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Sample records for molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin-related dc-signr

  1. The tandem-repeat polymorphism of the DC-SIGNR gene in HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Nattermann, J; Ahlenstiel, G; Berg, T; Feldmann, G; Nischalke, H D; Müller, T; Rockstroh, J; Woitas, R; Sauerbruch, T; Spengler, U

    2006-01-01

    The C-type lectin DC-SIGNR has been shown to bind hepatitis C virus (HCV). Here, we analysed the tandem-repeat polymorphism of the DC-SIGNR gene with respect to intraindividual HCV replication. In a cross-sectional comparison HCV-infected patients (n = 430) and healthy subjects (n = 100) were genotyped for the DC-SIGNR polymorphism using PCR. The distribution of DC-SIGNR alleles did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, HCV-infected patients with 5-, 6-, and 7-repeat alleles had higher HCV-RNA levels when compared with carriers of 4- and 9-repeat alleles (P < 0.05). Thus, the DC-SIGNR polymorphism might affect HCV loads supporting the concept that DC-SIGNR contributes to HCV replication efficacy. PMID:16364081

  2. Functional Genetic Variants in DC-SIGNR Are Associated with Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Boily-Larouche, Geneviève; Iscache, Anne-Laure; Zijenah, Lynn S.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Mouland, Andrew J.; Ward, Brian J.; Roger, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the main cause of HIV-1 infection in children worldwide. Given that the C-type lectin receptor, dendritic cell-specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin-related (DC-SIGNR, also known as CD209L or liver/lymph node–specific ICAM-grabbing non-integrin (L-SIGN)), can interact with pathogens including HIV-1 and is expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, we hypothesized that it could influence MTCT of HIV-1. Methods and Findings To investigate the potential role of DC-SIGNR in MTCT of HIV-1, we carried out a genetic association study of DC-SIGNR in a well-characterized cohort of 197 HIV-infected mothers and their infants recruited in Harare, Zimbabwe. Infants harbouring two copies of DC-SIGNR H1 and/or H3 haplotypes (H1-H1, H1-H3, H3-H3) had a 3.6-fold increased risk of in utero (IU) (P = 0.013) HIV-1 infection and a 5.7-fold increased risk of intrapartum (IP) (P = 0.025) HIV-1 infection after adjusting for a number of maternal factors. The implicated H1 and H3 haplotypes share two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in promoter region (p-198A) and intron 2 (int2-180A) that were associated with increased risk of both IU (P = 0.045 and P = 0.003, respectively) and IP (P = 0.025, for int2-180A) HIV-1 infection. The promoter variant reduced transcriptional activity in vitro. In homozygous H1 infants bearing both the p-198A and int2-180A mutations, we observed a 4-fold decrease in the level of placental DC-SIGNR transcripts, disproportionately affecting the expression of membrane-bound isoforms compared to infant noncarriers (P = 0.011). Conclusion These results suggest that DC-SIGNR plays a crucial role in MTCT of HIV-1 and that impaired placental DC-SIGNR expression increases risk of transmission. PMID:19809496

  3. DC-SIGN; a related gene, DC-SIGNR; and CD23 form a cluster on 19p13.

    PubMed

    Soilleux, E J; Barten, R; Trowsdale, J

    2000-09-15

    DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin, expressed on a dendritic cell subset. It is able to bind ICAM3 and HIV gp120 in a calcium-dependent manner. Here we report the genomic organization of DC-SIGN and map it to chromosome 19p13 adjacent to the C-type lectin CD23 (FcepsilonRII). We also report a novel, closely linked gene, DC-SIGNR, which shows 73% identity to DC-SIGN at the nucleic acid level and a similar genomic organization. Proteins encoded by both genes have tracts of repeats of 23 aa, predicted to form a coiled coil neck region. They also possess motifs that are known to bind mannose in a calcium-dependent fashion. We show concomitant expression of the two genes in endometrium, placenta, and stimulated KG1 cells (phenotypically similar to monocyte-derived dendritic cells). The existence of a DC-SIGN-related gene calls for reinterpretation of the HIV data to consider possible DC-SIGN/DC-SIGNR hetero-oligomerization. PMID:10975799

  4. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K3 and K5 proteins down regulate both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR.

    PubMed

    Lang, Sabine M; Bynoe, Meisha O F; Karki, Roshan; Tartell, Michael A; Means, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of multicentric Castleman's disease, primary effusion lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. In this study, we show that like the C-type lectin DC-SIGN, the closely related DC-SIGNR can also enhance KSHV infection. Following infection, they are both targeted for down modulation and our data indicate that the KSHV MARCH-family ubiquitin ligase K5 is mediating this regulation and subsequent targeting for degradation of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR in the context of the virus. The closely related viral K3 protein, is also able to target these lectins in exogenous expressions studies, but only weakly during viral infection. In addition to requiring a functional RING-CH domain, several protein trafficking motifs in the C-terminal region of both K3 and K5 are important in regulation of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. Further exploration of this modulation revealed that DC-SIGN is endocytosed from the cell surface in THP-1 monocytes, but degraded from an internal location with minimal endocytosis in HEK-293 cells. Pull-down data indicate that both K3 and K5 preferentially associate with immature forms of the lectins, mediating their ubiquitylation and degradation. Together, these data emphasize the molecular complexities of K3 and K5, while expanding the repertoire of targets of these two viral proteins. PMID:23460925

