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Sample records for monarquia brasileira viva

  1. Viva Chicano.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonham, Frank

    In "Viva Chicano," the auther "explores with brilliance, warmth, and understanding the fear-ridden world of the juvenile delinquent. Flashes of humor are mixed with sobering realities" for Keeny Duran, living in the Mexican American sector of the vast urban ghetto called Dogtown. In the Author's Note, it is pointed out that the story is true. The…

  2. Cohort Profile: Project Viva

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Gold, Diane R; Kleinman, Ken P; Litonjua, Augusto A; De Meo, Dawn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Sagiv, Sharon; Taveras, Elsie M; Weiss, Scott T; Belfort, Mandy B; Burris, Heather H; Camargo, Carlos A; Huh, Susanna Y; Mantzoros, Christos; Parker, Margaret G; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    We established Project Viva to examine prenatal diet and other factors in relation to maternal and child health. We recruited pregnant women at their initial prenatal visit in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002. Exclusion criteria included multiple gestation, inability to answer questions in English, gestational age ≥22 weeks at recruitment and plans to move away before delivery. We completed in-person visits with mothers during pregnancy in the late first (median 9.9 weeks of gestation) and second (median 27.9 weeks) trimesters. We saw mothers and children in the hospital during the delivery admission and during infancy (median age 6.3 months), early childhood (median 3.2 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). We collected information from mothers via interviews and questionnaires, performed anthropometric and neurodevelopmental assessments and collected biosamples. We have collected additional information from medical records and from mailed questionnaires sent annually to mothers between in-person visits and to children beginning at age 9 years. From 2341 eligible women, there were 2128 live births; 1279 mother-child pairs provided data at the mid-childhood visit. Primary study outcomes include pregnancy outcomes, maternal mental and cardiometabolic health and child neurodevelopment, asthma/atopy and obesity/cardiometabolic health. Investigators interested in learning more about how to obtain Project Viva data can contact Project_Viva@hphc.org. PMID:24639442

  3. Cohort profile: project viva.

    PubMed

    Oken, Emily; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Gold, Diane R; Kleinman, Ken P; Litonjua, Augusto A; De Meo, Dawn; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Sagiv, Sharon; Taveras, Elsie M; Weiss, Scott T; Belfort, Mandy B; Burris, Heather H; Camargo, Carlos A; Huh, Susanna Y; Mantzoros, Christos; Parker, Margaret G; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-02-01

    We established Project Viva to examine prenatal diet and other factors in relation to maternal and child health. We recruited pregnant women at their initial prenatal visit in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002. Exclusion criteria included multiple gestation, inability to answer questions in English, gestational age ≥22 weeks at recruitment and plans to move away before delivery. We completed in-person visits with mothers during pregnancy in the late first (median 9.9 weeks of gestation) and second (median 27.9 weeks) trimesters. We saw mothers and children in the hospital during the delivery admission and during infancy (median age 6.3 months), early childhood (median 3.2 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). We collected information from mothers via interviews and questionnaires, performed anthropometric and neurodevelopmental assessments and collected biosamples. We have collected additional information from medical records and from mailed questionnaires sent annually to mothers between in-person visits and to children beginning at age 9 years. From 2341 eligible women, there were 2128 live births; 1279 mother-child pairs provided data at the mid-childhood visit. Primary study outcomes include pregnancy outcomes, maternal mental and cardiometabolic health and child neurodevelopment, asthma/atopy and obesity/cardiometabolic health. Investigators interested in learning more about how to obtain Project Viva data can contact Project_Viva@hphc.org. PMID:24639442

  4. VIVA Voom: Treasures along the Research Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Grace; Carr, Diane

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the resources available through the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA) Web site, a consortium of the libraries of the 39 state-assisted colleges and universities in the Commonwealth of Virginia. States that VIVA provides, in an equitable, cooperative, and cost-effective manner, enhanced access to library and information for these higher…

  5. Preparing for thesis and viva: some practicalities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy-Jane

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a thesis and then undertaking the viva is challenging even for the most experienced of researchers. This paper offers stylistic practicalities, reflects on thesis and viva preparation, and discusses the research regulations and submission requirements of higher education institutions (HEIs). Issues such as the use of the first person, how best to locate research in the professional setting, research regulations and codes of practice are discussed, along with some guiding principles to enable effective viva preparation. It is derived from experience as a doctoral student, supervisor and examiner, and focuses on questions most frequently asked by doctoral students. PMID:20450089

  6. The PhD Viva: A Space for Academic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the viva experiences of 87 social science PhD graduates from three Irish higher education institutions through a questionnaire that assessed outcome, preparation, conduct and post-viva. The majority were awarded their PhD with minor corrections, considered their viva as a summative assessment, and emphasised its purpose as…

  7. Viva viva? Women's meanings associated with male nudity in a 1970s "for women" magazine.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Allison, Scott T

    2009-01-01

    Little research has been conducted with regard to how women view male nudity. The purpose of this analysis was to present an historical case study of Viva, a 1970s women's magazine geared toward the presentation of male nudity. Implicit in Viva's editorial direction was the assumption that women's sexuality is socially constructed and, thus, modifiable but also homologous to men's sexuality. Using sexual scripting theory as a sensitizing concept, a content analysis of women's letters to the editor was conducted. Letters justified inclusion of male nudity on the basis of principles of fairness and equality with men. In addition, letters tried to demarcate boundary conditions for what constituted acceptable male nudity in terms of the presence of erection, size, shape, and coloring of the penis, and whether inclusion of the penis was contextualized by other physical traits such as body musculature. Despite an early effort to modify cultural scripts on the basis of a constructivist world view, it was found that, ultimately, Viva advocated an essentialist viewpoint that reified existing conceptualizations of female sexuality as both static and uninterested in the visual representation of sexually related material. This study explored whether Viva's essentialist final position may have reflected financial exigencies rather than ideologies. PMID:19288337

  8. Assessing the Mock Viva: The Experiences of British Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James; Fox, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Many postgraduate students in Britain experience a "mock" viva some time before their "rea" one, but little has been published on this aspect of gaining a Ph.D. or professional doctorate. In this study questionnaire data on the experiences and feelings of 29 UK postgraduate students concerning their mock vivas are summarized. The results suggest…

  9. An Informed Look at Doctoral Vivas (Oral Examinations) in the Preparation of Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Charles R., III; Robertson, Derek L.

    2012-01-01

    Viva voce is the Latin expression traditionally used to refer to doctoral oral examinations. Viva voce, or simply viva, examinations are a standard requirement for doctoral candidacy and degree completion in many counselor education programs. Despite the prevalent use of vivas as an assessment and learning tool, the counselor education literature…

  10. Viva Voce (Oral Examination) as an Assessment Method: Insights from Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Glenn; Lee, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    Viva voce (viva) or oral examinations are widely used in medical education, clinical examinations, and doctoral defenses, yet the assessment method is seldom adopted by university marketing departments. Correspondingly, the marketing education literature makes no reference to vivas as an alternative academic assessment technique. This research…

  11. The Doctoral "Viva Voce" as a Cultural Practice: The Gendered Production of Academic Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a recent small-scale phenomenological study into the student experience of the doctoral "viva voce". It was prompted by strong concerns about "viva voce" processes on the part of a Director of Graduate Studies in an English university. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 respondents from eight English…

  12. Improving Memory Subsystem Performance Using ViVA: Virtual Vector Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gebis, Joseph; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Williams, Samuel; Yelick, Katherine

    2009-01-12

    The disparity between microprocessor clock frequencies and memory latency is a primary reason why many demanding applications run well below peak achievable performance. Software controlled scratchpad memories, such as the Cell local store, attempt to ameliorate this discrepancy by enabling precise control over memory movement; however, scratchpad technology confronts the programmer and compiler with an unfamiliar and difficult programming model. In this work, we present the Virtual Vector Architecture (ViVA), which combines the memory semantics of vector computers with a software-controlled scratchpad memory in order to provide a more effective and practical approach to latency hiding. ViVA requires minimal changes to the core design and could thus be easily integrated with conventional processor cores. To validate our approach, we implemented ViVA on the Mambo cycle-accurate full system simulator, which was carefully calibrated to match the performance on our underlying PowerPC Apple G5 architecture. Results show that ViVA is able to deliver significant performance benefits over scalar techniques for a variety of memory access patterns as well as two important memory-bound compact kernels, corner turn and sparse matrix-vector multiplication -- achieving 2x-13x improvement compared the scalar version. Overall, our preliminary ViVA exploration points to a promising approach for improving application performance on leading microprocessors with minimal design and complexity costs, in a power efficient manner.

  13. Examining the British PhD viva: opening new doors or scarring for life?

    PubMed

    Carter, Bernie; Whittaker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The PhD viva -- regardless of its format -- has the potential to be a significant rite of passage for the student. It is an experience that can resonate for months or years afterwards. Part of the challenge is that for everyone involved -- student, supervisory team and examiners -- a degree of end-point uncertainty exists. These ambiguities and tensions are perhaps an inherent part of any examination but are particularly characteristic of the examination of the individual and unique body of work that constitutes the doctoral thesis. In recent years, increased attention has been placed on the processes that surround the examination, aiming to increase transparency, consistency and fairness. However, the process of examining a student and their thesis remains challenging and is surrounded by different agendas, ideologies and practices. This paper examines some of the issues surrounding the PhD viva, primarily focusing on the British viva whilst weaving in commentary about the Australian system. PMID:19697987

  14. Preparing Doctoral Candidates for the Viva: Issues for Students and Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Jacqueline H.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD viva has been described as mysterious (Burnham 1994; Morley et al. 2002), unpredictable (Rugg & Petre 2004) and potentially frightening for students (Delamont et al. 2004), with its form and duration a function of the predilections of individual examiners as well as a function of differences across disciplines. Despite its myriad…

  15. VivaGel™ (SPL7013 Gel): A candidate dendrimer – microbicide for the prevention of HIV and HSV infection

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Richard; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2007-01-01

    Microbicides are compounds that applied vaginally or rectally, protect the user from sexually transmitted infections. Although no commercial product is yet available, many candidates are under development. A leading candidate, VivaGel™ (SPL7013 Gel) is the product of nanotechnology. The active ingredient is SPL7013, a dendrimer that was designed specifically with HIV and HSV antiviral activity and human safety in mind. SPL7013 has demonstrated efficacy against human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus in in vitro and animal models. VivaGel™ appears to be well tolerated in both animals and humans. This review summarizes the studies of VivaGel™ and its active ingredient, SPL7013. PMID:18203424

  16. Phase 1 Randomized Trial of the Vaginal Safety and Acceptability of SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) in Sexually Active Young Women (MTN-004)

    PubMed Central

    MCGOWAN, Ian; GOMEZ, Kailazarid; BRUDER, Karen; FEBO, Irma; CHEN, Beatrice A; RICHARDSON, Barbra A; HUSNIK, Marla; LIVANT, Edward; PRICE, Clare; Jacobson, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The study was designed to assess the safety, adherence, acceptability, and effect on vaginal microflora of 3% SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®), a novel dendrimer topical microbicide that inhibits HIV, HSV-2 and HPV in vitro and in animal models. Design Phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in sexually active women. Methods Sixty-one sexually active women aged 18–24 years were recruited from three sites in the United States. Participants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive VivaGel, VivaGel placebo, or a hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety endpoints included genitourinary and/or other adverse events (AE). Changes in vaginal flora were determined from Gram-stained vaginal smears and quantitative vaginal culture. Results No serious AEs or withdrawals due to AEs were reported. Genitourinary symptoms were reported as follows: VivaGel (n=17/22; 77.3%), VivaGel placebo (n=14/21; 66.7%) and HEC (n=8/18; 44.4%) (NS, p=0.1). The incidence of abnormal pelvic exam findings was similar across all gel arms of the study. Using pair-wise comparison, women in the VivaGel arm had a significantly higher incidence of related genitourinary AEs compared with women in the HEC gel arm (0.297 versus 0.111 per 100 person years, respectively; p=0.003). Exposure to VivaGel and VivaGel placebo resulted in minor shifts in the vaginal microflora but there was no overall impact on incidence of bacterial vaginosis as assessed by Nugent score. Conclusions VivaGel was generally well tolerated and comparable with the VivaGel placebo, although there was a higher incidence of low grade related genital AEs compared to the HEC placebo gel. PMID:21505316

  17. Viva Mexico!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Judy; Hawkes, Brent

    This curriculum presentation outlines how to celebrate five Mexican holidays in the classroom: Cinco de Mayo, Dia de los Muertos, Fiesta, Las Posados, and Three Kings Day. The goal is to help children learn through hands-on activities and real-life experiences. The format for each holiday celebration includes a brief history with ideas for…

  18. A QTL on Chromosome 18q influences energy intake and expenditure in Hispanic children: the VIVA LA FAMILIA study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic contribution to dysregulation of energy intake and/or energy expenditure contributing to common obesities in children is poorly understood. A genome scan was performed to identify chromosomal regions contributing to obesity-related traits in Hispanic children participating in the VIVA LA...

  19. VIVA! Community Arts and Popular Education in the Americas. SUNY Series, Praxis: Theory in Action [with DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barndt, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This compelling collection of inspiring case studies from community arts projects in five countries will inform and inspire students, artists, and activists. "VIVA!" is the product of a five-year transnational research project that integrates place, politics, passion, and praxis. Framed by postcolonial theories of decolonization, the pedagogy of…

  20. Vulnerable but aloof versus naughty and nice: contrasting the presentation of male and female nude models in Viva and Playboy.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Vencill, Jennifer A; Garos, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined contested meanings of nudity by comparing images of nude men and women that appeared in Viva, a 1970s women's magazine founded with the intention of foregrounding male nudity, to corresponding issues of Playboy. A major difference was obtained between male models and Playboy Playmates regarding direction of gaze and nudity. Although gaze aversion is often interpreted as a sign of submission and direct gaze is seen as a dominance cue, men in Viva displayed a high level of gaze aversion and women in Playboy often gazed directly at the camera, especially when their pubic area was exposed. Additional content analysis examined the personality characteristics attributed to male models in Viva and Playmates in Playboy in their biographical sketches. In Viva, men were presented as possessing "bad boy" traits that may have been intended to compensate for the loss of power associated with male nudity. Playmates could be viewed as being naughty (by virtue of posing nude) and nice in the characterization of their personalities. PMID:23829482

  1. VivaScope® 1500 and 3000 systems for detecting and monitoring skin lesions: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Steven J; Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Osei-Assibey, George; Marceniuk, Gemma; Wakefield, Victoria; Karner, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Skin cancer is one of the most common cancers in the UK. The main risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight or the use of sunbeds. Patients with suspicious skin lesions are first examined with a dermoscope. After examination, those with non-cancerous lesions are discharged, but lesions that are still considered clinically suspicious are surgically removed. VivaScope(®) is a non-invasive technology designed to be used in conjunction with dermoscopy to provide a more accurate diagnosis, leading to fewer biopsies of benign lesions or to provide more accurate presurgical margins reducing the risk of cancer recurrence. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of VivaScope(®) 1500 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA; Lucid Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; or Lucid Inc., MAVIG GmbH, Munich, Germany) and VivaScope(®) 3000 (Caliber Imaging and Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA) in the diagnosis of equivocal skin lesions, and VivaScope 3000 in lesion margin delineation prior to surgical excision of lesions. DATA SOURCES Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library) were searched on 14 October 2014, reference lists of included papers were assessed and clinical experts were contacted for additional information on published and unpublished studies. METHODS A systematic review was carried out to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies evaluating dermoscopy plus VivaScope, or VivaScope alone, with histopathology as the reference test. A probabilistic de novo economic model was developed to synthesise the available data on costs and clinical outcomes from the UK NHS perspective. All costs were expressed as 2014 prices. RESULTS Sixteen studies were included in the review, but they were too heterogeneous to be combined in a meta-analysis. One of two diagnostic studies that were deemed most representative of UK clinical practice reported that dermoscopy plus VivaScope 1500

  2. Can the ETView VivaSight SL Rival Conventional Intubation Using the Macintosh Laryngoscope During Adult Resuscitation by Novice Physicians?

    PubMed Central

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Czyzewski, Lukasz; Kurowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the ETView VivaSight SL (ETView) single-lumen airway tube with an integrated high-resolution imaging camera in a manikin-simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation scenario with and without chest compression. This was a randomized crossover manikin trial. Following a brief training session, 107 volunteer novice physicians who were inexperienced with airway management attempted to intubate a manikin using a Macintosh laryngoscope (MAC) and an ETView, with and without chest compressions. The participants were instructed to make 3 attempts in each scenario. In this trial, we compared intubation time, intubation success rates, and glottic visibility using a Cormack & Lehane Grade. Dental compression and ease of use of each device were also assessed. Median intubation times for the ETView and MAC without chest compressions were 17 (IQR, 15–19) s and 27 (IQR, 25–33) s, respectively (P < 0.001). The ETView proved more successful on the first intubation attempt than the MAC, regardless of compressions. Continuation of compressions caused an increase in intubation times for both the ETView (P = 0.27) and the MAC (P < 0.005). The ETView VivaSight SL is an effective tool for endotracheal intubation when used by novice physicians in a manikin-simulated cardiac arrest, both with and without chest compressions. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02295618. PMID:26020389

  3. GENOME-WIDE SCAN FOR SERUM GHRELIN DETECTS LINKAGE ON CHROMOSOME 1P36 IN HISPANIC CHILDREN: RESULTS FROM THE VIVA LA FAMILIA STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate genetic influence on serum ghrelin and its relationship with adiposity-related phenotypes in Hispanic children (n = 1030) from the Viva La Familia study (VFS). Anthropometric measurements and levels of serum ghrelin were estimated and genetic analyses conducte...

  4. Urban upgrading and its impact on health: a "quasi-experimental" mixed-methods study protocol for the BH-Viva Project.

    PubMed

    Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Reis, Priscila Brandão Dos; Dias, Cláudia Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    There is little scientific evidence that urban upgrading helps improve health or reduce inequities. This article presents the design for the BH-Viva Project, a "quasi-experimental", multiphase, mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative components, proposing an analytical model for monitoring the effects that interventions in the urban environment can have on residents' health in slums in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A preliminary analysis revealed intra-urban differences in age-specific mortality when comparing areas with and without interventions; the mortality rate from 2002 to 2012 was stable in the "formal city", increased in slums without interventions, and decreased in slums with interventions. BH-Viva represents an effort at advancing methodological issues, providing learning and theoretical backing for urban health research and research methods, allowing their application and extension to other urban contexts. PMID:26648363

  5. Measurement of mucosal biomarkers in a phase 1 trial of intravaginal 3% SPL 7013 gel (VivaGel®) to assess expanded safety

    PubMed Central

    MOSCICKI, Anna-Barbara; KAUL, Rupert; Yifei, MA; SCOTT, Mark E.; DAUD, Ibrahim I.; BUKUSI, Elizabeth A.; SHIBOSKI, Stephen; REBBAPRAGADA, Anuradha; HUIBNER, Sanja; COHEN, Craig R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the 3% SPL 7013 gel (VivaGel®) on mucosal immune markers hypothesized to be associated with HIV-1 acquisition. Design Phase 1, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in 54 young women in the U.S. and Kenya. Participants used carbopol gel with and without (placebo) SPL 7013 twice daily over 14 days. Cervical specimens were collected for cytokines, chemokines, T-cells, and dendritic cells at day (D) 0, 7, 14, and 21. A negative binomial regression model was used to assess differences between study arms. Results Several mucosal immune parameters were increased in the VivaGel® arm compared to placebo. For cytokines: D 7, IL-6 (p=0.05); D 14, IFN-γ (p=0.03), IL-2 (p=0.04), IL-5 (p=0.003) and IL-10 (p=0.001) were increased. On D 7, CD8+/CD69+ T-cells tended to be increased (p<0.08); limiting analysis to visits without blood or bacterial vaginosis, these findings were stronger: at D7, CD8+/CD69+ T-cells were increased in the VivaGel® arm (p<0.005), as were CD4+/CD69+ cells (p=0.001) and CD4+/CCR5+ T-cells (p=0.01). The changes described for D7 and 14 were no longer seen at D21. Conclusion Markers associated with inflammation and epithelial damage were reversibly elevated in the VivaGel® arm compared to the placebo arm after 7–14 days of twice daily product use. PMID:22067666

  6. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study in Project Viva.

