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Sample records for molecular weight fgf-2

  1. FGFR Inhibitor Ameliorates Hypophosphatemia and Impaired Engrailed-1/Wnt Signaling in FGF2 High Molecular Weight Isoform Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Erxia; Xiao, Liping; Hurley, Marja M

    2016-09-01

    High molecular weight FGF2 transgenic (HMWTg) mouse phenocopies the Hyp mouse, homolog of human X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets with hypophosphatemis, and abnormal FGF23, FGFR, Klotho signaling in kidney. Since abnormal Wnt signaling was reported in Hyp mice we assessed whether Wnt signaling was impaired in HMWTg kidneys and the effect of blocking FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content in female HMWTg mice were significantly reduced. HMWTg mice were gavaged with FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h post treatment. Serum phosphate was significantly reduced and urine phosphate was significantly increased in HMWTg and was rescued by NVP-BGJ398. Analysis of kidneys revealed a significant reduction in Npt2a mRNA in HMWTg that was significantly increased by NVP-BGJ398. Increased FGFR1, KLOTHO, P-ERK1/2, and decreased NPT2a protein in HMWTg were rescued by NVP-BGJ398. Wnt inhibitor Engrailed-1 mRNA and protein was increased in HMWTg and was decreased by BGJ398. Akt mRNA and protein was decreased in HMWTg and was increased by NVP-BGJ398. The active form of glycogen synthase 3 beta (pGSK3-β) and phosphor-β-catenin were increased in HMWTg and were both decreased by NVP-BGJ398 while decreased active-β-catenin in HMWTg was increased by NVP-BGJ398. We conclude that FGFR blockade rescued hypophosphatemia by regulating FGF and WNT signaling in HMWTg kidneys. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1991-2000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26762209

  2. Overexpression of high molecular weight FGF-2 forms inhibits glioma growth by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation

    SciTech Connect

    Lemiere, Sylvie; Azar, Rania; Belloc, Francis; Guersel, Demir; Pyronnet, Stephane; Bikfalvi, Andreas Auguste, Patrick

    2008-12-10

    In order to clarify the role of HMW FGF-2 in glioma development and angiogenesis, we over-expressed different human FGF-2 isoforms in C6 rat glioma cell line using a tetracycline-regulated expression system. Phenotypic modifications were analyzed in vitro and compared to untransfected cells or to cells over-expressing 18 kDa FGF-2 or all FGF-2 isoforms. In particular, we demonstrate that HMW FGF-2 has unique features in inhibiting glioma cell proliferation. HMW FGF-2 expressing cells showed a cell-cycle arrest at the G2M, demonstrating a role of HMW FGF-2 in controlling the entry in mitosis. Moreover, hydroxyurea was ineffective in blocking cells at the G1S boundary when HMW FGF-2 was expressed. We also show that the HMW FGF-2 isoforms inhibit 4E-BP1 phosphorylation at critical sites restoring the translation inhibitory activity of 4E-BP1. In vivo, inhibition of tumor growth was observed when cells expressed HMW FGF-2. This indicates that HMW FGF-2 inhibits tumor growth in glioma cells by acting on cell-cycle progression and protein translation.

  3. Particle irradiation induces FGF2 expression in normal human lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, P. Y.; Bjornstad K, A.; Chang, E.; McNamara, M.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Lin, S. P.; Aragon, G.; Polansky, J. R.; Lui, G. M.; Blakely, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Particle Irradiation Induces FGF2 Expression in Normal Human Lens Cells. Particle radiations, including both proton and helium-ion beams, have been used to successfully treat choroidal melanoma, but with the complication of radiation-induced cataract. We have investigated a role for radiation-induced changes in the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) gene expression as part of the mechanism(s) underlying lens cell injury associated with cataract. Normal human lens epithelial (HLE) cells were cultured in vitro on extracellular matrix (ECM) originated from bovine corneal endothelial cells. This study reports evidence for rapid but transient induction of FGF2 transcripts, an increase of between 5- and 8-fold, within 0.5 h after exposure to particle radiation, followed by another wave of increased transcription at 2-3 h postirradiation. Immunofluorescence results confirm the enhanced levels of FGF2 protein rapidly after exposure to protons or helium ions, followed by another wave of increased activity unique to helium at 6 h postirradiation. This second wave of increased immunoreactivity was not observed in the proton-irradiated samples. Total FGF2 protein analysis after helium-ion exposures shows induced expression of three FGF2 isoforms, with an increase of up to 2-fold in the 18-kDa low-molecular-weight species. Studies of the effects of protons on individual FGF2 protein isoforms are in progress. Several mechanisms involving a role for FGF2 in radiation-induced cataract are discussed.

  4. High molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 in the human heart is a potential target for prevention of cardiac remodeling.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Jon-Jon; McNaughton, Leslie J; Koleini, Navid; Ma, Xin; Bestvater, Brian; Nickel, Barbara E; Fandrich, Robert R; Wigle, Jeffrey T; Freed, Darren H; Arora, Rakesh C; Kardami, Elissavet

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial) Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD) and 68% (±25 SD) of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs) expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2) reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial) tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes deleterious

  5. LTBP-2 Has a Single High-Affinity Binding Site for FGF-2 and Blocks FGF-2-Induced Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Menz, Clementine; Parsi, Mahroo K; Adams, Julian R J; Sideek, Mohamed A; Kopecki, Zlatko; Cowin, Allison J; Gibson, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Latent transforming growth factor-beta-1 binding protein-2 (LTBP-2) belongs to the fibrillin-LTBP superfamily of extracellular matrix proteins. LTBPs and fibrillins are involved in the sequestration and storage of latent growth factors, particularly transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), in tissues. Unlike other LTBPs, LTBP-2 does not covalently bind TGF-β, and its molecular functions remain unclear. We are screening LTBP-2 for binding to other growth factors and have found very strong saturable binding to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) (Kd = 1.1 nM). Using a series of recombinant LTBP-2 fragments a single binding site for FGF-2 was identified in a central region of LTBP-2 consisting of six tandem epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) motifs (EGFs 9-14). This region was also shown to contain a heparin/heparan sulphate-binding site. FGF-2 stimulation of fibroblast proliferation was completely negated by the addition of 5-fold molar excess of LTBP-2 to the assay. Confocal microscopy showed strong co-localisation of LTBP-2 and FGF-2 in fibrotic keloid tissue suggesting that the two proteins may interact in vivo. Overall the study indicates that LTBP-2 is a potent inhibitor of FGF-2 that may influence FGF-2 bioactivity during wound repair particularly in fibrotic tissues. PMID:26263555

  6. Low molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 signals via protein kinase C and myofibrillar proteins to protect against postischemic cardiac dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Janet R.; Perkins, Sarah O.; Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Gao, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yu; Newman, Gilbert; Pyle, W. Glen

    2013-01-01

    Among its many biological roles, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) acutely protects the heart from dysfunction associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our laboratory has demonstrated that this is due to the activity of the low molecular weight (LMW) isoform of FGF2 and that FGF2-mediated cardioprotection relies on the activity of protein kinase C (PKC); however, which PKC isoforms are responsible for LMW FGF2-mediated cardioprotection, and their downstream targets, remain to be elucidated. To identify the PKC pathway(s) that contributes to postischemic cardiac recovery by LMW FGF2, mouse hearts expressing only LMW FGF2 (HMWKO) were bred to mouse hearts not expressing PKCα (PKCαKO) or subjected to a selective PKCε inhibitor (εV1–2) before and during I/R. Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 showed significantly improved postischemic recovery of cardiac function following I/R (P < 0.05), which was significantly abrogated in the absence of PKCα (P < 0.05) or presence of PKCε inhibition (P < 0.05). Hearts only expressing LMW FGF2 demonstrated differences in actomyosin ATPase activity as well as increases in the phosphorylation of troponin I and T during I/R compared with wild-type hearts; several of these effects were dependent on PKCα activity. This evidence indicates that both PKCα and PKCε play a role in LMW FGF2-mediated protection from cardiac dysfunction and that PKCα signaling to the contractile apparatus is a key step in the mechanism of LMW FGF2-mediated protection against myocardial dysfunction. PMID:23479264

  7. Local infusion of FGF-2 enhances bone ingrowth in rabbit chambers in the presence of polyethylene particles.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Stuart B; Song, Yong; Yoo, Juh Yung; Fox, Nora; Trindade, Michael C D; Kajiyama, Glen; Ma, Ting; Regula, Donald; Brown, Jim; Smith, R Lane

    2003-06-15

    Osseointegration of porous-coated implants during revision arthroplasty procedures is often impeded due to the presence of residual granuloma, particulate debris, and a sclerotic, dysvascular bone bed. We hypothesized that local infusion of recombinant fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) would increase bone ingrowth in an in vivo model of tissue differentiation in the rabbit tibia in the presence of phagocytosable polyethylene particles. A drug test chamber (DTC) was implanted in the proximal medial tibial metaphysis of mature rabbits unilaterally. The chamber contained a 1x 1 x 5-mm tunnel for tissue ingrowth, and was connected to an osmotic diffusion pump. FGF-2 was infused at dosages of 0, 0.5, 5, 50, or 500 ng/day for a 3-week period, with subsequent harvesting of the ingrown tissue after each 3-week treatment. The effects of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene particles (0.5-microm diameter) on tissue ingrowth were determined by adding particles to the chamber at concentrations of 5.8 x 10(11) (low dose) or 1.7 x 10(12) (high dose) particles/mL, with and without infusion of 50 ng/day of FGF for 3 weeks. The tissue forming in the chamber was harvested after each treatment for histologic processing and morphometric analysis of bone ingrowth. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric tests (ANOVA), nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis test) and post hoc tests. In the absence of particles, infusion of 50 ng FGF-2 per day yielded the greatest amount of bone ingrowth. The high dose of particles suppressed bone ingrowth into the chamber, but the low dose particles did not (p = 0.0002, 95% confidence limits = 9.19-18.80). Infusion of 50 ng FGF-2 per day significantly increased net bone formation in the presence of high-dose UHMWPE particles (p = 0.039, 95% confidence limits = 1.41-6.79). There was a trend for decreased numbers of vitronectin-receptor positive (osteoclast-like) cells with the addition of FGF-2, compared to particles alone (p = 0.08). Local

  8. Enhanced Dentinogenesis of Pulp Progenitors by Early Exposure to FGF2.

    PubMed

    Sagomonyants, K; Kalajzic, I; Maye, P; Mina, M

    2015-11-01

    Members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family play essential and important roles in primary and reparative dentinogenesis. Although there appears to be a general agreement on the effects of FGF signaling on the proliferation of pulp cells, there are conflicting results regarding its effects on odontoblast differentiation. We recently examined the effects of continuous exposure of dental pulp cells to FGF2 and showed that the effects of FGF2 on differentiation of progenitor cells into odontoblasts were stage specific and dependent on the stage of cell maturity. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the stimulatory effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation. To do so, we examined the effects of early and limited exposure of pulp cells from a series of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter transgenic mice that display stage-specific activation of transgenes during odontoblast differentiation to FGF2. Our results showed that early and limited exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 did not have significant effects on the extent of mineralization but induced significant increases in the expression of Dmp1 and Dspp and the number of DMP1-GFP(+) and DSPP-Cerulean(+) odontoblasts. Our results also showed that the stimulatory effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation were mediated through FGFR/MEK/Erk1/2 signaling, increases in Bmp2, and activation of the BMP/BMPR signaling pathway. These observations show that early and limited exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 alone promotes odontoblast differentiation and provides critical insight for applications of FGF2 in dentin regeneration. PMID:26276371

  9. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  10. FGF-2 deficiency causes dysregulation of Arhgef6 and downstream targets in the cerebral cortex accompanied by altered neurite outgrowth and dendritic spine morphology.

    PubMed

    Baum, Philip; Vogt, Miriam A; Gass, Peter; Unsicker, Klaus; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is an abundant growth factor in the brain and exerts multiple functions on neural cells ranging from cell division, cell fate determination to differentiation. However, many details of the molecular mechanisms underlying the diverse functions of FGF-2 are poorly understood. In a comparative microarray analysis of motor sensory cortex (MSC) tissue of adult knockout (FGF-2(-/-)) and control (FGF-2(+/+)) mice, we found a substantial number of regulated genes, which are implicated in cytoskeletal machinery dynamics. Specifically, we found a prominent downregulation of Arhgef6. Arhgef6 mRNA was significantly reduced in the FGF-2(-/-) cortex, and Arhgef6 protein virtually absent, while RhoA protein levels were massively increased and Cdc42 protein levels were reduced. Since Arhgef6 is localized to dendritic spines, we next analyzed dendritic spines of adult FGF2(-/-) and control mouse cortices. Spine densities were significantly increased, whereas mean length of spines on dendrites of layer V of MSC neurons in adult FGF-2(-/-) mice was significantly decreased as compared to respective controls. Furthermore, neurite length in dissociated cortical cultures from E18 FGF-2(-/-) mice was significantly reduced at DIV7 as compared to wildtype neurons. Despite the fact that altered neuronal morphology and alterations in dendritic spines were observed, FGF-2(-/-) mice behave relatively unsuspicious in several behavioral tasks. However, FGF-2(-/-) mice exhibited decreased thermal pain sensitivity in the hotplate-test. PMID:26970009

  11. Associations of Plasma FGF2 Levels and Polymorphisms in the FGF2 Gene with Obesity Phenotypes in Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ruo-Han; Guo, Yan; Dong, Shan-Shan; Weng, Gai-Zhi; Yan, Han; Zhu, Dong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jia-Bin; Yang, Tie-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes influencing obesity related traits are largely unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) could influence adipocyte differentiation. However, the association of FGF2 polymorphisms and obesity remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the associations of both the plasma FGF2 levels and SNPs in FGF2 gene with obesity phenotypes in Han Chinese populations. Plasma FGF2 levels were measured and subjected to association analyses in 62 subjects. Eleven SNPs in FGF2 were genotyped and tested for associations in a discovery sample of 1,300 subjects. SNPs significantly associated with obesity were subjected to replication in another independent sample of 1,035 subjects. We found that plasma FGF2 levels were positively correlated with fat mass (P = 0.010). Association analyses in the discovery sample identified three SNPs (rs1449683, rs167428, rs308442) significantly associated with fat mass after multiple testing adjustments (P < 0.0045). Subsequent replication study successfully validated one SNP (rs167428) associated with fat mass (Pcombine = 3.46 × 10−5). eQTL analyses revealed that SNPs associated with obesity also affected FGF2 expression. Our findings suggested that high plasma FGF2 level correlated with increased risk of obesity, and FGF2 gene polymorphisms could affect individual variances of obesity in Han Chinese population. PMID:26879180

  12. Cell proliferation by silk gut incorporating FGF-2 protein microcrystals

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Muto, Sayaka; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Junji; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Silk gut processed from the silk glands of the silkworm could be an ideal biodegradable carrier for cell growth factors. We previously demonstrated that polyhedra, microcrystals of Cypovirus 1 polyhedrin, can serve as versatile carrier proteins. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic silkworm that expresses polyhedrin together with human basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in its posterior silk glands to utilize silk gut as a proteinaceous carrier to protect and slowly release active cell growth factors. In the posterior silk glands, polyhedrin formed polyhedral microcrystals, and FGF-2 became encapsulated within the polyhedra due to a polyhedron-immobilization signal. Silk gut powder prepared from posterior silk glands containing polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 stimulated the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and induced the proliferation of serum-starved NIH3T3 cells by releasing bioactive FGF-2. Even after a one-week incubation at 25 °C, significantly higher biological activity of FGF-2 was observed for silk gut powder incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 relative to silk gut powder with non-encapsulated FGF-2. Our results demonstrate that posterior silk glands incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 are applicable to the preparation of biodegradable silk gut, which can protect and release FGF-2 that is produced in a virus- and serum-free expression system with significant application potential. PMID:26053044

  13. Cell proliferation by silk gut incorporating FGF-2 protein microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Eiji; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kobayashi, Isao; Uchino, Keiro; Muto, Sayaka; Ijiri, Hiroshi; Shimabukuro, Junji; Tamura, Toshiki; Sezutsu, Hideki; Mori, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Silk gut processed from the silk glands of the silkworm could be an ideal biodegradable carrier for cell growth factors. We previously demonstrated that polyhedra, microcrystals of Cypovirus 1 polyhedrin, can serve as versatile carrier proteins. Here, we report the generation of a transgenic silkworm that expresses polyhedrin together with human basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) in its posterior silk glands to utilize silk gut as a proteinaceous carrier to protect and slowly release active cell growth factors. In the posterior silk glands, polyhedrin formed polyhedral microcrystals, and FGF-2 became encapsulated within the polyhedra due to a polyhedron-immobilization signal. Silk gut powder prepared from posterior silk glands containing polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 stimulated the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and induced the proliferation of serum-starved NIH3T3 cells by releasing bioactive FGF-2. Even after a one-week incubation at 25 °C, significantly higher biological activity of FGF-2 was observed for silk gut powder incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 relative to silk gut powder with non-encapsulated FGF-2. Our results demonstrate that posterior silk glands incorporating polyhedron-encapsulated FGF-2 are applicable to the preparation of biodegradable silk gut, which can protect and release FGF-2 that is produced in a virus- and serum-free expression system with significant application potential. PMID:26053044

  14. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  15. FGF2 stimulates SDF-1 expression through the Erm transcription factor in Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung-Ae; Chae, Young-Mi; Cho, Je-Yoel

    2009-07-01

    Ets-related molecule (Erm) is a member of the Ets transcription factor family. Erm is known to be an important factor for the self-renewal of Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and the maintenance of spermatogenesis. We investigated the molecular mechanism of Erm regulation on SDF-1 in TM4 Sertoli cells. Erm and Sdf-1 levels were up-regulated after FGF2 treatment in TM4 cells, whereas these levels were significantly decreased by FGF2 in ST2 bone marrow stromal cells. Knockdown of Erm by siRNA in the presence of FGF2 decreased the Sdf-1 levels in TM4 cells. The expression levels of Erm were similar and Erm overexpression increased the Sdf-1 in both TM4 and ST2 cells. FGFR subtype analysis revealed that FGFR4 was expressed in TM4 cells but not in ST2 cells. A blocking experiment also confirmed that FGFR4 is partly responsible for the up-regulation of Erm and SDF-1 induced by FGF2 stimulation in TM4 cells. FGF2 and ERM increased the activity of Sdf-1 gene promoter region in a dose-dependent manner. EMSA revealed that ERM strongly binds to the -846 to -851 nucleotide region of the potential Ets binding site (EBS) in the Sdf-1 promoter. In addition, CXCR4, the SDF-1 receptor, was expressed in spermatogonia and Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the mouse testis. Our results indicate that ERM directly regulates Sdf-1 gene expression by interacting with its cis-acting element in response to FGF2 stimulation in TM4 cells. PMID:19301256

  16. Structural insights into the interaction of human S100B and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2): Effects on FGFR1 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arun A; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Li, Hongchun; Yang, Lee-Wei; Yu, Chin

    2013-12-01

    S100B is a calcium sensing protein belonging to the S100 protein family with intracellular and extracellular roles. It is one of the EF hand homodimeric proteins, which is known to interact with various protein targets to regulate varied biological functions. Extracellular S100B has been recently reported to interact with FGF2 in a RAGE-independent manner. However, the recognition mechanism of S100B-FGF2 interaction at the molecular level remains unclear. In this study, the critical residues on S100B-FGF2 interface were mapped by combined information derived from NMR spectroscopy and site directed mutagenesis experiments. Utilizing NMR titration data, we generated the structural models of S100B-FGF2 complex from the computational docking program, HADDOCK which were further proved stable during 15ns unrestrained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Isothermal titration calorimetry studies indicated S100B interaction with FGF2 is an entropically favored process implying dominant role of hydrophobic contacts at the protein-protein interface. Residue level information of S100B interaction with FGF2 was useful to understand the varied target recognition ability of S100B and further explained its role in effecting extracellular signaling diversity. Mechanistic insights into the S100B-FGF2 complex interface and cell-based assay studies involving mutants led us to conclude the novel role of S100B in FGF2 mediated FGFR1 receptor inactivation. PMID:24063890

  17. FGF-2 in Astroglial Cells During Vertebrate Spinal Cord Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Gehan H.; Moftah, Marie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with neurotrophic and gliogenic properties. It is known to regulate CNS injury responses, which include transformation of reactive astrocytes, neurogenesis, and promotion of neurotrophic activities. In the brain, it is localized in astrocytes and discrete neuronal populations. Following both central and peripheral nervous system injury, astrocytes become reactive. These activated cells undergo hypertrophy. A key indicator of astrocyte activation is the increased accumulation of intermediate filaments composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Following physical insult of brain or spinal cord, reactive astrocytes show increased FGF-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, FGF-2 appears to participate in astrocytic differentiation and proliferation and a good candidate for astrocytic function regulation in healthy, injured, or diseased CNS. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying FGF-2 restorative actions and to analyze the changes within astroglial cells, we studied the localization of GFAP and FGF-2 in adult intact and injured Pleurodeles CNS. Our results show that spinal cord injury triggers a significant increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity in reactive astrocytes at sites of insult. In addition, these results were time-dependent. Increase in FGF-2 immunoreactivity along the CNS axis, starting 1-week post-injury, was long-lasting extending to 6 weeks. This increase was accompanied by an increase in GFAP immunoreactivity in the same spatial pattern except in SC3 where its level was almost similar to sham-operated animals. Therefore, we suggest that FGF-2 may be involved in cell proliferation and/or astroglial cells differentiation after body spinal cord transection, and could thus play an important role in locomotion recovery. PMID:21119776

  18. Endothelial Rictor is crucial for midgestational development and sustained and extensive FGF2-induced neovascularization in the adult

    PubMed Central

    Aimi, Fabio; Georgiopoulou, Stavroula; Kalus, Ina; Lehner, Fabienne; Hegglin, Alica; Limani, Përparim; Gomes de Lima, Vinicius; A. Rüegg, Markus; Hall, Michael N.; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Haas, Elvira; Battegay, Edouard J.; Humar, Rok

    2015-01-01

    To explore the general requirement of endothelial mTORC2 during embryonic and adolescent development, we knocked out the essential mTORC2 component Rictor in the mouse endothelium in the embryo, during adolescence and in endothelial cells in vitro. During embryonic development, Rictor knockout resulted in growth retardation and lethality around embryonic day 12. We detected reduced peripheral vascularization and delayed ossification of developing fingers, toes and vertebrae during this confined midgestational period. Rictor knockout did not affect viability, weight gain, and vascular development during further adolescence. However during this period, Rictor knockout prevented skin capillaries to gain larger and heterogeneously sized diameters and remodeling into tortuous vessels in response to FGF2. Rictor knockout strongly reduced extensive FGF2-induced neovascularization and prevented hemorrhage in FGF2-loaded matrigel plugs. Rictor knockout also disabled the formation of capillary-like networks by FGF2-stimulated mouse aortic endothelial cells in vitro. Low RICTOR expression was detected in quiescent, confluent mouse aortic endothelial cells, whereas high doses of FGF2 induced high RICTOR expression that was associated with strong mTORC2-specific protein kinase Cα and AKT phosphorylation. We demonstrate that the endothelial FGF-RICTOR axis is not required during endothelial quiescence, but crucial for midgestational development and sustained and extensive neovascularization in the adult. PMID:26635098

  19. Endothelial Rictor is crucial for midgestational development and sustained and extensive FGF2-induced neovascularization in the adult.

    PubMed

    Aimi, Fabio; Georgiopoulou, Stavroula; Kalus, Ina; Lehner, Fabienne; Hegglin, Alica; Limani, Përparim; Gomes de Lima, Vinicius; Rüegg, Markus A; Hall, Michael N; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Haas, Elvira; Battegay, Edouard J; Humar, Rok

    2015-01-01

    To explore the general requirement of endothelial mTORC2 during embryonic and adolescent development, we knocked out the essential mTORC2 component Rictor in the mouse endothelium in the embryo, during adolescence and in endothelial cells in vitro. During embryonic development, Rictor knockout resulted in growth retardation and lethality around embryonic day 12. We detected reduced peripheral vascularization and delayed ossification of developing fingers, toes and vertebrae during this confined midgestational period. Rictor knockout did not affect viability, weight gain, and vascular development during further adolescence. However during this period, Rictor knockout prevented skin capillaries to gain larger and heterogeneously sized diameters and remodeling into tortuous vessels in response to FGF2. Rictor knockout strongly reduced extensive FGF2-induced neovascularization and prevented hemorrhage in FGF2-loaded matrigel plugs. Rictor knockout also disabled the formation of capillary-like networks by FGF2-stimulated mouse aortic endothelial cells in vitro. Low RICTOR expression was detected in quiescent, confluent mouse aortic endothelial cells, whereas high doses of FGF2 induced high RICTOR expression that was associated with strong mTORC2-specific protein kinase Cα and AKT phosphorylation. We demonstrate that the endothelial FGF-RICTOR axis is not required during endothelial quiescence, but crucial for midgestational development and sustained and extensive neovascularization in the adult. PMID:26635098

  20. The Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymer Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horta, Arturo; Pastoriza, M. Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Various methods for the determination of the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of different polymer samples are presented. The study shows that the molecular weight averages and distribution of a polymerization completely depend on the characteristics of the reaction itself.

  1. Effect of molecular weight on polymer processability

    SciTech Connect

    Karg, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Differences in rheological behavior due to the polymer molecular weight and molecular weight distribution have been shown with the MPT. SBR polymers having high molecular weight fractions develop higher stress relaxation time values due to the higher degree of polymer entanglements. Tests conducted at increasing temperatures show the diminishing influence of the polymer entanglements upon stress relaxation time. EPDM polymers show stress relaxation time and head pressure behavior which correlates with mill processability. As anticipated, compounded stock of EPDM have broad molecular weight distribution has higher stress relaxation time values than EPDM compounds with narrow molecular weight distribution.

  2. Ultrahigh molecular weight aromatic siloxane polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwick, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    The condensation of a diol with a silane in toluene yields a silphenylene-siloxane polymer. The reaction of stiochiometric amounts of the diol and silane produced products with molecular weights in the range 2.0 - 6.0 x 10 to the 5th power. The molecular weight of the product was greatly increased by a multistep technique. The methodology for synthesis of high molecular weight polymers using a two step procedure was refined. Polymers with weight average molecular weights in excess of 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power produced by this method. Two more reactive silanes, bis(pyrrolidinyl)dimethylsilane and bis(gamma butyrolactam)dimethylsilane, are compared with the dimethyleminodimethylsilane in ability to advance the molecular weight of the prepolymer. The polymers produced are characterized by intrinsic viscosity in tetrahydrofuran. Weight and number average molecular weights and polydispersity are determined by gel permeation chromatography.

  3. Fucoidan/FGF-2 induces angiogenesis through JNK- and p38-mediated activation of AKT/MMP-2 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Beom Su; Park, Ji-Yun; Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Jun

    2014-08-08

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of the angiogenic activity mechanism by FGF-2/fucoidan treatment in HUVECs. Fucoidan enhances the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK MAPKs. However, p38 and JNK were involved in AKT phosphorylation and MMP-2 activation and resulted in enhanced angiogenic activity, such as tube formation and migration, in HUVECs. - Highlights: • The angiogenic activity of fucoidan in HUVECs was explored. • Fucoidan enhanced HUVEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation. • Fucoidan enhanced angiogenesis through p38 and JNK but not ERK in HUVECs. • Fucoidan targeted angiogenesis-mediated AKT/MMP-2 signalling in HUVECs. - Abstract: Angiogenesis is an important biological process in tissue development and repair. Fucoidan has previously been shown to potentiate in vitro tube formation in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. This study was designed to investigate the action of fucoidan in angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore fucoidan-signalling pathways. First, we evaluated the effect of fucoidan on cell proliferation. Matrigel-based tube formation and wound healing assays were performed to investigate angiogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression and activity levels were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and zymography, respectively. Additionally, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and protein kinase B (AKT) was detected by Western blot. The results indicate that fucoidan treatment significantly increased cell proliferation in the presence of FGF-2. Moreover, compared to the effect of FGF-2 alone, fucoidan and FGF-2 had a greater effect on tube formation and cell migration, and this effect was found to be synergistic. Furthermore, fucoidan enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  4. Effect of molecular weight on polyphenylquinoxaline properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of polyphenyl quinoxalines with different molecular weight and end-groups were prepared by varying monomer stoichiometry. Thus, 4,4'-oxydibenzil and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine were reacted in a 50/50 mixture of m-cresol and xylenes. Reaction concentration, temperature, and stir rate were studied and found to have an effect on polymer properties. Number and weight average molecular weights were determined and correlated well with viscosity data. Glass transition temperatures were determined and found to vary with molecular weight and end-groups. Mechanical properties of films from polymers with different molecular weights were essentially identical at room temperature but showed significant differences at 232 C. Diamine terminated polymers were found to be much less thermooxidatively stable than benzil terminated polymers when aged at 316 C even though dynamic thermogravimetric analysis revealed only slight differences. Lower molecular weight polymers exhibited better processability than higher molecular weight polymers.

  5. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  6. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  7. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  8. Molecular weight determinations of biosolubilized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.; Bean, R.; Campbell, J.

    1991-05-01

    We have compared several different methods for determining the molecular weight of biosolubilized coals: Aqueous gel permeation Chromatography (GPC), organic GPC, preparative GPC, dynamic laser light scattering (LLS), static LLS, static LLS, mass spectrometry, vapor phase osmometry (VPO) and ultrafiltration. We have found that careful consideration must be given to the molecular weight result obtained from each method. The average molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution were found to be dependent upon many factors, including the technique used; molecular weight standards, pH, and the percentage of sample analyzed. Weight average molecular weights, M{sub w}, obtained for biosolubilized leonardite range from 800,000 daltons for neutral pH aqueous GPC based on polyethylene glycol molecular weight standards to 570 daltons for pH 11.5 buffered aqueous GPC based on a fulvic acid standard. It is clear that the state of association of the biocoal analyte, as well as the interactions of sample with the separation matrix, can have large influence of the observed result, and these must be understood before reliable GPC measurements can be made. Furthermore, a uniform set of molecular weight standards for biodegraded coals is needed. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Dimerization Capacities of FGF2 Purified with or without Heparin-Affinity Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Liang-Yuan; Taouji, Said; Moroni, Elisabetta; Colombo, Giorgio; Chevet, Eric; Sue, Shih-Che; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is a pleiotropic growth factor exhibiting a variety of biological activities. In this article, we studied the capacity of FGF2 purified with or without heparin affinity chromatography to self-associate. Analyzing the NMR HSQC spectra for different FGF2 concentrations, heparin-affinity purified FGF2 showed perturbations that indicate dimerization and are a higher-order oligomerization state. HSQC perturbation observed with different FGF2 concentrations revealed a heparin-binding site and two dimer interfaces. Thus, with increasing protein concentrations, FGF2 monomers make contacts with each other and form dimers or higher order oligomers. On the contrary, FGF2 purified with ion-exchange chromatography did not show similar perturbation indicating that self-association of FGF2 is eliminated if purification is done without heparin-affinity chromatography. The HSQC spectra of heparin-affinity purified FGF2 can be reproduced to some extent by adding heparin tetra-saccharide to ion exchange chromatography purified FGF2. Heparin-affinity purified FGF2 bound to acceptor and donor beads in a tagged form using His-tagged or GST-tagged proteins, also dimerized in the AlphaScreen™ assay. This assay was further validated using different experimental conditions and competitors. The assay constitutes an interesting tool to study dimerization of other FGF forms as well. PMID:25299071

  10. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Liu, C.

    1999-09-21

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  11. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  12. Anti-proliferative effects of O-acyl-low-molecular-weight heparin derivatives on bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Hari G.; Mrabat, Hicham; Yu, Lunyin; Hales, Charles A.; Li, Boyangzi; Moore, Casey N.; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Heparin (HP) inhibits the growth of several cell types in vitro including bovine pulmonary artery (BPA) smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In initial studies we discovered that an O-hexanoylated low-molecular-weight (LMW) HP derivative having acyl groups with 6-carbon chain length was more potent inhibitor of BPA-SMCs than the starting HP. We prepared several O-acylated LMWHP derivatives having 4-, 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, and 18- carbon acyl chain lengths to determine the optimal acyl chain length for maximum anti-proliferative properties of BPA-SMCs. The starting LMWHP was prepared from unfractionated HP by sodium periodate treatment followed by sodium borohydride reduction. The tri-n-butylammonium salt of this LMWHP was O-acylated with butanoic, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, dodecanoic, and stearyl anhydrides separately to give respective O-acylated LMWHP derivatives. Gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was used to examine the average molecular weights of those O-acylated LMWHP derivatives. NMR analysis indicated the presence of one O-acyl group per disaccharide residue. Measurement of the inhibition of BPA-SMCS as a function of O-acyl chain length shows two optima, at a carbon chain length of 6 (O-hexanoylated LMWHP) and at a carbon chain length 12–18 (O-dodecanoyl and O-stearyl LMWHPs). A solution competition SPR study was performed to test the ability of different O-acylated LMWHP derivatives to inhibit fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF2 binding to surface-immobilized heparin. All the LMWHP derivatives bound to FGF1 and FGF2 but each exhibited slightly different binding affinity. PMID:21773727

  13. Dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired cardiac hypertrophic response to angiotensin II in mice lacking FGF-2

    PubMed Central

    Pellieux, Corinne; Foletti, Alessandro; Peduto, Giovanni; Aubert, Jean-François; Nussberger, Jürg; Beermann, Friedrich; Brunner, Hans-R.; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    FGF-2 has been implicated in the cardiac response to hypertrophic stimuli. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to maintain elevated blood pressure in hypertensive individuals and exerts direct trophic effects on cardiac cells. However, the role of FGF-2 in Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been established. Therefore, mice deficient in FGF-2 expression were studied using a model of Ang II–dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements show the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy in normotensive mice lacking FGF-2. Moreover, hypertensive mice without FGF-2 developed no compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. In wild-type mice, hypertrophy was associated with a stimulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, the extracellular signal regulated kinase, and the p38 kinase pathways. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was markedly attenuated in FGF-2–deficient mice. In vitro, FGF-2 of fibroblast origin was demonstrated to be essential in the paracrine stimulation of MAPK activation in cardiomyocytes. Indeed, fibroblasts lacking FGF-2 expression have a defective capacity for releasing growth factors to induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, these results identify the cardiac fibroblast population as a primary integrator of hypertrophic stimuli in the heart, and suggest that FGF-2 is a crucial mediator of cardiac hypertrophy via autocrine/paracrine actions on cardiac cells. PMID:11748268

  14. FGF-2 regulation of neurogenesis in adult hippocampus after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Shinichi; Takagi, Yasushi; Harada, Jun; Teramoto, Tetsuyuki; Thomas, Sunu S.; Waeber, Christian; Bakowska, Joanna C.; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Moskowitz, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promotes proliferation of neuroprogenitor cells in culture and is up-regulated within brain after injury. Using mice genetically deficient in FGF-2 (FGF-2−/− mice), we addressed the importance of endogenously generated FGF-2 on neurogenesis within the hippocampus, a structure involved in spatial, declarative, and contextual memory, after seizures or ischemic injury. BrdUrd incorporation was used to mark dividing neuroprogenitor cells and NeuN expression to monitor their differentiation into neurons. In the wild-type strain, hippocampal FGF-2 increased after either kainic acid injection or middle cerebral artery occlusion, and the numbers of BrdUrd/NeuN-positive cells significantly increased on days 9 and 16 as compared with the controls. In FGF-2−/− mice, BrdUrd labeling was attenuated after kainic acid or middle cerebral artery occlusion, as was the number of neural cells colabeled with both BrdUrd and NeuN. After FGF-2−/− mice were injected intraventricularly with a herpes simplex virus-1 amplicon vector carrying FGF-2 gene, the number of BrdUrd-labeled cells increased significantly to values equivalent to wild-type littermates after kainate seizures. These results indicate that endogenously synthesized FGF-2 is necessary and sufficient to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of neuroprogenitor cells in the adult hippocampus after brain insult. PMID:11320217

  15. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) and Its Receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 May Be Putative Biomarkers of Malignant Transformation of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions into Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Seema; Goel, Madhu Mati; Makker, Annu; Bhatia, Vikram; Chandra, Saumya; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    There are several factors like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, genetic alterations, mutational factors that are involved in malignant transformation of potentially malignant oral lesions (PMOLs) to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is one of the prototypes of the large family of growth factors that bind heparin. FGF-2 induces angiogenesis and its receptors may play a role in synthesis of collagen. FGFs are involved in transmission of signals between the epithelium and connective tissue, and influence growth and differentiation of a wide variety of tissue including epithelia. The present study was undertaken to analyze expression of FGF-2 and its receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 in 72 PMOLs, 108 OSCC and 52 healthy controls, and their role in risk assessment for malignant transformation of Leukoplakia (LKP) and Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) to OSCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3. IHC results were validated by Real Time PCR. Expression of FGF-2, FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 was upregulated from PMOLs to OSCC. While 90% (9/10) of PMOLs which showed malignant transformation (transformed) expressed FGF-2, only 24.19% cases (15/62) of PMOLs which were not transformed (untransformed) to OSCC expressed FGF-2. Similarly, FGFR-2 expression was seen in 16/62 (25.81%) of untransformed PMOLs and 8/10 (80%) cases of transformed PMOLs. FGFR-3 expression was observed in 23/62 (37.10%) cases of untransformed PMOLs and 6/10 (60%) cases of transformed PMOLs. A significant association of FGF-2 and FGFR-2 expression with malignant transformation from PMOLs to OSCC was observed both at phenotypic and molecular level. The results suggest that FGF-2 and FGFR-2 may be useful as biomarkers of malignant transformation in patients with OSMF and LKP. PMID:26465941

  16. Testosterone regulates FGF-2 expression during testis maturation by an IRES-dependent translational mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Herrera, Irma G; Prado-Lourenco, Leonel; Pileur, Frédéric; Conte, Caroline; Morin, Aurélie; Cabon, Florence; Prats, Hervé; Vagner, Stephan; Bayard, Francis; Audigier, Sylvie; Prats, Anne-Catherine

    2006-03-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process involving cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is involved in testicular function, but its role in spermatogenesis has not been fully documented. The control of FGF-2 expression particularly occurs at the translational level, by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent mechanism driving the use of alternative initiation codons. To study IRES activity regulation in vivo, we have developed transgenic mice expressing a bicistronic construct coding for two luciferase genes. Here, we show that the FGF-2 IRES is age-dependently activated in mouse testis, whereas EMCV and c-myc IRESs are not. Real-time PCR confirms that this regulation is translational. By using immunohistological techniques, we demonstrate that FGF-2 IRES stimulation occurs in adult, but not in immature, type-A spermatogonias. This is correlated with activation of endogenous FGF-2 expression in spermatogonia; whereas FGF-2 mRNA transcription is known to decrease in adult testis. Interestingly, the FGF-2 IRES activation is triggered by testosterone and is partially inhibited by siRNA directed against the androgen receptor. Two-dimensional analysis of proteins bound to the FGF-2 mRNA 5'UTR after UV cross-linking reveals that testosterone treatment correlates with the binding of several proteins. These data suggest a paracrine loop where IRES-dependent FGF-2 expression, stimulated by Sertoli cells in response to testosterone produced by Leydig cells, would in turn activate Leydig function and testosterone production. In addition, nuclear FGF-2 isoforms could be involved in an intracrine function of FGF-2 in the start of spermatogenesis, mitosis, or meiosis initiation. This report demonstrates that mRNA translation regulation by an IRES-dependent mechanism participates in a physiological process. PMID:16423876

  17. TGF-{beta}2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-11-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-{beta}2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-{beta}2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-{beta}2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-{beta}2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-{beta}2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-{beta}2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-{beta}2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-{beta}2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway.

  18. Biodegradation of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stloukal, Petr; Koutny, Marek; Sedlarik, Vladimir; Kucharczyk, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Polylactid acid seems to be an appropriate replacement of conventional non-biodegradable synthetic polymer primarily due to comparable mechanical, thermal and processing properties in its high molecular weight form. Biodegradation of high molecular PLA was studied in compost for various forms differing in their specific surface area. The material proved its good biodegradability under composting conditions and all investigated forms showed to be acceptable for industrial composting. Despite expectations, no significant differences in resulting mineralizations were observed for fiber, film and powder sample forms with different specific surface areas. The clearly faster biodegradation was detected only for the thin coating on porous material with high specific surface area.

  19. Schwann cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding Fgf-2 promote motor neuron regeneration following sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Allodi, Ilary; Mecollari, Vasil; González-Pérez, Francisco; Eggers, Ruben; Hoyng, Stefan; Verhaagen, Joost; Navarro, Xavier; Udina, Esther

    2014-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a trophic factor expressed by glial cells and different neuronal populations. Addition of FGF-2 to spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explants demonstrated that FGF-2 specifically increases motor neuron axonal growth. To further explore the potential capability of FGF-2 to promote axon regeneration, we produced a lentiviral vector (LV) to overexpress FGF-2 (LV-FGF2) in the injured rat peripheral nerve. Cultured Schwann cells transduced with FGF-2 and added to collagen matrix embedding spinal cord or DRG explants significantly increased motor but not sensory neurite outgrowth. LV-FGF2 was as effective as direct addition of the trophic factor to promote motor axon growth in vitro. Direct injection of LV-FGF2 into the rat sciatic nerve resulted in increased expression of FGF-2, which was localized in the basal lamina of Schwann cells. To investigate the in vivo effect of FGF-2 overexpression on axonal regeneration after nerve injury, Schwann cells transduced with LV-FGF2 were grafted in a silicone tube used to repair the resected rat sciatic nerve. Electrophysiological tests conducted for up to 2 months after injury revealed accelerated and more marked reinnervation of hindlimb muscles in the animals treated with LV-FGF2, with an increase in the number of motor and sensory neurons that reached the distal tibial nerve at the end of follow-up. PMID:24989458

  20. Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Aromatic Siloxane Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwick, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Silphenylene-siloxane polymers can be prepared by a condensation reaction of a diol 1,4-bis(hydroxydimethylsilyl)benzene and a silane bis(dimethylamino)dimethylsilane. Using a stepwise condensation technique, a polymer (R=CH3) with a molecular weight in excess of 1.0 x 1 million has been produced. The polymer exhibits increased thermal stability, compared to a methyl siloxane polymer without the aromatic phenyl ring in the backbone. The use of bis(dimethylamino)methylvinylsilane should allow for ready crosslinking at the vinyl sites (R=-CH=CH2) introduced into the backbone. However, under the conditions of the reaction system a high molecular weight polymer was not obtained or the polymer underwent a crosslinking process during the synthesis.

  1. Stage-specific effects of FGF2 on the differentiation of dental pulp cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Dentinogenesis is a complex and multistep process, which is regulated by various growth factors, including members of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family. Both positive and negative effects of FGFs on dentinogenesis have been reported but the underlying mechanisms of these conflicting results are still unclear. To gain better insight into the role of FGF2 in dentinogenesis, we used dental pulp cells from various transgenic mice, in which fluorescent protein expression identifies cells at different stages of odontoblast differentiation. Our results showed that continuous exposure of pulp cells to FGF2 inhibited mineralization and revealed both stimulatory and inhibitory effects of FGF2 on expression of markers of dentinogenesis and various transgenes. During the proliferation phase of in vitro growth FGF2 increased expression of markers of dentinogenesis and the percentages of DMP1-GFP+ functional odontoblasts and DSPP-Cerulean+ odontoblasts. Additional exposure to FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of in vitro growth decreased the extent of mineralization, expression of markers of dentinogenesis, and expression of DMP1-GFP and DSPP-Cerulean transgenes. Recovery experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis were related to the blocking of differentiation of cells into mature odontoblasts. These observations together showed stage-specific effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis by dental pulp cells and provide critical information for the development of improved treatments for vital pulp therapy and dentin regeneration. PMID:25823776

  2. Biocompatible composites of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Suan, T. Nguen; Ivanova, L. P.; Korchagin, M. A.; Chaikina, M. V.; Shilko, S. V.; Pleskachevskiy, Yu. M.

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical characteristics of biocompatible, antifriction and extrudable composites based on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) as well as hybrid matrix "UHMWPE + PTFE" with biocompatible hydroxyapatite filler under the dry friction and boundary lubrication were investigated. A comparative analysis of effectiveness of adding the hydroxyapatite to improve the wear resistance of composites based on these two matrices was performed. It is shown that the wear intensity of nanocomposites based on the hybrid matrix is lower than that for the composites based on pure UHMWPE. Possibilities of using the composites of the polymer "UHMWPE-PTFE" mixture as a material for artificial joints implants are discussed.

  3. Polymer Molecular Weight Analysis by [Superscript 1]H NMR Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izunobi, Josephat U.; Higginbotham, Clement L.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement and analysis of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution remain matters of fundamental importance for the characterization and physical properties of polymers. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is the most routinely used method for the molecular weight determination of polymers whereas matrix-assisted laser…

  4. Impaired cerebral cortex development and blood pressure regulation in FGF-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Dono, R; Texido, G; Dussel, R; Ehmke, H; Zeller, R

    1998-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been implicated in various signaling processes which control embryonic growth and differentiation, adult physiology and pathology. To analyze the in vivo functions of this signaling molecule, the FGF-2 gene was inactivated by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. FGF-2-deficient mice are viable, but display cerebral cortex defects at birth. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse labeling of embryos showed that proliferation of neuronal progenitors is normal, whereas a fraction of them fail to colonize their target layers in the cerebral cortex. A corresponding reduction in parvalbumin-positive neurons is observed in adult cortical layers. Neuronal defects are not limited to the cerebral cortex, as ectopic parvalbumin-positive neurons are present in the hippocampal commissure and neuronal deficiencies are observed in the cervical spinal cord. Physiological studies showed that FGF-2-deficient adult mice are hypotensive. They respond normally to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas neural regulation of blood pressure by the baroreceptor reflex is impaired. The present genetic study establishes that FGF-2 participates in controlling fates, migration and differentiation of neuronal cells, whereas it is not essential for their proliferation. The observed autonomic dysfunction in FGF-2-deficient adult mice uncovers more general roles in neural development and function. PMID:9687490

  5. Impaired cerebral cortex development and blood pressure regulation in FGF-2-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Dono, R; Texido, G; Dussel, R; Ehmke, H; Zeller, R

    1998-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has been implicated in various signaling processes which control embryonic growth and differentiation, adult physiology and pathology. To analyze the in vivo functions of this signaling molecule, the FGF-2 gene was inactivated by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells. FGF-2-deficient mice are viable, but display cerebral cortex defects at birth. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse labeling of embryos showed that proliferation of neuronal progenitors is normal, whereas a fraction of them fail to colonize their target layers in the cerebral cortex. A corresponding reduction in parvalbumin-positive neurons is observed in adult cortical layers. Neuronal defects are not limited to the cerebral cortex, as ectopic parvalbumin-positive neurons are present in the hippocampal commissure and neuronal deficiencies are observed in the cervical spinal cord. Physiological studies showed that FGF-2-deficient adult mice are hypotensive. They respond normally to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas neural regulation of blood pressure by the baroreceptor reflex is impaired. The present genetic study establishes that FGF-2 participates in controlling fates, migration and differentiation of neuronal cells, whereas it is not essential for their proliferation. The observed autonomic dysfunction in FGF-2-deficient adult mice uncovers more general roles in neural development and function. PMID:9687490

  6. Determinations of molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of high polymers by the rheological properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J. Y.; Hou, T. H.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods are reviewed by which the molecular weight (MW) and the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of polymeric material were determined from the rheological properties. A poly(arylene ether) polymer with six different molecular weights was used in this investigation. Experimentally measured MW and MWD were conducted by GPC/LALLS (gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering), and the rheological properties of the melts were measured by a Rheometric System Four rheometer. It was found that qualitative information of the MW and MWD of these polymers could be derived from the viscoelastic properties, with the methods proposed by Zeichner and Patel, and by Dormier et al., by shifting the master curves of the dynamic storage modulus, G', and the loss modulus, G'', along the frequency axis. Efforts were also made to calculate quantitative profiles of MW and MWD for these polymers from their rheological properties. The technique recently proposed by Wu was evaluated. It was found that satisfactory results could only be obtained for polymers with single modal distribution in the molecular weight.

  7. Unexpected Molecular Weight Effect in Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shiwang; Holt, Adam P.; Wang, Huiqun; Fan, Fei; Bocharova, Vera; Martin, Halie; Etampawala, Thusitha; White, B. Tyler; Saito, Tomonori; Kang, Nam-Goo; Dadmun, Mark D.; Mays, Jimmy W.; Sokolov, Alexei P.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of the interfacial layer between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles largely determine the macroscopic properties of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Although the static thickness of the interfacial layer was found to increase with the molecular weight (MW), the influence of MW on segmental relaxation and the glass transition in this layer remains to be explored. In this Letter, we show an unexpected MW dependence of the interfacial properties in PNC with attractive polymer-nanoparticle interactions: the thickness of the interfacial layer with hindered segmental relaxation decreases as MW increases, in sharp contrast to theoretical predictions. Further analyses reveal a reduction in mass density of the interfacial layer with increasing MW, which can elucidate these unexpected dynamic effects. Our observations call for a significant revision of the current understandings of PNCs and suggest interesting ways to tailor their properties.

  8. Unexpected molecular weight effect in polymer nanocomposites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, Shiwang; Holt, Adam P.; Wang, Huiqun; Fan, Fei; Bocharova, Vera; Martin, Halie J.; Etampawala, Thusitha N.; White, Benjamin Tyler; Saito, Tomonori; Kang, Nam -Goo; et al

    2016-01-22

    Here, the properties of the interfacial layer between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles largely determine the macroscopic properties of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Although the static thickness of the interfacial layer was found to increase with the molecular weight (MW), the influence of MW on segmental relaxation and the glass transition in this layer remains to be explored. In this Letter, we show an unexpected MW dependence of the interfacial properties in PNC with attractive polymer-nanoparticle interactions: the thickness of the interfacial layer with hindered segmental relaxation decreases as MW increases, in sharp constrast to theoretical predictions. Further analyses reveal amore » reduction in mass density of the interfacial layer with increasing MW, which can explain these unexpected dynamic effects. Our observations call for a significant revision of the current understandings of PNCs and suggest interesting ways to tailor their properties.« less

  9. Unexpected Molecular Weight Effect in Polymer Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shiwang; Holt, Adam P; Wang, Huiqun; Fan, Fei; Bocharova, Vera; Martin, Halie; Etampawala, Thusitha; White, B Tyler; Saito, Tomonori; Kang, Nam-Goo; Dadmun, Mark D; Mays, Jimmy W; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2016-01-22

    The properties of the interfacial layer between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles largely determine the macroscopic properties of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). Although the static thickness of the interfacial layer was found to increase with the molecular weight (MW), the influence of MW on segmental relaxation and the glass transition in this layer remains to be explored. In this Letter, we show an unexpected MW dependence of the interfacial properties in PNC with attractive polymer-nanoparticle interactions: the thickness of the interfacial layer with hindered segmental relaxation decreases as MW increases, in sharp contrast to theoretical predictions. Further analyses reveal a reduction in mass density of the interfacial layer with increasing MW, which can elucidate these unexpected dynamic effects. Our observations call for a significant revision of the current understandings of PNCs and suggest interesting ways to tailor their properties. PMID:26849618

  10. Rubber molecular weight regulation, in vitro, in plant species that produce high and low molecular weights in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cornish, K; Castillón, J; Scott, D J

    2000-01-01

    In three rubber-producing species, in vitro, the rates of initiation and polymerization and the biopolymer molecular weight produced were affected by the concentration of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) initiator and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) elongation substrate (monomer). Ficus elastica, a low molecular weight-producer in vivo, synthesized rubber polymers approximately twice the molecular weight of those made by Hevea brasiliensis or Parthenium argentatum (which produce high molecular weights in vivo), possibly due to its lower IPP Km. In all species, increasing FPP concentrations increased rubber biosynthetic rate and new molecules initiated but decreased molecular weight by competition with the allylic diphosphate (APP) end of elongating rubber molecules for the APP binding site. Increasing IPP concentrations increased rubber biosynthetic rate and rubber molecular weight, but only when FPP concentrations were below the FPP Km's or where negative cooperativity operated. In conclusion, rubber transferase is not the prime regulator of rubber molecular weight in vivo. PMID:11710193

  11. A gradient of matrix-bound FGF-2 and perlecan is available to lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiju; Tholozan, Frederique M; Goldberg, Martin W; Bowen, Leon; Wu, Junjie; Quinlan, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors play a key role in regulating lens epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation via an anteroposterior gradient that exists between the aqueous and vitreous humours. FGF-2 is the most important for lens epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. It has been proposed that the presentation of FGF-2 to the lens epithelial cells involves the lens capsule as a source of matrix-bound FGF-2. Here we used immunogold labelling to measure the matrix-bound FGF-2 gradient on the inner surface of the lens capsule in flat-mounted preparations to visualize the FGF-2 available to lens epithelial cells. We also correlated FGF-2 levels with levels of its matrix-binding partner perlecan, a heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) and found the levels of both to be highest at the lens equator. These also coincided with increased levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (pERK1/2) in lens epithelial cells that localised to condensed chromosomes of epithelial cells that were Ki-67 positive. The gradient of matrix-bound FGF-2 (anterior pole: 3.7 ± 1.3 particles/μm2; equator: 8.2 ± 1.9 particles/μm2; posterior pole: 4 ± 0.9 particles/μm2) and perlecan (anterior pole: 2.1 ± 0.4 particles/μm2; equator: 5 ± 2 particles/μm2; posterior pole: 1.9 ± 0.7 particles/μm2) available at the inner lens capsule surface was measured for the bovine lens. These data support the anteroposterior gradient hypothesis and provide the first measurement of the gradient for an important morphogen and its HSPG partner, perlecan, at the epithelial cell-lens capsule interface. PMID:24341990

  12. Cellular Responses Modulated by FGF-2 Adsorbed on Albumin/Heparin Layer-by-Layer Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Kumorek, Marta; Kubies, Dana; Filová, Elena; Houska, Milan; Kasoju, Naresh; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Matějka, Roman; Krýslová, Markéta; Bačáková, Lucie; Rypáček, František

    2015-01-01

    In a typical cell culture system, growth factors immobilized on the cell culture surfaces can serve as a reservoir of bio-signaling molecules, without the need to supplement them additionally into the culture medium. In this paper, we report on the fabrication of albumin/heparin (Alb/Hep) assemblies for controlled binding of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The surfaces were constructed by layer-by-layer adsorption of polyelectrolytes albumin and heparin and were subsequently stabilized by covalent crosslinking with glutaraldehyde. An analysis of the surface morphology by atomic force microscopy showed that two Alb/Hep bilayers are required to cover the surface of substrate. The formation of the Alb/Hep assemblies was monitored by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the infrared multiinternal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR MIRS) and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The adsorption of FGF-2 on the cross-linked Alb/Hep was followed by SPR. The results revealed that FGF-2 binds to the Alb/Hep assembly in a dose and time-dependent manner up to the surface concentration of 120 ng/cm2. The bioactivity of the adsorbed FGF-2 was assessed in experiments in vitro, using calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (CPAE). CPAE cells could attach and proliferate on Alb/Hep surfaces. The adsorbed FGF-2 was bioactive and stimulated both the proliferation and the differentiation of CPAE cells. The improvement was more pronounced at a lower FGF-2 surface concentration (30 ng/cm2) than on surfaces with a higher concentration of FGF-2 (120 ng/cm2). PMID:25945799

  13. Action Mechanism of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) in the Promotion of Periodontal Regeneration in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nagayasu-Tanaka, Toshie; Anzai, Jun; Takaki, Shu; Shiraishi, Noriko; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Nozaki, Takenori; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) enhances the formation of new alveolar bone, cementum, and periodontal ligament (PDL) in periodontal defect models. However, the mechanism through which FGF-2 acts in periodontal regeneration in vivo has not been fully clarified yet. To reveal the action mechanism, the formation of regenerated tissue and gene expression at the early phase were analyzed in a beagle dog 3-wall periodontal defect model. FGF-2 (0.3%) or the vehicle (hydroxypropyl cellulose) only were topically applied to the defect in FGF-2 and control groups, respectively. Then, the amount of regenerated tissues and the number of proliferating cells at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the number of blood vessels at 7 days were quantitated histologically. Additionally, the expression of osteogenic genes in the regenerated tissue was evaluated by real-time PCR at 7 and 14 days. Compared with the control, cell proliferation around the existing bone and PDL, connective tissue formation on the root surface, and new bone formation in the defect at 7 days were significantly promoted by FGF-2. Additionally, the number of blood vessels at 7 days was increased by FGF-2 treatment. At 28 days, new cementum and PDL were extended by FGF-2. Moreover, FGF-2 increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoblast differentiation markers (osterix, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin) in the regenerated tissue. We revealed the facilitatory mechanisms of FGF-2 in periodontal regeneration in vivo. First, the proliferation of fibroblastic cells derived from bone marrow and PDL was accelerated and enhanced by FGF-2. Second, angiogenesis was enhanced by FGF-2 treatment. Finally, osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation, at least in part due to BMP-2 production, were rapidly induced by FGF-2. Therefore, these multifaceted effects of FGF-2 promote new tissue formation at the early regeneration phase, leading to enhanced formation of new bone, cementum, and PDL. PMID

  14. A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating rh-FGF-2/β-TCP in Periodontal Defects.

    PubMed

    Cochran, D L; Oh, T-J; Mills, M P; Clem, D S; McClain, P K; Schallhorn, R A; McGuire, M K; Scheyer, E T; Giannobile, W V; Reddy, M S; Abou-Arraj, R V; Vassilopoulos, P J; Genco, R J; Geurs, N C; Takemura, A

    2016-05-01

    Biological mediators have been used to enhance periodontal regeneration. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of 3 doses of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) when combined with a β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffold carrier placed in vertical infrabony periodontal defects in adult patients. In this double-blinded, dose-verification, externally monitored clinical study, 88 patients who required surgical intervention to treat a qualifying infrabony periodontal defect were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment groups-β-TCP alone (control) and 0.1% recombinant human FGF-2 (rh-FGF-2), 0.3% rh-FGF-2, and 0.4% rh-FGF-2 with β-TCP-following scaling and root planing of the tooth prior to a surgical appointment. Flap surgery was performed with EDTA conditioning of the root prior to device implantation. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographics and baseline characteristics among the 4 treatment groups. When a composite outcome of gain in clinical attachment of 1.5 mm was used with a linear bone growth of 2.5 mm, a dose response pattern detected a plateau in the 0.3% and 0.4% rh-FGF-2/β-TCP groups with significant improvements over control and 0.1% rh-FGF-2/β-TCP groups. The success rate at 6 mo was 71% in the 2 higher-concentration groups, as compared with 45% in the control and lowest treatment groups. Percentage bone fill in the 2 higher-concentration groups was 75% and 71%, compared with 63% and 61% in the control and lowest treatment group. No increases in specific antibody to rh-FGF-2 were detected, and no serious adverse events related to the products were reported. The results from this multicenter trial demonstrated that the treatment of infrabony vertical periodontal defects can be enhanced with the addition of rh-FGF-2/β-TCP (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01728844). PMID:26908630

  15. The Molecular Weight Distribution of Polymer Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Arturo; Pastoriza, M. Alejandra

    2007-07-01

    Introductory polymer courses and textbooks discuss the statistical distribution of chain lengths or molecular weight that exists in polymers and connect the averages and breadth of such distribution with the mechanism of the polymerization, for example, with the degree of advancement or stoichiometry in step-growth polymerization or with the existence of transferences or with the type of termination in chain addition polymerization. To determine averages and breadth of the distribution, the polymer has to be separated from the reaction medium and converted into a "sample". In this process, the shorter chains, which are most soluble, may be lost with the result that the sample is not identical to the original polymer. A student exercise is proposed and developed, in which we calculate the difference between "sample" and original polymer. We use standard material given in the introductory courses or textbooks such that the calculation can be performed easily by the students. The results are discussed to ascertain whether the different distribution of the sample may alter the interpretation of the mechanism by which the original polymer was obtained.

  16. Ponatinib overcomes FGF2-mediated resistance in CML patients without kinase domain mutations

    PubMed Central

    Traer, Elie; Javidi-Sharifi, Nathalie; Agarwal, Anupriya; Dunlap, Jennifer; English, Isabel; Martinez, Jacqueline; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Wong, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Development of resistance to kinase inhibitors remains a clinical challenge. Kinase domain mutations are a common mechanism of resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), yet the mechanism of resistance in the absence of mutations remains unclear. We tested proteins from the bone marrow microenvironment and found that FGF2 promotes resistance to imatinib in vitro. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was uniquely capable of promoting growth in both short- and long-term assays through the FGF receptor 3/RAS/c-RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Resistance could be overcome with ponatinib, a multikinase inhibitor that targets BCR-ABL and FGF receptor. Clinically, we identified CML patients without kinase domain mutations who were resistant to multiple ABL kinase inhibitors and responded to ponatinib treatment. In comparison to CML patients with kinase domain mutations, these patients had increased FGF2 in their bone marrow when analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, FGF2 in the marrow decreased concurrently with response to ponatinib, further suggesting that FGF2-mediated resistance is interrupted by FGF receptor inhibition. These results illustrate the clinical importance of ligand-induced resistance to kinase inhibitors and support an approach of developing rational inhibitor combinations to circumvent resistance. PMID:24408322

  17. FGF2-induced effects on transcriptome associated with regeneration competence in adult human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury – by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence. Results We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules, matrix remodelling, cytoskeleton, and cytokines were determined to be affected by FGF2 treatment. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis comparing control adult human fibroblasts with FGF2-treated fibroblasts identified functional groups of genes that reflect transcriptional changes potentially contributing to their regeneration competence. This comparative transcriptome analysis should contribute new insights into genes that characterize cells with greater regenerative potential. PMID:24066673

  18. Recovery of petroleum with chemically treated high molecular weight polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gibb, C.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1980-11-18

    Plugging of reservoirs with high molecular weight polymers, e.g. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, is overcome by chemically treating a polymer having an excessively high average molecular weight prior to injection into a reservoir with an oxidizing chemical, e.g. sodium hypochlorite, and thereafter incorporating a reducing chemical, e.g., sodium sulfite, to stop degradation of the polymer when a desired lower average molecular weight and flooding characteristics are attained.