  5. Vitamin C Attenuates Hemorrhagic Shock-induced Dendritic Cell-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 3-grabbing Nonintegrin Expression in Tubular Epithelial Cells and Renal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Fei, Jian; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Bing; Yang, Zhi-Tao; Wang, Lu; Sheng, Hui-Qiu; Chen, Er-Zhen; Mao, En-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The expression of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) in renal tubular epithelial cells has been thought to be highly correlated with the occurrence of several kidney diseases, but whether it takes place in renal tissues during hemorrhagic shock (HS) is unknown. The present study aimed to investigate this phenomenon and the inhibitory effect of Vitamin C (VitC). Methods: A Sprague–Dawley rat HS model was established in vivo in this study. The expression level and location of DC-SIGN were observed in kidneys. Also, the degree of histological damage, the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the renal tissues, and the serum concentration of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine at different times (2–24 h) after HS (six rats in each group), with or without VitC treatment before resuscitation, were evaluated. Results: HS induced DC-SIGN expression in rat tubular epithelial cells. The proinflammatory cytokine concentration, histological damage scores, and functional injury of kidneys had increased. All these phenomena induced by HS were relieved when the rats were treated with VitC before resuscitation. Conclusions: The results of the present study illustrated that HS could induce tubular epithelial cells expressing DC-SIGN, and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the kidney tissues improved correspondingly. The results also indicated that VitC could suppress the DC-SIGN expression in the tubular epithelial cells induced by HS and alleviate the inflammation and functional injury in the kidney. PMID:27411463

  6. MicroRNA-155 modulates the pathogen binding ability of dendritic cells (DCs) by down-regulation of DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Nunez, Rocio T; Louafi, Fethi; Friedmann, Peter S; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

    2009-06-12

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) has been involved in the response to inflammation in macrophages and lymphocytes. Here we show how miR-155 participates in the maturation of human dendritic cells (DC) and modulates pathogen binding by down-regulating DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), after directly targeting the transcription factor PU.1. During the maturation of DCs, miR-155 increases up to 130-fold, whereas PU.1 protein levels decrease accordingly. We establish that human PU.1 is a direct target for miR-155 and localize the target sequence for miR-155 in the 3'-untranslated region of PU.1. Also, overexpression of miR-155 in the THP1 monocytic cell line decreases PU.1 protein levels and DC-SIGN at both the mRNA and protein levels. We prove a link between the down-regulation of PU.1 and reduced transcriptional activity of the DC-SIGN promoter, which is likely to be the basis for its reduced mRNA expression, after miR-155 overexpression. Finally, we show that, by reducing DC-SIGN in the cellular membrane, miR-155 is involved in regulating pathogen binding as dendritic cells exhibited the lower binding capacity for fungi and HIV protein gp-120 when the levels of miR-155 were higher. Thus, our results suggest a mechanism by which miR-155 regulates proteins involved in the cellular immune response against pathogens that could have clinical implications in the way pathogens enter the human organism. PMID:19386588

  7. Compact, Polyvalent Mannose Quantum Dots as Sensitive, Ratiometric FRET Probes for Multivalent Protein-Ligand Interactions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Sakonsinsiri, Chadamas; Nehlmeier, Inga; Fascione, Martin A; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Weili; Pöhlmann, Stefan; Turnbull, W Bruce; Zhou, Dejian

    2016-04-01

    A highly efficient cap-exchange approach for preparing compact, dense polyvalent mannose-capped quantum dots (QDs) has been developed. The resulting QDs have been successfully used to probe multivalent interactions of HIV/Ebola receptors DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR (collectively termed as DC-SIGN/R) using a sensitive, ratiometric Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. The QD probes specifically bind DC-SIGN, but not its closely related receptor DC-SIGNR, which is further confirmed by its specific blocking of DC-SIGN engagement with the Ebola virus glycoprotein. Tuning the QD surface mannose valency reveals that DC-SIGN binds more efficiently to densely packed mannosides. A FRET-based thermodynamic study reveals that the binding is enthalpy-driven. This work establishes QD FRET as a rapid, sensitive technique for probing structure and thermodynamics of multivalent protein-ligand interactions. PMID:26990806

  8. High glucose disrupts oligosaccharide recognition function via competitive inhibition: a potential mechanism for immune dysregulation in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Rebecca; Wallis, Russell; Soilleux, Elizabeth J; Townsend, Paul; Zehnder, Daniel; Tan, Bee K; Sim, Robert B; Lehnert, Hendrik; Randeva, Harpal S; Mitchell, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic complications include infection and cardiovascular disease. Within the immune system, host-pathogen and regulatory host-host interactions operate through binding of oligosaccharides by C-type lectin. A number of C-type lectins recognise oligosaccharides rich in mannose and fucose - sugars with similar structures to glucose. This raises the possibility that high glucose conditions in diabetes affect protein-oligosaccharide interactions via competitive inhibition. Mannose-binding lectin, soluble DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR, and surfactant protein D, were tested for carbohydrate binding in the presence of glucose concentrations typical of diabetes, via surface plasmon resonance and affinity chromatography. Complement activation assays were performed in high glucose. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expression in adipose tissues was examined via immunohistochemistry. High glucose inhibited C-type lectin binding to high-mannose glycoprotein and binding of DC-SIGN to fucosylated ligand (blood group B) was abrogated in high glucose. Complement activation via the lectin pathway was inhibited in high glucose and also in high trehalose - a nonreducing sugar with glucoside stereochemistry. DC-SIGN staining was seen on cells with DC morphology within omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues. We conclude that high glucose disrupts C-type lectin function, potentially illuminating new perspectives on susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory disease in diabetes. Mechanisms involve competitive inhibition of carbohydrate binding within sets of defined proteins, in contrast to broadly indiscriminate, irreversible glycation of proteins. PMID:20674073

  9. Mannosyl Glycodendritic Structure Inhibits DC-SIGN-Mediated Ebola Virus Infection in cis and in trans

    PubMed Central

    Lasala, Fátima; Arce, Eva; Otero, Joaquín R.; Rojo, Javier; Delgado, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    We have designed a glycodendritic structure, BH30sucMan, that blocks the interaction between dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and Ebola virus (EBOV) envelope. BH30sucMan inhibits DC-SIGN-mediated EBOV infection at nanomolar concentrations. BH30sucMan may counteract important steps of the infective process of EBOV and, potentially, of microorganisms shown to exploit DC-SIGN for cell entry and infection. PMID:14638512