    PubMed

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S; Haugaard, Line K; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Belfort, Mandy B

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting for confounders, each additional z-score gain in body mass index during birth to 6 months and 2 to 3 years was associated with 0.81 (0.15, 1.46) and 1.61 (0.33, 2.89) mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure, respectively. Length/height gain was unrelated to mid-childhood blood pressure, and there was no evidence of effect modification by birth size for body mass index or length/height z-score gain. Our findings suggest that more rapid gain in body mass index during the first 6 postnatal months and in the preschool years may lead to higher systolic blood pressure in mid-childhood, regardless of size at birth. Strategies to reduce accrual of excess adiposity during early life may reduce mid-childhood blood pressure, which may also impact adult blood pressure and cardiovascular health. PMID:26644238

  7. Viva la Diferencia!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla; Bialeschki, Debbie

    1987-01-01

    Examines how male/female differences in time perception, power, thought, relationships, responsibility, process vs. product, conservation and exploitation, and leadership contribute to positive growth in outdoor learning. Suggests concepts of feminism, androgyny, and personality theory have implications for understanding camping experiences for…

  8. Viva la Evolucion!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haro, Robert P.

    1979-01-01

    Developments in library services to Hispanic Americans include special collection development and outreach services to non-users but change is coming too slowly for America's fastest growing minority. Professional education has responded slowly, if at all to the Hispanic population's needs. (MBR)

  9. Situação da Mulher na Astronomia Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adriana V. R.

    2007-07-01

    O conteúdo desse texto surgiu de uma apresentação de mesmo título que fiz na XXXI Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB) em 2005. Esse tema foi inspirado originalmente pela minha participação no "2nd UIPAP International Conference on Women in Physics" realizado entre 23 e 25 de maio de 2005 no Rio de Janeiro. Essa é uma conferência internacional que acontece de três em três anos, sendo que a primeira ocorreu em 2002 na cidade de Paris, França. Participei dessa conferência como membro da delegação da Sociedade Brasileira de Física e um dos trabalhos que apresentei versava sobre a situação das mulheres na Astronomia brasileira, cujos resultados principais discorro a seguir. A situação das astrônomas, baseada nos dados dos sócios da SAB coletados no final de 2004, é comparada com a das físicas brasileiras e também com as nossas colegas americanas. Os dados identificam ainda uma maior evasão da carreira por parte das mulheres do que os homens. Alguns dos possíveis motivos da evasão são discutidos, como o desejo de constituir família e/ou isolamento. Resultados um tanto preocupantes com relação à distribuição de bolsas de produtividade do CNPq também são apresentados. As principais discussões e estratégias recomendadas nesse congresso são mencionadas de forma resumida ao final.

  10. 76 FR 7511 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes; and Model ERJ 190-100..., contact Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060),...

  11. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  12. 76 FR 72855 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Technical Publications Section (PC 060), Av. Brigadeiro Faria...

  13. 75 FR 53609 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... docket. Relevant Service Information Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued...

  14. 76 FR 5298 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira... identified in this proposed AD, contact EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom...

  15. 75 FR 45558 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira.... Relevant Service Information Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) has issued Service...

  16. [Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA) and notification of infant-juvenile violence in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia].

    PubMed

    Souza, Camila dos Santos; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Musse, Jamilly de Oliveira; Sobrinho, Carlito Nascimento; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis

    2014-03-01

    The scope of the study is to analyze data of children and adolescents who are the victims of different forms of violence, registered in the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA/MS) in Feira de Santana in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The total number of records, since the implementation of VIVA in the city (01/2009 to 01/2011) was used and the analyses sought associations between characteristics of violence and profiles of victims and perpetrators. The results showed that children and adolescents were molested using different types of violence, including the use of physical force, verbal threats and weapons and sundry cases of personal injury. Approximately 35% were hospitalized and 15% died. Physical violence was more common among males during adolescence in the home environment and perpetrated by a family member. Sexual violence occurred with greater frequency among females during childhood and 55.5% of the cases occurred in the home environment and more frequently perpetrated by a family member or acquaintances. The results highlight the importance of investments in policies and programs for harm prevention and reduction, seeking to broaden coverage in the care and the enhancement of the information system and surveys of these indicators. PMID:24714892

  17. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  18. 75 FR 63048 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... (75 FR 45558). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Order 12866; (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima,...

  19. 76 FR 55781 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... was published in the Federal Register on January 13, 2011 (76 FR 2279). That NPRM proposed to correct... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3...-16786; AD 2011-18-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica...

  20. Viva--A Look at the Hispanic-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Domingo Nick

    Comprised of various groups, the Hispanic Americans constitute the second largest ethnic minority group in the United States. The largest Hispanic American groups living in the United States are Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, South and Central Americans. Of these, the Mexican Americans constitute the largest and oldest group. Puerto…

  1. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  2. Predictors of weight gain in Hispanic children - The VIVA LA FAMILIA study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Childhood obesity arises from a dysregulation of energy balance; however, the relative role of diet and physical activity in the etiology of excessive weight gain is poorly understood. Methods: The specific aims of this study were to measure 1-year changes in weight, height, and body com...

  3. Audio Feedback to Physiotherapy Students for Viva Voce: How Effective Is "The Living Voice"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Wendy; Hollingworth, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Assessment and feedback remains one of the categories that students are least satisfied with within the United Kingdom National Student Survey. The Student Charter promotes the use of various formats of feedback to enhance student learning. This study evaluates the use of audio MP3 as an alternative feedback mechanism to written feedback for…

  4. "Viva la Revolucion:" Transforming Teaching and Assessing Student Writing through Collaborative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanning, Molly; Schmidt, Brigid

    2007-01-01

    Considering how to better assess student writing, middle school teachers Molly Fanning and Brigid Schmidt revolutionize their conception of themselves as teachers. They challenge all educators to become what Henry A. Giroux calls "transformative intellectuals" by identifying as writers, practicing collaborative inquiry, and sharing their work with…

  5. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN IN HISPANIC CHILDREN: THE VIVA LA FAMILIA STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the high prevalence of overweight among Hispanic children in the United States, definitive predictors of weight gain have not been identified in this population. The study objective was to test sociodemographic, metabolic, and behavioral predictors of 1-y weight gains in a large cohort of Hi...

  6. VIVA LA SALUD INFANTILE: Pediatric obesity treatment in an underserved Hispanic community

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity in the US disproportionately impacts minority populations who face socioeconomic and cultural barriers to weight management programs. The specific aim of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of diet behavior modification or diet behavior modification plus structured aerob...

  7. A Manifesto of a Postcommunist, Poststructuralist Researcher: Post-"Viva Voce" Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2011-01-01

    This paper represents a reflective account of a recent Cambridge University graduate, who critically assesses her successes and struggles in establishing herself as a social science researcher in Western academia. Reflecting on her various (sometimes conflicting and sometimes, in a paradoxical way, complementary) identities, the author explains…

  8. Autoridade Brasileira de Controle de Dopagem (ABCD).

    PubMed

    Santos, Azenildo M; Bahrke, Michael S

    2014-11-01

    The creation of the ABCD and the inclusion for the first time of a provision of financial resources in the Government's General Budget Forecast, demonstrates the degree of Brazil's commitment in the fight against doping. This as we seek to know and evaluate these models of excellence to help to structure and develop our own doping control operations, always taking into account the Brazilian reality. PMID:25099312

  9. Lengua Viva: Un programa de television sobre el habla espontanea (Living Language: A Television Program on Spontaneous Speech)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criado de Val, Manuel

    1975-01-01

    A program shown on Spanish television is a linguistic survey of Spain. Spontaneous conversations were filmed and taped in all regions of the country. It is evident that the mass media are spreading a standard form of speech and that regional differences are becoming blurred. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  10. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in low-income Hispanic Children – The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of nutrient adequacy and diet quality in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. Epidemiological studies have suggested that low-cost, energy dense diets high in grains, added sugars, and fat contribute to the development of obesity, especially in low-income groups. The spec...

  11. Serum uric acid concentrations and SLC2A9 genetic variation in Hispanic children: The Viva La Familia Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated concentrations of serum uric acid are associated with increased risk of gout and renal and cardiovascular diseases. Genetic studies in adults have consistently identified associations of solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9), polymorphisms with variation in serum uric acid. However, it...

  12. Viva La Ciencia: Cuba’s Creative Scientists Aim to Make Knowledge Their Country’s Sugar Substitute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Rosalind; Hayes, Brian

    At first, peas served as particles in Ernesto Altshuler's experiment. A mechanical dispenser would drop the chícharos one by one into the space between two glass plates, forming a tidy two-dimensional approximation of a sand pile. Lattice structure appeared, then vanished, as the pile self-organized and went critical—avalanche! But Havana's insects soon found the peas in Altshuler's physics lab. For a physicist working under harsh economic conditions of Cuba in the early 1990s, options were few. Yet Altshuler's solution came as a byproduct of the crisis: Because of fuel shortages, the country had begun importing Chinese bicycles, and ball bearings were available in abundance. Thus the peas have been replaced by steel beads, but Altshuler and his students still call their machine the chícharotron.

  13. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  14. VI Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Wuensche de Souza, C. A.; da Silva, A. R.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Martins, R. V.

    2004-04-01

    In this work we show the results of the VI Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy, which took place on 17/05/2003 in all primary or secondary schools that previously registered. 76.445 students distributed over 1.565 schools from all Brazilian States took part in this event. A team of 5 students was selected to represent Brazil at the IX International Olympiad of Astronomy (IX IAO) in 2004. We participated of the VIII IAO that occurred in Stockholm, Sweden in 2003. Two of our students were awarded the bronze medal and silver medal in that event.

  15. Viva La Diferencia! Segundo Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Long Live the Difference! Second Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide, in English and Spanish, is designed to provide teachers with a scientific basis for identifying myths and distortions about men and women. A pre-test and post-test are included to measure the user's awareness of stereotypes. Object lessons address the following areas: (1) common sexual stereotypes; (2) sexual functions; (3) the…

  16. Genome-wide scan for plasma ghrelin detects linkage on chromosome 1p36 in Hispanic children: Results from the Viva La Familia study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disorders in energy homeostasis are believed to be among the key contributing factors in the development of obesity. The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, particularly in children, is a major public health issue. Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide with an important role in the regulation of e...

  17. Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children of low socioeconomic status: The Viva La Familia Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (...

  18. Improving Usage Statistics Processing for a Library Consortium: The Virtual Library of Virginia's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tansy E.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA). The VIVA statistics-processing system remains a work in progress. Member libraries will benefit from the ability to obtain the actual data from the VIVA site, rather than just the summaries, so a project to make these data available is currently being planned. The…

  19. Análise dos Resultados da VII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Preta Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta; de Medeiros, José Renan; Dantas, Márcia Pragano; Roque da Silva, Adriana; Martins, Roberto Vieira; Dottori, Horácio Alberto; Maia, Márcio Antonio Geimba; Da Rocha Poppe, Paulo César; Rodrigues da Costa, Antônio Carlos

    2006-06-01

    In this work we show the results of the VII Brazilian Astronomy Olympiad (VII OBA), that occurred on 15/05/2004, in all previous registered elementary and high schools, public and/or private, urban and/or rural. Took part in this Olympiad 123.001 students (60,7 % more than VI OBA), distributed over 2.721 schools (increasing of 73% if compared with the VI OBA), belonging to all Brazilian states. The public schools are 75,5% and the private are 24,5%. The team of 4 students selected in the VI OBA (2003) represented the Brazil in the IX International Astronomy Olympiad (IX IAO), that occurred on October of 2004, in Ukraine and won a silver medal and two bronze medals.

  20. About the Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira and its 36th annual meeting (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2012-12-01

    We present an overview of the Brazilian Astronomical community and of its available observational facilities. We explain how is organized the Brazilian Astronomical Society (S.A.B.) and present some information on our last annual meeting, held in 2011.

  1. 77 FR 16155 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and... Faria Lima, 2170- Putim-12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55...

  2. 77 FR 58761 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36224). That NPRM proposed to... participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR 36224, June 18, 2012) or on the... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate...

  3. 77 FR 36224 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... aluminum sheets; modifying the lights assembly on the tail boom rear movable fairing; and replacing the....] * * * * * The required actions include installing or reworking, as applicable, metallic diverters and...

  4. 75 FR 260 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic..., migration of flammable vapors and fluids to middle electronic bay may occur, which then could lead to an... vapors and fluids to middle electronic bay may occur, which then could lead to an uncontained fire...

  5. 76 FR 27237 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 10, 2011 (76 FR 7511). That NPRM... ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3...-153-AD; Amendment 39-16684; AD 2011-10-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa...

  6. 75 FR 19201 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 260). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...-212-AD; Amendment 39-16261; AD 2010-08-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa...

  7. Influencias africanas na lingua brasileira dos terreiros (African Influences in Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how determination of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in songs of voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in southern and northeastern Brazil is complicated by factors like existence of phonological correspondence without accompanying semantic correspondence, difficulty of determining meaning of word in a given text, and high…

  8. Transferências intergeracionais privadas na Amazônia rural brasileira

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza; VanWey, Leah Karin

    2010-01-01

    What motivates family members to share resources? Past research argues for, on the one hand, love and altruism, and on the other, the expectation of reciprocity. Drawing on this literature, this paper examines intergenerational transfers between small farmers and their non-coresident children in the rural area around the city of Altamira, Pará, Brazil. We apply GoM (Grade of Membership) models to create profiles of private transfers, using data collected in 2005 by a team from Indiana University. The results show three profiles: low intergenerational transfers, high levels of transfers of visits and help, and high levels of transfers of visits and money. There is no clear difference in profile by birth order, but we do find sex differences in profile. Men are more likely to send money while women provide time transfers (work and visits). Upward transfers are most common from children with high levels of education or living in urban areas, suggesting a repayment of prior investments made by parents. Thus, our empirical evidence supports theories arguing that transfers are motivated by intertemporal contracts between parents and children, and that altruistic theories of family transfers should be rethought among rural agricultural populations in contexts characterized by many environmental and institutional challenges. PMID:20927199

  9. 78 FR 66258 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of..., and -135LR airplanes; and Model EMB-145, -145ER, -145MR, -145LR, -145XR, -145MP, and -145EP...

  10. 75 FR 52263 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 2, 2009 (74 FR 26315). That NPRM proposed... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or negative, on a substantial number of small entities under the criteria of...

  11. 77 FR 25644 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...-07-04, Amendment 39-16248 (75 FR 14333, March 25, 2010), and on August 13, 2010, we issued AD 2010- 18-01, Amendment 39-16414 (75 FR 52238, August 25, 2010). Those ADs required actions intended to..., Amendment 39-16248 (75 FR 14333, March 25, 2010) and AD 2010-18-01, Amendment 39-16414 (75 FR 52238,...

  12. 75 FR 47190 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on August 19, 2009 (74 FR 41807). That NPRM... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...: It has been found the occurrence of corrosion on the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) mounting rods...

  13. 76 FR 64785 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... was published in the Federal Register on April 19, 2011 (76 FR 21822). That NPRM proposed to correct... 27, 2011, in the NPRM (76 FR 21822, April 19, 2011) as it is the most current. We agree that the... NPRM (76 FR 21822, April 19, 2011), or allow for future revisions to the AMM. The commenter noted...

  14. Transferências intergeracionais privadas na Amazônia rural brasileira.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Queiroz, Bernardo Lanza; Vanwey, Leah Karin

    2009-02-01

    What motivates family members to share resources? Past research argues for, on the one hand, love and altruism, and on the other, the expectation of reciprocity. Drawing on this literature, this paper examines intergenerational transfers between small farmers and their non-coresident children in the rural area around the city of Altamira, Pará, Brazil. We apply GoM (Grade of Membership) models to create profiles of private transfers, using data collected in 2005 by a team from Indiana University. The results show three profiles: low intergenerational transfers, high levels of transfers of visits and help, and high levels of transfers of visits and money. There is no clear difference in profile by birth order, but we do find sex differences in profile. Men are more likely to send money while women provide time transfers (work and visits). Upward transfers are most common from children with high levels of education or living in urban areas, suggesting a repayment of prior investments made by parents. Thus, our empirical evidence supports theories arguing that transfers are motivated by intertemporal contracts between parents and children, and that altruistic theories of family transfers should be rethought among rural agricultural populations in contexts characterized by many environmental and institutional challenges. PMID:20927199

  15. 76 FR 81894 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...) to incorporate new structural inspection requirements. Since we issued that AD, during full scale... proposed AD. Discussion On May 14, 2010, we issued AD 2010-11-13, Amendment 39-16318 (75 FR 30284, June 1.... Since we issued AD 2010-11-13, Amendment 39-16318 (75 FR 30284, June 1, 2010): The Ag ncia Nacional...

  16. 77 FR 24342 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... inspection requirements. Since we issued that AD, during full scale fatigue testing, cracks were found in... publications listed in this AD as of July 6, 2010 (75 FR 30284, June 1, 2010). ADDRESSES: You may examine the... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2011 (76 FR 81894), and...

  17. 75 FR 42585 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 4, 2010 (75 FR 9816), and proposed to supersede AD 2007-16-09, Amendment 39-15148 (72 FR 44734, August 9, 2007). That NPRM proposed to correct an... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  18. 75 FR 9814 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Information Embraer has issued Temporary Revision (TR) 2-5, dated December 6, 2007; and TR 2-6, dated February.... These tasks are identified in Embraer Temporary Revision (TR) 2-5, dated December 6, 2007; and...

  19. 76 FR 59240 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40286). That NPRM proposed... the NPRM (76 FR 40286, July 8, 2011) or on the determination of the cost to the public. Conclusion We...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have...

  20. 75 FR 47184 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Critical Design Configuration Control Limitations (CDCCL) and in the Fuel System Limitations (FSL... as of September 9, 2010. On July 30, 2008 (73 FR 35904, June 25, 2008), the Director of the Federal... March 23, 2010 (75 FR 13689), and proposed to supersede AD 2008-13- 14, Amendment 39-15577 (73 FR...

  1. 75 FR 30277 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 STD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 4, 2010 (75 FR 9814). That NPRM proposed... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... the EMBRAER 190 MRBR MRB-1928. When these TRs have been included in general revisions of the...

  2. 75 FR 30284 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... March 4, 2010 (75 FR 9811). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... inspection tasks identified in the EMBRAER temporary revisions (TRs) to Appendix A--Part 2 of the EMBRAER...

  3. 75 FR 19193 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the products listed above. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition...

  4. 75 FR 27403 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 and -145...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... specified products. That supplemental NPRM was published in the Federal Register on February 23, 2010 (75 FR...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have... lever to down the three green landing gear positioning indication was displayed followed by the...

  5. 76 FR 20503 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 1, 2010 (75 FR 74670). That NPRM... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... possible ram air turbine (RAT) imbalance event, which may result in RAT structural failure,...

  6. 75 FR 74670 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... possible ram air turbine (RAT) imbalance event, which may result in RAT structural failure, which... related balance washer causing a possible ram air turbine (RAT) imbalance event, which may result in...

  7. 75 FR 63422 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... found it necessary to use different words from those in the MCAI to ensure the AD is clear for U.S... information provided in the MCAI and related service information. We might also have proposed different... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....

  8. 75 FR 7929 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190-100 LR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 7, 2009 (74 FR 21285). That NPRM proposed... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... deformation of wing spar and rib flanges, which could result in loss of structural integrity of the...

  9. 75 FR 43049 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...: --DC BUS 1 OFF displayed on Crew Alerting System--CAS in conjunction with STBY HTR FAIL (which means loss of power on DC BUS 1); or --EMER BUS OFF displayed on CAS (which means loss of power on EMERGENCY... 2, 2009, we issued AD 2009-23-11, Amendment 39-16085 (74 FR 58195; November 12, 2009). That...

  10. 75 FR 31332 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... would take about 2 work-hours per product to comply with the basic requirements of this proposed AD. The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Based on these figures, we estimate the cost of the proposed AD... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....

  11. 76 FR 2279 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... costs. As we do not control warranty coverage for affected parties, some parties may incur costs higher... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ 190 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...

  12. 76 FR 40286 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... not control warranty coverage for affected individuals. As a result, we have included all costs in our... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... de Aeron utica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-505 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  13. 76 FR 52220 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on May 10, 2011 (76 FR 26959... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant...-072-AD; Amendment 39-16779; AD 2011-17-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives;...