  19. The Effect of Covalently Immobilized FGF-2 on Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute on Enhanced Biological Compatibility and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Eun-Joo; Oh, Seunghan; Kim, Sungtae

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to covalently graft fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) onto biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) via a bifunctional cross-linker technique and to estimate the optimal dose of FGF-2 resulting in the best osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). SEM observation revealed that the surface of the 100 ng FGF-2 coated BCP was completely covered with the nanoparticles expected to be from the silane coupling agent. XRD, FT-IR, and XPS analysis showed that silane treatment, bifunctional cross-linker coating, and FGF-2 covalent grafts were conducted successfully without deforming the crystalline structure of BCP. An MTT assay demonstrated that FGF-2 coated BCP had good biocompatibility, regardless of the concentration of FGF-2, after 24 or 48 h of incubation. An alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay (14 days of incubation) and the ALP gene expression level of real-time PCR analysis (7 days of incubation) revealed that 50, 100, and 200 ng FGF-2 coated BCP induced the highest activities among all experimental groups and control group (P < 0.05). Thus, low concentrations of FGF-2 facilitated excellent osteogenesis and were effective at enhancing osteogenic potential. Also, the bifunctional cross-linker technique is expected to be a more feasible way to induce osteogenic differentiation while minimizing the risk of FGF-2 overdose. PMID:26436096

  20. Molecular Weight Effects on the Viscoelastic Response of a Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC -SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of each material with different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have increased creep compliance and creep compliance rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of approximately 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly.

  1. Effect of FGF-2 on collagen tissue regeneration by human vertebral bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Soo; Park, Jung-Chul; Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Ki-Joon; Jung, Byung-Joo; Shim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Eun-Young; Park, So-Yon; Cho, Kyoo-Sung; Kim, Chang-Sung

    2015-01-15

    The effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) on collagen tissue regeneration by human bone marrow stem cells (hBMSCs) were investigated. hBMSCs were isolated from human vertebral body bone marrow during vertebral surgery and a population of hBMSCs with the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells was observed. The FGF-2 treatment (5 ng/mL) affected on the colony-forming efficiency, proliferation, and in vitro differentiation of hBMSCs. Insoluble/soluble collagen and hydroxyproline synthesis was significantly enhanced in hBMSCs expanded with FGF-2 and the treatment of FGF-2 caused a reduction in the mRNA expression of collagen type I, but an increase of collagen types II and III along with lysyl oxidase family genes. Collagen formation was also examined using an in vivo assay model by transplanting hBMSCs into immunocompromised mice (n=4) and the histologic and immunohistochemical results revealed that significantly more collagen with a well-organized structure was formed by FGF-2-treated hBMSCs at 8 weeks posttransplantation (P<0.05). The DNA microarray assay demonstrated that genes related to extracellular matrix formation were significantly upregulated. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, chemical inhibitors against extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) were treated and following downstream expression was observed. Collectively, FGF-2 facilitated the collagen-producing potency of hBMSCs both in vitro and in vivo, rendering them more suitable for use in collagen regeneration in the clinical field. PMID:25122057

  2. [Periodontal tissue engineering by FGF-2:Its present status and future outlook].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinya

    2016-07-01

    Periodontitis remains highly prevalent all over the world and can lead to loss of the affected teeth. Thus, establishing a brand-new treatment that enables the regeneration and rebuilding of periodontal tissue destroyed by periodontitis represents a task of tremendous importance. Our pre-clinical studies and clinical trials suggested that efficacy is expected from basic fibroblast growth factor(FGF-2)in stimulating regeneration of periodontal tissue. Development of the osteoconductive carrier for FGF-2 drug will further extend the indications in the field of dental medicine. PMID:27346319

  3. Molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids by vapor pressure osmometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The molecular weights of aquatic fulvic acids extracted from five rivers were determined by vapor pressure osmometry with water and tetrahydrofuran as solvents. The values obtained ranged from 500 to 950 dallons, indicating that the molecular weights of aquatic fulvic acids are not as great as has been suggested in some other molecular weight studies. The samples were shown to be relatively monodisperse from radii of gyration measurements determined by small angle x-ray scattering. THF affords greater precision and accuracy than H2O in VPO measurements, and was found to be a suitable solvent for the determination of molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acid because it obviates the dissociation problem. An inverse correlation was observed with these samples between the concentration of Ca++ and Mg++ in the river water and the radii of gyration and molecular weights of the corresponding fulvic acid samples. ?? 1987.

  4. Evaluation of ultrafiltration for determining molecular weight of fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Two commonly used ultrafiltration membranes are evaluated for the determination of molecular weights of humic substances. Polyacrylic acids of Mr 2000 and 5000 and two well-characterized fulvic acids are used as standards. Molecular size characteristics of standards, as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering, are presented. Great care in evaluating molecular weight data obtained by ultrafiltration is needed because of broad nominal cutoffs and membrane-solute interactions.

  5. Size-exclusion chromatography of ultrahigh molecular weight methylcellulose ethers and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers for reliable molecular weight distribution characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Shen, Hongwei; Lyons, John W; Sammler, Robert L; Brackhagen, Meinolf; Meunier, David M

    2016-03-15

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors was employed for determination of the molecular weight distributions (MWD) of methylcellulose ethers (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers (HPMC) having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 20 to more than 1,000kg/mol. In comparison to previous work involving right-angle light scattering (RALS) and a viscometer for MWD characterization of MC and HPMC, MALLS yields more reliable molecular weight for materials having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) exceeding about 300kg/mol. A non-ideal SEC separation was observed for cellulose ethers with Mw>800kg/mol, and was manifested by upward divergence of logM vs. elution volume (EV) at larger elution volume at typical SEC flow rate such as 1.0mL/min. As such, the number-average molecular weight (Mn) determined for the sample was erroneously large and polydispersity (Mw/Mn) was erroneously small. This non-ideality resulting in the late elution of high molecular weight chains could be due to the elongation of polymer chains when experimental conditions yield Deborah numbers (De) exceeding 0.5. Non-idealities were eliminated when sufficiently low flow rates were used. Thus, using carefully selected experimental conditions, SEC coupled with MALLS and DRI can provide reliable MWD characterization of MC and HPMC covering the entire ranges of compositions and molecular weights of commercial interest. PMID:26794765

  6. Proton Irradiation Alters Expression of FGF-2 In Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; McNamara, M. P.; Chang, E.

    1999-01-01

    We are investigating a role for proton radiation-induced changes in FGF-2 gene expression as part of the mechanism(s) underlying lens cell injury. Radiation injury to the human lens is associated with the induction of cataract following exposure to protons.

  7. FGF2 and FGFR1 signaling regulate functional recovery following cuprizone demyelination.

    PubMed

    Mierzwa, Amanda J; Zhou, Yong-Xing; Hibbits, Norah; Vana, Adam C; Armstrong, Regina C

    2013-08-26

    In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, remyelination offers the potential to recover function of viable denuded axons by restoring saltatory conduction and/or protecting from further damage. Mice with genetic reduction of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) or Fgf receptor 1 (Fgfr1) exhibit dramatically improved remyelination following experimental demyelination with cuprizone. The current studies are the first to test neurobehavioral outcomes with these gene deletions that improved remyelination. The cuprizone protocols used did not produce overt abnormalities but did reduce bilateral sensorimotor coordination (complex wheel task) and increase sociability (two chamber apparatus with novel mouse). A significant effect of genotype was observed on the complex wheel task but not in the sociability apparatus. Specifically, complex wheel velocities for Fgf2 nulls improved significantly after removal of cuprizone from the diet. This improvement in Fgf2 null mice occurred following either acute (6 weeks) or chronic (12 weeks) demyelination. Plp/CreERT:Fgfr1(fl/fl) mice administered tamoxifen at 10 weeks of cuprizone treatment to induce Fgfr1 knockdown also showed improved recovery of running velocities on the complex wheels. Therefore, constitutive deletion of Fgf2 or Fgfr1 knockdown in oligodendrocyte lineage cells is sufficient to overcome impairment of sensorimotor coordination after cuprizone demyelination. PMID:23684572

  8. VEGF and FGF2 Improve Revascularization, Survival, and Oocyte Quality of Cryopreserved, Subcutaneously-Transplanted Mouse Ovarian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lu, Chung-Hao; Chang, Hsiao-Ho; Hsieh, Cheng-En; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. Autologous subcutaneous transplantation of vitrified-thawed mouse ovarian tissues treated with (experimental group) or without (control group) VEGF and FGF2 was performed. After transplantation to the inguinal region for two or three weeks, graft survival, angiogenesis, follicle development, and oocyte quality were examined after gonadotropin administration. VEGF coupled with FGF2 (VEGF/FGF2) promoted revascularization and significantly increased the survival rate of subcutaneously-transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissues compared with untreated controls. The two growth factors did not show long-term effects on the ovarian grafts. In contrast to the untreated ovarian grafts, active folliculogenesis was revealed as the number of follicles at various stages and of mature oocytes in antral follicles after gonadotropin administration were remarkably higher in the VEGF/FGF2-treated groups. Although the fertilization rate was similar between the VEGF/FGF2 and control groups, the oocyte quality was much better in the VEGF/FGF2-treated grafts as demonstrated by the higher ratio of blastocyst development. Introducing angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and FGF2, may be a promising strategy to improve revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. PMID:27483256

  9. VEGF and FGF2 Improve Revascularization, Survival, and Oocyte Quality of Cryopreserved, Subcutaneously-Transplanted Mouse Ovarian Tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lu, Chung-Hao; Chang, Hsiao-Ho; Hsieh, Cheng-En; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. Autologous subcutaneous transplantation of vitrified-thawed mouse ovarian tissues treated with (experimental group) or without (control group) VEGF and FGF2 was performed. After transplantation to the inguinal region for two or three weeks, graft survival, angiogenesis, follicle development, and oocyte quality were examined after gonadotropin administration. VEGF coupled with FGF2 (VEGF/FGF2) promoted revascularization and significantly increased the survival rate of subcutaneously-transplanted cryopreserved ovarian tissues compared with untreated controls. The two growth factors did not show long-term effects on the ovarian grafts. In contrast to the untreated ovarian grafts, active folliculogenesis was revealed as the number of follicles at various stages and of mature oocytes in antral follicles after gonadotropin administration were remarkably higher in the VEGF/FGF2-treated groups. Although the fertilization rate was similar between the VEGF/FGF2 and control groups, the oocyte quality was much better in the VEGF/FGF2-treated grafts as demonstrated by the higher ratio of blastocyst development. Introducing angiogenic factors, such as VEGF and FGF2, may be a promising strategy to improve revascularization, survival, and oocyte quality of cryopreserved, subcutaneously-transplanted mouse ovarian tissue. PMID:27483256

  10. Low molecular weight species in humic and fulvic fractions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, M.A.; Collin, P.J.; Malcolm, R.L.; Perdue, E.M.; Cresswell, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fourier transform solution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry with homogated water peak irradiation is a useful method for detecting low molecular weight substances in humic extracts. Succinate, acetate, methanol, formate, lactate and some aryl methoxyl compounds have been detected in extracts from a wide range of sources. In view of the controversy over whether low molecular weight substances are contaminants in humic extracts introduced by the concentration procedure, we report that some of these materials are not contaminants since 1H-NMR can be used to follow their formation from higher molecular weight species. ?? 1988.

  11. Free volume model for molecular weights of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Eftekhari, A.

    1992-01-01

    A free volume model has been developed for determining molecular weights of linear polymers. It is based on the size of free volume cells in two geometries of poly(arylene ether ketone)s. Free volume cell sizes in test samples were measured using positron lifetime spectroscopy. The molecular weights computed from free volume cell sizes are in good agreement with the values measured by gel permeation chromatography, with a low angle laser light scattering photometer as the detector. The model has been further tested on two atactic polystyrene samples, where it predicted the ratio of their molecular weights with reasonable accuracy.

  12. Free volume variation with molecular weight of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; St.clair, Terry L.; Jensen, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    Free volume measurements were made in several molecular weight fractions of two different geometries of poly(arylene ether ketone)s. Free volumes were measured using positron lifetime spectroscopy. It has been observed that the free volume cell size V(sub f) varies with the molecular weight M of the test samples according to an equation of the form V(sub f) = AM(B), where A and B are constants. The molecular weights computed from the free volume cell sizes are in good agreement with the values measured by gel permeation chromatography.

  13. Do Low Molecular Weight Agents Cause More Severe Asthma than High Molecular Weight Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Meca, Olga; Cruz, María-Jesús; Sánchez-Ortiz, Mónica; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Ojanguren, Iñigo; Munoz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to analyse whether patients with occupational asthma (OA) caused by low molecular weight (LMW) agents differed from patients with OA caused by high molecular weight (HMW) with regard to risk factors, asthma presentation and severity, and response to various diagnostic tests. Methods Seventy-eight patients with OA diagnosed by positive specific inhalation challenge (SIC) were included. Anthropometric characteristics, atopic status, occupation, latency periods, asthma severity according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) control classification, lung function tests and SIC results were analysed. Results OA was induced by an HMW agent in 23 patients (29%) and by an LMW agent in 55 (71%). A logistic regression analysis confirmed that patients with OA caused by LMW agents had a significantly higher risk of severity according to the GINA classification after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 3.579, 95% CI 1.136–11.280; p = 0.029). During the SIC, most patients with OA caused by HMW agents presented an early reaction (82%), while in patients with OA caused by LMW agents the response was mainly late (73%) (p = 0.0001). Similarly, patients with OA caused by LMW agents experienced a greater degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, measured as the difference in the methacholine dose-response ratio (DRR) before and after SIC (1.77, range 0–16), compared with patients with OA caused by HMW agents (0.87, range 0–72), (p = 0.024). Conclusions OA caused by LMW agents may be more severe than that caused by HMW agents. The severity of the condition may be determined by the different mechanisms of action of these agents. PMID:27280473

  14. Molecular-Weight-Controlled, End-Capped Polybenzimidazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Novel molecular-weight-controlled end-capped poly(arylene ether benzimidazole)s (PAEBI's) prepared by nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyl)benzimidazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides. Polymers prepared at various molecular weights by upsetting stoichiometry of monomers and end-capped with monohydroxybenzimidazole. Exhibit favorable physical and mechanical properties, improved solubility in polar aprotic solvents and better compression moldability. Potential applications as adhesives, coatings, films, fibers, membranes, moldings, and composite matrix resins.

  15. Phase Behavior of Binary Blends of High Molecular Weight Diblock Copolymers with a Low Molecular Weight Triblock

    SciTech Connect

    Mickiewicz, Rafal A.; Ntoukas, Eleftherios; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2009-08-26

    Binary blends of four different high molecular weight poly(styrene-b-isoprene) (SI) diblock copolymers with a lower molecular weight poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) (SIS) triblock copolymer were prepared, and their morphology was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering. All the neat block copolymers have nearly symmetric composition and exhibit the lamellar morphology. The SI diblock copolymers had number-average molecular weights, Mn, in the range 4.4 x 10{sup 5}--1.3 x 10{sup 6} g/mol and volume fractions of poly(styrene), {Phi}{sub PS}, in the range 0.43--0.49, and the SIS triblock had a molecular weight of Mn 6.2 x 10{sup 4} g/mol with {Phi}{sub PS} = 0.41. The high molecular weight diblock copolymers are very strongly segregating, with interaction parameter values, {chi}N, in the range 470--1410. A morphological phase diagram in the parameter space of molecular weight ratio (R = M{sub n}{sup diblock}/1/2M{sub n}{sup triblock}) and blend composition was constructed, with R values in the range between 14 and 43, which are higher than previously reported. The phase diagram revealed a large miscibility gap for the blends, with macrophase separation into two distinct types of microphase-separated domains for weight fractions of SI, w{sub SI} < 0.9, implying virtually no solubility of the much higher molecular weight diblocks in the lower molecular weight triblock. For certain blend compositions, above R 30, morphological transitions from the lamellar to cylindrical and bicontinuous structures were also observed.

  16. Evaluation of a Viscosity-Molecular Weight Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Lon J.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results are provided for a series of graduate/undergraduate polymer experiments. These include synthesis of poly(methylmethacrylate), viscosity experiment (indicating large effect even small amounts of a polymer may have on solution properties), and measurement of weight-average molecular weight by light…

  17. Long-term Observation of Regenerated Periodontium Induced by FGF-2 in the Beagle Dog 2-Wall Periodontal Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Jun; Nagayasu-Tanaka, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Yamada, Satoru; Nozaki, Takenori; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The long-term stability and qualitative characteristics of periodontium regenerated by FGF-2 treatment were compared with normal physiological healing tissue controls in a Beagle dog 2-wall periodontal defect model 13 months after treatment by assessing tissue histology and three-dimensional microstructure using micro-computed tomography (μCT). After FGF-2 (0.3%) or vehicle treatment at the defect sites, serial changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) were observed using periodic X-ray imaging. Tissues were harvested at 13 months, evaluated histomorphometrically, and the cortical bone volume and trabecular bone structure of the newly formed bone were analyzed using μCT. FGF-2 significantly increased the BMC of the defect area at 2 months compared with that of the control group, and this difference was unchanged through 13 months. The cortical bone volume was significantly increased by FGF-2, but there was no difference between the groups in trabecular bone structure. Bone maturation was occurring in both groups because of the lower cortical volume and denser trabecular bone than what is found in intact bone. FGF-2 also increased the area of newly formed bone as assessed histomorphometrically, but the ratios of trabecular bone in the defect area were similar between the control and FGF-2 groups. These results suggest that FGF-2 stimulates neogenesis of alveolar bone that is of similar quality to that of the control group. The lengths of the regenerated periodontal ligament and cementum, measured as the distance from the defect bottom to the apical end of the gingival epithelium, and height and area of the newly formed bone in the FGF-2 group were larger than those in the control group. The present study demonstrated that, within the limitation of artificial periodontal defect model, the periodontal tissue regenerated by FGF-2 was maintained for 13 months after treatment and was qualitatively equivalent to that generated through the physiological healing process

  18. Effects of low dose FGF-2 and BMP-2 on healing of calvarial defects in old mice.

    PubMed

    Charles, Lyndon F; Woodman, Jessica L; Ueno, Daisuke; Gronowicz, Gloria; Hurley, Marja M; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-04-01

    There is an age-associated reduction in the bone healing activity of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) that is currently addressed by administering higher doses of BMP-2 in elderly patients. The unwanted medical complications from high dose BMP-2 motivated this investigation to determine whether the addition of a low dose of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) could enhance the ability of a lower dose of BMP-2 to heal calvarial bone defects in old mice (18-20 months old). FGF-2 (5 ng) and BMP-2 (2 μg) were administered by a controlled release two-phase biomaterial scaffold placed into the bone defect. FGF-2 released more rapidly and completely in vitro than BMP-2 (40% vs 2%). In vivo, both BMP-2 and FGF-2+BMP-2 groups formed more new bone in calvarial defects than scaffold alone (p < 0.001) or FGF-2 only groups (p < 0.01). The overall total volume of new bone was not statistically increased by the addition of FGF-2 to BMP-2 as measured by microCT, but the pattern of bone deposition was different. In old mice, but not young, there was enhanced bony fill in the central bone defect area when the BMP-2 was supplemented with FGF-2. Histological analysis of the center of the defect revealed an increased bone volume (%BV/TV (p = 0.004)) from the addition of FGF-2. These studies suggest that combining a low dose of FGF-2 with a low dose of BMP-2 has the potential to increase bone healing in old mice relative to BMP-2 alone. PMID:25681640

  19. Effects of Low Dose FGF-2 and BMP-2 on Healing of Calvarial Defects in Old Mice

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Lyndon F.; Woodman, Jessica L.; Ueno, Daisuke; Gronowicz, Gloria; Hurley, Marja M.; Kuhn, Liisa T.

    2015-01-01

    There is an age-associated reduction in the bone healing activity of bone morphogenetic protein -2 (BMP-2) that is currently addressed by administering higher doses of BMP-2 in elderly patients. The unwanted medical complications from high dose BMP-2 motivated this investigation to determine whether the addition of a low dose of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) could enhance the ability of a lower dose of BMP-2 to heal calvarial bone defects in old mice (18-20 months old). FGF-2 (5 ng) and BMP-2 (2 μg) were administered by a controlled release two-phase biomaterial scaffold placed into the bone defect. FGF-2 released more rapidly and completely in vitro than BMP-2 (40% vs 2%). In vivo, both BMP-2 and FGF-2+BMP-2 groups formed more new bone in calvarial defects than scaffold alone (p <0.001) or FGF-2 only groups (p < 0.01). The overall total volume of new bone was not statistically increased by the addition of FGF-2 to BMP-2 as measured by microCT, but the pattern of bone deposition was different. In old mice, but not young, there was enhanced bony fill in the central bone defect area when the BMP-2 was supplemented with FGF-2. Histological analysis of the center of the defect revealed an increased bone volume (%BV/TV (p = 0.004)) from the addition of FGF-2. These studies suggest that combining a low dose of FGF-2 with a low dose of BMP-2 has the potential to increase bone healing in old mice relative to BMP-2 alone. PMID:25681640

  20. ATP differentially upregulates growth factors FGF2 and TGFα in neonatal and adult mice: Effect on neuroproliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Cuihong; Cussen, Amber R.; Hegg, Colleen Cosgrove

    2011-01-01

    Multiple neurotrophic factors play a role in proliferation, differentiation and survival in the olfactory epithelium; however, the signaling cascade has not been fully elucidated. We tested the hypotheses that ATP induces the synthesis and secretion of two neurotrophic factors, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), and that these neurotrophic factors have a role in inducing proliferation. Protein levels of FGF2 and TGFα were increased 20 h post-intranasal instillation of ATP compared to vehicle control in adult Swiss Webster mice. Pre-intranasal treatment with purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-20,40-disulfonic acid (PPADS) significantly blocked this ATP-induced increase, indicating that upregulation of FGF2 and TGFα expression is mediated by purinergic receptor activation. However, in neonatal mouse, intranasal instillation of ATP significantly increased the protein levels of FGF2, but not TGFα. Likewise, ATP evoked the secretion of FGF2, but not TGFα, from neonatal mouse olfactory epithelial slices and PPADS significantly blocked ATP-evoked FGF2 release. To determine the role of FGF2 and TGFα in inducing proliferation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was examined in adult olfactory epithelium. Intranasal treatment with FGF receptor inhibitor PD173074 or epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor AG1478 following ATP instillation significantly blocked ATP-induced BrdU incorporation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP induces proliferation in adult mouse olfactory epithelium by promoting FGF2 and TGFα synthesis and activation of their receptors. These data suggest that different mechanisms regulate neurogenesis in neonatal and adult OE, and FGF2 and TGFα may have different roles throughout development. PMID:21187124

  1. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases Antagonized FGF2 and IL-1β Effects on MMP Expression in Human Articular Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xibin; Song, Yingjie; Jacobi, Jennifer L.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor – 2 (FGF2) and interleukin – 1β IL-1β) stimulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in articular chondrocytes, which may contribute to cartilage degradation and development of osteoarthritis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have recently been implicated in the regulation of MMP gene expression. To investigate the functional involvement of HDACs in the signaling pathway of FGF2 and IL-1β, we examined the effects of HDAC inhibition on activities of FGF2 or IL-1β on gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs – 5 (ADAMTS5), collagen type II, and aggrecan. Human articular chondrocyte cultures were treated with FGF2 or IL-1β in the presence or absence of HDAC inhibitor (trichostatin A, TSA). Gene expression levels after treatments were assessed using quantitative real time PCR. Results showed that FGF2 and IL-1β both increased MMP-1 and -13 expression, while IL-1βalso increased MMP-3 mRNA levels. These effects were attenuated in the presence of TSA in a dose dependent manner. In contrast to the effects on MMPs, FGF2 decreased mRNA levels of ADAMTS–5, which was not affected by HDAC inhibition. FGF2, IL-1β, and TSA inhibited expression of aggrecan, while TSA also decreased mRNA levels of collagen type II. These findings showed that HDAC inhibition antagonized FGF2 and IL-1β induced MMP expression. Combination of FGF2 and the HDAC inhibitor decreases both anabolic and catabolic genes, which may slow the cartilage turnover and be beneficial for maintaining cartilage integrity. PMID:19107653

  2. MERS coronavirus induces apoptosis in kidney and lung by upregulating Smad7 and FGF2.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Man-Lung; Yao, Yanfeng; Jia, Lilong; Chan, Jasper F W; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Cheung, Kwok-Fan; Chen, Honglin; Poon, Vincent K M; Tsang, Alan K L; To, Kelvin K W; Yiu, Ming-Kwong; Teng, Jade L L; Chu, Hin; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Qing; Deng, Wei; Lau, Susanna K P; Lau, Johnson Y N; Woo, Patrick C Y; Chan, Tak-Mao; Yung, Susan; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Jin, Dong-Yan; Mathieson, Peter W; Qin, Chuan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes sporadic zoonotic disease and healthcare-associated outbreaks in human. MERS is often complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure(1,2). The high incidence of renal failure in MERS is a unique clinical feature not often found in other human coronavirus infections(3,4). Whether MERS-CoV infects the kidney and how it triggers renal failure are not understood(5,6). Here, we demonstrated renal infection and apoptotic induction by MERS-CoV in human ex vivo organ culture and a nonhuman primate model. High-throughput analysis revealed that the cellular genes most significantly perturbed by MERS-CoV have previously been implicated in renal diseases. Furthermore, MERS-CoV induced apoptosis through upregulation of Smad7 and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression in both kidney and lung cells. Conversely, knockdown of Smad7 effectively inhibited MERS-CoV replication and protected cells from virus-induced cytopathic effects. We further demonstrated that hyperexpression of Smad7 or FGF2 induced a strong apoptotic response in kidney cells. Common marmosets infected by MERS-CoV developed ARDS and disseminated infection in kidneys and other organs. Smad7 and FGF2 expression were elevated in the lungs and kidneys of the infected animals. Our results provide insights into the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and host targets for treatment. PMID:27572168

  3. Type III TGF-β receptor promotes FGF2-mediated neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Knelson, Erik H.; Gaviglio, Angela L.; Tewari, Alok K.; Armstrong, Michael B.; Mythreye, Karthikeyan; Blobe, Gerard C.

    2013-01-01

    Growth factors and their receptors coordinate neuronal differentiation during development, yet their roles in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma remain unclear. Comparison of mRNA from benign neuroblastic tumors and neuroblastomas revealed that expression of the type III TGF-β receptor (TGFBR3) decreases with advancing stage of neuroblastoma and this loss correlates with a poorer prognosis. Patients with MYCN oncogene amplification and low TGFBR3 expression were more likely to have an adverse outcome. In vitro, TβRIII expression was epigenetically suppressed by MYCN-mediated recruitment of histone deacetylases to regions of the TGFBR3 promoter. TβRIII bound FGF2 and exogenous FGFR1, which promoted neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. TβRIII and FGF2 cooperated to induce expression of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 via Erk MAPK. TβRIII-mediated neuronal differentiation suppressed cell proliferation in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These studies characterize a coreceptor function for TβRIII in FGF2-mediated neuronal differentiation, while identifying potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for neuroblastoma. PMID:24216509

  4. Microbial detection with low molecular weight RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourentzi, K. D.; Fox, G. E.; Willson, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The need to monitor microorganisms in the environment has increased interest in assays based on hybridization probes that target nucleic acids (e.g., rRNA). We report the development of liquid-phase assays for specific bacterial 5S rRNA sequences or similarly sized artificial RNAs (aRNAs) using molecular beacon technology. These beacons fluoresce only in the presence of specific target sequences, rendering as much as a 27-fold fluorescence enhancement. The assays can be used with both crude cell lysates and purified total RNA preparations. Minimal sample preparation (e.g., heating to promote leakage from cells) is sufficient to detect many Gram-negative bacteria. Using this approach it was possible to detect an aRNA-labeled Escherichia coli strain in the presence of a large background of an otherwise identical E. coli strain. Finally, by using a longer wavelength carboxytetramethylrhodamine beacon it was possible to reduce the fraction of the signal due to cellular autofluorescence to below 0.5%.

  5. SEDFIT-MSTAR: Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution analysis of polymers by sedimentation equilibrium in the ultracentrifuge

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Peter; Gillis, Richard B.; Besong, Tabot M.D.; Almutairi, Fahad; Adams, Gary G.; Rowe, Arthur J.; Harding, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentation equilibrium (analytical ultracentrifugation) is one of the most inherently suitable methods for the determination of average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of polymers, because of its absolute basis (no conformation assumptions) and inherent fractionation ability (without the need for columns or membranes and associated assumptions over inertness). With modern instrumentation it is also possible to run up to 21 samples simultaneously in a single run. Its application has been severely hampered because of difficulties in terms of baseline determination (incorporating estimation of the concentration at the air/solution meniscus) and complexity of the analysis procedures. We describe a new method for baseline determination based on a smart-smoothing principle and built into the highly popular platform SEDFIT for the analysis of the sedimentation behavior of natural and synthetic polymer materials. The SEDFIT-MSTAR procedure – which takes only a few minutes to perform - is tested with four synthetic data sets (including a significantly non-ideal system) a naturally occurring protein (human IgG1) and two naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers (pullulan and λ–carrageenan) in terms of (i) weight average molecular weight for the whole distribution of species in the sample (ii) the variation in “point” average molecular weight with local concentration in the ultracentrifuge cell and (iii) molecular weight distribution. PMID:24244936

  6. Molecular weight, polydispersity, and spectroscopic properties of aquatic humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.; O'Loughlin, E.

    1994-01-01

    The number- and weight-averaged molecular weights of a number of aquatic fulvic acids, a commercial humic acid, and unfractionated organic matter from four natural water samples were measured by high-pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Molecular weights determined in this manner compared favorably with those values reported in the literature. Both recent literature values and our data indicate that these substances are smaller and less polydisperse than previously believed. Moreover, the molecular weights of the organic matter from three of the four natural water samples compared favorably to the fulvic acid samples extracted from similar environments. Bulk spectroscopic properties of the fulvic substances such as molar absorptivity at 280 nm and the E4/E6 ratio were also measured. A strong correlation was observed between molar absorptivity, total aromaticity, and the weight average molecular weights of all the humic substances. This observation suggests that bulk spectroscopic properties can be used to quickly estimate the size of humic substances and their aromatic contents. Both parameters are important with respect to understanding humic substance mobility and their propensity to react with both organic and inorganic pollutants. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  7. miR-195 Inhibits EMT by Targeting FGF2 in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Kai; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Yeqing

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of deaths in America. The major cause of mortality can be attributed to metastasis. Cancer metastasis involves sequential and interrelated events. miRNAs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are implicated in this process. miR-195 is downregulated in many human cancers. However, the roles of miR-195 in PCa metastasis and EMT remain unclear. In this study, data from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prostate cancer database were re-analysed to detect miR-195 expression and its roles in PCa. miR-195 was then overexpressed in castration-resistant PCa cell lines, DU-145 and PC-3. The role of miR-195 in migration and invasion in vitro was also investigated, and common markers in EMT were evaluated through Western blot analysis. A luciferase reporter assay was conducted to confirm the target gene of miR-195; were validated in PCa cells. In MSKCC data re-analyses, miR-195 was poorly expressed in metastatic PCa; miR-195 could be used to diagnose metastatic PCa by measuring the corresponding expression. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) was 0.705 (P = 0.017). Low miR-195 expression was characterised with a shorter relapse-free survival (RFS) time. miR-195 overexpression suppressed cell migration, invasion and EMT. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-195. FGF2 knockdown also suppressed migration, invasion and EMT; by contrast, increased FGF2 partially reversed the suppressive effect of miR-195. And data from ONCOMINE prostate cancer database showed that PCa patients with high FGF2 expression showed shorter RFS time (P = 0.046). Overall, this study demonstrated that miR-195 suppressed PCa cell metastasis by downregulating FGF2. miR-195 restoration may be considered as a new therapeutic method to treat metastatic PCa. PMID:26650737

  8. FGF-2 signaling induces downregulation of TAZ protein in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eda, Homare; Aoki, Katsuhiko; Marumo, Keishi; Fujii, Katsuyuki; Ohkawa, Kiyoshi

    2008-02-08

    Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) protein is a coactivator of Runx2 and corepressor of PPAR{gamma}. It also induces differentiation of mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. In this study, we found that FGF-2, which inhibits bone mineralization and stimulates cell proliferation, reduced the TAZ protein expression level in osteoblast-like cells, MC3T3-E1. This reduction was recovered by removing FGF-2 from the culture medium, which also restored the osteoblastic features of MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, FGF-2-induced reduction of TAZ is blocked by a SAPK/JNK-specific inhibitor. These findings suggest that the expression of TAZ protein is involved in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. This may help elucidate the discrepancies in the effect of FGF-2 and contribute to the understanding of FGF/FGFR-associated craniosynostosis syndrome etiology and treatment.

  9. Rheological investigation of highly filled polymers: Effect of molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnatkova, Eva; Hausnerova, Berenika; Hales, Andrew; Jiranek, Lukas; Vera, Juan Miguel Alcon

    2015-04-01

    The paper deals with rheological properties of highly filled polymers used in powder injection molding. Within the experimental framework seven PIM feedstocks based on superalloy Inconel 718 powder were prepared. Each feedstock contains the fixed amount of powder loading and the same composition of binder system consisting of three components: polyethylene glycol (PEG) differing in molecular weight, poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and stearic acid (SA). The aim is to investigate the influence of PEG's molecular weight on the flow properties of feedstocks. Non-Newtonian indices, representing the shear rate sensitivity of the feedstocks, are obtained from a polynomial fit, and found to vary within measured shear rates range from 0.2 to 0.8. Temperature effect is considered via activation energies, showing decreasing trend with increasing of molecular weight of PEG (except of feedstock containing 1,500 g.mol-1 PEG).

  10. Inhibition of phagocytosis by high molecular weight hyaluronate.

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, J V; Balazs, E A

    1980-01-01

    The effect of sodium hyaluronate on phagocytosis was studied using a sensitive polystyrene latex sphere assay in mouse peritoneal macrophage monolayers. Viscous solutions of high molecular weight hyaluronate (4.6 X 10(5)--2.8 X 10(6)) caused a dose-dependent inhibition of phagocytosis, but low molecular weight hyaluronate (9.0 X 10(4)) was not inhibitory at equivalent viscosity. The inhibitory effect of high molecular weight hyaluronate did not appear to be mediated by the polyanionic charge of the molecule since sulphated glycosaminoglycans with greater charge density (heparin and chondroitin sulphate) were ineffective. In addition, competitive inhibition studies indicated that a direct effect on possible cell surface membrane receptors was unlikely. Instead, physical factors such as steric hindrance by the continuous polymeric network, were considered of more importance. Alternatively, the hydrophilic polysaccharide may have inhibited phagocytosis by providing an unsuitable surface for adhesive contact between the latex beads and the cell surface. PMID:7429537

  11. FGF2 plays a key role in embryonic cerebrospinal fluid trophic properties over chick embryo neuroepithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martín, C; Bueno, D; Alonso, M I; Moro, J A; Callejo, S; Parada, C; Martín, P; Carnicero, E; Gato, A

    2006-09-15

    During early stages of brain development, neuroepithelial stem cells undergo intense proliferation as neurogenesis begins. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) has been involved in the regulation of these processes, and although it has been suggested that they work in an autocrine-paracrine mode, there is no general agreement on this because the behavior of neuroepithelial cells is not self-sufficient in explants cultured in vitro. In this work, we show that during early stages of development in chick embryos there is another source of FGF2, besides that of the neuroepithelium, which affects the brain primordium, since the cerebrospinal fluid (E-CSF) contains several isoforms of this factor. We also demonstrate, both in vitro and in vivo, that the FGF2 from the E-CSF has an effect on the regulation of neuroepithelial cell behavior, including cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In order to clarify putative sources of FGF2 in embryonic tissues, we detected by in situ hybridization high levels of mRNA expression in notochord, mesonephros and hepatic primordia, and low levels in brain neuroectoderm, corroborated by semiquantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, we show that the notochord segregates several FGF2 isoforms which modify the behavior of the neuroepithelial cells in vitro. In addition, we show that the FGF2 ligand is present in the embryonic serum; and, by means of labeled FGF2, we prove that this factor passes via the neuroepithelium from the embryonic serum to the E-CSF in vivo. Considering all these results, we propose that, in chick embryos, the behavior of brain neuroepithelial stem cells at the earliest stages of development is influenced by the action of the FGF2 contained within the E-CSF which could have an extraneural origin, thus suggesting a new and complementary way of regulating brain development. PMID:16916506

  12. Influence of Molecular Weight and Degree of Deacetylation of Low Molecular Weight Chitosan on the Bioactivity of Oral Insulin Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Qinna, Nidal A.; Karwi, Qutuba G.; Al-Jbour, Nawzat; Al-Remawi, Mayyas A.; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M.; Al-So’ud, Khaldoun A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) with different molecular weight and degrees of deacetylation (DDA) and to optimize their use in oral insulin nano delivery systems. Water in oil nanosized systems containing LMWC-insulin polyelectrolyte complexes were constructed and their ability to reduce blood glucose was assessed in vivo on diabetic rats. Upon acid depolymerization and testing by viscosity method, three molecular weights of LMWC namely, 1.3, 13 and 18 kDa were obtained. As for the DDA, three LMWCs of 55%, 80% and 100% DDA were prepared and characterized by spectroscopic methods for each molecular weight. The obtained LMWCs showed different morphological and in silico patterns. Following complexation of LMWCs with insulin, different aggregation sizes were obtained. Moreover, the in vivo tested formulations showed different activities of blood glucose reduction. The highest glucose reduction was achieved with 1.3 kDa LMWC of 55% DDA. The current study emphasizes the importance of optimizing the molecular weight along with the DDA of the incorporated LMWC in oral insulin delivery preparations in order to ensure the highest performance of such delivery systems. PMID:25826718

  13. Influence of molecular weight and degree of deacetylation of low molecular weight chitosan on the bioactivity of oral insulin preparations.

    PubMed

    Qinna, Nidal A; Karwi, Qutuba G; Al-Jbour, Nawzat; Al-Remawi, Mayyas A; Alhussainy, Tawfiq M; Al-So'ud, Khaldoun A; Al Omari, Mahmoud M H; Badwan, Adnan A

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to prepare and characterize low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC) with different molecular weight and degrees of deacetylation (DDA) and to optimize their use in oral insulin nano delivery systems. Water in oil nanosized systems containing LMWC-insulin polyelectrolyte complexes were constructed and their ability to reduce blood glucose was assessed in vivo on diabetic rats. Upon acid depolymerization and testing by viscosity method, three molecular weights of LMWC namely, 1.3, 13 and 18 kDa were obtained. As for the DDA, three LMWCs of 55%, 80% and 100% DDA were prepared and characterized by spectroscopic methods for each molecular weight. The obtained LMWCs showed different morphological and in silico patterns. Following complexation of LMWCs with insulin, different aggregation sizes were obtained. Moreover, the in vivo tested formulations showed different activities of blood glucose reduction. The highest glucose reduction was achieved with 1.3 kDa LMWC of 55% DDA. The current study emphasizes the importance of optimizing the molecular weight along with the DDA of the incorporated LMWC in oral insulin delivery preparations in order to ensure the highest performance of such delivery systems. PMID:25826718

  14. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES & MOLECULAR WEIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS OF FOUR PERFLUORINATED THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D M; Shields, A L

    2009-02-24

    Dynamic viscosity measurements and molecular weight estimates have been made on four commercial, amorphous fluoropolymers with glass transitions (Tg) above 100 C: Teflon AF 1600, Hyflon AD 60, Cytop A and Cytop M. These polymers are of interest as binders for the insensitive high explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) because of their high density and Tg above ambient, but within a suitable processing range of TATB. As part of this effort, the rheological properties and molecular weight distributions of these polymers were evaluated.

  15. Systemic administration of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) reduces BACE1 expression and amyloid pathology in APP23 mice.

    PubMed

    Katsouri, Loukia; Ashraf, Azhaar; Birch, Amy M; Lee, Kevin K L; Mirzaei, Nazanin; Sastre, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    There is an emerging evidence that growth factors may have a potential beneficial use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) because of their neuroprotective properties and effects on neuronal proliferation. Basic fibroblast growth factor or fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) is an anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and neurotrophic factor that is expressed in many cell types, including neurons and glial cells. Here, we explored whether subcutaneous administration of FGF2 could have therapeutic effects in the APP 23 transgenic mouse, a model of amyloid pathology. FGF2 treatment attenuated spatial memory deficits, reduced amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau pathologies, decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and increased the number of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus in APP 23 mice compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The decrease in Aβ deposition was associated with a reduction in the expression of BACE1, the main enzyme responsible for Aβ generation. These results were confirmed in a neuroblastoma cell line, which demonstrated that incubation with FGF2 regulates BACE1 transcription. In addition, and in contrast with what has been previously published, the levels of FGF2 were reduced in postmortem brains from AD patients compared with controls. These data, therefore, suggest that systemic administration of FGF2 could have a potential therapeutic application in AD. PMID:25457554

  16. Fgf2 improves functional recovery—decreasing gliosis and increasing radial glia and neural progenitor cells after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Goldshmit, Yona; Frisca, Frisca; Pinto, Alexander R; Pébay, Alice; Tang, Jean-Kitty K Y; Siegel, Ashley L; Kaslin, Jan; Currie, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A major impediment for recovery after mammalian spinal cord injury (SCI) is the glial scar formed by proliferating reactive astrocytes. Finding factors that may reduce glial scarring, increase neuronal survival, and promote neurite outgrowth are of major importance for improving the outcome after SCI. Exogenous fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) has been shown to decrease injury volume and improve functional outcome; however, the mechanisms by which this is mediated are still largely unknown. Methods In this study, Fgf2 was administered for 2 weeks in mice subcutaneously, starting 30 min after spinal cord hemisection. Results Fgf2 treatment decreased the expression of TNF-a at the lesion site, decreased monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and decreased gliosis. Fgf2 induced astrocytes to adopt a polarized morphology and increased expression of radial markers such as Pax6 and nestin. In addition, the levels of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), expressed by glia, were markedly decreased. Furthermore, Fgf2 treatment promotes the formation of parallel glial processes, “bridges,” at the lesion site that enable regenerating axons through the injury site. Additionally, Fgf2 treatment increased Sox2-expressing cells in the gray matter and neurogenesis around and at the lesion site. Importantly, these effects were correlated with enhanced functional recovery of the left paretic hind limb. Conclusions Thus, early pharmacological intervention with Fgf2 following SCI is neuroprotective and creates a proregenerative environment by the modulation of the glia response. PMID:24683512

  17. Differential Regulation of CXCL5 by FGF2 in Osteoblastic and Endothelial Niche Cells Supports Hematopoietic Stem Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyung-Ae; Cho, Hye-Sim; Shin, Hong-In

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell maintenance requires a specific microenvironment. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are mainly maintained by the endosteal osteoblast (OB) niche, which provides a quiescent HSC microenvironment, and the vascular niche, which regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mobilization of HSCs. The systemic administration of FGF2 failed to induce normal hematopoiesis in bone marrow (BM) by reducing SDF-1, an important factor for hematopoiesis. Interestingly, SDF-1 levels were decreased in the OBs, but increased in vascular endothelial C166 cells when FGF2 was administered. We hypothesized that FGF2 induces changes in HSC migration from BM; therefore, we investigated FGF2-induced factors of HSC migration by a microarray chip. We searched the genes that were decreased in primary OBs, but increased in C166 cells upon FGF2 treatment. We confirmed selected genes that function in the extracellular region and identified the CXCR2-related chemokine candidate LIX/Cxcl5. A chemotaxis assay showed that CXCL5 induced the migration of HSCs (CD34−/lowLSK). Our data suggest that the differential regulation of the chemokine CXCL5 between OBs and endothelial cells upon FGF2 treatment is involved in HSC mobilization from the OB niche or BM to peripheral blood. PMID:22827607

  18. Mean molecular weight and hydrogen abundance of Titan's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuelson, R. E.; Hanel, R. A.; Kunde, V. G.; Maguire, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    The 200-600/cm continuum opacity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere of Titan is inferred from thermal emission spectra from the Voyager 1 IR spectrometer (IRIS). The surface temperature and mean molecular weight are between 94 and 97 K and between 28.3 and 29.2 AMU, respectively. The mole fraction of molecular hydrogen is 0.002 + or - 0.001, which is equivalent to an abundance of approximately 0.2 + or - 0.1 km amagat.

  19. αvβ3 Integrin Mediates the Cell-adhesive Capacity and Biological Activity of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) in Cultured Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rusnati, Marco; Tanghetti, Elena; Dell’Era, Patrizia; Gualandris, Anna; Presta, Marco

    1997-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) immobilized on non-tissue culture plastic promotes adhesion and spreading of bovine and human endothelial cells that are inhibited by anti-FGF-2 antibody. Heat-inactivated FGF-2 retains its cell-adhesive activity despite its incapacity to bind to tyrosine-kinase FGF receptors or to cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Recombinant glutathione-S-transferase-FGF-2 chimeras and synthetic FGF-2 fragments identify two cell-adhesive domains in FGF-2 corresponding to amino acid sequences 38–61 and 82–101. Both regions are distinct from the FGF-receptor-binding domain of FGF-2 and contain a DGR sequence that is the inverse of the RGD cell-recognition sequence. Calcium deprivation, RGD-containing eptapeptides, soluble vitronectin (VN), but not fibronectin (FN), inhibit cell adhesion to FGF-2. Conversely, soluble FGF-2 prevents cell adhesion to VN but not FN, thus implicating VN receptor in the cell-adhesive activity of FGF-2. Accordingly, monoclonal and polyclonal anti-αvβ3 antibodies prevent cell adhesion to FGF-2. Also, purified human αvβ3 binds to immobilized FGF-2 in a cation-dependent manner, and this interaction is competed by soluble VN but not by soluble FN. Finally, anti-αvβ3 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specifically inhibit mitogenesis and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) up-regulation induced by free FGF-2 in endothelial cells adherent to tissue culture plastic. These data demonstrate that FGF-2 interacts with αvβ3 integrin and that this interaction mediates the capacity of the angiogenic growth factor to induce cell adhesion, mitogenesis, and uPA up-regulation in endothelial cells. PMID:9398667

  20. DETERMINATION OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT CITRUS PECTIN USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective was to investigate the use of ELS as a mass detector coupled with MALLS for determining the molecular weights of pectins and other polysaccharides under changing buffer concentrations using HPLC. This would permit the direct determination of the charge to size ratio of pectin which is imp...

  1. Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Silphenylene/Siloxane Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.; Hundley, N. H.; Ludwick, L. M.

    1986-01-01

    Elastomers having molecular weights above 1 million made by twostage polymerization. Two-stage process proves far more successful than synthesis from reactive monomers. Process involves synthesis of silanolterminated prepolymer and subsequent extension of prepolymer chain with additional aminosilane monomer. Multistage method allows chain-extending monomer added in precise amounts between stages.

  2. Polyacrylamide molecular weight effects on soil infiltration and erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of smectitic soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  3. Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H5)2 in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gel perme...

  4. FGF2 activates TRPC and Ca2+ signaling leading to satellite cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cells, as stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, are tightly associated with the differentiated muscle fibers and remain quiescent in the absence of muscle damage. In response to an injury, the quiescent satellite cell is activated by soluble factors, including FGFs released from injured myofibers. Using immunostaining, we here first show that TRPC1 channels are highly expressed in satellite cells attached to muscle fibers. Since CD34, a traditional stem cell marker, was recently found to be expressed in skeletal muscle satellite cells we labeled living satellite cells in their physiological niche associated with host FDB fibers using anti-CD34-FITC antibody. We then monitored intra-cellular calcium in anti-CD34-FITC labeled satellite cells attached to muscle fibers using the calcium sensitive dye X rhod-1 which has little fluorescence cross talk with FITC. FGF2 increased intracellular calcium in satellite cells, which was antagonized by the TRPC channel blocker SKF 96365. Immunostaining showed that NFATc3 is highly expressed in satellite cells, but not in host FDB fibers. Elevation of intracellular calcium by FGF2 is accompanied by nuclear translocation of NFATc3 and NFATc2 and by an increase in the number of MyoD positive cells per muscle fiber, both of which were attenuated by TRPC blocker SKF 96365. Our results suggest a novel pathway of satellite cell activation where FGF2 enhances calcium influx through a TRPC channel, and the increased cytosolic calcium leads to both NFATc3 and NFATc2 nuclear translocation and enhanced number of MyoD positive satellite cells per muscle fiber. PMID:24575047

  5. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  6. Effects of FGF-2 on human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells morphology and chondrogenesis enhancement in Transwell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kabiri, Azadeh; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Hashemibeni, Batool; Kazemi, Mohammad; Mardani, Mohammad; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated effects of FGF-2 on hADSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine changes in the level of gene expressions of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF-2 induces chondrogenesis in hADSCs, which Bullet Increasing information will decrease quality if hospital costs are very different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result of this study may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering. -- Abstract: Injured cartilage is difficult to repair due to its poor vascularisation. Cell based therapies may serve as tools to more effectively regenerate defective cartilage. Both adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are regarded as potential stem cell sources able to generate functional cartilage for cell transplantation. Growth factors, in particular the TGF-b superfamily, influence many processes during cartilage formation, including cell proliferation, extracellular matrix synthesis, maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, and induction of MSCs towards chondrogenesis. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FGF-2 on hADSC morphology and chondrogenesis in Transwell culture. hADSCs were obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery, and then cultured in expansion medium alone or in the presence of FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). mRNA expression levels of SOX-9, aggrecan and collagen type II and type X were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The morphology, doubling time, trypsinization time and chondrogenesis of hADSCs were also studied. Expression levels of SOX-9, collagen type II, and aggrecan were all significantly increased in hADSCs expanded in presence of FGF-2. Furthermore FGF-2 induced a slender morphology, whereas doubling time and trypsinization time decreased. Our results suggest that FGF-2 induces hADSCs chondrogenesis in Transwell culture, which may be beneficial in cartilage tissue engineering.

  7. The FGF-2-Derived Peptide FREG Inhibits Melanoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Aguzzi, Maria S; Faraone, Debora; D'Arcangelo, Daniela; De Marchis, Francesco; Toietta, Gabriele; Ribatti, Domenico; Parazzoli, Alberto; Colombo, Paolo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Previous data report that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-derived peptide FREG potently inhibits FGF-2-dependent angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that FREG inhibits up to 70% in vitro growth and invasion/migration of smooth muscle and melanoma cells. Such inhibition is mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-α (PDGF-Rα); in fact, proliferation and migration were restored upon PDGF-Rα neutralization. Further experiments demonstrated that FREG interacts with PDGF-Rα both in vitro and in vivo and stimulates its phosphorylation. We have previously shown that overexpressing PDGF-Rα strongly inhibits melanoma growth in vivo; we, therefore, hypothesized that PDGF-Rα agonists may represent a novel tool to inhibit melanoma growth in vivo. To support this hypothesis, FREG was inoculated intravenously (i.v.) in a mouse melanoma model and markedly inhibited pulmonary metastases formation. Immunohistochemical analyses showed less proliferation, less angiogenesis, and more apoptosis in metastasized lungs upon FREG treatment, as compared to untreated controls. Finally, in preliminary acute toxicity studies, FREG showed no toxicity signs in healthy animals, and neither microscopic nor macroscopic toxicity at the liver, kidney, and lungs level. Altogether, these data indicate that FREG systemic treatment strongly inhibits melanoma metastases development and indicate for the first time that agonists of PDGF-Rα may control melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20924364

  8. FGF2 regulates melanocytes viability through the STAT3-transactivated PAX3 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dong, L; Li, Y; Cao, J; Liu, F; Pier, E; Chen, J; Xu, Z; Chen, C; Wang, R-a; Cui, R

    2012-01-01

    PAX3 (paired box 3) is known to have an important role in melanocyte development through modulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor transcription. Here we found that PAX3 transcriptional activity could be regulated through FGF2 (basic fibroblast growth factor)-STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling in the pigment cells. To study its function in vivo, we have generated a transgenic mouse model expressing PAX3 driven by tyrosinase promoter in a tissue-specific fashion. These animals exhibit hyperpigmentation in the epidermis, evident in the skin color of their ears and tails. We showed that the darker skin color results from both increased melanocyte numbers and melanin synthesis. Together, our study delineated a novel pathway in the melanocyte lineage, linking FGF2-STAT3 signaling to increased PAX3 transcription. Moreover, our results suggest that this pathway might contribute to the regulation of melanocyte numbers and melanin levels, and thereby provide an alternative strategy to induce pigmentation. PMID:21997191

  9. High-level Expression and Purification of Active Human FGF-2 in Escherichia coli by Codon and Culture Condition Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Soleyman, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Mostafa; Khansarinejad, Behzad; Baazm, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a member of a highly conserved superfamily of proteins that are involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Objectives: The objective of this study was to overexpress and purify the high-level active human bFGF in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the Islamic Republic of Iran. After codon optimization and gene synthesis, the optimized FGF-2 gene was subcloned into plasmid pET-32a. pET32-FGF-2 was transformed into E. coli BL21 for expression. The cultivation parameters were optimized to produce a high yield of FGF-2. Results: The optimal conditions were determined as follows: cultivation at 37°C in TB medium, with 1 mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), followed by post-induction expression for 6 h. Under the abovementioned conditions, the expression volumetric productivity of FGF-2 reached 1.48 g/L. Conclusions: A fusion tag from the pET32 expression plasmid permits the recovery of the recombinant fusion FGF-2 from E. coli, without affecting its biological activity. PMID:27175305

  10. Characterization of the chemotactic and mitogenic response of SMCs to PDGF-BB and FGF-2 in fibrin hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Ucuzian, Areck A.; Brewster, Luke P.; East, Andrea T.; Pang, Yongang; Gassman, Andrew A.; Greisler, Howard P.

    2010-01-01

    The delivery of growth factors to cellularize biocompatible scaffolds like fibrin is a commonly used strategy in tissue engineering. We characterized SMC proliferation and chemotaxis in response to PDGF-BB and FGF-2, alone and in combination, in 2-D culture and in 3-D fibrin hydrogels. While both growth factors induced an equipotent mitogenic response in 2-D culture, only FGF-2 was significantly mitogenic for SMCs in 3-D culture. Only PDGF-BB was significantly chemotactic in a modified Boyden chamber assay. In a 3-D assay of matrix invasion, both growth factors induced an invasive response into the fibrin hydrogel in both proliferating and non-proliferating, mitomycin C (MMC) treated cells. The invasive response was less attenuated by the inhibition of proliferation in PDGF-BB stimulated cells compared with FGF-2 stimulated cells. We conclude that SMCs cultured in fibrin hydrogels have a more robust chemotactic response to PDGF-BB compared with FGF-2, and that the response to FGF-2 is more dependent on cell proliferation. Delivery of both growth factors together potentiates the chemotactic, but not mitogenic response to either growth factor alone. PMID:20730936

  11. Optimization of treatment with recombinant FGF-2 for proliferation and differentiation of human dental stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Won-Tae; Ryu, Chun Jeih; Jang, Young-Joo

    2015-08-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) is widely used to modulate the proliferation and differentiation of certain cell types. An expression and purification system for recombinant human FGF-2 in Escherichia coli was established for the purpose of securing a continuous supply of this protein. The purified recombinant FGF-2 significantly increased the population of human embryonic stem cells. The optimal concentrations of FGF-2 for cell proliferative induction in various adult stem cells including human dental pulp stem cells, full term human periodontal ligament stem cells, human gingival fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteogenic oseosarcoma were established in a dose-dependent manner. When cells were treated with recombinant FGF-2 for 6 days before osteogenic induction, the mRNA expression of the bone markers was upregulated in cells originated from human dental pulp tissue, indicating that pretreatment with FGF-2 during culture increase stem cell/progenitor population and osteogenic potential. PMID:25789782

  12. Recent Developments in Low Molecular Weight Complement Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hongchang; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.

    2009-01-01

    As a key part of the innate immune system, complement plays an important role not only in defending invading pathogens but also in many other biological processes. Inappropriate or excessive activation of complement has been linked to many autoimmune, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury and cancer. A wide array of low molecular weight complement inhibitors has been developed to target various components of the complement cascade. Their efficacy has been demonstrated in numerous in vitro and in vivo experiments. Though none of these inhibitors has reached the market so far, some of them have entered clinical trials and displayed promising results. This review provides a brief overview of the currently developed low molecular weight complement inhibitors, including short peptides and synthetic small molecules, with an emphasis on those targeting components C1 and C3, and the anaphylatoxin receptors. PMID:19800693

  13. Molecular physiology of weight regulation in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Leibel, RL

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary considerations relating to efficiency in reproduction, and survival in hostile environments, suggest that body energy stores are sensed and actively regulated, with stronger physiological and behavioral responses to loss than gain of stored energy. Many physiological studies support this inference, and suggest that a critical axis runs between body fat and the hypothalamus. The molecular cloning of leptin and its receptor—projects based explicitly on the search for elements in this axis—confirmed the existence of this axis and provided important tools with which to understand its molecular physiology. Demonstration of the importance of this soma-brain reciprocal connection in body weight regulation in humans has been pursued using both classical genetic approaches and studies of physiological responses to experimental weight perturbation. This paper reviews the history of the rationale and methodology of the cloning of leptin (Lep) and the leptin receptor (Lepr), and describes some of the clinical investigation characterizing this axis. PMID:19136999

  14. Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Silphenylene/Siloxane Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, N. H.; Patterson, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    Elastomers enhance thermal and mechancial properties. Capable of performing in extreme thermal/oxidative environments and having molecular weights above 10 to the sixth power prepared and analyzed in laboratory experiments. Made of methylvinylsilphenylene-siloxane terpolymers, new materials amenable to conventional silicone-processing technology. Similarly formulated commercial methyl-vinyl silicones, vulcanized elastomers exhibit enhance thermal/oxidative stability and equivalent or superior mechanical properties.

  15. High molecular weight polysaccharide that binds and inhibits virus

    DOEpatents

    Konowalchuk, Thomas W

    2014-01-14

    This invention provides a high molecular weight polysaccharide capable of binding to and inhibiting virus and related pharmaceutical formulations and methods on inhibiting viral infectivity and/or pathogenicity, as well as immunogenic compositions. The invention further methods of inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and of ameliorating a symptom of aging. Additionally, the invention provides methods of detecting and/or quantifying and/or isolating viruses.

  16. High molecular weight tropomyosins regulate osteoclast cytoskeletal morphology.

    PubMed

    Kotadiya, Preeyal; McMichael, Brooke K; Lee, Beth S

    2008-11-01

    Tropomyosins are coiled-coil dimers that bind to the major groove of F-actin and regulate its accessibility to actin-modifying proteins. Although approximately 40 tropomyosin isoforms have been identified in mammals, they can broadly be classified into two groups based on protein size, that is, high molecular weight and low molecular weight isoforms. Osteoclasts, which undergo rounds of polarization and depolarization as they progress through the resorptive cycle, possess an unusual and highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton. To further define some of the actin regulatory proteins involved in osteoclast activity, we previously performed a survey of tropomyosin isoforms in resting and resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were found to express two closely related tropomyosins of the high molecular weight type, which are not expressed in monocytic and macrophage precursors. These isoforms, Tm-2 and Tm-3, are not strongly associated with actin-rich adhesion structures, but are instead distributed diffusely throughout the cell. In this study, we found that Tm-2/3 expression occurs late in osteoclastogenesis and continues to increase as cells mature. Knockdown of these isoforms via RNA interference results in flattening and increased spreading of osteoclasts, accompanied by diminished motility and altered resorptive capacity. In contrast, overexpression of Tm-2, but not Tm-3, caused morphological changes that include decreased spreading of the cells and induction of actin patches or stress fiber-like actin filaments, also with effects on motility and resorption. Suppression of Tm-2/3 or overexpression of Tm-2 resulted in altered distribution of gelsolin and microfilament barbed ends. These data suggest that high molecular weight tropomyosins are expressed in fusing osteoclasts to regulate the cytoskeletal scaffolding of these large cells, due at least in part by moderating accessibility of gelsolin to these microfilaments. PMID:18674650

  17. Buckling in polymer monolayers: Molecular-weight dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.; Basu, J.K.

    2010-11-12

    We present systematic investigations of buckling in Langmuir monolayers of polyvinyl acetate formed at the air-water interface. On compression the polymer monolayers are converted to a continuous membrane with a thickness of {approx}2-3 nm of well-defined periodicity, {lambda}{sub b}. Above a certain surface concentration the membrane undergoes a morphological transition buckling, leading to the formation of striped patterns. The periodicity seems to depend on molecular weight as per the predictions of the gravity-bending buckling formalism of Milner et al. for fluidlike films on water. However anomalously low values of bending rigidity and Young's modulus are obtained using this formalism. Hence we have considered an alternative model of buckling-based solidlike films on viscoelastic substrates. The values of bending rigidity and Young's modulus obtained by this method, although lower than expected, are closer to the bulk values. Remarkably, no buckling is found to occur above a certain molecular weight. We have tried to explain the observed molecular-weight dependence in terms of the variation in isothermal compressive modulus of the monolayers with surface concentration as well as provided possible explanations for the obtained low values of mechanical properties similar to that observed for ultrathin polymer films.