  10. The role of human dendritic cells in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zahra; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji; Piguet, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsets have multifaceted roles in the early stages of HIV-1 transmission and infection. DC studies have led to remarkable discoveries, including identification of restriction factors, cellular structures promoting viral transmission including the infectious synapse or the interplay of the C-type lectins, Langerin on Langerhans cells (LCs), and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin on other DC subsets, limiting or facilitating HIV transmission to CD4(+) T cells, respectively. LCs/DCs are also exposed to encountering HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections (herpes simplex virus-2, bacteria, fungi), which reprogram HIV-1 interaction with these cells. This review will summarize advances in the role of DCs during HIV-1 infection and discuss their potential involvement in the development of preventive strategies against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25407434

  11. Identification of Cell Surface Molecules Involved in Dystroglycan-Independent Lassa Virus Cell Entry

    PubMed Central

    Ströher, Ute; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Although O-mannosylated dystroglycan is a receptor for Lassa virus, a causative agent of Lassa fever, recent findings suggest the existence of an alternative receptor(s). Here we identified four molecules as receptors for Lassa virus: Axl and Tyro3, from the TAM family, and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial calcium-dependent lectin (LSECtin), from the C-type lectin family. These molecules enhanced the binding of Lassa virus to cells and mediated infection independently of dystroglycan. Axl- or Tyro3-mediated infection required intracellular signaling via the tyrosine kinase activity of Axl or Tyro3, whereas DC-SIGN- or LSECtin-mediated infection and binding were dependent on a specific carbohydrate and on ions. The identification of these four molecules as Lassa virus receptors advances our understanding of Lassa virus cell entry. PMID:22156524

  12. Host Langerin (CD207) is a receptor for Yersinia pestis phagocytosis and promotes dissemination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Park, Chae G; Cheong, Cheolho; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Zhang, Shusheng; Zhang, Pei; He, Yingxia; Jiang, Lingyu; Huang, Hongping; Ding, Honghui; Wu, Yiping; Wang, Shaogang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Anyi; Xia, Lianxu; Bartra, Sara S; Plano, Gregory V; Skurnik, Mikael; Klena, John D; Chen, Tie

    2015-10-01

    Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes plague. After Y. pestis overcomes the skin barrier, it encounters antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans and dendritic cells. They transport the bacteria from the skin to the lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial transmission are unclear. Langerhans cells (LCs) express Langerin (CD207), a calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin. Furthermore, Y. pestis possesses exposed core oligosaccharides. In this study, we show that Y. pestis invades LCs and Langerin-expressing transfectants. However, when the bacterial core oligosaccharides are shielded or truncated, Y. pestis propensity to invade Langerhans and Langerin-expressing cells decreases. Moreover, the interaction of Y. pestis with Langerin-expressing transfectants is inhibited by purified Langerin, a DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin)-like molecule, an anti-CD207 antibody, purified core oligosaccharides and several oligosaccharides. Furthermore, covering core oligosaccharides reduces the mortality associated with murine infection by adversely affecting the transmission of Y. pestis to lymph nodes. These results demonstrate that direct interaction of core oligosaccharides with Langerin facilitates the invasion of LCs by Y. pestis. Therefore, Langerin-mediated binding of Y. pestis to APCs may promote its dissemination and infection. PMID:25829141

  13. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 Polysaccharide Derivatives Inhibit Dengue Virus Infection of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Interacting with the Viral Envelope Protein E Domain III

    PubMed Central

    Vervaeke, Peter; Alen, Marijke; Noppen, Sam; Schols, Dominique; Oreste, Pasqua; Liekens, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen that causes cytokine-mediated alterations in the barrier function of the microvascular endothelium, leading to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). We observed that DENV (serotype 2) productively infects primary (HMVEC-d) and immortalized (HMEC-1) human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, despite the absence of well-described DENV receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or the mannose receptor on the cell surface. However, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) were highly expressed on these cells and pre-treatment of HMEC-1 cells with heparinase II or with glycosaminoglycans reduced DENV infectivity up to 90%, suggesting that DENV uses HSPGs as attachment receptor on microvascular endothelial cells. Sulfated Escherichia coli K5 derivatives, which are structurally similar to heparin/heparan sulfate but lack anticoagulant activity, were able to block DENV infection of HMEC-1 and HMVEC-d cells in the nanomolar range. The highly sulfated K5-OS(H) and K5-N,OS(H) inhibited virus attachment and subsequent entry into microvascular endothelial cells by interacting with the viral envelope (E) protein, as shown by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis using the receptor-binding domain III of the E protein. PMID:24015314

  14. CNS myelin induces regulatory functions of DC-SIGN-expressing, antigen-presenting cells via cognate interaction with MOG.

    PubMed

    García-Vallejo, J J; Ilarregui, J M; Kalay, H; Chamorro, S; Koning, N; Unger, W W; Ambrosini, M; Montserrat, V; Fernandes, R J; Bruijns, S C M; van Weering, J R T; Paauw, N J; O'Toole, T; van Horssen, J; van der Valk, P; Nazmi, K; Bolscher, J G M; Bajramovic, J; Dijkstra, C D; 't Hart, B A; van Kooyk, Y

    2014-06-30

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), a constituent of central nervous system myelin, is an important autoantigen in the neuroinflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its function remains unknown. Here, we show that, in healthy human myelin, MOG is decorated with fucosylated N-glycans that support recognition by the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) on microglia and DCs. The interaction of MOG with DC-SIGN in the context of simultaneous TLR4 activation resulted in enhanced IL-10 secretion and decreased T cell proliferation in a DC-SIGN-, glycosylation-, and Raf1-dependent manner. Exposure of oligodendrocytes to proinflammatory factors resulted in the down-regulation of fucosyltransferase expression, reflected by altered glycosylation at the MS lesion site. Indeed, removal of fucose on myelin reduced DC-SIGN-dependent homeostatic control, and resulted in inflammasome activation, increased T cell proliferation, and differentiation toward a Th17-prone phenotype. These data demonstrate a new role for myelin glycosylation in the control of immune homeostasis in the healthy human brain through the MOG-DC-SIGN homeostatic regulatory axis, which is comprised by inflammatory insults that affect glycosylation. This phenomenon should be considered as a basis to restore immune tolerance in MS. PMID:24935259