  14. 75 FR 5685 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... to the specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on July 30, 2009 (74 FR... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...-060-AD; Amendment 39-16191; AD 2010-03-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa...

  15. 75 FR 68684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ..., 2010 (75 FR ] 53609). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant...-045-AD; Amendment 39-16505; AD 2010-23-16] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa...

  16. 75 FR 34357 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... February 25, 2010 (75 FR 8557). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...-127-AD; Amendment 39-16328; AD 2010-12-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Empresa...

  17. 76 FR 55783 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... (76 FR 13539). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... due to hydrogen embrittlement. The ANAC ncia Nacional de Avia o Civil] is issuing this AD to...

  18. 75 FR 2060 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Register on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 34276). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  19. 76 FR 13539 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 190 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... the failure occurred due to hydrogen embrittlement. The ANAC ncia Nacional de Avia o Civil] is issuing... the failure occurred due to hydrogen embrittlement. The ANAC ncia Nacional de Avia o Civil] is...

  20. 75 FR 26883 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on July 22, 2009 (74 FR 36129). That NPRM... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034...) and its adjacent actuator torque limiter failing high (allows higher loads to the panel...

  1. 75 FR 7998 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135 and -145...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on August 19, 2009 (74 FR 41810). That earlier NPRM proposed... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes...

  2. 75 FR 14333 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the products listed above. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition...

  3. 75 FR 9816 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the products listed above that would supersede an existing AD. This proposed AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI for EMBRAER Model ERJ 170 describes the unsafe condition......

  4. 75 FR 52238 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 and ERJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) becomes the active bleed source for the left side. The most critical condition identified is: --Both engines close to idle (e.g.: descent phase); and --APU running; and --APU bleed...

  5. 76 FR 21822 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... results from reports of cracking in the firewall of the auxiliary power unit (APU). This AD is being... fuselage and empennage in the event that ] a fire penetrates through the firewall of the APU. * * * * *...

  6. 75 FR 57666 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on August 19, 2009 (74 FR 41805). That NPRM... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... condition as: It has been found the occurrence of corrosion on the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) mounting...

  7. 76 FR 26959 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... products, which was published in the Federal Register on January 31, 2011 (76 FR 5298). That earlier NPRM... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... provide. We will also post a report summarizing each substantive verbal contact we receive about...

  8. 75 FR 13684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Register on October 16, 2008 (73 FR 61375). That earlier NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2008-13-15, Amendment 39-15578 (73 FR 35908, June 25, 2008), to require actions intended to address the unsafe condition... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...

  9. 75 FR 13689 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Register on October 16, 2008 (73 FR 61372). That earlier NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2008-13-14, Amendment 39-15577 (73 FR 35904, June 25, 2008), to require actions intended to address the unsafe condition... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...

  10. 75 FR 8557 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Airworthiness (ICA) to incorporate Tasks 54-50-00-230-802-A00 and 54-50-00-220-808-A01 specified in Appendix 2..., and - 145MP airplanes: Revise the ALS of the ICA to incorporate Tasks 57- 26-00-250-815-A00,...

  11. 76 FR 437 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... (73 FR 35908, June 25, 2008), the Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by... supplemental NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 23, 2010 (75 FR 13684), and proposed to supersede AD 2008-13- 15, Amendment 39-15578 (73 FR 35908, June 25, 2008). That supplemental NPRM...

  12. 75 FR 30287 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-135BJ...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: During aircraft full scale fatigue test, it... February 18, 2009 (74 FR 7570). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: During aircraft full scale fatigue test, it has been found the occurrence...

  13. 76 FR 37244 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-120, -120ER...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Register on June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31332). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  14. 75 FR 9811 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model ERJ 170 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... 170 airplane full scale fatigue test, cracks were found in some structural components of the airplane... timely detection of fatigue cracks. Undetected fatigue cracks in these areas could adversely affect...

  15. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  16. 76 FR 444 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 63422). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant... affected region has also revealed the possibility of chafing between the same harness and the oxygen...

  17. Prolegomenos a um estudo da lingua brasileira nos terreiros de origem africana (Prolegomena to a Study of the Brazilian Language of the Voodoo Rites of African Origin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megenney, William W.

    Determination of the authenticity of lexical items with Sub-Saharan origin in the voodoo rites of candomble and umbanda in Brazil requires establishing a socio-historical basis for the African diaspora and the current configuration of terreiros. The terreiros demonstrate varying linguistic repertoires according to their affiliation with candomble…

  18. PREVALÊNCIA DE ENDOSSIMBIONTES Cardinium EM POPULAÇÕES DE ÁCAROS Brevipalpus phoenicis DE DIFERENTES REGIÕES BRASILEIRAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Em B. phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), ácaro vetor de importantes fitovírus, a presença de endossimbiontes do gênero Cardinium relaciona-se ao processo de feminilização dos machos, acarretando em elevada proporção de fêmeas em populações naturais. Até o momento, não é conhecido se este e...

  19. Marshall Space Flight Center Wakes STS-135 Crew - Duration: 2 minutes, 41 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Flight Day 2 wakeup music was "Viva la Vida" performed by Coldplay, a song picked by STS-135 Pilot Doug Hurley. The song was accompanied by a special good morning message recorded by employees ...

  20. Fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) for dental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, M. J., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    We have developed a hand-held fiber optic based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for scanning of the oral cavity We have produced, using this scanning device, in viva cross-sectional images of hard and soft dental tissues in human volunteers Clinically relevant anatomical structures, including the gingival margin, periodontal sulcus, and dento-enamel junction, were visible in all the images The dento-enamel junction and the alveolar bone were identifiable in approximately two thirds of the images These images represent, to our knowledge, the first in viva OCT images of human dental tissue.

  1. Impaired Visual Size-Discrimination in Children with Movement Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gori, Monica; Tinelli, Francesca; Sandini, Giulio; Cioni, Giovanni; Burr, David

    2012-01-01

    Multisensory integration of spatial information occurs late in childhood, at around eight years (Gori, Del Viva, Sandini, & Burr, 2008). For younger children, the haptic system dominates size discrimination and vision dominates orientation discrimination: the dominance may reflect "sensory calibration," and could have direct consequences on…

  2. Genome-wide scan revealed genetic loci for energy metabolism in Hispanic children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide scans were conducted in a search for genetic locations linked to energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in children. Pedigreed data of 1030 Hispanic children and adolescents were from the Viva La Familia Study, which was designed to investigate genetic and environmental risk factors ...

  3. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  4. A LANDSCAPE DEVELOPMENT INTENSITY MAP OF MARYLAND, USA - 4/07

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a map of human development intensity for central and eastern Maryland using an index derived from energy systems principles. Brown and Vivas developed a measure of the intensity of human development based on the nonrenewable energy use per unit area as an index to exp...

  5. Assessing Second Language Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    While the viva voce (oral) examination has always been used in content-based educational assessment (Latham 1877: 132), the assessment of second language (L2) speaking in performance tests is relatively recent. The impetus for the growth in testing speaking during the 19th and 20th centuries is twofold. Firstly, in educational settings the…

  6. Exploratory Learning with Geodromo: Design of Emotional and Cognitive Factors within an Educational Cross-Media Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidarra, Jose; Martins, Olimpio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present Geodromo, a prototype of an educational multimedia system, part of the Portuguese "Ciencia Viva" (Live Science) educational program, which is aimed at young people and designed with innovative characteristics. The project is based on a robotic multimedia simulator and an online puzzle game aimed at the exploratory learning…

  7. Supervising the PhD: A Guide to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamont, Sara; Atkinson, Paul; Parry, Odette

    This handbook is a practical guide for the novice and experienced supervisor of Ph.D. students focusing on the British system. The book is organized to follow the progress of a student from starting out to a career after the viva voce examination. The chapters are: (1) "A Most Persuasive Piece of Argument"; (2) "Caught and Held by a Cobweb:…

  8. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...

  9. Vinegar as a disarming agent to prevent further discharge of the nematocysts of the stinging hydromedusa Olindias sambaquiensis.

    PubMed

    Mianzan, H W; Fenner, P J; Cornelius, P F; Ramírez, F C

    2001-07-01

    Olindias sambaquiensis, known as agua viva, is an endemic hydromedusa that is distributed from latitude 23 degrees to 42 degrees south in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is known to cause severe stings. This is the first report of the use of vinegar in disarming O sambaquiensis nematocysts and includes preliminary observations on its use in managing the stings of hydromedusae. PMID:11480147

  10. When Is a Physical Concept Born? The Emergence of "Work" as a Magnitude of Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanderakis, Nikos Emmanouil

    2010-01-01

    The physical magnitude "work" has a long history. It emerged when two different practices, performed during the whole eighteenth century, met each other. The first was theoretical, practiced by philosophers and mathematicians, and was related mainly to the "living forces" (vires vivae). The second was empirical, practiced by engineers, and was…

  11. Overlooking the Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshem, Shosh; Trafford, Vernon

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual framework is alluded to in most serious texts on research, described in some and fully explained in few. However, examiners of doctoral theses devote considerable attention to exploring its function within social science doctoral vivas. A literature survey explores how the conceptual framework is itself conceptualised and explained.…

  12. Dostoevsky: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellek, Rene, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Rene Wellek, Philip Rahv, Murray Krieger, Irving Howe, Eliseo Vivas, D. H. Lawrence, Sigmund Freud, Dmitri Chizhevsky, V. V. Zenkovsky, Georg Lukacs, and Derek Traversi--all dealing with the biography and literary work of…

  13. Kafka: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Ronald, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Ronald Gray, Edwin Muir, Friedrich Beissner, R. O. C. Winkler, Johannes Pfeiffer, Caroline Gordon, Idris Parry, Edmund Wilson, Erich Heller, Austin Warren, Eliseo Vivas, Albert Camus, Martin Buber, and H. S. Reiss--all…

  14. On How Thinking Shapes Speaking: Techniques to Enhance Students' Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casamassima, Myrian; Insua, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    The institution at which the authors work--Asociación Ex Alumnos del Profesorado en Lenguas Vivas "Juan Ramón Fernández" (AEXALEVI)--is devoted to the teaching of foreign languages, particularly English, and it administers examinations all over Argentina. One central problem the authors identified in their work in the AEXALEVI Teachers'…

  15. Cultural Representations in Foreign Language Teaching: A Critique of Four BBC Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1992-01-01

    Examines four well-known BBC language courses, "Deutsch Direkt!""A Vous la France!""Viva Espana," and "Buongiorno Italia!" It is suggested that these courses focus on tourism, stereotyping both learners and the target culture and that the presentation of the cultural materials is unrealistic. (VWL)

  16. Integrated Testlets: A New Form of Expert-Student Collaborative Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiell, Ralph C.; Slepkov, Aaron D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated testlets are a new assessment tool that encompass the procedural benefits of multiple-choice testing, the pedagogical advantages of free-response-based tests, and the collaborative aspects of a viva voce or defence examination format. The result is a robust assessment tool that provides a significant formative aspect for students.…

  17. SV40-IMMORTALIZED NON-TUMORIGENIC AND TUMORIGENIC CELL LINES DIFFER IN EXPRESSION OF HALLMARK VIRAL RESPONSE MRNAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SV40-Immortalized Non-Tumorigenic and Tumorigenic Cell Lines Differ in Expression of Hallmark Viral Response mRNAs.

    Prior to the use of an in vitra/in viva transformation system to examine the tumorigenic activity of environmental contaminants, in vitra gene expression pa...

  18. Doctorateness as a Threshold Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafford, Vernon; Leshem, Shosh

    2009-01-01

    Achieving a doctorate presents candidates with certain challenges--undertaking the research, writing the thesis and defending both at their viva. Throughout that doctoral journey, candidates are expected to display doctorateness in their thesis via the characteristics of high-quality scholarly research. The blockages that occur and prevent…

  19. Overcoming Problems in Doctoral Writing through the Use of Visualisations: Telling Our Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Terry; Hussey, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students experience many challenges on the long journey towards completion. Common problems include: synthesising data, working at a conceptual level, clarifying the relationship of the parts of the thesis to the whole, finding a voice and completing a viva successfully. Few authors have addressed the use of visualisations to meet these…

  20. Exploring Accelerating Science Applications with FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Storaasli, Olaf O; Strenski, Dave

    2007-01-01

    FPGA hardware and tools (VHDL, Viva, MitrionC and CHiMPS) are described. FPGA performance is evaluated on two Cray XD1 systems (Virtex-II Pro 50 and Virtex-4 LX160) for human genome (DNA and protein) sequence comparisons for a computational biology code (FASTA). Scalable FPGA speedups of 50X (Virtex-II) and 100X (Virtex-4) over a 2.2 GHz Opteron were achieved. Coding and IO issues faced for human genome data are described.

  1. Strain-rate Dependence of Elastic Modulus Reveals Silver Nanoparticle Induced Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Caporizzo, Matthew Alexander; Roco, Charles M.; Ferrer, Maria Carme Coll; Grady, Martha E.; Parrish, Emmabeth; Eckmann, David M.; Composto, Russell John

    2015-01-01

    Force-displacement measurements are taken at different rates with an atomic force microscope to assess the correlation between cell health and cell viscoelasticity in THP-1 cells that have been treated with a novel drug carrier. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis, VIVA, is employed to identify the relaxation time of the cells that are known to exhibit a frequency dependent stiffness. The VIVA agrees with a fluorescent viability assay. This indicates that dextran-lysozyme drug carriers are biocompatible and deliver concentrated toxic material (rhodamine or silver nanoparticles) to the cytoplasm of THP-1 cells. By modelling the frequency dependence of the elastic modulus, the VIVA provides three metrics of cytoplasmic viscoelasticity: a low frequency modulus, a high frequency modulus and viscosity. The signature of cytotoxicity by rhodamine or silver exposure is a frequency independent twofold increase in the elastic modulus and cytoplasmic viscosity, while the cytoskeletal relaxation time remains unchanged. This is consistent with the known toxic mechanism of silver nanoparticles, where metabolic stress causes an increase in the rigidity of the cytoplasm. A variable indentation-rate viscoelastic analysis is presented as a straightforward method to promote the self-consistent comparison between cells. This is paramount to the development of early diagnosis and treatment of disease. PMID:26834855

  2. Hypothesis exploration with visualization of variance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics (CNP) at UCLA was an investigation into the biological bases of traits such as memory and response inhibition phenotypes—to explore whether they are linked to syndromes including ADHD, Bipolar disorder, and Schizophrenia. An aim of the consortium was in moving from traditional categorical approaches for psychiatric syndromes towards more quantitative approaches based on large-scale analysis of the space of human variation. It represented an application of phenomics—wide-scale, systematic study of phenotypes—to neuropsychiatry research. Results This paper reports on a system for exploration of hypotheses in data obtained from the LA2K, LA3C, and LA5C studies in CNP. ViVA is a system for exploratory data analysis using novel mathematical models and methods for visualization of variance. An example of these methods is called VISOVA, a combination of visualization and analysis of variance, with the flavor of exploration associated with ANOVA in biomedical hypothesis generation. It permits visual identification of phenotype profiles—patterns of values across phenotypes—that characterize groups. Visualization enables screening and refinement of hypotheses about variance structure of sets of phenotypes. Conclusions The ViVA system was designed for exploration of neuropsychiatric hypotheses by interdisciplinary teams. Automated visualization in ViVA supports ‘natural selection’ on a pool of hypotheses, and permits deeper understanding of the statistical architecture of the data. Large-scale perspective of this kind could lead to better neuropsychiatric diagnostics. PMID:25097666

  3. Descriptive study of suicide attempts in the Brazilian elderly population, 2000 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de

    2015-06-01

    The study describes hospital admission rates for suicide attempts among the Brazilian elderly and discusses the weaknesses of data from information systems. Data were extracted from the Hospital Information System (HIS) and from the Violence and Injury Surveillance System (VIVA). The analyzes included: (1) temporal evolution of rates by age group (1-9; 10-19; 20-39; 40-59 and 60 or over) from 2000 to 2014 by region; (2) triennial hospital admission rates by sex for age groups 60-69, 70-79 and 80 or over by region and state; (3) hospital admission rates for the elderly from the two information systems. Temporal evolution showed higher rates in the north and lower ones in the northeast. The analysis by age group and sex showed higher rates for older men of the three investigated age groups. The comparison of rates obtained from the two information systems showed a gradual increase in rates from VIVA. After 2012, rates obtained from VIVA were higher in the Southeast, South and Midwest regions. The study highlights the need for further improvement of information on hospital morbidity and data from compulsory notification of violence. PMID:26060946

  4. Soluble Immune Mediators and Vaginal Bacteria Impact Innate Genital Mucosal Antimicrobial Activity in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Rabe, Lorna; Hillier, Sharon L.; Marrazzo, Jeanne; McGowan, Ian; Richardson, Barbra A.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Innate activity against Escherichia coli in female genital secretions may represent contributions from vaginal bacteria and host soluble immune mediators. We analyzed the relationship between E. coli inhibitory activity, soluble immune mediators, and vaginal bacteria in participants in MTN-004, a placebo-controlled trial of VivaGel®, a candidate product for topical HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. Methods Escherichia coli inhibitory activity was quantified by colony reduction assay. Endocervical concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, granulocyte– macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), lactoferrin, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) were quantified to generate a cumulative mediator score. Vaginal bacteria were characterized by quantitative cultures. Results In the two placebo arms, higher soluble immune mediator score was associated with greater E. coli inhibitory activity (β = 17.49, 95% CI [12.77, 22.21] and β = 13.28, 95% CI [4.76, 21.80]). However, in the VivaGel arm, higher concentrations of E. coli (β = −3.80, 95% CI [−6.36, −1.25]) and group B Streptococcus (β = −3.91, 95% CI [−6.21, −1.60]) were associated with reduced E. coli inhibitory activity. Conclusions Both host mediators and vaginal bacteria impact E. coli inhibition in genital secretions. The relative contributions of host mediators and bacteria varied between women who used VivaGel vs placebos. PMID:26118476

  5. Automatic association of chats and video tracks for activity learning and recognition in aerial video surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  6. Automatic Association of Chats and Video Tracks for Activity Learning and Recognition in Aerial Video Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hammoud, Riad I.; Sahin, Cem S.; Blasch, Erik P.; Rhodes, Bradley J.; Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports. PMID:25340453

  7. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em muitos aspectos, noções e dificuldades similares manifestadas pelos estudantes.