  18. Intrinsic FGF2 and FGF5 promotes angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Cui, Long-Hui; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The human body contains different endothelial cell types and differences in their angiogenic potential are poorly understood. We compared the functional angiogenic ability of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic cell culture system. HAECs and HUVECs exhibited similar cellular characteristics in a 2D culture system; however, in the 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system, HAECs exhibited stronger angiogenic potential than HUVECs. Interestingly, the expression level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF5 under vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A stimulation was significantly higher in HAECs than in HUVECs. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGF2 and FGF5 more significantly attenuated vascular sprouting induced from HAECs than HUVECs. Our results suggest that HAECs have greater angiogenic potential through FGF2 and FGF5 upregulation and could be a compatible endothelial cell type to achieve robust angiogenesis. PMID:27357248

  19. Schwann Cells Overexpressing FGF-2 Alone or Combined with Manual Stimulation Do Not Promote Functional Recovery after Facial Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Haastert, Kirsten; Grosheva, Maria; Angelova, Srebrina K.; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Skouras, Emmanouil; Michael, Joern; Grothe, Claudia; Dunlop, Sarah A.; Angelov, Doychin N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) overexpressing different isoforms of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) combined with manual stimulation (MS) of vibrissal muscles improves recovery after facial nerve transection in adult rat. Procedures. Transected facial nerves were entubulated with collagen alone or collagen plus naïve SCs or transfected SCs. Half of the rats received daily MS. Collateral branching was quantified from motoneuron counts after retrograde labeling from 3 facial nerve branches. Quality assessment of endplate reinnervation was combined with video-based vibrissal function analysis. Results. There was no difference in the extent of collateral axonal branching. The proportion of polyinnervated motor endplates for either naïve SCs or FGF-2 over-expressing SCs was identical. Postoperative MS also failed to improve recovery. Conclusions. Neither FGF-2 isoform changed the extent of collateral branching or polyinnervation of motor endplates; furthermore, this motoneuron response could not be overridden by MS. PMID:19830246

  20. Intrinsic FGF2 and FGF5 promotes angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Cui, Long-Hui; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The human body contains different endothelial cell types and differences in their angiogenic potential are poorly understood. We compared the functional angiogenic ability of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic cell culture system. HAECs and HUVECs exhibited similar cellular characteristics in a 2D culture system; however, in the 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system, HAECs exhibited stronger angiogenic potential than HUVECs. Interestingly, the expression level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF5 under vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A stimulation was significantly higher in HAECs than in HUVECs. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGF2 and FGF5 more significantly attenuated vascular sprouting induced from HAECs than HUVECs. Our results suggest that HAECs have greater angiogenic potential through FGF2 and FGF5 upregulation and could be a compatible endothelial cell type to achieve robust angiogenesis. PMID:27357248

  1. Determination of molecular-weight distribution and average molecular weights of block copolymers by gel-permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nesterov, V V; Kurenbin, O I; Krasikov, V D; Belenkii, B G

    1987-01-01

    The problem of preparation of a block copolymer of precise molecular-weight distribution (MWD) and with heterogeneous composition on the basis of gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) data has been investigated. It has been shown that in MWD calculations the distribution f(p) of the composition p in individual GPC fractions should be taken into account. The type of the f(p) functions can be simultaneously established by an independent method, such as use of adsorption-column or thin-layer chromatography sensitive to the composition of the copolymer. It has also been shown that the actual f(p) may be replaced by a corresponding piecewise distribution, of simple form, without decrease in the precision of calculation of the MWD and average molecular weights of most known block copolymers. PMID:18964273

  2. Combined effects of melatonin and FGF-2 on mouse preosteoblast behavior within interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics - in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Zeshaan; Shigeishi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kazuki; Ota, Akira; Ohta, Kouji; Takechi, Masaaki

    2016-04-01

    Objective Biocompatible materials such as interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (IP-CHA) loaded with osteogenic cells and bioactive agents are part of an evolving concept for overcoming craniofacial defects by use of artificial bone tissue regeneration. Amongst the bioactive agents, melatonin (MEL) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) have been independently reported to induce osteoblastic activity. The present in vitro study was undertaken to examine the relationship between these two bioactive agents and their combinatory effects on osteoblastic activity and mineralization in vitro. Material and Methods Mouse preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were seeded and cultured within cylindrical type of IP-CHA block (ø 4x7 mm) by vacuum-assisted method. The IP-CHA/MC3T3 composites were subjected to FGF-2 and/or MEL. The proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity (ALP), mRNA expressions of late bone markers, namely Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN), and Alizarin Red staining were examined over a period of 7 days. Results FGF-2 mainly enhanced the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells within the IP-CHA constructs. MEL mainly induced the mRNA expression of late bone markers (OCN and OPN) and showed increased ALP activity of MC3T3 cells cultured within IP-CHA construct. Moreover, the combination of FGF-2 and MEL showed increased osteogenic activity within the IP-CHA construct in terms of cell proliferation, upregulated expressions of OCN and OPN, increased ALP activity and mineralization with Alizarin Red. The synergy of the proliferative potential of FGF-2 and the differentiation potential of MEL showed increased osteogenic activity in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured within IP-CHA constructs. Conclusion These findings indicate that the combination of FGF-2 and MEL may be utilized with biocompatible materials to attain augmented osteogenic activity and mineralization. PMID:27119764

  3. Combined effects of melatonin and FGF-2 on mouse preosteoblast behavior within interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics - in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    RAHMAN, Mohammad Zeshaan; SHIGEISHI, Hideo; SASAKI, Kazuki; OTA, Akira; OHTA, Kouji; TAKECHI, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Biocompatible materials such as interconnected porous hydroxyapatite ceramics (IP-CHA) loaded with osteogenic cells and bioactive agents are part of an evolving concept for overcoming craniofacial defects by use of artificial bone tissue regeneration. Amongst the bioactive agents, melatonin (MEL) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) have been independently reported to induce osteoblastic activity. The present in vitro study was undertaken to examine the relationship between these two bioactive agents and their combinatory effects on osteoblastic activity and mineralization in vitro. Material and Methods Mouse preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) were seeded and cultured within cylindrical type of IP-CHA block (ø 4x7 mm) by vacuum-assisted method. The IP-CHA/MC3T3 composites were subjected to FGF-2 and/or MEL. The proliferation assay, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity (ALP), mRNA expressions of late bone markers, namely Osteocalcin (OCN) and Osteopontin (OPN), and Alizarin Red staining were examined over a period of 7 days. Results FGF-2 mainly enhanced the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells within the IP-CHA constructs. MEL mainly induced the mRNA expression of late bone markers (OCN and OPN) and showed increased ALP activity of MC3T3 cells cultured within IP-CHA construct. Moreover, the combination of FGF-2 and MEL showed increased osteogenic activity within the IP-CHA construct in terms of cell proliferation, upregulated expressions of OCN and OPN, increased ALP activity and mineralization with Alizarin Red. The synergy of the proliferative potential of FGF-2 and the differentiation potential of MEL showed increased osteogenic activity in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured within IP-CHA constructs. Conclusion These findings indicate that the combination of FGF-2 and MEL may be utilized with biocompatible materials to attain augmented osteogenic activity and mineralization. PMID:27119764

  4. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of newly obtained low molecular weight scorpion chitosan and medium molecular weight commercial chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Asan-Ozusaglam, Meltem; Erdogan, Sevil

    2016-06-01

    In this study the antimicrobial activity of low molecular weight (3.22 kDa) chitosan, obtained for the first time from a species belonging to the Scorpiones, was screened against nine pathogenic microorganisms (seven bacteria and two yeasts) and compared with that of medium molecular weight commercial chitosan (MMWCC). It was observed that the antimicrobial activity of the low molecular weight scorpion chitosan (LMWSC) was specific to bacterial species in general rather than gram-negative or gram-positive bacterial groups. It was also determined that LMWSC had a stronger inhibitory effect than the MMWCC, particularly on the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes and the yeast Candida albicans, which are important pathogens for public health. In addition, it was recorded that the MMWCC had a greater inhibitory effect on Bacillus subtilis than LMWSC. According to the results obtained by the disc diffusion method, the antibacterial activity of both LMWSC and MMWCC against B. subtilis and Salmonella enteritidis was higher than the widely used antibiotic Gentamicin (CN, 10 μg/disc). PMID:26702952

  5. Influence of Molecular Weight on the Mechanical Performance of a Thermoplastic Glassy Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical Testing of an advanced thermoplastic polyimide (LaRC-TM-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The physical characterization, elastic properties and notched tensile strength were all determined as a function of molecular weight and test temperature. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. A critical molecular weight (Mc) was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of approx. 22000 g/mol below which, the notched tensile strength decreases rapidly. This critical molecular weight transition is temperature-independent. Furthermore, inelastic analysis showed that low molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. The microstructural images supported these findings.

  6. Polysaccharides purified from wild Cordyceps activate FGF2/FGFR1c signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yangyang; Han, Zhangrun; Yu, Guangli; Hao, Jiejie; Zhang, Lijuan

    2015-02-01

    Land animals as well as all organisms in ocean synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. Fungi split from animals about 1.5 billion years ago. As fungi make the evolutionary journey from ocean to land, the biggest changes in their living environment may be a sharp decrease in salt concentration. It is established that sulfated polysaccharides interact with hundreds of signaling molecules and facilitate many signaling transduction pathways, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor signaling pathway. The disappearance of sulfated polysaccharides in fungi and plants on land might indicate that polysaccharides without sulfation might be sufficient in facilitating protein ligand/receptor interactions in low salinity land. Recently, it was reported that plants on land start to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides in high salt environment, suggesting that fungi might be able to do the same when exposed in such environment. Interestingly, Cordyceps, a fungus habituating inside caterpillar body, is the most valued traditional Chinese Medicine. One of the important pharmaceutical active ingredients in Cordyceps is polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that the salty environment inside caterpillar body might allow the fungi to synthesize sulfated polysaccharides. To test the hypothesis, we isolated polysaccharides from both lava and sporophore of wild Cordyceps and also from Cordyceps militaris cultured without or with added salts. We then measured the polysaccharide activity using a FGF2/FGFR1c signaling-dependent BaF3 cell proliferation assay and found that polysaccharides isolated from wild Cordyceps activated FGF2/FGFR signaling, indicating that the polysaccharides synthesized by wild Cordyceps are indeed different from those by the cultured mycelium.

  7. Impact resistance and fractography in ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes.

    PubMed

    Puértolas, J A; Pascual, F J; Martínez-Morlanes, M J

    2014-02-01

    Highly crosslinked ultra high molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) stabilized by a remelting process or by the addition of an antioxidant are highly wear resistant and chemically stable. However, these polyethylenes currently used in total joint replacements suffer a loss of mechanical properties, especially in terms of fracture toughness. In this study we analyze the impact behavior of different polyethylenes using an instrumented double notch Izod test. The materials studied are three resins: GUR1050, GUR1020 with 0.1wt% of vitamin E, and MG003 with 0.1wt% of vitamin E. These resins were gamma irradiated at 90kGy, and pre and post-irradiation remelting processes were applied to GUR1050 for two different time periods. Microstructural data were determined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy. Fractography carried out on the impact fracture surfaces and images obtained by scanning electron microscopy after etching indicated the existence of a fringe structure formed by consecutive ductile-brittle and brittle-ductile transitions, which is related to the appearance of discontinuities in the load-deflection curves. A correlation has been made of the macroscopic impact strength results and the molecular chain and microstructural characteristics of these aforementioned materials, with a view to designing future resins with improved impact resistance. The use of UHMWPE resins with low molecular weight or the application of a remelting treatment could contribute to obtain a better impact strength behavior. PMID:24275347

  8. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Low-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Mariana; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-18

    We used static DFT calculations to analyze, in detail, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed in low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) with two to five repeat subunits. Both red-shifted O-H⋅⋅⋅O and blue-shifting C-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds, which control the structural flexibility of PEG, were detected. To estimate the strength of these hydrogen bonds, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules was used. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations were used to mimic the structural rearrangements and hydrogen-bond breaking/formation in the PEG molecule at 300 K. The time evolution of the H⋅⋅⋅O bond length and valence angles of the formed hydrogen bonds were fully analyzed. The characteristic hydrogen-bonding patterns of low-molecular-weight PEG were described with an estimation of their lifetime. The theoretical results obtained, in particular the presence of weak C-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds, could serve as an explanation of the PEG structural stability in the experimental investigation. PMID:26864943

  9. Diffusion of low molecular weight siloxane from bulk to surface

    SciTech Connect

    Homma, H.; Kuroyagi, T.; Mirley, C.L.; Ronzello, J.; Boggs, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Silicone-based materials for outdoor insulators have the advantage that low molecular weight (LMW) components migrate through the material and coat the surface, thereby restoring hydrophobicity over a period of hours. By measuring the infrared (IR) absorption of siloxane migrating to the silicone surface through a thin carbon coating, the aspect of the LMW siloxane migration was observed as a real time plot and the time constant of the migration was calculated. According to the time dependence of IR-absorbance, the migration mostly saturated within only 12 hours after the carbon coating was applied. Also, the time constant showed a dependence on the concentration of added filler in the silicone samples.

  10. Conformations of Low-Molecular-Weight Lignin Polymers in Water.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Loukas; Smith, Jeremy C

    2016-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight lignin binds to cellulose during the thermochemical pretreatment of biomass for biofuel production, which prevents the efficient hydrolysis of the cellulose to sugars. The binding properties of lignin are influenced strongly by the conformations it adopts. Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solution to investigate the dependence of the shape of lignin polymers on chain length and temperature. Lignin is found to adopt collapsed conformations in water at 300 and 500 K. However, at 300 K, a discontinuous transition is found in the shape of the polymer as a function of the chain length. Below a critical degree of polymerization, Nc =15, the polymer adopts less spherical conformations than above Nc. The transition disappears at high temperatures (500 K) at which only spherical shapes are adopted. An implication relevant to cellulosic biofuel production is that lignin will self-aggregate even at high pretreatment temperatures. PMID:26763657

  11. Synthesis of high molecular weight PEO using non-metal initiators

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Jin; Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Pistorino, Jonathan; Eitouni, Hany Basam

    2015-05-19

    A new synthetic method to prepare high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) with a very narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI<1.5) is described. The method involves a metal free initiator system, thus avoiding dangerous, flammable organometallic compounds.

  12. Functional Differences between GDNF-Dependent and FGF2-Dependent Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Self-Renewal

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Seiji; Kanatsu-Shinohara, Mito; Tanaka, Takashi; Morimoto, Hiroko; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masahide; Ogura, Atsuo; Shinohara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are required for spermatogenesis. Earlier studies showed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was indispensable for SSC self-renewal by binding to the GFRA1/RET receptor. Mice with mutations in these molecules showed impaired spermatogenesis, which was attributed to SSC depletion. Here we show that SSCs undergo GDNF-independent self-renewal. A small number of spermatogonia formed colonies when testis fragments from a Ret mutant mouse strain were transplanted into heterologous recipients. Moreover, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) supplementation enabled in vitro SSC expansion without GDNF. Although GDNF-mediated self-renewal signaling required both AKT and MAP2K1/2, the latter was dispensable in FGF2-mediated self-renewal. FGF2-depleted testes exhibited increased levels of GDNF and were enriched for SSCs, suggesting that the balance between FGF2 and GDNF levels influences SSC self-renewal in vivo. Our results show that SSCs exhibit at least two modes of self-renewal and suggest complexity of SSC regulation in vivo. PMID:25684228

  13. Silver nanoparticles administered to chicken affect VEGFA and FGF2 gene expression in breast muscle and heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Ewa; Pineda, Lane; Sawosz, Filip; Grodzik, Marta; Chwalibog, André

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticles of colloidal silver (AgNano) can influence gene expression. Concerning trials of AgNano application in poultry nutrition, it is useful to reveal whether they affect the expression of genes crucial for bird development. AgNano were administered to broiler chickens as a water solution in two concentrations (10 and 20 ppm). After dissection of the birds, breast muscles and hearts were collected. Gene expression of FGF2 and VEGFA on the mRNA and protein levels were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The results for gene expression in the breast muscle revealed changes on the mRNA level ( FGF2 was up-regulated, P < 0.05) but not on the protein level. In the heart, 20 ppm of silver nanoparticles in drinking water increased the expression of VEGFA ( P < 0.05), at the same time decreasing FGF2 expression both on the transcriptional and translational levels. Changes in the expression of these genes may lead to histological changes, but this needs to be proven using histological and immunohistochemical examination of tissues. In general, we showed that AgNano application in poultry feeding influences the expression of FGF2 and VEGFA genes on the mRNA and protein levels in growing chicken.

  14. FGF2 alleviates PTSD symptoms in rats by restoring GLAST function in astrocytes via the JAK/STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dayun; Guo, Baolin; Liu, Gaohua; Wang, Bao; Wang, Wen; Gao, Guodong; Qin, Huaizhou; Wu, Shengxi

    2015-08-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) administration alleviated posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms via an "astrocyte-related" mechanism. We further investigated the changes in the astrocytic glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 and in JAK/STAT3 signaling (which is involved in astrocyte activation and GLAST/GLT-1 function) in single prolonged stress (SPS) model rats. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed a significant SPS-induced increase in the concentration of glutamate in the cerebrospinal fluid and decrease in GLAST/GLT-1 expression and JAK/STAT3 signaling. Treatment with FGF2 significantly alleviated GLAST/GLT-1 dysfunction, JAK/STAT3 signaling inhibition, and the behavioral abnormalities. The administration of the JAK/STAT pathway inhibitor AG490 blocked the effects of FGF2 on PTSD symptoms, astrocyte activation, and GLAST, but not GLT-1, expression in vivo and in vitro. Our findings suggest that astrocytic JAK/STAT signaling is associated with SPS-induced GLAST dysfunction and that FGF2 protects against PTSD symptoms by restoring astrocytic glutamate uptake via the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:25979764

  15. Sprouty-2 Overexpression in C2C12 Cells Confers Myogenic Differentiation Properties in the Presence of FGF2D⃞

    PubMed Central

    de Alvaro, Cristina; Martinez, Natalia; Rojas, Jose M.; Lorenzo, Margarita

    2005-01-01

    Myoblast C2C12 cells cultured in the presence of FGF2 actively proliferate and showed a differentiation-defective phenotype compared with cells cultured in low serum or in the presence of insulin. These FGF2 effects are associated with sustained activation of p44/p42-MAPK and lack of activation of AKT. Here we demonstrate that Sprouty-2, a protein involved in the negative feedback of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, when stably overexpressed in C2C12 cells and in the presence of FGF2 produces growth arrest (precluding the expression of PCNA and the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma and inducing the expression of p21CIP) and myogenesis (multinucleated myotubes formation, induction of creatine kinase and expression of myosin heavy chain protein). These events were accompanied by repression of p44/p42-MAPK and activation of AKT. When C2C12 cells were stably transfected with a Sprouty-2 (Y55F) mutant defective in inhibiting p44/p42-MAPK activation by FGF, myoblasts in the presence of FGF continue to grow and completely fail to form myotubes. This work is the first evidence of the contribution of sprouty genes to myogenic differentiation in the presence of FGF2. PMID:16000370

  16. LARC-TPI 1500 series controlled molecular weight polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald; St. Clair, Terry; Burks, Harold; Gautreaux, Carol; Yamaguchi, Akihiro

    1990-01-01

    LARC-TPI, a linear high temperature thermoplastic polyimide, was developed several years ago at NASA Langley Research Center. This material has been commercialized by Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals, Inc., Tokyo, Japan, as a varnish and powder. More recently, a melt-extruded film of a controlled molecular weight of this same polymer has been supplied to NASA Langley Research Center for evaluation. This new form, called LARC-TPI 1500 series, has been prepared in three molecular weights - high, medium and low flow polymers. The subject of this investigation deals with the rheological properties of the high and medium flow powders and the adhesive properties of the medium flow melt-extruded film. Rheological studies indicate that the high and medium flow forms of the polymer fall in the flow range of injection moldable materials. Adhesive data generated on the medium flow extruded film shows this form to be well suited for structural adhesive bonding. The data are as good or better than that for LARC-TPI data of previous studies.

  17. Determination of molecular weight distributions in native and pretreated wood.

    PubMed

    Leskinen, Timo; Kelley, Stephen S; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2015-03-30

    The analysis of native wood components by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is challenging. Isolation, derivatization and solubilization of wood polymers is required prior to the analysis. The present approach allowed the determination of molecular weight distributions of the carbohydrates and of lignin in native and processed woods, without preparative component isolation steps. For the first time a component selective SEC analysis of sawdust preparations was made possible by the combination of two selective derivatization methods, namely; ionic liquid assisted benzoylation of the carbohydrate fraction and acetobromination of the lignin in acetic acid media. These were optimized for wood samples. The developed method was thus used to examine changes in softwood samples after degradative mechanical and/or chemical treatments, such as ball milling, steam explosion, green liquor pulping, and chemical oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The methodology can also be applied to examine changes in molecular weight and lignin-carbohydrate linkages that occur during wood-based biorefinery operations, such as pretreatments, and enzymatic saccharification. PMID:25563943

  18. Molecular weight characterization of virgin and explanted polyester arterial prostheses.

    PubMed

    Maarek, J M; Guidoin, R; Aubin, M; Prud'homme, R E

    1984-10-01

    The macromolecular properties of 17 virgin commercial arterial prostheses and a series of explanted prostheses, both manufactured from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) yarns, have been studied by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Only small differences were found between the average molecular weights and the degree of crystallinity of the unused reference grafts. A broadening of the DSC curves was observed for the prostheses containing texturized yarns compared with those made solely from flat, untexturized yarns. This broadening may be due to greater heterogeneity of the crystal sizes caused by the texturizing process and to the use of two or more different yarns with dissimilar thermal histories in the same prosthesis. Average molecular weights of the explant series were significantly lower than those of the corresponding reference grafts but almost time independent. The polydispersity index and the degree of crystallinity of the explants remained constant as a function of time. These results are discussed in regard to others available in the literature. PMID:6242474

  19. Ice Nucleation by High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, W.

    2003-12-01

    Deep convection in the tropics is frequently associated with biomass burning. Recent work has suggested that the size of ice crystals in the anvils of tropical cumulonimbus clouds may be affected by biomass burning, though the mechanism for such an effect is uncertain (Sherwood, 2002). We will present results of an investigation of the role that high molecular weight organic compounds, known to be produced in biomass burning (Elias et al., 1999), may play in tropical cirrus anvils through heterogeneous nucleation of ice. In particular, we examine the mechanisms underlying heterogeneous nucleation of ice by films of long chain alcohols by studying the interaction of the alcohols and water/ice using temperature controlled, Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The mechanisms are interpreted in the context of recent criticisms of some aspects of classical nucleation theory (Seeley and Seidler, 2001; Oxtoby, 1998). References V. Elias, B. Simoneit, A. Pereira, J. Cabral, and J. Cardoso, Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Environ. Sci. Tecnol., 33, 2369-2376, 1999. D. Oxtoby, Nucleation of first-order phase transitions. Acc. Chem. Res., 31, 91-97, 1998. L. Seeley and G. Seidler, Preactivation in the nucleation of ice by Langmuir films of aliphatic alcohols. J. Chem. Phys., 114, 10464-10470, 2001. S. Sherwood, Aerosols and ice particle size in tropical cumulonimbus. J. Climate, 15, 1051-1063, 2002.

  20. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ethylene oxide and water with a mean molecular weight of 200 to 9,500. (2) It contains no more than 0.2... the total ethylene and diethylene glycol content of polyethylene glycols having mean molecular weights... and diethylene glycol content of polyethylene glycols having mean molecular weights below...

  1. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ethylene oxide and water with a mean molecular weight of 200 to 9,500. (2) It contains no more than 0.2... the total ethylene and diethylene glycol content of polyethylene glycols having mean molecular weights... and diethylene glycol content of polyethylene glycols having mean molecular weights below...

  2. The combination of IGF1 and FGF2 and the induction of excessive ocular growth and extreme myopia

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Eric R.; Zelinka, Christopher P.; Tang, Junhua; Liu, Jun; Fischer, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    Different growth factors have been shown to influence the development of form-deprivation myopia and lens-induced ametropias. However, growth factors have relatively little effect on the growth of eyes with unrestricted vision. We investigate whether the combination of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) influence ocular growth in eyes with unrestricted vision. Different doses of IGF1 and FGF2 were injected into the vitreous chamber of postnatal chicks. Measurements of ocular dimensions and intraocular pressure (IOP) were made during and at the completion of different treatment paradigms. Histological and immunocytochemical analyses were performed to assess cell death, cellular proliferation and integrity of ocular tissues. Treated eyes had significant increases in equatorial diameter and vitreous chamber depth. With significant variability between individuals, IGF1/FGF2-treatment caused hypertrophy of lens and ciliary epithelia, lens thickness was increased, and anterior chamber depth was decreased. Treated eyes developed myopia, in excess of 15 diopters of refractive error. Shortly after treatment, eyes had increased intraocular pressure (IOP) which was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Seven days after treatment with IGF1 and FGF2 changes to anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and elevated IOP were reduced, whereas increases in the vitreous chamber were persistent. Some damage to ganglion cells was detected in peripheral regions of the retina at 7 days after treatment. We conclude that the extreme myopia in IGF1/FGF2-treated eyes results from increased vitreous chamber depth, decreased anterior chamber depth, and changes in the lens. We propose that factor-induced ocular enlargement and myopia result from changes to the sclera, lens and anterior chamber depth. PMID:22695224

  3. Viscoelastic Behavior of Low Molecular Weight Sulfonated Polystyrene Ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongying

    Ionomers are those hydrophobic polymers having small amounts of bonded ionic groups. The introduction of the ionic groups into polymer chain produces large changes in the physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the parent polymer. Characterization of the effect of the ionic interactions on the rheology is complicated by the difficulty in separating effects due to molecular entanglements and the ionic interactions. In this study, low molecular weight (Mw=4000) sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) was used to study the dynamic and steady shear rheology of SPS ionomers. The polymer chain length used was far below the entanglement molecular weight of polystyrene and effects of molecular entanglements will be absent. Any polymer chain entanglements or lengthening behavior on the melt rheology should be due to the ionic interactions. Random SPS ionomers with two sulfonation levels were examined, 2.5 and 4.8 mol%, which corresponded, respectively, to one and two sulfonate groups per chain on average. The metal counterions was varied across the alkali metal series of the periodic table. Morphology of the ionomer was characterized by using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis, and dynamic and steady shear measurements were performed to investigate rheological behavior of the ionomers. Glass transition temperatures of the ionomers increased with increasing ion concentration but were insensitive to cation used. The scattering peak in SAXS indicates the existence of the nanophase separated ionic clusters. The strong ionic nanophase persist up to very high temperatures and is not sensitive to the external stress. Time-temperature superposition (TTS) of G' worked reasonably well while TTS of G" failed for most ionomers. Ionic interactions increased the terminal relaxation time of the melts as much as seven orders of magnitude greater than the unentangled PS melt. The zero shear viscosity and first normal stress coefficients scaled with cq/a, where c was the

  4. Effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 with beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model

    SciTech Connect

    Anzai, Jun; Kitamura, Masahiro; Nozaki, Takenori; Nagayasu, Toshie; Terashima, Akio; Asano, Taiji; Murakami, Shinya

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP (an osteo-conductive scaffold) significantly promotes periodontal regeneration in the severe periodontitis model (1-wall defect model) of beagle dog. {yields} FGF-2 enhanced new bone formation via {beta}-TCP at the defects. {yields} In particular, FGF-2 dramatically regenerated new periodontal ligament and cementum formations at the defects, that is one of the most important healing outcomes during the process of periodontal regeneration. {yields} Epithelial downgrowth (undesirable wound healing) was decreased by administration of FGF-2. {yields} This manuscript indicates for the first time that concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP is efficacious in regenerating periodontal tissue following severe destruction of the tissue by progression of periodontitis. -- Abstract: The effects of concomitant use of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and beta-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) on periodontal regeneration were investigated in the beagle dog 1-wall periodontal defect model. One-wall periodontal defects were created in the mesial portion of both sides of the mandibular first molars, and 0.3% FGF-2 plus {beta}-TCP or {beta}-TCP alone was administered. Radiographic evaluation was performed at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the periodontium with the defect site was removed and histologically analyzed. Radiographic findings showed that co-administration of FGF-2 significantly increased bone mineral contents of the defect sites compared with {beta}-TCP alone. Histologic analysis revealed that the length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, the cementum, distance to the junctional epithelium, new bone height, and area of newly formed bone were significantly increased in the FGF-2 group. No abnormal inflammatory response or ankylosis was observed in either group. These findings indicate the efficacy of concomitant use of FGF-2 and {beta}-TCP as an osteoconductive material for periodontal

  5. Heparin-Based Coacervate of FGF2 Improves Dermal Regeneration by Asserting a Synergistic Role with Cell Proliferation and Endogenous Facilitated VEGF for Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Ye, Jingjing; Zhu, Jingjing; Xiao, Zecong; He, Chaochao; Shi, Hongxue; Wang, Yadong; Lin, Cai; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhao, Yingzheng; Fu, Xiaobing; Chen, Hong; Li, Xiaokun; Li, Lin; Zheng, Jie; Xiao, Jian

    2016-06-13

    Effective wound healing requires complicated, coordinated interactions and responses at protein, cellular, and tissue levels involving growth factor expression, cell proliferation, wound closure, granulation tissue formation, and vascularization. In this study, we develop a heparin-based coacervate consisting of poly(ethylene argininylaspartate digylceride) (PEAD) as a storage matrix, heparin as a bridge, and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) as a cargo (namely heparin-FGF2@PEAD) for wound healing. First, in vitro characterization demonstrates the loading efficiency and control release of FGF2 from the heparin-FGF2@PEAD coacervate. The following in vivo studies examine the wound healing efficiency of the heparin-FGF2@PEAD coacervate upon delivering FGF2 to full-thickness excisional skin wounds in vivo, in comparison with the other three control groups with saline, heparin@PEAD as vehicle, and free FGF2. Collective in vivo data show that controlled release of FGF2 to the wounds by the coacervate significantly accelerates the wound healing by promoting cell proliferation, stimulating the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for re-epithelization, collagen deposition, and granulation tissue formation, and enhancing the expression of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) for blood vessel maturation. In parallel, no obvious wound healing effect is found for the control, vehicle, and free FGF2 groups, indicating the important role of the coavervate in the wound healing process. This work designs a suitable delivery system that can protect and release FGF2 in a sustained and controlled manner, which provides a promising therapeutic potential for topical treatment of wounds. PMID:27196997

  6. Myogenic-specific ablation of Fgfr1 impairs FGF2-mediated proliferation of satellite cells at the myofiber niche but does not abolish the capacity for muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Danoviz, Maria E.; Phelps, Michael; Stuelsatz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs) are Pax7+ myogenic stem cells that reside between the basal lamina and the plasmalemma of the myofiber. In mature muscles, SCs are typically quiescent, but can be activated in response to muscle injury. Depending on the magnitude of tissue trauma, SCs may divide minimally to repair subtle damage within individual myofibers or produce a larger progeny pool that forms new myofibers in cases of overt muscle injury. SC transition through proliferation, differentiation and renewal is governed by the molecular blueprint of the cells as well as by the extracellular milieu at the SC niche. In particular, the role of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in regulating SCs during growth and aging is well recognized. Of the several FGFs shown to affect SCs, FGF1, FGF2, and FGF6 proteins have been documented in adult skeletal muscle. These prototypic paracrine FGFs transmit their mitogenic effect through the FGFRs, which are transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors. Using the mouse model, we show here that of the four Fgfr genes, only Fgfr1 and Fgfr4 are expressed at relatively high levels in quiescent SCs and their proliferating progeny. To further investigate the role of FGFR1 in adult myogenesis, we have employed a genetic (Cre/loxP) approach for myogenic-specific (MyoDCre-driven) ablation of Fgfr1. Neither muscle histology nor muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced injury were overtly affected in Fgfr1-ablated mice. This suggests that FGFR1 is not obligatory for SC performance in this acute muscle trauma model, where compensatory growth factor/cytokine regulatory cascades may exist. However, the SC mitogenic response to FGF2 is drastically repressed in isolated myofibers prepared from Fgfr1-ablated mice. Collectively, our study indicates that FGFR1 is important for FGF-mediated proliferation of SCs and its mitogenic role is not compensated by FGFR4 that is also highly expressed in SCs. PMID:26074812

  7. Mechanical Properties of LaRC(tm) SI Polymer for a Range of Molecular Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.; Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Nicholson, Lee M.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical testing of an advanced polyimide resin (LaRC(tm)-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. Elastic and inelastic properties were characterized as a function of molecular weight and test temperature. It was shown that notched tensile strength is a strong function of both temperature and molecular weight, whereas stiffness is only a strong function of temperature. The combined analysis of calculated yield stress and notched tensile strength indicated that low molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. The microphotographs of the failure surfaces also supported these findings.

  8. Molecular weight degradation and rheological properties of schizophyllan under ultrasonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kui; Zhang, Qi; Tong, Litao; Liu, Liya; Zhou, Xianrong; Zhou, Sumei

    2015-03-01

    Molecular weight degradation effects of schizophyllan (SPG) under ultrasonic treatments were investigated in this study. The degradation product was treated by alcohol fractional precipitation technology, and the molecular weight and rheological properties of ultrasonic-treated SPG (USPG) fractions were evaluated. Average molecular weight of SPG decreased significantly after ultrasonic treatments, and degradation product had more narrow distribution of molecular weight. The molecular weight degradation kinetics of SPG is adequately described by a second-order reaction. USPG fractions with different molecular weight were obtained by fractional precipitation for final alcohol concentration fractions 0-40%, 40-60% and 60-80%, respectively. USPG fractions had near-Newtonian flow behaviors, and USPG₈₀% exhibited viscous responses over the entire accessible frequency range. Therefore, ultrasonic treatment is a viable modification technology for SPG and other polymer materials with high molecular weight. PMID:25263766

  9. Ultra-high molecular weight silphenylene-siloxane polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, W. J.; Hundley, N. H.; Ludwick, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Silphenylene-siloxane copolymers with molecular weights above one million were prepared using a two stage polymerization technique. The technique was successfully scaled up to produce 50 grams of this high polymer in a single run. The reactive monomer approach was also investigated using the following aminosilanes: bis(dimethylamino)dimethylsilane, N,N-bis(pyrrolidinyl)dimethylsilane and N,N-bis(gamma-butyrolactam)dimethylsilane). Thermal analyses were performed in both air and nitrogen. The experimental polymers decomposed at 540 to 562 C, as opposed to 408 to 426 C for commercial silicones. Differential scanning calorimetry showed a glass transition (Tg) at -50 to -55 C for the silphenylene-siloxane copolymer while the commercial silicones had Tg's at -96 to -112 C.

  10. Apparatus and method of determining molecular weight of large molecules

    DOEpatents

    Fuerstenau, Stephen; Benner, W. Henry; Madden, Norman; Searles, William

    1998-01-01

    A mass spectrometer determines the mass of multiply charged high molecular weight molecules. This spectrometer utilizes an ion detector which is capable of simultaneously measuring the charge z and transit time of a single ion as it passes through the detector. From this transit time, the velocity of the single ion may then be derived, thus providing the mass-to-charge ratio m/z for a single ion which has been accelerated through a known potential. Given z and m/z, the mass m of the single ion can then be calculated. Electrospray ions with masses in excess of 1 MDa and charge numbers greater than 425 e.sup.- are readily detected. The on-axis single ion detection configuration enables a duty cycle of nearly 100% and extends the practical application of electrospray mass spectrometry to the analysis of very large molecules with relatively inexpensive instrumentation.

  11. Apparatus and method of determining molecular weight of large molecules

    DOEpatents

    Fuerstenau, S.; Benner, W.H.; Madden, N.M.; Searles, W.

    1998-06-23

    A mass spectrometer determines the mass of multiply charged high molecular weight molecules. This spectrometer utilizes an ion detector which is capable of simultaneously measuring the charge z and transit time of a single ion as it passes through the detector. From this transit time, the velocity of the single ion may then be derived, thus providing the mass-to-charge ratio m/z for a single ion which has been accelerated through a known potential. Given z and m/z, the mass m of the single ion can then be calculated. Electrospray ions with masses in excess of 1 MDa and charge numbers greater than 425 e{sup {minus}} are readily detected. The on-axis single ion detection configuration enables a duty cycle of nearly 100% and extends the practical application of electrospray mass spectrometry to the analysis of very large molecules with relatively inexpensive instrumentation. 14 figs.

  12. Lipid solubility and molecular weight: whose idea was that.

    PubMed

    Kasting, G B

    2013-01-01

    Gene Cooper was a bright theoretician, a skilled product developer, and a motivational leader who applied his talents to the skin science area early in his career. His work led to the development of finite dose skin absorption models, chemical penetration enhancer technologies and quantitative structure-penetration relationships for chemicals contacting human skin. His ideas regarding the impact of molecular weight and lipid solubility on skin transport catalyzed the later development by Potts and Guy of the first successful skin permeability model. But Gene's most important contribution to the field was as a scientific role model and an inspirational leader who launched the careers of several young scientists, including the author of this article. PMID:23921116

  13. Soluble, High Molecular Weight Polysilsesquioxanes with Carboxylate Functionalities

    SciTech Connect

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; WHEELER,DAVID R.

    2000-07-14

    Trialkoxysilyl-containing monomers of the type (RO){sub 3}Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}C(O)OtBu (R = Me, Et) were prepared by hydrosilation of the corresponding vinylic tert-butyl esters CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 2}C(O)OtBu. Acid- or base-catalyzed polymerization of the monomers leads to very high molecular weight polymers with relatively narrow polydispersities. The polymerization results in complete condensation of the alkoxy groups while the tert-butyl ester functionality remains fully intact. Partial or full deprotection of the tert-butyl group can easily be achieved to yield the corresponding carboxylic acid polymers. The ester and carboxylic acid functionalities of these new materials allow for their potential use in a variety of applications such as scavenging of heavy metals.

  14. Hydrophobic composition based on mixed-molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlenko, Nikolay; Debelova, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yuriy; Volokitin, Gennadiy; Zavyalova, Elena; Lapova, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents investigations of compositions based on low and high molecular weight polyethylene so as to synthesize a hydrophobic composition for moisture protection of timber. X-ray phase analysis and measurements of the tear-off force of hydrophobic coating needed to apply to the timber surface and the limiting wetting angle are carried out to detect the hydrophobic, adhesive, electrophysical, and physicochemical properties of compositions. Kinetic dependencies are given for moisture absorption of timber specimens. It is shown that the preliminary formation of the texture by the surface patterning or its treatment with low-temperature plasma with the following protective coating results in the improvement of hydrophobic properties of the suggested compositions. These compositions can be used in the capacity of water repellents to protect building materials from moisture including restoration works.

  15. Massive choroidal hemorrhage associated with low molecular weight heparin therapy.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, M; Leibovitch, I; Goldstein, M; Loewenstein, A

    2002-04-01

    An 84-year-old woman with unstable angina pectoris was treated with subcutaneous enoxaparine (Clexane) for several days before presenting with severe pain and decreased vision in her left eye. The intraocular pressure was 70 mmHg, and fundus examination showed a pigmented choroidal lesion and associated choroidal and retinal detachment. Ultrasonography was consistent with choroidal hemorrhage, and she was diagnosed as having acute glaucoma secondary to massive subchoroidal hemorrhage. Medical control of the intraocular pressure resulted in a significant clinical improvement. Intraocular hemorrhage and angle-closure glaucoma are rare and previously unreported complications in patients treated with low molecular weight heparin. It is important to be aware of this ocular complication as these drugs are so often used. PMID:11943940

  16. Dairy Wastewater Treatment Using Low Molecular Weight Crab Shell Chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetha Devi, M.; Dumaran, Joefel Jessica; Feroz, S.

    2012-08-01

    The investigation of possible use of low molecular weight crab shell chitosan (MW 20 kDa) in the treatment of dairy waste water was studied. Various experiments have been carried out using batch adsorption technique to study the effects of the process variables, which include contact time, stirring speed, pH and adsorbent dosage. Treated effluent characteristics at optimum condition showed that chitosan can be effectively used as adsorbent in the treatment of dairy wastewater. The optimum conditions for this study were at 150 mg/l of chitosan, pH 5 and 50 min of mixing time with 50 rpm of mixing speed. Chitosan showed the highest performance under these conditions with 79 % COD, 93 % turbidity and 73 % TSS reduction. The result showed that chitosan is an effective coagulant, which can reduce the level of COD, TSS and turbidity in dairy industry wastewater.

  17. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with low molecular weight heparin

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Noriaki; Hashimoto, Shu

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) has a varied etiology, including anticoagulation drugs. There is conflicting evidence whether low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has a low risk of bleeding complications compared to unfractionated heparin. We report here a case of DAH in a 74-year-old woman who was administered enoxaparin, a LMWH, after bilateral total knee arthroplasty. Although congestive heart failure after blood transfusion and fluid infusion could in part be associated with the bleeding, LMWH may be a major cause of DAH since the patient quickly recovered after its cessation. DAH should be of concern when acute respiratory failure with ground-glass shadow develops in both lungs during anticoagulation therapy with LMWH. PMID:25473525

  18. [Anaphylactic reactions to low-molecular weight chemicals].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Panaszek, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Low-molecular weight chemicals (haptens) include a large group of chemical compounds occurring in work environment, items of everyday use (cleaning products, clothing, footwear, gloves, furniture), jewelry (earrings, bracelets), drugs, especially in cosmetics. They cause type IV hypersensitive reactions. During the induction phase of delayed-type hypersensitivity, haptens form complexes with skin proteins. After internalization through antigen presenting cells, they are bound to MHC class II molecules. Next, they are exposed against specific T-lymphocytes, what triggers activation of Th1 cells mainly. After repeating exposition to that hapten, during effector phase, Th1 induce production of cytokines affecting non-specific inflammatory cells. Usually, it causes contact dermatitis. However, occasionally incidence of immediate generalized reactions after contact with some kinds of haptens is noticed. A question arises, how the hapten does induce symptoms which are typical for anaphylaxis, and what contributes to amplification of this mechanism. It seems that this phenomenon arises from pathomechanism occurring in contact urticaria syndrome in which an anaphylactic reaction may be caused either by contact of sensitized skin with protein antigens, high-molecular weight allergens, or haptens. One of the hypotheses indicates the leading role of basophiles in this process. Their contact with haptens, may cause to release mediators of immediate allergic reaction (histamine, eicosanoids) and to produce cytokines corresponding to Th2 cells profile. Furthermore, Th17 lymphocytes secreting pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 might be engaged into amplifying hypersensitivity into immediate reactions and regulatory T-cells may play role in the process, due to insufficient control of the activity of effector cells. PMID:25661919

  19. Mechanistic information from analysis of molecular weight distributions of starch.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jeffrey V; Dumas, Céline; Chiou, Herbert; Fitzgerald, Melissa A; Gilbert, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    A methodology is developed for interpreting the molecular weight distributions of debranched amylopectin, based on techniques developed for quantitatively and qualitatively finding mechanistic information from the molecular weight distributions of synthetic polymers. If the only events occurring are random chain growth and stoppage (i.e., the rates are independent of degree of polymerization over the range in question), then the number of chains of degree of polymerization N, P(N), is linear in ln P(N) with a negative slope, where the slope gives the ratio of the stoppage and growth rates. This starting point suggests that mechanistic inferences can be made from a plot of lnP against N. Application to capillary electrophoresis data for the P(N) of debranched starch from across the major taxa, from bacteria (Escherichia coli), green algae (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii), mammals (Bos), and flowering plants (Oryza sativa, rice; Zea mays, maize; Triticum aestivum, wheat; Hordeum vulgare, barley; and Solanum tuberosum, potato), gives insights into the biosynthetic pathways, showing the differences and similarities of the alpha-1,4-glucans produced by the various species. Four characteristic regions for storage starch from the higher plants are revealed: (1) an initial increasing region corresponding to the formation of new branches, (2) a linear ln P region with negative slope, indicating random growth and stoppage, (3) a region corresponding to the formation of the crystalline lamellae and subsequent elongation of chains, and (4) a second linear ln P with negative slope region. Each region can be assigned to specific enzymatic processes in starch synthesis, including determining the ranges of degrees of polymerization which are subject to random and nonrandom processes. PMID:16004469

  20. Human neutrophils contain and bind high molecular weight kininogen.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, E J; Schmaier, A H; Wachtfogel, Y T; Kaufman, N; Kucich, U; Colman, R W

    1989-01-01

    Because plasma kallikrein activates human neutrophils, and in plasma prekallikrein (PK) circulates complexed with high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK), we determined whether HMWK could mediate kallikrein's association with neutrophils. HMWK antigen (237 +/- 61 ng HMWK/10(8) neutrophils) was present in lysates of washed human neutrophils. Little if any plasma HMWK was tightly bound and nonexchangeable with the neutrophil surface. Human neutrophils were found to possess surface membrane-binding sites for HMWK but no internalization was detected at 37 degrees C. 125I-HMWK binding to neutrophils was dependent upon Zn2+. Binding of 125I-HMWK to neutrophils was specific and 90% reversible. 125I-HMWK binding to neutrophils was saturable with an apparent Kd of 9-18 nM and 40,000-70,000 sites per cell. Upon binding to neutrophils, 125I-HMWK was proteolyzed by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) into lower relative molecular mass derivatives. Furthermore, HMWK found in neutrophils also served as a cofactor for HNE secretion because neutrophils deficient in HMWK have reduced HNE secretion when stimulated in plasma deficient in HMWK or with purified kallikrein. These studies indicate that human neutrophils contain a binding site for HMWK that could serve to localize plasma or neutrophil HMWK on their surface to possibly serve as a receptor for kallikrein and to participate in HNE secretion by this enzyme. Images PMID:2738152

  1. TGF-β1 and FGF2 stimulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of HERS cells through a MEK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Chen, Guoqing; Yan, Zhiling; Guo, Yongwen; Yu, Mei; Feng, Lian; Jiang, Zongting; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2014-11-01

    Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) cells participate in cementum formation through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previous studies have shown that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are involved in inducing EMT. However, their involvement in HERS cell transition remains elusive. In this study, we confirmed that HERS cells underwent EMT during the formation of acellular cementum. We found that both TGF-β1 and FGF2 stimulated the EMT of HERS cells. The TGF-β1 regulated the differentiation of HERS cells into periodontal ligament fibroblast-like cells, and FGF2 directed the differentiation of HERS cells into cementoblast-like cells. Treatment with TGF-β1 or FGF2 inhibitor could effectively suppress HERS cells differential transition. Combined stimulation with both TGF-β1 and FGF-2 did not synergistically accelerate the EMT of HERS. Moreover, TGF-β1/FGF2-mediated EMT of HERS cells was reversed by the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. These results suggest that TGF-β1 and FGF2 induce the EMT of HERS through a MAPK/ERK-dependent signaling pathway. They also exert their different tendency of cellular differentiation during tooth root formation. This study further expands our knowledge of tooth root morphogenesis and provides more evidence for the use of alternative cell sources in clinical treatment of periodontal diseases. PMID:24610459

  2. Autoregulation of glypican-1 by intronic microRNA-149 fine tunes the angiogenic response to FGF2 in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chamorro-Jorganes, Aránzazu; Araldi, Elisa; Rotllan, Noemi; Cirera-Salinas, Daniel; Suárez, Yajaira

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNA-149 (miR-149) is located within the first intron of the glypican-1 (GPC1) gene. GPC1 is a low affinity receptor for fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) that enhances FGF2 binding to its receptor (FGFR1), subsequently promoting FGF2–FGFR1 activation and signaling. Using bioinformatic approaches, both GPC1 and FGFR1 were identified and subsequently validated as targets for miR-149 (both the mature strand, miR-149, and the passenger strand, miR-149*) in endothelial cells (ECs). As a consequence of their targeting activity towards GPC1 and FGFR1, both miR-149 and miR-149* regulated FGF2 signaling and FGF2-induced responses in ECs, namely proliferation, migration and cord formation. Moreover, lentiviral overexpression of miR-149 reduced in vivo tumor-induced neovascularization. Importantly, FGF2 transcriptionally stimulated the expression of miR-149 independently of its host gene, therefore assuring the steady state of FGF2-induced responses through the regulation of the GPC1–FGFR1 binary complex in ECs. PMID:24463821

  3. Opposing effects of Sca-1(+) cell-based systemic FGF2 gene transfer strategy on lumbar versus caudal vertebrae in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Lau, K-H W; Chen, S-T; Wang, X; Mohan, S; Wergedal, J E; Kesavan, C; Srivastava, A K; Gridley, D S; Hall, S L

    2016-06-01

    Our previous work showed that a Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy was capable of promoting robust increases in trabecular bone formation and connectivity on the endosteum of long bones. Past work reported that administration of FGF2 protein promoted bone formation in red marrow but not in yellow marrow. The issue as to whether the Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy is effective in yellow marrow is highly relevant to its clinical potential for osteoporosis, as most red marrows in a person of an advanced age are converted to yellow marrows. Accordingly, this study sought to compare the osteogenic effects of this stem cell-based FGF2 therapy on red marrow-filled lumbar vertebrae with those on yellow marrow-filled caudal vertebrae of young adult W(41)/W(41) mice. The Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy drastically increased trabecular bone formation in lumbar vertebrae, but the therapy not only did not promote bone formation but instead caused substantial loss of trabecular bone in caudal vertebrae. The lack of an osteogenic response was not due to insufficient engraftment of FGF2-expressing Sca-1(+) cells or inadequate FGF2 expression in caudal vertebrae. Previous studies have demonstrated that recipient mice of this stem cell-based FGF2 therapy developed secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased bone resorption. Thus, the loss of bone mass in caudal vertebrae might in part be due to an increase in resorption without a corresponding increase in bone formation. In conclusion, the Sca-1(+) cell-based FGF2 therapy is osteogenic in red marrow but not in yellow marrow. PMID:26934099

  4. 21 CFR 178.3750 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9... molecular weight 200-9,500). Polyethylene glycol identified in this section may be safely used as a... conditions: (a) The additive is an addition polymer of ethylene oxide and water with a mean molecular...

  5. 21 CFR 178.3750 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9... molecular weight 200-9,500). Polyethylene glycol identified in this section may be safely used as a... conditions: (a) The additive is an addition polymer of ethylene oxide and water with a mean molecular...

  6. Optimization of parameters for coverage of low molecular weight proteins

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Stephan A.; Kohajda, Tibor; Findeiß, Sven; Stadler, Peter F.; Washietl, Stefan; Kellis, Manolis; von Bergen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with molecular weights of <25 kDa are involved in major biological processes such as ribosome formation, stress adaption (e.g., temperature reduction) and cell cycle control. Despite their importance, the coverage of smaller proteins in standard proteome studies is rather sparse. Here we investigated biochemical and mass spectrometric parameters that influence coverage and validity of identification. The underrepresentation of low molecular weight (LMW) proteins may be attributed to the low numbers of proteolytic peptides formed by tryptic digestion as well as their tendency to be lost in protein separation and concentration/desalting procedures. In a systematic investigation of the LMW proteome of Escherichia coli, a total of 455 LMW proteins (27% of the 1672 listed in the SwissProt protein database) were identified, corresponding to a coverage of 62% of the known cytosolic LMW proteins. Of these proteins, 93 had not yet been functionally classified, and five had not previously been confirmed at the protein level. In this study, the influences of protein extraction (either urea or TFA), proteolytic digestion (solely, and the combined usage of trypsin and AspN as endoproteases) and protein separation (gel- or non-gel-based) were investigated. Compared to the standard procedure based solely on the use of urea lysis buffer, in-gel separation and tryptic digestion, the complementary use of TFA for extraction or endoprotease AspN for proteolysis permits the identification of an extra 72 (32%) and 51 proteins (23%), respectively. Regarding mass spectrometry analysis with an LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer, collision-induced fragmentation (CID and HCD) and electron transfer dissociation using the linear ion trap (IT) or the Orbitrap as the analyzer were compared. IT-CID was found to yield the best identification rate, whereas IT-ETD provided almost comparable results in terms of LMW proteome coverage. The high overlap between the proteins identified with IT

  7. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a potent modulator of the mammalian brain. The highly conserved stress hormone response influences many brain regions, particularly the hippocampus, a region important for memory function. The effect of acute stress on the unique population of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) that resides in the adult hippocampus is unclear. We found that acute stress increased hippocampal cell proliferation and astrocytic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) expression. The effect of acute stress occurred independent of basolateral amygdala neural input and was mimicked by treating isolated NPCs with conditioned media from corticosterone-treated primary astrocytes. Neutralization of FGF2 revealed that astrocyte-secreted FGF2 mediated stress-hormone-induced NPC proliferation. 2 weeks, but not 2 days, after acute stress, rats also showed enhanced fear extinction memory coincident with enhanced activation of newborn neurons. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for brief stress on the hippocampus and improve understanding of the adaptive capacity of the brain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00362.001 PMID:23599891

  8. A free radical scavenger but not FGF-2-mediated angiogenic therapy rescues myonephropathic metabolic syndrome in severe hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuhiro; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Takaaki; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Jin, Chen-Hao; Inoue, Makoto; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Onohara, Toshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Sueishi, Katsuo

    2006-04-01

    The therapeutic use of angiogenic factors shows promise in the treatment of critical limb ischemia; however, its potential for myonephropathic metabolic syndrome (MNMS), a fatal complication caused by arterial reconstruction, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of recombinant Sendai virus-mediated gene transfer of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) directly compared with that of a radical scavenger, MCI-186, in a rat model of MNMS. MNMS was surgically induced by aortic occlusion below renal arteries for 4 h, followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Administration of MCI-186 (twice; iv 5 min before induced ischemia and ip 5 min before reperfusion; 10 mg/kg, respectively), but not FGF-2 gene transfer (once, 48 h before induced ischemia), dramatically prevented the increase of serum biochemical markers as well as the edema of the gastrocnemius muscle. The effect of MCI-186 was accompanied by the marked suppression of the neutrophilic infiltration into the local (muscle) and remote (lung) organs. Although serum and muscular levels of a neutrophil-chemoattractant (growth-related oncogene/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1) were not affected by any treatment, the serum level of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was decreased by treatment with MCI-186 but not by treatment with FGF-2. These results suggest the distinct mechanism of MNMS from critical limb ischemia without reperfusion. Therefore, radical scavenging should be paid more attention than therapeutic angiogenesis when arterial circulation is reconstructed. PMID:16301206

  9. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Pia; Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens; Widmer, Hans R.; Meyer, Morten

    2011-07-15

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension. More cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine in cultures expanded at low as compared to high oxygen tension, and after 6 days of differentiation there were significantly more neuronal cells in low than in high oxygen cultures. Low oxygen during FGF2-mediated expansion resulted also in a significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons as compared to high oxygen tension, but no corresponding effect was observed for dopamine release into the culture medium. However, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH enzyme activity, which may explain the elevated dopamine levels. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of oxygen tension is a recognizable factor for in vitro expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic midbrain precursor cells.

  10. Low Molecular Weight Norbornadiene Derivatives for Molecular Solar-Thermal Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Quant, Maria; Lennartson, Anders; Dreos, Ambra; Kuisma, Mikael; Erhart, Paul; Börjesson, Karl; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2016-09-01

    Molecular solar-thermal energy storage systems are based on molecular switches that reversibly convert solar energy into chemical energy. Herein, we report the synthesis, characterization, and computational evaluation of a series of low molecular weight (193-260 g mol(-1) ) norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems. The molecules feature cyano acceptor and ethynyl-substituted aromatic donor groups, leading to a good match with solar irradiation, quantitative photo-thermal conversion between the norbornadiene and quadricyclane, as well as high energy storage densities (396-629 kJ kg(-1) ). The spectroscopic properties and energy storage capability have been further evaluated through density functional theory calculations, which indicate that the ethynyl moiety plays a critical role in obtaining the high oscillator strengths seen for these molecules. PMID:27492997

  11. Application of 1H DOSY for Facile Measurement of Polymer Molecular Weights

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weibin; Chung, Hoyong; Daeffler, Christopher; Johnson, Jeremiah A.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    To address the practical issues of polymer molecular weight determination, the first accurate polymer weight-average molecular weight determination method in diverse living/controlled polymerization via DOSY (diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy) is reported. Based on the linear correlation between the logarithm of diffusion coefficient (log D) and the molecular weights (log Mw), external calibration curves were created to give predictions of molecular weights of narrowly-dispersed polymers. This method was successfully applied to atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), with weight-average molecular weights given by this method closely correlated to those obtained from GPC measurement. PMID:23335819

  12. A low molecular weight proteinase inhibitor produced by T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, D; Teodorescu, M; Dray, S

    1986-01-01

    A low molecular weight (MW) proteinase inhibitor, between 6500 and 21,500 MW, appeared in the supernatant of rabbit spleen cells cultured at high density for 24 hr. The inhibitor inhibited the enzymatic activity of trypsin for both a high MW natural substrate, fibrinogen, and for a low MW artificial substrate, Chromozym TRY. The low MW proteinase inhibitor is protein in nature and is different, in terms of specificity for enzymes, MW and sensitivity to different physical or chemical treatments, from aprotinin, a low MW proteinase inhibitor (6500 MW) of bovine origin, and from the soybean trypsin inhibitor, a relatively high MW proteinase inhibitor (21,500 MW). The inhibitor was found in the supernatant of purified T cells but not B cells, and its production was increased in the presence of an optimal concentration of Con A. The possibility that this proteinase inhibitor has a role in the regulation of trypsin-like proteinases involved to the immune response remains to be investigated. Images Figure 4 PMID:2417942

  13. Photochemical Preparation of a Novel Low Molecular Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Kyohei; Hosoyama, Saori; Ohno, Asami; Masuko, Sayaka; Yang, Bo; Sterner, Eric; Wang, Zhenyu; Linhardt, Robert J.; Toida, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Commercial low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are prepared by several methods including peroxidative cleavage, nitrous acid cleavage, chemical ß-elimination, and enzymatic β-elimination. The disadvantages of these methods are that strong reaction conditions or harsh chemicals are used and these can result in decomposition or modification of saccharide units within the polysaccharide backbone. These side-reactions reduce product quality and yield. Here we show the partial photolysis of unfractionated heparin can be performed in distillated water using titanium dioxide (TiO2). TiO2 is a catalyst that can be easily removed by centrifugation or filtration after the photochemical reaction takes place, resulting in highly pure products. The anticoagulant activity of photodegraded LMWH (pLMWH) is comparable to the most common commercially available LMWHs (i.e., Enoxaparin and Dalteparin). 1H NMR spectra obtained show that pLMWH maintains the same core structure as unfractionated heparin. This photochemical reaction was investigated using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and unlike other processes commonly used to prepare LMWHs, photochemically preparation affords polysaccharide chains of reduced length having both odd and even of saccharide residues. PMID:22205826

  14. Mean Molecular Weight Gradients in Proto-Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helled, R.; Bodenheimer, P.; Rosenberg, E. D.; Podolak, M.; Lozovsky, M.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of heavy elements in Jupiter cannot be directly measured, and must be inferred from structure models. Typically, structure models assume that Jupiter is fully convective with the heavy elements being uniformly distributed. However, in the case of layered-convection there is a gradient in the distribution of heavy elements which affects the temperature profile of the planet, and as a result also its derived composition. We simulate the formation of Jupiter and investigate whether mean molecular weight gradients that can lead to layered-convection are created. We show that planetesimal accretion naturally leads to compositional gradients in the region above the core. It is shown that after about 10^5 years the core of Jupiter is hot and is surrounded by layers that consist mostly heavy-elements but also some hydrogen and helium. As a result, Jupiter's core mass is expected to be 2-5 M_Earth with no sharp transition between the core and the envelope. These findings are important for the interpretation of Juno data and for linking giant planet internal structure with origins.

  15. The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparins on Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Demesticha, Theano; Demetriou, Thespis

    2015-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism is a serious complication in the trauma patient. The most commonly studied and used anticoagulant treatment in prophylaxis of thrombosis is heparin. The prolonged use of unfractionated heparin has been connected with increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Low molecular-weight-heparins (LMWHs) have been the golden rule in antithrombotic therapy during the previous two decades as a way to overcome the major drawbacks of unfractioned heparin. However there are few studies reporting the effects of LMWHs on bone repair after fractures. This review presents the studies about the effects of LMWHs on bone biology (bone cells and bone metabolism) and underlying the mechanisms by which LMWHs may impair fracture healing process. The authors’ research based on literature concluded that there are no facts and statistics for the role of LMWHs on fracture healing process in humans and the main body of evidence of their role comes from in vitro and animal studies. Further large clinical studies designed to compare different types of LMWHs, in different dosages and in different patient or animal models are needed for exploring the effects of LMWHs on fracture healing process. PMID:26161162

  16. Adsorption of low molecular weight halocarbons by montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Estes, T.J.; Shah, R.V.; Vilker, V.L. )

    1988-04-01

    Montmorillonite clay from Clay Spur, WY, was found to adsorb several low molecular weight, hydrophobic halocarbons from aqueous solution at sub-parts-per-million levels. The halocarbons studied were trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, hexachloroethane, and dibromochloropropane. When the montmorillonite was treated with sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD), it adsorbed higher levels of halocarbons than the untreated clay. In addition, the CBD-treated clay exhibited a maximum in halocarbon adsorption around pH 4, while untreated clay showed little variation in adsorption over the pH range 2-10. Adsorption of trichloroethylene was inhibited by low concentrations of sodium chloride (0.01 M or greater) in solution. Aging the CBD-treated clay in water decreased its capacity to adsorb trichloroethylene. Desorption studies showed that the sorption of tetrachloroethylene to CBD-treated clay is an irreversible process when compared to sorption by fumed silica. The ability of montmorillonite to adsorb halocarbons and the instability of the clay in water are postulated to involve changes in the oxide surface coating on the clay.

  17. Association between cationic liposomes and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Gasperini, Antonio A M; Puentes-Martinez, Ximena E; Balbino, Tiago Albertini; Rigoletto, Thais de Paula; Corrêa, Gabriela de Sá Cavalcanti; Cassago, Alexandre; Portugal, Rodrigo Villares; de La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola; Cavalcanti, Leide P

    2015-03-24

    This work presents a study of the association between low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (16 kDa HA) and cationic liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP). The cationic liposome/HA complexes were evaluated to determine their mesoscopic structure, average size, zeta potential, and morphology as a function of the amount of HA in the system. Small angle X-ray scattering results revealed that neighboring cationic liposomes either stick together after a partial coating of low concentration HA or disperse completely in excess of HA, but they never assemble as multilamellar vesicles. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy images confirm the existence of unilamellar vesicles and large aggregates of unilamellar vesicles for HA fractions up to 80% (w/w). High concentrations of HA (> 20% w/w) proved to be efficient for coating extruded liposomes, leading to particle complexes with sizes in the nanoscale range and a negative zeta potential. PMID:25730494

  18. Antiaging activity of low molecular weight peptide from Paphia undulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Pan, Jianyu; Chen, Deke; Sun, Huili

    2013-05-01

    Low molecular weight peptide (LMWP) was prepared from clam Paphia undulate and its antiaging effect on D-galactose-induced acute aging in rats, aged Kunming mice, ultraviolet-exposed rats, and thermally injured rats was investigated. P. undulate flesh was homogenized and digested using papain under optimal conditions, then subjected to Sephadex G-25 chromatography to isolate the LMWP. Administration of LMWP significantly reversed D-galactose-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), and by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). This process was accompanied by increased collagen synthesis. The LMWP prevented photoaging and promoted dermis recovery and remission of elastic fiber hyperplasia. Furthermore, treatment with the LMWP helped to regenerate elastic fibers and the collagen network, increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the serum and significantly decreased MDA. Thermal scald-induced inflammation and edema were also relieved by the LWMP, while wound healing in skin was promoted. These results suggest that the LMWP from P. undulate could serve as a new antiaging substance in cosmetics.