  15. Reactive oxygen species production by human dendritic cells involves TLR2 and dectin-1 and is essential for efficient immune response against Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Romero, María Mercedes; Basile, Juan Ignacio; Corra Feo, Laura; López, Beatriz; Ritacco, Viviana; Alemán, Mercedes

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis remains the single largest infectious disease with 10 million new cases and two million deaths that are estimated to occur yearly, more than any time in history. The intracellular replication of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and its spread from the lungs to other sites occur before the development of adaptive immune responses. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen-presenting cells whose maturation is critical for the onset of the protective immune response against tuberculosis disease and may vary depending on the nature of the cell wall of Mtb strain. Here, we describe the role of the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on DC maturation and expansion of Mtb-specific lymphocytes. Here, we show that Mtb induces DC maturation through TLR2/dectin-1 by generating of ROS and through Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN) in a ROS independently manner. Based on the differences observed in the ability to induce DC maturation, ROS production and lymphocyte proliferation by those Mtb families widespread in South America, i.e., Haarlem and Latin American Mediterranean and the reference strain H37Rv, we propose that variance in ROS production might contribute to immune evasion affecting DC maturation and antigen presentation. PMID:26709456

  16. Host Langerin (CD207) is a receptor for Yersinia pestis phagocytosis and promotes dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kun; Park, Chae G; Cheong, Cheolho; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Zhang, Shusheng; Zhang, Pei; He, Yingxia; Jiang, Lingyu; Huang, Hongping; Ding, Honghui; Wu, Yiping; Wang, Shaogang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Anyi; Xia, Lianxu; Bartra, Sara S; Plano, Gregory V; Skurnik, Mikael; Klena, John D; Chen, Tie

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes plague. After Y. pestis overcomes the skin barrier, it encounters antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as Langerhans and dendritic cells. They transport the bacteria from the skin to the lymph nodes. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial transmission are unclear. Langerhans cells (LCs) express Langerin (CD207), a calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin. Furthermore, Y. pestis possesses exposed core oligosaccharides. In this study, we show that Y. pestis invades LCs and Langerin-expressing transfectants. However, when the bacterial core oligosaccharides are shielded or truncated, Y. pestis propensity to invade Langerhans and Langerin-expressing cells decreases. Moreover, the interaction of Y. pestis with Langerin-expressing transfectants is inhibited by purified Langerin, a DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin)-like molecule, an anti-CD207 antibody, purified core oligosaccharides and several oligosaccharides. Furthermore, covering core oligosaccharides reduces the mortality associated with murine infection by adversely affecting the transmission of Y. pestis to lymph nodes. These results demonstrate that direct interaction of core oligosaccharides with Langerin facilitates the invasion of LCs by Y. pestis. Therefore, Langerin-mediated binding of Y. pestis to APCs may promote its dissemination and infection. PMID:25829141

  17. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 on monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and function

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, P; Angel, J B

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are mediators of the adaptive immune response responsible for antigen presentation to naive T cells in secondary lymph organs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been reported to inhibit the maturation of DC, but a clear link between maturation and function has not been elucidated. To understand further the effects of HIV-1 on DC maturation and function, we expanded upon previous investigations and assessed the effects of HIV-1 infection on the expression of surface molecules, carbohydrate endocytosis, antigen presentation and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness over the course of maturation. In vitro infection with HIV-1 resulted in an increase in the expression of DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) as well as decreases in maturation-induced CCR7 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-II expression. Retention of endocytosis that normally occurs with DC maturation as well as inhibition of antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells was also observed. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) responsiveness to LPS as measured by phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 was not affected by HIV-1 infection. In summary, in-vitro HIV-1 impairs DC maturation, as defined by cell surface protein expression, with selective alterations in mature DC function. Understanding the mechanisms of DC dysfunction in HIV infection will provide further insight into HIV immune pathogenesis. PMID:22943206

  18. Dendritic cells respond to nasopharygeal carcinoma cells through annexin A2-recognizing DC-SIGN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chao-Wen; Hsu, Tin-Jui; Lin, Yun-Tien; Lai, Chang-Hao; Liao, Chen-Chung; Chen, Wei-Yu; Leung, Ting-Kai; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Yung-Feng; Chen, Chien-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in immunity and are used in cancer immunotherapy. However, these cells can be tuned by tumors with immunosuppressive responses. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, recognizes certain carbohydrate structures which can be found on cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial cell-derived malignant tumor, in which immune response remains unclear. This research is to reveal the molecular link on NPC cells that induces the immunosuppressive responses in DCs. In this article, we report identification of annexin A2 (ANXA2) on NPC cells as a ligand for DC-SIGN on DCs. N-linked mannose-rich glycan on ANXA2 may mediate the interaction. ANXA2 was abundantly expressed in NPC, and knockdown of ANXA2 suppressed NPC xenograft in mice, suggesting a crucial role of ANXA2 in NPC growth. Interaction with NPC cells caused DC-SIGN activation in DCs. Consequently DC maturation and the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 production were inhibited, and the immunosuppressive IL-10 production was promoted. Blockage of either DC-SIGN or ANXA2 eliminated the production of IL-10 from DCs. This report suggests that suppression of ANXA2 at its expression or glycosylation on NPC may improve DC-mediated immunotherapy for the tumor. PMID:25402728

  19. General mechanism for modulating immunoglobulin effector function

    PubMed Central

    Sondermann, Peter; Pincetic, Andrew; Maamary, Jad; Lammens, Katja; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins recognize and clear microbial pathogens and toxins through the coupling of variable region specificity to Fc-triggered cellular activation. These proinflammatory activities are regulated, thus avoiding the pathogenic sequelae of uncontrolled inflammation by modulating the composition of the Fc-linked glycan. Upon sialylation, the affinities for Fcγ receptors are reduced, whereas those for alternative cellular receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)/CD23, are increased. We demonstrate that sialylation induces significant structural alterations in the Cγ2 domain and propose a model that explains the observed changes in ligand specificity and biological activity. By analogy to related complexes formed by IgE and its evolutionarily related Fc receptors, we conclude that this mechanism is general for the modulation of antibody-triggered immune responses, characterized by a shift between an “open” activating conformation and a “closed” anti-inflammatory state of antibody Fc fragments. This common mechanism has been targeted by pathogens to avoid host defense and offers targets for therapeutic intervention in allergic and autoimmune disorders. PMID:23697368