  8. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el movimiento de la Luna, el movimiento aparente del Sol sobre la esfera celeste, los eclipses, las dimensiones y las distancias en el Universo, el brillo de las estrellas y su observación de la Tierra. Si bien ha habido un pequeño progreso en la proporción de respuestas aceptables científicamente cuando se cotejó el octavo grado de la enseñanza primaria con el quinto, y el último año de la enseñanza secundaria con el primero, se observó un predominio de las concepciones alternativas en relación a la mayoría de los temas explorados, que continuó hasta los últimos años de la educación básica. Una comparación con los datos encontrados en investigaciones realizadas en otros contextos socioculturales revelaron, en muchos aspectos, conceptos y dificultades similares expresadas por los estudiantes. Apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação sobre a compreensão de conceitos astronômicos básicos, da qual participaram 561 estudantes da quinta série do Ensino Fundamental ao terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de uma escola pública da cidade de Foz do Iguaçu. Um teste com 20 questões de múltipla escolha foi aplicado para identificar as concepções mais comuns expressadas pelos alunos. Esse instrumento de coleta de dados foi elaborado com base na literatura sobre concepções alternativas e abordou os seguintes temas: o ciclo dia-noite; os fusos horários; as estações do ano; as fases da Lua; o movimento da Lua; o movimento aparente do Sol na esfera celeste; os eclipses; as dimensões e distâncias no Universo; o brilho das estrelas e sua observação da Terra. Embora se tenha verificado um pequeno progresso na proporção de respostas cientificamente aceitáveis ao se cotejar a oitava série do Ensino Fundamental com a quinta, e a terceira série do Ensino Médio com a primeira, houve o predomínio de concepções alternativas em relação à maior parte dos temas explorados, as quais persistiram até o último ano da Educação Básica. A comparação com dados encontrados em investigações realizadas em outros contextos socioculturais revelaram, em m

  9. Structured oral examination in pharmacology for undergraduate medical students: Factors influencing its implementation

    PubMed Central

    Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Thaddanee, Rekha; Pathak, Rakesh R.; Makwana, Sohil; Khilnani, Gurudas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aims to understand the process and factors influencing the implementation of structured oral examination (SOE) for undergraduate medical students; in comparison with conventional oral examination (COE) in pharmacology. Methods: In a randomized, parallel group study, 123 students of pharmacology were divided into two groups, SOE (n = 63) and COE (n = 60). Students of each group were subdivided into two, and four examiners took viva voce individually. Three sets of questionnaires from autonomic nervous system were prepared, each having 15 items with increasing difficulty levels and were validated by subject experts and pretested. Ten minutes were allotted for each student for each viva. Feedback of students and faculty about the novel method was obtained. Results: SOE yielded significantly lower marks as compared to COE. There were significant inter-examiner variations in marks awarded in SOE and COE. Other factors influencing implementation were difficulty in structuring viva, rigid time limits, lack of flexibility in knowledge content, monotony, and fatigue. The students perceived this format not different from COE but felt that it required in-depth preparation of topic. Faculty opined that SOE led to less drift from main topic and provided uniform coverage of topics in given time. Conclusion: Conducting SOE is a resource-intensive exercise. Despite structuring, inter-examiner variability was not completely eliminated. The students’ performance was depended on factors related to examiners such as teaching experience, vernacular language used, and lack of training. Orientation and training of examiners in assessment strategies is necessary. Standardization of questionnaire is necessary before the implementation of SOE for summative assessment. PMID:26600646

  10. Applying a Genetic Algorithm to Reconfigurable Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, B. Earl; Weir, John; Trevino, Luis; Patrick, Clint; Steincamp, Jim

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of applying genetic algorithms to solve optimization problems that are implemented entirely in reconfgurable hardware. The paper highlights the pe$ormance/design space trade-offs that must be understood to effectively implement a standard genetic algorithm within a modem Field Programmable Gate Array, FPGA, reconfgurable hardware environment and presents a case-study where this stochastic search technique is applied to standard test-case problems taken from the technical literature. In this research, the targeted FPGA-based platform and high-level design environment was the Starbridge Hypercomputing platform, which incorporates multiple Xilinx Virtex II FPGAs, and the Viva TM graphical hardware description language.

  11. Lifetime maternal experiences of abuse and risk of pre-natal depression in two demographically distinct populations in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W; James-Todd, Tamarra; Mohllajee, Anshu; Kleinman, Ken; Burke, Anne; Gillman, Matthew W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate lifetime history of interpersonal abuse and risk of pre-natal depression in socio-economically distinct populations in the same city. Methods We examined associations of physical and sexual abuse with the risk of pre-natal depression in two cohorts in the Boston area, including 2128 participants recruited from a large urban- and suburban-managed care organization (Project Viva) and 1509 participants recruited primarily from urban community health centres (Project ACCESS). Protocols for the studies were designed in parallel to allow us to merge data to enhance ethnic and socio-economic diversity in the combined sample. In mid-pregnancy, the Personal Safety Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered in both cohorts. An EPDS score ≥13 indicated probable pre-natal depression. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of pre-natal depression associated with lifetime abuse history. Results Project ACCESS participants were twice as likely as Project Viva participants to report symptoms consistent with pre-natal depression: 22% of Project ACCESS participants had EPDS scores ≥13, compared with 11% of Project Viva participants. Fifty-seven percent of women in ACCESS and 46% in Viva reported lifetime physical and/or sexual abuse. In merged analysis, women reporting lifetime physical or sexual abuse had an OR for mid-pregnancy depression of 1.63 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.29–2.07], adjusted for age and race/ethnicity. Lifetime histories of physical abuse [OR 1.48 (95% CI 1.15–1.90)] and sexual abuse [OR 1.68 (95% CI 1.24–2.28)] were independently associated with pre-natal depression. When child/teen, pre-pregnancy adult and pregnancy life periods were considered simultaneously, abuse in childhood was independently associated with an OR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.00–1.59), pre-pregnancy adult abuse with an OR of 1.70 (95% CI 1.31–2.21) and abuse during pregnancy with an OR of 1

  12. Celestial: Common astronomical conversion routines and functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Aaron S. G.

    2016-02-01

    The R package Celestial contains common astronomy conversion routines, particularly the HMS and degrees schemes, and a large range of functions for calculating properties of different cosmologies (as used by the cosmocalc website). This includes distances, ages, growth rate/factor and densities (e.g., Omega evolution and critical energy density). It also includes functions for calculating thermal properties of the CMB and Planck's equations and virial properties of halos in different cosmologies, and standard NFW and weak-lensing formulas and low level orbital routines for calculating Roche properties, Vis-Viva and free-fall times.

  13. Elderly patients attended in emergency health services in Brazil: a study for victims of falls and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Mariana Gonçalves; Bonolo, Palmira de Fátima; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Machado, Carla Jorge

    2015-03-01

    The article aims to describe the profile of elderly victims of falls and traffic accidents from the data of the Surveillance Survey of Violence and Accidents (VIVA). The VIVA Survey was conducted in the emergency health-services of the Unified Health System in the capitals of Brazil in 2011. The sample of elderly by type of accident was subjected to the two-step cluster procedure. Of the 2463 elderly persons in question, 79.8% suffered falls and 20.2% were the victims of traffic accidents. The 1812 elderly who fell were grouped together into 4 clusters: Cluster 1, in which all had disabilities; Cluster 2, all were non-white and falls took place in the home; Cluster 3, younger and active seniors; and Cluster 4, with a higher proportion of seniors 80 years old or above who were white. Among cases of traffic accidents, 446 seniors were grouped into two clusters: Cluster 1 of younger elderly, drivers or passengers; Cluster 2, with higher age seniors, mostly pedestrians. The main victims of falls were women with low schooling and unemployed; traffic accident victims were mostly younger and male. Complications were similar in victims of falls and traffic accidents. Clusters allow adoption of targeted measures of care, prevention and health promotion. PMID:25760111

  14. Brazilians Teach Soccer to U.S. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horshok, John

    1977-01-01

    An international landmark exchange between the Confederacao Brasileira de Desportos (CBD) and Partners of the Americas is reported. In a two-week tour of the U.S., Brazilian soccer coaches performed clinics and seminars in 18 states for nearly 42,000 youngsters. (LBH)

  15. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  16. [Cannabinoids in neurology--Brazilian Academy of Neurology].

    PubMed

    Brucki, Sonia M D; Frota, Norberto Anísio; Schestatsky, Pedro; Souza, Adélia Henriques; Carvalho, Valentina Nicole; Manreza, Maria Luiza Giraldes; Mendes, Maria Fernanda; Comini-Frota, Elizabeth; Vasconcelos, Cláudia; Tumas, Vitor; Ferraz, Henrique B; Barbosa, Egberto; Jurno, Mauro Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The use of cannabidiol in some neurological conditions was allowed by Conselho Regional de Medicina de São Paulo and by Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA). Specialists on behalf of Academia Brasileira de Neurologia prepared a critical statement about use of cannabidiol and other cannabis derivatives in neurological diseases. PMID:25992535

  17. Teacher-Training Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Leslie

    1977-01-01

    The Sociedade Brasileira de Cultura Inglesa of Sao Paolo, Brazil, is an English teaching center which also runs an introductory course to train teachers of English. This article describes some of the projects completed by prospective teachers; they include language games, pictures, cartoons, role-playing and writing creative dialogue. (CHK)

  18. Lisfranc injuries.

    PubMed

    Welck, M J; Zinchenko, R; Rudge, B

    2015-04-01

    Lisfranc injuries are commonly asked about in FRCS Orthopaedic trauma vivas. The term "Lisfranc injury" strictly refers to an injury where one or more of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. The term is more commonly used to describe an injury to the midfoot centred on the 2nd tarsometatarsal joint. The injury is named after Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin (1790-1847), a French surgeon and gynaecologist who first described the injury in 1815. 'Lisfranc injury' encompasses a broad spectrum of injuries, which can be purely ligamentous or involve the osseous and articular structures. They are often difficult to diagnose and treat, but if not detected and appropriately managed they can cause long-term disability. This review outlines the anatomy, epidemiology, classification, investigation and current evidence on management of this injury. PMID:25543185

  19. [Domestic and family violence against women: a case-control study with victims treated in emergency rooms].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Leila Posenato; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Freitas, Lúcia Rolim Santana de; Silva, Gabriela Drummond Marques da

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with treatment of victims of domestic and family violence in emergency rooms in Brazil. This is a case-control study based on the Surveillance System for Violence and Accidents (VIVA), 2011. Women ≥ 18 years who were victims of family and domestic violence were selected as cases and compared to accident victims (controls). Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. 623 cases and 10,120 controls were included. Risk factors according to the adjusted analysis were younger age (18-29 years), low schooling, lack of paid work, alcohol consumption, having sought treatment in a different health service, and violence on weekends or at night or in the early morning hours. The study concludes that domestic and family violence shows alcohol consumption as a strongly associated factor. Days and hours with the highest ocurrence reveal the need to adjust emergency services to treat victims. PMID:27096297

  20. A revision of the New World genus Aptilotella Duda (Sphaeroceridae: Limosininae).

    PubMed

    Luk, Stephen P L; Marshall, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The genus Aptilotella Duda (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae: Limosininae) is redefined and revised. The type species, Aptilotella borgmeieri Duda is redescribed, and twenty-seven species are described as new: Aptilotella andersoni sp. n., A. angela sp. n., A. caerulea sp. n., A. corona sp. n., A. diffisa sp. n., A. ebenea sp. n., A. erinacea sp. n., A. gemmula sp. n., A. germana sp. n., A. gladia sp. n., A. gloriosa sp. n., A. gracilis sp. n., A. hamata sp. n., A. involucris sp. n., A. macta sp. n., A. macula sp. n., A. pennifera sp. n., A. pichin chensis sp. n., A. pyropanda sp. n., A. quadrata sp. n., A. quatuorchela sp. n., A. radians sp. n., A. simplex sp. n., A. solaria sp. n., A. sphyra sp. n., A. umbracatus sp. n., and A. viva sp. n. A phylogenetic analysis and key to species are presented, with illustrations and distributional notes. PMID:24870274

  1. Anti-translational research: from the bedside back to the bench for reflectance confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareau, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The reflectance confocal microscope has made translational progress in dermatology. 0.5 micrometer lateral resolution, 0.75mm field-of-view and excellent temporal resolution at ~15 frames/second serve the VivaScope well in the clinic, but it may be overlooked in basic research. This work reviews high spatiotemporal confocal microscopy and presents images acquired of various samples: zebra fish embryo where melanocytes with excellent contrast overly the spinal column, chicken embryo, where myocardium is seen moving at 15 frames/ second, calcium spikes in dendrites (fluorescence mode) just beyond the temporal resolution, and human skin where blood cells race through the artereovenous microvasculature. For an introduction to confocal microscopy, see: http://dangareau.net.s69818.gridserver.com/science/confocal-microscopy

  2. Effect of a Desensitizing Varnish on Microleakage of Two Self-Etch Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Saffarpour, Anna; Saffarpour, Aida; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad; Golmohamadi, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this in-vitro experimental study was to assess the effect of application of a desensitizing varnish on the enamel and dentin marginal seal. Materials and Methods: Seventy-two freshly extracted, intact human premolar teeth were divided into four groups (n=18). Class V cavities (3mm in length, 2mm in width and 2mm in depth) were prepared on the buccal surface of each tooth. The following sealing materials were applied in the four groups: One-step Clearfil S3 Bond (S3) self-etch adhesive, two-step Clearfil SE Bond (SE) self-etch adhesive, S3 Bond+ VivaSens desensitizing varnish (VS+S3) and Clearfil SE Bond + VivaSens (VS+SE). The cavities on the teeth were then incrementally filled with Z350 light-cure composite. The teeth were stored in distilled water for 24 hours at 37°C, and were then thermocycled for 1000 cycles. Then, all the specimens were prepared for dye penetration test and were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin dye and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The teeth were then sectioned buccolingually along the center of restorations with a diamond disk. Microleakage at the tooth-restoration interface was assessed in the enamel and dentin margins blindly using dye penetration under a stereomicroscope at ×20 magnification. Results: There was significantly greater leakage at the enamel and dentin margins in group VS+SE than in group SE; also, these values were higher in group VS+S3 than in S3. Conclusion: Combined application of desensitizing varnish and self-etch adhesives seems to increase microleakage in composite restorations. Thus, its application is not suggested. PMID:27507991

  3. Physical human lumen carotid reconstruction: life-size models by rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pili, Piero; Murgia, Fabrizio; Pusceddu, Gabriella; Franzoni, Gregorio; Tuveri, Massimiliano

    2003-05-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technique used in industry for manufacturing prototypes. Its capability to physically reproduce geometrical complex shapes is getting increasing interest in many fields of medicine. In the field of vascular surgery, replicas of artery lumen have utility in complex cases or when standard imaging is felt to be equivocal. Replicas can also facilitate experimental studies of computational vascular fluid-dynamics permitting in-vitro reproductions of blood flow in living subjects before and after surgery. The VIrtual VAscular (VIVA) project at CRS4, developed a system able to process three-dimensional (3D) datasets extracted from a Computer Tomography (CT) apparatus, visualize them, reconstruct the geometry of arteries of specific patients, and simulate blood flow in them. In this paper, the applicability of RP techniques to VIVA's real size replicas of an autoptic carotid vessel lumen is presented and an overview of the RP based system developed is provided. The techniques used in our prototype are discussed and experimental results for the creation of a human carotid lumen replica are analyzed. We discuss in detail the pipeline of manufacturing process: 3D geometric reconstruction from segmented points, geometry tessellation, STL (Stereo Lithography format) conversion. Moreover we illustrate some technical details of the specific RP technique used to build the lumen replicas, which is called Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), the materials used for prototypes, throughput time and costs of the FDM models realized. The system is totally based on open-source software. This enables us to control each step of the pipeline, from data acquisition to STL export file. In this context, we present main sources of error encountered during all manufacturing process stages.

  4. [Two cases of hydrophobia in the Republic of Tatarstan: in vivo and postmortem laboratory diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Khismatullina, N A; Gulyukin, A M; Gulyukin, M I; Ivanov, A V; Sabirova, V V; Yuzhakov, A G; Alexandrova, N M; Samerkhanov, I I; Aliper, T I

    2015-01-01

    The results of rabies in vivo and postmortem laboratory detection in two cases registered in the Republic of Tatarstan are reported: a victim bitten by a wolf in 2002 and another one bitten by a stray dog on Goa Island, India, in 2013. In the patient bitten by a wolf cornea imprints studies using the method of fluorescent antibodies (MFA) showed rabies-positive result 6 days before the patient's death. The results were confirmed by postmortem examination of different parts of the brain and salivary glands using the MFA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), optical microscopy, and bioassay methods. In the patient bitten by a stray dog the rabies virus specific antigen was detected by eye cornea studies using the MFA method and saliva studies using the ELISA. The rabies virus genome was also isolated from saliva and tear fluid using nested reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 9 days before the patient's death. The in viva studies results were consistent with the postmortem study of different parts of the brain using the MFA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), optical microscopy, and bioassay methods. All the infection-positive results of both in viva and postmortem studies were consistent with the clinical studies, i.e. rabies diagnosis was confirmed. The analysis of the rabies virus gene G fragment nucleotide sequence of 238 nd length showed a slight difference between the studied isolates (2 rabies) and the RABV AY9563I9 (1.68%), difference by 10.5% from the Vnukovo-32 vaccine strains and by 10.9% from the SAD B19 rabies strain, respectively (rabies viruses of 1st genotype). It was also significantly different from the lissaviruses of 2,4,5, and 6 genotypes (21 .0-32.7%). The obtained results indicate phylogenetic closeness of the studied isolates (2 rabies) with the RABV AY956319 rabies virus strain belonging to the 1st genotype. PMID:26182652

  5. Perspectivas Futuras para o Observatório do Pico dos Dias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Albert

    2004-02-01

    Com o Observatório Gemini plenamente operacional e o telescópio SOAR iniciando suas operações em breve, a astronomia observacional brasileira encontra-se no auge de uma transformação profunda que terá um impacto grave no Observatório do Pico dos Dias - OPD. Refletimos aqui sobre a natureza desse impacto e estratégias para manter a competitividade do OPD. Não queremos apresentar receitas prontas, mas idéias que poderão servir como base de discussão sobre o uso inteligente dos telescópios do OPD como parte do conjunto de instrumentos disponíveis à comunidade astronômica brasileira.

  6. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  7. Simulation of attitude and maneuvers for the Brazilian spin-stabilized satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koitikuga, Helio; Ferreira, L. Danilo D.; Guedes, Ulisses T. V.

    1987-08-01

    A summary is presented concerning the development of studies dealing with the attitude dynamical analysis of MECB (Missao Espacial Completa Brasileira) spin stabilized data collection satellite. One of the aims of these studies is to verify the feasibility of the proposed stabilization system, through digital simulation. Such simulations are carried out and show the dynamical behavior of the satellite attitude during free and controlled phase (maneuver), allowing one to obtain qualitative information about several aspects of the stabilization and control system.

  8. A survey of recently published papers on orthopedics in the Brazilian scientific press

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Gomes, Ariane Maris

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of articles published in Brazilian scientific periodicals in recent years. Its main purpose is to bring to the attention of the readership of Acta Ortopedica Brasileira original contributions to the field published in non-specialized journals. We hope that this will serve as a general scientific update for readers. The review includes works published in six ISI indexed non-orthopedic journals, following a literature search conducted in fourteen such journals. PMID:24453633

  9. On the mechanism of nanoparticulate CeO2 toxicity to freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Angel, Brad M; Vallotton, Pascal; Apte, Simon C

    2015-11-01

    The factors affecting the chronic (72-h) toxicity of three nanoparticulate (10-34nm) and one micron-sized form of CeO2 to the green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were investigated. To characterise transformations in solution, hydrodynamic diameters (HDD) were measured by dynamic light scatter, zeta potential values by electrophoretic mobility, and dissolution by equilibrium dialysis. The protective effects of humic and fulvic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on toxicity were also assessed. To investigate the mechanisms of algal toxicity, the CytoViva hyperspectral imaging system was used to visualise algal-CeO2 interactions in the presence and absence of DOC, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated by 'switching off' ROS production using UV-filtered lighting conditions. The nanoparticulate CeO2 immediately aggregated in solution to HDDs measured in the range 113-193nm, whereas the HDD and zeta potential values were significantly lower in the presence of DOC. Negligible CeO2 dissolution over the time course of the bioassay ruled out potential toxicity from dissolved cerium. The nanoparticulate CeO2 concentration that caused 50% inhibition of algal growth rate (IC50) was in the range 7.6-28mg/L compared with 59mg/L for micron-sized ceria, indicating that smaller particles were more toxic. The presence of DOC mitigated toxicity, with IC50s increasing to greater than 100mg/L. Significant ROS were generated in the nanoparticulate CeO2 bioassays under normal light conditions. However, 'switching off' ROS under UV-filtered light conditions resulted in a similar IC50, indicating that ROS generation was not the toxic mechanism. The CytoViva imaging showed negligible sorption of nanoparticulate CeO2 to algal cells in the presence of DOC, and strong sorption in its absence, suggesting that this was the toxic mechanism. The results suggest that DOC in natural waters will coat CeO2 particles and mitigate toxicity to algal cells. PMID:26461912

  10. Satellite demodulator and telecommand decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereiradelucena, Antonio Macilio

    1986-11-01

    This work presents the design, analysis and test results of the BPSK/NRZ-L demodulator and telecommand decoder of the data collecting the satellite of Missao Espacial Completa Brasileira (MECB). The constraints imposed by the space application motivate the adoption of nonconventional solutions. Basically, the innovations are the parallel subcarrier and bit synchronization and the replacement of multipliers by exclusive-or gates operating on digital signals. These innovations offer advantages in speed, power consumption and reliability. A partial and original mathematical analysis of the adopted solutions is presented.