  19. Arterial indications for the low molecular weight heparins

    PubMed Central

    Ageno, Walter; Huisman, Menno V

    2001-01-01

    Antithrombotic treatment is of proven importance in patients with acute coronary syndromes. There is now accumulating evidence from several clinical trials in patients with unstable angina pectoris that the low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are at least as effective as unfractionated heparin. The LMWHs are easier to use, with the potential to facilitate long-term outpatient treatment. The results of the trials have actually failed to show any clear advantage, however, of the LMWHs over the standard antiplatelet treatment, despite the evidence of a sustained hypercoagulability. Potentially, the use of higher doses of LMWHs could improve the outcomes, but this is as yet unproven and could be associated with unacceptably increased risk of bleeding. During the acute phase of a stroke, aspirin is the first choice of antithrombotic drug because it reduces the risk of recurrent stroke. LMWH cannot be recommended as an antithrombotic agent for the acute treatment of stroke. Prophylactic use of low dose LMWH for the prevention of venous thromboembolism should be considered in every patient with a stroke. PMID:11806802

  20. Preparation and hemostatic property of low molecular weight silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caihong; Zhu, Hailin; Li, Jingjing; Feng, Xinxing; Chen, Jianyong

    2016-04-01

    Effective hemorrhage control becomes increasingly significant in today's military and civilian trauma, while the topical hemostats currently available in market still have various disadvantages. In this study, three low molecular weight silk fibroins (LMSF) were prepared through hydrolysis of silk fibroin in a ternary solvent system of CaCl2/H2O/EtOH solution at different hydrolysis temperatures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the content of β sheet structure in the LMSF decreased with the increase in hydrolysis temperature. The results of thromboelastographic and activated partial thromboplastin time methods showed that the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can significantly strengthen the coagulation in blood and activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade. In the murine hepatic injury model, the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can promote the blood clotting and decrease the blood loss and bleeding time. Based on these results, it can be suggested that the developed LMSF has the excellent hemostatic effect and may be a promising material in clinical hemostatic application. PMID:26732018

  1. High molecular weight kininogen binds to unstimulated platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, E J; Schutsky, D; Knight, L C; Schmaier, A H

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine if the unstimulated platelet membrane has a site for high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) binding. 125I-HMWK bound to unstimulated platelets. Zn++ was required for 125I-HMWK binding to unstimulated platelets and binding was maximal at 50 microM Zn++. Neither Mg++ nor Ca++ substituted for Zn++ in supporting 125I-HMWK binding to unstimulated platelets, and neither ion potentiated binding in the presence of 50 microM zinc. 125I-HMWK competed with equal affinity with HMWK for binding, and excess HMWK inhibited 125I-HMWK-platelet binding. Only HMWK, not prekallikrein, Factor XII, Factor XI, Factor V, fibrinogen, or fibronectin inhibited 125I-HMWK-platelet binding. 125I-HMWK binding to unstimulated platelets was 89% reversible within 10 min with a 50-fold molar excess of HMWK. Unstimulated platelets contained a single set of saturable, high affinity binding sites for 125I-HMWK with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.99 nM +/- 0.35 and 3,313 molecules/platelet +/- 843. These studies indicate that the unstimulated external platelet membrane has a binding site for HMWK that could serve as a surface to modulate contact phase activation. Images PMID:3722381

  2. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Mechanics, Morphology, and Clinical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sobieraj, MC; Rimnac, CM

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a semicrystalline polymer that has been used for over four decades as a bearing surface in total joint replacements. The mechanical properties and wear properties of UHMWPE are of interest with respect to the in vivo performance of UHMWPE joint replacement components. The mechanical properties of the polymer are dependent on both its crystalline and amorphous phases. Altering either phase (i.e., changing overall crystallinity, crystalline morphology, or crosslinking the amorphous phase) can affect the mechanical behavior of the material. There is also evidence that the morphology of UHMWPE, and, hence, its mechanical properties evolve with loading. UHMWPE has also been shown to be susceptible to oxidative degradation following gamma radiation sterilization with subsequent loss of mechanical properties. Contemporary UHMWPE sterilization methods have been developed to reduce or eliminate oxidative degradation. Also, crosslinking of UHMWPE has been pursued to improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE joint components. The 1st generation of highly crosslinked UHMWPEs have resulted in clinically reduced wear; however, the mechanical properties of these materials, such as ductility and fracture toughness, are reduced when compared to the virgin material. Therefore, a 2nd generation of highly crosslinked UHMWPEs are being introduced to preserve the wear resistance of the 1st generation while also seeking to provide oxidative stability and improved mechanical properties. PMID:19627849

  3. Extraction of high molecular weight DNA from microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Bey, Benjamin S; Fichot, Erin B; Dayama, Gargi; Decho, Alan W; Norman, R Sean

    2010-09-01

    Due to the presence of inhibitors such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and salts, most microbial mat studies have relied on harsh methods of direct DNA extraction that result in DNA fragments too small for large-insert vector cloning. High molecular weight (HMW) DNA is crucial in functional metagenomic studies, because large fragments present greater access to genes of interest. Here we report improved methodologies for extracting HMW DNA from EPS-rich hypersaline microbial mats. The protocol uses a combination of microbial cell separation with mechanical and chemical methods for DNA extraction and purification followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The protocol yields >2 µg HMW DNA (>48 kb) per gram of mat sample, with A260:280 ratios >1.7. In addition, 16S rRNA gene analysis using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing showed that this protocol extracts representative DNA from microbial mat communities and results in higher overall calculated diversity indices compared with three other standard methods of DNA extraction. Our results show the importance of validating the DNA extraction methods used in metagenomic studies to ensure optimal recovery of microbial richness. PMID:20854264

  4. Preparation of high-molecular-weight DNA from Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Karpen, Gary H

    2009-07-01

    Standard methods for extracting DNA from cells or organisms (e.g., phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation) produce fragments with an average size of 50-200 kb under optimal conditions. The shearing forces that are applied to DNA in solution during mechanical vortexing or mixing and pipetting produce frequent double-stranded breaks. To prepare high-molecular-weight (HMW) DNA, it is necessary to guard against such damaging forces by performing all extractions and manipulations on DNA that is embedded within a protective matrix. Preparation of HMW DNA from Drosophila embryos is described in detail here because, in our hands, it is the simplest and most reliable protocol and can be used for large- or small-scale preparations. The overall strategy is to purify nuclei, gently embed them in molten agarose, and then extract proteins and perform other enzymatic reactions by transferring the solidified agarose block into the appropriate solutions. Salts, soaps, and enzymes act on the DNA by diffusing through the agarose matrix, while the matrix protects the DNA from shearing forces. PMID:20147219

  5. The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Heparins on Fracture Healing.

    PubMed

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Nastoulis, Evangelos; Demesticha, Theano; Demetriou, Thespis

    2015-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism is a serious complication in the trauma patient. The most commonly studied and used anticoagulant treatment in prophylaxis of thrombosis is heparin. The prolonged use of unfractionated heparin has been connected with increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Low molecular-weight-heparins (LMWHs) have been the golden rule in antithrombotic therapy during the previous two decades as a way to overcome the major drawbacks of unfractioned heparin. However there are few studies reporting the effects of LMWHs on bone repair after fractures. This review presents the studies about the effects of LMWHs on bone biology (bone cells and bone metabolism) and underlying the mechanisms by which LMWHs may impair fracture healing process. The authors' research based on literature concluded that there are no facts and statistics for the role of LMWHs on fracture healing process in humans and the main body of evidence of their role comes from in vitro and animal studies. Further large clinical studies designed to compare different types of LMWHs, in different dosages and in different patient or animal models are needed for exploring the effects of LMWHs on fracture healing process. PMID:26161162

  6. Proliferative Dynamics and the Role of FGF2 During Myogenesis of Rat Satellite Cells on Isolated Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Rivera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Myogenic precursors in adult skeletal muscle (satellite cells) are mitotically quiescent but can proliferate in response to a variety of stresses including muscle injury. To gain further understanding of adult myoblasts, we are analyzing myogenesis of satellite cells on fibers isolated from adult rat muscle. In this culture model, satellite cells are maintained in their in situ position underneath the fiber basement membrane. Employing two different approaches to monitor proliferation of satellite cells on isolated fibers (autoradiography following 3H-thymidine incorporation and immunofluorescence of cells positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)), we show in the present study that satellite cells initiate cell proliferation at 12 to 24 hours following fiber culture establishment and that cell proliferation is reduced to minimal levels by 60 to 72 hours in culture. Maximal number of proliferating cells is seen at 36 to 48 hours in culture. These PCNA+ satellite cells transit into the differentiated, myogenin+ state following about 24 hours in the proliferative state. Continuous exposure of the fiber culture to FGF2 (basic FGF; added at the time of culture establishment) leads to a 2 fold increase in the number of PCNA+ cells by 48 hours in culture but the overall schedule of proliferation and transition into the myogenin+ state is not affected. Delaying the addition of FGF2 until 15 to 18 hours following the initiation of the fiber culture does not reduce its effect. However, the addition of FGF2 at 24 hours or later results in a progressive reduction in the number of proliferating satellite cells. Exposure of fiber cultures to transforming growth factor β (TGFβ1) leads to a reduction in the number of proliferating cells in both the absence or presence of FGF2. We propose that FGF2 enhances the number of proliferating cells by facilitating the recruitment of additional satellite cells from the quiescent state. However, satellite cells on isolated

  7. Extraction of high molecular weight DNA from microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Bey, Benjamin S; Fichot, Erin B; Norman, R Sean

    2011-01-01

    Successful and accurate analysis and interpretation of metagenomic data is dependent upon the efficient extraction of high-quality, high molecular weight (HMW) community DNA. However, environmental mat samples often pose difficulties to obtaining large concentrations of high-quality, HMW DNA. Hypersaline microbial mats contain high amounts of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)1 and salts that may inhibit downstream applications of extracted DNA. Direct and harsh methods are often used in DNA extraction from refractory samples. These methods are typically used because the EPS in mats, an adhesive matrix, binds DNA during direct lysis. As a result of harsher extraction methods, DNA becomes fragmented into small sizes. The DNA thus becomes inappropriate for large-insert vector cloning. In order to circumvent these limitations, we report an improved methodology to extract HMW DNA of good quality and quantity from hypersaline microbial mats. We employed an indirect method involving the separation of microbial cells from the background mat matrix through blending and differential centrifugation. A combination of mechanical and chemical procedures was used to extract and purify DNA from the extracted microbial cells. Our protocol yields approximately 2 μg of HMW DNA (35-50 kb) per gram of mat sample, with an A(260/280) ratio of 1.6. Furthermore, amplification of 16S rRNA genes suggests that the protocol is able to minimize or eliminate any inhibitory effects of contaminants. Our results provide an appropriate methodology for the extraction of HMW DNA from microbial mats for functional metagenomic studies and may be applicable to other environmental samples from which DNA extraction is challenging. PMID:21775955

  8. Characterization and analysis of the molecular weight of lignin for biorefining studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, Allison; Akinosho, Hannah; Khunsupat, Taya Ratayakorn; Naskar, Amit K; Ragauskas, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The molecular weight of lignin is a fundamental property that infl uences the recalcitrance of biomass and the valorization of lignin. The determination of the molecular weight of lignin in native biomass is dependent on the bioresources used and the isolation and purifi cation procedures employed. The three most commonly employed isolation methods are milled wood lignin (MWL), cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL), and enzymatic mild acidolysis lignin (EMAL). Common characterization techniques for determining the molecular weight of lignin will be addressed, with an emphasis on gel permeation chromatography (GPC). This review also examines the mechanisms behind several biological, physical, and chemical pre-treatments and their impact on the molecular weight of lignin. The number average molecular weight (Mn), weight average molecular weight (Mw) and polydispersity index (D) all vary in magnitude depending on the biomass source, pre-treatment conditions, and isolation method. Additionally, there is a growing body of literature that supports changes in the molecular weight of lignin in response to genetic modifi cations in the lignin biosynthetic pathways. This review summarizes different procedures for obtaining the molecular weight of lignin that have been used in recent years and highlight future opportunities for applications of lignin.

  9. FGF2 Stimulates COUP-TFII Expression via the MEK1/2 Pathway to Inhibit Osteoblast Differentiation in C3H10T1/2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Nam; Kim, Jung-Woo; Oh, Sin-Hye; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Koh, Jeong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates many key biological processes, including organ development and cell fate determination. Although the biological functions of COUP-TFII have been studied extensively, little is known about what regulates its gene expression, especially the role of inducible extracellular factors in triggering it. Here we report that COUP-TFII expression is regulated specifically by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which mediates activation of the MEK1/2 pathway in mesenchymal lineage C3H10T1/2 cells. Although FGF2 treatment increased cell proliferation, the induction of COUP-TFII expression was dispensable. Instead, FGF2-primed cells in which COUP-TFII expression was induced showed a low potential for osteoblast differentiation, as evidenced by decreases in alkaline phosphatase activity and osteogenic marker gene expression. Reducing COUP-TFII by U0126 or siRNA against COUP-TFII prevented the anti-osteogenic effect of FGF2, indicating that COUP-TFII plays a key role in the FGF2-mediated determination of osteoblast differentiation capability. This report is the first to suggest that FGF2 is an extracellular inducer of COUP-TFII expression and may suppress the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal cells by inducing COUP-TFII expression prior to the onset of osteogenic differentiation. PMID:27404388

  10. High molecular weight insulating polymers can improve the performance of molecular solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ye; Wen, Wen; Kramer, Edward; Bazan, Guillermo

    2014-03-01

    Solution-processed molecular semiconductors for the fabrication of solar cells have emerged as a competitive alternative to their conjugated polymer counterparts, primarily because such materials systems exhibit no batch-to-batch variability, can be purified to a greater extent and offer precisely defined chemical structures. Highest power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) have been achieved through a combination of molecular design and the application of processing methods that optimize the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) morphology. However, one finds that the methods used for controlling structural order, for example the use of high boiling point solvent additives, have been inspired by examination of the conjugated polymer literature. It stands to reason that a different class of morphology modifiers should be sought that address challenges unique to molecular films, including difficulties in obtaining thicker films and avoiding the dewetting of active photovoltaic layers. Here we show that the addition of small quantities of high molecular weight polystyrene (PS) is a very simple to use and economically viable additive that improves PCE. Remarkably, the PS spontaneously accumulates away from the electrodes as separate domains that do not interfere with charge extraction and collection or with the arrangement of the donor and acceptor domains in the BHJ blend.

  11. Using molecular recognition of beta-cyclodextrin to determine molecular weights of low-molecular-weight explosives by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Shi, Zhen; Bai, Yinjuan; Gao, Yong; Hu, Rongzu; Zhao, Fenqi

    2006-02-01

    This study presents a novel method for determining the molecular weights of low molecular weight (MW) energetic compounds through their complexes of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) in a mass range of 500 to 1700 Da, avoiding matrix interference. The MWs of one composite explosive composed of 2,6-DNT, TNT, and RDX, one propellant with unknown components, and 14 single-compound explosives (RDX, HMX, 3,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,5-DNT, 2,4,6-TNT, TNAZ, DNI, BTTN, NG, TO, NTO, NP, and 662) were measured. The molecular recognition and inclusion behavior of beta-CD to energetic materials (EMs) were investigated. The results show that (1) the established method is sensitive, simple, accurate, and suitable for determining the MWs of low-MW single-compound explosives and energetic components in composite explosives and propellants; and (2) beta-CD has good inclusion and modular recognition abilities to the above EMs. PMID:16406809

  12. Molecular Weight Determination by an Improved Temperature-Monitored Vapor-Density Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grider, Douglas J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Recommends determining molecular weights of liquids by use of a thermocouple. Utilizing a mathematical gas equation, the molecular weight can be determined from the measurement of the vapor temperature upon complete evaporation. Lists benefits as reduced time and cost, and improved safety factors. (ML)

  13. A Simple, Inexpensive Molecular Weight Measurement for Water-Soluble Polymers Using Microemulsions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Lon J.; Moore, D. Roger

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving use of a microemulsion and its characteristic thermal phase change to determine molecular weights of polyoxyethylene samples. The experiment provides students with background information on polymers and organized media and with experience in evaluating polymer molecular weight by using a unique property of a…

  14. Formation of high molecular weight products from benzene during boundary lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, W.

    1985-01-01

    High molecular weight products were detected on the wear track of an iron disk at the end of a sliding friction and wear test using benzene as a lubricant. Size exclusion chromagography in conjunction with UV analysis gave evidence that the high molecular weight products are polyphenyl ether type substances. Organic electrochemistry was used to elucidate the possible surface reaction mechanisms.

  15. Synthesis and self-assembly of 1-deoxyglucose derivatives as low molecular weight organogelators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low molecular weight gelators are an important class of molecules. The supramolecular gels formed by carbohydrate derived low molecular weight gelators, are interesting soft materials that show great potential for many applications. Previously, we synthesized a series of methyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-a-D...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3750 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9..., PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3750 Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500). Polyethylene glycol identified in this section may be safely used as...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3750 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9..., PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3750 Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500). Polyethylene glycol identified in this section may be safely used as...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3750 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9... Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3750 Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500). Polyethylene... chapter. (c) The provisions of paragraph (b) of this section are not applicable to polyethylene...

  19. Effect of resin molecular weight on the resolution of DUV negative photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thackeray, James W.; Orsula, George W.; Denison, Mark

    1994-05-01

    A wide range of molecular weights (3500 to 240000) of poly(p- vinyl)phenol was studied. Polymer dissolution rate vs. molecular weight followed a simple kinetic equation, with the kinetic order m equals2.0. The photospeed of the resist was not strongly affected by the starting resin molecular weight; however, resolution decreased rapidly with increasing Mw. Also, the higher the starting molecular weight, the greater the tendency for the resist to form microbridges between features. The microbridges could be as long as 1.0micrometers for the highest molecular weight resin, Mw equals240000. The lowest molecular weight resins, Mw molecular weight, showed no evidence of microbridging in the higher normality developer. The reason for this difference is that the novolak does not crosslink as effectively as PVP does. Based on extraction experiments, it has been shown that the molecular weight at a sizing dose is 164000 for PVP and 6500 for the novolak. Thus, the novolak must react with the melamine primarily through an intrachain reaction, whereas the PVP- melamine reaction is an interchain reaction. Finally, a mechanism for microbridge formation is discussed.

  20. Low molecular weight proteinuria in Chinese herbs nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kabanda, A; Jadoul, M; Lauwerys, R; Bernard, A; van Ypersele de Strihou, C

    1995-11-01

    Urinary excretion of five low molecular weight proteins (LMWP) [beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m), cystatin C (cyst C), Clara cell protein (CC16), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha 1m)], albumin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were quantified in 16 patients who followed a weight reduction program which included Chinese herbs, which have been incriminated in the genesis of Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN). An additional group of four patients transplanted for CHN were investigated. Urinary data were obtained for comparison purpose in five groups of proteinuric patients: two groups with normal serum creatinine (SCr) and glomerular albuminura [12 patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria (DN), 10 patients with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS)]; two groups with normal SCr and toxic nephropathy [6 patients with analgesic (AN), 9 patients with cadmium nephropathy (CdN)]; and one group of seven patients with glomerular diseases and increased SCr (GN). Patients were classified according to serum level S beta 2m to take into account the possibility of overflow proteinuria at S beta 2m > or = 5 mg/liter. Three patients (CHN0) with a S beta 2m < 5 mg/liter, had a normal urinary protein pattern including NAG and a normal S beta 2m. Eight patients (CHN1) with a S beta 2m < 5 mg/liter had various abnormalities of their urinary protein pattern. In four of them (CHN1a) only beta 2m, RBP and CC16 were increased while total proteinuria and SCr were normal. In the other four (CHN1b and c) albumin, cyst C, alpha 1m and NAG were also elevated, while total proteinuria and SCr were moderately raised. Five patients (CHN2) with a S beta 2m > or = 5 mg/liter had a markedly increased excretion of all LMWP, albumin and NAG (CHN1 vs. CHN2, P < 0.05) as well as a further increase in total proteinuria and SCr. The urinary LMWP/albumin concentration ratio was strikingly higher in CHN patients than in patients with glomerular albuminuria (CHN1 vs. DN

  1. Molecular chaperone properties of the high molecular weight aggregate from aged lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Boyle, D.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The high molecular weight aggregate (HMWA) fraction was isolated from the water soluble proteins of aged bovine lenses. Its composition and ability to inhibit heat-induced denaturation and aggregation were compared with the lower molecular weight, oligomeric fraction of alpha isolated from the same lens. Although the major components of both fractions were the alpha-A and alpha-B chains, the HMWA fraction possessed a decreased ability to protect other proteins against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation. Immunoelectron microscopy of both fractions demonstrated that alpha particles from the HMWA fraction contained increased amounts of beta and gamma crystallins, bound to a central region of the supramolecular complex. Together, these results demonstrate that alpha crystallins found in the HMWA fraction possess a decreased ability to protect against heat-induced denaturation and aggregation, and suggest that at least part of this decrease could be due to the increased presence of beta and gamma crystallins complexed to the putative chaperone receptor site of the alpha particles.

  2. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study

  3. Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in oxidizing porphyry copper tailings.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Blowes, David W; Dickhout, Ralph; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-04-15

    The distribution of low molecular weight carboxylic acids (LMWCA) was investigated in pore water profiles from two porphyry copper tailings impoundments in Chile (Piuquenes at La Andina and Cauquenes at El Teniente mine). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the distribution of LMWCA, which are interpreted to be the metabolic byproducts of the autotroph microbial community in this low organic carbon system, and (2) to infer the potential role of these acids in cycling of Fe and other elements in the tailings impoundments. The speciation and mobility of iron, and potential for the release of H+ via hydrolysis of the ferric iron, are key factors in the formation of acid mine drainage in sulfidic mine wastes. In the low-pH oxidation zone of the Piuquenes tailings, Fe(III) is the dominant iron species and shows high mobility. LMWCA, which occur mainly between the oxidation front down to 300 cm below the tailings surface at both locations (e.g., max concentrations of 0.12 mmol/L formate, 0.17 mmol/L acetate, and 0.01 mmol/L pyruvate at Piuquenes and 0.14 mmol/L formate, 0.14 mmol/L acetate, and 0.006 mmol/L pyruvate at Cauquenes), are observed at the same location as high Fe concentrations (up to 71.2 mmol/L Fe(II) and 16.1 mmol/L Fe(III), respectively). In this zone, secondary Fe(III) hydroxides are depleted. Our data suggest that LMWCA may influence the mobility of iron in two ways. First, complexation of Fe(III), through formation of bidentate Fe(III)-LMWCA complexes (e.g., pyruvate, oxalate), may enhance the dissolution of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides or may prevent precipitation of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides. Soluble Fe(III) chelate complexes which may be mobilized downward and convert to Fe(II) by Fe(III) reducing bacteria. Second, monodentate LMWCA (e.g., acetate and formate) can be used by iron-reducing bacteria as electron donors (e.g., Acidophilum spp.), with ferric iron as the electron acceptor. These processes may, in part, explain the low abundances

  4. Isolation of low-molecular-weight heparin/heparan sulfate from marine sources.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. PMID:25081076

  5. Effects of molecular weight of dextran on the adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to damaged heart valves.

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ronda, C H

    1980-01-01

    Dextran-producing streptococci such as Streptococcus sanguis are the organisms most frequently associated with infective endocarditis in humans. A series of experiments was designed to study how the molecular weight of dextrans affects the adherence of an endocarditis strain of S. sanguis to canine heart valves covered with platelets and fibrin. The data indicated that this adherence was dependent on dextrans of high molecular weight, such as dextran T-2000 or glucans isolated from S. sanguis or S. mutans. The adherence properties of the strain studied were not modified by prior exposure of the bacterial cells of valve leaflets to high-molecular-weight dextrans. Preexposure of bacterial cells or valve leaflets to low-molecular-weight dextrans decreased their adherence. Low-molecular-weight dextrans interfered with adherence of dextran-positive strains to damaged heart valves. PMID:6156909

  6. The influence of polyacid molecular weight on some properties of glass-ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A D; Hill, R G; Warrens, C P; Lewis, B G

    1989-02-01

    The influence of the molecular weight of the poly(acrylic acid) component on some properties of glass-ionomer cement has been investigated. The results can be explained by treatment of glass-ionomer cements as thermoplastic composites. Many of the concepts of polymer science can be applied successfully in a qualitative way to these cements, including the ideas of entanglements and reptation. Molecular weight of the polyacid had a pronounced influence on setting rate, acid erosion rate, toughness, fracture toughness, and wear resistance. The chain length of the polyacid was found to be an important parameter in formulation of a cement, and the higher the molecular weight, the better the properties. However, in practice the molecular weight is limited by viscosity, and some balance has to be achieved among concentration, molecular weight, and viscosity. PMID:2918140

  7. Optical properties of polycarbonate/styrene-co-acrylonitrile blends: effects of molecular weight of the matrix.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ping; Xiong, Ying; Guo, Shaoyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the effects of the molecular weight of a polycarbonate (PC) matrix on the phase morphology and optical properties of a PC/styrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) blend were investigated. A scanning electron microscope is used to analyze the phase morphology of the blends, and Mie scattering theory is used to analyze the changing laws of the optical properties of PC/SAN blends with the increasing of PC molecular weight. Results show that the average particle diameter is not strongly changed with different PC molecular weight because the values of the viscosity ratios are very close to each other. But it is obvious that the number of large particles gradually reduced while small particles (especially d<2  μm) significantly increased with the increasing of PC molecular weight. And the increase in small particles will result in an increase in backward scattering so the transmittance of PC/SAN blends decreases with the increase of PC molecular weight. However, the balance of the scattering coefficients and the number concentration of particles eventually lead to the haze of the blends being very close, despite having different PC molecular weights. Meanwhile, the photographs of scattering patterns indicate that the PC/SAN blends whose component weight ratios are fixed at 70:30 have excellent antiglare properties, despite the changes in molecular weight of the PC matrix. PMID:26836652

  8. Influence of molecular-weight polydispersity on the glass transition of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Jia; Xie, Shi-Jie; Li, Yan-Chun; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the polymer glass transition temperature Tg is dependent on molecular weight, but the role of molecular-weight polydispersity on Tg is unclear. Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we clarify that for polymers with the same number-average molecular weight, the molecular-weight distribution profile (either in Schulz-Zimm form or in bimodal form) has very little influence on the glass transition temperature Tg, the average segment dynamics (monomer motion, bond orientation relaxation, and torsion transition), and the relaxation-time spectrum, which are related to the local nature of the glass transition. By analyzing monomer motions in different chains, we find that the motion distribution of monomers is altered by molecular-weight polydispersity. Molecular-weight polydispersity dramatically enhances the dynamic heterogeneity of monomer diffusive motions after breaking out of the "cage," but it has a weak influence on the dynamic heterogeneity of the short time scales and the transient spatial correlation between temporarily localized monomers. The stringlike cooperative motion is also not influenced by molecular-weight polydispersity, supporting the idea that stringlike collective motion is not strongly correlated with chain connectivity.

  9. Influence of molecular-weight polydispersity on the glass transition of polymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jia; Xie, Shi-Jie; Li, Yan-Chun; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the polymer glass transition temperature T_{g} is dependent on molecular weight, but the role of molecular-weight polydispersity on T_{g} is unclear. Using molecular-dynamics simulations, we clarify that for polymers with the same number-average molecular weight, the molecular-weight distribution profile (either in Schulz-Zimm form or in bimodal form) has very little influence on the glass transition temperature T_{g}, the average segment dynamics (monomer motion, bond orientation relaxation, and torsion transition), and the relaxation-time spectrum, which are related to the local nature of the glass transition. By analyzing monomer motions in different chains, we find that the motion distribution of monomers is altered by molecular-weight polydispersity. Molecular-weight polydispersity dramatically enhances the dynamic heterogeneity of monomer diffusive motions after breaking out of the "cage," but it has a weak influence on the dynamic heterogeneity of the short time scales and the transient spatial correlation between temporarily localized monomers. The stringlike cooperative motion is also not influenced by molecular-weight polydispersity, supporting the idea that stringlike collective motion is not strongly correlated with chain connectivity. PMID:26871128

  10. High Molecular Weight Petrogenic and Pyrogenic Hydrocarbons in Aquatic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrajano, T. A., Jr.; Yan, B.; O'Malley, V.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemistry is ultimately the study of sources, movement, and fate of chemicals in the geosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. Environmental organic geochemistry focuses such studies on organic compounds of toxicological and ecological concern (e.g., Schwarzenbach et al., 1993, 1998; Eganhouse, 1997). This field emphasizes not only those compounds with potential toxicological properties, but also the geological systems accessible to the biological receptors of those hazards. Hence, the examples presented in this chapter focus on hydrocarbons with known health and ecological concern in accessible shallow, primarily aquatic, environments.Modern society depends on oil for energy and a variety of other daily needs, with present mineral oil consumption throughout the 1990s exceeding 3×109 t yr-1 (NRC, 2002). In the USA, e.g., ˜40% of energy consumed and 97% of transportation fuels are derived from oil. In the process of extraction, refinement, transport, use, and waste production, a small but environmentally significant fraction of raw oil materials, processed products, and waste are released inadvertently or purposefully into the environment. Because their presence and concentration in the shallow environments are often the result of human activities, these organic materials are generally referred to as "environmental contaminants." Although such reference connotes some form of toxicological or ecological hazard, specific health or ecological effects of many organic "environmental contaminants" remain to be demonstrated. Some are, in fact, likely innocuous at the levels that they are found in many systems, and simply adds to the milieu of biogenic organic compounds that naturally cycle through the shallow environment. Indeed, virtually all compounds in crude oil and processed petroleum products have been introduced naturally to the shallow environments as oil and gas seepage for millions of years ( NRC, 2002). Even high molecular weight (HMW) polyaromatic

  11. Effect of molecular weight distribution on e-beam exposure properties of polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Ripon Kumar; Cui, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Polystyrene is a negative electron beam resist whose exposure properties can be tuned simply by using different molecular weights (Mw). Most previous studies have used monodisperse polystyrene with a polydispersity index (PDI) of less than 1.1 in order to avoid any uncertainties. Here we show that despite the fact that polystyrene’s sensitivity is inversely proportional to its Mw, no noticeable effect of very broad molecular weight distribution on sensitivity, contrast and achievable resolution is observed. It is thus unnecessary to use the costly monodisperse polystyrene for electron beam lithography. Since the polydispersity is unknown for general purpose polystyrene, we simulated a high PDI polystyrene by mixing in a 1:1 weight ratio two polystyrene samples with Mw of 170 and 900 kg mol-1 for the high Mw range, and 2.5 and 13 kg mol-1 for the low Mw range. The exposure property of the mixture resembles that of a monodisperse polystyrene with similar number averaged molecular weight \\overline{{Mn}}, which indicates that it is \\overline{{Mn}} rather than \\overline{{Mw}} (weight averaged molecular weight) that dominates the exposure properties of polystyrene resist. This also implies that polystyrene of a certain molecular weight can be simulated by a mixture of two polystyrenes having different molecular weights.

  12. Perchlorate-induced combustion of organic matter with variable molecular weights: Implications for Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Lewis, James M. T.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Montgomery, Wren; Garnier, Carole

    2014-11-01

    Instruments on the Viking landers and Curiosity rover analyzed samples of Mars and detected carbon dioxide and organic compounds of uncertain origin. Mineral-assisted reactions are leading to uncertainty, particularly those involving perchlorate minerals which thermally decompose to produce chlorine and oxygen which can then react with organic matter to generate organochlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. Although generally considered a problem for interpretation, the release profiles of generated gases can indicate the type of organic matter present. We have performed a set of experiments with perchlorate and organic matter of variable molecular weights. Results indicate that organic susceptibility to thermal degradation and mineral-assisted reactions is related to molecular weight. Low molecular weight organic matter reacts at lower temperatures than its high molecular weight counterparts. The natural occurrence and association of organic matter with differing molecular weights helps to discriminate between contamination (usually low molecular weight organic matter only) and indigenous carbon (commonly low and high molecular weight organic matter together). Our results can be used to provide insights into data returning from Mars.

  13. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    PubMed

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance. PMID:21686191

  14. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    PubMed Central

    Rakha, Allah; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance. PMID:21686191

  15. Effects of the neurotrophic factors BDNF, NT-3, and FGF2 on dissociated neurons of the cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Frenz, Silke; Scherzad, Agmal; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Radeloff, Andreas; Jablonka, Sibylle; Hagen, Rudolf; Mlynski, Robert

    2014-08-20

    The cochlear nucleus is the first relay station for acoustic information in the auditory pathway and its cellular integrity is affected by hearing loss. Neurotrophic factors, which are known to regulate fundamental processes in the brain, are expressed in the cochlear nucleus and are regulated by the changes in the stimulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the neurotrophins Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin 3 (NT-3) and the neurotrophic factor Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) on primary cultured cells of the mouse cochlear nucleus. No effect on overall cell growth was detected after 8 days in culture by the factors applied. NT-3 had a strong impact on enhancement of neuronal survival, whereas BDNF stimulated neuronal survival and axonal outgrowth. Axonal branching was negatively affected by the administration of BDNF. FGF2 did not show any effect. The results presented represent fundamental research on auditory neurons, but might be one step toward defining novel therapeutic strategies in the future to prevent cochlear nucleus degeneration induced by hearing loss. PMID:24978398

  16. The broad-spectrum anti-DNA virus agent cidofovir inhibits lung metastasis of virus-independent, FGF2-driven tumors.

    PubMed

    Liekens, Sandra; Noppen, Sam; Gijsbers, Sofie; Sienaert, Rebecca; Ronca, Roberto; Tobia, Chiara; Presta, Marco

    2015-03-10

    The FDA-approved anti-DNA virus agent cidofovir (CDV) is being evaluated in phase II/III clinical trials for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated tumors. However, previous observations had shown that CDV also inhibits the growth of vascular tumors induced by fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2)-transformed FGF2-T-MAE cells. Here, we demonstrate that CDV inhibits metastasis induced by FGF2-driven, virus-independent tumor cells. Pre-treatment of luciferase-expressing FGF2-T-MAE cells with CDV reduced single cell survival and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and lung metastasis formation upon intravenous inoculation into SCID mice. This occurred in the absence of any effect on homing of FGF2-T-MAE cells to the lungs and on the growth of subconfluent cell cultures or subcutaneous tumors in mice. Accordingly, CDV protected against lung metastasis when given systemically after tumor cell injection. Lung metastases in CDV-treated mice showed reduced Ki67 expression and increased nuclear accumulation of p53, indicating that CDV inhibits metastasis by affecting single cell survival properties. The anti-metastatic potential of CDV was confirmed on B16-F10 melanoma cells, both in zebrafish embryos and mice. These findings suggest that CDV may have therapeutic potential as an anti-metastatic agent and warrants further study to select those tumor types that are most likely to benefit from CDV therapy. PMID:25609197

  17. Immunolocalization of FGF1 and FGF2 in the regenerating tail of the lizard Lampropholis guichenoti: implications for FGFs as trophic factors in lizard tail regeneration.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo; Lovicu, Frank J

    2010-09-01

    A role for fibroblast growth factors in stimulating limb and tail regeneration in amphibians has been shown; however, it is unknown whether these growth factors are also involved in the regeneration of the tail of lizard, an amniote model for studies on tissue regeneration. The presence of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1) and -2 (FGF2) in the regenerating tail of the lizard Lampropholis guichenoti has been studied using immunofluorescence labeling. The study reveals that FGF2 is mainly localized in the wound and scaling epidermis, in differentiating muscles, in spinal ganglia, regenerating nerves and spinal cord. FGF1 is also present in the wound and differentiating epidermis, but is detectable at lower levels in the regenerating muscles and spinal cord. FGF1 is present in blastema cells, while FGF2 labeling is relatively low in these cells. Fibroblasts of the forming dermis are rich in FGF1 but not in FGF2. Developing blood vessels label for both FGF1 and FGF2 while the cartilaginous, bone and fat tissues are poorly labeled or unlabeled for FGFs. The present study suggests that most FGFs in the regenerating tail are located in the nervous system, in the epidermis and muscles, and these tissues most likely require these growth factors for their differentiation and growth. The present study suggests that FGFs produced in the regenerating epidermis, spinal cord and nerves can stimulate tail regeneration in lizards. PMID:19589562

  18. Integrating computational and chemical biology tools in the discovery of antiangiogenic small molecule ligands of FGF2 derived from endogenous inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Foglieni, Chiara; Pagano, Katiuscia; Lessi, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Moroni, Elisabetta; Pinessi, Denise; Resovi, Andrea; Ribatti, Domenico; Bertini, Sabrina; Ragona, Laura; Bellina, Fabio; Rusnati, Marco; Colombo, Giorgio; Taraboletti, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The FGFs/FGFRs system is a recognized actionable target for therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. We previously identified a non-peptidic compound (SM27) that retains the structural and functional properties of the FGF2-binding sequence of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a major endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Here we identified new small molecule inhibitors of FGF2 based on the initial lead. A similarity-based screening of small molecule libraries, followed by docking calculations and experimental studies, allowed selecting 7 bi-naphthalenic compounds that bound FGF2 inhibiting its binding to both heparan sulfate proteoglycans and FGFR-1. The compounds inhibit FGF2 activity in in vitro and ex vivo models of angiogenesis, with improved potency over SM27. Comparative analysis of the selected hits, complemented by NMR and biochemical analysis of 4 newly synthesized functionalized phenylamino-substituted naphthalenes, allowed identifying the minimal stereochemical requirements to improve the design of naphthalene sulfonates as FGF2 inhibitors. PMID:27000667

  19. The role of FGF2 in migration and tubulogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells in relation to pro-angiogenic growth factor production.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Monika; Radwańska, Agata; Paprocka, Maria; Kieda, Claudine; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Baczyńska, Dagmara

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, special attention has been paid to finding new pro-angiogenic factors which could be used in gene therapy of vascular diseases such as critical limb ischaemia (CLI). Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is a complex process dependent on different cytokines, matrix proteins, growth factors and other pro- or anti-angiogenic stimuli. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that key mediators of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) together with fibroblast growth factor2 (FGF2) are involved in regulation of the normal and pathological process of angiogenesis. However, less information is available on the complex interactions between these and other angiogenic factors. The aim of this study was to characterise the effect of fibroblast growth factor2 on biological properties of human endothelial progenitor cells with respect to the expression level of other regulatory cytokines. Ectopic expression of FGF2 in EP cells stimulates their pro-angiogenic behaviour, leading to increased proliferation, migration and tube formation abilities. Moreover, we show that the expression profile of VEGF and other pro-angiogenic cytokines, such as HGF, MCP2, and interleukins, is affected differently by FGF2 in EPC. In conclusion, we provide evidence that FGF2 directly affects not only the biological properties of EP cells but also the expression pattern and secretion of numerous chemocytokines. Our results suggest that FGF2 could be applied in therapeutic approaches for CLI and other ischaemic diseases of the vascular system in vivo. PMID:26314253

  20. Molecular Weight Determinations of Proteins by Californium Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundqvist, B.; Roepstorff, Peter; Fohlman, J.; Hedin, A.; Hakansson, P.; Kamensky, I.; Lindberg, M.; Salehpour, M.; Sawe, G.

    1984-11-01

    The plasma desorption mass spectrometry method is used to determine the molecular weights of larger molecules than before, to determine the molecular weights of proteins and peptides in mixtures, and to monitor protein modification reactions. Proteins up to molecular weight 25,000 can now be studied with a mass spectrometric technique. Protein-peptide mixtures that could not be resolved with conventional techniques were successfully analyzed by this technique. The precision of the method is good enough to permit one to follow the different steps in the conversion of porcine insulin to human insulin.

  1. High molecular weight first generation PMR polyimides for 343 C applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malarik, Diane C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on 343 C thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), mechanical properties, and processability, of the first generation PMR polyimides was studied. Graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15, PMR-30, PMR-50, and PMR-75 composites (corresponding to formulated molecular weights of 1500, 3000, 5000, and 7500, respectively) were fabricated using a simulated autoclave process. The data reveals that while alternate autoclave cure schedules are required for the high molecular weight resins, low void laminates can be fabricated which have significantly improved TOS over PMR-15, with only a small sacrifice in mechanical properties.

  2. Effect of sterilization irradiation on friction and wear of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Hady, W. F.; Crugnola, A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of sterilization gamma irradiation on the friction and wear properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against 316L stainless steel in dry air at 23 C was determined. A pin-on-disk apparatus was used. Experimental conditions included a 1-kilogram load, a 0.061- to 0.27-meter-per-second sliding velocity, and a 32000- to 578000-meter sliding distance. Although sterilization doses of 2.5 and 5.0 megarads greatly altered the average molecular weight and the molecular weight distribution, the friction and wear properties of the polymer were not significantly changed.

  3. Physics and gel electrophoresis: using terminal velocity to characterize molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viney, Christopher; Fenton, Richard A.

    1998-11-01

    Protein molecular weights are commonly characterized by gel electrophoresis. Biology textbooks typically quote an empirical, approximate relationship between migration rate and molecular weight, relying on an inappropriately simplistic model of spherical particles travelling at their terminal velocity through a viscous medium. We show how the model can be modified to derive a physically realistic equation that relates migration rate and molecular weight, and that mirrors experimentally observed behaviour. We suggest that gel electrophoresis provides an interesting interdisciplinary context in which to exercise several basic principles that are encountered through introductory physics courses. Finally, we provide additional examples of practical situations where the concept of terminal velocity can be elaborated and applied.

  4. High molecular weight first generation PMR polyimides for 343 C applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malarik, D. C.; Vannucci, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on 343 C thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), mechanical properties, and processability, of the first generation PMR polyimides was studied. Graphite fiber reinforced PMR-15, PMR-30, PMR-50, and PMR-75 composites (corresponding to formulated molecular weights of 1500, 3000, 5000, and 7500, respectively) were fabricated using a simulated autoclave process. The data reveal that while alternate autoclave cure schedules are required for the high molecular weight resins, low void laminates can be fabricated which have significantly improved TDS over PMR-15, with only a small sacrifice in mechanical properties.

  5. Effect of PEO molecular weight on the miscibility and dynamics in epoxy/PEO blends.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shoudong; Zhang, Rongchun; Wang, Xiaoliang; Sun, Pingchuan; Lv, Weifeng; Liu, Qingjie; Jia, Ninghong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the effect of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) molecular weight in blends of epoxy (ER) and PEO on the miscibility, inter-chain weak interactions and local dynamics were systematically investigated by multi-frequency temperature modulation DSC and solid-state NMR techniques. We found that the molecular weight (M(w)) of PEO was a crucial factor in controlling the miscibility, chain dynamics and hydrogen bonding interactions between PEO and ER. A critical PEO molecular weight (M(crit)) around 4.5k was found. PEO was well miscible with ER when the molecular weight was below M(crit), where the chain motion of PEO was restricted due to strong inter-chain hydrogen bonding interactions. However, for the blends with high molecular weight PEO (M(w) > M(crit)), the miscibility between PEO and ER was poor, and most of PEO chains were considerably mobile. Finally, polarization inversion spin exchange at magic angle (PISEMA) solid-state NMR experiment further revealed the different mobility of the PEO in ER/PEO blends with different molecular weight of PEO at molecular level. Based on the DSC and NMR results, a tentative model was proposed to illustrate the miscibility in ER/PEO blends. PMID:26577817

  6. Bacillus subtilis 168 levansucrase (SacB) activity affects average levan molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Porras-Domínguez, Jaime R; Ávila-Fernández, Ángela; Miranda-Molina, Afonso; Rodríguez-Alegría, María Elena; Munguía, Agustín López

    2015-11-01

    Levan is a fructan polymer that offers a variety of applications in the chemical, health, cosmetic and food industries. Most of the levan applications depend on levan molecular weight, which in turn depends on the source of the synthesizing enzyme and/or on reaction conditions. Here we demonstrate that in the particular case of levansucrase from Bacillus subtilis 168, enzyme concentration is also a factor defining the molecular weight levan distribution. While a bimodal distribution has been reported at the usual enzyme concentrations (1 U/ml equivalent to 0.1 μM levansucrase) we found that a low molecular weight normal distribution is solely obtained al high enzyme concentrations (>5 U/ml equivalent to 0.5 μM levansucrase) while a high normal molecular weight distribution is synthesized at low enzyme doses (0.1 U/ml equivalent to 0.01 μM of levansucrase). PMID:26256357

  7. PolyPEGA with predetermined molecular weights from enzyme-mediated radical polymerization in water.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yeap-Hung; di Lena, Fabio; Chai, Christina L L

    2011-06-14

    The preparation of acrylic polymers with predetermined molecular weights using metalloenzymes as catalysts, ascorbic acid as reducing agent and alkyl halides as initiators is reported. The mechanism of polymerization resembles an ARGET ATRP process. PMID:21552589

  8. Effect of protein molecular weight on the mass transfer in protein mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad, Ahmed; Chai, Chuan; Wu, JiangTao

    2012-03-01

    The mixing of protein solutions with that of precipitating agents is very important in protein crystallization experiments. In this work, the interferometry images were recorded during the mixing of two proteins with different molecular weights: lysozyme of ˜14.6 kDa, trypsin of ˜23.3 kDa and pepsin of ˜34.8 kDa were placed in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The protein molecular weight dependence on the competition of the transport process and kinetics at the interface was studied. The concentration profiles of protein solutions were calculated to analyze the mass transfer during the mixing process. It was observed that the mass transfer process is more efficient during the mixing of proteins with higher molecular weights. In addition, the more rapid concentration changes above the interface suggest that convection may dominate the diffusion. The phenomenon of convection is higher in the protein solutions with higher molecular weight.

  9. The effect of maltose on dextran yield and molecular weight distribution.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sueli; Lona, Liliane M F; Franco, Telma T

    2005-11-01

    Dextran synthesis has been studied since the Second World War, when it was used as blood plasma expander. This polysaccharide composed of glucose units is linked by an alpha-1,6-glucosidic bond. Dextransucrase is a bacterial extra cellular enzyme, which promotes the dextran synthesis from sucrose. When, besides sucrose, another substrate (acceptor) is also present in the reactor, oligosaccharides are produced and part of the glucosyl moieties from glucose is consumed to form these acceptor products, decreasing the dextran yield. Although dextran enzymatic synthesis has been extensively studied, there are few published studies regarding its molecular weight distribution. In this work, the effect of maltose on yield and dextran molecular weight synthesized using dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B512F, was investigated. According to the obtained results, maltose is not able to control and reduce dextran molecular weight distribution and synthesis carried out with or without maltose presented the same molecular weight distribution profile. PMID:16163491

  10. Oxidation reaction of high molecular weight carboxylic acids in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fangming; Moriya, Takehiko; Enomoto, Heiji

    2003-07-15

    Stearic acid, being a model compound of high molecular weight carboxylic acids, was oxidized in a batch reactor by changing the oxygen supply with an insufficient oxygen supply at a constant reaction time at 420 degrees C. On the basis of the intermediate products identified by GC/MS, NMR, and HPLC analyses and the free-radical reaction mechanism, the oxidation pathways of high molecular weight carboxylic acids in supercritical water are discussed. The reaction of carboxylic acids in supercritical water proceeds with the consecutive oxidation of higher molecular weight carboxylic acids to lower molecular weight carboxylic acids through several major pathways. The attack of the hydroxyl radical occurs not only at the carbons in alpha-, beta-, gamma-positions to a --COOH group but also at the carbons ((omega-1)-carbon and/or omega-carbon) far in the alkyl chain from a --COOH group, which may lead to the formation of dicarboxylic acids. PMID:12901673

  11. Antioxidant activity of low molecular weight alginate produced by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelishomi, Zahra Habibi; Goliaei, Bahram; Mahdavi, Hossein; Nikoofar, Alireza; Rahimi, Mahmood; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Mamashli, Fatemeh; Bigdeli, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    By definition, antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Therefore, such compounds have very important clinical roles. In this study alginate polymer was depolymerized by heat treatment. The resulting low molecular weight alginates were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy, Viscometry, Dynamic light scattering and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. Antioxidant properties of these heat products were studied by ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Results showed that heating caused breaks in the polymer chain and so generation of low molecular weight alginates. Antioxidant measurements confirmed antioxidant activity of alginate increased upon a decrease in molecular weight. Therefore, low molecular weight alginate produced by heating could be considered as a stronger antioxidant than alginate polymer. These products could be useful for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:26593570

  12. EPDM polymers with intermolecular asymmetrical molecular weight, crystallinity and diene distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Cheremishinoff, N.P.; Kresge, E.N.

    1993-12-31

    Rapid extrusion of EPDM elastomers require low viscosity and thus low molecular weights for the polymer. Efficient vulcanization of these elastomers requires network perfection and thus high molecular weights for the polymer. The benefits of these apparently mutually exclusive goals is important in uses of EPDM elastomers which require extrusion of profiles which are later cured. This paper shows that by introducing simultaneously asymmetry in the distribution of molecular weights, crystallinity and vulcanizable sites these apparently contradictory goals can be resolved. While these polymers cannot be made from a single Ziegler polymerization catalyst, the authors show the synthesis of these model EPDM polymers by blending polymers with very different molecular weights, ethylene and ENB contents. These blends can be rapidly extruded without melt fracture and can be cured to vulcanizates which have excellent tensile properties.

  13. High and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid differentially influence macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Rayahin, Jamie E.; Buhrman, Jason S.; Zhang, Yu; Koh, Timothy J.; Gemeinhart, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic diversity permitting wide-ranging roles in maintaining physiologic homeostasis. Hyaluronic acid, a major glycosaminoglycan of the extracellular matrix, has been shown to have differential signaling based on its molecular weight. With this in mind, the main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of hyaluronic acid molecular weight on macrophage activation and reprogramming. Changes in macrophage activation were assessed by activation state selective marker measurement, specifically quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, and cytokine enzyme-linked immunoassays, after macrophage treatment with differing molecular weights of hyaluronic acid under four conditions: the resting state, concurrent with classical activation, and following inflammation involving either classically or alternatively activated macrophages. Regardless of initial polarization state, low molecular weight hyaluronic acid induced a classically activated-like state, confirmed by up-regulation of pro-inflammatory genes, including nos2, tnf, il12b, and cd80, and enhanced secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid promoted an alternatively activated-like state, confirmed by up regulation of pro-resolving gene transcription, including arg1, il10, and mrc1, and enhanced arginase activity. Overall, our observations suggest that macrophages undergo phenotypic changes dependent on molecular weight of hyaluronan that correspond to either (1) pro-inflammatory response for low molecular weight HA or (2) pro-resolving response for high molecular weight HA. These observations bring significant further understanding of the influence of extracellular matrix polymers, hyaluronic acid in particular, on regulating the inflammatory response of macrophages. This knowledge can be used to guide the design of HA-containing biomaterials to better utilize the natural response to HAs. PMID:26280020

  14. Corner rounding in EUV photoresist: tuning through molecular weight, PAG size, and development time

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Christopher; Daggett, Joe; Naulleau, Patrick

    2009-12-31

    In this paper, the corner rounding bias of a commercially available extreme ultraviolet photoresist is monitored as molecular weight, photoacid generator (PAG) size, and development time are varied. These experiments show that PAG size influences corner biasing while molecular weight and development time do not. Large PAGs are shown to exhibit less corner biasing, and in some cases, lower corner rounding, than small PAGs. In addition, heavier resist polymers are shown to exhibit less corner rounding than lighter ones.

  15. Permeability of the small intestine to substances of different molecular weight

    PubMed Central

    Loehry, C. A.; Axon, A. T. R.; Hilton, P. J.; Hider, R. C.; Creamer, B.

    1970-01-01

    The permeability of the rabbit small intestine has been studied by measuring the plasma clearances of water-soluble molecules over the molecular weight range 60-33,000. An inverse relationship has been demonstrated between permeability and molecular weight. The significance of these findings in relation to current concepts of the `pore hypotheses' is discussed, and the possible physiological and pathological implications are considered. PMID:5430371

  16. Control of molecular weight of polystyrene using the reverse iodine transfer polymerization (RITP)-emulsion technique.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyeong Geun; Shin, Hongcheol; Jung, Hyejun; Lee, Byung Hyung; Choe, Soonja

    2011-01-15

    The RITP-emulsion polymerization of styrene in the presence of molecular iodine has been successfully performed using potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator and 1-hexadecanesulfonate as an emulsifier under argon atmosphere at 80°C for 7 hrs in the absence of light. The effects of the iodine concentration, molar ratio between KPS and iodine, and solid contents on the molecular weight of polystyrene (PS) were studied. As the iodine concentration increased from 0.05 to 0.504 mmol under the fixed [KPS]/[I(2)] ratio at 4.5, the weight-average molecular weight of PS substantially decreased from 126,120 to 35,690 g/mol, the conversion increased from 85.0% to 95.2%, and the weight-average particle diameter decreased from 159 to 103 nm. In addition, as the ratio of [KPS]/[I(2)] increased from 0.5 to 6.0 at the fixed [I(2)] of 0.504 mmol, the weight-average molecular weight of PS decreased from 72,170 to 30,640 g/mol with high conversion between 81.7% and 96.5%. Moreover, when the styrene solid content increased from 10 to 40 wt.% at the fixed [KPS]/[I(2)] ratio of 4.5, the weight-average molecular weight of PS varied between 33,500 and 37,200 g/mol, the conversion varied between 94.9% and 89.7% and the weight-average diameter varied from 122 to 205 nm. Thus, the control of molecular weight of PS less than 100,000g/mol with high conversion (95%) and particle stability of up to 40 wt.% solid content were easily achieved through the usage of iodine with suitable ratio of [KPS]/[I(2)] in the RITP-emulsion polymerization technique, which is of great industrial importance. PMID:20950818

  17. A low molecular weight antioxidant decreases weight and lowers tumor incidence.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, James B; Xavier, Sandhya; DeLuca, Anne M; Sowers, Anastasia L; Cook, John A; Krishna, Murali C; Hahn, Stephen M; Russo, Angelo

    2003-01-01

    Stable free radical nitroxides are potent antioxidants possessing superoxide dismutase- and catalase-mimetic activity that protect cells and animals against a variety of oxidative insults. Tempol, as a representative nitroxide, was evaluated for its influence on weight maintenance and spontaneous tumor incidence in C3H mice. Tempol administered in either the drinking water or food did not show any untoward effects and prevented animals from becoming obese. Tempol-treated animals' leptin levels were reduced. Long-term treatment with Tempol significantly decreased tumorigenesis when compared to controls (10 vs. 40%, respectively). Selected tissues from Tempol-treated animals exhibited elevated levels of mitochrondrial uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) and HSP70. The present data suggest that nitroxides upregulate UCP-2, obviate weight gain, and decrease age-related spontaneous tumor incidence. As a class, nitroxides may provide overall health benefits by contributing to decreased obesity and tumor incidence. PMID:12498984

  18. Transmembrane proteoglycans syndecan-2, 4, receptor candidates for the impact of HGF and FGF2 on semaphorin 3A expression in early-differentiated myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Do, Mai-Khoi Q; Shimizu, Naomi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ohtsubo, Hideaki; Mizunoya, Wataru; Nakamura, Mako; Sawano, Shoko; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Anderson, Judy E; Tatsumi, Ryuichi

    2015-09-01

    Regenerative mechanisms that regulate intramuscular motor innervation are thought to reside in the spatiotemporal expression of axon-guidance molecules. Our previous studies proposed an unexplored role of resident myogenic stem cell (satellite cell)-derived myoblasts as a key presenter of a secreted neural chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A); hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) triggered its expression exclusively at the early differentiation phase. In order to advance this concept, the present study described that transmembrane heparan/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-2, 4 may be the plausible receptor candidates for HGF and FGF2 to signal Sema3A expression. Results showed that mRNA expression of syndecan-2, 4 was abundant (two magnitudes higher than syndecan-1, 3) in early-differentiated myoblasts and their in vitro knockdown diminished the HGF/FGF2-induced expression of Sema3A down to a baseline level. Pretreatment with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC decreased the HGF and FGF2 responses, respectively, in non-knockdown cultures, supporting a possible model that HGF and FGF2 may bind to heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains of syndecan-2, 4 to signal Sema3A expression. The findings, therefore, extend our understanding that HGF/FGF2-syndecan-2, 4 association may stimulate a burst of Sema3A secretion by myoblasts recruited to the site of muscle injury; this would ensure a coordinated delay in the attachment of motoneuron terminals onto fibers early in muscle regeneration, and thus synchronize the recovery of muscle fiber integrity and the early resolution of inflammation after injury with reinnervation toward functional recovery. PMID:26381016

  19. Transmembrane proteoglycans syndecan-2, 4, receptor candidates for the impact of HGF and FGF2 on semaphorin 3A expression in early-differentiated myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Do, Mai-Khoi Q; Shimizu, Naomi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ohtsubo, Hideaki; Mizunoya, Wataru; Nakamura, Mako; Sawano, Shoko; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Anderson, Judy E; Tatsumi, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative mechanisms that regulate intramuscular motor innervation are thought to reside in the spatiotemporal expression of axon-guidance molecules. Our previous studies proposed an unexplored role of resident myogenic stem cell (satellite cell)-derived myoblasts as a key presenter of a secreted neural chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A); hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) triggered its expression exclusively at the early differentiation phase. In order to advance this concept, the present study described that transmembrane heparan/chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans syndecan-2, 4 may be the plausible receptor candidates for HGF and FGF2 to signal Sema3A expression. Results showed that mRNA expression of syndecan-2, 4 was abundant (two magnitudes higher than syndecan-1, 3) in early-differentiated myoblasts and their in vitro knockdown diminished the HGF/FGF2-induced expression of Sema3A down to a baseline level. Pretreatment with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC decreased the HGF and FGF2 responses, respectively, in non–knockdown cultures, supporting a possible model that HGF and FGF2 may bind to heparan and chondroitin sulfate chains of syndecan-2, 4 to signal Sema3A expression. The findings, therefore, extend our understanding that HGF/FGF2-syndecan-2, 4 association may stimulate a burst of Sema3A secretion by myoblasts recruited to the site of muscle injury; this would ensure a coordinated delay in the attachment of motoneuron terminals onto fibers early in muscle regeneration, and thus synchronize the recovery of muscle fiber integrity and the early resolution of inflammation after injury with reinnervation toward functional recovery. PMID:26381016

  20. FGF2 is a target and a trigger of epigenetic mechanisms associated with differences in emotionality: Partnership with H3K9me3

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Sraboni; Aurbach, Elyse L.; Sharma, Vikram; Blandino, Peter; Turner, Cortney A.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2014-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone tails in chromatin template can result from environmental experiences such as stress and substance abuse. However, the role of epigenetic modifications as potential predisposing factors in affective behavior is less well established. To address this question, we used our selectively bred lines of high responder (bHR) and low responder (bLR) rats that show profound and stable differences in affective responses, with bLRs being prone to anxiety- and depression-like behavior and bHRs prone to addictive behavior. We first asked whether these phenotypes are associated with basal differences in epigenetic profiles. Our results reveal broad between-group differences in basal levels of trimethylated histone protein H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) in hippocampus (HC), amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Moreover, levels of association of H3K9me3 at Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) and Fibroblast growth Factor 2 (FGF2) promoters differ reciprocally between bHRs and bLRs in these regions, consistent with these genes’ opposing levels of expression and roles in modulating anxiety behavior. Importantly, this basal epigenetic pattern is modifiable by FGF2, a factor that modulates anxiety behavior. Thus, early-life FGF2, which decreases anxiety, altered the levels of H3K9me3 and its binding at FGF2 and GR promoters of bLRs rendering them more similar to bHRs. Conversely, knockdown of HC FGF2 altered both anxiety behavior and levels of H3K9me3 in bHRs, rendering them more bLR-like. These findings implicate FGF2 as a modifier of epigenetic mechanisms associated with emotional responsiveness, and point to H3K9me3 as a key player in the regulation of affective vulnerability. PMID:25071177

  1. FGF-2 induces the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells and modulates their osteoblastic phenotype by affecting Runx2 expression in the presence and absence of osteogenic inducers

    PubMed Central

    AN, SHAOFENG; HUANG, XIANGYA; GAO, YAN; LING, JUNQI; HUANG, YIHUA; XIAO, YIN

    2015-01-01

    The exact phenotype of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) remains a controversial area. Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) exhibits various functions and its effect on hPDLCs is also controversial. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of FGF-2 on the growth and osteoblastic phenotype of hPDLCs with or without osteogenic inducers (dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate). FGF-2 was added to defined growth culture medium and osteogenic inductive culture medium. Cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and mineralization were measured. The selected differentiation markers, Runx2, collagen type I, α1 (Col1a1), osteocalcin (OCN) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), were investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Runx2 and OCN protein expression was measured by western blotting. FGF-2 significantly increased the proliferation of hPDLCs, but did not affect alkaline phosphatase activity. RT-qPCR analysis revealed enhanced mRNA expression of Runx2, OCN and EGFR, but suppressed Col1a1 gene expression in the absence of osteogenic inducers, whereas all these gene levels had no clear trend in their presence. The Runx2 protein expression was clearly increased, but the OCN protein level showed no evident trend. The mineralization assay demonstrated that FGF-2 inhibited mineralized matrix deposition with osteogenic inducers. These results suggested that FGF-2 induces the growth of immature hPDLCs, which is a competitive inhibitor of epithelial downgrowth, and suppresses their differentiation into mineralized tissue by affecting Runx2 expression. Therefore, this may lead to the acceleration of periodontal regeneration. PMID:26133673

  2. HIP/RPL29 Antagonizes VEGF and FGF2 Stimulated Angiogenesis by Interfering with HS-dependent Responses

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Sonia; Yang, Weidong; Marchetti, Dario; Muir, Caroline; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Carson, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    HIP/RPL29 is a heparan sulfate (HS) binding protein with diverse activities including modulation of heparanase (HPSE) activity. We examined HIP/RPL29’s ability to modulate actions of HS-binding growth factors (HBGFs) in angiogenesis. Between 1–2.5 μg/ml (ca. 60–150 nM), HIP/RPL29 inhibited HBGF-stimulated endothelial cell tube formation. Aortic explant outgrowth also was inhibited, but at higher concentrations (40 μg/ml). At this concentration, HIP/RPL29 had no effect on HBGF- stimulated MAPK phosphorylation or VEGF-stimulated receptor-2 phosphorylation at site Y-996. Partial inhibition occured at VEGF receptor-2 site Y951, associated with cell migration. HBGF displacement from HS-bearing perlecan domain I showed that HIP/RPL29 released 50% of bound HBGF at 20 μg/ml, a dose where endothelial tube formation is inhibited. Similar FGF2 release occurred at pH 5.0 and 7.0, conditions where HPSE is highly and residually active, respectively. We considered that HIP/RPL29 inhibits HPSE-dependent release of HS-bound HBGFs. At pH 5.0, release of soluble HS was inhibited by 64% at concentrations of 5 μg/ml and by 77% at 40 μg/ml, indicating that HIP/RPL29 antagonizes HPSE activity. At concentrations up to 40 μg/ml (ca 2.5 mM) where angiogenic processes are inhibited, release of FGF2 occurred in the presence of HPSE and HIP/RPL29. The majority of this FGF2 is not bound to soluble HS. Studies of HIP/RPL29 binding to HS indicated that many structural features of HS are important in modulation of HBGF activities. Our findings suggest that inhibition of angiogenic processes by HIP/RPL29 involves attenuation of the formation of soluble, biologically active HBGF:HS complexes that activate HBGF receptors. PMID:18980226

  3. Effects of specific and prolonged expression of zebrafish growth factors, Fgf2 and Lif in primordial germ cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ten-Tsao; Collodi, Paul

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discovered that nanos3 3 Prime UTR prolonged PGC-specific protein expression up to 26 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Fgf2 in PGCs significantly increased PGC number at later developmental stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of Lif in PGCs resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our approach could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins. -- Abstract: Primordial germ cells (PGCs), specified early in development, proliferate and migrate to the developing gonad before sexual differentiation occurs in the embryo and eventually give rise to spermatogonia or oogonia. In this study, we discovered that nanos3 3 Prime UTR, a common method used to label PGCs, not only directed PGC-specific expression of DsRed but also prolonged this expression up to 26 days post fertilization (dpf) when DsRed-nanos3 3 Prime UTR hybrid mRNAs were introduced into 1- to 2-cell-stage embryos. As such, we employed this knowledge to express zebrafish leukemia inhibitory factor (Lif), basic fibroblast growth factor (Fgf2) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) in the PGCs and evaluate their effects on PGC development in vivo for over a period of 3 weeks. The results show that expression of Fgf2 significantly increased PGC number at 14- and 21-dpf while Bmp4 resulted in severe ventralization and death of the embryos by 3 days. Expression of Lif resulted in a significant disruption of PGC migration. Mopholino knockdown experiments indicated that Lif illicited its effect on PGC migration through Lif receptor a (Lifra) but not Lifrb. The general approach described in this study could be used to achieve prolonged PGC-specific expression of other proteins to investigate their roles in germ cell and gonad development. The results also indicate that zebrafish PGCs

  4. [The low-molecular weight antioxidants of microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, I O; Kurdysh, I K

    2014-01-01

    Support of optimum redox-homeostasis in the cells of microorganisms plays a substantial role in the processes of DNA synthesis, respiration, providing of immune and protective reactions, activity of enzymes, etc. The changes of the redox-status can be accompanied by the increase of the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which predetermine the damage of biologically active molecules. Adjusting of ROS concentrations is a very important process in development of microorganisms. Low-molecular antioxidants are effective inhibitors of free-radical processes. The authors of the review present the description of oxidants and consider the ways of origin and consequences of their influence on the living cells. An accent is done on phenomenological description of low-molecular antioxidants. The basic mechanisms of their action are considered. Special attention is given to the question of synergism between these protectors. The detailed study of mechanisms of functioning of low-molecular antioxidants in the cells of microorganisms will allow using these living objects in different spheres of human activity. PMID:25007444

  5. Effect of molecular weight, calcium stearate, and sterilization methods on the wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups in a hip joint simulator.