  20. DC-SIGN expression on podocytes and its role in inflammatory immune response of lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Minchao; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Xuan; Shang, Minghua; Zhang, Yueyue; Luo, Maocai; Xu, Chundi; Yuan, Weijie

    2016-03-01

    Podocytes, the main target of immune complex, participate actively in the development of glomerular injury as immune cells. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is an innate immune molecular that has an immune recognition function, and is involved in mediation of cell adhesion and immunoregulation. Here we explored the expression of DC-SIGN on podocytes and its role in immune and inflammatory responses in lupus nephritis (LN). Expression of DC-SIGN and immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 was observed in glomeruli of LN patients. DC-SIGN was co-expressed with nephrin on podocytes. Accompanied by increased proteinuria of LN mice, DC-SIGN and IgG1 expressions were observed in the glomeruli from 20 weeks, and the renal function deteriorated up to 24 weeks. Mice with anti-DC-SIGN antibody showed reduced proteinuria and remission of renal function. After the podocytes were stimulated by serum of LN mice in vitro, the expression of DC-SIGN, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD80 was up-regulated, stimulation of T cell proliferation was enhanced and the interferon (IFN)-γ/interleukin (IL)-4 ratio increased. However, anti-DC-SIGN antibody treatment reversed these events. These results suggested that podocytes in LN can exert DC-like function through their expression of DC-SIGN, which may be involved in immune and inflammatory responses of renal tissues. However, blockage of DC-SIGN can inhibit immune functions of podocytes, which may have preventive and therapeutic effects. PMID:26440060

  1. Human Cytomegalovirus Entry into Dendritic Cells Occurs via a Macropinocytosis-Like Pathway in a pH-Independent and Cholesterol-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Haspot, Fabienne; Lavault, Amélie; Sinzger, Christian; Laib Sampaio, Kerstin; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Pilet, Paul; Bressolette-Bodin, Céline; Halary, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that is able to infect fibroblastic, epithelial, endothelial and hematopoietic cells. Over the past ten years, several groups have provided direct evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) fully support the HCMV lytic cycle. We previously demonstrated that the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) has a prominent role in the docking of HCMV on monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs). The DC-SIGN/HCMV interaction was demonstrated to be a crucial and early event that substantially enhanced infection in trans, i.e., from one CMV-bearing cell to another non-infected cell (or trans-infection), and rendered susceptible cells fully permissive to HCMV infection. Nevertheless, nothing is yet known about how HCMV enters MDDCs. In this study, we demonstrated that VHL/E HCMV virions (an endothelio/dendrotropic strain) are first internalized into MDDCs by a macropinocytosis-like process in an actin- and cholesterol-dependent, but pH-independent, manner. We observed the accumulation of virions in large uncoated vesicles with endosomal features, and the virions remained as intact particles that retained infectious potential for several hours. This trans-infection property was specific to MDDCs because monocyte-derived macrophages or monocytes from the same donor were unable to allow the accumulation of and the subsequent transmission of the virus. Together, these data allowed us to delineate the early mechanisms of the internalization and entry of an endothelio/dendrotropic HCMV strain into human MDDCs and to propose that DCs can serve as a "Trojan horse" to convey CMV from entry sites to other locations that may favor the occurrence of either latency or acute infection. PMID:22496863

  2. Human Milk Blocks DC-SIGN-Pathogen Interaction via MUC1.

    PubMed

    Koning, Nathalie; Kessen, Sabine F M; Van Der Voorn, J Patrick; Appelmelk, Ben J; Jeurink, Prescilla V; Knippels, Leon M J; Garssen, Johan; Van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of breastfeeding are well-recognized and include both immediate neonatal protection against pathogens and long-term protection against allergies and autoimmune diseases. Although several proteins have been identified to have anti-viral or anti-bacterial effects like secretory IgA or lactoferrin, the mechanisms of immune modulation are not fully understood. Recent studies identified important beneficial effects of glycans in human milk, such as those expressed in oligosaccharides or on glycoproteins. Glycans are recognized by the carbohydrate receptors C-type lectins on dendritic cell (DC) and specific tissue macrophages, which exert important functions in immune modulation and immune homeostasis. A well-characterized C-type lectin is dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which binds terminal fucose. The present study shows that in human milk, MUC1 is the major milk glycoprotein that binds to the lectin domain of DC-SIGN and prevents pathogen interaction through the presence of Lewis x-type oligosaccharides. Surprisingly, this was specific for human milk, as formula, bovine or camel milk did not show any presence of proteins that interacted with DC-SIGN. The expression of DC-SIGN is found in young infants along the entire gastrointestinal tract. Our data thus suggest the importance of human milk glycoproteins for blocking pathogen interaction to DC in young children. Moreover, a potential benefit of human milk later in life in shaping the infants immune system through DC-SIGN cannot be ruled out. PMID:25821450

  3. Role of Dendritic Cells in Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Boonnak, Kobporn; Slike, Bonnie M.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Mason, Randall M.; Wu, Shuenn-Jue; Sun, Peifang; Porter, Kevin; Rudiman, Irani Fianza; Yuwono, Djoko; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Marovich, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DV), composed of four distinct serotypes (DV1 to DV4), cause 50 to 100 million infections annually. Durable homotypic immunity follows infection but may predispose to severe subsequent heterotypic infections, a risk conferred in part by the immune response itself. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a process best described in vitro, is epidemiologically linked to complicated DV infections, especially in Southeast Asia. Here we report for the first time the ADE phenomenon in primary human dendritic cells (DC), early targets of DV infection, and human cell lines bearing Fc receptors. We show that ADE is inversely correlated with surface expression of DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin) and requires Fc gamma receptor IIa (FcγRIIa). Mature DC exhibited ADE, whereas immature DC, expressing higher levels of DC-SIGN and similar FcγRIIa levels, did not undergo ADE. ADE results in increased intracellular de novo DV protein synthesis, increased viral RNA production and release, and increased infectivity of the supernatants in mature DC. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not IL-10 and gamma interferon, were released in the presence of dengue patient sera but generally only at enhancement titers, suggesting a signaling component of ADE. FcγRIIa inhibition with monoclonal antibodies abrogated ADE and associated downstream consequences. DV versatility in entry routes (FcγRIIa or DC-SIGN) in mature DC broadens target options and suggests additional ways for DC to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe DV infection. Studying the cellular targets of DV infection and their susceptibility to ADE will aid our understanding of complex disease and contribute to the field of vaccine development. PMID:18272578