  11. Association of Postpartum Depression With Weight Retention 1 Year After Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which early postpartum depression is associated with weight retention 1 year after childbirth. Methods and Procedures In a prospective cohort study of 850 women enrolled in Project Viva, mothers reported depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at midpregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A score >12 indicated probable depression. We assessed associations of antenatal and postpartum depression with risk of substantial weight retention (at least 5 kg) 1 year after childbirth. Results Seven-hundred thirty-six women (87%) were not depressed during or after pregnancy, 55 (6%) experienced antenatal depression only, 22 (3%) experienced both antenatal and postpartum depression, and 37 (4%) experienced postpartum depression only. At 1 year, participants retained a mean of 0.6 kg (range −16.4 to 25.5), and 12% retained at least 5 kg. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, after adjustment for weight-related covariates, maternal sociodemographics, and parity, new-onset postpartum depression was associated with more than a doubling of risk of retaining at least 5 kg (odds ratio (OR): 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.09). Antenatal depression, either alone or in combination with postpartum depression, was not associated with substantial weight retention. Discussion New-onset postpartum depression was associated with substantial weight retention in the first postpartum year. Interventions to manage depressive symptoms may help reduce excess weight retained postpartum and aid in the prevention of obesity among women. PMID:18369338

  12. Carotid plaque characterization using CT and MRI scans for synergistic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzin, Matthew; Xu, Yiqin; Rao, Arhant; Madi, Saaussan; Bahadur, Ali; Lennartz, Michelle R.; Wang, Ge

    2014-09-01

    Noninvasive determination of plaque vulnerability has been a holy grail of medical imaging. Despite advances in tomographic technologies , there is currently no effective way to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with high sensitivity and specificity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used, but neither provides sufficient information of plaque properties. Thus, we are motivated to combine CT and MRI imaging to determine if the composite information can better reflect the histological determination of plaque vulnerability. Two human endarterectomy specimens (1 symptomatic carotid and 1 stable femoral) were imaged using Scanco Medical Viva CT40 and Bruker Pharmascan 16cm 7T Horizontal MRI / MRS systems. μCT scans were done at 55 kVp and tube current of 70 mA. Samples underwent RARE-VTR and MSME pulse sequences to measure T1, T2 values, and proton density. The specimens were processed for histology and scored for vulnerability using the American Heart Association criteria. Single modality-based analyses were performed through segmentation of key imaging biomarkers (i.e. calcification and lumen), image registration, measurement of fibrous capsule, and multi-component T1 and T2 decay modeling. Feature differences were analyzed between the unstable and stable controls, symptomatic carotid and femoral plaque, respectively. By building on the techniques used in this study, synergistic CT+MRI analysis may provide a promising solution for plaque characterization in vivo.

  13. Local knowledge of traditional fishermen on economically important crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura) in the city of Conde, Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article records the traditional knowledge of crab gatherers in the city of Conde, in the North Coast Region of Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil. Methods Data on biological and ecological aspects of economically important brachyuran crustaceans have been obtained from semi-structured interviews and in loco observations conducted from September 2007 to December 2009. A total of 57 fishermen of both genders, aged between 10 and 78 years have been interviewed (individually or collectively) in different contexts; interviewees were asked about aspects such as external morphology, life cycle, trophic ecology, and spatial and temporal distribution of the major economically important brachyuran crustaceans in the region. Seven fishing communities were visited: Siribinha, Sítio do Conde, Poças, Ilha das Ostras, Cobó, Buri and Sempre Viva. Data were analyzed by comparing the information provided by participants with those from the specialized academic literature. Results The results show that artisanal fishermen have a wide ranging and well-grounded knowledge on the ecological and biological aspects of crustaceans. Crab gatherers of Conde know about growth and reproductive behavior of the animals they interact with, especially with regard to the three major biological aspects: “molt”, “walking dance” and “spawning”. Conclusion This knowledge constitutes an important source of information that should be considered in studies of management and sustainable use of fishery resources in the North Coast Region of Bahia State. PMID:22449069

  14. Comparative Study of Four Growth Models Applied to Weight and Height Growth Data in a Cohort of US Children from Birth to 9 Years

    PubMed Central

    Regnault, N.; Gillman, M. W.; Kleinman, K.; Rifas-Shiman, S.; Botton, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The objective of our study was to compare the fit of four growth models for weight and height in contemporary US children between birth and 9 years. Methods In Project Viva, we collected weight and height growth data between birth and 9 years. We compared the Jenss model, the adapted Jenss model that adds a quadratic term, and the Reed 1st and 2nd order models. We used the log likelihood ratio test to compare nested models and the Akaike (AIC)/Bayesian information criterion (BIC) to compare nonnested models. Results For weight and height, the adapted Jenss model had a better fit than the Jenss model (for weight: p < 0.0001), and the Reed 2nd order model had a better fit than the Reed 1st order model (for weight: p < 0.0001). Compared with the Reed 2nd order model, the adapted Jenss model had a better fit for both weight (adapted Jenss vs. Reed 2nd order, AIC: 66,974 vs. 82,791, BIC: 67,066 vs. 82,883) and height (adapted Jenss vs. Reed 2nd order, AIC: 87,108 vs. 87,612, BIC: 87,196 vs. 87,700). Conclusions In this pre-birth study of children aged 0–9 years, for both weight and height the adapted Jenss model presented the best fit of all four tested models. PMID:25413655

  15. At-home vital bleaching: a comparison of hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide treatments.

    PubMed

    Berga-Caballero, Amparo; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo; Amengual-Lorenzo, José

    2006-01-01

    Tray bleaching of vital teeth performed at home by the patient under the dentist s supervision, whether alone or in combination with any of the in-office techniques, provides an interesting alternative to other methods employed in this type of dental treatment. This bleaching procedure applies low-concentration peroxides to the enamel by means of a custom-made mouth tray specifically designed for this purpose. The aim of this study is to examine and compare two commercially-available bleaching products, at equivalent concentrations, for use in this technique: VivaStyle (Vivadent) and FKD (Kin); the former is a 10% carbamide peroxide and the latter a 3.5% hydrogen peroxide formulation. It examines the parameters that must be monitored during the application of this type of procedure and presents 6 cases (3 treated with one of the above-mentioned products and the other 3 with the other), establishing the bleaching power of the products and the appearance and intensity of post-operatory hypersensitivity. The results obtained show that both products are effective for the purpose for which they were designed. In general, dental hypersensitivity was minimal. PMID:16388304

  16. Cationic PLGA/Eudragit RL nanoparticles for increasing retention time in synovial cavity after intra-articular injection in knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2015-01-01

    Positively surface-charged poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Eudragit RL nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to increase retention time and sustain release profile in joints after intra-articular injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic aggregates with hyaluronic acid, an endogenous anionic polysaccharide found in high amounts in synovial fluid. The cationic NPs consisting of PLGA, Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were fabricated by solvent evaporation technique. The NPs were 170.1 nm in size, with a zeta potential of 21.3 mV in phosphate-buffered saline. Hyperspectral imaging (CytoViva®) revealed the formation of the micrometer-sized filamentous aggregates upon admixing, due to electrostatic interaction between NPs and the polysaccharides. NPs loaded with a fluorescent probe (1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′ tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) displayed a significantly improved retention time in the knee joint, with over 50% preservation of the fluorescent signal 28 days after injection. When DiR solution was injected intra-articularly, the fluorescence levels rapidly decreased to 30% of the initial concentration within 3 days in mice. From these findings, we suggest that PLGA-based cationic NPs could be a promising tool for prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents in joints selectively. PMID:26345227

  17. W-SHAKE - the Waves that SHAKE our Earth, a Parents-in-Science Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Francisco; Silveira, Graça; Moreira, Guilherme; Afonso, Isabel; Custódio, Susana; Matias, Luís

    2014-05-01

    The catastrophes induced by earthquakes are among the most devastating, causing an elevated number of human losses and economic damages. In spite of being exposed to a moderate and large earthquakes, and as a result of the slow tectonic rates, the Portuguese society is, in general, little aware of the seismic risk. Earthquakes can't be predicted and the only way of mitigating their consequences is to understand their genesis, propagation and their effects in society. Children play a determinant role in the establishment of a real and long-lasting "culture of prevention", both through action and new attitudes. As adults they will have a greater knowledge of natural phenomena as well of the effects of human actions and their consequences. Parents and other caregivers have a critical function in encouraging and supporting their learning at home, in school, and throughout community. Teachers also play an important role in this effort and can be valuable partners with parents in cultivating learning confidence and skills in school-age youth. In this presentation we will give an overview of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  18. The opinion of post graduate students on objective structured clinical examination in Anaesthesiology: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Parul; Khurana, Gurjeet

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The scenario in medical education is changing with objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) being introduced as an assessment tool. Its successful implementation in anaesthesiology postgraduate evaluation process is still limited. We decided to to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE and compare it to conventional examinations as formative assessment tools in anaesthesiology. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study in defined population of anaesthesiology postgraduate students to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE as compared to conventional examination as formative assessment tool in anaesthesiology. Thirty-five students appeared for the conventional examination on the 1st day and viva voce on the 2nd day and OSCE on the last day. At the conclusion of the assessment, all the students were asked to respond to the perception evaluation questionnaire. We analysed the perception of OSCE among the students. Results: Results showed a positive perception of the objective structured physical examination (OSCE) as well as structured 9 (25.7%), fair 19 (54.2%) and unbiased 13 (37.1%) with more standardised scoring 9 (25.7%). The students perceived OSCE to be less stressful than other examination. Thirty-one (88.5%) students agreed that OSCE is easier to pass than conventional method and 29 (82.5%) commented that the degree of emotional stress is less in OSCE than traditional methods. Conclusion: OSCE is better evaluation tool when compared to conventional examination. PMID:27053779

  19. Impaired visual size-discrimination in children with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Gori, Monica; Tinelli, Francesca; Sandini, Giulio; Cioni, Giovanni; Burr, David

    2012-07-01

    Multisensory integration of spatial information occurs late in childhood, at around eight years (Gori, Del Viva, Sandini, & Burr, 2008). For younger children, the haptic system dominates size discrimination and vision dominates orientation discrimination: the dominance may reflect sensory calibration, and could have direct consequences on children born with specific sensory disabilities. Here we measure thresholds for visual discrimination of orientation and size in children with movement disorders of upper limbs. Visual orientation discrimination was very similar to the age-matched typical children, but visual size discrimination thresholds were far worse, in all eight individuals with early-onset movement disorder. This surprising and counterintuitive result is readily explained by the cross-sensory calibration hypothesis: when the haptic sense is unavailable for manipulation, it cannot be readily used to estimate size, and hence to calibrate the visual experience of size: visual discrimination is subsequently impaired. This complements a previous study showing that non-sighted children have reduced acuity for haptic orientation, but not haptic size, discriminations (Gori, Sandini, Martinoli, & Burr, 2010). Together these studies show that when either vision or haptic manipulation is impaired, the impairment also impacts on complementary sensory systems that are calibrated by that one. PMID:22569216

  20. The application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, W. Z.; Xu, A. E.; Xu, J.; Bi, Z. G.; Shang, Y. B.; Ren, Q. S.

    2010-08-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows noninvasive visualization of human skin in vivo, without needing to fix or section the tissue. Melanocytes and pigmented keratinocytes at the level of the basal layer form bright dermal papillary rings which are readily amenable to identify in confocal images. Our purpose was to explore the role of dermal papillary rings in assessment of lesion location, the diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. Seventy-one patients were imaged with the VivaScope 1500 reflectance confocal microscope provided by Lucid, Inc. The results indicate that dermal papillary rings can assess the location of lesion; the application of dermal papillary rings can provide diagnostic support and differential diagnosis for vitiligo, nevus depigmentosus, tinea versicolor, halo nevus, common nevi, and assess the therapeutic efficacy of NBUVB phototherapy plus topical 0.1 percent tacrolimus ointment for vitiligo. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the dermal papillary rings play an important role in the assessment the location of lesion, diagnosis, differential diagnosis of lesions and assessment of therapeutic efficacy by in vivo CLSM. CLSM may be a promising tool for noninvasive examination in dermatology. However, larger studies are needed to expand the application of dermal papillary rings in dermatology.

  1. Measuring the Dust Stripping of Galaxies by the Hot Intracluster Gas in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Lee, Joon Hyeop; French, K. Decker; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    Ram pressure stripping, the removal of gas from galaxies interacting with the hot intracluster medium, has been proposed as a mechanism for quenching star formation in cluster galaxies. While much effort has been made to identify gas stripped from the interstellar medium (ISM) of cluster galaxies, the ISM also includes dust, another potential tracer of stripping. Previous studies using radio and infra-red wavelengths have suggested gas and dust stripping in several cluster galaxies. In our study, we try a different approach: searching for optical extinction and reddening of background galaxies by dust stripped from foreground cluster members. As the first step, using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) and the VLA Imaging of Virgo in Atomic gas (VIVA) HI survey, we map the magnitudes and colors of galaxies behind Virgo cluster galaxies whose HI morphologies are disrupted. We discuss how efficiently dust stripping can be measured with this method and the connection to gas stripping.

  2. [Reports of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence against children in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira; Gomes, Daniela Lopes

    2012-09-01

    The scope of this article is to outline the scenario of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence against children (0-9 years old) in Brazil for the year 2010. It is based on data from reports of domestic, sexual and other forms of violence registered with SINAN - Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Continuous VIVA). Absolute and relative numbers are presented, derived from reported violence, discriminating between children under 1 year of age and those between 1-9 years old, due to the specificities that exist in these age groups. Throughout the country, the number of reports among those under 10 years of age is low (17.1%). Differences were found for the distribution of reports in the different Brazilian States. Few municipalities and few services reported violence to SINAN-Net in 2010 in the country. Some differences were found between children under 1 year of age and those between 1 and 9 years of age, as for instance the relationship between the profile of the violence, the victim and the perpetrator, and the handling of the case. The quality of the reported information is discussed showing the high level of unreported data in some spaces of the reporting form. Lack of information may prejudice comprehension of the phenomenon, interfering with the planning, organization and operation actions of the health services in the country. PMID:22996882

  3. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Isoform (Low Molecular Weight/18 kDa) Overexpression in Preosteoblast Cells Promotes Bone Regeneration in Critical Size Calvarial Defects in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Liping; Ueno, Daisuke; Catros, Sylvain; Homer-Bouthiette, Collin; Charles, Lyndon; Kuhn, Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Repair of bone defects remains a significant clinical problem. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is US Food and Drug Administration–approved for fracture healing but is expensive and has associated morbidity. Studies have shown that targeted overexpression of the 18-kDa low-molecular-weight fibroblast growth factor 2 isoform (LMW) by the osteoblastic lineage of transgenic mice increased bone mass. This study tested the hypotheses that overexpression of LMW would directly enhance healing of a critical size calvarial bone defect in mice and that this overexpression would have a synergistic effect with low-dose administration of BMP2 on critical size calvarial bone defect healing. Bilateral calvarial defects were created in LMW transgenic male mice and control/vector transgenic (Vector) male mice and scaffold with or without BMP2 was placed into the defects. New bone formation was assessed by VIVA-computed tomography of live animals over a 27-week period. Radiographic and computed tomography analysis revealed that at all time points, healing of the defect was enhanced in LMW mice compared with that in Vector mice. Although the very low concentration of BMP2 did not heal the defect in Vector mice, it resulted in complete healing of the defect in LMW mice. Histomorphometric and gene analysis revealed that targeted overexpression of LMW in osteoblast precursors resulted in enhanced calvarial defect healing due to increased osteoblast activity and increased canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:24424065

  4. [From guidelines to practice: evaluation of the pediatric care provided by a service of secondary reference in the north of the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Laura Monteiro de Castro; Alves, Cláudia Regina Lindgren; Belisário, Soraya Almeida; Bueno, Mariana de Caux; de Moraes, Erica Furtado

    2013-06-01

    In the State of Minas Gerais, the Secondary Reference Viva Vida Centers (CVVRS) are one of the strategies deployed to tackle the problems in child health. This study sought to evaluate pediatric care provided in a CVVRS, using the guidelines defined when it was set up as a benchmark. A quantitative-qualitative approach was adopted, which included a cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling of 385 medical records of children registered with the program between 2007 and 2009, and analysis of focus groups with strategic actors of the initiative. There were divergences between the user profiles and the target audience in terms of age, hometown and clinical characteristics. Access and use of the service differed depending on the town, due to problems of misinformation concerning the proposal, difficulty of transportation and the fragility of the health network. The centers are considered an innovative and important initiative for the expansion and organization of the health network, though the intended logic is not effectively seen in practice. Interventions for articulation between the network services and adaptation of the agreed guidelines to the regional specificities are necessary. PMID:23752544

  5. Sociodemographic and Perinatal Predictors of Early Pregnancy Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substance (PFAS) Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Sharon K; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Webster, Thomas F; Mora, Ana Maria; Harris, Maria H; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2015-10-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), used in food packaging and stain-resistant coatings, are suspected developmental toxicants that are ubiquitous and persistent in the environment. We measured plasma PFAS concentrations during early pregnancy (median = 9.7 weeks gestation) among 1645 women in the Boston-area Project Viva cohort, recruited during 1999-2002. We used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations of sociodemographic and perinatal predictors, including measures of pregnancy physiology (albumin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR)), with log-transformed plasma PFAS concentrations. Geometric mean concentrations for the four main PFASs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were 25.4, 5.7, 2.5, and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively, comparable with general U.S. population concentrations during those years. Higher early pregnancy PFAS concentrations were associated with younger age (except PFNA), less educational attainment, nulliparity, no history of breastfeeding and higher prepregnancy body mass index in adjusted models. In addition, lower GFR was associated with 3-4% higher PFAS concentrations and higher albumin was associated with 4-6% higher PFAS concentrations. Our results show associations consistent (parity and breastfeeding) and less consistent (age and education) with previous studies. We also report associations with GFR and albumin, which were strongly related to PFAS concentrations and thus could confound estimates of PFAS-outcome associations in epidemiologic studies. PMID:26333069

  6. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2013-01-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women’s birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women’s personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts. PMID:19386406

  7. Equalization and Participation for All: Swedish Disability Policy at a Crossroads.

    PubMed

    Axelson, Hans von; Lindén, Arvid; Andersson, Jonas E; Skehan, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The political line in Swedish disability policy advocates the use of generalized solutions in order to fit potential needs of the largest possible group of people and, where needed, special solutions to bridge the remaining gap between the generalized level of accessibility and additional individual needs. This is referred to as the disability perspective (DP). The DP has embraced two tracks: one that pertains to generalized solutions that promote an overall high level of accessibility and usability, and another one that pertains to different types of individual support for people with disabilities. The present study is a self-reflective inquiry on key issues for the development of future disability policies. Five experts entered a discussion about the pros and cons concerning the DP. This confirmed or refuted assumptions, dilemmas, themes as well as reoccurring patterns in the political viva voce procedure that has formed the contemporary disability policy. Over the course of time, the experts believed that the DP had nurtured a belief that there is a dichotomy. This may have created an imbalance in the relation between the DP and policies such as those concerning healthcare and social care. With a clearer focus on interdependence, the experts saw synergies between needs for assistive technology, assistive products and the requirements for the built environment. PMID:27534288

  8. Point-of-care HIV tests done by peers, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dutra de Barros, Clarissa Habckost; Lobo, Tainah Dourado de Miranda; Pasini, Elisiane Nelcina; Comparini, Regina Aparecida; Caldas de Mesquita, Fábio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem Early diagnosis of infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is needed – especially among key populations such as sex workers, transgender people, men who have sex with men and people who use drugs. Approach The Brazilian Ministry of Health developed a strategy called Viva Melhor Sabendo (“live better knowing”) to increase HIV testing among key populations. In partnership with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), a peer point-of-care testing intervention, using an oral fluid rapid test, was introduced at social venues for key populations at different times of the day. Local setting Key populations in Brazil can have 40 times higher HIV prevalence than the general population (14.8% versus 0.4%). Relevant changes Legislation was reinterpreted, so that oral fluid rapid tests could be administered by any person trained in rapid testing by the health ministry. Between January 2014 and March 2015, 29 723 oral fluid tests were administered; 791 (2.7%) were positive. Among the key populations, transgender people had the greatest proportion of positive results (10.7%; 172/1612), followed by men who declared themselves as commercial sex workers (8.7%; 165/1889) and men who have sex with men (4.8%; 292/6055). Lessons learnt The strategy improved access to HIV testing. Testing done by peers at times and locations suitable for key populations increased acceptance of testing. Working with relevant NGOs is a useful approach when reaching out to these key populations. PMID:27516641

  9. Association of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with child cognition at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tse, Alison C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2010-05-01

    We examined the association of prenatal depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy with child cognition at age 3 years in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study of 1030 mother-child pairs in eastern Massachusetts. We measured maternal depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a self-report measure validated for use during pregnancy. Measures of child cognition included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). At mid-pregnancy, 81 mothers (7.9%) scored 13 or above on the EPDS, indicating probable depression. In the unadjusted model, children born to mothers with prenatal depressive symptoms had PPVT scores that were 3.8 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI) -7.1, -0.5]. With adjustment for sociodemographic variables, the association substantially attenuated [adjusted regression coefficient b for PPVT score = -0.7 (95% CI -3.6, 2.3)]. In both unadjusted and multivariable models, prenatal depressive symptoms were not associated with WRAVMA scores [adjusted b for total WRAVMA score = -0.5 (95% CI -3.0, 2.1)]. We found no evidence to suggest that maternal prenatal depression is independently associated with early child cognition. PMID:20415752

  10. 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran methyl methacrylate copolymer nonviral vector: still a long way toward the safety of aerosol gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, P; Hohenforst-Schmidt, W; Darwiche, K; Krauss, L; Sparopoulou, D; Sakkas, L; Gschwendtner, A; Huang, H; Turner, F J; Freitag, L; Zarogoulidis, K

    2013-10-01

    Revealing the lung tumor genome has directed the current treatment strategies toward targeted therapy. First line treatments targeting the genome of lung tumor cells have been approved and are on the market. However, they are limited by the small number of patients with the current investigated genetic mutations. Novel treatment administration modalities have been also investigated in an effort to increase the local drug deposition and disease control. In the current study, we investigated the safety of the new nonviral vector 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran methyl methacrylate copolymer (DDMC; Ryujyu Science), which belongs to the 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran family by aerosol administration. Thirty male BALBC mice, 2 month old, were included and divided into three groups. However, pathological findings indicated severe emphysema within three aerosol sessions. In addition, the CytoViva technique was applied for the first time to display the nonviral particles within the pulmonary tissue and emphysema lesions, and a spectral library of the nonviral vector was also established. Although our results in BALBC mice prevented us from further investigation of the DDMC nonviral vector as a vehicle for gene therapy, further investigation in animals with larger airways is warranted to properly evaluate the safety of the vector. PMID:23719068

  11. [Treatment of childhood injuries and violence in public emergency services].