    PubMed

    McKellop, H A; Shen, F W; Campbell, P; Ota, T

    1999-05-01

    Orthopaedic surgeons must currently choose from several types of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups that differ in their material properties and in the methods used for their sterilization. Information on the wear resistance of these different cups may help in the selection process. This study included two separate tests for wear run on a hip simulator to investigate the effect of molecular weight, calcium stearate, and sterilization methods on the wear resistance of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular cups. Test 1 revealed nearly identical wear rates for acetabular cups with molecular weights in two distinct ranges, as well as for cups with molecular weights in the same range but with or without calcium stearate added. In Test 2, cups that were sterilized in air with gamma irradiation exhibited lower rates of wear than those sterilized with ethylene oxide, presumably due to the crosslinking induced by the irradiation. In addition, cups that were irradiated while packed in a partial vacuum to minimize oxygen absorbed in the surface layer initially showed lower rates of wear than those irradiated in air, with the wear rates becoming similar as wear penetrated the more oxidized surface layer and the more crosslinked subsurface region. Because these tests were run a few months after the irradiation, the potential effects of long-term oxidation of any residual free radicals in the irradiated materials could not be taken into account. After artificial aging to accelerate oxidative degradation of the materials, the wear rates could be markedly different. Analyses performed after wear indicated that the irradiated (i.e., crosslinked) cups exhibited a smaller proportion of, as well as shorter, fibrils in the wear debris and an increased crystallinity and melting temperature and that gamma irradiation in the low-oxygen environment reduced the level of oxidation and increased the level of crosslinking in the surface region of the cups

  6. Molecular weight dependent vertical composition profiles of PCDTBT:PC71BM blends for organic photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, James W.; Marchisio, Pier Paolo; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Kinane, Christy J.; Langridge, Sean; Thompson, Richard L.; Cadby, Ashley J.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lidzey, David G.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Parnell, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC71BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5 kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0 kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9 kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC71BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights leads to an increase in the polymer enrichment layer thickness at the anode interface, this improves efficiency up to a limiting point where the polymer solubility causes a reduction of the PCDTBT concentration in the active layer. PMID:24924096

  7. Molecular weight dependent vertical composition profiles of PCDTBT:PC71BM blends for organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, James W.; Marchisio, Pier Paolo; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Kinane, Christy J.; Langridge, Sean; Thompson, Richard L.; Cadby, Ashley J.; Pearson, Andrew J.; Lidzey, David G.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Parnell, Andrew J.

    2014-06-01

    We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC71BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5 kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0 kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9 kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC71BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights leads to an increase in the polymer enrichment layer thickness at the anode interface, this improves efficiency up to a limiting point where the polymer solubility causes a reduction of the PCDTBT concentration in the active layer.

  8. Molecular weight dependent vertical composition profiles of PCDTBT:PC₇₁BM blends for organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, James W; Marchisio, Pier Paolo; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Kinane, Christy J; Langridge, Sean; Thompson, Richard L; Cadby, Ashley J; Pearson, Andrew J; Lidzey, David G; Jones, Richard A L; Parnell, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC₇₁BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5 kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0 kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9 kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC₇₁BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights leads to an increase in the polymer enrichment layer thickness at the anode interface, this improves efficiency up to a limiting point where the polymer solubility causes a reduction of the PCDTBT concentration in the active layer. PMID:24924096

  9. Effect of matrix molecular weight on the coarsening mechanism of polymer-grafted gold nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaolong; Listak, Jessica; Witherspoon, Velencia; Kalu, E Eric; Yang, Xiaoping; Bockstaller, Michael R

    2010-07-20

    A systematic evaluation of the effect of polymer matrix molecular weight on the coarsening kinetics of uniformly dispersed polystyrene-grafted gold nanoparticles is presented. Particle coarsening is found to proceed via three stages (i.e., atomic-diffusion-based Ostwald ripening (OR), particle-migration-based collision-coalescence, and the subsequent reshaping of particle assemblies). The relative significance of each stage and hence the evolution of particle size and shape have been found to depend sensitively upon time, temperature, and the molecular weight of the host polymer. At temperatures close to the matrix glass-transition temperature, Ostwald ripening has been observed to be dominant on all experimental timescales. With increasing annealing temperature, collision coalescence becomes the dominant mode of coarsening, leading to rapid particle growth. The onset of the latter process is found to be increasingly delayed with increasing molecular weight of the polymer host. Particle coalescence is observed to proceed via two fundamental modes (i.e., diffusion-limited aggregation and growth resulting in the formation of fractal particle clusters and the subsequent recrystallization into more spherical monolithic aggregate structures). Interestingly, particle coarsening in high-molecular-weight matrix polymers is found to proceed significantly faster than predicted on the basis of the bulk polymer viscosity; this acceleration is interpreted to be a consequence of the network characteristics of high-molecular-weight polymers by analogy to the phenomenon of nanoviscosity that has been reported in the context of nanoparticle diffusion within high-molecular-weight polymers. PMID:20575544

  10. Western blotting of high and low molecular weight proteins using heat.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    A method for the electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins to nitrocellulose membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel is described here. The transfer was performed with heated (70-75 °C) normal transfer buffer from which methanol had been omitted. Complete transfer of high and low molecular weight antigens (molecular weight protein standards, a purified protein, and proteins from a human tissue extract) could be carried out in 10 min for a 7 % (0.75 mm) SDS polyacrylamide gel. For 10 and 12.5 % gels (0.75 mm) the corresponding time was 15 min. A complete transfer could be carried out in 20 min for 7, 10, and 12.5 % gels (1.5 mm gels). The permeability of the gel is increased by heat, such that the proteins trapped in the polyacrylamide gel matrix can be easily transferred to the membrane. The heat mediated transfer method was compared with a conventional transfer protocol, under similar conditions. The conventional method transferred minimal low molecular weight proteins while retaining most of the high molecular weight proteins in the gel. In summary, this procedure is particularly useful for the transfer of high molecular weight proteins, very rapid, and avoids the use of methanol. PMID:26044007

  11. 21 CFR 177.1440 - 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin resins minimum molecular weight 10,000.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... resins minimum molecular weight 10,000. 177.1440 Section 177.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin resins minimum molecular weight 10,000. 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlo-rohydrin resins having a minimum molecular weight of 10,000 may be safely used as articles or components...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1440 - 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin resins minimum molecular weight 10,000.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resins minimum molecular weight 10,000. 177.1440 Section 177.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Contact Surfaces § 177.1440 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin resins minimum molecular weight 10,000. 4,4′-Isopropylidenediphenol-epichlo-rohydrin resins having a minimum molecular weight of...

  13. Use of Kinematic Viscosity Data for the Evaluation of the Molecular Weight of Petroleum Oils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maroto, J. A.; Quesada-Perez, M.; Ortiz-Hernandez, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    A new laboratory procedure for the evaluation of the mean molecular weight (mean relative molecular mass) of petroleum oils with high accuracy is described. The density and dynamic viscosity of three commercial petroleum oils are measured at different temperatures. These experimental data are used to calculate the kinematic viscosity as a function…

  14. Determination of molecular weights of humic substances by analytical (UV scanning) ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Patrick M.; Wilkinson, Alan E.; Tipping, Edward; Jones, Malcolm N.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of peat humic acid (PHA) and surface water humic (WBHA) and fulvic (WBFA) acids have been extracted from Whitray Beck in North Yorkshire, U.K. The molecular weights of the extracts have been investigated by sedimentation equilibrium using an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with a UV scanning system. The system allows measurements to be made at low concentrations of humic substances, comparable to those existing in natural humic-rich water. A method is described for correcting UV scanning data for changes in the optical properties of the materials with changing molecular weight. Measurements have also been made on reference samples of Suwannee river humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). The weight-average molecular weights of the extracted samples range from approximately 2000 to 17000 and follow a series PHA > WBHA > WBFA. Apparent specific volumes of these materials were in a range from 0.45 to 0.58 cm 3 g -1 as measured by digital densimetry. All the samples studied were analysed by gel filtration, but the molecular weights determined by this method based on a globular protein calibration are not in good accord with the absolute determinations by the sedimentation-equilibrium technique. The molecular weight of the SRHA determined by sedimentation equilibrium is in good agreement with that reported by BECKETT (1987) et al., based on flow field-flow fractionation.

  15. From oligomers to molecular giants of soybean oil in supercritical carbon dioxide medium: 1. Preparation of polymers with lower molecular weight from soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengshe; Sharma, Brajendra K; Erhan, Sevim Z

    2007-01-01

    Polymers with a low molecular weight derived from soybean oil have been prepared in a supercritical carbon dioxide medium by cationic polymerization. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate was used as an initiator. Influences of polymerization temperature, amount of initiator, and carbon dioxide pressure on the molecular weight were investigated. It is shown that the higher polymerization temperature favors polymers with relatively higher molecular weights. Larger amounts of initiator also provide polymers with higher molecular weights. Higher pressure favors polymers with relatively higher molecular weights. The applications of these soy-based materials will be in the lubrication and hydraulic fluid areas. PMID:17206812

  16. Effect of high-speed jet on flow behavior, retrogradation, and molecular weight of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhen; Luo, Shun-Jing; BeMiller, James N; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei

    2015-11-20

    Effects of high-speed jet (HSJ) treatment on flow behavior, retrogradation, and degradation of the molecular structure of indica rice starch were investigated. Decreasing with the number of HSJ treatment passes were the turbidity of pastes (degree of retrogradation), the enthalpy of melting of retrograded rice starch, weight-average molecular weights and weight-average root-mean square radii of gyration of the starch polysaccharides, and the amylopectin peak areas of SEC profiles. The areas of lower-molecular-weight polymers increased. The chain-length distribution was not significantly changed. Pastes of all starch samples exhibited pseudoplastic, shear-thinning behavior. HSJ treatment increased the flow behavior index and decreased the consistency coefficient and viscosity. The data suggested that degradation of amylopectin was mainly involved and that breakdown preferentially occurred in chains between clusters. PMID:26344255

  17. Slip of polydisperse polymers: Molecular weight distribution above and below the plane of slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabzevari, Seyed Mostafa; Strandman, Satu; Wood-Adams, Paula Marie

    2015-04-01

    When strong slip occurs during the drag flow of highly entangled polybutadienes (PBD) in a sliding plate rheometer equipped with stainless steel parallel plates, a thin film of polymer debris remains on the substrate after the slip. This debris is assumed to be formed by the disentanglement process that occurs in strong slip at a distance of about one molecular size from the plate. In order to evaluate the composition of the debris we collected it with tetrahydrofuran and subjected it to gel permeation chromatography. It was found that the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the debris is significantly different from that of the bulk. Moreover, in mixtures prepared from long and short PBDs with distinctly different molecular weight distributions, the MWD of the debris was found to be richer in low molecular weight components and leaner in the high molecular weight components compared to the bulk. This information is important since it reveals the compositional difference between the bulk and interfacial layer above and below the plane of slip. The difference in MWD is likely a consequence of the strong slip in which some of long chains are pulled away from the surface-adsorbed chains by the flow leaving a debris lean in the high molecular weight component.

  18. Hyaluronic Acid Molecular Weight Determines Lung Clearance and Biodistribution after Instillation.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Christopher; Zhang, Ti; Kaminskas, Lisa M; Porter, Christopher J H; Davies, Neal M; Forrest, Laird; Berkland, Cory

    2016-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has emerged as a versatile polymer for drug delivery. Multiple commercial products utilize HA, it can be obtained in a variety of molecular weights, and it offers chemical handles for cross-linkers, drugs, or imaging agents. Previous studies have investigated multiple administration routes, but the absorption, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of HA after delivery to the lung is relatively unknown. Here, pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated by delivering different molecular weights of HA (between 7 and 741 kDa) to the lungs of mice. HA was labeled with either a near-infrared dye or with iodine-125 conjugated to HA using a tyrosine linker. In initial studies, dye-labeled HA was instilled into the lungs and fluorescent images of organs were collected at 1, 8, and 24 h post administration. Data suggested longer lung persistence of higher molecular weight HA, but signal diminished for all molecular weights at 8 h. To better quantitate pharmacokinetic parameters, different molecular weights of iodine-125 labeled HA were instilled and organ radioactivity was determined after 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h. The data showed that, after instillation, the lungs contained the highest levels of HA, as expected, followed by the gastrointestinal tract. Smaller molecular weights of HA showed more rapid systemic distribution, while 67 and 215 kDa HA showed longer persistence in the lungs. Lung exposure appeared to be optimum in this size range due to the rapid absorption of <67 kDa HA and the poor lung penetration and mucociliary clearance of viscous solutions of HA > 215 kDa. The versatility of HA molecular weight and conjugation chemistries may, therefore, provide new opportunities to extend pulmonary drug exposure and potentially facilitate access to lymph nodes draining the pulmonary bed. PMID:27157508

  19. Adsorption of dissolved organics in lake water by aluminum oxide. Effect of molecular weight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J.A.; Gloor, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved organic compounds in a Swiss lake were fractionated into three molecular size classes by gel exclusion chromatography, and adsorption of each fraction on colloidal alumina was studied as a function of pH. Organic compounds with molecular weight (Mr) greater than 1000 formed strong complexes with the alumina surface, but low molecular weight compounds were weakly adsorbed. Electrophoretic mobility measurements indicated that alumina particles suspended in the original lake water were highly negatively charged because of adsorbed organic matter. Most of the adsorbed organic compounds were in the Mr range 1000 < Mr < 3000. Adsorption of these compounds during the treatment of drinking water by alum coagulation may be responsible for the preferential removal of trihalomethane precursors. Adsorption may also influence the molecular-weight distribution of dissolved organic material in lakes. surface, the present work will focus on the influence of molecular size and pH on the adsorption behavior of dissolved organic material of a Swiss lake. From a geochemical point of view, it is important to know the molecular-weight distribution of adsorbed organic matter so that we may better assess its reactivity with trace elements. The study also serves as a first step in quantifying the role of adsorption in the geochemical cycle of organic carbon in lacustrine environments. For water-treatment practice, we need to determine whether molecular weight fractionation occurs during adsorption by aluminum oxide. Such a fractionation could be significant in the light of recent reports that chloroform and other organochlorine compounds are preferentially produced by particular molecular-weight fractions (25-27). ?? 1981 American Chemical Society.

  20. Low molecular weight squash trypsin inhibitors from Sechium edule seeds.

    PubMed

    Laure, Hélen J; Faça, Vítor M; Izumi, Clarice; Padovan, Júlio C; Greene, Lewis J

    2006-02-01

    Nine chromatographic components containing trypsin inhibitor activity were isolated from Sechium edule seeds by acetone fractionation, gel filtration, affinity chromatography and RP-HPLC in an overall yield of 46% of activity and 0.05% of protein. The components obtained with highest yield of total activity and highest specific activity were sequenced by Edman degradation and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry. The inhibitors contained 31, 32 and 27 residues per molecule and their sequences were: SETI-IIa, EDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG; SETI-IIb, EEDRKCPKILMRCKRDSDCLAKCTCQESGYCG and SETI-V, CPRILMKCKLDTDCFPTCTCRPSGFCG. SETI-IIa and SETI-IIb, which differed by an amino-terminal E in the IIb form, were not separable under the conditions employed. The sequences are consistent with consensus sequences obtained from 37 other inhibitors: CPriI1meCk_DSDCla_C_C_G_CG, where capital letters are invariant amino acid residues and lower case letters are the most preserved in this position. SETI-II and SETI-V form complexes with trypsin with a 1:1 stoichiometry and have dissociation constants of 5.4x10(-11)M and 1.1x10(-9)M, respectively. PMID:16406091

  1. Dutch and arctic mutant peptides of {beta} amyloid{sub 1-40} differentially affect the FGF-2 pathway in brain endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Solito, Raffaella; Corti, Federico; Fossati, Silvia; Mezhericher, Emiliya; Donnini, Sandra; Ghiso, Jorge; Giachetti, Antonio; Rostagno, Agueda; Ziche, Marina

    2009-02-01

    Single point mutations of the amyloid precursor protein generate A{beta} variants bearing amino acid substitutions at positions 21-23. These mutants are associated with distinct hereditary phenotypes of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, manifesting varying degrees of tropism for brain vessels, and impaired microvessel remodeling and angiogenesis. We examined the differential effects of E22Q (Dutch), and E22G (Arctic) variants in comparison to WT A{beta} on brain endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenic phenotype expression triggered by fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), pseudo-capillary sprouting, and induction of apoptosis. E22Q exhibited a potent anti-angiogenic profile in contrast to E22G, which had a much weaker effect. Investigations on the FGF-2 signaling pathway revealed the greatest differences among the peptides: E22Q and WT peptides suppressed FGF-2 expression while E22G had barely any effect. Phosphorylation of the FGF-2 receptor, FGFR-1, and the survival signal Akt were abolished by E22Q and WT peptides, but not by E22G. The biological dissimilar effect of the mutant and WT peptides on cerebral EC cannot be assigned to a particular A{beta} structure, suggesting that the toxic effect of the A{beta} assemblies goes beyond mere multimerization.

  2. Blocking FGF2 with a new specific monoclonal antibody impairs angiogenesis and experimental metastatic melanoma, suggesting a potential role in adjuvant settings.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Rodrigo Barbosa; Parise, Carolina Bellini; Souza, Carolina Rosal Teixeira; Braggion, Camila; Quintilio, Wagner; Moro, Ana Maria; Navarro Marques, Fabio Luiz; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Chammas, Roger; de Moraes, Jane Zveiter

    2016-02-28

    Compelling evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), overexpressed in melanomas, plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic use of a new anti-FGF2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), 3F12E7, using for that the B16-F10 melanoma model. The FGF2 neutralizing effect of this antibody was certified by in vitro assays, which allowed the further track of its possible in vivo application. 3F12E7 mAb could be retained in B16-F10 tumors, as shown by antibody low-pH elution and nuclear medicine studies, and also led to reduction in number and size of metastatic foci in lungs, when treatment starts one day after intravenous injection of B16-F10 cells. Such data were accompanied by decreased CD34(+) tumor vascular density and impaired subcutaneous tumor outgrowth. Treatments starting one week after melanoma cell intravenous injection did not reduce tumor burden, remaining the therapeutic effectiveness restricted to early-adopted regimens. Altogether, the presented anti-FGF2 3F12E7 mAb stands as a promising agent to treat metastatic melanoma tumors in adjuvant settings. PMID:26655277

  3. Dual blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) exhibits potent anti-angiogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Xie, Kun; Zhang, Longzhen; Yao, Xuejing; Li, Hongwen; Xu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Jing; Fang, Jianmin

    2016-07-28

    Both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2) are potent pro-angiogenic factors and play a critical role in cancer development and progression. Clinical anti-VEGF therapy trials had a major challenge due to upregulated expression of other pro-angiogenic factor, like FGF-2. This study developed a novel chimeric decoy receptor VF-Trap fusion protein to simultaneously block activity of both VEGF and FGF pathways in order to achieve an additive or synergistic anti-tumor effect. Our in vitro data showed that VF-Trap potently blocked proliferation and migration of both VEGF- and FGF-2-induced vascular endothelial cells. In animal models, treatment of xenograft tumors with VF-Trap resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth compared to blockage of the single molecule, like VEGF or FGF blocker. In addition, VF-Trap was also more potent in inhibition of ocular angiogenesis in a mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. These data demonstrated the potent anti-angiogenic effects of this novel VF-Trap fusion protein on blockage of VEGF and FGF-2 activity in vitro and in animal models. Further study will assess its effects in clinic as a therapeutic agent for angiogenesis-related disorders, such as cancer and ocular vascular diseases. PMID:27130666

  4. An evaluation of the effects of PEO/PEG molecular weights on extruded alumina rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolger, Nancy Beth

    1998-12-01

    Alumina rods were piston extruded from bodies containing polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and polyethylene oxides (PEOs) with molecular weights ranging from 1,300 to 3,800,000 g/mol. A blend of aluminas possessing different particle size distributions was evaluated with regard to its extrusion pressure by varying the amount of PEG/PEO addition. Behavior exhibited by the alumina blend was dependent upon the additive that was used. The higher molecular weight binders with average molecular weight of 200,000 g/mol and 3,350,000 g/mol displayed the most severe behaviors of near dilatant and dilatant respectively. Physical properties of the green and fired states, as well as the binder burnout, were investigated with the changing additions. Correlation between the green and fired strengths and the changing molecular weights were examined. The additive present influenced the surface properties of the rods, which affected the green strengths. The highest average molecular weight polyethylene glycols showed higher green strengths, while the lowest green strengths were observed for the high molecular weight polyethylene oxides. Fired strengths generally ranged from approximately 12,000 psi to 16,000 psi for additive batches. Alumina pellets containing twelve separate combinations of polyethylene glycol with polyethylene oxide were dry pressed. Physical properties of the green and fired states were examined. Statistical analysis was performed upon the data and seven combinations of polyethylene glycol with polyethylene oxide were deemed significant. These combinations in conjunction with the same alumina blend were then piston extruded. The addition of polyethylene glycol reduced the near dilatant behavior exhibited by the 200,000 g/mol average molecular weight polyethylene oxide. Dilatant behavior was completely eliminated from the 3,350,000 g/mol average molecular weight polyethylene oxide batches. Physical properties of the green and fired states were again investigated with

  5. Determination of molecular weights of humic substances by analytical (UV scanning) ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, P.M.; Wilkinson, A.E.; Tipping, E.; Jones, M.N. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria )

    1990-01-01

    Samples of peat humic acid (PHA) and surface water humic (WBHA) and fulvic (WBFA) acids have been extracted from Whitray Beck in North Yorkshire, U.K. The molecular weights of the extracts have been investigated by sedimentation equilibrium using an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with a UV scanning system. The system allows measurements to be made at low concentrations of humic substances, comparable to those existing in natural humic-rich water. A method is described for correcting UV scanning data for changes in the optical properties of the materials with changing molecular weight. Measurements have also been made on reference samples of Suwannee river humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). The weight-average moleuclar weights of the extracted samples range from approximately 2,000 to 17,000 and follow a series PHA > WBHA > WBFA. Apparent specific volumes of these materials were in a range from 0.45 to 0.58 cm{sup 3} g{sup {minus}1} as measured by digital densimetry. Al the samples studied were analysed by gel filtration, but the molecular weights determined by this method based on a globular protein calibration are not in good accord with the absolute determinations by the sedimentation-equilibrium technique. The molecular weight of the SRHA determined by sedimentation equilibrium is in good agreement with that reported by BECKETT (1987) et al., based on flow field-flow fractionation.

  6. An optimal polymerization process for low mean molecular weight HBOC with lower dimer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wentao; Li, Shen; Hao, Shasha; Liu, Jiaxin; Wang, Hong; Yang, Chengmin

    2015-06-01

    The new research tried to improve the distribution of molecular weight of Hb-based oxygen carriers (HBOC), a bottleneck of glutaraldehyde (GDA)-polymerization process. The orthogonal experiments were done on the basis of the early study of human placenta Hemoglobin (Hb)-crosslinked-GDA and three factors were selected including the molar ratio of GDA and Hb, Hb concentration, and the rate of the feeding GDA. The optimal match condition of polymerization process prepared for the purpose of lower mean molecular weight, content of super-weight molecule, and the content of dimer. The results showed that the molar ratio of GDA and Hb was the greatest influencing factor on the molecular weight distribution of polymerized-Hb, followed by the Hb concentration, and the last is the rate of feeding GDA. The optimum matching conditions had reached the objective that the mean molecular weight with 155.54 ± 5.79, the content of dimer with 17.23 ± 3.71, and content of super-weight molecule with 0.17 ± 0.09, and the results can be repeated in the 30 times expansion experiments. PMID:25519745

  7. Kinetics of model high molecular weight organic compounds biodegradation in soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fox, Peter; Makam, Roshan

    2011-10-01

    Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) is a process where treated wastewater is purified during transport through unsaturated and saturated zones. Easily biodegradable compounds are rapidly removed in the unsaturated zone and the residual organic carbon is comprised of primarily high molecular weight compounds. This research focuses on flow in the saturated zone where flow conditions are predictable and high molecular weight compounds are degraded. Flow through the saturated zone was investigated with 4 reactors packed with 2 different particle sizes and operated at 4 different flow rates. The objective was to evaluate the kinetics of transformation for high molecular weight organics during SAT. Dextran was used as a model compound to eliminate the complexity associated with studying a mixture of high molecular weight organics. The hydrolysis products of dextran are easily degradable sugars. Batch experiments with media taken from the reactors were used to determine the distribution of microbial activity in the reactors. Zero-order kinetics were observed for the removal of dextran in batch experiments which is consistent with hydrolysis of high molecular weight organics where extracellular enzymes limit the substrate utilization rate. Biomass and microbial activity measurements demonstrated that the biomass was independent of position in the reactors. A Monod based substrate/biomass growth kinetic model predicted the performance of dextran removal in the reactors. The rate limiting step appears to be hydrolysis and the overall rate was not affected by surface area even though greater biomass accumulation occurred as the surface area decreased. PMID:21723581

  8. Antibody response to low-molecular-weight antigens of Aspergillus fumigatus in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kurup, V P; Greenberger, P A; Fink, J N

    1989-01-01

    Sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) or aspergilloma and normal sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by Western (immuno-) blotting with Aspergillus fumigatus antigens transferred electrophoretically onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Western blot analysis demonstrated consistent reactivity of low-molecular-weight A. fumigatus antigens against ABPA sera but not against uncomplicated aspergilloma or normal sera. None of these low-molecular-weight components had any lectin-binding activity. Sera from patients with aspergilloma, however, frequently reacted with high-molecular-weight components of A. fumigatus. The majority of these high-molecular-weight antigenic components demonstrated concanavalin A-binding activity. The low-molecular-weight bands were discernible in Western blots with sera from all ABPA patients irrespective of disease activities, such as relapse, flare, or treatment. Antibodies detected by methods such as immunodiffusion or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays demonstrated total antibody responses to most or all antigenic components, while Western blots demonstrated the reactivities of the individual components with the specific antibodies. Western blot analysis thus provided more information for immunodiagnosis of ABPA than other methods, especially when only crude antigens were available. Images PMID:2666440

  9. High-molecular-weight polymers for protein crystallization: poly-γ-glutamic acid-based precipitants

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ting-Chou; Korczyńska, Justyna; Smith, David K.; Brzozowski, Andrzej Marek

    2008-09-01

    High-molecular-weight poly-γ-glutamic acid-based polymers have been synthesized, tested and adopted for protein crystallization. Protein crystallization has been revolutionized by the introduction of high-throughput technologies, which have led to a speeding up of the process while simultaneously reducing the amount of protein sample necessary. Nonetheless, the chemistry dimension of protein crystallization has remained relatively undeveloped. Most crystallization screens are based on the same set of precipitants. To address this shortcoming, the development of new protein precipitants based on poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) polymers with different molecular-weight ranges is reported here: PGA-LM (low molecular weight) of ∼400 kDa and PGA-HM (high molecular weight) of >1000 kDa. It is also demonstrated that protein precipitants can be expanded further to polymers with much higher molecular weight than those that are currently in use. Furthermore, the modification of PGA-like polymers by covalent attachments of glucosamine substantially improved their solubility without affecting their crystallization properties. Some preliminary PGA-based screens are presented here.

  10. The Role of Molecular Weight and Temperature on the Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of a Glassy Thermoplastic Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2001-01-01

    Mechanical testing of the elastic and viscoelastic response of an advanced thermoplastic polyimide (LaRC-SI) with known variations in molecular weight was performed over a range of temperatures below the glass transition temperature. The notched tensile strength was shown to be a strong function of both molecular weight and temperature, whereas stiffness was only a strong function of temperature. A critical molecular weight was observed to occur at a weight average molecular weight of M, approx. 22,000 g/mol below which, the notched tensile strength decreases rapidly. This critical molecular weight transition is temperature-independent. Low, molecular weight materials tended to fail in a brittle manner, whereas high molecular weight materials exhibited ductile failure. Furthermore, low molecular weight materials have increased creep compliance and creep compliance rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. At long timescales (less than 1100 hours) physical aging serves to significantly decrease the creep compliance and creep rate of all the materials tested. Low molecular weight materials are less influenced by the effects of physical aging.

  11. Application of computer-assisted molecular modeling (CAMM) for immunoassay of low molecular weight food contaminants: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoassay for low molecular weight food contaminants, such as pesticides, veterinary drugs, and mycotoxins is now a well-established technique which meets the demands for a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective analytical method. However, due to limited understanding of the fundamental aspects of i...

  12. Concurrent and Sustained Delivery of FGF2 and FGF9 from Electrospun Poly(ester amide) Fibrous Mats for Therapeutic Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Said, Somiraa S; O'Neil, Caroline; Yin, Hao; Nong, Zengxuan; Pickering, J Geoffrey; Mequanint, Kibret

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as a potential strategy to treat ischemic vascular diseases. However, systemic or local administration of growth factors is usually inefficient for maintaining the effective concentration at the site of interest due to their rapid clearance or degradation. In this study, we report a differential and sustained release of an angiogenic factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), and an arteriogenic factor, fibroblast growth factor-9 (FGF9), from α-amino acid-derived biodegradable poly(ester amide) (PEA) fibers toward targeting neovessel formation and maturation. FGF2 and FGF9 were dual loaded using a mixed blend and emulsion electrospinning technique and exhibited differential and sustained release from PEA fibers over 28 days with preserved bioactivity. In vitro angiogenesis assays showed enhanced endothelial cell (EC) tube formation and directed migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and stabilized EC/SMC tube formation. FGF2/FGF9-loaded PEA fibers did not induce inflammatory responses in vitro using human monocytes or in vivo after their subcutaneous implantation into mice. Histological examination showed that FGF2/FGF9-loaded fibers induced cell niche recruitment around the site of implantation. Furthermore, controlled in vivo delivery of FGF9 to mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle resulted in a dose-dependent expansion of mesenchymal progenitor-like cell layers and extracellular matrix deposition. Our data suggest that the release of FGF2 and FGF9 from PEA fibers offers an efficient differential and sustained growth factor delivery strategy with relevance to therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26955972

  13. Effect of molecular weight on ion diffusion and transference number in poly(ethylene oxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timachova, Ksenia; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are of great interest for their potential use in high specific energy, solid-state batteries, however, salt transport properties in polymer electrolytes have not been comprehensively addressed over a wide range of molecular weights. Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) has been the most widely studied polymer electrolyte due to its high solvation of lithium salts and low glass transition temperature. This study presents measurements of the transport properties of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfone)imide (LiTFSI) in PEO at both the high concentration present in functional electrolytes and in the dilute limit for a large range of PEO molecular weights. Individual diffusion coefficients of the Li + and TFSI- ions were measured using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and the cation transference number was calculated. The diffusion coefficients, transference number, and conductivity as a function of molecular weight and salt concentration provide a complete set of transport properties for PEO.

  14. [Anticoagulant activity of low-molecular-weight heparins obtained using a hydrolase complex].

    PubMed

    Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Bannikova, G E; Miftakhova, N T; Lapikova, E S; Makarov, V A; Varlamov, V P

    2007-01-01

    The anticoagulant activity of low-molecular weight heparins (LMWH-PC) with average distribution of molecular weights within 3.4-5.8 kD was investigated. The samples of LMWH-PC were obtained from unfractionated heparin using immobilized enzyme complex of protease C. The LMWH-PC derivatives inhibited the activity of blood coagulation factors IIa (thrombin) and Xa. The LMWH-PC derivatives had an anti-factor-Xa activity up to 131-208 IU/mg and anti-factor-IIa activity up to 81-175 IU/mg. All LMWH-PC derivatives form complexes with protamine sulfate during electrophoresis in agarose gel. The anticoagulant activity of rabbit plasma exhibits a doze-dependent increase upon the intravenous or subcutaneous injection of LMWH-PC with a molecular weight of 5.4 kD. PMID:18318190

  15. [Anticoagulant activity of low-molecular-weight sulfated derivatives of galactomannan from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) seeds].

    PubMed

    Mestechkina, N M; Shcherbukhin, V D; Bannikova, G E; Varlamov, V P; Drozd, N N; Tolstenkov, A S; Makarov, V A; Tikhonov, V E

    2008-01-01

    Galactomannan from seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (guar) was depolymerized using immobilized enzymatic preparation celloviridin. A set of fragments whose molecular weights varied from 12.6 to 245.6 kDa was obtained. Sulfated derivatives of components of all fractions were synthesized, in which the content of HSO3(-) groups was 48.05% +/- 2.31. All preparations exhibited anticoagulant activity, which was recorded in vitro in two tests--aIIa and aXa. The antithrombin activity (aIIa) was high (up to 65-87 U/mg) and did not depend on the molecular weight of a sulfated derivative; in the second test (aXa), the effect of molecular weight was observed. Biospecific electrophoresis allowed us to detect the ability of galactomannan sulfates to form complexes with protamine sulfate, a classic antidote to heparin. PMID:18491607

  16. Investigation of the molecular weight increase of commercial lignosulfonates by laccase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Areskogh, Dimitri; Li, Jiebing; Gellerstedt, Göran; Henriksson, Gunnar

    2010-04-12

    Lignosulfonates are by-products from the sulfite pulping process. During this process, lignin is liberated from pulp fibers through sulfonation and washed away. As a consequence, the lignosulfonate molecules contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties. Lignosulfonates are low-value products with limited performance and are used as such as binders, surfactants, and plasticizers in concrete. Lignosulfonates face strong competition from synthetic petroleum-based plasticizers with superior quality. Therefore, increasing the performance of lignosulfonates is desirable not only from a sustainability point of view but also to expand their usage. One important aspect that describes how well lignosulfonates can act as plasticizers is the molecular weight. In this paper, the molecular weight of four commercial lignosulfonates is increased through oxidation by two laccases without utilization of mediators. Different parameters to obtain maximal molecular weight increase were identified and the technical significance of the experiments is discussed. PMID:20175586

  17. Low Molecular Weight Chitosan–Insulin Polyelectrolyte Complex: Characterization and Stability Studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kurdi, Zakieh I.; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Leharne, Stephen A.; Al Omari, Mahmoud M. H.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work reported herein was to investigate the effect of various low molecular weight chitosans (LMWCs) on the stability of insulin using USP HPLC methods. Insulin was found to be stable in a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) consisting of insulin and LMWC in the presence of a Tris-buffer at pH 6.5. In the presence of LMWC, the stability of insulin increased with decreasing molecular weight of LMWC; 13 kDa LMWC was the most efficient molecular weight for enhancing the physical and chemical stability of insulin. Solubilization of insulin-LMWC polyelectrolyte complex (I-LMWC PEC) in a reverse micelle (RM) system, administered to diabetic rats, results in an oral delivery system for insulin with acceptable bioactivity. PMID:25830681

  18. The development of low-molecular weight hydrogels for applications in cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ran; Chen, Jin; Niu, Runfang

    2014-03-01

    To improve the anti-cancer efficacy and to counteract the side effects of chemotherapy, a variety of drug delivery systems have been invented in past decades, but few of these systems have succeeded in clinical trials due to their respective inherent shortcomings. Recently, low-molecular weight hydrogels of peptides that self-assemble via non-covalent interactions have attracted considerable attention due to their good biocompatibility, low toxicity, inherent biodegradability as well as their convenience of design. Low-molecular weight hydrogels have already shown promise in biomedical applications as diverse as 3D-cell culture, enzyme immobilization, controllable MSC differentiation, wound healing, drug delivery etc. Here we review the recent development in the use of low-molecular weight hydrogels for cancer therapy, which may be helpful in the design of soft materials for drug delivery.

  19. Determination of the presence of hyaluronic acid in preparations containing amino acids: the molecular weight characterization.

    PubMed

    Bellomaria, A; Nepravishta, R; Mazzanti, U; Marchetti, M; Piccioli, P; Paci, M

    2014-10-15

    Several pharmaceutical preparations contain hyaluronic acid in the presence of a large variety of low molecular weight charged molecules like amino acids. In these mixtures, it is particularly difficult to determine the concentration and the molecular weight of the hyaluronic acid fragments. In fact zwitterionic compounds in high concentration behave by masking the hyaluronic acid due to the electrostatic interactions between amino acids and hyaluronic acid. In such conditions the common colorimetric test of the hyaluronic acid determination appears ineffective and in the (1)H NMR spectra the peaks of the polymer disappear completely. By a simple separation procedure the presence of hyaluronic acid was revealed by the DMAB test and (1)H NMR while its average molecular weight in the final product was determined by DOSY NMR spectroscopy alone. The latter determination is very important due to the healthy effects of some sizes of this polymer's fragments. PMID:25078662

  20. [Efficacy of plasma substitutes of different molecular weight in acute haemorrhagic shock in dogs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klose, R; Hartung, H J; Ruffmann, R; Lutz, H

    1979-08-01

    Dogs were bled into haemorrhagic shock. They were then given isovolaemic infusions of dextran 60 and 40 and of hydroxyethyl starch with an average molecular weight of 200,000 and 40,000 respectively with a view of assessing the haemodynamic efficacy of these plasma substitutes. Solutions of high molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch (HES 400) were retained in the circulation for about the same length of time as was dextran 60. HES 40 (molecular weight 40,000) was retained for about 3-4 hours as measured by cardiac output. For normalizing a relative hypovolaemia, e.g. during anaesthesia or in some emergencies, colloidal plasma substitutes which will be retained for only a short time are entirely satisfactory. PMID:91161

  1. Characteristics and bioactivities of different molecular weight polysaccharides from camellia seed cake.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhou; Li, Xu; Feng, Shiling; Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lijun; Yuan, Ming; Ding, Chunbang

    2016-10-01

    Four polysaccharides, namely COP-1, COP-2, COP-3 and COP-4, were ultrafiltrated from crud Camellia oleifera seed cake polysaccharides (COP-c), purified, and characterized, including the determination of antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Their molecular weights were 7.9, 36, 83 and 225kDa, respectively. All COPs showed the similar FT-IR spectrums, but significant differentials in monosaccharide components. COP-2 exhibited the highest radical scavenging abilities. COP-1 has the strongest metal chelating capabilities. Although with higher molecular weight, COP-4 showed the poorest antioxidant abilities. These results suggested appreciate molecular weight COP possessed a better antioxidant activities. Additionally, all COPs had non-significant antiproliferative abilities in HaLa and HepG2 cells. PMID:27341780

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and controlled release of selenium nanoparticles stabilized by chitosan of different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyue; Zhai, Xiaona; Zhao, Guanghua; Ren, Fazheng; Leng, Xiaojing

    2015-12-10

    Chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have been reported, but there is no information on the effect of the chitosan molecular weight on the structure, stability, and selenium release properties of the SeNPs. Herein, we compared the uniform Se(0) spherical nanoparticles prepared through the reduction of seleninic acid with ascorbic acid in the presence of chitosan with different molecular weights (Mws). We found that both low and high molecular weight chitosan-stabilized selenium nanoparticles exhibited core-shell microstructures with a size of about 103 nm after 30 days growing through the "bottom-up approach" and "top-down approach," respectively. Moreover, both chitosan SeNPs processed excellent stability towards pH and enzyme treatment. In contrast, selenium was easily released to different extents from these two chitosan SeNPs upon treatment with different free radicals. This makes these materials potentially useful as oral antioxidant supplements. PMID:26428112

  3. Encapsulation of bioactive whey peptides in soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes: Influence of peptide molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Aishwarya; McClements, David Julian; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-12-15

    Encapsulation of peptides can be used to enhance their stability, delivery and bioavailability. This study focused on the effect of the molecular weight range of whey peptides on their encapsulation within soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes. Peptide molecular weight did not have a major impact on encapsulation efficiency or liposome size. However, it influenced peptide distribution amongst the surface, core, and bilayer regions of the liposomes, as determined by electrical charge (ζ-potential) and FTIR analysis. The liposome ζ-potential depended on peptide molecular weight, suggesting that the peptide charged groups were in different locations relative to the liposome surfaces. FTIR analysis indicated that the least hydrophobic peptide fractions interacted more strongly with choline on the liposome surfaces. The results suggested that the peptides were unequally distributed within the liposomes, even at the same encapsulation efficiency. These findings are important for designing delivery systems for commercial production of encapsulated peptides with improved functional attributes. PMID:27451165

  4. Molecular weight effects upon the adhesive bonding of a mussel mimetic polymer.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Courtney L; Meredith, Heather J; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2013-06-12

    Characterization of marine biological adhesives are teaching us how nature makes materials and providing new ideas for synthetic systems. One of the most widely studied adhering animals is the marine mussel. This mollusk bonds to wet rocks by producing an adhesive from cross-linked proteins. Several laboratories are now making synthetic mimics of mussel adhesive proteins, with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or similar molecules pendant from polymer chains. In select cases, appreciable bulk bonding results, with strengths as high as commercial glues. Polymer molecular weight is amongst several parameters that need to be examined in order to both understand biomimetic adhesion as well as to maximize performance. Experiments presented here explore how the bulk adhesion of a mussel mimetic polymer varies as a function of molecular weight. Systematic structure-function studies were carried out both with and without the presence of an oxidative cross-linker. Without cross-linking, higher molecular weights generally afforded higher adhesion. When a [N(C4H9)4](IO4) cross-linker was added, adhesion peaked at molecular weights of ~50,000-65,000 g/mol. These data help to illustrate how changes to the balance of cohesion versus adhesion influence bulk bonding. Mussel adhesive plaques achieve this balance by incorporating several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 6000 to 110,000 g/mol. To mimic these varied proteins we made a blend of polymers containing a range of molecular weights. Interestingly, this blend adhered more strongly than any of the individual polymers when cross-linked with [N(C4H9)4](IO4). These results are helping us to both understand the origins of biological materials as well as design high performance polymers. PMID:23668520

  5. A log-normal distribution model for the molecular weight of aquatic fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabaniss, S.E.; Zhou, Q.; Maurice, P.A.; Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a lognormal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured M(n) and M(w) and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several types of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high- pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.The molecular weight of humic substances influences their proton and metal binding, organic pollutant partitioning, adsorption onto minerals and activated carbon, and behavior during water treatment. We propose a log-normal model for the molecular weight distribution in aquatic fulvic acids to provide a conceptual framework for studying these size effects. The normal curve mean and standard deviation are readily calculated from measured Mn and Mw and vary from 2.7 to 3 for the means and from 0.28 to 0.37 for the standard deviations for typical aquatic fulvic acids. The model is consistent with several type's of molecular weight data, including the shapes of high-pressure size-exclusion chromatography (HP-SEC) peaks. Applications of the model to electrostatic interactions, pollutant solubilization, and adsorption are explored in illustrative calculations.

  6. Increasing the wear resistance of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene by adding solid lubricating fillers

    SciTech Connect

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Poltaranin, M. A.; Ivanova, L. R.; Suan, T. Nguen

    2014-11-14

    In order to compare effectiveness of adding solid lubricating fillers for polymeric composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with graphite, molybdenum disulfide and polytetrafluoroethylene, their tribotechnical characteristics under dry friction, boundary lubrication and abrasive wearing were investigated. The optimal weight fractions of fillers in terms of improving wear resistance have been determined. The supramolecular structure and topography of wear track surfaces of UHMWPE-based composites with different content of fillers have been studied.

  7. Effect of Molecular Weight on Load Transfer in Nanotube / Polymer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Minfang; Du, Fangming; Haggenmueller, Reto; Winey, Karen

    2006-03-01

    The tensile moduli of nanocomposite fibers are being investigated with attention to the molecular weight of the polymer. Nanocomposites composed of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were prepared by our coagulation method and processed into composite fibers using melt fiber spinning. SWNT in the fibers are aligned and the nanotube - nanotube interactions are diminished, so that, the mechanical load on SWNT is mainly from polymer - SWNT interactions. The tensile moduli along the direction parallel to the SWNT were characterized at 1.0 mm / sec with the fiber length of 25.4 mm. At a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) 25 kDa, the tensile moduli of PMMA are the same with the composites. However, when the Mw is increased to 100kDa, the tensile moduli are improved greatly by adding SWNT. This indicates that the load in the composites is transferred to the SWNT more efficiently at 100 kDa molecular weight. A micromechanics model was used to relate the elastic shear stress on the polymer - SWNT interface to the polymer chain length. It showed that with increasing polymer chain length, the interfacial shear stress was enhanced. This study demonstrates the importance of the molecular weight of the polymer matrix to the load transfer in nanocomposites.

  8. Low molecular weight thermostable .beta.-D-glucosidase from acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, Michael E.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Adney, William S.; Nieves, Rafael A.

    1995-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight .beta.-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-.beta.-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80.degree. C. at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5-54.5 kD as determineded by SDS-PAGE.

  9. Adsorption of proteins by chrysotile and crocidolite: role of molecular weight and charge density

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, F.; Balducci, D.; Lazzarotto, A.

    1987-12-01

    Transferrin ..gamma..-globulin, fibrinogen, aldolase, albumin, and cytochrome c at concentration of 0.45 ..mu..Mole/liter were treated with chrysotile and crocidolite fibers. Specific adsorption for each protein and correlations between protein molecular weight and charge density in experimental conditions were evaluated. Chrysotile showed the highest adsorption capability, particularly toward albumin and cytochrome c. Affinity for fibers was poorly linked to protein molecular weight; on the contrary, a good correlation with protein charge density was found. The sign of charge on fibers and proteins seemed to play a minor role in adsorption.

  10. The lognormal and gamma distribution models for estimating molecular weight distributions of polymers using PGSE NMR.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Nathan H; Nydén, Magnus; Röding, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    We present comprehensive derivations for the statistical models and methods for the use of pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR to characterize the molecular weight distribution of polymers via the well-known scaling law relating diffusion coefficients and molecular weights. We cover the lognormal and gamma distribution models and linear combinations of these distributions. Although the focus is on methodology, we illustrate the use experimentally with three polystyrene samples, comparing the NMR results to gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements, test the accuracy and noise-sensitivity on simulated data, and provide code for implementation. PMID:27116223

  11. Low molecular weight thermostable {beta}-D-glucosidase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, M.E.; Tucker, M.P.; Adney, W.S.; Nieves, R.A.

    1995-07-11

    A purified low molecular weight {beta}-D-glucosidase is produced from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses activity against pNP-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, has a high of degree of stability toward heat, exhibits optimal temperature activity at about 65 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7, has an inactivation temperature of about 80 C at a pH range of from about 2 to about 7 and has a molecular weight of about 50.5--54.5 kD as determined by SDS-PAGE. 6 figs.

  12. The lognormal and gamma distribution models for estimating molecular weight distributions of polymers using PGSE NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Nathan H.; Nydén, Magnus; Röding, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    We present comprehensive derivations for the statistical models and methods for the use of pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) NMR to characterize the molecular weight distribution of polymers via the well-known scaling law relating diffusion coefficients and molecular weights. We cover the lognormal and gamma distribution models and linear combinations of these distributions. Although the focus is on methodology, we illustrate the use experimentally with three polystyrene samples, comparing the NMR results to gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements, test the accuracy and noise-sensitivity on simulated data, and provide code for implementation.

  13. Small molecular weight protein-protein interaction antagonists: an insurmountable challenge?

    PubMed

    Dömling, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    Several years ago small molecular weight protein-protein interaction (PPI) antagonists were considered as the Mount Everest in drug discovery and generally regarded as too difficult to be targeted. However, recent industrial and academic research has produced a great number of new antagonists of diverse PPIs. This review structurally analyses small molecular weight PPI antagonists and their particular targets as well as tools to discover such compounds. Besides general discussions there will be a focus on the PPI p53/mdm2. PMID:18501203

  14. Formulation/cure technology for ultrahigh molecular weight silphenylene-siloxane polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundley, N. H.; Patterson, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Molecular weights above one million were achieved for methylvinylsilphenylene-siloxane terpolymers using a two-stage polymerization technique which was successfully scaled up to 200 grams. The resulting polymer was vulcanized by two different formulations and compared to an identically formulated commercial methylvinyl silicone on the basis of ultimate strength, Young's modulus, percent elongation at failure, and tear strength. Relative thermal/oxidative stabilities of the elastomers were assessed by gradient and isothermal thermogravimetric analyses performed in both air and nitrogen. The experimental elastomer exhibited enhanced thermal/oxidative stability and possed equivalent or superior mechanical properties. The effect of variations in prepolymer molecular weight on mechanical properties was also investigated.

  15. The Vertex Version of Weighted Wiener Number for Bicyclic Molecular Structures

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Weifan

    2015-01-01

    Graphs are used to model chemical compounds and drugs. In the graphs, each vertex represents an atom of molecule and edges between the corresponding vertices are used to represent covalent bounds between atoms. We call such a graph, which is derived from a chemical compound, a molecular graph. Evidence shows that the vertex-weighted Wiener number, which is defined over this molecular graph, is strongly correlated to both the melting point and boiling point of the compounds. In this paper, we report the extremal vertex-weighted Wiener number of bicyclic molecular graph in terms of molecular structural analysis and graph transformations. The promising prospects of the application for the chemical and pharmacy engineering are illustrated by theoretical results achieved in this paper. PMID:26640513

  16. The Vertex Version of Weighted Wiener Number for Bicyclic Molecular Structures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wang, Weifan

    2015-01-01

    Graphs are used to model chemical compounds and drugs. In the graphs, each vertex represents an atom of molecule and edges between the corresponding vertices are used to represent covalent bounds between atoms. We call such a graph, which is derived from a chemical compound, a molecular graph. Evidence shows that the vertex-weighted Wiener number, which is defined over this molecular graph, is strongly correlated to both the melting point and boiling point of the compounds. In this paper, we report the extremal vertex-weighted Wiener number of bicyclic molecular graph in terms of molecular structural analysis and graph transformations. The promising prospects of the application for the chemical and pharmacy engineering are illustrated by theoretical results achieved in this paper. PMID:26640513

  17. Effect of molecular weight on the electrophoretic deposition of carbon black nanoparticles in moderately viscous systems.

    PubMed

    Modi, Satyam; Panwar, Artee; Mead, Joey L; Barry, Carol M F

    2013-08-01

    Electrophoretic deposition from viscous media has the potential to produce in-mold assembly of nanoparticles onto three-dimensional parts in high-rate, polymer melt-based processes like injection molding. The effects of the media's molecular weight on deposition behavior were investigated using a model system of carbon black and polystyrene in tetrahydrofuran. Increases in molecular weight reduced the electrophoretic deposition of the carbon black particles due to increases in suspension viscosity and preferential adsorption of the longer polystyrene chains on the carbon black particles. At low deposition times (≤5 s), only carbon black deposited onto the electrodes, but the deposition decreased with increasing molecular weight and the resultant increases in suspension viscosity. For longer deposition times, polystyrene codeposited with the carbon black, with the amount of polystyrene increasing with molecular weight and decreasing with greater charge on the polystyrene molecules. This deposition behavior suggests that use of lower molecular polymers and control of electrical properties will permit electrophoretic deposition of nanoparticles from polymer melts for high-rate, one-step fabrication of nano-optical devices, biochemical sensors, and nanoelectronics. PMID:23848316

  18. Synthesis of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, M.A.; Key, J.L. )

    1987-08-01

    Heat shock of living tissue induces the synthesis of a unique group of proteins, the heat shock proteins. In plants, the major group of heat shock proteins has a molecular mass of 15 to 25 kilodaltons. Accumulation to these proteins to stainable levels has been reported in only a few species. To examine accumulation of the low molecular weight heat shock proteins in a broader range of species, two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to resolve total protein from the following species: soybean (Glycine max L. Merr., var Wayne), pea (Pisum sativum L., var Early Alaska), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum asetivum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L., cv IR-36), maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum L. Leeke, line 23DB), and Panicum miliaceum L. When identified by both silver staining and incorporation of radiolabel, a diverse array of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was synthesized in each of these species. These proteins accumulated to significant levels after three hours of heat shock but exhibited considerable heterogeneity in isoelectric point, molecular weight, stainability, and radiolabel incorporation. Although most appeared to be synthesized only during heat shock, some were detectable at low levels in control tissue. Compared to the monocots, a higher proportion of low molecular weight heat shock proteins was detectable in control tissues from dicots.

  19. Chemical characterization of high molecular weight dissolved organic matter in fresh and marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repeta, Daniel J.; Quan, Tracy M.; Aluwihare, Lihini I.; Accardi, AmyMarie

    2002-03-01

    The high molecular weight fraction of dissolved organic matter in a suite of lakes, rivers, seawater, and marine sediment interstitial water samples was collected by ultrafiltration and characterized by molecular level and spectroscopic techniques. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of all samples show a high degree of similarity, with major contributions from carbohydrates, bound acetate, and lipids. Molecular level analyses of neutral sugars show seven monosaccharides, rhamnose, fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose, to be abundant, and to occur in comparable relative amounts in each sample. Previous studies have emphasized the distinctive composition of dissolved humic substances in fresh and marine waters, and have attributed these differences to sources and transformations of organic matter unique to each environment. In contrast we find a large fraction of freshwater high molecular weight dissolved organic matter (HMWDOM; > 1kD) to be indistinguishable from marine HMWDOM in bulk and molecular-level chemical properties. Aquatic HMWDOM is similar in chemical composition to biologically derived acylated heteropolysaccharides isolated from marine algal cultures, suggesting a biological source for some fraction of persistent HMWDOM. High molecular weight DOC contributes 51 ± 26% of the total DOC, and monosaccharides 18 ± 8% of the total HMWDOC in our freshwater samples. These contributions are on average higher and more variable, but not significantly different than for surface seawater (30% and 16% respectively). Biogeochemical processes that produce, accumulate, and recycle DOM may therefore share important similarities and be broadly comparable across a range of environmental settings.

  20. The 14,000-molecular-weight antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is related to the alpha-crystallin family of low-molecular-weight heat shock proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Verbon, A; Hartskeerl, R A; Schuitema, A; Kolk, A H; Young, D B; Lathigra, R

    1992-01-01

    Eight monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the 14,000-molecular-weight (14K) antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reacted specifically with mycobacteria of the M. tuberculosis complex. The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the 14K antigen was determined by using recombinant DNA clones isolated from lambda gt11 and cosmid libraries of the M. tuberculosis genome. The DNA sequence of the 14K protein gene coded for a polypeptide of 144 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 16,277 Da. The 14K antigen has a marked homology with proteins belonging to the alpha-crystallin family of low-molecular-weight heat shock proteins, which includes the 18K antigen of M. leprae. The eight MAbs recognized at least four distinct epitopes localized within the following three regions of the 14K protein: amino acids 10 to 92 (MAbs F67-8 and F67-16), amino acids 41 to 92 (F159-1 and F159-11), and amino acids 41 to 144 (F23-41, F24-2, F23-49, and TB68). PMID:1370952

  1. The Combined Influence of Molecular Weight and Temperature on the Aging and Viscoelastic Response of a Glassy Thermoplastic Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC-SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of five materials of different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have higher creep compliance and creep rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of M (bar) (sub w) 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly. The short-term creep compliance data were used in association with Struik's effective time theory to predict the long-term creep compliance behavior for the different molecular weights. At long timescales, physical aging serves to significantly decrease the creep compliance and creep rate of all the materials tested.

  2. Different cleavage site for high molecular weight kininogen in vivo following intravenous injection of dextran sulfate in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggins, R.C.

    1986-04-01

    Purified radiolabeled rabbit Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen were used to examine Hageman factor system molecular dynamics after the intravenous injection of heparin-like dextran sulfate polymer in the rabbit. Hageman factor system proteins rapidly disappeared from the circulation following dextran sulfate injection, as measured by radial immunodiffusion, by kaolin-releasable kinin formation, and by measuring circulating levels of radiolabeled Hageman factor, prekallikrein, and high molecular weight kininogen. /sup 125/I-Hageman factor was distributed mainly to lung, liver, and spleen following dextran sulfate injection. Proteolysis of circulating /sup 125/I-Hageman factor occurred at a site within a disulfide loop into fragments of 50,000 and 30,000 molecular weight. Proteolysis of /sup 125/I-prekallikrein also occurred with visualization of a 50,000 molecular weight fragment. Although extensive proteolysis of /sup 131/I-high molecular weight kininogen was observed, the cleavage fragments were not the same as those generated during contact activation in vitro. The major fragment of high molecular weight kininogen observed in vivo was at 80,000 molecular weight, in contrast to the 65,000 molecular weight fragment generated by kallikrein in vitro. These results indicate that high molecular weight kininogen can undergo proteolysis in vivo into fragments not known to be associated with kinin release.

  3. Localization of small heat shock proteins to the higher plant endomembrane system. [Low-molecular-weight heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Helm, K.W.; Vierling, E. ); LaFayette, P.R.; Nagao, R.T.; Key, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells respond to high temperature and other stresses with the production of heat shock proteins, which aid in cell survival. There are four major classes of heat shock proteins HSP90, HSP70, HSP60 and low-molecular weight HSP. The data from this research indicate that members of the low-molecular weight heat shock proteins are most likely resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins and may be similar in function to related low-molecular weight heat shock proteins in the cytoplasm. The low-molecular weight heat shock proteins, the HSP90 and the HSP70 all appear to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Since the ER-localized low-molecular weight heat shock proteins are physically separated from their counterparts in other cell compartments, investigations of the ER-localized heat shock proteins provides a simplified model system for determining the functions of low-molecular weight heat shock proteins in eukaryotes.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and syndecan-1 (SDC1) are potential biomarkers for putative circulating CD15+/CD30+ cells in poor outcome Hodgkin lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High risk, unfavorable classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) includes those patients with primary refractory or early relapse, and progressive disease. To improve the availability of biomarkers for this group of patients, we investigated both tumor biopsies and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of untreated (chemo-naïve, CN) Nodular Sclerosis Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (NS-cHL) patients for consistent biomarkers that can predict the outcome prior to frontline treatment. Methods and materials Bioinformatics data mining was used to generate 151 candidate biomarkers, which were screened against a library of 10 HL cell lines. Expression of FGF2 and SDC1 by CD30+ cells from HL patient samples representing good and poor outcomes were analyzed by qRT-PCR, immunohistochemical (IHC), and immunofluorescence analyses. Results To identify predictive HL-specific biomarkers, potential marker genes selected using bioinformatics approaches were screened against HL cell lines and HL patient samples. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF2) and Syndecan-1 (SDC1) were overexpressed in all HL cell lines, and the overexpression was HL-specific when compared to 116 non-Hodgkin lymphoma tissues. In the analysis of stratified NS-cHL patient samples, expression of FGF2 and SDC1 were 245 fold and 91 fold higher, respectively, in the poor outcome (PO) group than in the good outcome (GO) group. The PO group exhibited higher expression of the HL marker CD30, the macrophage marker CD68, and metastatic markers TGFβ1 and MMP9 compared to the GO group. This expression signature was confirmed by qualitative immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent data. A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that samples in which the CD30+ cells carried an FGF2+/SDC1+ immunophenotype showed shortened survival. Analysis of chemo-naive HL blood samples suggested that in the PO group a subset of CD30+ HL cells had entered the circulation. These cells significantly overexpressed FGF2 and SDC1 compared to the GO group. The

  5. Viscoelastic analysis of high molecular weight, alkali-denatured DNA from mouse 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Uhlenhopp, E L

    1975-01-01

    Alkaline lysates of mouse 3T3 cells showed viscoelastic properties characteristic of very large molecules of single-stranded DNA. The viscoelastic retardation time and the sensitivity to low doses of nitrogen mustard and of X-irradiation suggest a molecular weight in excess of 10-10 daltons. Contact-inhibited cells yielded larger single strands than actively growing cells. PMID:235335

  6. Sedimentation Coefficient, Frictional Coefficient, and Molecular Weight: A Preparative Ultracentrifuge Experiment for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…

  7. Effect of mahlep on molecular weight distribution of cookie flour gluten proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Size Exclusion-High performance Chromatography (SE-HPLC) has been extensively used in molecular weight distribution analysis of wheat proteins. In this study the protein analysis was conducted on different cookie dough blends with different percentages of some ingredients. The mean chromatography ...