  4. Role of dendritic cells in antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Boonnak, Kobporn; Slike, Bonnie M; Burgess, Timothy H; Mason, Randall M; Wu, Shuenn-Jue; Sun, Peifang; Porter, Kevin; Rudiman, Irani Fianza; Yuwono, Djoko; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Marovich, Mary A

    2008-04-01

    Dengue viruses (DV), composed of four distinct serotypes (DV1 to DV4), cause 50 to 100 million infections annually. Durable homotypic immunity follows infection but may predispose to severe subsequent heterotypic infections, a risk conferred in part by the immune response itself. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a process best described in vitro, is epidemiologically linked to complicated DV infections, especially in Southeast Asia. Here we report for the first time the ADE phenomenon in primary human dendritic cells (DC), early targets of DV infection, and human cell lines bearing Fc receptors. We show that ADE is inversely correlated with surface expression of DC-SIGN (DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin) and requires Fc gamma receptor IIa (FcgammaRIIa). Mature DC exhibited ADE, whereas immature DC, expressing higher levels of DC-SIGN and similar FcgammaRIIa levels, did not undergo ADE. ADE results in increased intracellular de novo DV protein synthesis, increased viral RNA production and release, and increased infectivity of the supernatants in mature DC. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not IL-10 and gamma interferon, were released in the presence of dengue patient sera but generally only at enhancement titers, suggesting a signaling component of ADE. FcgammaRIIa inhibition with monoclonal antibodies abrogated ADE and associated downstream consequences. DV versatility in entry routes (FcgammaRIIa or DC-SIGN) in mature DC broadens target options and suggests additional ways for DC to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe DV infection. Studying the cellular targets of DV infection and their susceptibility to ADE will aid our understanding of complex disease and contribute to the field of vaccine development. PMID:18272578

  5. Human DC-SIGN binds specific human milk glycans.

    PubMed

    Noll, Alexander J; Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Duska-McEwen, Geralyn; Buck, Rachael H; Smith, David F; Cummings, Richard D

    2016-05-15

    Human milk glycans (HMGs) are prebiotics, pathogen receptor decoys and regulators of host physiology and immune responses. Mechanistically, human lectins (glycan-binding proteins, hGBP) expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) are of major interest, as these cells directly contact HMGs. To explore such interactions, we screened many C-type lectins and sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) expressed by DCs for glycan binding on microarrays presenting over 200 HMGs. Unexpectedly, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) showed robust binding to many HMGs, whereas other C-type lectins failed to bind, and Siglec-5 and Siglec-9 showed weak binding to a few glycans. By contrast, most hGBP bound to multiple glycans on other microarrays lacking HMGs. An α-linked fucose residue was characteristic of HMGs bound by DC-SIGN. Binding of DC-SIGN to the simple HMGs 2'-fucosyl-lactose (2'-FL) and 3-fucosyl-lactose (3-FL) was confirmed by flow cytometry to beads conjugated with 2'-FL or 3-FL, as well as the ability of the free glycans to inhibit DC-SIGN binding. 2'-FL had an IC50 of ∼1 mM for DC-SIGN, which is within the physiological concentration of 2'-FL in human milk. These results demonstrate that DC-SIGN among the many hGBP expressed by DCs binds to α-fucosylated HMGs, and suggest that such interactions may be important in influencing immune responses in the developing infant. PMID:26976925

  6. Lectin binding to surface Ig variable regions provides a universal persistent activating signal for follicular lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Linley, Adam; Krysov, Sergey; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Johnson, Peter W; Packham, Graham; Stevenson, Freda K

    2015-10-15

    The vast majority of cases of follicular lymphoma (FL), but not normal B cells, acquire N-glycosylation sites in the immunoglobulin variable regions during somatic hypermutation. Glycans added to sites are unusual in terminating at high mannoses. We showed previously that the C-type lectins, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) and mannose receptor, bound to FL surface immunoglobulin (sIg), generating an intracellular Ca(2+) flux. We have now mapped further intracellular pathways activated by DC-SIGN in a range of primary FL cells with detection of phosphorylated ERK1/2, AKT, and PLCγ2. The SYK inhibitor (tamatinib) or the BTK inhibitor (ibrutinib) each blocked phosphorylation. Activation by DC-SIGN occurred in both IgM(+) and IgG(+) cases and led to upregulation of MYC expression, with detection in vivo observed in lymph nodes. Unlike cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, FL cells expressed relatively high levels of sIg, unchanged by long-term incubation in vitro, indicating no antigen-mediated downregulation in vivo. In contrast, expression of CXCR4 increased in vitro. Engagement of sIg in FL cells or normal B cells by anti-Ig led to endocytosis in vitro as expected, but DC-SIGN, even when cross-linked, did not lead to significant endocytosis of sIg. These findings indicate that lectin binding generates signals via sIg but does not mediate endocytosis, potentially maintaining a supportive antigen-independent signal in vivo. Location of DC-SIGN in FL tissue revealed high levels in sinusoidlike structures and in some colocalized mononuclear cells, suggesting a role for lectin-expressing cells at this site. PMID:26194765

