus back and forth inside the cell. How motors work together to produce these large-scale movements, however, remains a mystery. To answer this question, we studied nuclear movement in fission yeast, which is driven by motor proteins pulling on microtubules. We show that motor proteins dynamically redistribute from one part of the cell to the other, generating asymmetric patterns of motors and, consequently, of forces that generate movement. By combining quantitative live cell imaging and laser ablation with a theoretical model, we find that this dynamic motor redistribution occurs purely as a result of changes in the mechanical strain sensed by the motor proteins. Our work therefore demonstrates that spatio-temporal pattern formation within a cell can occur as a result of mechanical cues (Vogel et al., 2009), which differs from conventional molecular signaling, as well as from self-organization based on a combination of biochemical reactions and diffusion.

  15. The moving phantom: motor execution or motor imagery?

    PubMed

    Raffin, Estelle; Giraux, Pascal; Reilly, Karen T

    2012-06-01

    Amputees who have a phantom limb often report the ability to move this phantom voluntarily. In the literature, phantom limb movements are generally considered to reflect motor imagery rather than motor execution. The aim of this study was to investigate whether amputees distinguish between executing a movement of the phantom limb and imagining moving the missing limb. We examined the capacity of 19 upper-limb amputees to execute and imagine movements of both their phantom and intact limbs. Their behaviour was compared with that of 18 age-matched normal controls. A global questionnaire-based assessment of imagery ability and timed tests showed that amputees can indeed distinguish between motor execution and motor imagery with the phantom limb, and that the former is associated with activity in stump muscles while the latter is not. Amputation reduced the speed of voluntary movements with the phantom limb but did not change the speed of imagined movements, suggesting that the absence of the limb specifically affects the ability to voluntarily move the phantom but does not change the ability to imagine moving the missing limb. These results suggest that under some conditions, for example amputation, the predicted sensory consequences of a motor command are sufficient to evoke the sensation of voluntary movement. They also suggest that the distinction between imagined and executed movements should be taken into consideration when designing research protocols to investigate the analgesic effects of sensorimotor feedback. PMID:21397901

  16. Lower Motor Neuron Findings after Upper Motor Neuron Injury: Insights from Postoperative Supplementary Motor Area Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Florman, Jeffrey E.; Duffau, Hugues; Rughani, Anand I.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertonia and hyperreflexia are classically described responses to upper motor neuron injury. However, acute hypotonia and areflexia with motor deficit are hallmark findings after many central nervous system insults such as acute stroke and spinal shock. Historic theories to explain these contradictory findings have implicated a number of potential mechanisms mostly relying on the loss of descending corticospinal input as the underlying etiology. Unfortunately, these simple descriptions consistently fail to adequately explain the pathophysiology and connectivity leading to acute hyporeflexia and delayed hyperreflexia that result from such insult. This article highlights the common observation of acute hyporeflexia after central nervous system insults and explores the underlying anatomy and physiology. Further, evidence for the underlying connectivity is presented and implicates the dominant role of supraspinal inhibitory influence originating in the supplementary motor area descending through the corticospinal tracts. Unlike traditional explanations, this theory more adequately explains the findings of postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome in which hyporeflexia motor deficit is observed acutely in the face of intact primary motor cortex connections to the spinal cord. Further, the proposed connectivity can be generalized to help explain other insults including stroke, atonic seizures, and spinal shock. PMID:23508473

  17. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  18. Molecular pathways in dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Bragg, D. Cristopher; Armata, Ioanna A.; Nery, Flavia C.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Sharma, Nutan

    2011-01-01

    The hereditary dystonias comprise a set of diseases defined by a common constellation of motor deficits. These disorders are most likely associated with different molecular etiologies, many of which have yet to be elucidated. Here we discuss recent advances in three forms of hereditary dystonia, DYT1, DYT6 and DYT16, which share a similar clinical picture: onset in childhood or adolescence, progressive spread of symptoms with generalized involvement of body regions and a steady state affliction without treatment. Unlike DYT1, the genes responsible for DYT6 and DYT16 have only recently been identified, with relatively little information about the function of the encoded proteins. Nevertheless, recent data suggest that these proteins may fit together within interacting pathways involved in dopaminergic signaling, transcriptional regulation, and cellular stress responses. This review focuses on these molecular pathways, highlighting potential common themes among these dystonias which may serve as areas for future research. PMID:21134457

  19. Improve Motor Operation at Off-Design Voltages - Motor Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect

    2008-07-01

    Motors are designed to operate within +/- 10% of their nameplate rated voltages. When motors operate at conditions of over- or under-voltage, motor efficiency and other performance parameters are degraded.

  20. The Viral DNA Packaging Motor of Bacteriophage Lambda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, Carlos E.

    2007-03-01

    Terminase enzymes are common to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses. These enzymes, which serve as molecular motors that selectively ``package'' viral DNA into a pre-formed procapsid structure, are among the most powerful biological motors characterized to date. Bacteriophage lambda terminase is a heteroligomer composed of gpA and gpNu1 subunits. The smaller gpNu1 subunit is required for specific recognition of viral DNA, a process that is modulated by ATP. The gpA subunit possesses site-specific nuclease and helicase activities that ``mature'' the viral genome prior to packaging. The subunit further possesses a DNA translocase activity that is central to the packaging motor complex. Discrete ATPase sites in gpA modulate the DNA maturation reactions and fuel the DNA packaging reaction. Kinetic characterization of lambda terminase indicates significant interaction between the multiple catalytic sites of the enzyme and has led to a minimal kinetic model describing the assembly of a catalytically-competent packaging motor complex. Biophysical studies demonstrate that purified lambda terminase forms a homogenous, heterotrimeric structure consisting of one gpA subunit in association with two gpNu1 proteins. Four heterotrimers further assemble into a ring-like structure of sufficient size to encircle duplex DNA. The ensemble of data suggests that the ring tetramer represents the biologically relevant, catalytically-competent motor complex responsible for genome processing and packaging reactions. We present a model for the functional DNA packaging motor complex that finds general utility in our global understanding of the enzymology of virus assembly.