  8. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph experi...

  9. Effects of Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight, Soil Texture and Electrolyte Concentration on Drainable Porosity and Aggregate Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The literature reports on the intricate relations between soil type and molecular weight (MW) of polyacrylamide (PAM) with respect to PAM efficacy as a soil conditioner. This relation may depend on the ability of PAM to penetrate into aggregates and thus stabilize both outer and inner aggregate surf...

  10. IMPROVED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MOLECULAR WEIGHTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LOW RESOLUTION MASS SPECTRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An improved method of estimating molecular weights of volatile organic compound from their mass spectra has been developed and implemented with an expert system. he method is based on the strong correlation of MAXMASS, the highest mass with an intensity of 5% of the base peak in ...

  11. LARGE SCALE EVALUATION OF A PATTERN RECOGNITION/EXPERT SYSTEM FOR MASS SPECTRAL MOLECULAR WEIGHT ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fast, personal-computer based method of estimating molecular weights of organic compounds from low resolution mass I spectra has been thoroughly evaluated. he method is based on a rule-based pattern,recognition/expert system approach which uses empirical linear corrections whic...

  12. TOXICOLOGICAL HIGHLIGHT (REDOX REDUX: A CLOSER LOOK AT CONCEPTAL LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT THIOLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glutathione (GSH) is present as the most abundant low molecular weight thiol (LMWT) in virtually all mitochondria-bearing eucaryotic cells, often at millimolar concentrations (Meister, 1988). Functions of GSH include roles in DNA and protein synthesis, maintenance of cell membra...

  13. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500). 172.820 Section 172.820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 172.820 - Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene glycol (mean molecular weight 200-9,500). 172.820 Section 172.820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR...

  15. A global survey of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in lentils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentils contain a range of low-molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC); however, those have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the concentrations of LMWC in lentils grown in six locations, and (2) identify any genetic and environmental effects on those LMWC...

  16. A global survey of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in lentils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentils contain a range of low-molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC); however, they have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the concentrations of LMWC in lentils grown in different environments and (2) identify any genetic and environmental effects on tho...

  17. Methanol-induced chain termination in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers: molecular weight control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A systematic study was performed to demonstrate the impact of methanol (MeOH) on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis and molecular weight (MW) control. Glycerine (init. conc. = 1.0%; w/v), was used as the primary carbon source in batch-culture fermentations with varying concentrations (0 to 0.85...

  18. SAMPLING FOR HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN POWER PLANT STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of laboratory and field investigations of experimental sampling systems intended to collect high-molecular-weight organic compounds from flue gases in coal-fired power plants are presented. The most promising sampling device was a solid sorbent cartridge inserted dire...

  19. Recovering ultraclean lignins of controlled molecular weight from Kraft black-liquor lignins.

    PubMed

    Klett, A S; Chappell, P V; Thies, M C

    2015-08-18

    By operating in a region of liquid-liquid equilibrium, hot acetic acid-water mixtures can be used to simultaneously clean, fractionate, and solvate Kraft black-liquor lignins. Lignin-rich liquid phases of controlled molecular weight with key metals contents reduced to <50 ppm are obtained without a washing step. PMID:26169767

  20. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit allelic composition on wheat flour tortilla quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat cultivars possessing quality attributes needed to produce optimum quality tortillas have not been identified. This study investigated the effect of variations in high molecular weight glutenin subunits encoded at the Glu-1 loci (Glu-A1, Glu-B1, Glu-D1) on dough properties and tortilla quality....

  1. Variant high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits arising from biolistic transformation of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic transformation via the biolistic method has been used to introduce genes encoding natural and novel high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into wheat. The appearance of new seed proteins of sizes not predicted by the transgene coding sequences has been noted in some of these exper...

  2. Effects of molecular weight on the diffusion coefficient of aquatic dissolved organic matter and humic substances.

    PubMed

    Balch, J; Guéguen, C

    2015-01-01

    In situ measurements of labile metal species using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) passive samplers are based on the diffusion rates of individual species. Although most studies have dealt with chemically isolated humic substances, the diffusion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) across the hydrogel is not well understood. In this study, the diffusion coefficient (D) and molecular weight (MW) of 11 aquatic DOM and 4 humic substances (HS) were determined. Natural, unaltered aquatic DOM was capable of diffusing across the diffusive gel membrane with D values ranging from 2.48×10(-6) to 5.31×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1). Humic substances had diffusion coefficient values ranging from 3.48×10(-6) to 6.05×10(-6) cm(2) s(-1), congruent with previous studies. Molecular weight of aquatic DOM and HS samples (∼500-1750 Da) measured using asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) strongly influenced D, with larger molecular weight DOM having lower D values. No noticeable changes in DOM size properties were observed during the diffusion process, suggesting that DOM remains intact following diffusion across the diffusive gel. The influence of molecular weight on DOM mobility will assist in further understanding and development of the DGT technique and the uptake and mobility of contaminants associated with DOM in aquatic environments. PMID:25112575

  3. Morphology Evolution of Molecular Weight Dependent P3HT: PCBM Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Dian; Briseno, Alejandro; Russell, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Effective strategies to maximize the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaic devices have to be developed and understood to realize their full potential. In BHJ solar cells, the morphology of the active layer is a critical issue to improve device efficiency. In this work, we choose poly(3-hexyl-thiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) system to study the morphology evolution. Different molecular weight P3HTs were synthesized by using Grignard Metathesis (GRIM)~method. In device optimization, polymer with a molecular weight between 20k-30k shows the highest efficiency. It was observed that the as-spun P3HT: PCBM (1:1) blends do not have high order by GISAXS. Within a few seconds of thermal annealing at 150& circ; the crystallinity of P3HT increaased substantially and the polymer chains adopted an edge-on orientation. An-bicontinous morphology was also developed within this short thermal treatment. The in situ GISAXS experiment showed that P3HT of high molecular weight was more easily crystallized from a slowly evaporated chlorobenzene solution and their edge-on orientation is much more obvious than for the lower molecular weight P3HTs. DSC was used to study the thermal properties of P3HTs and P3HT: PCBM blend. The χ of P3HT-PCBM was also calculated by using melting point depression method.

  4. Incorporation of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits into doughs using 2 gram mixograph and extensigraphs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph exper...

  5. IR-MALDI OF LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT COMPOUNDS USING A FREE ELECTRON LASER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initial experiments on infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (IR-MALDI) using a free electron laser in the analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds are reported. Mass spectra from samples of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacet...

  6. Deviation from mean-field behavior in a low molecular weight critical polymer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hair, D. W.; Hobbie, E. K.; Nakatani, A. I.; Han, C. C.

    1992-06-01

    A deviation from mean-field behavior is observed in the static susceptibility and correlation length measured with small angle neutron scattering as a function of temperature near the phase boundary of a relatively low molecular weight critical polymer mixture. The possibility of a fluctuation influenced crossover from mean-field to nonmean-field behavior is considered.

  7. Polyacrylamide Molecular Weight and Phosphogypsum Effects on Infiltration and Erosion in Semi-Arid Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  8. Polyacrylamide molecular weight and phosphogypsum effects on infiltration and erosion in semi-arid soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seal formation at the surface of semi-arid soils during rainstorms reduces soil infiltration rate (IR) and causes runoff and erosion. Surface application of dry anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) with high molecular weight (MW) has been found to be effective in stabilizing soil aggregates, and decreasing ...

  9. Effect of chitosan molecular weight on rheological behavious of chitosan modified nanoclay at highly hydrated state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of chitosan molecular weight (M(cs)) on the rheological properties of chitosan modified clay (CMCs) at highly hydrated state was investigated. With special emphasis on its effect on the thixotropy of CMCs, the structure recovery at rest after underwent a pre-shearing process was further perfo...

  10. Aggregate stability as affected by polyacrylamide molecular weight, soil texture and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The favorable effects of the environmentally friendly, non toxic, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) as a soil conditioner have long been established. However, some uncertainties exist regarding the effects of PAM molecular weight (MW) on its performance as a soil amendment and the ability of PAM to penet...

  11. Determination of low molecular weight thiols using monobromobimane fluorescent labeling and high-performance liquid chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Robert C.; Newton, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of monobromobimane derivatives of low molecular weight thiols in extracts of biological samples. Typical problems encountered in the development and application of these methods are discussed. Analysis of mung bean extract is used as an example.

  12. New DNA Markers for High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunits in Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality is one of the priorities of modern wheat breeding. Even though quality is a complex trait, high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins play a major role in determining the bread making quality of wheat. DNA markers developed from the sequences of HMW glutenin genes were reported in several...

  13. Microfluidics Meets Dilute Solution Viscometry: An Undergraduate Laboratory to Determine Polymer Molecular Weight Using a Microviscometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pety, Stephen J.; Lu, Hang; Thio, Yonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory experiment to determine the molecular weight of a polymer sample by measuring the viscosity of dilute polymer solutions in a PDMS microfluidic viscometer. Sample data are given for aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A demonstration of shear thinning behavior using the microviscometer is…

  14. Holographic recording medium employing a photoconductive layer and a low molecular weight microcrystalline polymeric layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.

  15. Infiltration and Erosion in Soils Treated with Dry PAM of Two Molecular Weights and Phosphogypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil surface application of dissolved linear polyacrylamide (PAM) of high molecular weight (MW) can mitigate seal formation, runoff and erosion, especially when added with a source of electrolytes (e.g., gypsum). Practical difficulties associated with PAM solution application prohibited commercial u...

  16. Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polymerization kinetics: origin of the molecular weight distribution

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The molecular weight distributions generated by Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polymerizations are examined. Only those catalysts with one type of catalytic species are considered. From the rate laws for propagation and elimination, a series of coupled differential equations result which define the rate of formation of polymer chains composed of i monomer units. Solving these differential equations yields a time-dependent molecular weight distribution function with the observed rate constants for propagation function with the observed rate constants for propagation and elimination as parameters. Careful analysis of this distribution function shows that it predicts a transition from a Poisson to schulz-Flory distribution with time. This transition is known for both the Ziegler-Natta catalyzed polymerization of olefins and the Fischer-Tropsch catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Hence, this time-dependent distribution function may apply to coordination catalyzed polymerizations in general. Analysis of this distribution function shows that the weight fraction distribution becomes bimodal just before the limiting Schulz-Flory form of the distribution is reached. This bimodal behavior provides an insight into the effect of propagation and elimination rates on the molecular weight distribution. In addition, functions describing the time-dependence of the number-average and weight-average degrees of polymerization are derived from the rate laws. These functions are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.

  17. Isoleucine epimerization and amino acid composition in molecular-weight separations of Pleistocene Genyornis eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1995-07-01

    This study explores the geochronological utility and analytical reproducibility of separating the high-molecular-weight fraction (HMW) from eggshells of the extinct late Pleistocene ratite, Genyornis, using disposable, prepacked gel-filtration columns. The superior integrity of ratite eggshell for the retention of amino acids indicates that this biomineral is better suited for this type of investigation than previously studied molluscan shell. To evaluate the reproducibility of the gel-filtration technique, we analyzed triplicate subsamples of three eggshells of different ages. The reproducibility, based on the average intrashell variation (coefficient of variation; CV) in the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile) in the HMW (enriched in molecules ca. >10,000 MW) is 3%, well within the range appropriate for geochronological purposes. The average intrashell variation in the total amino acid concentration (Σ[aa]) of the HMW is 5%, somewhat better than for the total acid hydrolysate (TOTAL) of the same samples (7%). To evaluate the relation between molecular weight and the rate of isoleucine epimerization, three molecular-weight fractions were separated using gel filtration, plus the naturally hydrolyzed free fraction (FREE), for each of four fossil eggshells. AIle/Ile increases with decreasing molecular weight in all shells, with a ca. sixfold to ninefold difference in ratios between the HMW andFREE, and a ca. fivefold difference between the HMW andTOTAL. Although linear correlations between aIle/Ile measured in each molecular-weight fraction and in theTOTAL are all highly significant (r ⩾ 0.951), the relation between the extent of epimerization in the HMW and in the TOTAL is best expressed as an exponential function (r = 0.951). This relation is consistent with the idea that, as the epimerization reaction approaches equilibrium in theTOTAL (ca. aIle/Ile > 1.1), its rate decreases beyond that of the HMW. The amino acid composition (relative percent of

  18. Detection of Diverse and High Molecular Weight Nesprin-1 and Nesprin-2 Isoforms Using Western Blotting.

    PubMed

    Carthew, James; Karakesisoglou, Iakowos

    2016-01-01

    Heavily utilized in cell and molecular biology, western blotting is considered a crucial technique for the detection and quantification of proteins within complex mixtures. In particular, the detection of members of the nesprin (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat protein) family has proven difficult to analyze due to their substantial isoform diversity, molecular weight variation, and the sheer size of both nesprin-1 and nesprin-2 giant protein variants (>800 kDa). Nesprin isoforms contain distinct domain signatures, perform differential cytoskeletal associations, occupy different subcellular compartments, and vary in their tissue expression profiles. This structural and functional variance highlights the need to distinguish between the full range of proteins within the nesprin protein family, allowing for greater understanding of their specific roles in cell biology and disease. Herein, we describe a western blotting protocol modified for the detection of low to high molecular weight (50-1000 kDa) nesprin proteins. PMID:27147045

  19. Flour Quality and Related Molecular Characterization of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes from Wild Emmer Wheat Accession TD-256.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Le; He, Ting-Ting; Liang, Hui-Hui; Huang, Lu-Yu; Su, Ya-Zhong; Li, Yu-Ge; Li, Suo-Ping

    2016-06-22

    To clarify the effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) from wild emmer wheat on flour quality, which has the same mobility as that from common wheat, the composition and molecular characterization of HMW-GS from wild emmer wheat accession TD-256, as well as its flour quality, were intensively analyzed. It is found that the mobilities of Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 subunits from TD-256 are consistent with those of bread wheat cv. 'XiaoYan 6'. Nevertheless, dough rheological properties of TD-256 reveal its poor flour quality. In the aspect of molecular structure from HMW-GS, only two conserved cysteine residues can be observed in the deduced protein sequence of 1Bx14* from TD-256, while most Glu-1Bx contain four conserved cysteine residues. In addition, as can be predicted from secondary structure, the quantity both of α-helixes and their amino acid residues of the subunits from TD-256 is fewer than those of common wheat. Though low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) and gliadin can also greatly influence flour quality, the protein structure of the HMW-GS revealed in this work can partly explain the poor flour quality of wild emmer accession TD-256. PMID:27243935

  20. sST2 translation is regulated by FGF2 via an hnRNP A1-mediated IRES-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Michael M; Benz, Fabienne; Brauß, Thilo F; Lampe, Sebastian; Weigand, Julia E; Braun, Johannes; Richter, Florian M; Wittig, Ilka; Brüne, Bernhard; Schmid, Tobias

    2016-07-01

    Translation is an energy-intensive process and tightly regulated. Generally, translation is initiated in a cap-dependent manner. Under stress conditions, typically found within the tumor microenvironment in association with e.g. nutrient deprivation or hypoxia, cap-dependent translation decreases, and alternative modes of translation initiation become more important. Specifically, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) facilitate translation of specific mRNAs under otherwise translation-inhibitory conditions. This mechanism is controlled by IRES trans-acting factors (ITAF), i.e. by RNA-binding proteins, which interact with and determine the activity of selected IRESs. We aimed at characterizing the translational regulation of the IL-33 decoy receptor sST2, which was enhanced by fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). We identified and verified an IRES within the 5'UTR of sST2. Furthermore, we found that MEK/ERK signaling contributes to FGF2-induced, sST2-IRES activation and translation. Determination of the sST2-5'UTR structure by in-line probing followed by deletion analyses identified 23 nucleotides within the sST2-5'UTR to be required for optimal IRES activity. Finally, we show that the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) binds to the sST2-5'UTR, acts as an ITAF, and thus controls the activity of the sST2-IRES and consequently sST2 translation. Specifically, FGF2 enhances nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of hnRNP A1, which requires intact MEK/ERK activity. In summary, we provide evidence that the sST2-5'UTR contains an IRES element, which is activated by a MEK/ERK-dependent increase in cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1 in response to FGF2, enhancing the translation of sST2. PMID:27168114

  1. Effects of Molecular Weight on poly( -pentadecalactone) Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, J.; Liu, C; Cai, M; Zhu, J; Zuo, F; Hsiao, B; Gross, R

    2010-01-01

    A series of poly({omega}-pentadecalactone) (PPDL) samples, synthesized by lipase catalysis, were prepared by systematic variation of reaction time and water content. These samples possessed weight-average molecular weights (M{sub w}), determined by multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), from 2.5 x 10{sup 4} to 48.1 x 10{sup 4}. Cold-drawing tensile tests at room temperature of PPDL samples with M{sub W} between 4.5 x 10{sup 4} and 8.1 x 10{sup 4} showed a brittle-to-ductile transition. For PPDL with M{sub W} of 8.1 x 10{sup 4}, inter-fibrillar slippage dominates during deformation until fracture. Increasing M{sub W} above 18.9 x 10{sup 4} resulted in enhanced entanglement network strength and strain-hardening. The high M{sub W} samples also exhibited tough properties with elongation at break about 650% and tensile strength about 60.8 MPa, comparable to linear high density polyethylene (HDPE). Relationships among molecular weight, Young's modulus, stress, strain at yield, melting and crystallization enthalpy (by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) and crystallinity (from wide-angle X-ray diffraction, WAXD) were correlated for PPDL samples. Similarities and differences of linear HDPE and PPDL molecular weight dependence on their mechanical and thermal properties were also compared.

  2. The potential benefits of low-molecular-weight heparins in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cancer patients are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism due to a range of factors directly related to their disease and its treatment. Given the high incidence of post-surgical venous thromboembolism in cancer patients and the poor outcomes associated with its development, thromboprophylaxis is warranted. A number of evidence-based guidelines delineate anticoagulation regimens for venous thromboembolism treatment, primary and secondary prophylaxis, and long-term anticoagulation in cancer patients. However, many give equal weight to several different drugs and do not make specific recommendations regarding duration of therapy. In terms of their efficacy and safety profiles, practicality of use, and cost-effectiveness the low-molecular-weight heparins are at least comparable to, and offer several advantages over, other available antithrombotics in cancer patients. In addition, data are emerging that the antithrombotics, and particularly low-molecular-weight heparins, may exert an antitumor effect which could contribute to improved survival in cancer patients when given for long-term prophylaxis. Such findings reinforce the importance of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in cancer patients. PMID:20074349

  3. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of low-molecular-weight propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS).

    PubMed

    Xin, Meng; Ren, Li; Sun, Yang; Li, Hai-hua; Guan, Hua-Shi; He, Xiao-Xi; Li, Chun-Xia

    2016-05-23

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide derivative, has been used as a heparinoid drug to prevent and treat hyperlipidemia and ischemic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases in China for nearly 30 years. To extend the applications of PSS, a series of low-molecular-weight PSSs (named FPs) were prepared by oxidative-reductive depolymerization, and the antithrombotic activities were investigated thoroughly in vitro and in vivo. The bioactivity evaluation demonstrated a positive correlation between the molecular weight and the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities of FPs. FPs could prolong the APTT and clotting time and reduce platelet aggregation significantly. FPs could also effectively inhibit factor IIa in the presence of AT-III and HC-II. FPs decreased the wet weights and lengths of the thrombus and increased occlusion times in vivo. FP-6k, a PSS fragment with a molecular weight of 6 kDa, is an optimal antithrombotic candidate for further study and showed little chance for hemorrhagic action. PMID:26974373

  4. Molecular-weight distributions of coal and petroleum asphaltenes from laser desorption/ionization experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ana R. Hortal; Paola Hurtado; Bruno Martinez-Haya; Oliver C. Mullins

    2007-09-15

    Molecular-weight distributions (MWDs) of asphaltenes extracted from coal and petroleum have been measured in laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometric experiments. The dried-droplet and solvent-free sample preparation methods are compared. The coal asphaltenes have a relatively narrow MWD (full width 150 amu) with an average molecular weight of 340 amu. The petroleum asphaltenes display a broader MWD (full width 300 amu) and are heavier on average (680 amu). The LDI spectra also provide evidence for the formation of noncovalent clusters of the two types of asphaltenes during the desorption process. Petroleum and coal asphaltenes exhibit aggregation as do large model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with five or more fused rings also included in the study. Smaller PAHs (pyrene) exhibit less aggregation, especially when alkane-chain substituents are incorporated to the molecular structure. This indicates that asphaltenes possess large PAHs and, according to the relatively small molecular weights observed, that there is a preponderance of asphaltene molecules with only a single fused ring system. The coal asphaltenes present a significantly smaller propensity toward aggregation than their crude oil counterparts. This finding, coupled with the fact that (1) alkanes inhibit aggregation in LDI and (2) petroleum asphaltenes possess much more alkane carbon, indicates that coal asphaltenes have smaller PAHs on average than petroleum asphaltenes. This is further corroborated by the stronger ultraviolet absorbance of the coal asphaltenes at wavelengths shorter than 400 nm. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Effect of thermal treatment on potato starch evidenced by EPR, XRD and molecular weight distribution.

    PubMed

    Bidzińska, Ewa; Michalec, Marek; Pawcenis, Dominika

    2015-12-01

    Effect of heating of the potato starch on damages of its structure was investigated by quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and determination of the molecular weight distribution. The measurements were performed in the temperature range commonly used for starch modifications optimizing properties important for industrial applications. Upon thermal treatment, because of breaking of the polymer chains, diminishing of the average molecular weights occurred, which significantly influences generation of radicals, evidenced by EPR. For the relatively mild conditions, with heating parameters not exceeding temperature 230 °C and time of heating equal to 30 min a moderate changes of both the number of thermally generated radicals and the mean molecular weight of the starch were observed. After more drastic thermal treatment (e.g. 2 h at 230 °C), a rapid increase in the radical amount occurred, which was accompanied by significant reduction of the starch molecular size and crystallinity. Experimentally established threshold values of heating parameters should not be exceeded in order to avoid excessive damages of the starch structure accompanied by the formation of the redundant amount of radicals. This requirement is important for industrial applications, because significant destruction of the starch matrix might annihilate the positive influence of the previously performed intentional starch modification. PMID:26332295

  6. Cellular Viscosity in Prokaryotes and Thermal Stability of Low Molecular Weight Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Cuecas, Alba; Cruces, Jorge; Galisteo-López, Juan F; Peng, Xiaojun; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2016-08-23

    Some low molecular weight biomolecules, i.e., NAD(P)H, are unstable at high temperatures. The use of these biomolecules by thermophilic microorganisms has been scarcely analyzed. Herein, NADH stability has been studied at different temperatures and viscosities. NADH decay increased at increasing temperatures. At increasing viscosities, NADH decay rates decreased. Thus, maintaining relatively high cellular viscosity in cells could result in increased stability of low molecular weight biomolecules (i.e., NADH) at high temperatures, unlike what was previously deduced from studies in diluted water solutions. Cellular viscosity was determined using a fluorescent molecular rotor in various prokaryotes covering the range from 10 to 100°C. Some mesophiles showed the capability of changing cellular viscosity depending on growth temperature. Thermophiles and extreme thermophiles presented a relatively high cellular viscosity, suggesting this strategy as a reasonable mechanism to thrive under these high temperatures. Results substantiate the capability of thermophiles and extreme thermophiles (growth range 50-80°C) to stabilize and use generally considered unstable, universal low molecular weight biomolecules. In addition, this study represents a first report, to our knowledge, on cellular viscosity measurements in prokaryotes and it shows the dependency of prokaryotic cellular viscosity on species and growth temperature. PMID:27558730

  7. Enhancement of osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells cultured by selective combination of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2).

    PubMed

    Maegawa, Naoki; Kawamura, Kenji; Hirose, Motohiro; Yajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Yoshinori; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that bone marrow contains mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which can show osteoblastic differentiation when cultured in osteogenic medium containing ascorbic acid, beta-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone. The differentiation results in the appearance of osteoblasts, together with the formation of bone matrix; thus, in vitro cultured bone (osteoblasts/bone matrix) could be fabricated by MSC culture. This type of cultured bone has already been used in clinical cases involving orthopaedic problems. To improve the therapeutic effect of the cultured bone, we investigated the culture conditions that contributed to extensive osteoblastic differentiation. Rat bone marrow was primarily cultured to expand the number of MSCs and further cultured in osteogenic medium for 12 days. The culture was also conducted in a medium supplemented with either bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), or with sequential combinations of both supplements. Among them, the sequential supplementation of FGF-2 followed by BMP-2 showed high alkaline phosphatase activity, sufficient bone-specific osteocalcein expression and abundant bone matrix formation of the MSC culture. These data implied that the number of responding cells or immature osteoblasts was increased by the supplementation of FGF-2 in the early phase of the culture and that these cells can show osteoblastic differentiation, of which capability was augmented by BMP-2 in the late phase. The sequential supplementation of these cytokines into MSC culture might be suitable for the fabrication of ideal cultured bone for use in bone tissue engineering. PMID:18038421

  8. NCAM- and FGF-2-mediated FGFR1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment of esophageal cancer regulates the survival and migration of tumor-associated macrophages and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Takase, Nobuhisa; Koma, Yu-Ichiro; Urakawa, Naoki; Nishio, Mari; Arai, Noriaki; Akiyama, Hiroaki; Shigeoka, Manabu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Yokozaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-28

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have important roles in the angiogenesis and tumor immunosuppression of various cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs). To elucidate the roles of TAMs in ESCCs, we compared the gene expression profiles between human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophage-like cells (Macrophage_Ls) and Macrophage_Ls stimulated with conditioned medium of the TE series human ESCC cell line (TECM) (TAM_Ls) using cDNA microarray analysis. Among the highly expressed genes in TAM_Ls, we focused on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). NCAM knockdown in TAM_Ls revealed a significant decrease of migration and survival via a suppression of PI3K-Akt and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) signaling. Stimulation by TECM up-regulated the level of FGFR1 in Macrophage_Ls. Recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 (rhFGF-2) promoted the migration and survival of TAM_Ls and TE-cells through FGFR1 signaling. Our immunohistochemical analysis of 70 surgically resected ESCC samples revealed that the up-regulated FGF-2 in stromal cells, including macrophages, was associated with more aggressive phenotypes and a high number of infiltrating M2 macrophages. These findings may indicate a novel role of NCAM- and FGF-2-mediated FGFR1 signaling in the tumor microenvironment of ESCCs. PMID:27317650

  9. Functional abnormalities of heparan sulfate in mucopolysaccharidosis-I are associated with defective biologic activity of FGF-2 on human multipotent progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chendong; Nelson, Matthew S; Reyes, Morayma; Koodie, Lisa; Brazil, Joseph J; Stephenson, Elliot J; Zhao, Robert C; Peters, Charles; Selleck, Scott B; Stringer, Sally E; Gupta, Pankaj

    2005-09-15

    In mucopolysaccharidosis-I (MPS-I), alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency leads to progressive heparan sulfate (HS) and dermatan sulfate (DS) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation. The functional consequences of these accumulated molecules are unknown. HS critically influences tissue morphogenesis by binding to and modulating the activity of several cytokines (eg, fibroblast growth factors [FGFs]) involved in developmental patterning. We recently isolated a multipotent progenitor cell from postnatal human bone marrow, which differentiates into cells of all 3 embryonic lineages. The availability of multipotent progenitor cells from healthy volunteers and patients with MPS-I (Hurler syndrome) provides a unique opportunity to directly examine the functional effects of abnormal HS on cytokine-mediated stem-cell proliferation and survival. We demonstrate here that abnormally sulfated HS in Hurler multipotent progenitor cells perturb critical FGF-2-FGFR1-HS interactions, resulting in defective FGF-2-induced proliferation and survival of Hurler multipotent progenitor cells. Both the mitogenic and survival-promoting activities of FGF-2 were restored by substitution of Hurler HS by normal HS. This perturbation of critical HS-cytokine receptor interactions may represent a mechanism by which accumulated HS contributes to the developmental pathophysiology of Hurler syndrome. Similar mechanisms may operate in the pathogenesis of other diseases where structurally abnormal GAGs accumulate. PMID:15947088

  10. Genetically modified human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells with FGF-2 and PDGF-BB enhance neovascularization in a model of hindlimb ischemia

    PubMed Central

    YIN, TAO; HE, SISI; SU, CHAO; CHEN, XIANCHENG; ZHANG, DONGMEI; WAN, YANG; YE, TINGHONG; SHEN, GUOBO; WANG, YONGSHENG; SHI, HUASHAN; YANG, LI; WEI, YUQUAN

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic diseases represent a challenging worldwide health burden. The current study investigated the therapeutic potential of genetically modified human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDMSCs) with basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) genes in hindlimb ischemia. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from human term placenta were transfected ex vivo with adenoviral bicistronic vectors carrying the FGF2 and PDGF-BB genes (Ad-F-P). Unilateral hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced by excision of the right femoral artery in New Zealand White rabbits. Ad-F-P genetically modified hPDMSCs, Ad-null (control vector)-modified hPDMSCs, unmodified hPDMSCs or media were intramuscularly implanted into the ischemic limbs 7 days subsequent to the induction of ischemia. Four weeks after cell therapy, angiographic analysis revealed significantly increased collateral vessel formation in the Ad-F-P-hPDMSC group compared with the control group. Histological examination revealed markedly increased capillary and arteriole density in the Ad-F-P-hPDMSC group. The xenografted hPDMSCs survived in the ischemic tissue for at least 4 weeks subsequent to cell therapy. The current study demonstrated that the combination of hPDMSC therapy with FGF2 and PDGF-BB gene therapy effectively induced collateral vessel formation and angiogenesis, suggesting a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26239842

  11. WeGET: predicting new genes for molecular systems by weighted co-expression.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Radek; Megchelenbrink, Wout; Cizek, Pavel; Ledent, Marie; Velemans, Gonny; Szklarczyk, Damian; Huynen, Martijn A

    2016-01-01

    We have developed the Weighted Gene Expression Tool and database (WeGET, http://weget.cmbi.umcn.nl) for the prediction of new genes of a molecular system by correlated gene expression. WeGET utilizes a compendium of 465 human and 560 murine gene expression datasets that have been collected from multiple tissues under a wide range of experimental conditions. It exploits this abundance of expression data by assigning a high weight to datasets in which the known genes of a molecular system are harmoniously up- and down-regulated. WeGET ranks new candidate genes by calculating their weighted co-expression with that system. A weighted rank is calculated for human genes and their mouse orthologs. Then, an integrated gene rank and p-value is computed using a rank-order statistic. We applied our method to predict novel genes that have a high degree of co-expression with Gene Ontology terms and pathways from KEGG and Reactome. For each query set we provide a list of predicted novel genes, computed weights for transcription datasets used and cell and tissue types that contributed to the final predictions. The performance for each query set is assessed by 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, users can use the WeGET to predict novel genes that co-express with a custom query set. PMID:26582928

  12. WeGET: predicting new genes for molecular systems by weighted co-expression

    PubMed Central

    Szklarczyk, Radek; Megchelenbrink, Wout; Cizek, Pavel; Ledent, Marie; Velemans, Gonny; Szklarczyk, Damian; Huynen, Martijn A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed the Weighted Gene Expression Tool and database (WeGET, http://weget.cmbi.umcn.nl) for the prediction of new genes of a molecular system by correlated gene expression. WeGET utilizes a compendium of 465 human and 560 murine gene expression datasets that have been collected from multiple tissues under a wide range of experimental conditions. It exploits this abundance of expression data by assigning a high weight to datasets in which the known genes of a molecular system are harmoniously up- and down-regulated. WeGET ranks new candidate genes by calculating their weighted co-expression with that system. A weighted rank is calculated for human genes and their mouse orthologs. Then, an integrated gene rank and p-value is computed using a rank-order statistic. We applied our method to predict novel genes that have a high degree of co-expression with Gene Ontology terms and pathways from KEGG and Reactome. For each query set we provide a list of predicted novel genes, computed weights for transcription datasets used and cell and tissue types that contributed to the final predictions. The performance for each query set is assessed by 10-fold cross-validation. Finally, users can use the WeGET to predict novel genes that co-express with a custom query set. PMID:26582928

  13. Identification of a 31,500 molecular weight islet cell protease as cathepsin B.

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, K; Carroll, R; Steiner, D F

    1983-01-01

    A method for the preparation of a radioisotopically labeled active-site directed reagent for proteases (125I-Tyr-Ala-Lys-ArgCH2Cl) is described, and an example of its use as a sensitive method for identifying trypsin-like proteases is provided. This high specific activity reagent was then used in an attempt to identify proteases in rat islets of Langerhans involved in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin. Previous studies have indicated that the endoprotease involved in proinsulin conversion is a cysteine proteinase and that 125I-Tyr-Ala-Lys-ArgCH2Cl affinity labels an islet crude granule fraction protein having a molecular weight of 31,500. Here we demonstrate, using a probe of higher specific activity, that the major affinity-labeled proteins of the islet crude granule fraction, when displayed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, have molecular weights of approximately 39,000 (5%), 31,500 (53%), and 5,000-6,000 (37%), with several other minor proteins (less than 5%) also labeled. The two predominant labeled proteins were mainly soluble rather than membrane bound, and they exhibited patterns of competition with various inhibitors that were similar to the pattern shown by the conversion of proinsulin to insulin in vitro. A rabbit antibody to rat liver cathepsin B immunoprecipitated both affinity-labeled 31,500 and 5,000-6,000 molecular weight proteins, and on the basis of this and structural considerations the 31,500 molecular weight cysteine protease is identified as cathepsin B. The 5,000-6,000 molecular weight peptide is an NH2-terminal, active site cysteine-containing, proteolytic fragment of the 31,500 molecular weight protein. Because cathepsin B is not per se a candidate for the proinsulin convertase because of its excessively broad substrate specificity, these studies suggest that a similar enzyme or a modified form of this enzyme is active within the secretory progranules, whereas the more typical cathepsin B may be largely confined to

  14. A Convenient Low-Resolution NMR Method for the Determination of the Molecular Weight of Soybean Oil-Based Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By studying a series of soybean oil based polymers, using low resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, an easy method to study molecular weight was developed. The relationship between a polymer’s molecular weight and the instrument’s response can be correlated in a linear relations...

  15. Energy-weighted sum rules and the analysis of vibrational structure in molecular spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. L.

    2015-10-01

    The energy-weighted sum SV = Σn (E‧n - E″m)|<ψ″m|ψ‧n>|2 = <ψ″m|ΔV|ψ″m> for the vibrational potential functions V‧, V″ associated with transitions between two electronic states of diatomic molecular species is investigated and specific formulae are given using Morse functions for V‧ and V″. It is found that these formulae are useful approximations which provide a convenient way to analyse the vibrational structure of real spectra to give estimates of molecular parameters such as the change in internuclear distance accompanying a transition.

  16. Low-molecular-weight inhibitors of NF-κB signalling pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinnaya, N. G.; Kubareva, Elena A.; Kazanova, E. V.; Zigangirova, N. A.; Naroditsky, B. S.; Gintsburg, A. L.; Oretskaya, Tat'yana S.

    2008-11-01

    The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a transcription factor involved in inducible expression of cellular genes playing a key role in cardiovascular pathologies, carcinogenesis, inflammatory and viral diseases. The review describes the stimuli and processes inducing NF-κB activation and the components of a signalling cascade that could constitute targets for NF-κB inhibition. The molecular action and properties of various low-molecular weight inhibitors aiming to prevent NF-κB activity are summarised.

  17. [Chromatographic analysis of low molecular weight fraction of cerebrospinal fluid in children with acute neuroinfections].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, L A; Shatik, S V; Sorokina, M N; Karasev, V V

    2002-05-01

    Low molecular-weight (oligopeptide) fraction of the cerebrospinal fluid was analyzed by high-performance reversed phase liquid chromatography in 30 children with bacterial and viral neuroinfections. The incidence and height of chromathoraphic peaks in bacterial meningitis depended on the disease etiology, stage, and severity. Qualitative and quantitative composition of low molecular-weight fraction of the liquor varied in patients with viral neuroinfections, depending on the severity of the cerebral parenchyma involvement. Differences in chromatographic profiles in complicated and uneventful course of neuroinfections indicate a possible damaging, protective, or regulatory effect of the liquor peptides. These data focus the attention on the role of oligopeptides in the genesis of neuroinfectious process, significance of search for peptide markers, their further isolation, identification, and development of test systems available for clinical application. PMID:12085699

  18. Binding of pyrene to aquatic and commercial humic substances: The role of molecular weight and aromaticity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, Y.-P.; Aiken, G.R.; Danielsen, K.M.

    1997-01-01

    The binding of pyrene to a number of humic substances isolated from various aquatic sources and a commercial humic acid was measured using the solubility enhancement method. The humic materials used in this study were characterized by various spectroscopic and liquid chromatography methods. A strong correlation was observed between the pyrene binding coefficient, K(doc), and the molecular weights, molar absorptivities at 280 nm, and aromaticity of the aquatic humic substances. Binding of pyrene to the commercial humic acid, however, was significantly stronger and did not obey the relationships observed between K(doc) and the chemical properties of the aquatic humic substrates. These results suggest that the molecular weight and the aromatic content of the humic substrates exert influences on the binding of nonpolar and planar aromatic molecules and that the physicochemical properties of both humic materials and organic solutes are important in controlling the speciation of nonpolar organic contaminants in natural waters.

  19. High molecular weight bioemulsifiers, main properties and potential environmental and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-05-01

    High molecular weight bioemulsifiers are amphipathic polysaccharides, proteins, lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, or complex mixtures of these biopolymers, produced by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are characterized by highly structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface respectively and/or emulsify hydrophobic compounds. Emulsan, fatty acids, phospholipids, neutral lipids, exopolysaccharides, vesicles and fimbriae are among the most popular high molecular weight bioemulsifiers. They have great physic-chemical properties like tolerance to extreme conditions of pH, temperature and salinity, low toxicity and biodegradability. Owing their emulsion forming and breaking capacities, solubilization, mobilization and dispersion activities and their viscosity reduction activity; they possess great environmental application as enhancer of hydrocarbon biodegradation and for microbial enhanced oil recovery. Besides, they are applied in biomedical fields for their antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities and involvement in immune responses. PMID:25739564

  20. Evaluating nephrotoxicity of high-molecular-weight organic compounds in drinking water from lignite aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, J.E.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Orem, W.H.; Pavlovic, N.

    2007-01-01

    High-molecular-weight organic compounds such as humic acids and/or fulvic acids that are naturally mobilized from lignite beds into untreated drinking-water supplies were suggested as one possible cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and cancer of the renal pelvis. A lab investigation was undertaken in order to assess the nephrotoxic potential of such organic compounds using an in vitro tissue culture model. Because of the infeasibility of exposing kidney tissue to low concentrations of organics for years in the lab, tangential flow ultrafiltration was employed to hyperconcentrate samples suitable for discerning effects in the short time frames necessitated by tissue culture systems. Effects on HK-2 kidney cells were measured using two different cell proliferation assays (MTT and alamarBlue). Results demonstrated that exposure of kidney tissue to high-molecular-weight organics produced excess cell death or proliferation depending on concentration and duration of exposure. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  1. Determination of molecular weight distributions of large water soluble macromolecules using dynamic light scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mettille, M.J.; Hester, R.D.

    1988-05-01

    Characterization of polymer molecular weight is an extremely important aspect of polymer research, and a vast number of analytical techniques has been used to determine molecular weights. One method is dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS is also referred to as photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS), and may other appellations. The phenomenon that gives rise to the DLS technique was first observed in the early 1930's. In the mid 1950's, measurement techniques similar to modern dynamic light scattering were developed. Two major technical developments have greatly enhanced the use of DLS. The first was the development of the laser. This provided a light source with very high intensity at a single frequency. Also, major advances in digital electronics have allowed better data acquisition and faster data analysis than were previously available.

  2. Characteristics of Precipitation-formed Polyethylene Glycol Microgels Are Controlled by Molecular Weight of Reactants

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Susan; Stukel, Jessica; AlNiemi, Abrar; Willits, Rebecca Kuntz

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the formation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microgels via a photopolymerized precipitation reaction. Precipitation reactions offer several advantages over traditional microsphere fabrication techniques. Contrary to emulsion, suspension, and dispersion techniques, microgels formed by precipitation are of uniform shape and size, i.e. low polydispersity index, without the use of organic solvents or stabilizers. The mild conditions of the precipitation reaction, customizable properties of the microgels, and low viscosity for injections make them applicable for in vivo purposes. Unlike other fabrication techniques, microgel characteristics can be modified by changing the starting polymer molecular weight. Increasing the starting PEG molecular weight increased microgel diameter and swelling ratio. Further modifications are suggested such as encapsulating molecules during microgel crosslinking. Simple adaptations to the PEG microgel building blocks are explored for future applications of microgels as drug delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds. PMID:24378988

  3. Role of laccase and low molecular weight metabolites from Trametes versicolor in dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Moldes, Diego; Fernández-Fernández, María; Sanromán, M Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs) also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds. PMID:22566767

  4. Distance and molecular weight dependence of surface enhanced fluorescence in conjugated polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffo, Michael S.; Carter, Sue A.

    2008-08-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) in the presence of Silver nanoparticles (NP) is studied. The purpose of this research is to understand the PL distance dependence of plasmon-polymer separation and a correlation between the surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF) and polymer molecular weight. Distinct peaks in PL are found for plasmon-polymer separations ranging from near the far field to the near field, under 100 nm. Extinction of the devices shows that changes in absorption cannot explain all enhancement in PL and suggests that a modification of the radiative lifetime is modified. The dependence of the photoluminescence of MEH-PPV on molecular weight shows variation but overall suggests chain length does not affect film quenching. This is largely attributed to the large polydispersity of the polymer materials used.

  5. Friction and wear of polyethylene oxide polymer having a range of molecular weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction and wear experiments were conducted at light loads (25 to 250 g) with various molecular weights of the polyethylene oxide polymer sliding on itself and iron. Results of the experimental investigation indicate that: (1) the coefficient of friction for the polymer decreases with increasing molecular weight; (2) friction coefficient is higher for the polymer sliding on itself than it is for the polymer sliding on iron; (3) at sufficiently high loads localized surface melting occurs and the friction coefficient is the same for the polymer sliding on itself and iron; (4) fracture cracks develop in the sliding wear track at higher but not lower sliding velocities, reflecting a strain rate sensitivity to crack initiation, and (5) the friction coefficient for the polymer sliding on iron increases with the formation of a polymer film on the iron surface.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Medium Molecular Weight Heparinyl Amino Acid Derivatives on Ischemic Paw Edema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Seiichi; Toda, Takao; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the radical-scavenging effects of heparin (HE), medium molecular weight heparinyl phenylalanine (MHF), and medium molecular weight heparinyl leucine (MHL) using ischemic paw edema in mice. We also examined the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of mice that were administered these compounds as an index of their side-effects. HE had a preventative effect and significant reduced ischemic paw edema. However, its effect was not dose-dependent and the dose-response curve was bell-shaped. The effective dose of HE also exhibited a prolonged APTT. Pretreatment using MHF and MHL were effective against ischemic paw edema without a prolonged APTT. Remarkably, the action of MHF was not only preventively, but also therapeutically active. These results suggest that MHF and MHL are superior to HE as safe radical scavengers in vivo. PMID:27381605

  7. [Sequencing of low-molecular-weight DNA in blood plasma of irradiated rats].

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, I N; Bespalov, V G; Zinkin, V N; Podgornaya, O I

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular low-molecular-weight DNA in blood of irradiated rats was sequenced for the first time. The screening of sequences in the DDBJ database displayed homology of various parts of the rodent genome. Sequences of low-molecular-weight DNA in rat's plasma are enriched with G/C pairs and long interspersed elements relative to rat genome. DNA sequences in blood of rats irradiated at the doses of 8 and 100 Gy have marked distinctions. Data of sequencing of extracellular DNA from normal humans and with pathology were analyzed. DNA sequences of irradiated rats differ from the human ones by a wealth of long interspersed elements. This new knowledge lays the foundation for development of minimally invasive technologies of diagnosing the probability of pathology and controlling the adaptive resources of people in extreme environments. PMID:25958466

  8. Simulated dynamic response of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, Dale A.

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model of a multi-stage compressor with variable molecular weight flow medium is derived. The modeled system consists of a five stage, six cylinder, double acting, piston type compressor. Each stage is followed by a water cooled heat exchanger which serves to transfer the heat of compression from the gas. A high molecular weight gas (CFC-12) mixed with air in varying proportions is introduced to the suction of the compressor. Condensation of the heavy gas may occur in the upper stage heat exchangers. The state equations for the system are integrated using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) for determining the system's dynamic and steady state characteristics under varying operating conditions.

  9. Development of an extremely wear-resistant ultra high molecular weight polyethylene for total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    McKellop, H; Shen, F W; Lu, B; Campbell, P; Salovey, R

    1999-03-01

    Osteolysis induced by ultra high molecular weight polyethylene wear debris is one of the primary factors limiting the lifespan of total hip replacements. Crosslinking polyethylene is known to improve its wear resistance in certain industrial applications, and crosslinked polyethylene acetabular cups have shown improved wear resistance in two clinical studies. In the present study, crosslinked polyethylene cups were produced by two methods. Chemically crosslinked cups were produced by mixing a peroxide with ultra high molecular weight polyethylene powder and then molding the cups directly to shape. Radiation-crosslinked cups were produced by exposing conventional extruded ultra high molecular weight polyethylene bar stock to gamma radiation at various doses from 3.3 to 100 Mrad (1 Mrad = 10 kGy), remelting the bars to extinguish residual free radicals (i.e., to minimize long-term oxidation), and then machining the cups by conventional techniques. In hip-joint simulator tests lasting as long as 5 million cycles, both types of cross-linked cups exhibited dramatically improved resistance to wear. Artificial aging of the cups by heating for 30 days in air at 80 degrees C induced oxidation of the chemically crosslinked cups. However, a chemically crosslinked cup that was aged 2.7 years at room temperature had very little oxidation. Thus, whether substantial oxidation of chemically crosslinked polyethylene would occur at body temperature remains unclear. The radiation-crosslinked remelted cups exhibited excellent resistance to oxidation. Because crosslinking can reduce the ultimate tensile strength, fatigue strength, and elongation to failure of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, the optimal crosslinking dose provides a balance between these physical properties and the wear resistance of the implant and might substantially reduce the incidence of wear-induced osteolysis with total hip replacements. PMID:10221831

  10. Effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) on shrimp preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guang-Li; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Shu-Qing; Tian, Xue-Lin

    1996-06-01

    This study on the effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) and shrimp preserving agents such as phytic acid (PA), sodium bisulfite (SB), and crustacean preservative (CP) on the preservation of shrimp ( Trachypenaeus curvirostris) and the bacteriostasis of LMC-1 showed that: (1) Different LMC-1 concentration has different bacteriostasis on E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureau; (2) LMC-1 and CP are better than PA and SB for preserving the freshness of shrimp stored at 4 °C.

  11. The influence of membrane molecular weight cutoff on a novel bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Xiao-lei; Han, Bing; Gu, Jin-yang; Chu, Xue-hui; Xiao, Jiang-qiang; Ren, Hao-zhen; Tan, Jiao-jun; Ding, Yi-tao

    2012-01-01

    Given the xenogeneic immune reaction relevant to the molecular weight cutoff of the membrane of a bioartificial liver (BAL) system, we investigated the influence of membrane molecular weight cutoff in our BAL system in this study. Acute liver failure in beagles was induced by d-galactosamine administration. Eight beagles were divided into two groups by the membrane molecular weight cutoff of the plasma component separator. Group 1 beagles were treated with BAL containing 200 kDa retention rating membrane. Group 2 beagles were treated with BAL containing 1200 kDa retention rating membrane. Each group underwent two 6-h BAL treatments that were performed on day 1 and day 21. The hemodynamic and hematologic response, humoral immune responses, and cytotoxic immune response to BAL therapy were studied before and after treatments. All beagles remained hemodynamically and hematologically stable during BAL treatments. BAL treatment was associated with a significant decline in levels of complement; however, a longer time of level maintenance was observed in Group 2. Group 2 beagles experienced a significant increase in levels of IgG and IgM after two BAL treatments. Significant levels of canine proteins were detected in BAL medium from Group 2; only trace levels of canine proteins were detected in BAL medium from Group 1. The posttreatment viability of co-culture cells in Group 2 was lower compared with Group 1, and the viability of co-culture cells after treatments was associated with deposition of canine proteins on the cells. Xenogeneic immune response was influenced by membrane molecular weight cutoff in the BAL. PMID:21819437

  12. Low molecular weight Neutral Boron Dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads for fluorescence-based neural imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Dan; Benniston, Andrew C.; Clift, Sophie; Baisch, Ulrich; Steyn, Jannetta; Everitt, Nicola; Andras, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The neutral low molecular weight julolidine-based borondipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyads JULBD and MJULBD were used for fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of neurons in the crab stomatogastric ganglion. The fluorescence modulation of the dyads mirrors alterations in the membrane potential of the imaged neurons. The toxicity of the dyes towards the neurons is related to their structure in that methyl groups at the 3,5 positions results in reduced toxic effects.

  13. Study of Low Molecular Weight Impurities in Pluronic Triblock Copolymers using MALDI, Interaction Chromatography, and NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helming, Z.; Zagorevski, D.; Ryu, C. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers are a group of commercial macromolecular amphiphilic surfactants that have been widely studied for their applications in polymer-based nanotechnology and drug-delivery. It has been well-established that the synthesis of commercial Pluronic triblocks results in low molecular weight ``impurities,'' which are generally disregarded in the applications and study of these polymers. These species have been shown to have significant effects on the rheological properties of the material, as well as altering the supramolecular ``micellar'' structures for which the polymers are most often used. We have isolated the impurities from the bulk Pluronic triblock using Interaction Chromatography (IC) techniques, and subjected them to analysis by H1 NMR and MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization) Mass Spectrometry to identify relative block composition and molecular weight information. We report significant evidence of at least two polymeric components: a low-molecular-weight homopolymer of poly(ethylene oxide) and a ``blocky'' copolymer of both poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(propylene oxide). This has significant implications, not only for the applied usage of Pluronic triblock copolymers, but for the general scientific acceptance of the impurities and their effects on Pluronic micelle and hydrogel formation.

  14. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4–16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  15. The Effect of Molecular Weight on the Composite Properties of Cured Phenylethynyl Terminated Imide Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high temperature/high performance structural resins for aeronautical applications, imide oligomers containing terminal phenylethynyl groups with calculated number average molecular weights of 1250, 2500 and 5000 g/mol were prepared, characterized, and evaluated as adhesives and composite matrix resins. The goal of this work was to develop resin systems that are processable using conventional processing equipment into void free composites that exhibit high mechanical properties with long term high temperature durability, and are not affected by exposure to common aircraft fluids. The imide oligomers containing terminal phenylethynyl groups were fabricated into titanium adhesive specimens and IM-7 carbon fiber laminates under 0.1 - 1.4 MPa for 1 hr at 350-371 C. The lower molecular weight oligomers exhibited higher cured Tg, better processability, and better retention of mechanical properties at elevated temperature without significantly sacrificing toughness or damage tolerance than the higher molecular weight oligomer. The neat resin, adhesive and composite properties of the cured polymers will be presented.

  16. Effect of polymer molecular weight on the production of drug nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sepassi, S; Goodwin, D J; Drake, A F; Holland, S; Leonard, G; Martini, L; Lawrence, M J

    2007-10-01

    Stable, polymer-coated nanoparticles of two hydrophobic drugs, namely nabumetone and halofantrine, have been prepared by a wet-bead milling process performed in the presence of a stabilizing homopolymer, either hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), of differing molecular weights and concentrations. Although nabumetone nanoparticles could only be produced when HPMC was used as stabilizing polymer, halofantrine nanoparticles could be prepared using either HPMC or PVP. Stable nanoparticles of nabumetone could be produced using a HPMC solution of viscosity average molecular weight, M(v), of 5 kg/mol over an approximate four fold polymer concentration range (0.63-2.5% w/w) when a drug loading of 20% w/w was used. Increasing the molecular weight of HPMC up to a limiting M(v) of 89 kg/mol did not result in the formation of nanoparticles at any of the polymer concentrations examined. The amount of polymer absorbed onto the nanoparticles was determined by measuring the depletion of polymer from solution based on either an ultra-violet (PVP) or optical rotatory dispersion (ORD) (HPMC) assay. The slightly lower concentration of HMPC found to be present on the surface of the halofantrine nanoparticles compared with the nabumetone nanoparticles suggested a differing affinity of the polymer for the surface of the two drugs. PMID:17696165

  17. Properties and Microstructural Characteristic of Kaolin Geopolymer Ceramics with Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Romisuhani; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Hussin, Kamarudin; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Binhussain, Mohammed; Ain Jaya, Nur

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the mechanical properties and microstructure of kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene were studied. Inorganic polymers based on alumina and silica polysialate units were synthesized at room temperature from kaolin and sodium silicate in a highly alkaline medium, followed by curing and drying at 80 °C. Alkaline activator was formed by mixing the 12 M NaOH solution with sodium silicate at a ratio of 0.24. Addition of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene to the kaolin geopolymer are fabricated with Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene content of 2, 4, 6 and 8 (wt. %) by using powder metallurgy method. The samples were heated at 1200 °C and the strength and morphological were tested. It was found that the flexural strength for the kaolin geopolymer ceramics with addition of UHMWPE were improved and generally increased with the increasing of UHMWPE loading. The result revealed that the optimum flexural strength was obtained at UHMWPE loading of 4 wt. % (92.1 MPa) and the flexural strength started to decrease. Microstructural analysis showed the samples appeared to have more number of pores and connected of pores increased with the increasing of UHMWPE content.

  18. Graphene Nanocomposites with High Molecular Weight Poly(ε-caprolactone) Grafts: Controlled Synthesis and Accelerated Crystallization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mondal, Titash; Ashkar, Rana; Butler, Paul; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2016-02-08

    Grafting of high molecular weight polymers to graphitic nanoplatelets is a critical step toward the development of high performance graphene nanocomposites. However, designing such a grafting route has remained a major impediment. Herein, we report a "grafting to" synthetic pathway by which high molecular weight polymer, poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL), is tethered, at high grafting density, to highly anisotropic graphitic nanoplatelets. The efficacy of this tethering route and the resultant structural arrangements within the composite are confirmed by neutron and X-ray scattering measurements in the melt and solution phase. In the semicrystalline state, Xray analysis indicates that chain tethering onto the graphiticmore » nanoplatelets results in conformational changes of the polymer chains, which enhance the nucleation process and aid formation of PCL crystallites. This is corroborated by the superior thermal properties of the composite, manifested in accelerated crystallization kinetics and a significant increase in the thermal degradation temperature. Lastly, in principle, this synthesis route can be extended to a variety of high molecular weight polymers, which can open new avenues to solution-based processing of graphitic nanomaterials and the fabrication of complex 3D patterned graphitic nanocomposites.« less

  19. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  20. Molecular weight distribution of phosphorus fraction of aquatic dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ged, Evan C; Boyer, Treavor H

    2013-05-01

    This study characterized dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) that is discharged from the Everglades Agricultural Area as part of the larger pool of aquatic dissolved organic matter (DOM). Whole water samples collected at the Everglades stormwater treat area 1 West (STA-1 W) were fractionated using a batch ultrafiltration method to separate organic compounds based on apparent molecular weight (AMW). Each AMW fraction of DOM was characterized for phosphorus, carbon, nitrogen, UV absorbance, and fluorescence. The DOP content of the Everglades water matrix was characteristically variable constituting 4-56% of total phosphorus (TP) and demonstrated no correlation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Measured values for DOP exceeded 14μgL(-1) in four out of five sampling dates making phosphorus load reductions problematic for the stormwater treatment areas (STAs), which target inorganic phosphorus and have a goal of 10μgL(-1) as TP. The molecular weight distributions revealed 40% of DOP is high molecular weight, aromatic-rich DOM. The results of this research are expected to be of interest to environmental chemists, environmental engineers, and water resources managers because DOP presents a major obstacle to achieving TP levels <10μgL(-1). PMID:23466281

  1. Methanol-induced chain termination in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers: molecular weight control.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Strahan, Gary D; Levine, Alex C; Nomura, Christopher T

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed to demonstrate the impact of methanol (MeOH) on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthesis and molecular weight (MW). Glycerine was used as the primary carbon source with varying concentrations of MeOH. Methanol retarded but did not completely inhibit growth and PHB production in Pseudomonas oleovorans. Proton NMR analysis revealed that the PHB polymers were end-capped with methoxy chemical groups causing MW reductions. The MW decreases were contingent upon the initial MeOH media concentration and the duration of the fermentations. The largest impact occurred at an initial MeOH concentration of 0.10% (w/v) where the number average molecular weights (Mn) decreased by 39%, 55%, and 72% in the 48, 72 and 96 h cultures, respectively. Diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy revealed a diffusivity (D) increase in the smaller molecular weight polymers with the PHB synthesized in the presence of 0.85% MeOH (72 h post-inoculation) having a D value of 0.66×10(-10) m2/s. Diffusivity increases indicate a reduction in hydrodynamic radii (Rhz) consistent with shorter chain-lengths. Crude glycerine from the biodiesel production process has been used as an inexpensive fermentation feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis but its composition is facility-dependent. This information will be vital to tailor PHA properties to specific applications. PMID:25542165

  2. INFLUENCE OF POLYMER MOLECULAR WEIGHT, TEMPERATURE, AND STRAIN RATE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PBX 9501

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. IDAR; D. G. THOMPSON; ET AL

    2001-06-01

    Compression and tensile measurements were conducted on newly formulated (baseline) and lower molecular weight (virtually-aged) plastic-bonded explosive PBX 9501. The PBX 9501 binder system is composed of nitroplasticized Estane 5703, TM a polyester polyurethane copolymer. The molecular weight of polyester urethanes can degrade with time as a function of hydrolysis, affecting the mechanical behavior of the polymer or a polymer composite material of high explosives, i.e. PBXs. The molecular weight of Estane 5703{trademark} was degraded by exposure to high temperature and humidity for different periods of time, and then formulated to produce ''virtually-aged'' PBX 9501 specimens. Quasi-static and dynamic compression tests were conducted on the baseline and virtually-aged PBX 9501 as a function of temperature and strain rate. Quasi-static tensile tests were also conducted as a function of temperature and test rate. Rate and temperature dependence was exhibited during both compression and tensile loading. Results also show significant differences between the baseline and virtually-aged specimens for the dynamic compression tests at -15 C, and for the quasi-static compression tests at -15 C, 22 C, and 50 C.