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Denis Medeiros; Neves, Alice Cristina Medeiros das; Silva, Marta Alves da

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze the profile of treatment for accidents and violence involving children under 10 years of age in Brazil in the year 2011. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study in 71 emergency services in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS), located in the national capital and 24 state capitals. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health's system of sentinel surveillance services for Violence and Accidents (VIVA Survey). The highest proportion of injuries (67.4%) occurred inside the child's home. Among unintentional injuries, falls were the most frequent (52.4%), followed by running into objects or persons (21.8%) and traffic injuries (10.9%), especially as passengers (bicycles were an important means of transportation involved in the injuries). The vast majority of unintentional injuries are avoidable, and educational measures should be adopted, especially with parents, teachers, the community, and health workers, calling attention to the risks and the adoption of safe behaviors in the home, at school, and in leisure-time activities. Cases of violence are subject to mandatory reporting, and prompt measures should be taken to protect victims. PMID:26083183

  12. Quantitative genetic analysis of the metabolic syndrome in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Cole, Shelley A; Mehta, Nitesh R; Cai, Guowen; Tejero, Maria; Bastarrachea, Raul; Smith, E O'Brian

    2005-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a constellation of metabolic derangements including glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, referred to as metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic and environmental factors contributing to the metabolic syndrome in Hispanic children. Metabolic syndrome, defined as having three or more metabolic risk components, was determined in 1030 Hispanic children, ages 4-19 y, from 319 families enrolled in the VIVA LA FAMILIA study. Anthropometry, body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, clinical signs, and serum biochemistries were measured using standard techniques. Risk factor analysis and quantitative genetic analysis were performed. Of the overweight children, 20%, or 28% if abnormal liver function is included in the definition, presented with the metabolic syndrome. Odds ratios for the metabolic syndrome were significantly increased by body mass index z-score and fasting serum insulin; independent effects of sex, age, puberty, and body composition were not seen. Heritabilities +/- SE for waist circumference, triglycerides (TG), HDL, systolic blood pressure (SBP), glucose, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were highly significant. Pleiotropy (a common set of genes affecting two traits) detected between SBP and waist circumference, SBP and glucose, HDL and waist circumference, ALT and waist circumference, and TG and ALT may underlie the clustering of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Significant heritabilities and pleiotropy seen for the components of the metabolic syndrome indicate a strong genetic contribution to the metabolic syndrome in overweight Hispanic children. PMID:16306201

  13. Injected transfer orbit determination of lunar probe Chang'E 5T1 using short-arc rocket GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Haijian; Zhang, Rongzhi; Wang, Jiasong; Wang, Dan; Guo, Hai

    2015-10-01

    The injected transfer orbit of lunar probe Chang'E 5T1 (CE-5T1) is determined immediately after the probe separates from its launcher. As the first orbit in the lunar flight, the CE-5T1 injected transfer orbit is crucial to the consequence of rocket vehicle launch mission and the probe's subsequent midway orbital manoeuvre. In this paper, we discuss the problem of using rocket GPS measurements to determine the probe velocity increment due to mechanical separation, and subsequently the injected transfer orbit determination of CE-5T1. Motivated by the post-mission analysis of lunar probe Chang'E 3 (CE-3), we give theoretical evidence to explain the physical phenomenon of semi-major axis sudden change at the probe separation instant through the derivation of the Vis-Viva equation. In succession, we focus on the description of the procedure used for the orbit determination performed on separated arcs of rocket GPS measurements through the use of momentum conservation to determine the probe separation velocity. Finally, actual flight data of the CE-3 and CE-5T1 missions are used for the validation.

  14. Cationic PLGA/Eudragit RL nanoparticles for increasing retention time in synovial cavity after intra-articular injection in knee joint.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Rae; Ho, Myoung Jin; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Choi, Young Wook; Kang, Myung Joo

    2015-01-01

    Positively surface-charged poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)/Eudragit RL nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to increase retention time and sustain release profile in joints after intra-articular injection, by forming micrometer-sized electrostatic aggregates with hyaluronic acid, an endogenous anionic polysaccharide found in high amounts in synovial fluid. The cationic NPs consisting of PLGA, Eudragit RL, and polyvinyl alcohol were fabricated by solvent evaporation technique. The NPs were 170.1 nm in size, with a zeta potential of 21.3 mV in phosphate-buffered saline. Hyperspectral imaging (CytoViva(®)) revealed the formation of the micrometer-sized filamentous aggregates upon admixing, due to electrostatic interaction between NPs and the polysaccharides. NPs loaded with a fluorescent probe (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3' tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) displayed a significantly improved retention time in the knee joint, with over 50% preservation of the fluorescent signal 28 days after injection. When DiR solution was injected intra-articularly, the fluorescence levels rapidly decreased to 30% of the initial concentration within 3 days in mice. From these findings, we suggest that PLGA-based cationic NPs could be a promising tool for prolonged delivery of therapeutic agents in joints selectively. PMID:26345227

  15. Chapter 9: understanding the nervous system in the 18th century.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher U M

    2010-01-01

    The 18th century was an age of transition. The time-honored neuropsychology of classical and medieval times, mechanized in Descartes' hydraulic neurophysiology, was undermined by microscopical observations and careful physiological experimentation. Yet it was not until the very end of the century, when work on electric fish and amphibia began to suggest an acceptable successor to "animal spirit," that the old understanding of human neurophysiology began to fade. This chapter traces this slow retreat from the iatrophysics of the early part of the century, with its hollow nerves and animal spirits, through a number of stop-gap explanations involving mysterious subtle fluids or forces described variously as irritability, élan vital, vis viva, vis insita, the spirit of animation etc., or perhaps involving vibrations and vibratiuncles and mysterious magnetic effluvia, to the dawning electrophysiology of the end of the century and the beginning of the next. This developing understanding filtered slowly through to affect medical education, and the 18th century saw the development of strong medical schools at Leiden, Edinburgh, Paris, Bologna and London. Associated with these developments there was a great increase, as a well-known physician looking back at the beginning of the following century noted, in a class of diseases that had little concerned physicians in the preceding century - "nervous disorders." PMID:19892112

  16. Indicators for the evaluation of the quality of education and career development in the hard science: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arany-Prado, L. I.

    2003-08-01

    We report the results of the self-evaluation of the Astronomy Bachelor Course of the Observatório do Valongo (OV), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). We have created, heuristically, data indicators capable of quantifying the impact of curriculum and institutional improvements on the student's background and career development in the last 30 years. It is remarkable that the institution in study: i) has undergone appreciable recent development; ii) has its graduation course as a long term investment and an essentially complete database on past professors and students; iii) is inserted in a young scientific Society (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira - SAB), which has shown marked recent maturation and a large rate of growth. This enabled us to diagnose the evolution of the institution and its suitability to the different requirements of the astronomical career. We show that, in the hard science field, the increase of the number of graduated students and the decrease of the time spent as an undergraduate student are not sufficient, or even adequate, to evaluate the efficiency of education in science (Arany-Prado, L., 2003, Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, vol. 25, no. 1, 105-115; http://sbf.if.usp.br/rbef/Vol25/Num1).

  17. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of “Clinics.” We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: “Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia,” “Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia,” “Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews,” “Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia,” “Jornal de Pediatria,” “Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular,” “Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira,” Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P.” and “São Paulo Medical Journal.” These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined. PMID:20454503

  18. A review of cardiopulmonary research in Brazilian medical journals: clinical, surgical and epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Carlos; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio

    2010-04-01

    Research in the field of cardiopulmonary disease in Brazil has been very active in recent decades. The combination of PUBMED, SCieLO, open access and online searching has provided a significant increase in the visibility of Brazilian journals. This newly acquired international visibility has in turn resulted in the appearance of more original research reports in the Brazilian scientific press. This review is intended to highlight part of this work for the benefit of the readers of "Clinics." We searched through PUBMED for noteworthy articles published in Brazilian medical journals included in the Journal of Citation Reports of the Institute of Scientific Information to better expose them to our readership. The following journals were examined: "Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia," "Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia," "Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Reviews," "Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia," "Jornal de Pediatria," "Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular," "Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira," Revista da Escola de Enfermagem U.S.P." and "São Paulo Medical Journal." These journals publish original investigations in the field of cardiopulmonary disease. The search produced 71 references, which are briefly examined. PMID:20454503

  19. Evolution of post-deployment indicators of oral health on the Family Health Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Palacio, Danielle da Costa; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Ramos, Danielle Viana Ribeiro; Peres, Stela Verzinhasse; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Bulgareli, Jaqueline Vilela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the evolution of indicators after the implementation of 21 Oral Healthcare Teams in the Family Health Strategy. Methods We used data from outpatient services of Oral Healthcare Teams to evaluate efficiency, access, percentage of absences and emergencies of oral healthcare professionals who worked in the partnership between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo, during the period 2009-2011. Results Percentages of emergencies, income, and access showed a significant difference during the period analyzed, but no difference for percentage of absences was found. When monthly analysis was made, it is noteworthy that at the beginning of service implementation a fluctuation occurred, which may indicate that the work was consolidated over the months, becoming capable of receiving new professionals and increasing the population served. Comparison of the indicators in that period with the goals agreed upon between the Sociedade Beneficente Israelita Brasileira Hospital Albert Einstein and the Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de São Paulo made it possible to notice that the Oral Health Teams had a good performance. Conclusion The results showed that the goals were achieved reflecting the increasing number of professionals, the maturing of work processes in the Oral Health Teams, and optimization of the manpower available to perform the activities. Understanding these results will be important to guide the actions of Oral Health Teams for the following years and to assess the achievement of goals. PMID:25295445

  20. RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS IN ORTHOPEDICS AND TRAUMATOLOGY: SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS ON THE NATIONAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Vinícius Ynoe; Moreira, Cesar Domingues; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether there has been any improvement in the quality and quantity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in nationally published journals through the application of standardized and validated scores. Methods: We electronically selected all RCTs published in the two indexed Brazilian journals that focus on orthopedics, over the period 2000-2009: Acta Ortopédica Brasileira (AOB) and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia (RBO). These RCTs were identified and scored by two independent researchers in accordance with the Jadad scale and the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group score. The studies selected were grouped as follows: 1) publication period (2000-2004 or 2004-2009); 2) journal of publication (AOB or RBO). Results: Twenty-two papers were selected: 10 from AOB and 12 from RBO. No statistically significant differences were found between the proportions (nRCT/nTotal of published papers) of RCTs published in the two journals (p = 0.458), or in the Jadad score (p = 0.722) and Cochrane score (p = 0.630). Conclusion: The relative quality and quantity of RCTs in the journals analyzed were similar. There was a trend towards improvement of quality, but there was no increase in the number of RCTs between the two periods analyzed. PMID:27026971

  1. "Piedra Dorada": a natural stone as an intrinsic part of two World Heritage Cities in Andalusia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rafael; Sánchez-Valverde, Josefina; Baltuille, José Manuel

    2013-04-01

    "Piedra Dorada" was used to construct some of the most important heritage buildings in the cities of Úbeda and Baeza, in Jaén (Spain). UNESCO declared these cities World Heritage Cities in 2003. Although there are some Iberian or Roman ruins in which is already possible to see the use of this stone, it is from the XVI century when "Piedra Dorada" is extensively used in the construction of the main historical buildings. Some of well-known monuments are Vázquez de Molina Palace or chain Palace (XVI), San Salvador Church (Sacred Chapel of El Salvador) (XVI) o the Royal Colegiata of Santa María la Mayor de los Reales Alcázares (XVI) in Úbeda or the Justice House-The House of the Corregidor (XVI), the Saint Cathedral of the Natividad de Nuestra Señora (XVI) or Jabalquinto Palace (XV), in Baeza, among many others. "Piedra Dorada" includes several varieties with similar mineralogical and chemical characteristics, called "Piedra Viva" or "Jabaluna", more cemented and used mainly with structural purposes (ashlars, columns, etc) and "Piedra Franca", less cemented and used mainly with decorative purposes (façades, statues, etc). From a geological point of view, "Piedra Dorada" is a medium to fine grain size bioclastic calcarenite, part of the upper Miocene-Pliocene deposits of the Guadalquivir Basin (Post Orogenic Neogene Basins of the Betic Chains). It is made up of quartz (8% to 29%), calcite and/or dolomite (34% to 80%), and some feldspar. The intergranular calcite cement proportion varies between 7% and 33%. Physical and mechanical properties are highly variable depending on the variety. "Piedra Viva" has an open porosity of 5,2%, bulk density of 2,63 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric pressure between 1,5-2,7 %, compressive strength (dry) between 20,1-18,0 MPa, flexural resistance (dry) between 87,3-77,0 MPa and salt crystallization loss of mass of 2,5%. "Piedra Franca" has an open porosity of 24,3%, bulk density of 2,00 g/cm3, water absorption at atmospheric

  2. Maternal Depressive Symptoms Not Associated with Reduced Height in Young Children in a US Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Shorter stature is associated with greater all cause and heart disease mortality, but taller stature with increased risk of cancer mortality. Though childhood environment is important in determining height, limited data address how maternal depression affects linear growth in children. We examined the relationships between antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms and child height and linear growth from birth to age 3 years in a U.S. sample. Methods Subjects were 872 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. The study population is relatively advantaged with high levels of income and education and low risk of food insecurity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy (mean 28 weeks' gestation) and 6 months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (score > = 13 on 0–30 scale indicating probable depression). Child outcomes at age 3 were height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and leg length. HAZ was also available at birth and ages 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years. Findings Seventy (8.0%) women experienced antenatal depression and 64 (7.3%) experienced postpartum depression. The mean (SD) height for children age 3 was 97.2 cm (4.2), with leg length of 41.6 cm (2.6). In multivariable linear regression models, exposure to postpartum depression was associated with greater HAZ (0.37 [95% confidence interval: 0.16, 0.58]) and longer leg length (0.88 cm [0.35, 1.41]). The relationship between postpartum depression and greater HAZ was evident starting at 6 months and continued to age 3. We found minimal relationships between antenatal depression and child height outcomes. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that maternal depression is associated with reduced height in children in this relatively advantaged sample in a high-income country. PMID:21048958

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of the bronchodilator response in children

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Sze Man; Gold, Diane R.; Sordillo, Joanne E.; Hoffman, Elaine B.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Fuhlbrigge, Anne L.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Weiss, Scott T.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The bronchodilator response (BDR) reflects the reversibility of airflow obstruction and is recommended as an adjunctive test to diagnose asthma. The validity of the commonly used definition of BDR, a 12% or greater change in FEV1 from baseline, has been questioned in childhood. Objectives We sought to examine the diagnostic accuracy of the BDR test by using 3 large pediatric cohorts. Methods Cases include 1041 children with mild-to-moderate asthma from the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Control subjects (nonasthmatic and nonwheezing) were chosen from Project Viva and Home Allergens, 2 population-based pediatric cohorts. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, and areas under the curve were calculated for different BDR cutoffs. Results A total of 1041 cases (59.7% male; mean age, 8.9 ± 2.1 years) and 250 control subjects (46.8% male; mean age, 8.7 ± 1.7 years) were analyzed, with mean BDRs of 10.7% ± 10.2% and 2.7% ± 8.4%, respectively. The BDR test differentiated asthmatic patients from nonasthmatic patients with a moderate accuracy (area under the curve, 73.3%). Despite good specificity, a cutoff of 12% was associated with poor sensitivity (35.6%). A cutoff of less than 8% performed significantly better than a cutoff of 12% (P = .03, 8% vs 12%). Conclusions Our findings highlight the poor sensitivity associated with the commonly used 12% cutoff for BDR. Although our data show that a threshold of less than 8% performs better than 12%, given the variability of this test in children, we conclude that it might be not be appropriate to choose a specific BDR cutoff as a criterion for the diagnosis of asthma. PMID:23683464

  4. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Kleinman, K; Gillman, M W

    2014-12-01

    We implemented six confounding adjustment methods: (1) covariate-adjusted regression, (2) propensity score (PS) regression, (3) PS stratification, (4) PS matching with two calipers, (5) inverse probability weighting and (6) doubly robust estimation to examine the associations between the body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding v. formula only (n=437) and cesarean section v. vaginal delivery (n=1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were -0.33 (95% CI -0.53, -0.13) and -0.24 (-0.46, -0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller n (204-276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse probability weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from -0.01 to -0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method. PMID:25171142

  5. Attitude, perception and feedback of second year medical students on teaching–learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bhosale, Uma A.; Yegnanarayan, Radha; Yadav, Gauri E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the student's attitude, perception and feedback on teaching–learning methodology and evaluation methods in pharmacology. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty second year medical students studying at Smt. Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune, were selected. They were administered a pre-validated questionnaire containing 22 questions. Suggestions were also asked regarding the qualities of good pharmacology teachers and modification in pharmacology teaching methods. Descriptive statistics were used and results were expressed as percentage. Results: Majority of the students found cardiovascular system (49.25%) as the most interesting topic in pharmacology, whereas most of the students opined that cardiovascular system (60.10%), chemotherapy (54.06%) and central nervous system (44.15%) are going to be the most useful topics in internship. 48.53% students preferred clinical/patient-related pharmacology and 39.13% suggested use of audiovisual-aided lectures. Prescription writing and criticism of prescription were amongst the most useful and interesting in practical pharmacology. Students expressed interest in microteaching and problem-based learning, whereas seminars, demonstrations on manikin and museum studies were mentioned as good adjuvants to routine teaching. Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) practice tests and theory viva at the end of a particular system and periodical written tests were mentioned as effective evaluation methods. Students were found to have lot of interest in gathering information on recent advances in pharmacology and suggested to include new drug information along with prototype drugs in a comparative manner. Conclusion: There is a need of conducting few microteaching sessions and more of clinical-oriented problem-based learning with MCQ-based revisions at the end of each class in the pharmacology teaching at undergraduate level. PMID:23661897

  6. Associations of Maternal Prenatal Smoking with Child Adiposity and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Emily; Huh, Susanna Y.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which maternal prenatal smoking is associated with adiposity, central adiposity, and blood pressure in 3-year-old children. Research Methods and Procedures We studied 746 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, and categorized mothers as never, early pregnancy, or former smokers. Main outcome measures were overweight (BMI for age and sex > 85th percentile), BMI z-score, sum of subscapular (SS) and triceps (TR) skinfolds, SS:TR skinfold ratio, and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Results One hundred sixty-one (22%) mothers quit smoking before pregnancy, 71 (10%) smoked in early pregnancy, and 514 (69%) never smoked. At age 3 years, 204 (27%) children were overweight. On multivariable analysis, compared with children of never smokers, children of early pregnancy smokers had an elevated risk for overweight [odds ratio (OR), 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2, 3.9] and higher BMI z-score (0.30 units; 95% CI, 0.05, 0.55), SS + TR (2.0 mm; 95% CI, 0.9, 3.0), and SBP (2.4 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.1, 4.9). Children of former smokers were not more overweight (BMI z-score, 0.02 units; 95% CI, −0.15, 0.19) but had higher SBP (1.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, −0.1, 3.2). We saw no relationship of smoking with central adiposity (SS:TR). Discussion Former and early pregnancy smokers had children with somewhat higher SBP, but only early pregnancy smokers had children who were more overweight. Mechanisms linking smoking with child adiposity and blood pressure may differ. A long-term impact of maternal smoking on offspring cardiovascular risk provides further reason to reduce smoking in women. PMID:16339135

  7. Association of Maternal Short Sleep Duration with Adiposity and Cardio-Metabolic Status at 3 Years Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gunderson, Erica P.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of short sleep duration among women in the first year postpartum with adiposity and cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. We studied 586 women in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. At 6 months and 1 year postpartum, women reported the number of hours they slept in a 24-hour period, from which we calculated a weighted average of daily sleep. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent effects of short sleep duration (≤ 5 h/d v.> 5 h/d) on adiposity, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and adipokines at 3-years postpartum. Women’s mean (SD) hours of daily sleep in the first year postpartum was 6.7 (0.97) hours. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and excessive gestational weight gain, we found that postpartum sleep ≤ 5 h/d was associated with higher postpartum weight retention (β 1.50 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 2.86), higher subscapular + triceps skinfold thickness (β 3.94 mm; 95% CI: 1.27, 6.60) and higher waist circumference (β 3.10 cm; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.94) at 3-years postpartum. We did not observe associations of short sleep duration with measures of cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. In conclusion, short sleep duration in the first year postpartum is associated with higher adiposity at 3-years postpartum. PMID:20489690

  8. A Possibility for Piece-wise Ignitions of a TCA Cycle in a Prebiotic Hydrothermal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemoto, A.; Ikeya, R.; Imai, E.; Hatori, K.; Honda, H.; Matsuno, K.