  7. Dermal CD14(+) Dendritic Cell and Macrophage Infection by Dengue Virus Is Stimulated by Interleukin-4.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Evelyne; Flacher, Vincent; Papageorgiou, Vasiliki; Decossas, Marion; Fauny, Jean-Daniel; Krämer, Melanie; Mueller, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral infection in humans. Events decisive for disease development occur in the skin after virus inoculation by the mosquito. Yet, the role of human dermis-resident immune cells in dengue infection and disease remains elusive. Here we investigated how dermal dendritic cells (dDCs) and macrophages (dMs) react to DENV and impact on immunopathology. We show that both CD1c(+) and CD14(+) dDC subsets were infected, but viral load greatly increased in CD14(+) dDCs upon IL-4 stimulation, which correlated with upregulation of virus-binding lectins Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN/CD209) and mannose receptor (CD206). IL-4 also enhanced T-cell activation by dDCs, which was further increased upon dengue infection. dMs purified from digested dermis were initially poorly infected but actively replicated the virus and produced TNF-α upon lectin upregulation in response to IL-4. DC-SIGN(+) cells are abundant in inflammatory skin with scabies infection or Th2-type dermatitis, suggesting that skin reactions to mosquito bites heighten the risk of infection and subsequent immunopathology. Our data identify dDCs and dMs as primary arbovirus target cells in humans and suggest that dDCs initiate a potent virus-directed T-cell response, whereas dMs fuel the inflammatory cascade characteristic of dengue fever. PMID:25521455

  8. Human Milk Blocks DC-SIGN–Pathogen Interaction via MUC1

    PubMed Central

    Koning, Nathalie; Kessen, Sabine F. M.; Van Der Voorn, J. Patrick; Appelmelk, Ben J.; Jeurink, Prescilla V.; Knippels, Leon M. J.; Garssen, Johan; Van Kooyk, Yvette

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of breastfeeding are well-recognized and include both immediate neonatal protection against pathogens and long-term protection against allergies and autoimmune diseases. Although several proteins have been identified to have anti-viral or anti-bacterial effects like secretory IgA or lactoferrin, the mechanisms of immune modulation are not fully understood. Recent studies identified important beneficial effects of glycans in human milk, such as those expressed in oligosaccharides or on glycoproteins. Glycans are recognized by the carbohydrate receptors C-type lectins on dendritic cell (DC) and specific tissue macrophages, which exert important functions in immune modulation and immune homeostasis. A well-characterized C-type lectin is dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which binds terminal fucose. The present study shows that in human milk, MUC1 is the major milk glycoprotein that binds to the lectin domain of DC-SIGN and prevents pathogen interaction through the presence of Lewis x-type oligosaccharides. Surprisingly, this was specific for human milk, as formula, bovine or camel milk did not show any presence of proteins that interacted with DC-SIGN. The expression of DC-SIGN is found in young infants along the entire gastrointestinal tract. Our data thus suggest the importance of human milk glycoproteins for blocking pathogen interaction to DC in young children. Moreover, a potential benefit of human milk later in life in shaping the infants immune system through DC-SIGN cannot be ruled out. PMID:25821450

  9. The relationship of interacting immunological components in dengue pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are over 50 million cases of dengue fever reported annually and approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk. Mild dengue fever presents with headache, fever, rash, myalgia, osteogenic pain, and lethargy. Severe disease can manifest as dengue shock syndrome (DSS) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Symptoms of DSS/DHF are leukopenia, low blood volume and pressure encephalitis, cold and sweaty skin, gastrointestinal bleeding, and spontaneous bleeding from gums and nose. Currently, there are no therapeutics available beyond supportive care and untreated complicated dengue fever can have a 50% mortality rate. According to WHO DSS/DHF is the leading cause of childhood mortality in some Asian countries. Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells that are primary targets in a dengue infection. Dengue binds to Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN). DC-SIGN has a high affinity for ICAM3 which is expressed in activating T-cells. Previous studies have demonstrated an altered T-cell phenotype expressed in dengue infected patients that could be potentially mediated by dengue-infected DCs. Dengue is enhanced by three interacting components of the immune system. Dengue begins by infecting dendritic cells which in immature dendritic cells is mediated by DC-SIGN. In mature dendritic cells, antibodies can enhance dengue infection via Fc receptors. Downstream of dendritic cells T-cells become activated and generate the very cytokines implicated in vascular leak and shock in addition to activating effector cells. Both the virus and the antibodies are involved in release of complement and anaphylatoxins which can cause or exacerbate DHF/DSS. These systems are inextricable and strongly associated with dengue pathogenesis. PMID:19941667

  10. Association of Dectin-1 and DC-SIGN gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with fungal keratitis in the northern Han Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaoli; Che, Chengye; Gao, Ang; Lin, Jing; Wang, Nan; Du, Xing; Liu, Ying; Guo, Yanli; Chen, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-1 (Dectin-1) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) play a crucial role in the early procedure of fungal pathogen defenses. The present study evaluated the associations between Dectin-1 and DC-SIGN gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and susceptibility to fungal keratitis (FK) in the northern Han Chinese population. Methods The polymorphisms of Dectin-1 (rs17206002, rs3901533, rs11053613, and rs3901532) and DC-SIGN (rs4804803, rs2287886, rs735239, and rs735240) for 109 FK patients and 220 matched healthy controls were determined by PCR and DNA direct sequencing assay. Results Each SNP was consistent with Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). The frequencies of genotypes and alleles for rs735239 and rs735240 (DC-SIGN) showed statistical differences between patients and control groups (p<0.05). The wild G allele of rs735239 and the wild A allele of rs735240 were significantly higher in patients (p = 0.003, OR = 1.766, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.207–2.585; p = 0.014, OR = 1.609, 95% CI 1.100–2.355, respectively). No association with a risk of FK was found for the remaining SNPs (p>0.05) even after ruling out clinical characteristics, such as severity degree and case history. Carriers of the haplotype TC (rs4804803 and rs2287886) had a higher risk of developing fungal keratitis (p = 0.007, OR = 1.710, 95% CI 1.154–2.534). The distribution of haplotypes AG and GA (rs735239 and rs735240) between the two groups also showed significant differences (p = 0.014, p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions Two SNPs of DC-SIGN (rs735239 and rs735240) are associated with susceptibility to FK in the northern Han Chinese population. The haplotypes of DC-SIGN may be susceptible to the risk of FK, whereas the analysis of Dectin-1 gene polymorphisms showed no significant association with FK risk. Further research with a larger sample is recommended. PMID:25883525