  3. Effect of molecular weight on the physical properties of poly(ethylene brassylate) homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Jorge; Amestoy, Hegoi; Sardon, Haritz; Aguirre, Miren; Varga, Aitor Larrañaga; Sarasua, Jose-Ramon

    2016-12-01

    Poly(ethylene brassylate) (PEB) is a biodegradable polyester that nowadays is of particular interest owing to its poly(ε-caprolactone)-like properties (with a Tg at -30°C and a Tm at 70°C) and the low-cost of its monomer. However, it is not simple to achieve high molar masses with conventional catalysts. In this work, high molar mass PEBs, characterized by SEC-MALS, were successfully synthesized using triphenyl bismuth (Ph3Bi) as catalyst. Then, with the aim of evaluating the impact of the molecular weight on the physical properties, several PEBs ranging from 27 to 247kgmol(-1) were prepared. It was demonstrated that above a Mw of 90Kgmol(-1), PEB behaved in a constant manner. PEBs with lower molecular weight (<46Kgmol(-1)) showed lower values of Tg (~(-35°C)) and presented a melting peak that was split into three or four different peaks while their crystallites started to melt earlier (at ~30°C). In addition, these PEBs were more sensitive to thermal degradation (two additional stages of degradation were observed) and, what is more important, were found to be prone to brittle fracture. As the Mw rose, the PEB samples became more ductile and those PEBs with a molecular weight above 90Kgmol(-1) possessed deformation at break values higher than 800%, secant modulus in the 296-324 range and ultimate tensile strength of >20MPa. PMID:27517665

  4. High Sulfation and a High Molecular Weight Are Important for Anti-hepcidin Activity of Heparin.

    PubMed

    Asperti, Michela; Naggi, Annamaria; Esposito, Emiliano; Ruzzenenti, Paola; Di Somma, Margherita; Gryzik, Magdalena; Arosio, Paolo; Poli, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Heparins are efficient inhibitors of hepcidin expression even in vivo, where they induce an increase of systemic iron availability. Heparins seem to act by interfering with BMP6 signaling pathways that control the expression of liver hepcidin, causing the suppression of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. The anti-hepcidin activity persists also when the heparin anticoagulant property is abolished or reduced by chemical reactions of oxidation/reduction (glycol-split, Gs-Heparins) or by high sulfation (SS-Heparins), but the structural characteristics needed to optimize this inhibitory activity have not been studied in detail. To this aim we analyzed three different heparins (Mucosal Heparin, the Glycol split RO-82, the partially desulfated glycol-split RO-68 and the oversulfated SSLMWH) and separated them in fractions of molecular weight in the range 4-16 kD. Since the distribution of the negative charges in heparins contributes to the activity, we produced 2-O- and 6-O-desulfated heparins. These derivatives were analyzed for the capacity to inhibit hepcidin expression in hepatic HepG2 cells and in mice. The two approaches produced consistent results and showed that the anti-hepcidin activity strongly decreases with molecular weight below 7 kD, with high N-acetylation and after 2-O and 6-O desulfation. The high sulfation and high molecular weight properties for efficient anti-hepcidin activity suggest that heparin is involved in multiple binding sites. PMID:26955355

  5. Optimization of Glutamine Peptide Production from Soybean Meal and Analysis of Molecular Weight Distribution of Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanli; Liang, Xinhong; Wei, Min; Zhao, Wenhong; He, Baoshan; Lu, Qiyu; Huo, Quangong; Ma, Chengye

    2012-01-01

    The process parameters of enzymatic hydrolysis and molecular weight distribution of glutamine (Gln) peptides from soybean meal were investigated. The Protamex® hydrolysis pH of 6.10, temperature of 56.78 °C, enzyme to substrate ratio (E/S) of 1.90 and hydrolysis time of 10.72 h were found to be the optimal conditions by response surface methodology (RSM) for a maximal degree of hydrolysis (DH) value of 16.63% and Gln peptides content at 5.95 mmol/L. The soybean meal was hydrolyzed by a combination of Protamex® and trypsinase so that DH and Gln peptides would reach 22.02% and 6.05 mmol/mL, respectively. The results of size exclusion chromatography indicated that the relative proportion of the molecular weight <1000 Da fraction increased with DH values from 6.76%, 11.13%, 17.89% to 22.02%, most notably the 132–500 Da fractions of hydrolysates were 42.14%, 46.57%, 58.44% and 69.65%. High DH values did not lead to high Gln peptides content of the hydrolysate but to the low molecular weight Gln peptides. PMID:22837706

  6. Stabilization of montmorillonite clay in porous media by high-molecular-weight polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Zaitoun, A.; Berton, N. )

    1992-05-01

    In this paper a dynamic method is proposed for checking the stability of clay in porous media for different brine conditions and the stabilizing effect provided by several anionic and nonionic high-molecular-weight polymers. The method consists of injecting brine at decreasing salinity levels into clayey sandpacks until unstabilized permeability reduction is reached from the dislodging of clay particles that become trapped in pore restrictions. The last stable state before clay destablization is characterized by a critical salinity concentration (CSC). As expected, montmorillonite clay 5% dispersed in a sandpack is more stable in the presence of KCl than NaCl brines, giving CSC values of 5,000 and 27,500 ppm, respectively. Polyacrylamides are much better clay stabilizers than carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or xanthan gum (XG), lowering the CSC of KCl to 1,000 to 2,000 ppm and the CSC of NaCl to 6,000 to 7,000 ppm. A low-molecular-weight shear-degraded polyacrylamide is shown to keep good stabilizing power without inducing the high permeability reduction values obtained after adsorption of high-molecular-weight products. In addition to preventing clay migration, polyacrylamides are also shown to inhibit clay swelling.

  7. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Mattes, Benjamin R.; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    1999-11-09

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (between 15% and 30% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

  8. Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline and articles therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Mattes, Benjamin R.; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2000-01-01

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high molecular weight polyaniline. In order to process high quality fibers and other articles possessing good mechanical properties, it is known that solution concentrations of the chosen polymer should be in the range from 15-30% (w/w). Moreover, it is desirable to use the highest molecular weight consistent with the solubility properties of the polymer. However, such solutions are inherently unstable, forming gels before processing can be achieved. The present invention describes the addition gel inhibitors (GIs) to the polymer solution, thereby permitting high concentrations (>15% (w/w)) of high molecular weight ((M.sub.w)>120,000, and (M.sub.n)>30,000) emeraldine base (EB) polyaniline to be dissolved. Secondary amines have been used for this purpose in concentrations which are small compared to those which might otherwise be used in a cosolvent role therefor. The resulting solutions are useful for generating excellent fibers, films, coatings and other objects, since the solutions are stable for significant time periods, and the GIs are present in too small concentrations to cause polymer deterioration. It is demonstrated that the GIs found to be useful do not act as cosolvents, and that gelation times of the solutions are directly proportional to the concentration of GI. In particular, there is a preferred concentration of GI, which if exceeded causes structural and electrical conductivity degradation of resulting articles. Heating of the solutions significantly improves solubility.

  9. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  10. Production of specific-molecular-weight hyaluronan by metabolically engineered Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Kang, Zhen; Yuan, Panhong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Low-molecular-weight hyaluronan (LMW-HA) has attracted much attention because of its many potential applications. Here, we efficiently produced specific LMW-HAs from sucrose in Bacillus subtilis. By coexpressing the identified committed genes (tuaD, gtaB, glmU, glmM, and glmS) and downregulating the glycolytic pathway, HA production was significantly increased from 1.01gL(-1) to 3.16gL(-1), with a molecular weight range of 1.40×10(6)-1.83×10(6)Da. When leech hyaluronidase was actively expressed after N-terminal engineering (1.62×10(6)UmL(-1)), the production of HA was substantially increased from 5.96gL(-1) to 19.38gL(-1). The level of hyaluronidase was rationally regulated with a ribosome-binding site engineering strategy, allowing the production of LMW-HAs with a molecular weight range of 2.20×10(3)-1.42×10(6)Da. Our results confirm that this strategy for the controllable expression of hyaluronidase, together with the optimization of the HA synthetic pathway, effectively produces specific LMW-HAs, and could also be used to produce other LMW polysaccharides. PMID:26851304

  11. Self-assembly of high molecular weight polypeptide copolymers studied via diffusion limited aggregation.

    PubMed

    Meier, Christoph; Wu, Yuzhou; Pramanik, Goutam; Weil, Tanja

    2014-01-13

    The assembly of high molecular weight polypeptides into complex architectures exhibiting structural complexity ranging from the nano- to the mesoscale is of fundamental importance for various protein-related diseases but also hold great promise for various nano- and biotechnological applications. Here, the aggregation of partially unfolded high molecular weight polypeptides into multiscale fractal structures is investigated by means of diffusion limited aggregation and atomic force microscopy. The zeta potential, the hydrodynamic radius, and the obtained fractal morphologies were correlated with the conformation of the polypeptide backbones as obtained from circular dichroism measurements. The polypeptides are modified with polyethylene oxide side chains to stabilize the polypeptides and to normalize intermolecular interactions. The modification with the hydrophobic thioctic acid alters the folding of the polypeptide backbone, resulting in a change in solution aggregation and fractal morphology. We found that a more compact folding results in dense and highly branched structures, whereas a less compact folded polypeptide chain yields a more directional assembly. Our results provide first evidence for the role of compactness of polypeptide folding on aggregation. Furthermore, the mesoscale-structured biofilms were used to achieve a hierarchical protein assembly, which is demonstrated by deposition of Rhodamine-labeled HSA with the preassembled fractal structures. These results contribute important insights to the fundamental understanding of the aggregation of high molecular weight polypeptides in general and provide opportunities to study nanostructure-related effects on biological systems such as adhesion, proliferation, and the development of, for example, neuronal cells. PMID:24354281

  12. Reactions of Atmospheric Particulate Stabilized Criegee Intermediates Lead to High-Molecular-Weight Aerosol Components.

    PubMed

    Wang, MingYi; Yao, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Wang, XinKe; Chen, JianMin; Yang, Xin; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Aging of organic aerosol particles is one of the most poorly understood topics in atmospheric aerosol research. Here, we used an aerosol flow tube together with an iodide-adduct high-resolution time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO-HRToF-CIMS) to investigate heterogeneous ozonolysis of oleic acid (OL), developing a comprehensive oxidation mechanism with observed products. In addition to the well-known first-generation C9 products including nonanal, nonanoic acid, azelaic acid, and 9-oxononanoic acid, the iodide-adduct chemical ionization permitted unambiguous determination of a large number of high-molecular-weight particulate products up to 670 Da with minimum amounts of fragmentation. These high-molecular-weight products are characterized by a fairly uniform carbon oxidation state but stepwise addition of a carbon backbone moiety, and hence continuous decrease in the volatility. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneous oxidation of organic aerosols has a significant effect on the physiochemical properties of organic aerosols and that reactions of particulate SCIs from ozonolysis of an unsaturated particulate species represent a previously underappreciated mechanism that lead to formation of high-molecular-weight particulate products that are stable under typical atmospheric conditions. PMID:27186797

  13. Melt rheology and molecular weight degradation of amylopectin during multiple pass extrusion of starch

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, J.L.; Millard, M.M.; Jasberg, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The degradation of starch during extrusion and the role of specific mechanical energy (SME) in this process have been widely studied for single pass extrusion, Multiple extrusion histories are not uncommon in the plastics industry, but little if any has been reported on their effects on starch. Native waxy maize starch (app. 98% amylopectin) was initially converted to a thermoplastic by twin screw extrusion. This extrudate was equilibrated to either 18% or 23% moisture content, and subsequently re-extruded in a single screw extruder (3:1 compression screw) at 110{degrees}C or 130{degrees}C. Melt viscosity data were calculated using the output-pressure data from the second pass. The melts exhibited shear thinning behavior; the power law index increased with temperature, and slightly with moisture content. Molecular weights of selected second-pass extrudates, as well as the native starch and the first-pass extrudate, were measured by light scattering in dimethyl sulfoxide/water. The initial extrusion pass reduced the molecular weight from 300 million to 50 million. Molecular weight reductions in the second pass increased with increasing SME. A first order expression was shown to fit the MW-SME data with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. Implications of the degradation on extrusion processing of starch and the use of single screw extruders for rheological characterization will be discussed.

  14. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-α, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100 ~ 400 mg/kg) with 50 ~ 210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  15. Effects of polymer molecular weight on relative oral bioavailability of curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yin-Meng; Chang-Liao, Wan-Ling; Chien, Chao-Feng; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Background Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles have been used to increase the relative oral bioavailability of hydrophobic compounds and polyphenols in recent years, but the effects of the molecular weight of PLGA on bioavailability are still unknown. This study investigated the influence of polymer molecular weight on the relative oral bioavailability of curcumin, and explored the possible mechanism accounting for the outcome. Methods Curcumin encapsulated in low (5000–15,000) and high (40,000–75,000) molecular weight PLGA (LMw-NPC and HMw-NPC, respectively) were prepared using an emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Curcumin alone and in the nanoformulations was administered orally to freely mobile rats, and blood samples were collected to evaluate the bioavailability of curcumin, LMw-NPC, and HMw-NPC. An ex vivo experimental gut absorption model was used to investigate the effects of different molecular weights of PLGA formulation on absorption of curcumin. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was used for quantification of curcumin in biosamples. Results There were no significant differences in particle properties between LMw-NPC and HMw-NPC, but the relative bioavailability of HMw-NPC was 1.67-fold and 40-fold higher than that of LMw-NPC and conventional curcumin, respectively. In addition, the mean peak concentration (Cmax) of conventional curcumin, LMw-NPC, and HMw-NPC was 0.028, 0.042, and 0.057 μg/mL, respectively. The gut absorption study further revealed that the HMw-PLGA formulation markedly increased the absorption rate of curcumin in the duodenum and resulted in excellent bioavailability compared with conventional curcumin and LMw-NPC. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that different molecular weights of PLGA have varying bioavailability, contributing to changes in the absorption rate at the duodenum. The results of this study provide the rationale for design of a nanomedicine delivery system to

  16. A Critique of Asphaltene Fluorescence Decay and Depolarization-Based Claims about Molecular Weight and Molecular Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Strausz,O.; Safarik, I.; Lown, E.; Morales-Izquierdo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Relying on experimental and theoretical data available from the literature, it is shown that the conclusions derived from measurements of fluorescence decay and depolarization kinetic times as reported in a series of papers over the past decade are egregiously wrong. To start with, the decay time measurements were done with inappropriate instrumentation which resulted in misleading results. Misinterpretation of the results led to the mistaken conclusion that bichromophoric type molecules are absent from petroleum asphaltene and therefore the architecture of the asphaltene molecule features a single condensed cyclic core spiked with some alkyl chains, in spite of irrefutable chemical evidence to the contrary. It was further concluded that if the asphaltene core is a single condensed ring, then the fluorescence depolarization with rotational correlation time method is applicable for the molecular weight determination of asphaltene. This is definitely not so, since, regardless of any other considerations, asphaltene is a mixture of a plethora of different, unknown components, with unknown concentrations along with innumerable different, unknown and some known chromophores portraying widely different absorption coefficients, fluorescence quantum yields, and kinetic decay times. Consequently, asphaltene fluorescence is a highly complex function of the above attributes and as such it is a totally unsuitable property for its molecular weight determination. The injection of an incorrect, single condensed ring core architecture for asphaltene has caused some confusion in asphaltene chemistry that has now hopefully been settled.

  17. Immunolocalization and molecular properties of a high molecular weight microtubule-bundling protein (syncolin) from chicken erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    A protein of apparent molecular weight 280,000 (syncolin), which is immunoreactive with antibodies to hog brain microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2, was purified from chicken erythrocytes. Immunofluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cells revealed the presence of syncolin in cells at all stages of erythrocyte differentiation. In early erythroblasts syncolin was diffusely distributed throughout the cytoplasm. At later stages it was found along microtubules of the marginal band, as confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The association of syncolin with the marginal band was dependent on the integrity of microtubules, as demonstrated by temperature-dependent de- and repolymerization or marginal band microtubules. Syncolin cosedimented in a saturable manner with microtubules assembled in vitro, and it was displaced from the polymer by salt. Brain as well as erythrocyte microtubules, reconstituted with taxol from MAP-free tubulin and purified syncolin, were aggregated into dense bundles containing up to 15 microtubules, as determined by electron microscopy. On the ultrastructural level, syncolin molecules were visualized as globular or ringlike structures, in contrast to the thin, threadlike appearance of filamentous MAPs, such as brain MAP 2. According to ultrastructural measurements and gel permeation chromatography, syncolin's molecular weight was approximately 1 x 10(6). It is suggested that syncolin's specific function is the cross- linking of microtubules in the marginal band and, by implication, the stabilization of this structure typical for nucleated (chicken) erythrocytes. PMID:1993737

  18. Dextran: Influence of Molecular Weight in Antioxidant Properties and Immunomodulatory Potential.

    PubMed

    Soeiro, Vinicius C; Melo, Karoline R T; Alves, Monique G C F; Medeiros, Mayara J C; Grilo, Maria L P M; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Pontes, Daniel L; Costa, Leandro S; Rocha, Hugo A O

    2016-01-01

    Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW. As an example, the reducing power assay showed that D147 was twice as potent as other dextrans. On the other hand, all three samples showed similar activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the OH radical, whereas only the D10 sample showed sharp activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the superoxide ion. D40 was the single dextran that presented with immunomodulatory features since it stimulated the proliferation (~50%) of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and decreased the release of nitric oxide (~40%) by the cells, both in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In addition, D40 showed a greater scavenging activity (50%) for the hydrogen peroxide, which caused it to also be the more potent dextran when it came to inhibiting lipid peroxidation (70%). These points toward dextrans with a 40 kDa weight as being ideal for antioxidant and immunomodulatory use. However, future studies with the D40 and other similarly 40 kDa dextrans are underway to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27548151

  19. Dextran: Influence of Molecular Weight in Antioxidant Properties and Immunomodulatory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro, Vinicius C.; Melo, Karoline R. T.; Alves, Monique G. C. F.; Medeiros, Mayara J. C.; Grilo, Maria L. P. M.; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Pontes, Daniel L.; Costa, Leandro S.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.

    2016-01-01

    Dextrans (α-d-glucans) extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW) of 10 (D10), 40 (D40) and 147 (D147) kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW. As an example, the reducing power assay showed that D147 was twice as potent as other dextrans. On the other hand, all three samples showed similar activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the OH radical, whereas only the D10 sample showed sharp activity (50%) when it came to scavenging the superoxide ion. D40 was the single dextran that presented with immunomodulatory features since it stimulated the proliferation (~50%) of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and decreased the release of nitric oxide (~40%) by the cells, both in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In addition, D40 showed a greater scavenging activity (50%) for the hydrogen peroxide, which caused it to also be the more potent dextran when it came to inhibiting lipid peroxidation (70%). These points toward dextrans with a 40 kDa weight as being ideal for antioxidant and immunomodulatory use. However, future studies with the D40 and other similarly 40 kDa dextrans are underway to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27548151

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the friction and wear of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.; Hady, W. F.; Crugnola, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of sterilization gamma irradiation on the friction and wear properties of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sliding against stainless steel 316L in dry air at 23 C is investigated, the results to be used in the development of artificial joints which are to surgically replace diseased human joints. A pin-on-disk sliding friction apparatus is used, a constant sliding speed in the range 0.061-0.27 m/s is maintained, a normal load of 1 kgf is applied with dead weight, and the irradiation dose levels are: 0, 2.5, and 5.0 Mrad. Wear and friction data and conditions for each of the ten tests are summarized, and include: (1) wear volume as a function of the sliding distance for the irradiation levels, (2) incremental wear rate, and (3) coefficient of friction as a function of the sliding distance. It is shown that (1) the friction and wear properties of UHMWPE are not significantly changed by the irradiation doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Mrad, (2) the irradiation increases the amount of insoluble gel as well as the amount of low molecular weight material, and (3) after run-in the wear rate is either steady or gradually decreases as a function of the sliding distance.

  1. Influence of molecular weight of chemically sulfated citrus pectin fractions on their antithrombotic and bleeding effects.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Thales R; Gracher, Ana Helena P; de Souza, Lauro M; Fonseca, Roberto J C; Belmiro, Celso L R; Gorin, Philip A J; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello

    2009-05-01

    Evaluated were the anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities, and bleeding effect of two chemically sulfated polysaccharides, obtained from citric pectin, with different average molar masses. Both low-molecular-weight (Pec-LWS, 3,600 g/mol) and high-molecular-weight sulfated pectins (Pec-HWS, 12,000 g/mol) had essentially the same structure, consisting of a (1-->4)-linked alpha-D-GalpA chain with almost all its HO-2 and HO-3 groups substituted by sulfate. Both polysaccharides had anticoagulant activity in vitro, although Pec-HWS was a more potent antithrombotic agent in vivo, giving rise to total inhibition of venous thrombosis at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight. Surprisingly, in contrast with heparin, Pec-HWS and Pec-LWS are able to directly inhibit alpha-thrombin and factor Xa by a mechanism independent of antithrombin (AT) and/or heparin co-factor II (HCII). Moreover, Pec-HWS provided a lower risk of bleeding than heparin at a dose of 100% effectiveness against venous thrombosis, indicating it to be a promising antithrombotic agent. PMID:19404539

  2. New and rapid procedure for the isolation of ultra-high molecular weight eukaryotic DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.; Meincke, L.J.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have developed a novel procedure that permits the rapid extraction and isolation of ultra-high molecular weight DNA from avian or mammalian cells using dialysis against a solution of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Cells harvested by centrifugation and washed twice in ice-cold Ca/sup + +/- and Mg/sup + +/-free phosphate buffered saline were resuspended in 5 ml 0.01 M Tris-Cl (pH 8.0); 0.001 M EDTA (TE); sodium dodecyl sulfate and proteinase K were added to final concentrations of 0.1% and 0.1 mg/ml, respectively. After incubation at 37/sup 0/C overnight, the viscous solution was transferred to a mini-collodian bag and concentrated by dialysis against 4-5 changes of 20% PEG in TE over a period of 5 hours at RT. Concentrated samples were desalted by dialysis against fresh TE for two 15 minute intervals. DNA obtained using this procedure gives A/sub 260//A/sub 280/ consistently >1.8. Analysis of DNA size using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed a distribution of fragments >500 Kb in length. Further measurements examined were (1) restriction enzyme digestibility, (2) ligation efficiency of restricted DNA, and (3) cloning efficiency using the lambda vector Ch21A. This novel methodology offers a valuable alternative protocol for rapid purification of ultrahigh molecular weight DNA for various applications in molecular biology.

  3. Molecular Size and Weight of Asphaltene and Asphaltene Solubility Fractions from Coals, Crude Oils and Bitumen

    SciTech Connect

    Badre,S.; Goncalves, C.; Norinaga, K.; Gustavson, G.; Mullins, O.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular weight of asphaltenes has been a controversy for several decades. In recent years, several techniques have converged on the size of the fused ring system; indicating that chromophores in virgin crude oil asphaltenes typically have 4-10 fused rings. Consequently, the molecular weight debate is equivalent to determining whether asphaltenes are monomeric (one fused-ring system per molecule) or whether they are polymeric. Time-resolved fluorescence depolarization (FD) is employed here to interrogate the absolute size of asphaltene molecules and to determine the relation of the size of the fused ring system to that of the corresponding molecule. Coal, petroleum and bitumen asphaltenes are compared. Molecular size of coal asphaltenes obtained here by FD-determined rotational diffusion match closely with Taylor-dispersion-derived translational diffusion measurements with UV absorption. Coal asphaltenes are smaller than petroleum asphaltenes. N-methyl pyrrolidinone (NMP) soluble and insoluble fractions are examined. NMP soluble and insoluble fractions of asphaltenes are monomeric. It is suggested that the 'giant' asphaltene molecules reported from SEC studies using NMP as the eluting solvent may actually be the expected flocs of asphaltene which are not soluble in NMP. Data is presented that intramolecular electronic relaxation in asphaltenes does not perturb FD results.

  4. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Effect of Dextran Molecular Weight Used as Stabilizing-Reducing Agent.

    PubMed

    Carré-Rangel, Luceldi; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an easy green chemistry method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were obtained through the use of an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3), with dextrans aqueous solutions of different molecular weights acting as stabilizing and reducing agent, employing the chemical reduction method. We made a comparative study to determine which molecular weight dextran was the best stabilizing and reducing agent, and it was found that the molecular size of the stabilizing agent is inversely proportional to the size of the nanoparticle synthesized. The formation of the AgNPs was demonstrated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM-EDS analysis shows the formation of particles with dendritic structure. TEM shows nanoparticles which are spherical in shape and 1-10 nm in size; also, the clear lattice fringes show highly crystalline AgNPs (FCC). PMID:26682423

  5. Sensor Based on Aptamer Folding to Detect Low-Molecular Weight Analytes.

    PubMed

    Osypova, Alina; Thakar, Dhruv; Dejeu, Jérôme; Bonnet, Hugues; Van der Heyden, Angéline; Dubacheva, Galina V; Richter, Ralf P; Defrancq, Eric; Spinelli, Nicolas; Coche-Guérente, Liliane; Labbé, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Aptamers have emerged as promising biorecognition elements in the development of biosensors. The present work focuses on the application of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) for the enantioselective detection of a low molecular weight target molecule (less than 200 Da) by aptamer-based sensors. While QCM-D is a powerful technique for label-free, real-time characterization and quantification of molecular interactions at interfaces, the detection of small molecules interacting with immobilized receptors still remains a challenge. In the present study, we take advantage of the aptamer conformational changes upon the target binding that induces displacement of water acoustically coupled to the sensing layer. As a consequence, this phenomenon leads to a significant enhancement of the detection signal. The methodology is exemplified with the enantioselective recognition of a low molecular weight model compound, L-tyrosinamide (L-Tym). QCM-D monitoring of L-Tym interaction with the aptamer monolayer leads to an appreciable signal that can be further exploited for analytical purposes or thermodynamics studies. Furthermore, in situ combination of QCM-D with spectroscopic ellipsometry unambiguously demonstrates that the conformational change induces a nanometric decrease of the aptamer monolayer thickness. Since QCM-D is sensitive to the whole mass of the sensing layer including water that is acoustically coupled, a decrease in thickness of the highly hydrated aptamer layer induces a sizable release of water that can be easily detected by QCM-D. PMID:26122480

  6. Low molecular weight protamine as nontoxic heparin/low molecular weight heparin antidote (III): preliminary in vivo evaluation of efficacy and toxicity using a canine model.

    PubMed

    Lee, L M; Chang, L C; Wrobleski, S; Wakefield, T W; Yang, V C

    2001-01-01

    Heparin employed in cardiovascular surgeries often leads to a high incidence of bleeding complications. Protamine employed in heparin reversal, however, can cause severe adverse reactions. In an attempt to address this clinical problem, we developed low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) as a potentially effective and less toxic heparin antagonist. A homogeneous 1880-d peptide fragment, termed LMWP-TDSP5 and containing the amino acid sequence of VSRRRRRRGGRRRR, was derived directly from protamine by enzymatic digestion of protamine with thermolysin. In vitro studies demonstrated that TDSP5 was capable of neutralizing various anticoagulant functions of both heparin and commercial low molecular weight heparin preparations. In addition, TDSP5 exhibited significantly reduced crossreactivity toward mouse sera containing antiprotamine antibodies. TDSP5 showed a decrease in its potential in activating the complement system. All of these findings suggested the possibility of markedly reduced protamine toxicity for TDSP5. In this article, we conducted preliminary in vivo studies to further demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using LMWP as a nontoxic clinical protamine substitute. Dogs were chosen as test animals because they were known to magnify the typical human response to protamine. By using a full spectra of biological and clinical assays for heparin, including the anti-IIa and anti-Xa chromogenic assays and the activated partial, thromboplastin time and TCT clotting assays, TDSP5 showed that it could completely neutralize all these different anticoagulant functions of heparin in dogs. Although administration of protamine in dogs produced a significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (-14.9 mm Hg) and elevation in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (+5.0 mm Hg), the use of TDSP5 in dogs did not elicit any statistically significant change in any of the variables measured. Furthermore, the use of LMWP also significantly reduced the protamine

  7. A mechanism of resistance to gefitinib mediated by cellular reprogramming and the acquisition of an FGF2-FGFR1 autocrine growth loop.

    PubMed

    Ware, K E; Hinz, T K; Kleczko, E; Singleton, K R; Marek, L A; Helfrich, B A; Cummings, C T; Graham, D K; Astling, D; Tan, A-C; Heasley, L E

    2013-01-01

    Despite initial and often dramatic responses of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-addicted lung tumors to the EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), gefitinib and erlotinib, nearly all develop resistance and relapse. To explore novel mechanisms mediating acquired resistance, we employed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines bearing activating mutations in EGFR and rendered them resistant to EGFR-specific TKIs through chronic adaptation in tissue culture. In addition to previously observed resistance mechanisms including EGFR-T790M 'gate-keeper' mutations and MET amplification, a subset of the seven chronically adapted NSCLC cell lines including HCC4006, HCC2279 and H1650 cells exhibited marked induction of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) mRNA and protein. Also, adaptation to EGFR-specific TKIs was accompanied by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) as assessed by changes in CDH1, VIM, ZEB1 and ZEB2 expression and altered growth properties in Matrigel. In adapted cell lines exhibiting increased FGF2 and FGFR1 expression, measures of growth and signaling, but not EMT, were blocked by FGFR-specific TKIs, an FGF-ligand trap and FGFR1 silencing with RNAi. In parental HCC4006 cells, cell growth was strongly inhibited by gefitinib, although drug-resistant clones progress within 10 days. Combined treatment with gefitinib and AZD4547, an FGFR-specific TKI, prevented the outgrowth of drug-resistant clones. Thus, induction of FGF2 and FGFR1 following chronic adaptation to EGFR-specific TKIs provides a novel autocrine receptor tyrosine kinase-driven bypass pathway in a subset of lung cancer cell lines that are initially sensitive to EGFR-specific TKIs. The findings support FGFR-specific TKIs as potentially valuable additions to existing targeted therapeutic strategies with EGFR-specific TKIs to prevent or delay acquired resistance in EGFR-driven NSCLC. PMID:23552882

  8. Changes in the molecular weight distribution of dissolved organic carbon within a Precambrian shield stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothawala, D. N.; Evans, R. D.; Dillon, P. J.

    2006-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is of environmental and biological significance to Precambrian shield streams. Our objective was to determine the extent of transformations to the concentration and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of DOC along the length of Harp 4A stream, from the headwater swamp to the outflow into Harp Lake. The average MWD shifted to a smaller weight by 0.48 kDa. A rapid decline in the concentration and MWD of DOC was observed within 120 m from the main DOC source, a headwater swamp. The most significant decline in concentration and MWD was observed within the first of a series of three beaver ponds. DOC within waters downstream of the beaver ponds was resistant to further changes in concentration and MWD. The MWD within each of four stream sections with Hp 4a remained stable over 6 months, from May to October 2001.

  9. Capture, enrichment, and mass spectrometric detection of low-molecular-weight biomarkers with nanoporous silicon microparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jie; Zhao, Wei-Jie; Yu, Jie-Kai; Ma, Sai; Sailor, Michael J; Wu, Jian-Min

    2012-11-01

    Mining the disease information contained in the low-molecular-weight range of a proteomic profile is becoming of increasing interest in cancer research. This work evaluates the ability of nanoporous silicon microparticles (NPSMPs) to capture, enrich, protect, and detect low-molecular-weight peptides (LMWPs) sieved from a pool of highly abundant plasma proteins. The average pore size and porosity of NPSMPs are controlled by the electrochemical preparation conditions, and the critical parameters for admission or exclusion of protein with a definite molecular weight are determined by reflectometric-interference Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of the proteins captured by the NPSMPs show that the chemical nature of the NPSMPs surface and the solution pH also play vital roles in determining the affinity of NPSMPs for target analytes. It is found that carboxyl-terminated porous microparticles with a porosity of 26% (pore diameter around 9.0 nm) specifically fractionate, enrich and protect LMWPs sieved from either simulated samples or human serum samples. Moreover, NPSMPs containing captured peptides can be directly spotted onto a MALDI plate. When placed in a conventional MALDI matrix, laser irradiation of the particles results in the release of the target peptides confined in the nanopores, which are then ionized and detected in the MALDI experiment. As a proof-of-principle test case, mass spectra of NPSMPs prepared using serum from colorectal cancer patients and from control patients can be clearly distinguished by statistical analysis. The work demonstrates the utility of the method for discovery of biomarkers in the untapped LMWP fraction of human serum, which can be of significant value in the early diagnosis and management of diseases. PMID:23184826

  10. Controlling Internal Organization of Multilayer Poly(methacrylic acid) Hydrogels with Polymer Molecular Weight

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Ankner, John F.; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2015-11-16

    Here, we report on tailoring the internal architecture of multilayer-derived poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) hydrogels by controlling the molecular weight of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) in hydrogen-bonded (PMAA/PVPON) layer-by-layer precursor films. The hydrogels are produced by cross-linking PMAA in the spin-assisted multilayers followed by PVPON release. We found that the thickness, morphology, and architecture of hydrogen-bonded films and the corresponding hydrogels are significantly affected by PVPON chain length. For all systems, an increase in PVPON molecular weight from Mw = 2.5 to 1300 kDa resulted in increased total film thickness. We also show that increasing polymer Mw smooths the hydrogen-bonded film surfaces butmore » roughens those of the hydrogels. Using deuterated dPMAA marker layers in neutron reflectometry measurements, we found that hydrogen-bonded films reveal a high degree of stratification which is preserved in the cross-linked films. We observed dPMAA to be distributed more widely in the hydrogen-bonded films prepared with small Mw PVPON due to the greater mobility of short-chain PVPON. Furthermore, these variations in the distribution of PMAA are erased after cross-linking, resulting in a distribution of dPMAA over about two bilayers for all Mw but being somewhat more widely distributed in the films templated with higher Mw PVPON. Finally, our results yield new insights into controlling the organization of nanostructured polymer networks using polymer molecular weight and open opportunities for fabrication of thin films with well-organized architecture and controllable function.« less

  11. Controlling Internal Organization of Multilayer Poly(methacrylic acid) Hydrogels with Polymer Molecular Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovskaya, Veronika; Zavgorodnya, Oleksandra; Ankner, John F.; Kharlampieva, Eugenia

    2015-11-16

    Here, we report on tailoring the internal architecture of multilayer-derived poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) hydrogels by controlling the molecular weight of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) in hydrogen-bonded (PMAA/PVPON) layer-by-layer precursor films. The hydrogels are produced by cross-linking PMAA in the spin-assisted multilayers followed by PVPON release. We found that the thickness, morphology, and architecture of hydrogen-bonded films and the corresponding hydrogels are significantly affected by PVPON chain length. For all systems, an increase in PVPON molecular weight from Mw = 2.5 to 1300 kDa resulted in increased total film thickness. We also show that increasing polymer Mw smooths the hydrogen-bonded film surfaces but roughens those of the hydrogels. Using deuterated dPMAA marker layers in neutron reflectometry measurements, we found that hydrogen-bonded films reveal a high degree of stratification which is preserved in the cross-linked films. We observed dPMAA to be distributed more widely in the hydrogen-bonded films prepared with small Mw PVPON due to the greater mobility of short-chain PVPON. Furthermore, these variations in the distribution of PMAA are erased after cross-linking, resulting in a distribution of dPMAA over about two bilayers for all Mw but being somewhat more widely distributed in the films templated with higher Mw PVPON. Finally, our results yield new insights into controlling the organization of nanostructured polymer networks using polymer molecular weight and open opportunities for fabrication of thin films with well-organized architecture and controllable function.

  12. The Role of High Molecular Weight Chains in Flow-Induced Crystallization Precursor Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,L.; Somani, R.; Scis, I.; Hsiao, B.; Kolb, R.; Lohse, D.

    2006-01-01

    Flow-induced crystallization in a bimodal polyethylene blend was investigated by means of in situ shear-WAXD (wide-angle x-ray diffraction) and shear-SAXS (small-angle x-ray scattering) techniques. The blend contained a low molecular weight (M{sub w} = 50 000 g mol{sup -1} and polydispersity = 2) polyethylene copolymer matrix (MB-50k) with 2 mol% of hexene, and a nearly monodisperse high molecular weight (M{sub w} = 161 000 g mol{sup -1} and polydispersity = 1.1) hydrogenated polybutadiene component (MD-161k), which has the microstructure of an ethylene-butene copolymer with 4 mol% butene. At the experimental temperatures of 112 and 115 C, MB-50k exhibited faster crystallization kinetics and higher crystallinity due to higher chain mobility and higher ethylene content than those of the MB-50k/MD-161k blend. However, both WAXD and SAXS results indicated that the high molecular weight component (MD-161k) is responsible for the formation of more highly oriented crystals, which we relate to a shear-induced precursor scaffold. Values of the lamellar long period in all experimental runs were found to slightly decrease in the beginning of crystallization and then reached a plateau value. Vonk's method for single lamella scattering was employed to estimate the lamellar thickness in the MB-50k/MD-161k blend at high temperature (115 C), where the lamellar thickness was also found to decrease in the beginning and remained about constant afterward. Twisted lamellar structures were observed in all formed kebabs.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of bioresorbable in situ crosslinkable ultra low molecular weight poly(lactide) macromer.

    PubMed

    Jabbari, Esmaiel; He, Xuezhong

    2008-01-01

    Reactive low molecular weight poly(L-lactide) (PLA) is required to produce in situ hardened scaffolds with fast rate of crosslinking, high crosslink density, and adequate mechanical strength. The objective of this work was to synthesize unsaturated ultra low molecular weight PLA (ULMW PLA) as an injectable in situ crosslinkable macromer for biomedical applications. Low molecular weight PLA was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide (LA) using diethylene glycol (DEG) as the initiator. The molar ratio of the LA to DEG ranged from 5 to 20. Non-solvents methanol, ether, and hexane were used for purification and fractionation. The PLA samples that were precipitated in methanol and ether had narrow distributions (PDI=1.2) and resulted in a powder with M(n) of 4.8 and a wax with M(n) of 3.6 kDa, respectively. The PLA sample in which the supernatant from ether was re-precipitated in hexane produced a viscous ULMW PLA with M(n) and PDI of 1.2 kDa and 1.2, respectively. The ULMW PLA was reacted with fumaryl chloride to produce unsaturated in situ crosslinkable poly(lactide fumarate) (PLAF) macromer. Porous scaffolds were produced after injection and in situ crosslinking of the PLAF macromer with NVP crosslinker in the presence of a porogen. New bone was formed in the scaffold when it was implanted in nude mice which demonstrated that the scaffold was osteoconductive. PLAF is potentially useful as a reactive macromer in fabrication of bioresorbable injectable in situ crosslinkable scaffolds for tissue regeneration. PMID:17597374

  14. Isolation of a very high molecular weight polylactosamine from an ovarian cyst mucin of blood group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, A.S.S.; Bush, C.A.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of a blood group A active ovarian cyst mucin glycoprotein with alkaline borohydride under conditions expected to cleave-O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate chains releases a polysaccharide of average molecular weight 25,000 daltons. It contains no peptide or mannose at the 1% level and carbohydrate analysis gives fuc:galNAc:gal:glcNAc in the ratio of 1:1:2.5:2.5. The /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H NMR spectra show that the polysaccharide has non-reducing terminal side chains of the structure galNAc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 3)(fuc(..cap alpha..-1 ..-->.. 2)) gal(..beta..-1 ..-->.. 3) glcNAc (i.e. a type 1 chain). Periodate oxidation removes all the fucose and galNAc from the non-reducing terminal but leaves intact the backbone composed of ..beta..-linked gal and glcNAc as would be expected for a polylactosamine. They conclude that this is a high molecular weight polylactosamine which is related to the asparagine linked polylactosamine chains of cell surface glycoproteins which have been implicated in cell differentiation. However, the blood group A polysaccharide from the ovarian cyst mucin is unique in several respects. It has a much larger molecular weight than even the erythroglycan of the red cell membrane protein, band 3, and is linked to the protein by an -O-glycosidic bond rather than the -N-asparagine linkage of the previously known polylactosamines which have a trimannosyl core. Its blood group A side chains are on a type one core rather than type 2 which is found on other polylactosamines.

  15. Low molecular weight chitosan nanoparticulate system at low N:P ratio for nontoxic polynucleotide delivery.

    PubMed

    Alameh, Mohamad; Dejesus, Diogo; Jean, Myriam; Darras, Vincent; Thibault, Marc; Lavertu, Marc; Buschmann, Michael D; Merzouki, Abderrazzak

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural polymer, is a promising system for the therapeutic delivery of both plasmid DNA and synthetic small interfering RNA. Reports attempting to identify the optimal parameters of chitosan for synthetic small interfering RNA delivery were inconclusive with high molecular weight at high amine-to-phosphate (N:P) ratios apparently required for efficient transfection. Here we show, for the first time, that low molecular weight chitosan (LMW-CS) formulations at low N:P ratios are suitable for the in vitro delivery of small interfering RNA. LMW-CS nanoparticles at low N:P ratios were positively charged (ζ-potential ~20 mV) with an average size below 100 nm as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering and environmental scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Nanoparticles were spherical, a shape promoting decreased cytotoxicity and enhanced cellular uptake. Nanoparticle stability was effective for at least 20 hours at N:P ratios above two in a slightly acidic pH of 6.5. At a higher basic pH of 8, these nanoparticles were unravelled due to chitosan neutralization, exposing their polynucleotide cargo. Cellular uptake ranged from 50% to 95% in six different cell lines as measured by cytometry. Increasing chitosan molecular weight improved nanoparticle stability as well as the ability of nanoparticles to protect the oligonucleotide cargo from nucleases at supraphysiological concentrations. The highest knockdown efficiency was obtained with the specific formulation 92-10-5 that combines sufficient nuclease protection with effective intracellular release. This system attained >70% knockdown of the messenger RNA, similar to commercially available lipoplexes, without apparent cytotoxicity. Contrary to previous reports, our data demonstrate that LMW-CS at low N:P ratios are efficient and nontoxic polynucleotide delivery systems capable of transfecting a plethora of cell lines. PMID:22457597

  16. Common molecular weight of the androgen receptor monomer in different target tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.P.; Young, C.Y.F.; Rowley, D.R.; Tindall, D.J.

    1987-06-02

    Previously reported molecular weights for the monomeric steroid binding subunit of the androgen receptor protein have ranged from 25,000 to 167,000. The molecular weight appeared to vary among different species and target organs, as well as between different investigators. This study has examined androgen receptors from a diverse group of organs and species to determine whether these tissues share a common monomeric form. Gel filtration revealed peaks of specific (/sup 3/H)dihydrotestosterone binding activity corresponding to Stokes radii of 54, 33, and 20 A in cytosols from several tissues. Phosphocellulose chromatography diminished the appearance of the smaller androgen receptor forms and facilitated the appearance of the larger 54-A form. Mixing experiments suggested that phosphocellulose was stabilizing the 54-A form by binding putative proteases which cleave this larger form. Methods were developed to generate homogeneous preparations of a given androgen receptor size for comparative study. Sucrose density gradient analysis showed sedimentation coefficients of 4.5-5.0, 3.5-4.0, and 2.5-3.0 S, respectively. The corresponding calculated molecular weights were 109,000-121,000, 52,000-59,000, and 22,000-27,000. Scatchard analysis of each of these androgen receptor forms demonstrated very similar affinity for (/sup 3/H)dihydrotestosterone. Extensively purified preparations of androgen receptor from R3327 tumor contained varying amounts of the three receptor forms even though molybdate and phosphocellulose were used to stabilize the androgen receptor protein during purification. It is concluded that androgen receptors from a variety of tissues share a common monomeric subunit and that stabilization is necessary during analytical and purification procedures to prevent cleavage of the monomer by endogenous proteases.

  17. Preparation and evaluation a new generation of low molecular weight heparin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan; Sang, Qing; Cui, Huifei

    2016-04-01

    Enoxaparin is widely used in clinic, but it has some disadvantages. For example, its anticoagulant activity is weaker compared with heparin and it can not be effectively neutralizad by protamine sulfate (PS) in case of bleeding. Therefore, in this work, a new generation of low molecular weight heparin (NG-LMWH) was prepared.The NG-LMWH was prepared with the method of alkaline β-elimination followed by gel chromatography. Estimating the molecular weight of the NG-LMWH by GPC-HPLC, it has a remarkably low polydispersity index and narrow molecular weight distribution. The polydispersity index of NG-LMWH was 1.052, which was lower than heparin (1.5) and enoxaparin (1.279). Anti-FXa and anti-FIIa potency of NG-LMWH was much higher than that of Enoxaparin, and close to that of heparin, which was determined by chromogenic substrate method. To test the degree of anti-FXa or anti-FIIa potency neutralized by PS, equivalent anti-FXa or anti-FIIa activity doses of different anticoagulant in plasma were titrated with increasing amounts of PS in plasma. The results indicate that NG-LMWH was more efficiently neutralized by PS than enoxaparin.The efficacy of anti-thrombus of NG-LMWH was superior to enoxaparin and the effect was dose dependent, which was evaluated with rat carotid artery thrombosis and inferior vena cava thrombosis model. The results of pharmacokinetics in New Zealand rabbits showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of NG-LMWH were similar to enoxaparin. The NG-LMWH prepared in this work has both advantages of heparin and enoxaparin with more effective and safer anticoagulation than enoxaparin. PMID:27044828

  18. Physical properties of moloney murine leukemia virus high-molecular-weight RNA: a two subunit structure.

    PubMed Central

    Riggin, C H; Bondurant, M; Mitchell, W M

    1975-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight RNA of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) was analyzed by sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation. Molecular weights of 7.2 x 10(6) and 3.4 x 10(6) were found for the native and subunit forms, respectively, indicating that the native structure is a dimer. S20,w and frictional coefficients were determined for MuLV RNA by analytical velocity centrifugation as a function of ionic strength. The apparent S20,w of native MuLV RNA was 47.3, 57.4, and 66.5 in 0.01, 0.1, and 0.20 M Na+, respectively; the corresponding frictional coefficients were 5.44, 4.48, and 3.87. Native RNA was estimated by circular dichroism to be 85% helical, whereas denatured RNA was 54% helical. Thermal denaturation profiles were obtained from uv absorbance scans. Melting temperatures of 57 and 68 C were obtained for high-molecular-weight RNA in 0.01 M Na+ and 0.122 M Na+, 1mM Mg2+, respectively. van't Hoff plots of the thermal denaturation data gave enthalpies for the helix-coil transition of 21,600 cal (ca. 90,500 J) per mol of cooperatively melting unit in high salt and 19,600 cal (ca. 82,100 J) per mol in low salt, consistent with both base stacking and pairing. The melting of Mu LV RNA occurred over a broad temprange and van't Hoff plots were linear over most of the melting range, indicating a noncooperative process of helix stabilization. PMID:1202247

  19. An investigation of the preparation of high molecular weight perfluorocarbon polyethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, R. O.; Tarrant, P.

    1972-01-01

    High molecular weight perfluorocarbon polyether gums were obtained by photolysis of perfluorodienes and discyl fluorides containing a perfluorocarbon polyether backbond. The materials obtained are represented by chemical formulas. A method was developed whereby reactive acyl fluoride and trifluorovinyl end groups are converted into inert structures. In order to investigate the possible preparation of difunctional molecules which may be useful in polymer synthesis, the reactions of hexafluoropropene oxide (HFPO) with Grignard and organolithium reagents have been studied. Reactions of various nucleophilic reagents with HFPO were also investigated.

  20. Molecular weight control in organochromium olefin polymerization catalysis by hemilabile ligand–metal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Stefan; Wadepohl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Summary A series of Cr(III) complexes based on quinoline-cyclopentadienyl ligands with additional hemilabile side arms were prepared and used as single-site catalyst precursors for ethylene polymerization. The additional donor functions interact with the metal centers only after activation with the co-catalyst. Evidence for this comes from DFT-calculations and from the differing behavior of the complexes in ethylene polymerization. All complexes investigated show very high catalytic activity and the additional side arm minimizes chain-transfer reactions, leading to increase of molecular weights of the resulting polymers. PMID:27559387

  1. Development of C3-Symmetric Tris-Urea Low-Molecular-Weight Gelators.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Masamichi

    2016-04-01

    This article describes recent developments in C3 -symmetric tris-urea low-molecular-weight gelators and their applications. The C3 -symmetric tris-ureas are excellent frameworks to form supramolecular polymers through noncovalent interactions. In organic solvents, hydrophobic tris-ureas form supramolecular gels. Amphiphilic tris-ureas form supramolecular gels in aqueous media. Functional supramolecular gels were prepared by introducing appropriate functional groups into the outer sphere of tris-ureas. Supramolecular hydrogels obtained from amphiphilic tris-ureas were used in the electrophoresis of proteins. These electrophoreses results showed several unique characteristics compared to typical electrophoreses results obtained using polyacrylamide matrices. PMID:26915980

  2. Radiation cross-linking in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for orthopaedic applications

    PubMed Central

    Oral, Ebru; Muratoglu, Orhun K.

    2007-01-01

    The motivation for radiation cross-linking of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is to increase its wear resistance to be used as bearing surfaces for total joint arthroplasty. However, radiation also leaves behind long-lived residual free radicals in this polymer, the reactions of which can detrimentally affect mechanical properties. In this review, we focus on the radiation cross-linking and oxidative stability of first and second generation highly cross-linked UHMWPEs developed in our laboratory. PMID:19050735

  3. Molecular weight control in organochromium olefin polymerization catalysis by hemilabile ligand-metal interactions.

    PubMed

    Mark, Stefan; Wadepohl, Hubert; Enders, Markus

    2016-01-01

    A series of Cr(III) complexes based on quinoline-cyclopentadienyl ligands with additional hemilabile side arms were prepared and used as single-site catalyst precursors for ethylene polymerization. The additional donor functions interact with the metal centers only after activation with the co-catalyst. Evidence for this comes from DFT-calculations and from the differing behavior of the complexes in ethylene polymerization. All complexes investigated show very high catalytic activity and the additional side arm minimizes chain-transfer reactions, leading to increase of molecular weights of the resulting polymers. PMID:27559387

  4. Total internal reflection ellipsometry and SPR detection of low molecular weight environmental toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabok, A. V.; Tsargorodskaya, A.; Hassan, A. K.; Starodub, N. F.

    2005-06-01

    The environmental toxins, such as herbicides simazine and atrazine, and T2 mycotoxin were registered with the optical methods of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and recently developed total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE). The immune assay approach was exploited for in situ registration of the above low molecular weight toxins with specific antibodies immobilised onto the gold surface via (poly)allylamine hydrochloride layer using electrostatic self-assembly (ESA) technique. The comparison of two methods of SPR and TIRE shows a higher sensitivity of the latter.

  5. Study on Different Molecular Weights of Chitosan as an Immobilization Matrix for a Glucose Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Lee Fung; Por, Lip Yee; Yam, Mun Fei

    2013-01-01

    Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant () was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave

  6. Reliable low-molecular-weight heparin reversal in a child undergoing emergency surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Botros, Mena M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Costandi, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Low-molecular-weight heparin neutralization using protamine alone can be unreliable, especially in cases of immediate reversal for emergency surgery. Here, we describe a unique case of a 17-month-old girl with a history of glioneuronal tumor and corresponding hydrocephalus status post debulking and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, who was placed on enoxaparin after the development of a sagittal sinus thrombosis. Patient presented for emergency craniectomy and evacuation of subdural bleed after a fall while on therapeutic dose of enoxaparin. Protamine and fresh frozen plasma were used in the patient's perioperative course providing a reliable reversal of enoxaparin. PMID:27555185

  7. The determination of molecular weights of biologically active proteins by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Akin, D T; Shapira, R; Kinkade, J M

    1985-02-15

    A novel cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system which is useful for the separation of native forms of proteins consistent with their molecular weights is reported here. Many proteins examined in this system demonstrated the same association patterns which have been shown by other techniques to exist under nondenaturing conditions. In addition, biological activity could be assayed directly in the gel after electrophoresis. Based on the peculiar characteristics of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, a possible explanation which may account for the behavior of proteins in this system is presented. PMID:4003759

  8. A simple and practical method that prepares high molecular weight DNA ladders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-He; Yang, Rui; Wang, Tian-Yun; Dong, Wei-Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Li

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to report a simple and practical method to prepare high molecular weight (mw) DNA ladders. The method involves 1,000-4,000-base pairs (bp) DNA fragments being amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using λ DNA as a template. The constructed plasmids are digested by restriction endonucleases to produce 5-, 6-, 8- and 10-kb DNA fragments, followed by purification and precipitation with ethanol, and mixed proportionally. The 1,000-4,000-bp DNA fragments were successfully generated by PCR and 5-, 6-, 8- and 10-kb DNA fragments were obtained through the digestion of the plasmids. The bands of the prepared high mw DNA ladder were clear and may aid future molecular biology studies. PMID:22948498

  9. Preparation of high molecular weight gDNA and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries in plants.

    PubMed

    Biradar, Siddanagouda S; Nie, Xiaojun; Feng, Kewei; Weining, Song

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries are extremely valuable large-insert DNA libraries for physical mapping, positional cloning, comparative genomic analysis, complete genome sequencing, and evolutionary studies. Due to their stability and relative simplicity BAC libraries are most preferred over other approaches for cloning large genomic DNA fragments for large-insert libraries. Isolation of intact high molecular weight (HMW) DNA is a critical step underlying the success of large-insert genomic DNA library construction. It requires the isolation of purified nuclei, embedding them into LMP agarose plugs, restriction digestion of the plugs, and quite often size selection using PFGE and electro-elution of insert DNA. The construction of BAC libraries is complex and challenging for most molecular laboratories. To facilitate the construction of BAC libraries, we present a step-by-step protocol for isolation of HMW DNA and construction of plant BAC libraries. PMID:24243195

  10. Weighted Distance Functions Improve Analysis of High-Dimensional Data: Application to Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Blöchliger, Nicolas; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2015-11-10

    Data mining techniques depend strongly on how the data are represented and how distance between samples is measured. High-dimensional data often contain a large number of irrelevant dimensions (features) for a given query. These features act as noise and obfuscate relevant information. Unsupervised approaches to mine such data require distance measures that can account for feature relevance. Molecular dynamics simulations produce high-dimensional data sets describing molecules observed in time. Here, we propose to globally or locally weight simulation features based on effective rates. This emphasizes, in a data-driven manner, slow degrees of freedom that often report on the metastable states sampled by the molecular system. We couple this idea to several unsupervised learning protocols. Our approach unmasks slow side chain dynamics within the native state of a miniprotein and reveals additional metastable conformations of a protein. The approach can be combined with most algorithms for clustering or dimensionality reduction. PMID:26574336

  11. The dependency of solute diffusion on molecular weight and shape in intact bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; You, Lidan; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Wang, Liyun

    2009-01-01

    Solute transport through the bone lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) is essential for osteocyte survival and function, but quantitative data on the diffusivity of various biological molecules in the LCS are scarce. Using our recently developed approach based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), diffusion coefficients of five exogenous fluorescent tracers (sodium fluorescein, dextran-3k, dextran-10k, parvalbumin, and ovalbumin) were measured in murine tibiae in situ. These tracers were chosen to test the dependency of solute diffusion on molecular weight (376–43,000 Da) and shape (linear vs. globular). Among the five tracers, no fluorescence recovery (and thus mobility) was detected for dextran-10k and the diffusion coefficients (DLCS) of the other four tracers were 295±46, 128±32, 157±88, 65±21 µm2s−1 in the LCS, respectively. Overall, the rate of solute diffusion in the bone LCS showed strong dependency on molecular size and shape. Diffusivity decreased with increasing molecular weight for both linear and globular molecules, with the linear molecules decreasing at a faster rate. Compared with free diffusion (Dfree) in aqueous solutions, the relative diffusivities (DLCS/Dfree) of the four tracers were not significantly different for sodium fluorescein, dextran-3k, parvalbumin, and ovalbumin (55±8.6%, 68.1±17.0%, 79.7±44.7%, 61.0±19.6%, respectively). This result did not agree with the homogenous molecular sieve model proposed for the osteocytic pericellular matrix structure. Instead, a heterogeneous porous model of the pericellular matrix may account for the observed solute transport in the LCS. In summary, the present study provides quantitative data on diffusion of various nutrients and signaling molecules in the LCS that are important for bone metabolism and mechanotrusduction. PMID:19647808

  12. Studies on the low molecular weight RNA associated with 28S ribosomal RNA from Crotalus durissus terrificus liver.

    PubMed Central

    Giorgini, J F; De Lucca, F L

    1976-01-01

    A low molecular weight RNA was released from the purified rattlesnake 28 S RNA by brief heat treatment as well as by treatment with 80% dimethylsulfoxide or formamide. The sedimentation coeficient of this low molecular weight RNA was found to be 5.5 S, corresponding to a nucleotide number of 140 and a molecular weight of 46 000. It was also observed that 5.5S RNA is present in equimolar ratio to 5 S rRNA. Heat treatment of the purified 60 S ribosomal subunit also released the 5.5 S RNA. The possibility that this low molecular weight RNA is located on the surface of the large ribosomal subunit is discussed. PMID:1250695

  13. Screening for low molecular weight compounds in fish meal solubles by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple analytical method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was developed to screen for low molecular weight compounds in enzyme treated and untreated Alaskan pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) stickwater (SW) generated from processing fish meal with po...

  14. Effect of the achondroplasia mutation on FGFR3 dimerization and FGFR3 structural response to fgf1 and fgf2: A quantitative FRET study in osmotically derived plasma membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sarabipour, Sarvenaz; Hristova, Kalina

    2016-07-01

    The G380R mutation in the transmembrane domain of FGFR3 is a germline mutation responsible for most cases of Achondroplasia, a common form of human dwarfism. Here we use quantitative Fӧster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and osmotically derived plasma membrane vesicles to study the effect of the achondroplasia mutation on the early stages of FGFR3 signaling in response to the ligands fgf1 and fgf2. Using a methodology that allows us to capture structural changes on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane in response to ligand binding to the extracellular domain of FGFR3, we observe no measurable effects of the G380R mutation on FGFR3 ligand-bound dimer configurations. Instead, the most notable effect of the achondroplasia mutation is increased propensity for FGFR3 dimerization in the absence of ligand. This work reveals new information about the molecular events that underlie the achondroplasia phenotype, and highlights differences in FGFR3 activation due to different single amino-acid pathogenic mutations. PMID:27040652

  15. Dragline silk: a fiber assembled with low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh; Chuang, Tyler; Lin, Albert; Joo, Hyun; Tsai, Jerry; Crawford, Taylor; Zhao, Liang; Williams, Caroline; Hsia, Yang; Vierra, Craig

    2014-11-10

    Dragline silk has been proposed to contain two main protein constituents, MaSp1 and MaSp2. However, the mechanical properties of synthetic spider silks spun from recombinant MaSp1 and MaSp2 proteins have yet to approach natural fibers, implying the natural spinning dope is missing critical factors. Here we report the discovery of novel molecular constituents within the spinning dope that are extruded into dragline silk. Protein studies of the liquid spinning dope from the major ampullate gland, coupled with the analysis of dragline silk fibers using mass spectrometry, demonstrate the presence of a new family of low-molecular-weight cysteine-rich proteins (CRPs) that colocalize with the MA fibroins. Expression of the CRP family members is linked to dragline silk production, specifically MaSp1 and MaSp2 mRNA synthesis. Biochemical data support that CRP molecules are secreted into the spinning dope and assembled into macromolecular complexes via disulfide bond linkages. Sequence analysis supports that CRP molecules share similarities to members that belong to the cystine slipknot superfamily, suggesting that these factors may have evolved to increase fiber toughness by serving as molecular hubs that dissipate large amounts of energy under stress. Collectively, our findings provide molecular details about the components of dragline silk, providing new insight that will advance materials development of synthetic spider silk for industrial applications. PMID:25259849

  16. Examination of the change in returning molecular weight obtained during inhibitor squeeze treatments using polyacrylate based inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, G.M.; Sorbie, K.S.

    1995-11-01

    Scale inhibitors based on small polyelectrolytes are often employed in oilfield scale prevention treatments. These materials are injected into the near-well formation of producers in a scale inhibitor squeeze treatment. When the well is brought back on production, the objective is for the return concentration level of the inhibitor in the produced brine to be at or above a certain threshold level, C{sub t}. This threshold level is the minimum inhibitor concentration required to prevent the formation of mineral carbonate or sulfate scales in that well. The squeeze lifetime depends strongly on the nature of the interaction between the inhibitor and the formation either through an adsorption or precipitation mechanism. Both adsorption and precipitation processes depend on the molecular weight of the scale inhibitor, as well as on a range of other factors. However, polymeric inhibitor species always display some degree of polydispersity (spread of molecular weight). In this paper, the authors examine the effects of molecular weight on adsorption/desorption phenomena for polyacrylate based inhibitor species. This work shows that, in the inhibitor effluent after a squeeze treatment, the molecular weight of the returning inhibitor may be different from that which was injected. For commercially available polymeric inhibitor species, they demonstrate using core floods that preferential retention of higher molecular weight components occurs and preferential desorption of lower molecular weight components is observed. This leads to a gradation in molecular weight in the return profile, which can lead to increased molecular weight components returning as the inhibitor concentration approaches the threshold level. The significance of this observation to field application of polymeric inhibitor species is discussed.

  17. High Molecular Weight Typing with MALDI-TOF MS - A Novel Method for Rapid Typing of Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    Rizzardi, Kristina; Åkerlund, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile strains were typed by a newly developed MALDI-TOF method, high molecular weight typing, and compared to PCR ribotyping. Among 500 isolates representing 59 PCR ribotypes a total of 35 high molecular weight types could be resolved. Although less discriminatory than PCR ribotyping, the method is extremely fast and simple, and supports for cost-effective screening of isolates during outbreak situations. PMID:25923527

  18. Neuroprotective effects of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin in vitro and vivo models of ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-guo; Lü, Tai-sheng; Yuan, Hong-ying

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to demonstrate ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin's neuroprotective effects on ischemic injury both in vivo and in vitro studies. In vitro, the effect of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin was tested in cultured PC12 cells exposed to Earle's solution containing sodium dithionite, to identify its neuroprotection to PC12 cells damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The cell injury was detected by the tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5 diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. In vivo, male Wistar rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion were evaluated for infarct volume followed by the treatment with ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin. The results in vitro showed that ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin significantly inhibited PC12 cells damage induced by OGD. Results in vivo showed that vein injection of Ultra-Low-molecular-weight heparin at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg exerted significant neuroprotective effects on rats with focal cerebral ischemic injury by significantly reducing the infarct volume compared with the injury group. All the findings suggest that ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin might act as a neuroprotective agent useful in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. PMID:20608997

  19. Effects of Molecular Weight upon Irradiation-Cross-Linked Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Clay Aerogel Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Bing; Zhao, Yan; Shen, Peng; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Wei; Schiraldi, David A

    2015-09-16

    Facile fabrication of mechanically strong poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)/clay aerogel composites through a combination of increasing polymer molecular weights and gamma irradiation-cross-linking is reported herein. The aerogels produced from high polymer molecular weights exhibit significantly increased compressive moduli, similar to the effect of irradiation-induced cross-linking. The required irradiation dose for fabricating strong PVOH composite aerogels with dense microstructure decreased with increasing polymer molecular weight. Neither thermal stability nor flammability was significantly changed by altering the polymer molecular weight or by modest gamma irradiation, but they were highly dependent upon the polymer/clay ratio in the aerogel. Optimization of the mechanical, thermal, and flammability properties of these composite aerogels could therefore be obtained by using relatively low levels of polymer, with very high polymer molecular weight, or lower molecular weight coupled with moderate gamma irradiation. The facile preparation of strong, low flammability aerogels is an alternative to traditional polymer foams in applications where fire safety is important. PMID:26287451

  20. Anti-heparanase activity of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin produced by physicochemical depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Achour, Oussama; Poupard, Nicolas; Bridiau, Nicolas; Bordenave Juchereau, Stephanie; Sannier, Fredéric; Piot, Jean-Marie; Fruitier Arnaudin, Ingrid; Maugard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an endo-β-D-glucuronidase that plays an important role in cancer progression, in particular during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Inhibiting this enzyme is considered as one of the most promising approaches in cancer therapy. Heparin is a complex glycoaminoglycan known as a strong inhibitor of heparanase. It is primarily used in clinical practice for its anticoagulant activities, which may not be compatible with its use as anti-angiogenic agent. In this study, we described the production of ultra-low-molecular-weight heparins (ULMWH) by a physicochemical method that consists in a hydrogen peroxide-catalyzed radical hydrolysis assisted by ultrasonic waves. We assessed the structural characteristics, anticoagulant and anti-heparanase activities of the obtained heparin derivatives and compared them with three commercial low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH), glycol-split non-anticoagulant heparins and heparins produced by enzymatic methods. ULMWH generated by the physicochemical method were characterized by high anti-heparanase and moderate anticoagulant activities. These heparin derivatives might be potential candidates for cancer therapy when a compromise is needed between anti-heparanase and anticoagulant activities. PMID:26453883

  1. UV curable lens production using molecular weight controlled PEEK based acrylic oligomer (Ac-PEEK).

    PubMed

    İnan, Tulay Y; Yıldız, Emel; Karaca, Birsen; Dogan, Hacer; Vatansever, Alican; Nalbant, Muhammed; Eken, Koray

    2014-08-01

    We produced UV curable lenses with properties blocking short wave UV light. In the UV-curable formulations, we used an oligomer (Ac-PEEK) with another urethan oligomer (Mw = 2000). Radically active, molecular weight controlled Ac-PEEK was obtained by reacting 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate with molecular- weight- controlled and isocyanate terminated PEEK (Mn = 4500). We characterized all synthesized monomer, oligomer and optical materials with UV/Vis spectrophotometer with interferogram, elemental analyser, mass spectrophotometer, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatography. Results suggested that newly synthesized oligomer with the structure of PEEK absorbs short wave UV-light. Ageing tests [ISO 11979-5, Ophthalmic implants-intraocular lenses (IOL)-Part 5: Biocompatibility] performed on the IOL materials were successful. High contact angle of the obtained lenses suggests that all lenses were hydrophobic and SEM results revealed that lenses are morphologically homogeneous. Based on all positive properties just mentioned, we safely conclude that the lenses produced in this study are very promising for IOL production. PMID:24796625

  2. Assessment of molecular weight distribution of wheat gluten proteins for chapatti quality.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nisha; Dangi, Priya; Khatkar, Bhupendar Singh

    2016-05-15

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used to characterize molecular weight distribution pattern of gluten proteins of four Indian commercial wheat varieties in order to elucidate their influence on flour physicochemical, dough rheology and quality characteristics of chapatti. SEC profile of a wheat variety was segregated into five domains: peak I (130-30 kDa; glutenins), peak II (55-20 kDa; gliadins), peak III (28-10 kDa; low molecular weight gliadins), peak IV and V (<10 kDa; albumins and globulins). SEC results indicated that R/E ratio (r=0.745(∗∗) and r=-0.869(∗∗)), gluten index (r=0.959(∗∗) and r=-0.994(∗∗)), dough development time (r=0.830(∗∗) and r=-0.930(∗∗)) and dough stability (r=0.901(∗∗) and r=-0.979(∗∗)) were positively and negatively altered by peak I and II, respectively. Peak I (r=0.879(∗∗) and r=-0.981(∗∗)) and peak II (r=-0.744(∗∗) and r=0.995(∗∗)) substantially influenced the chapatti hardness and overall score, respectively. PMID:26775940

  3. Molecular weight dependence of surface flow near the bulk glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yu; Salez, Thomas; Benzaquen, Michael; Raphael, Elie; Forrest, James A.