    We previously reported that formic and acetic acids were synthesized from the mixture of carbon dioxide and water in the presence of heated metal oxide serving as a catalyst (1). Fixation of carbon dioxide and monoxide could have been conceivable in the hydrothermal environment in the primitive ocean. We then considered a possibility of synthesizing major metabolites appearing in a TCA cycle in prebiotic conditions. Focused in this attempt was the vicinity of hydrothermal vents in the primitive ocean. We used a flow reactor to simulate hydrothermal circulation of seawater through hot vents (2). The experimental conditions we chose were that the hot chamber at 200 °C was connected to the cold chamber at 0 °C through a thin nozzle of its diameter 0.8 mm. The total volume of the reaction solution was 500 mL. The fluid was circulated through the flow reactor at the rate of 8 mL / min. As an initial attempt, we prepared the solution of acetic and formic acids. When iron chloride and copper sulfide were present in the solution, the products precipitated on the filter placed in the low-temperature chamber included di-carboxylic acids such as malic acid. We then proceeded to the reaction solution dissolving three different kinds of carboxylic acids, namely, succinate, fumarate, and oxoglutarate. We found that malic acid was in the solution after the operation of the flow-reactor. Formation and transformation of carboxylic acids were observed in our flow reactor. These observations, when combined together, may suggest a possibility of piece-wise ignitions of a TCA cycle even in the prebiotic ocean on the primitive earth. References (1) R. Terada, E. Imai, H. Honda, K. Hatori, and K. Matsuno.: Viva Origino 27, 197-208(1999). (2) E. Imai, H. Honda, K. Hatori, A. Brack, and K. Matsuno.: Science 283, 831-833(1999).

  9. Quality of DEMs derived from Kite Aerial Photogrammety System: a case study of Dutch coastal environments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paron, Paolo; Smith, Mike J.; Anders, Niels; Meesuk, Vorawit

    2014-05-01

    Coastal protection is one of the main challenges for the Netherlands, where a large proportion of anthropogenic activity is located below sea level (both residential and economic). The Dutch government is implementing an innovative method of coastal replenishment using natural waves and winds to relocate sand from one side to the other of the country. This requires close monitoring of the spatio-temporal evolution of beaches in order to correctly model the future direction and amount of sand movement. To do so -on the onshore beach- we tested a Kite-Aerial Photography System for monitoring the beach dynamics at Zandmotor (http://www.dezandmotor.nl/en-GB/). The equipment used for data collection were a commercial DSLR camera (Nikon D7000 with a 20mm lens), gyro-levelled rig, Sutton Flowform 16 kite and Leica GNSS Viva GS10, with GSM connection to the Dutch geodetic network. We flew using a 115 m line with an average inclination of 40 to 45°; this gave a camera vertical distance of ~80 m and pixel size of ~20 mm. The methodology follows that of Smith et al. (2009), and of Paron & Smith (2013), applied to a highly dynamic environment with low texture and small relief conditions. Here we present a comparison of the quality of the digital elevation model (DEM) generated from the same dataset using two different systems: Structure from Motion (SfM) using Agisoft Photoscan Pro and traditional photogrammetry using Leica Photograpmmetry Suite. In addition the outputs from the two data processing methods are presented, including both an image mosaic and DEM, and highlighting pros and cons of both methods. References Smith, M. J. et al. 2009. High spatial resolution data acquisition for the geosciences: kite aerial photography. ESPL, 34(1), 155-161. Paron, P., Smith, M.J. 2013. Kite aerial photogrammetry system for monitoring coastal change in the Netherlands. 8th IAG International Conference on Geomorphology, Paris, August.

  10. From Churches to Pavements: Urban Geology and Paleontology in Algarve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Rodrigues, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Urban environments were and are tremendous consumers of geologic resources, offering excellent places for Geosciences outreach activities. Since 2011, three distinct science outreach activities were planned, produced and performed in three Algarve cities - Faro (GeoStories of Faro's Downtown), Lagos (Geology at the Corner) and Tavira (From the Museum to the Convent). Urban structures - churches, monuments, buildings and urban equipments were the starting point of the geological and paleontological stories that constitute the core of these informal education visits which also combine Art History and Heritage aspects. The urban buildings were the narrative tool to these Geosciences stories being the characters the rocks and/or the fossils as well as the city itself. Beyond the natural science element, the analyzed objects have relevant esthetical, historical or symbolic dimensions, conferring this way two levels of interpretation to the stories: the geosciences level; the other, the Historical and Architectural Heritage. The nineteen visits had 350 participants - Tavira (6; 100), Faro (4; 70) e Lagos (9; 180). Promoting and contribute to the Geosciences (Geology and Paleontology) outreach was the main objective of these walks, as well as: - modify the way that the general population looks at urban buildings; - contribute to the informal education of a general public especially among the public which is interested in Architecture, History and Heritage; - integrate different areas of human knowledge - Geosciences and Architecture, History and Heritage. The visits were tested and implemented and presently constitute one of the science outreach activities of the Ciência Viva Centers in the Algarve. As a result of these visits three bilingual books (Portuguese and English) of the Geosciences walks were edited. The guides, with 120 pages each, focus on the geological and paleontological characteristics of the visited places as well as the art history framework of the

  11. Adapting and improving resilience to climate change in communities (moravian community as a pilot), by creating new capabilities based on the implementation of a new water culture; protection and management of natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos Gallo, A.

    2015-04-01

    Water, in all its dimensions and scope, concerns humans as civilization, individuals and communities immersed in an environment that faces serious environmental threats and changes. The efficient way to deal with this crisis is education of present and future generations, breaking paradigms, creating awareness and new development models, seeking community groups and forces to empower their water resource and care, manage and renew it in an efficient and sustainable manner. The multiple uses of water in personal uses, irrigation, agro-industry and clean energy production, transforms this resource in a strategic element to any nation. With support from the Centro Nacional de Alta Tecnologia (CeNAT), it was possible to formulate the "Agenda Ambiental de Moravia", agreeing to be the "Consejo Tecnico de Fuerzas Vivas" (CTFV) from Moravia - articulated network of stakeholders - the one that coordinate all actions refered to water Resources, pollution and cleaner technologies and protected Areas. CeNAT and CTFV have developed distinguished efforts to improve the Moravians quality of life, and this has led the initiative of constitution of a whole education and training project in rescuing the Upper Basin of the Rio Tarcoles, through the implementation of an ecological - recreative garden ("Parque Comunitario Pulmon Verde de Moravia"), fostersing good use of natural resources, and also works as a platform for training and awareness program in Sustainable Development, based on "Hacia una Nueva Cultura del Agua" (powered through the United Nations by Dr. Pedro Arrojo Agudo and his " Feria de Aguas, Rios y Pueblos", presented in many countries). This initiative is projected to the national and international communities, through the "Water International Conference", which propel initiatives, laws and decisions which enable the development of Costa Rica and other countries under a sustainable model, focused on this essential component for life on the planet.

  12. The significance of cagA+Helicobacter pylori in reflux oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton-Timms, V; Charlett, A; Valori, R; Uff, J; Shepherd, N; Barr, H; McNulty, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Helicobacter pylori is a gastroduodenal pathogen associated with ulceration, dyspepsia, and adenocarcinoma. Recent preliminary studies have suggested that H pylori may be protective for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, strains of H pylori identified by the presence of the cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) are shown to have a significant inverse association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Given that cagA+ H pylori may protect against oesophageal carcinoma, these strains may be protective for oesophagitis, a precursor of oesophageal carcinoma.
AIMS—The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cagA+ H pylori and endoscopically proved oesophagitis.
PATIENTS—The study group included 1486 patients attending for routine upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy.
METHODS—At endoscopy the oesophagus was assessed for evidence of reflux disease and graded according to standard protocols. Culture and histology of gastric biopsy specimens determined H pylori status. The prevalence of cagA was identified by an antibody specific ELISA (Viva Diagnostika, Germany).
RESULTS—H pylori was present in 663/1485 (45%) patients and in 120/312 (38%) patients with oesophagitis. Anti-CagA antibody was found in 499/640 (78%) H pylori positive patients. Similarly, anti-CagA antibody was found in 422/521 (81%) patients with a normal oesophagus and in 42/60 (70%) with mild, 24/35 (69%) with moderate, and 11/24 (46%) with severe oesophagitis. The risk of severe oesophagitis was significantly decreased for patients infected with cagA+ H pylori after correction for confounding variables (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.80; p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that infection by cagA+ H pylori may be protective for oesophageal disease.


Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; cagA+; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; oesophagitis; oesophageal adenocarcinoma; hiatus hernia PMID:11511554

  13. Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, Caroline E.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Hughes, Michael D.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999–2002 to 2008–2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  14. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods with an application to early life determinants of childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    We implemented 6 confounding adjustment methods: 1) covariate-adjusted regression, 2) propensity score (PS) regression, 3) PS stratification, 4) PS matching with two calipers, 5) inverse-probability-weighting, and 6) doubly-robust estimation to examine the associations between the BMI z-score at 3 years and two separate dichotomous exposure measures: exclusive breastfeeding versus formula only (N = 437) and cesarean section versus vaginal delivery (N = 1236). Data were drawn from a prospective pre-birth cohort study, Project Viva. The goal is to demonstrate the necessity and usefulness, and approaches for multiple confounding adjustment methods to analyze observational data. Unadjusted (univariate) and covariate-adjusted linear regression associations of breastfeeding with BMI z-score were −0.33 (95% CI −0.53, −0.13) and −0.24 (−0.46, −0.02), respectively. The other approaches resulted in smaller N (204 to 276) because of poor overlap of covariates, but CIs were of similar width except for inverse-probability-weighting (75% wider) and PS matching with a wider caliper (76% wider). Point estimates ranged widely, however, from −0.01 to −0.38. For cesarean section, because of better covariate overlap, the covariate-adjusted regression estimate (0.20) was remarkably robust to all adjustment methods, and the widths of the 95% CIs differed less than in the breastfeeding example. Choice of covariate adjustment method can matter. Lack of overlap in covariate structure between exposed and unexposed participants in observational studies can lead to erroneous covariate-adjusted estimates and confidence intervals. We recommend inspecting covariate overlap and using multiple confounding adjustment methods. Similar results bring reassurance. Contradictory results suggest issues with either the data or the analytic method. PMID:25171142

  15. Gold Nanoparticle Interference Study during the Isolation, Quantification, Purity and Integrity Analysis of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria, Natasha M.; Vetten, Melissa; Andraos, Charlene; Boodhia, Kailen; Gulumian, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Investigations have been conducted regarding the interference of nanoparticles (NPs) with different toxicological assay systems, but there is a lack of validation when conducting routine tests for nucleic acid isolation, quantification, integrity, and purity analyses. The interference of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated herein. The AuNPs were added to either BEAS-2B bronchial human cells for 24 h, the isolated pure RNA, or added during the isolation procedure, and the resultant interaction was assessed. Total RNA that was isolated from untreated BEAS-2B cells was spiked with various concentrations (v/v%) of AuNPs and quantified. A decrease in the absorbance spectrum (220–340 nm) was observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 260 and 280 nm absorbance ratios that traditionally infer RNA purity were also altered. Electrophoresis was performed to determine RNA integrity, but could not differentiate between AuNP-exposed samples. However, the spiked post-isolation samples did produce differences in spectra (190–220 nm), where shifts were observed at a shorter wavelength. These shifts could be due to alterations to chromophores found in nucleic acids. The co-isolation samples, spiked with 100 µL AuNP during the isolation procedure, displayed a peak shift to a longer wavelength and were similar to the results obtained from a 24 h AuNP treatment, under non-cytotoxic test conditions. Moreover, hyperspectral imaging using CytoViva dark field microscopy did not detect AuNP spectral signatures in the RNA isolated from treated cells. However, despite the lack of AuNPs in the final RNA product, structural changes in RNA could still be observed between 190–220 nm. Consequently, full spectral analyses should replace the traditional ratios based on readings at 230, 260, and 280 nm. These are critical points of analyses, validation, and optimization for RNA-based techniques used to assess AuNPs effects. PMID:25470814

  16. Juice and water intake in infancy and later beverage intake and adiposity: Could juice be a gateway drink?

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Long, Michael W.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the tracking and significance of beverage consumption in infancy and childhood. Design and Methods Among 1163 children in Project Viva, we examined associations of fruit juice and water intake at 1 year (0 oz, 1–7 oz [small], 8–15 oz [medium], and ≥16 oz [large]) with juice and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and BMI z-score during early (median 3.1 years) and mid-childhood (median 7.7 years). Results In covariate adjusted models, juice intake at one year was associated with greater juice and sugar sweetened beverages intake during early and mid-childhood and also greater adiposity. Children who drank medium and large amounts of juice at 1 year had higher BMI z-scores during both early (Medium: β=0.16 [95%CI=0.01, 0.32]; Large: β=0.28 [95%CI=0.01, 0.56]) and mid-childhood (Medium: β=0.23 [95%CI=0.07, 0.39]; Large: β=0.36 [95%CI=0.08, 0.64]). After covariate adjustment, associations between water intake at 1 year and beverage intake and adiposity later in childhood were null. Conclusions Higher juice intake at 1 year was associated with higher juice intake, sugar sweetened beverage intake, and BMI z-score during early and mid-childhood. Assessing juice intake during infancy could provide clinicians important data regarding future unhealthy beverage habits and excess adiposity during childhood. PMID:25328160

  17. Reconstructive and rehabilitating methods in patients with dysphagia and nutritional disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Motsch, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    to 40% (American Institute of Cancer Research 1999). Esse oportet, ut vivas, non vivere ut edas. / Thou shouldst eat to live, not live to eat. Cicero 106 - 43 B.C. PMID:22073059

  18. Reconstructive and rehabilitating methods in patients with dysphagia and nutritional disturbances.

    PubMed

    Motsch, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    to 40% (American Institute of Cancer Research 1999).Esse oportet, ut vivas, non vivere ut edas. / Thou shouldst eat to live, not live to eat.Cicero 106 - 43 B.C. PMID:22073059

  19. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Boeke, Caroline E; Gillman, Matthew W; Hughes, Michael D; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Villamor, Eduardo; Oken, Emily

    2013-06-15

    Animal models indicate that exposure to choline in utero improves visual memory through cholinergic transmission and/or epigenetic mechanisms. Among 895 mothers in Project Viva (eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002 to 2008-2011), we estimated the associations between intakes of choline, vitamin B12, betaine, and folate during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and offspring visual memory (measured by the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2), Design and Picture Memory subtests) and intelligence (measured using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, Second Edition (KBIT-2)) at age 7 years. Mean second-trimester intakes were 328 (standard deviation (SD), 63) mg/day for choline, 10.5 (SD, 5.1) µg/day for vitamin B12, 240 (SD, 104) mg/day for betaine, and 1,268 (SD, 381) µg/day for folate. Mean age 7 test scores were 17.2 (SD, 4.4) points on the WRAML 2 Design and Picture Memory subtests, 114.3 (SD, 13.9) points on the verbal KBIT-2, and 107.8 (SD, 16.5) points on the nonverbal KBIT-2. In a model adjusting for maternal characteristics, the other nutrients, and child's age and sex, the top quartile of second-trimester choline intake was associated with a child WRAML2 score 1.4 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 2.4) than the bottom quartile (P-trend = 0.003). Results for first-trimester intake were in the same direction but weaker. Intake of the other nutrients was not associated with the cognitive tests administered. Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years. PMID:23425631

  20. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

  1. Summative assessment in a doctor of pharmacy program: a critical insight

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Background The Canadian-accredited post-baccalaureate Doctor of Pharmacy program at Qatar University trains pharmacists to deliver advanced patient care. Emphasis on acquisition and development of the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes lies in the curriculum’s extensive experiential component. A campus-based oral comprehensive examination (OCE) was devised to emulate a clinical viva voce and complement the extensive formative assessments conducted at experiential practice sites throughout the curriculum. We describe an evaluation of the final exit summative assessment for this graduate program. Methods OCE results since the inception of the graduate program (3 years ago) were retrieved and recorded into a blinded database. Examination scores among each paired faculty examiner team were analyzed for inter-rater reliability and linearity of agreement using intraclass correlation and Spearman’s correlation coefficient measurements, respectively. Graduate student ranking from individual examiner OCE scores was compared with that of other relative ranked student performance. Results Sixty-one OCEs were administered to 30 graduate students over 3 years by a composite of eleven different pairs of faculty examiners. Intraclass correlation measures demonstrated that examiner team reliability was low and linearity of agreements was inconsistent. Only one examiner team in each respective academic year was found to have statistically significant inter-rater reliability, and linearity of agreements was inconsistent in all years. No association was found between examination performance rankings and other academic parameters. Conclusion Critical review of our final summative assessment implies it is lacking robustness and defensibility. Measures are in place to continue the quality improvement process and develop and implement an alternative means of evaluation within a more authentic context. PMID:25733948