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 transmission in trans from dendritic cells to CD4+ T lymphocytes by natural antibodies to the CRD domain of DC-SIGN purified from breast milk and intravenous immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Mary; Bouhlal, Hicham; Nasreddine, Nadine; Saidi, Hela; Gody, Jean-Chrysostome; Aubry, Sylvie; Grésenguet, Gérard; Kazatchkine, Michel D; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Bélec, Laurent; Hocini, Hakim

    2008-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that human breast milk and normal human polyclonal immunoglobulins purified from plasma [intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg)] contain functional natural immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies directed against the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) domain of the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) molecule, which is involved in the binding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 to dendritic cells (DCs). Antibodies to DC-SIGN CRD were affinity-purified on a matrix to which a synthetic peptide corresponding to the N-terminal CRD domain (amino-acid 342–amino-acid 371) had been coupled. The affinity-purified antibodies bound to the DC-SIGN peptide and to the native DC-SIGN molecule expressed by HeLa DC-SIGN+ cells and immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMDDCs), in a specific and dose-dependent manner. At an optimal dose of 200 µg/ml, natural antibodies to DC-SIGN CRD peptide purified from breast milk and IVIg stained 25 and 20% of HeLa DC-SIGN+ cells and 32 and 12% of iMDDCs, respectively. Anti-DC-SIGN CRD peptide antibodies inhibited the attachment of virus to HeLa DC-SIGN by up to 78% and the attachment to iMDDCs by only 20%. Both breast milk- and IVIg-derived natural antibodies to the CRD peptide inhibited 60% of the transmission in trans of HIV-1JRCSF, an R5-tropic strain, from iMDDCs to CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, these observations suggest that the attachment of HIV to DCs and transmission in trans to autologous CD4+ T lymphocytes occur through two independent mechanisms. Our data support a role of natural antibodies to DC-SIGN in the modulation of postnatal HIV transmission through breast-feeding and in the natural host defence against HIV-1 in infected individuals. PMID:17999675

  12. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA) Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mouser, Emily E. I. M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Harnett, William

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA) and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62) from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th) cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs. PMID:26808476

  13. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Zhu; Liang, Pan-Pan; Ma, Han; Yi, Jin-Ling; Yin, Song-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Li, Mei-Rong; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than TXHB. The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than TXHB. The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB. After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h. Conclusion: The

  14. Mannosylated Mucin-Type Immunoglobulin Fusion Proteins Enhance Antigen-Specific Antibody and T Lymphocyte Responses

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Tomas; Nilsson, Anki; Chatzissavidou, Nathalie; Sjöblom, Magnus; Rova, Ulrika; Holgersson, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Targeting antigens to antigen-presenting cells (APC) improve their immunogenicity and capacity to induce Th1 responses and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). We have generated a mucin-type immunoglobulin fusion protein (PSGL-1/mIgG2b), which upon expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris became multivalently substituted with O-linked oligomannose structures and bound the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) with high affinity in vitro. Here, its effects on the humoral and cellular anti-ovalbumin (OVA) responses in C57BL/6 mice are presented. OVA antibody class and subclass responses were determined by ELISA, the generation of anti-OVA CTLs was assessed in 51Cr release assays using in vitro-stimulated immune spleen cells from the different groups of mice as effector cells and OVA peptide-fed RMA-S cells as targets, and evaluation of the type of Th cell response was done by IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 ELISpot assays. Immunizations with the OVA − mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b conjugate, especially when combined with the AbISCO®-100 adjuvant, lead to faster, stronger and broader (with regard to IgG subclass) OVA IgG responses, a stronger OVA-specific CTL response and stronger Th1 and Th2 responses than if OVA was used alone or together with AbISCO®-100. Also non-covalent mixing of mannosylated PSGL-1/mIgG2b, OVA and AbISCO®-100 lead to relatively stronger humoral and cellular responses. The O-glycan oligomannoses were necessary because PSGL-1/mIgG2b with mono- and disialyl core 1 structures did not have this effect. Mannosylated mucin-type fusion proteins can be used as versatile APC-targeting molecules for vaccines and as such enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses. PMID:23071675

  15. Sialylated intravenous immunoglobulin suppress anti-ganglioside antibody mediated nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang; Massaad, Cynthia A; Gao, Tong; Pillai, Laila; Bogdanova, Nataliia; Ghauri, Sameera; Sheikh, Kazim A

    2016-08-01

    The precise mechanisms underlying the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in autoimmune neurological disorders including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) are not known. Anti-ganglioside antibodies have been reported to be pathogenic in some variants of GBS, and we have developed passive transfer animal models to study anti-ganglioside antibody mediated-endoneurial inflammation and associated neuropathological effects and to evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. Some studies indicate that IVIg's anti-inflammatory activity resides in a minor sialylated IVIg (sIVIg) fractions and is dependent on an innate Th2 response via binding to a specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin related 1 receptor (SIGN-R1). Therefore the efficacy of IVIg, IVIg fractions with various IgG Fc sialylation status, and the involvement of Th2 pathway were examined in one of our animal model of antibody-mediated inhibition of axonal regeneration. We demonstrate that both IVIg and sIVIg ameliorated anti-glycan antibody mediated-pathological effect, whereas, the unsialylated fractions of IVIg were not beneficial in our model. Tenfold lower doses of sIVIg compared to whole IVIg provided equivalent efficacy in our studies. Moreover, we found that whole IVIg and sIVIg significantly upregulates the gene expression of IL-33, which itself can provide protection from antibody-mediated nerve injury in our model. Our results support that the SIGN-R1-Th2 pathway is involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of IVIg on endoneurium in our model and elements of this pathway including IL-33 can provide novel therapeutics in inflammatory neuropathies. PMID:27208700