    2014-03-01

    We present the study on molecular weight dependent sub-Tg surface dynamics of polymer thin films by using the Nano-step experiment [McGraw et al. Soft Matter 7, 7832 (2011)]. By varying the molecular weight, we are able to probe the surface dynamics of the free surface below Tg with the polymer size comparable to the surface depth. In particular, we define and use a correlation function to compare measured and calculated profiles to analyze the transition from the bulk flow to flow restricted to the surface region. Surprisingly, even for the polymers with Mw = 22,000 surface flow is still observed below the bulk Tg value. A numerical simulation of random walk is used to find the fraction of polymer of which all of the polymer segments are located in the free surface region. The simulation results indicate that there are still a significant fraction of polymer molecules where all segments are in the near free surface region. These molecules can undergo flow consistent with the experimental results.

  4. The association of low-molecular-weight hydrophobic compounds with native casein micelles in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cheema, M; Mohan, M S; Campagna, S R; Jurat-Fuentes, J L; Harte, F M

    2015-08-01

    The agreed biological function of the casein micelles in milk is to carry minerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) from mother to young along with amino acids for growth and development. Recently, native and modified casein micelles were used as encapsulating and delivery agents for various hydrophobic low-molecular-weight probes. The ability of modified casein micelles to bind certain probes may derive from the binding affinity of native casein micelles. Hence, a study with milk from single cows was conducted to further elucidate the association of hydrophobic molecules into native casein micelles and further understand their biological function. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic extraction followed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry analysis were performed over protein fractions obtained from size exclusion fractionation of raw skim milk. Hydrophobic compounds, including phosphatidylcholine, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, showed strong association exclusively to casein micelles as compared with whey proteins, whereas hydrophilic compounds did not display any preference for their association among milk proteins. Further analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected 42 compounds associated solely with the casein-micelles fraction. Mass fragments in tandem mass spectrometry identified 4 of these compounds as phosphatidylcholine with fatty acid composition of 16:0/18:1, 14:0/16:0, 16:0/16:0, and 18:1/18:0. These results support that transporting low-molecular-weight hydrophobic molecules is also a biological function of the casein micelles in milk. PMID:26074238

  5. Assembly and Characterization ofWell-DefinedHigh-Molecular-Weight Poly(p-phenylene) Polymer Brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jihua; Dadmun, Mark D; Mays, Jimmy; Messman, Jamie M; Hong, Kunlun; Britt, Phillip F; Sumpter, Bobby G; Alonzo Calderon, Jose E; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Ankner, John Francis; Bredas, Jean-Luc E; Malagoli, Massimo; Deng, Suxiang; Swader, Onome A; Yu, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    The assembly and characterization of well-de ned, end-tethered poly- (p-phenylene) (PPP) brushes having high molecular weight, low polydispersity and high 1,4-stereoregularity are presented. The PPP brushes are formed using a precursor route that relies on either self-assembly or spin coating of high molecular weight (degrees of poly- merizations 54, 146, and 238) end-functionalized poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) chains from benzene solutions onto silicon or quartz substrates, followed by aromatization of the end-attached PCHD chains on the surface. The approach allows the thickness (grafting density) of the brushes to be easily varied. The dry brushes before and after aromatization are characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, grazing angle attenuated total re ectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectros- copy. The properties of the PPP brushes are compared with those of lms made using oligo- paraphenylenes and with ab initio density functional theory simulations of optical proper- ties. Our results suggest conversion to fully aromatized, end-tetheredPPPpolymerbrusheshaving eective conjugation lengths of 5 phenyl units.

  6. Assembly and Characterization of Well Defined High Molecular Weight Poly(p-phenylene) Polymer Brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo Calderon, Jose E; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Ankner, John Francis; Britt, Phillip F; Chen, Jihua; Dadmun, Mark D; Deng, Suxiang; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Messman, Jamie M; Sumpter, Bobby; Swader, Onome A; Yu, Xiang; Bredas, Jean-Luc E; Malagoli, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The assembly and characterization of well-defined, end-tethered poly(p-phenylene) (PPP) brushes having high molecular weight, low polydispersity and high 1,4-stereoregularity are presented. The PPP brushes are formed using a precursor route that relies on either self-assembly or spin coating of high molecular weight (degrees of polymerizations 54, 146, and 238) end-functionalized poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) chains from benzene solutions onto silicon or quartz substrates, followed by aromatization of the end-attached PCHD chains on the surface. The approach allows the thickness (grafting density) of the brushes to be easily varied. The dry brushes before and after aromatization are characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, grazing angle attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The properties of the PPP brushes are compared with those of films made using oligo-paraphenylenes and with ab initio density functional theory simulations of optical properties. Our results suggest conversion to fully aromatized, end-tethered PPP polymer brushes having effective conjugation lengths of 5 phenyl units.

  7. Planar Microdevices Enhance Transport of Large Molecular Weight Molecules Across Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Jennifer S.; Desai, Tejal A.

    2014-01-01

    Large molecular weight drug delivery to the posterior eye is challenging due to cellular barriers that hinder drug transport. Understanding how to enhance transport across the retinal barrier is important for the design of new drug delivery systems. A novel mechanism to enhance drug transport is the use of geometric properties, which has not been extensively explored in the retina. Planar SU-8/ Poly(ethyleneglycol)dimethacrylate microdevices were constructed using photolithography to deliver FITC dextran across an in vitro retinal model. The model consists of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells grown to confluence on transwell inserts, which provides an environment to investigate the influence of geometry on paracellular and transcellular delivery of encapsulated large molecules. Planar microdevices enhanced transport of large molecular weight dextrans across different models of RPE in a size dependent fashion. Increased drug permeation across the RPE was observed with the addition of microdevices as compared to a traditional bolus of FITC dextran. This phenomena was initiated by a non-toxic interaction between the microdevices and the retinal tight junction proteins. Suggesting that increased drug transport occurs via a paracellular pathway. These experiments provide evidence to support the future use of planar unidirectional microdevices for delivery of biologics in ocular applications. PMID:24789225

  8. Electroejaculation increases low molecular weight proteins in seminal plasma modifying sperm quality in Corriedale rams.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, A; Manes, J; Cesari, A; Alberio, R; Hozbor, F

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seminal collection method (artificial vagina or electroejaculation) on the protein composition of seminal plasma and sperm quality parameters in Corriedale rams. To address this question, we assessed the effect of seminal collection method on motility, plasma membrane integrity and functionality, mitochondrial functionality and the decondensation state of nuclear chromatin in sperm cells. Volume, pH, osmolarity, protein concentration, total protein content and protein profile using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and 2-D polyacrylamide electrophoresis of seminal plasma collected with artificial vagina and electroejaculation were also analysed. The main findings from this study were that ejaculates obtained with electroejaculation had (i) a higher number of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane and functional mitochondria and (ii) a higher proportion of seminal plasma, total protein content and relative abundance of low molecular weight proteins than ejaculates obtained with artificial vagina. Five of these proteins were identified by mass spectrometry: binder of sperm 5 precursor; RSVP14; RSVP22; epididymal secretory protein E1 and clusterin. One protein spot with molecular weight of approximately 31 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.8 was only found in the seminal plasma from electroejaculation. PMID:24494601

  9. Low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids in marine atmospheric aerosol: evidence of a marine microbial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Sawano, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-08-01

    Lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA), which are low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids, were identified in the particle and gas phases within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the western subarctic North Pacific. A major portion of LA (81%) and GA (57%) was present in the particulate phase, which is consistent with the presence of a hydroxyl group in these molecules leading to the low volatility of the compounds. The average concentration (±SD) of LA in more biologically influenced marine aerosols (33 ± 58 ng m-3) was substantially higher than that in less biologically influenced aerosols (11 ± 12 ng m-3). Over the oceanic region of phytoplankton blooms, the concentration of aerosol LA was comparable to that of oxalic acid, which was the most abundant diacid during the study period. A positive correlation was found between the LA concentrations in more biologically influenced aerosols and chlorophyll a in seawater (r2 = 0.56), suggesting an important production of aerosol LA possibly associated with microbial (e.g., lactobacillus) activity in seawater and/or aerosols. Our finding provides a new insight into the poorly quantified microbial sources of marine organic aerosols (OAs) because such low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids are key intermediates for OA formation.

  10. Low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids in marine atmospheric aerosol: evidence of a marine microbial origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Y.; Sawano, M.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-04-01

    Lactic acid (LA) and glycolic acid (GA), which are low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids, were identified in the particle and gas phases within the marine atmospheric boundary layer over the western subarctic North Pacific. Major portion of LA (81%) and GA (57%) were present in the particulate phase, which is consistent with the presence of a hydroxyl group in these molecules leading to the low volatility of the compounds. The average concentration of LA in more biologically influenced marine aerosols (average 33 ± 58 ng m-3) was substantially higher than that in less biologically influenced aerosols (average 11 ± 12 ng m-3). Over the oceacnic region of phytoplankton blooms, the concentration of aerosol LA was comparable to that of oxalic acid, which was the most abundant diacid during the study period. A positive correlation was found between the LA concentrations in more biologically influenced aerosols and chlorophyll a in seawater (r2 = 0.56), suggesting an important production of aerosol LA possibly associated with microbial (e.g., lactobacillus) activity in seawater and/or aerosols. Our finding provides a new insight into the poorly quantified microbial sources of marine organic aerosols (OA) because such low-molecular-weight hydroxyacids are key intermediates for OA formation.

  11. Physicochemical characterization of a low-molecular-weight fructooligosaccharide from Chinese Cangshan garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Du, Weina; Bi, Hua

    2012-09-19

    A novel low-molecular-weight fructooligosaccharide (LMWF) from garlic ( Allium sativum ) was isolated and identified. The structure and physicochemical properties of the LMWF were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods, size-exclusion chromatography, atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic rheometry, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the LMWF was a neo-ketose with a molecular weight of 1770 Da. The LMWF had a (2,1)-linked β-D-Fruf backbone with (2,6)-linked β-D-Fruf side chains, and it was mainly composed of fructose. The branch degree was 18.1%, and the intrinsic viscosity was 3.06 mL/g. The spherical particles of the LMWF were observed by AFM, and their size was relatively uniform. With an increase in the water content, the peak temperature (T(p)), onset temperature (T(o)), and endset temperature (T(c)) increased, while the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔH(gel)) decreased. The LMWF was more stable at a water content of 10%. PMID:22931231

  12. Relationship of molecular weight distribution profile of unreduced gluten protein extracts with quality characteristics of bread.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nisha; Dangi, Priya; Khatkar, B S

    2016-11-01

    A statistical correlation was established among the molecular weight distribution patterns of unreduced gluten proteins and physicochemical, rheological and bread-making quality characteristics of wheat varieties. Size exclusion chromatography fractionated the gluten proteins apparently into five peaks. Peak I signified glutenins (30-130kDa), peak II as gliadins (20-55kDa), peak III as very low molecular weight monomeric gliadins (10-28kDa), peak IV and V, collectively, as albumins and globulins (<10kDa). Peaks I and II had appreciable effects on dough development time (r=0.830(∗∗) and r=-0.930(∗∗)) and dough stability (r=0.901(∗∗) and r=-0.979(∗∗)). Peak I was associated with R/E ratio (r=0.745(∗∗)), gluten index (r=0.959(∗∗)), and gliadin/glutenin ratio (r=-0.952(∗∗)), while peak II influenced inversely as expected. Peak I exhibited positive statistical significance with bread loaf volume (r=0.848(∗∗)); however, peak II had negative (r=-0.818(∗∗)) impact. Bread firmness increased with increment in peak II (r=0.625(∗∗)), and decreased with accretion in peak I (r=-0.623(∗∗)). PMID:27211654

  13. Glutathione depletion in lung cells by low-molecular-weight aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Meacher, D M; Menzel, D B

    1999-06-01

    Use of oxygenates in gasoline in the United States may increase atmospheric levels of aldehydes. To assist in health assessments of inhalation exposure to aldehydes, we studied glutathione (GSH) depletion by low-molecular-weight n-alkanals and 2-alkenals, ubiquitous air pollutants, in adult rat lung (ARL) cells by laser cytometry. For each homologous series, the effective aldehyde concentration that depleted GSH by 50% (EC50) in ARL cells correlates with published values for the median lethal dose of the chemicals and with Hammett/Taft electronic parameters, sigma* for n-alkanals and sigma(+)p for 2-alkenals. n-Alkanals (EC50, 110-400 mmol/L) were 1000 times less effective in depleting GSH than were 2-alkenals (EC50, 2-180 micromol/L), of which acrolein was the most potent. Ability of the 2-alkenals to deplete GSH follows the second-order rate constant for adduct formation. Ability of n-alkanals to deplete GSH follows chain length. Within a homologous series of low-molecular-weight aldehydes, structure-activity relationships are useful for predicting the toxicity of the aldehydes in vitro and in vivo. PMID:10580549

  14. Analysis of low molecular weight metabolites in tea using mass spectrometry-based analytical methods.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Karl; Harrison, Scott J; Lane, Geoff A; Otter, Don E; Hemar, Yacine; Quek, Siew-Young; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water and there are numerous reported health benefits as a result of consuming tea, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and many types of cancer. Thus, there is much interest in the chemical composition of teas, for example; defining components responsible for contributing to reported health benefits; defining quality characteristics such as product flavor; and monitoring for pesticide residues to comply with food safety import/export requirements. Covered in this review are some of the latest developments in mass spectrometry-based analytical techniques for measuring and characterizing low molecular weight components of tea, in particular primary and secondary metabolites. The methodology; more specifically the chromatography and detection mechanisms used in both targeted and non-targeted studies, and their main advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, we comment on the latest techniques that are likely to have significant benefit to analysts in the future, not merely in the area of tea research, but in the analytical chemistry of low molecular weight compounds in general. PMID:24499071

  15. Effects of overexpression of high molecular weight glutenin subunit 1Dy10 on wheat tortilla properties.

    PubMed

    Pierucci, Valquíria R M; Tilley, Michael; Graybosch, Robert A; Blechl, Ann E; Bean, Scott R; Tilley, Katherine A

    2009-07-22

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour properties necessary for optimal tortilla production have not been identified. Transgenic wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) overexpressing high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dy10 were used to make tortilla and their quality was evaluated. The level of HMW-GS 1Dy10 in flours derived from transgenic wheats was 2.5-5.8-fold greater than in controls. Polymeric proteins in the transgenic samples had a molecular weight distribution shifted toward larger polymers as indicated by increased levels of polymeric proteins present and greater M(w) averages of the largest fractions in the insoluble polymeric proteins. Dough derived from transgenic wheats had greater resistance to extension and lower extensibility than controls. Tortilla quality evaluation revealed that tortillas originated from transgenic wheats had decreased diameter, greater thickness and rupture force, and lower rollability scores and stretchability than controls. The presence of 1RS chromosomal translocations from rye (Secale cereale L.) in transgenic wheat decreased the negative effects of overexpression of HMW-GS 1Dy10, as tortillas made with this flour mostly exhibited quality properties similar to those made from control flour. Results suggested that the negative effects of overexpression of HMW-GS 1Dy10 on tortilla properties were derived from a nonideal gluten matrix formation. PMID:19537784

  16. Partial Hydrothermal Oxidation of High Molecular Weight Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids for Upgrading of Biodiesel Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, K.; Jin, F.; Kishita, A.; Tohji, K.; Enomoto, H.

    2007-03-01

    With increasing environmental awareness and crude oil price, biodiesel fuel (BDF) is gaining recognition as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative diesel fuel without any modification to the engine. The cold flow and viscosity of BDF, however, is a major drawback that limited its use in cold area. In this study, therefore, we investigated that partial oxidation of high molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids in subcritical water, which major compositions in BDF, to upgrade biodiesel fuel. Oleic acid, (HOOC(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7CH3), was selected as a model compound of high molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids. All experiments were performed with a batch reactor made of SUS 316 with an internal volume of 5.7 cm3. Oleic acid was oxidized at 300 °C with oxygen supply varying from 1-10 %. Results showed that a large amount of carboxylic acids and aldehydes having 8-9 carbon atoms were formed. These experimental results suggest that the hydrothermal oxidative cleavage may mainly occur at double bonds and the cleavage of double bonds could improve the cold flow and viscosity of BDF.

  17. Laser-based methods for the analysis of low molecular weight compounds in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Kiss, András; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2016-07-15

    Laser-based desorption and/or ionization methods play an important role in the field of the analysis of low molecular-weight compounds (LMWCs) because they allow direct analysis with high-throughput capabilities. In the recent years there were several new improvements in ionization methods with the emergence of novel atmospheric ion sources such as laser ablation electrospray ionization or laser diode thermal desorption and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and in sample preparation methods with the development of new matrix compounds for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Also, the combination of ion mobility separation with laser-based ionization methods starts to gain popularity with access to commercial systems. These developments have been driven mainly by the emergence of new application fields such as MS imaging and non-chromatographic analytical approaches for quantification. This review aims to present these new developments in laser-based methods for the analysis of low-molecular weight compounds by MS and several potential applications. PMID:27107904

  18. What lies beyond the eye: the molecular mechanisms regulating tomato fruit weight and shape

    PubMed Central

    van der Knaap, Esther; Chakrabarti, Manohar; Chu, Yi Hsuan; Clevenger, Josh P.; Illa-Berenguer, Eudald; Huang, Zejun; Keyhaninejad, Neda; Mu, Qi; Sun, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Wu, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Domestication of fruit and vegetables resulted in a huge diversity of shapes and sizes of the produce. Selections that took place over thousands of years of alleles that increased fruit weight and altered shape for specific culinary uses provide a wealth of resources to study the molecular bases of this diversity. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) evolved from a wild ancestor (S. pimpinellifolium) bearing small and round edible fruit. Molecular genetic studies led to the identification of two genes selected for fruit weight: FW2.2 encoding a member of the Cell Number Regulator family; and FW3.2 encoding a P450 enzyme and the ortholog of KLUH. Four genes were identified that were selected for fruit shape: SUN encoding a member of the IQD family of calmodulin-binding proteins leading to fruit elongation; OVATE encoding a member of the OVATE family proteins involved in transcriptional repression leading to fruit elongation; LC encoding most likely the ortholog of WUSCHEL controlling meristem size and locule number; FAS encoding a member in the YABBY family controlling locule number leading to flat or oxheart shape. For this article, we will provide an overview of the putative function of the known genes, when during floral and fruit development they are hypothesized to act and their potential importance in regulating morphological diversity in other fruit and vegetable crops. PMID:24904622

  19. Loss of expressions of Dusp6, Sprouty4, and Sef, negative regulators of FGF2/ERK1/2 signaling, in the endometrium of women with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiufen; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Xingbo; Fu, Yibing; Zhang, Jie; Li, Mingjiang

    2014-05-01

    Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (Dusp6), Sprouty4, and similar expression to FGF (Sef) are negative modulators of FGF2/ERK1/2 signaling. The objective of the study was to evaluate the expressions of Dusp6, Sprouty4, and Sef in eutopic endometria of patients with adenomyosis. Endometria from 30 women with adenomyosis and 29 women without adenomyosis were used in this study. The expressions of Dusp6, Sprouty4, and Sef were investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that Dusp6, Sprouty4, and Sef expressions were present in endometrial epithelial cells of normal endometria and eutopic endometria of adenomyosis. Weak immunostainings were noted in stromal cells in both endometria. No cyclical change was noted either in normal endometria or in eutopic endometria of adenomyosis during menstrual cycle. By immunohistochemical analysis, we found that eutopic endometria of adenomyosis showed significantly decreased Dusp6, Sprouty4, and Sef expressions compared with normal endometria. By in situ hybridization analysis, we found that the mRNA expressions of Dusp6, Sprouty4, and Sef were downregulated in eutopic endometria of adenomyosis compared with normal endometria. We conclude that downregulation of Dusp6, Sprouty4, and Sef--negative modulators of FGF2/ERK1/2 signaling--was present in eutopic endometria of adenomyosis, which may play critical roles in the development of adenomyosis. PMID:24681741

  20. Size-exclusion chromatography in the measurements of concentration and molecular weight of some EOR polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.A.; Young, T.S.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Procedures that involve the use of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the measurement of concentration and weight-averaged molecular weight, M-bar/sub w/, of some EOR polymers were developed and found to give improved detectability, accuracy, and/or efficiency. The separation of polymer from low-molecular-weight impurities by size allows unambiguous detection of polymer properties such as concentration and M-bar/sub w/. A combination of an SEC column of a pore size small enough to exclude the polymer totally and a mobile phase of ionic strength of 1.5 was found suitable for the separation of polyacrylamide, partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, cationic polyacrylamide derivative, and xanthan polysaccharide from impurities. Concentration detection of the separated polymer sample with a variable-wavelength ultraviolet (UV) detector was found to give superior detectability over detection by refractive index difference. A wavelength of 214 nm (2,140 A) was used for the detection of these polymers on the basis of the spectra of samples purified by dialysis. With the active polymer assay determined by reprecipitation into a nonsolvent, the detection limit by UV was determined to be <0.1 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/ for polyacrylamide and a cationic polyacrylamide derivative, <0.2 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/ for partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide, and <0.7 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/ for a xanthan polysaccharide. The linear calibration range was up to 500 ..mu..g/cm/sup 3/. The precision of the concentration measurement was better than 4% for polyacrylamide and its derivative and 5% for polysaccharide at a 95% confidence level.

  1. A novel low-molecular weight chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan isolated from cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Heinegård, D; Paulsson, M; Inerot, S; Carlström, C

    1981-01-01

    Proteoglycans were isolated from cartilage by extraction with 4M-guanidinium chloride followed by direct centrifugation in 4M-guanidinium chloride/CsCl at a low starting density, 1.34 g/ml. N-Ethylmaleimide was included in the extraction solvent as a precaution against contamination of proteoglycans with unrelated proteins mediated by disulphide exchange. A novel, discrete, low-buoyant-density proteoglycan (1.40--1.35 g/ml) was demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Its proteoglycan nature was revealed by the shift in the molecular size observed on gel electrophoresis after treatment with chondroitinase ABC. The core protein was monodisperse. The proteoglycan was further purified by gel chromatography with and without addition of hyaluronate. The proteoglycan constitutes less than 2% (by weight) of the total extracted proteoglycans and is not capable of interacting with hyaluronate. The same proteoglycan was purified in larger quantities by sequential associative and dissociative CsCl-density-gradient centrifugation, zonal rate sedimentation in a sucrose gradient and gel chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B. The pure proteoglycan had a molecular weight of 76 300 determined by sedimentation-equilibrium centrifugation and an apparent partial specific volume of 0.59 ml/g. It contained about 25% protein (of dry weight) and had remarkably high contents of leucine and cysteine as compared with other proteoglycans. The proteoglycan contained two to three large chondroitin sulphate chains and some oligosaccharides. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6798963

  2. Preparation and application of low molecular weight poly(vinyl chloride). III mechanical properties of blended poly(vinyl chloride)

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Kikuo; Maehala, Takashi; Mitani, Katsuo; Mizutani, Yukio )

    1993-11-05

    The blending effect of poly(vinyl chloride) with relatively higher molecular weight (HMW-PVC) and relatively lower molecular weight (LMW-PVC) has been investigated by measuring various mechanical properties: melt properties, tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength. The blended PVC has slightly improved melt properties in comparison with the HMW-PVC used. The tensile strength of the blended PVC is related to the weight-average polymerization degree (Pw) of LMW-PVC and the LMW-PVC content. At the LMW-PVC content of 20%, the tensile strength of blended PVC is a maximum: approximately 58 MPa.

  3. Holographic studies of azobenzene-containing low-molecular-weight organic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audorff, Hubert; Walker, Roland; Kador, Lothar; Schmidt, Hans-Werner

    2009-02-01

    The formation of phase and surface relief gratings in low-molecular-weight organic glasses containing azobenzene moieties has been studied with holographic methods. Advantages of this class of materials are the simple synthesis, the perfectly amorphous phase, and the possibility of blending them with polymers. Surface relief gratings are formed very efficiently in molecular glasses, and this process can be explained by the gradient force model. Heights up to 610 nm were measured; the temporal evolution of the diffraction efficiency could be reproduced in computer simulations. For technical applications, the surface relief gratings can easily be duplicated by replica molding. Since surface gratings are detrimental to holographic data storage at high densities, it is also possible to suppress their formation by using proper polarizations of the writing beams. Reorientation of the azobenzene groups in the bulk of the glasses and angular multiplexing was demonstrated and the thermal stability of the corresponding phase gratings was studied. Different combinations of molecular cores and substituents at the azobenzene moieties were investigated to find the best systems which yield a high sensitivity and fast grating build-up.

  4. Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin and Unfractionated Heparin Decrease Th-1, 2, and 17 Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing-Ning; Tsai, Ming-Chin; Fang, Shun-Lung; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr; Wu, Yu-Rou; Tsai, Jaw-Ji; Fu, Lin-Shien; Lin, Heng-Kuei; Chen, Yi-Jun; Li, Tsai-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated the effects of T helper cell differentiation in a mite-allergic animal model treated with inhaled heparins of different molecular weight. Method BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: 1. Control, 2. Mite intratracheal (mIT), 3. Inhaled heparin (hIN), 4. Inhaled low-molecular-weight heparin (lmwhIN). Groups 2, 3, and 4 were sensitized twice with Der p allergen subcutaneously on day 1 and day 8. Der p allergen was administered intratracheally on day 15. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with heparin or low-molecular-weight (lmw) heparin intranasally from day 1 to 22. Splenocytes from sacrificed mice stimulated with 16 µg/ml of Der p were cultured for 72 hours. Supernatants of splenocyte were collected to analyze the effect of Interleukin (IL)17-A/F, Interferon(IFN)-γ, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10. Serum was also collected for Der P-specific IgE level on day 23. Total RNA was extracted from spleen tissue for mRNA expression. Gene expression of Foxp3, IL-10 IFN-γ, GATA3, IL-5, and RORγt were analyzed. Results Both hIN and lmwhIN groups had lower serum IgE level than that of the mIT group (both p<0.0001). Both hIN and lmwhIN groups showed significantly decreased transcripts of GATA-3, IFN-γ, IL-5, and RORγt mRNA in their spleen. Regarding the supernatant of splenocyte culture stimulated with Der p, compared with the mIT group, there were significant decreases in IL-17A/F, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10 secretion in inhaled hIN and lmwhIN groups. Conclusions From this balb/c mice study, the analyses of mRNA and cytokines revealed that both intranasal heparin and lmw heparin treatment decreased the expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 in spleen. The underlying mechanism(s) warrant further studies. PMID:25364825

  5. Synthesis and characterization of sugar based low molecular weight gelators and the preparation of chiral sulfinamides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangunuru, Hari Prasad Reddy

    Low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) have received considerable attention in the field of chemistry from last few decades. These compounds form self-assembled fibrous networks like micelles, cylindrical, sheets, fibers, layers and so on. The fibrous network entraps the solvent and forms gel, because of the self-assembly phenomenon and their demonstrated potential uses in a variety of areas, ranging from environmental to medicinal applications. Sugars are good starting materials to synthesize the new class of LMWG's, because these are different from some expensive materials, these are natural products. We have synthesized and characterized the LMGS's based on D-glucose and D-glucosamine. D-glucosamine is the versatile starting material to make different peptoids and triazoles. Several series of compounds were synthesized using compounds 1-3 as starting material and studied the gelation behavior all the compounds. We have studied the self-assembling properties of a new class of tripeptoids, synthesized by one-pot Ugi reaction from simple starting materials. Among the focused library of tripeptoids synthesized, we found that several efficient low molecular weight organogelators were obtained for aqueous DMSO and ethanol mixtures. We have also synthesized and characterized a series of monosaccharide triazole derivatives. These compounds were synthesized from N-acetyl glucosamine and D-glucose via a Cu(I) catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAc). The compounds have been screened for their gelation properties and several efficient low molecular weight organo/hydro gelators were obtained, among these compounds, five per-acetyl glucosamine derivatives and one peracetyl glucose derivative were able to form gels in water. These new molecules are expected to be useful in drug delivery and tissue engineering.*. Asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines is a challenging in synthetic organic chemistry. The development of new catalysts for asymmetric organic

  6. Effect of sodium polyacrylate molecular weight on the crystallogenesis of calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jada, A.; Ait Akbour, R.; Jacquemet, C.; Suau, J. M.; Guerret, O.

    2007-08-01

    Aqueous solutions of sodium polyacrylates (NaPA) series having molecular weights ( Mw) ranging from 2540 to 9890 g mol -1 are used as precipitation media to control the size and shape of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) particles. The retarding effect of polyacrylates on CaCO 3 nucleation is evidenced by the increase of the induction time, τ, of the precipitated CaCO 3, from τ=55 s in the absence of additives, to τ values in the range 100-2500 s in the presence of NaPA samples. The data also show the coexistence of two polymorphs, calcite and vaterite, for CaCO 3 particles as prepared in the presence of NaPA samples. The vaterite fraction, fv, varies in all instances with the polymer concentration, Cpoly (g. L -1), and reaches its maximum value, fv,max at optimal ratio, R (mol. g -1), of Ca ion to polymer (NaPA), R=[Ca]/([NaPA]=Cpoly). No simple general trend is found to explain the influence of the molecular weight ( Mw) of NaPA on the induction time, τ, and on the vaterite fraction, fv, since these two parameters are found to vary with Cpoly and Mw. However, under certain experimental conditions, an optimum polymer molecular weight ( Mw=5530 g mol -1) of the NaPA series, gives the highest values of fv,max and τ. Such optimum indicates the influence of Mw of NaPA on CaCO 3 nucleation and growth, and it is related to the surface density and the rate of adsorption of the polymer onto the growing crystal. The CaCO 3 particle size is reduced from about 20 μm, as obtained in the control experiment, to sizes varying in the range 2-8 μm in the presence NaPA samples. Polymers having low Mw values ( Mw<5000 g mol -1) are found to be more efficient in reducing the CaCO 3 particle size.

  7. Vapor-pressure osmometric study of the molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid in Armadale horizon Bh were determined by vapor-pressure osmometry using tetrahydrofuran and water as solvents. With tetrahydrofuran, number-average molecular weight values of 767 ?? 34 and 699 ?? 8 daltons were obtained from two separate sets of measurements. Two sets of measurements with water also yielded values within this range (754 ?? 70 daltons) provided that the fulvic acid concentration in water did not exceed 7 mg ml-1; at higher concentrations (9.1-13.7 mg ml-1) a number-average molecular weight of 956 ?? 25 daltons was resolved, providing evidence of molecular aggregation. Extension of these studies to 80% neutralized fulvic acid showed that a sizeable fraction of the sodium counter ion is not osmotically active.

  8. Hydrodynamic force depends not only on the viscosity of solution but also on the molecular weights of viscogens.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunmei; Zou, Dawei; Qin, Meng; Meng, Wei; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei

    2013-08-27

    Many cellular processes, such as the diffusion of biomacromolecules, the movement of molecular motors, and the conformational dynamics of proteins, are subjected to hydrodynamic forces because of the high viscosities of cellular environments. However, it is still unknown how hydrodynamic forces are related to the physical properties of different viscogens. Here, using the atomic force microscope-based force spectroscopy technique, we directly measured the hydrodynamic forces acting on a moving cantilever in various viscogen solutions. We found that the hydrodynamic force is not only dependent on the viscosity but also related to the molecular weight of viscogens. Counterintuitively, at the same macroscopic viscosity, the hydrodynamic force rises with the increasing molecular weight of viscogens, although the local microscopic viscosity of the solution decreases. This finding provides insights into the origin of hydrodynamic forces in biomolecule solutions and could inspire many force-spectroscopy-based techniques to measure the molecular weight and conformational changes of biomacromolecules in biological settings directly. PMID:23944228

  9. Probing the molecular weight distributions of non-boiling petroleum fractions by Ag+ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roussis, Stilianos G; Proulx, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This work explores the possibility of Ag+ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to determine the molecular weight distributions of non-boiling petroleum fractions. Information about the molecular weight distributions is needed for fundamental studies on the nature of heavy crude oils and bitumens and for the development of novel recovery and processing methods. The method does not depend on thermal processes for the introduction of the fractions into the gas phase of the mass spectrometer, which is a considerable advantage over most other ionization methods. The Ag+ electrospray mass spectra of the fractions analyzed by using a toluene/methanol/cyclohexane (60:28:12%) solvent system display bimodal distributions in the ranges m/z approximately 300 to approximately 3000 and m/z 3000 to approximately 20,000. The abundances of the high molecular weight peak distributions can be reduced by in-source collisional activation experiments. Comparisons with the results obtained for model heteroatom-containing compounds (molecular weight < 600 Da) and high molecular weight polystyrene standards (up to one million Da) indicate that the majority of the structures in the saturate, naphthenoaromatic and polar aromatic fractions, and a significant portion of the asphaltenes, are small molecules. However, a considerable portion of the asphaltenes and some portion of the other fractions contain high molecular weight structures bound by covalent or strong non-covalent bonds. The results obtained by the Ag+ ESI method in this study for the saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions in a bitumen are in qualitative agreement with published molecular weight average results obtained for Cold Lake bitumen fractions analyzed by conventional gel permeation chromatography and field desorption mass spectrometry. Further work is needed to study the nature of the bonds and the interactions of the molecules in the asphaltene fractions by Ag+ ESI-MS. PMID:15282776

  10. Surface engineering on mesoporous silica chips for enriching low molecular weight phosphorylated proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ye; Peng, Yang; Lin, Kevin; Shen, Haifa; Brousseau, Louis C., III; Sakamoto, Jason; Sun, Tong; Ferrari, Mauro

    2011-02-01

    Phosphorylated peptides and proteins play an important role in normal cellular activities, e.g., gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. However, technical hurdles hinder the use of common fractionation methods to capture phosphopeptides from complex biological fluids such as human sera. Herein, we present the development of a dual strategy material that offers enhanced capture of low molecular weight phosphoproteins: mesoporous silica thin films with precisely engineered pore sizes that sterically select for molecular size combined with chemically selective surface modifications (i.e. Ga3+, Ti4+ and Zr4+) that target phosphoroproteins. These materials provide high reproducibility (CV = 18%) and increase the stability of the captured proteins by excluding degrading enzymes, such as trypsin. The chemical and physical properties of the composite mesoporous thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Using mass spectroscopy and biostatistics analysis, the enrichment efficiency of different metal ions immobilized on mesoporous silica chips was investigated. The novel technology reported provides a platform capable of efficiently profiling the serum proteome for biomarker discovery, forensic sampling, and routine diagnostic applications.Phosphorylated peptides and proteins play an important role in normal cellular activities, e.g., gene expression, mitosis, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. However, technical hurdles hinder the use of common fractionation methods to capture phosphopeptides from complex biological fluids such as human sera. Herein, we present the development of a dual strategy material that offers enhanced capture of low molecular weight phosphoproteins: mesoporous

  11. Low molecular weight fucoidan modulates P-selectin and alleviates diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Luo, Dali; Wang, Jing; Duan, Delin

    2016-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication that can lead to chronic and end-stage renal failure. It is understood that inflammation is associated with the onset and process of DN. Low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) isolated from Saccharina japonica has anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of LMWF in DN model induced by streptozotocin. The biochemical indices levels showed LMWF reduced the DN diagnostic indices to protect renal function. The HE stained sections exhibited LMWF protected normal morphological structures and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the kidneys of DN rats. Furthermore, the levels of P-selectin and selectin-dependent inflammatory cytokines resulting from LMWF were obviously decreased at both the transcriptional and protein levels. Thus, our results found that LMWF protected the renal function in DN rats and alleviated inflammation through the modulation of P-selectin and inflammatory cytokines. LMWF may have therapeutic potential against DN. PMID:27234491

  12. Friction, wear, transfer and wear surface morphology of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Tribological studies at 25 C in a 50-percent-relative-humidity air atmosphere were conducted using hemispherically tipped 440 C HT (high temperature) stainless steel pins sliding against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disks. The results indicate that sliding speed, sliding distance, contact stress and specimen geometry can markedly affect friction, UHMWPE wear, UHMWPE transfer and the type of wear mechanisms that occur. Adhesion appears to be the predominant wear mechanism; but after long sliding distances at slow speeds, heavy ridges of transfer result which can induce fatigue-like wear on the UHMWPE disk wear track. In one instance, abrasive wear to the metallic pin was observed. This was caused by a hard particle embedded in the UHMWPE disk wear track.

  13. Reversible Masking Using Low-Molecular-Weight Neutral Lipids to Achieve Optimal-Targeted Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Nancy Smyth; Senzer, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous injection of therapeutics is required to effectively treat or cure metastatic cancer, certain cardiovascular diseases, and other acquired or inherited diseases. Using this route of delivery allows potential uptake in all disease targets that are accessed by the bloodstream. However, normal tissues and organs also have the potential for uptake of therapeutic agents. Therefore, investigators have used targeted delivery to attempt delivery solely to the target cells; however, use of ligands on the surface of delivery vehicles to target specific cell surface receptors is not sufficient to avoid nonspecific uptake. PEGylation has been used for decades to try to avoid nonspecific uptake but suffers from many problems known as “The PEGylation Dilemma.” We have solved this dilemma by replacing PEGylation with reversible masking using low-molecular-weight neutral lipids in order to achieve optimal-targeted delivery solely to target cells. Our paper will focus on this topic. PMID:22655199

  14. Intentional low-molecular-weight heparin overdose: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michael; Zumberg, Marc

    2012-12-01

    The reversal of low-molecular-weight heparins, particularly at supratherapeutic levels, remains challenging. The paucity of literature available to guide the treatment of these patients makes their management difficult for primary care providers, surgeons, and subspecialists alike. We report the case of a 34-year-old woman, who intentionally overdosed on enoxaparin (Lovenox) in a suicide attempt. Her initial antifactor Xa activity level was 8.3 IU/ml, the highest level reported in the literature to date. She was initially managed conservatively, however, within 24 h of admission she developed evidence of acute blood loss. Protamine sulfate and three doses of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) were administered in an effort to control bleeding. We report the effects of these measures and review the literature to date. Our study is one of the first to graph in-vivo antifactor Xa activity levels and to suggest a drug half-life of approximately 25 h. PMID:23135382

  15. Detection of peroxy species in ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chenery, D H

    1997-03-01

    Samples of gamma-sterilized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) have been examined using infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Infrared spectra of microtomed sections of a thick segment of material exhibited carbonyl bands whose intensity was consistent with published data. Raman spectroscopy has been used for the first time to detect oxidized precursors to the commonly found carbonyl species. Gamma-sterilized plates examined as soon as possible after sterilization exhibited bands consistent with epoxide, alcohol and three different peroxy-containing species. The detection of these species in irradiated UHMWPE is reported for the first time and demonstrates that oxidation of this material proceeds via a gamma-induced free radical mechanism, as has been widely assumed. PMID:9061182

  16. Toxicological Evaluation of Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Pai-An; Yan, Ming-De; Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Li, Kuan-Lun; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, fucoidan has been well known for its pharmacological activities, and recently low molecular weight fucoidan (LMF) has been used in food supplements and pharmaceutical products. In the present study, LMF was extracted from Laminaria japonica by enzyme hydrolysis. The toxicity of LMF in mouse and rat models was determined by many methods, such as total arsenic content, bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosome aberration assay, and in vivo micronucleus assay. The present findings showed that LMF at 5000 μg/mL exhibited no mutagenicity. It also produced no formatting disruption of red blood cells in vivo. At 2000 mg/kg BW/day there were no toxicological indications. LMF is expected to be used as a safe food supplement. PMID:27347980

  17. Evaluation of molecular weight distribution of unreduced wheat gluten proteins associated with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Nisha; Dangi, Priya; Khatkar, B S

    2016-06-01

    Unreduced gluten proteins of Indian wheat varieties viz.C306, DBW16, HI977 and HW2004 were separated using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Statistical correlation of area % of eluted peaks with properties of flour, dough and noodles was elucidated. Chromatograms of gluten proteins were classified primarily into five peaks in decreasing molecular size range and relative proportion were expressed in terms of area % of individual peaks which depicts the quantitative variation in protein eluted at different retention times. Cooking time and cooked weight of noodles depicted positive correlation with peak I and negative correlation with peak II which predominantly composed of glutenins and gliadins, respectively. Oil uptake and cooking loss were negatively association with peak I and positively with peak II. Noodle hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness were positively correlated with peak I and negatively to peak II, though adhesiveness was unaffected by SEC eluted peaks statistically. PMID:27478225

  18. Equal channel angular extrusion of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Steven D; Engler, Alexander J; Carlson, Evan M; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common bearing surface in total joint arthroplasty, is subject to material property tradeoffs associated with conventional processing techniques. For orthopaedic applications, radiation-induced cross-linking is used to enhance the wear resistance of the material, but cross-linking also restricts relative chain movement in the amorphous regions and hence decreases toughness. Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) is proposed as a novel mechanism by which entanglements can be introduced to the polymer bulk during consolidation, with the aim of imparting the same tribological benefits of conventional processing without complete inhibition of chain motion. ECAE processing at temperatures near the crystalline melt for UHMWPE produces (1) increased entanglements compared to control materials; (2) increasing entanglements with increasing temperature; and (3) mechanical properties between values for untreated polyethylene and for cross-linked polyethylene. These results support additional research in ECAE-processed UHMWPE for joint arthroplasty applications. PMID:27287161

  19. Systematic synthesis of low-molecular weight fucoidan derivatives and their effect on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Akihiro; Arafuka, Shinsuke; Koshiba, Nozomi; Takahashi, Daisuke; Toshima, Kazunobu

    2015-11-14

    Low-molecular weight type I and II fucoidan derivatives with different sulfation patterns were designed and systematically synthesized from the corresponding common key intermediate and their anti-proliferative activities and apoptosis-inducing activities against human breast cancer (MCF-7) and human cervical epithelioid carcinoma (HeLa) cells were evaluated. Our results demonstrated that one of the type II fucoidan derivatives, 9, effectively reduced the number of viable MCF-7 and HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner without causing cytotoxicity toward normal WI-38 cells, and that the anti-proliferative activity of 9 was comparable to that of fucoidan 2 isolated from Fucus vesiculosus. Moreover, it was found that both 2 and 9 exhibited similar apoptosis-inducing activities through activation of caspase-8 and -9 on MCF-7 and HeLa cells, respectively. PMID:26340595

  20. Organic molecules in the atmosphere of Jupiter. [low molecular weight hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponnamperuma, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Organic synthesis in the primitive solar system was simulated by Fischer Tropsch type experiments. Particular attention was given to the formation of lower molecular weight hydrocarbons. In a gas flow experiment, a gas mixture of H2 and CO was introduced into a heated reaction tube at a constant flow rate and passed through a catalyst (powdered Canyon Diablo). The products that emerged were directly analyzed by gas chromatography. The results of 21 runs under various gas mixing rations, reaction temperatures, and gas-catalyst contact times showed the predominance of the saturated hydrocarbon formation at C sub 4 and C sub 5 over the unsaturated ones. Saturate/unsaturate ratios were mostly less than 0.4 and none showed over 0.7.

  1. Detection of the 43,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein in sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Giannini, M J; Bueno, J P; Shikanai-Yasuda, M A; Ferreira, A W; Masuda, A

    1989-01-01

    The 43,000-molecular-weight (43K) soluble glycoprotein was detected in sera of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis by the immunoblot technique by using as the probe rabbit monospecific antisera to this fraction. The 43K antigen was present before treatment in sera of patients with the acute (juvenile) form; it started to disappear from circulation after 10 months of chemotherapy, and it was undetectable after 2 years of treatment. In the chronic cases, the 43K antigen was detected in patients without treatment, and it was absent in the healed cases. The detection of the 43K protein specific to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis may be important for its diagnostic value as well as for modulation of the host immune response. Images PMID:2592544

  2. Kinetics of enzymatic starch liquefaction: simulation of the high molecular weight product distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Rollings, J.E.; Thompson, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Enzymatic corn starch liquefaction with alpha-amylase was carried out. Molecular weight distributions of the resulting hydrolysates are presented using aqueous size exclusion chromatographic techniques. It is demonstrated that despite the fact that the enzyme employed reacts in a random endoacting manner, the product distributions are nonrandom. The results are explained in part by a multimerization process whereby the polymeric substrate molecules preferentially associate, forming intermolecular aggregates. These aggregates are either a consequence of the manner in which the material is deposited into the native granular structure of starch or due to intrinsic physical chemical properties of the polysaccharide. In the latter case, the results are shown to correspond to known multimerized amylose, although complete characterization of the polysaccharide is currently not available. The results presented are used to develop a simplified kinetic model of starch liquefaction and shown to simulate the product distributions accurately. 44 references.

  3. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry of low molecular weight synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Anthony T; Williams, Jonathan P; Scrivens, James H

    2006-01-01

    A range of low molecular weight synthetic polymers has been characterised by means of desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) combined with both mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Accurate mass experiments were used to aid the structural determination of some of the oligomeric materials. The polymers analysed were poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(alpha-methyl styrene). An application of the technique for characterisation of a polymer used as part of an active ingredient in a pharmaceutical tablet is described. The mass spectra and tandem mass spectra of all of the polymers were obtained in seconds, indicating the sensitivity of the technique. PMID:16912984

  4. Low-molecular-weight thiols in plants: functional and analytical implications.

    PubMed

    Pivato, Micaela; Fabrega-Prats, Marta; Masi, Antonio

    2014-10-15

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols are a class of highly reactive compounds massively involved in the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. They are implicated in plant responses to almost all stress factors, as well as in the regulation of cellular metabolism. The most studied LMW thiols are glutathione and its biosynthetically related compounds (cysteine, γ-glutamylcysteine, cysteinylglycine, and phytochelatins). Other LMW thiols are described in the literature, such as thiocysteine, cysteamine, homocysteine, lipoic acid, and many species-specific volatile thiols. Here, we review the known LMW thiols in plants, briefly describing their physico-chemical properties, their relevance in post-translational protein modification, and recently-developed thiol detection methods. Current research points to a huge thiol biodiversity in plants and many species-specific and organ-specific thiols remain to be identified. Recent advances in technology should help researchers in this very challenging task, helping us to decipher the roles of thiols in plant metabolism. PMID:25057770

  5. Tribological behavior of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in a hip joint simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad Raffi, N.; Kanagarajan, D.; Srinivasan, V.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper effects of various injection molding parameters on tribological properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were investigated. The tribological properties like coefficient of friction and wear rate were obtained from the experimental results of hip simulator which was designed and fabricated in the laboratory. Bovine serum was used as a lubricant in this study. In addition, the hardness of the specimen was also investigated as well. The injection molding parameters that varied for this study are melt temperature, injection velocity and compaction time. The results show that contact loads and melt temperature were mostly influenced the tribological behavior of UHMWPE. A wear mechanism map was developed to study the dominant wear mechanism that influences the wear behavior of UHMWPE. SEM was employed to study the worn out morphologies of UHMWPE. The dominant wear mechanisms that are dominated through our study are ironing, scratching, ploughing, plastic deformation, and fatigue wear.

  6. Preparation, tribological properties and biocompatibility of fluorinated graphene/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Zheng, Y.; Yan, Z.; Zhang, W.; Shi, J.; Zhou, F.; Zhang, X.; Wang, J.; Zhang, J.; Liu, B.

    2016-05-01

    Fluorinated graphene (FG)/ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) composites were successfully prepared by ultrasonic dispersion and liquid thermoforming method. The mechanical and tribological properties of pure UHMWPE and FG/UHMWPE composites were investigated using micro-hardness tester and high-speed reciprocating friction tester. The results showed that: adding FG could not only increase the micro-hardness of the composites, but also decrease the wear volume of the composite significantly. The friction coefficients of the composites were also reduced with the increasing of FG content. In addition, the MC3T3-E1 cells adhered and grew well on the surface of the FG/UHMWPE composites as observed by SEM and fluorescence microscope, indicating the addition of FG did not affect the morphology and activity of the cells. The FG/UHMWPE composites exhibited excellent mechanical properties, tribological properties and biocompatibility, which could be used as the potential artificial joint replacement material.

  7. High performance carbon fibers from very high molecular weight polyacrylonitrile precursors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morris, E. Ashley; Weisenberger, Matthew C.; Abdallah, Mohamed G.; Vautard, Frederic; Grappe, Hippolyte A.; Ozcan, Soydan; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Eberle, Cliff; Jackson, David C.; Mecham, Sue J.; et al

    2016-02-02

    In this study, carbon fibers are unique reinforcing agents for lightweight composite materials due to their outstanding mechanical properties and low density. Current technologies are capable of producing carbon fibers with 90-95% of the modulus of perfect graphite (~1025 GPa). However, these same carbon fibers possess less than 10% of the theoretical carbon fiber strength, estimated to be about 100 GPa.[1] Indeed, attempts to increase carbon fiber rigidity results in lower breaking strength. To develop advanced carbon fibers with both very high strength and modulus demands a new manufacturing methodology. Here, we report a method of manufacturing high strength, verymore » high modulus carbon fibers from a very high molecular weight (VHMW) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor without the use of nanomaterial additives such as nucleating or structure-templating agents, as have been used by others.[2,3]« less

  8. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  9. Fine microstructure of processed chitosan nanofibril networks preserving directional packing and high molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Madrazo, Anayancy; David, Laurent; Peniche-Covas, Carlos; Rochas, Cyrille; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Trombotto, Stéphane; Alcouffe, Pierre; Domard, Alain

    2015-10-20

    Crystalline chitosan nanofibril networks were prepared, preserving the native structural packing and the polymer high molecular weight. The fine microstructure of the nanomaterial, obtained by mild hydrolysis of chitosan (CHI), was characterized by using synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction. Hydrolysis of chitosan yielded a network of crystalline nanofibrils, containing both allomorphs of chitosan: hydrated and anhydrous. The comparison of WAXS data in transmission and reflection mode revealed the preferential orientation of the CHI crystals when subjected to mechanical compression constrains. The results are in agreement with the existence of a network nanostructure containing fiber-like crystals with the principal axis parallel to the polymer chain axis. The evolution of the CHI allomorphic composition with temperature was studied to further elucidate the mechanism of structural transitions occurring during CHI nanofibril network processing. PMID:26256153

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydroxyapatite plates prepared using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH).

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, A; Kumar, V Ganesh; Karthick, V; Dhas, T Stalin; Potluri, Sri Lakshmi

    2013-11-01

    Materials with enhanced physical and biological properties have been used for biomedical applications and can be developed by functionalizing them using various components. Hydroxyapatite (HAP), among other available synthetic material, serves as one of the best tools in orthopaedics and ceramic coatings. The porous structure of HAP helps in bone cell regeneration, chemical integration of bone and also favours the interaction between bone and tissues. Herein, we have demonstrated a simple procedure for the synthesis of HAP using low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), a structural analogue of bone heparan sulphate proteoglycan. The presence of small sized HAP plates with well-defined structures was revealed using electron microscopic analysis. The phase purity of the synthesized HAP was evaluated using X-ray diffraction pattern obtained before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). PMID:23871522

  11. Antioxidation activities of low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Tang, Qingjuan; Wang, Yi; Chang, Yaoguang; Zhao, Qin; Xue, Changhu

    2010-03-01

    Gelatin extracted from the body wall of the sea cucumber ( Stichopus japonicus) was hydrolyzed with flavourzyme. Low-molecular-weight gelatin hydrolysate (LMW-GH) of 700-1700 Da was produced using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor system. Chemiluminescence analysis revealed that LMW-GH scavenges high free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner; IC50 value for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals was 442 and 285 μg mL-1, respectively. LMW-GH exhibited excellent inhibitory characteristics against melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Furthermore, LMW-GH notably increased intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in turn suppressed melanogenesis. LMW-GH performs antioxidation activity, holding the potential of being used as a valuable ingredient in function foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals or nutriceuticals.

  12. Low-molecular-weight heparins in the treatment of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Ageno , Walter; Huisman, Menno V

    2000-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism is a common disease that is associated with considerable morbidity if left untreated. Recently, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) have been evaluated for use in acute treatment of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Randomized studies have shown that LMWHs are as effective as unfractionated heparin in the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism, and are as safe with respect to the occurrence of major bleeding. A pooled analysis did not show substantial differences among different LMWH compounds used, but no direct comparison of the different LMWHs is currently available. Finally, in patients with pulmonary embolism, there is a relative lack of large studies of daily practice. It could be argued that large prospective studies, in patients who were treated with LMWHs from the moment of diagnosis, are needed. PMID:11714421

  13. Molecular weight: Property relationships of high performance polymers used for adhesives and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.

    1975-01-01

    Degradation of high performance polyimide precursor resins was investigated by measuring the molecular weight of the polymers in solution, using a membrane osmometer. It was found that polyimide precursor resins composed of BTDA and ODPA combined with DABP and MDA were unstable in DMAC. The degradation rate was found to depend upon the chemical nature of the isomeric diamine and the geometric structure about the amide linkage. The polymers of DABP were less susceptible to degradation than those of MDA and p,p'-compounds were more stable than m,m'-compounds. These results suggest that degradation is correlated with the basicity of the diamine. That is, the rate of the degradation reaction increases with the basicity of the diamine group in the polyimide precursor resin. The presence of water and a higher temperature increased the degradation rate of the polymers.

  14. Friction, wear, transfer, and wear surface morphology of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological studies at 25 C in a 50-percent-relative-humidity air atmosphere were conducted using hemispherically tipped 440 C HT (high temperature) stainless steel pins sliding against ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) disks. The results indicate that sliding speed, sliding distance, contact stress and specimen geometry can markedly affect friction, UHMWPE wear, UHMWPE transfer and the type of wear mechanisms that occur. Adhesion appears to be the predominant wear mechanism; but after long sliding distances at slow speeds, heavy ridges of transfer result which can induce fatigue-like wear on the UHMWPE disk wear track. In one instance, abrasive wear to the metallic pin was observed. This was caused by a hard particle embedded in the UHMWPE disk wear track.

  15. Postoperative Suprachoroidal Hemorrhage in a Glaucoma Patient on Low Molecular Weight Heparin

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; AlJadaan, Ibrahim A.

    2013-01-01

    Suprachoroidal hemorrhage is a complication associated with intraocular surgery that can occur both intraoperatively and postoperatively. Several intraoperative or postoperative risk factors have been indentified. The use of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is considered one of the risk factors in surgical cases (ocular or non ocular) and non-surgical cases. Here we present a case of suprachoroidal hemorrhage in a glaucoma patient that occurred after preoperative prophylactic LMWH for deep venous thrombosis. The use of LMWH has been reported to cause suprachoroidal hemorrhage even in patients without any risk factors. The use of LMWH continues to increase, hence it is important to be aware of the possibility of suprachoroidal hemorrhage and to determine the risk/benefit ratio, especially in patients with other risk factors. PMID:23741139

  16. Structure and function of a 40,000-molecular-weight protein antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A B; Andersen, P; Ljungqvist, L

    1992-01-01

    A gene encoding a protein antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a molecular weight of 40,000 has been sequenced. On the basis of sequence homology and functional analyses, we demonstrated that the protein is an L-alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1). The enzyme was demonstrated in M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum but not in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The enzyme may play a role in cell wall synthesis because L-alanine is an important constituent of the peptidoglycan layer. Although no consensus signal sequence was identified, we found evidence which suggests that the enzyme is secreted across the cell membrane. The enzyme was characterized and purified by chromatography, thus enabling further studies of its role in virulence and interaction with the immune system of M. tuberculosis-infected individuals. Images PMID:1587598

  17. [Antibacterial Activity of Alkylated and Acylated Derivatives of Low-Molecular Weight Chitosan].

    PubMed

    Shagdarova, B Ts; Il'ina, A V; Varlamov, V P

    2016-01-01

    A number of alkylated (quaternized) and acylated derivatives of low-molecular weight chitosan were obtained. The structure and composition of the compounds were confirmed by the results of IR and PMR spectroscopy, as well as conductometric titration. The effect of the acyl substituent and the degree of substitution of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) with the propyl fragment appended to amino groups of the C2 atom of polymer chains on antibacterial activity against typical representatives of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli) was studied. The highest activity was in the case of N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride with the maximal substitution (98%). The minimal inhibitory concentration of the derivative was 0.48 µg/mL and 3.90 µg/mL for S. epidermis and E. coli, respectively. PMID:27266254

  18. Effect of Molecular Weight on the Ion Transport Mechanism in Polymerized Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Fei; Wang, Weiyu; Holt, Adam P; Feng, Hongbo; Uhrig, David; Lu, Xinyi; Hong, Tao; Wang, Yangyang; Kang, Nam-Goo; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei P

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of ionic liquids (ILs) have made them promising candidates for electrochemical applications. Polymerization of the corresponding ILs results in a new class of materials called polymerized ionic liquids (PolyILs). Though PolyILs offer the possibility to combine the high conductivity of ILs and the high mechanical strength of polymers, their conductivities are typically much lower than that of the corresponding small molecule ILs. In the present work, seven PolyILs were synthesized having degrees of polymerization ranging from 1 to 333, corresponding to molecular weights (MW) from 482 to 160 400 g/mol. Depolarized dynamic light scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, rheology, and differential scanning calorimetry were employed to systematically study the influence of MW on the mechanism of ionic transport and segmental dynamics in these materials. The modified Walden plot analysis reveals that the ion conductivity transforms from being closely coupled with structural relaxation to being strongly decoupled from it as MW increases.

  19. Synthesis of high molecular weight polyesters via in vacuo dehydrogenation polymerization of diols.

    PubMed

    Hunsicker, David M; Dauphinais, Brian C; Mc Ilrath, Sean P; Robertson, Nicholas J

    2012-02-13

    The Milstein catalyst has proven to be highly effective for the conversion of alcohols to esters, as well as alcohols and amines to amides and polyamides. We have recently found that the catalyst's range can be extended to very efficient in vacuo dehydrogenation polymerization of α,ω-diols to generate polyesters. The gaseous hydrogen byproduct that is produced is easily removed to drive the equilibrium toward product, which leads to the formation of high molecular weight polymer (M(n) up to 145,000 g mol(-1)). This optimized methodology works well to polymerize diols with a spacer of six carbons or more. Diols with fewer carbons are cyclized to lactone; the dividing point is the dehydrogenation of 1,5-pentanediol, which leads to a mixture of polyester and lactone. Reported herein is the synthesis and characterization of five aliphatic polyesters prepared via this novel dehydrogenation polymerization approach. PMID:22173989

  20. Biosimilars of low-molecular-weight heparin products: fostering competition or reducing 'biodiversity'?

    PubMed

    Harenberg, J; Cimminiello, C; Agnelli, G; Di Minno, G; Polo Friz, H; Prandoni, P; Scaglione, F

    2016-03-01

    The term 'biosimilars' is used to qualify products developed to be similar to an original biological drug. Biosimilars are much more complicated to develop than a generic version of small-molecule drugs and this is especially true for low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs). Evidence on the antithrombotic management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) showed that the introduction into the market of biosimilars approved on the basis of simple biological criteria, without robust data from comparative clinical trials, may be hazardous. Moreover, the mixtures of LMWH polysaccharide chains, some immunoallergic properties and potential contamination during the extraction process raise safety concerns. As was the case for the biosimilar erythropoietin, there is the risk that only copies of the most commercially successful LMWHs will be marketed, thus jeopardizing the 'biodiversity' now ensured by the presence of several LMWHs, each with unique features that support the use of an individual LMWH as first-choice therapy in certain categories of patients. PMID:26711899