  2. Television Viewing, Bedroom Television, and Sleep Duration From Infancy to Mid-Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Matthew W.; Kleinman, Ken; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Television and insufficient sleep are associated with poor mental and physical health. This study assessed associations of TV viewing and bedroom TV with sleep duration from infancy to midchildhood. METHOD: We studied 1864 children in Project Viva. Parents reported children’s average daily TV viewing and sleep (at 6 months and annually from 1–7 years) and the presence of a bedroom TV (annually 4–7 years). We used mixed effects models to assess associations of TV exposures with contemporaneous sleep, adjusting for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, and income. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-three children (35%) were racial/ethnic minorities; 37% of households had incomes ≤$70 000. From 6 months to 7 years, mean (SD) sleep duration decreased from 12.2 (2.0) hours to 9.8 (0.9) hours per day; TV viewing increased from 0.9 (1.2) hours to 1.6 (1.0) hours per day. At 4 years, 17% had a bedroom TV, rising to 23% at 7 years. Each 1 hour per day increase in lifetime TV viewing was associated with 7 minutes per day (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4 to 10) shorter sleep. The association of bedroom TV varied by race/ethnicity; bedroom TV was associated with 31 minutes per day shorter sleep (95% CI: 16 to 45) among racial/ethnic minority children, but not among white, non-Hispanic children (8 fewer minutes per day [95% CI: −19 to 2]). CONCLUSIONS: More TV viewing, and, among racial/ethnic minority children, the presence of a bedroom TV, were associated with shorter sleep from infancy to midchildhood. PMID:24733878

  3. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  4. Genome-wide association replicates the association of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) polymorphisms with serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, V Saroja; Laston, Sandra; Haack, Karin; Mehta, Nitesh R; Smith, C Wayne; Cole, Shelley A; Butte, Nancy F; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is associated with a chronic low inflammatory state characterized by elevated levels of chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the cysteine-cysteine (CC) chemokine family and is increased in obesity. The purpose of this study was to identify loci regulating serum MCP-1 in obese Hispanic children from the Viva La Familia Study. A genome-wide association (GWA) analysis was performed in 815 children, ages 4-19 years, using genotypes assayed with the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad v1.0 BeadChips. All analyses were performed in SOLAR using a linear regression-based test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for the relatedness of family members via a kinship variance component. The strongest association for MCP-1 levels was found with a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs12075, resulting in an amino acid substitution (Asp42Gly) in the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) gene product (minor allele frequency=43.6%, p=1.3 × 10(-21)) on chromosome 1. Four other DARC SNPs were also significantly associated with MCP-1 levels (p<10(-16)-10(-6)). The Asp42Gly variant was associated with higher levels of MCP-1 and accounted for approximately 10% of its variability. In addition, MCP-1 levels were significantly associated with SNPs in chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9). In summary, the association of the DARC Asp42Gly variant with MCP-1 levels replicates previous GWA results substantiating a potential role for DARC in the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:23017229

  5. Hand preference on unimanual and bimanual tasks in strepsirrhines: The case of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Hopkins, William D

    2016-08-01

    Assessing manual lateralization in non-human primates could be an optimal way to understand the adaptive value of this asymmetry in humans. Though many studies have investigated hand preferences in Old and New World monkeys and apes, fewer studies have considered manual lateralization in strepsirrhines, especially in experimental tasks. This study investigated hand preferences for a unimanual and a bimanual task of 17 captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), housed at Parco Natura Viva (VR), Italy. The effect of age on handedness has been also investigated. The lemurs were tested on a unimanual task, in which subjects were restricted to using one hand to retrieve the food inside an apparatus, and on a bimanual task, in which lemurs had to use one hand to keep the apparatus door open while reaching with the other hand to retrieve the food inside it. At the population-level, our results revealed an asymmetrical hand use distribution, in particular a bias toward a right hand preference for food reaching in both the unimanual and the bimanual tasks. Furthermore, at the individual-level, the bimanual task seems to elicit a greater hand preference than the unimanual task. Results of this study underline the importance of experimental tasks in determining hand preference in strepsirrhines. Furthermore, as bimanual tasks elicited a stronger degree of lateralization, they appear to be more suited to investigate manual laterality. Finally, findings from this study highlight the presence of a right hand preference in ring-tailed lemurs, shedding new light on the evolution of human right handedness. Am. J. Primatol. 78:851-860, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27078687

  6. Inter-laboratory Variability of Current Immunoassay Methods for Tacrolimus among Japanese Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Miura, Masatomo; Masuda, Satohiro; Egawa, Hiroto; Yuzawa, Kenji; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess inter-hospital laboratory variability (coefficient of variation; CV) of immunoassay methods for tacrolimus and the comparability of control samples and results obtained by immunoassay measurements. One hundred seven hospital laboratories routinely performing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of tacrolimus participated in the study. Thirteen spiked samples with known tacrolimus concentrations in the range of 0-26.0 ng/mL were prepared. Each spiked sample was analyzed according to the manufacturer's instructions using an affinity column-mediated immunoassay (ACMIA) on a Dimension(®) analyzer, the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) on a Viva-E(®) analyzer, a chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) on the Architect(®) system, and the electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on a cobas(®) analyzer. The 20% coefficient of variation values for the CLIA, ACMIA, EMIT, and ECLIA assays in the hospital laboratories were 1.82, 5.36, 4.59, and 0.89 ng/mL, respectively. CLIA and ECLIA had positive biases at concentrations of tacrolimus above 12 ng/mL relative to the spiked concentration, whereas the assay bias for ACMIA tended to be more negative at concentrations of tacrolimus above 6 ng/mL. EMIT had positive biases over the wide concentration range of 0.0-26.0 ng/mL (mean of mean errors 1.224). CLIA and ECLIA provided adequate precision at the target tacrolimus concentration of 3.0 ng/mL, whereas ACMIA and EMIT were unable to respond to target concentrations between 3.0 and 5.0 ng/mL for renal transplant recipients. Appropriate assessment of tacrolimus concentration by an assay having higher sensitivity, precision, and accuracy is necessary to ensure long-term survival of transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus. PMID:27263473

  7. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates

    PubMed Central

    Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates. PMID:23336029

  8. The Effect of the Transformation of Spiral Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster on Broadband Color Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowl, Hugh H.; Chung, A.; Blanton, M. R.; Kenney, J. D. P.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Schiminovich, D.

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy evolution and the effect of environment on that evolution is one of the central questions of modern extragalactic astronomy. The nearby Virgo Cluster provides us with an ideal laboratory to study galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-cluster interactions at a level of detail impossible at higher redshift. In detailed, pan-chromatic surveys of Virgo, we have seen galaxies transformed by their interaction with the intra-cluster medium, with star-forming gas stripped from spiral galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present the results of a study of the global broadband optical properties of 44 Virgo Cluster spiral galaxies from the VIVA galaxy survey. These results show that spiral galaxies actively being stripped maintain blue colors while stripping is ongoing. However, a comparison between the colors of stripped spirals and their HI content suggests that more completely stripped galaxies are, indeed, redder than those that are only modestly HI deficient. This suggests that, as galaxies become more completely stripped, their global colors become redder and that in a cluster more massive than Virgo, such stripping could effectively transform galaxies from blue to red. By comparing broadband colors to the stripping timescales derived from optical spectroscopy and stellar population synthesis, we determine that the broadband color evolution is complex, with dust and the age of the stellar population both playing a role. By comparing detailed studies of a nearby cluster with statistical results from the much larger SDSS sample, we are able to gain insights into the details of how environmentally-driven galaxy evolution affects global broadband colors.

  9. Exposure to traffic and early life respiratory infection: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mary B; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W; Ljungman, Petter L; Litonjua, Augusto A; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros; Melly, Steven J; Mittleman, Murray A; Gold, Diane R

    2014-03-27

    We examined whether proximity to a major roadway and traffic density around the home during pregnancy are associated with risk of early life respiratory infection in a pre-birth cohort in the Boston area. We geocoded addresses for 1,263 mother-child pairs enrolled during the first trimester of pregnancy in Project Viva during 1999-2002. We calculated distance from home to nearest major roadway and traffic density in a 100 m buffer around the home. We defined respiratory infection as maternal report of ≥1 doctor-diagnosed pneumonia, bronchiolitis, croup, or other respiratory infection from birth until the early childhood visit (median age 3.3). We used relative risk regression models adjusting for potential confounders to estimate associations between traffic exposures and risk of respiratory infection. Distance to roadway during pregnancy was associated with risk of respiratory infection. In fully adjusted models, relative risks (95% CI) for respiratory infection were: 1.30 (1.08, 1.55) for <100 m, 1.15 (0.93, 1.41) for 100 to <200 m, and 0.95 (0.84, 1.07) for 200 to <1,000 m compared with living ≥1,000 m away from a major roadway. Each interquartile range increase in distance to roadway was associated with an 8% (95% CI 0.87, 0.98) lower risk, and each interquartile range increase in traffic density was associated with a 5% (95% CI 0.98, 1.13) higher risk of respiratory infection. Our findings suggest that living close to a major roadway during pregnancy may predispose the developing lung to infection in early life. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24678045

  10. Using seismology to raise science awareness in kindergarten and elementary levels, with the help of high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.; Moreira, G.; Afonso, I. P.; Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Melo, M. O.; Neto, R. P.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Hartmann, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching students, aged from 4 up to 18 years old, is a challenging task. It continuously implies new strategies and new subjects adapted to all of them. This is even more evident, when we have to teach natural-hazards scientific aspects and safe attitudes toward risk. We often see that most of the high-school students (16 -18 years old) are not motivated for extra-curricular activities implying science and/or behaviours changes. But, they have a very positive response when we give them some responsibility. On top of that, we also realised that young children are quite receptive to the involvement of older students in the school environment Taking this into consideration, our project use the k12 students to prepare scientific activities and subjects, based in questions, which they need to answer themselves. The students need to answer those questions and, only then, adapt and teach the right answers to the different school-levels. With this approach, we challenged the students to solve three questions: How to use a SEP seismometer at school, and its data? How to set up a shaking table? How to introduce waves and vibrations contents to all ages of students? During the project they developed many science skills, and worked in straight cooperation with teachers, the parents association and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz. As a result, it was possible to reach all school students with the help of the k-12 ones. This is an outcome of the project W-Shake, a Parents-in-Science Initiative to promote the study of seismology and related subjects. This project, supported by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, results from a direct cooperation between the parents association, science school-teachers and the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  11. [Business, politics, science, and visa versa: an institutional history of Brazilian medical journalism between 1827 and 1843].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luiz Otávio

    2004-01-01

    This analysis of Brazil's first medical newspapers - Propagador das Ciências Médicas (1827-28); Semanário de Saúde Pública (1831-33); Diário de Saúde (1835-36); Revista Médica Fluminense (1835-41); Revista Médica Brasileira (1841-43) - shows how Rio de Janeiro's socio-cultural context made it possible for this type of publication to emerge within the city's dynamic, troubled environment of the 1820s and 30s. I argue that the distinguishing feature of Brazil's early medical journalism was a symbiosis between business (local publishing houses' commercial interests), politics (struggles for political hegemony during the consolidation of the Imperial State), and science (the movement to institutionalize medicine and affirm it as a science). PMID:15446259

  12. Nonextensive models for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R.; França, G. S.; Vilar, C. S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment γ∝r3 . The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter q , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude.

  13. Conventions for sign and speech transcription of child bimodal bilingual corpora in ELAN

    PubMed Central

    Chen Pichler, Deborah; Hochgesang, Julie A.; Lillo-Martin, Diane; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2011-01-01

    This article extends current methodologies for the linguistic analysis of sign language acquisition to cases of bimodal bilingual acquisition. Using ELAN, we are transcribing longitudinal spontaneous production data from hearing children of Deaf parents who are learning either American Sign Language (ASL) and American English (AE), or Brazilian Sign Language (Libras, also referred to as Língua de Sinais Brasileira/LSB in some texts) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP). Our goal is to construct corpora that can be mined for a wide range of investigations on various topics in acquisition. Thus, it is important that we maintain consistency in transcription for both signed and spoken languages. This article documents our transcription conventions, including the principles behind our approach. Using this document, other researchers can chose to follow similar conventions or develop new ones using our suggestions as a starting point. PMID:21625371

  14. Nonextensive models for earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Silva, R; França, G S; Vilar, C S; Alcaniz, J S

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment epsilon proportional to r3. The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude. PMID:16605393

  15. The transfusion medicine we want

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia (ABHH), through its Board of Directors, hosted a national symposium called "Forum: The Transfusion Medicine we want", to discuss proposed policies and techniques related to the area. This meeting was held in São Paulo on August 19 and 20, 2010, with the participation of experts, authorities and representatives of organized groups of patients and users. The discussions were organized around three specific issues selected from over 100 suggestions sent to the ABHH through public consultation on the web: 1. Strategies; 2. Financing; 3. Blood products. A plenary session, held at the end of the meeting, adopted recommendations that are relevant to the different discussion topics. This document contains actions proposed by the ABHH to meet the demands discussed. PMID:23284248

  16. Brazilian Thalassemia Association protocol for iron chelation therapy in patients under regular transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Veríssimo, Monica Pinheiro de Almeida; Loggetto, Sandra Regina; Fabron Junior, Antonio; Baldanzi, Giorgio Roberto; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Fernandes, Juliano Lara; Araujo, Aderson da Silva; Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Berdoukas, Vasilios Antonios; Galanello, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of an iron chelating agent, patients with beta-thalassemia on regular transfusions present complications of transfusion-related iron overload. Without iron chelation therapy, heart disease is the major cause of death; however, hepatic and endocrine complications also occur. Currently there are three iron chelating agents available for continuous use in patients with thalassemia on regular transfusions (desferrioxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox) providing good results in reducing cardiac, hepatic and endocrine toxicity. These practice guidelines, prepared by the Scientific Committee of Associação Brasileira de Thalassemia (ABRASTA), presents a review of the literature regarding iron overload assessment (by imaging and laboratory exams) and the role of T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to control iron overload and iron chelation therapy, with evidence-based recommendations for each clinical situation. Based on this review, the authors propose an iron chelation protocol for patients with thalassemia under regular transfusions. PMID:24478610

  17. [Carlos Chagas Filho: an articulator of the history of sciences in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Domingues, Heloisa Maria Bertol

    2012-06-01

    A letter sent in 1982 by a group of scientists to the president of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico appealed for a policy of preservation of Brazilian scientific culture. The name of Carlos Chagas Filho topped the list of signatures thereby proving his commitment to that proposal, the ideological structure of which was part of his experience in scientific policy in Brazil and abroad. This document harks back to the practice of the history of the sciences in Brazil and the creation of places for the safeguard and organization of scientific memory, such as the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins, Casa de Oswaldo Cruz and the Sociedade Brasileira de História da Ciência, of which Carlos Chagas Filho was an inaugural member of the board of directors. PMID:22473448

  18. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernadete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Claudio; Malbouisson, Luis Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamed; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sergio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25295817

  19. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25210957

  20. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25410835

  1. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine; Mazza, Débora Dutra da Silveira; Dragosavac, Desanka; Toledo, Diogo Oliveira; Costa, Eduardo Leite; Caser, Eliana Bernardete; Silva, Eliezer; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Saddy, Felipe; Galas, Filomena Regina Barbosa Gomes; Silva, Gisele Sampaio; de Matos, Gustavo Faissol Janot; Emmerich, João Claudio; Valiatti, Jorge Luis dos Santos; Teles, José Mario Meira; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Ferreira, Juliana Carvalho; Prodomo, Luciana Passuello do Vale; Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Martins, Luiz Cláudio; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Reis, Marco Antonio Soares; Amato, Marcelo Brito Passos; Holanda, Marcelo Alcântara; Park, Marcelo; Jacomelli, Marcia; Tavares, Marcos; Damasceno, Marta Cristina Paulette; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Damasceno, Moyzes Pinto Coelho Duarte; Youssef, Nazah Cherif Mohamad; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimmermann; Caruso, Pedro; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino; Messeder, Octavio; Eid, Raquel Caserta; Rodrigues, Ricardo Goulart; de Jesus, Rodrigo Francisco; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Justino, Sandra; Nemer, Sérgio Nogueira; Romero, Simone Barbosa; Amado, Verônica Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented by the Mechanical Ventilation Committee and the Commission of Intensive Therapy, respectively, decided to review the literature and draft recommendations for mechanical ventilation with the goal of creating a document for bedside guidance as to the best practices on mechanical ventilation available to their members. The document was based on the available evidence regarding 29 subtopics selected as the most relevant for the subject of interest. The project was developed in several stages, during which the selected topics were distributed among experts recommended by both societies with recent publications on the subject of interest and/or significant teaching and research activity in the field of mechanical ventilation in Brazil. The experts were divided into pairs that were charged with performing a thorough review of the international literature on each topic. All the experts met at the Forum on Mechanical Ventilation, which was held at the headquarters of AMIB in São Paulo on August 3 and 4, 2013, to collaboratively draft the final text corresponding to each sub-topic, which was presented to, appraised, discussed and approved in a plenary session that included all 58 participants and aimed to create the final document. PMID:25028944

  2. Maternal Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Levels during Pregnancy and Offspring Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Gillman, Matthew W.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Huh, Susanna; Majzoub, Joseph A.; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal models suggest that fetal exposure to glucocorticoids can program adiposity, especially central adiposity, later in life. We examined associations of maternal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) levels in the late 2nd trimester of pregnancy, a marker of fetal glucocorticoid exposure, with child adiposity at age 3 years. Research Methods and Procedures We analyzed data from 199 participants in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women and their children, At age 3 years, the main outcomes were age-sex-specific BMI z score and the sum of subscapular (SS) and triceps (TR) skinfold thicknesses to represent overall adiposity, and ratio of SS to TR (SS:TR) to represent central adiposity. Results Mean (standard deviation) maternal 2nd trimester log CRH was 4.94 (0.56) pg/mL. At age 3, mean (standard deviation) for BMI z score was 0.52 (1.02); for SS + TR, 16.51 (3.94) mm; and for SS:TR, 0.67 (0.17). Log CRH was mildly inversely correlated with birth weight (r = −0.08), chiefly because of its association with length of gestation (r = −0.21) rather than fetal growth (r = −0.004). After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, maternal smoking, BMI, and gestational weight gain, fetal growth, length of gestation, breastfeeding duration, and (for SS:TR only) child’s 3-year BMI, each increment of 1 unit of log CRH was associated with a reduction in BMI z score [−0.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), −0.73, −0.14; p = 0.004] and possible reduction in SS + TR (−1.10; 95% CI, −2.33, 0.14; p = 0.08). In contrast, log CRH was associated with higher SS:TR (0.07; 95% CI, 0.02, 0.13; p = 0.007). Discussion Fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, although associated with an overall decrease in body size, may cause an increase in central adiposity. PMID:17030976

  3. Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times.

    PubMed

    Kimmes, Nicole S; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of different enamel and dentin conditioning times on the shear bond strength of a resin composite using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems. Shear bond strengths were determined following treatment of flat ground human enamel and dentin surfaces (4000 grit) with 11 adhesive systems: 1) AdheSE One Viva Pen-(ASE), 2) Adper Prompt L-Pop-(PLP), 3) Adper Single Bond Plus-(SBP), 4) Clearfil SE Bond-(CSE), 5) Clearfil S3 Bond-(CS3), 6) OptiBond All-In-One-(OBA), 7) OptiBond Solo Plus-(OBS), 8) Peak SE-(PSE), 9) Xeno IV-(X4), 10) Xeno V-(X5) and 11) XP Bond-(XPB) using recommended treatment times and an extended treatment time of 60 seconds (n = 10/group). Composite (Z100) to enamel and dentin bond strengths (24 hours) were determined using Ultradent fixtures and debonded with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The data were analyzed with a three-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's LSD post hoc test. The highest shear bond strengths (MPa) to enamel were achieved by the three etch-and-rinse systems at both the recommended treatment time (SBP-40.5 +/- 6.1; XPB-38.7 +/- 3.7; OBS- 35.2 +/- 6.2) and the extended treatment time (SBP-44.5 +/- 8.1; XPB-40.9 +/- 5.7; OBS-35.0 +/- 4.5). Extending the enamel treatment time did not produce a significant change (p > 0.05) in bond strength for the 11 adhesive systems tested. OBS generated the highest (46.2 +/- 7.9) bond strengths to dentin at the recommended treatment time. At the extended treatment time X4 (42.2 +/- 11.7), PSE (42.1 +/- 9.7) and OBS (41.4 +/- 8.0) produced the highest bond strengths to dentin. The bond strength change between recommend and extended treatment times was significant (p < 0.05) for PSE, but the other 10 systems did not exhibit any significant change. PMID:20166418

  4. New insights into the transition pathway from nonspecific to specific complex of DNA with Escherichia coli integration host factor.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Paula; Kuznetsov, Serguei V; Ansari, Anjum

    2008-05-15

    To elucidate the nature of the transition-state ensemble along the reaction pathway from a nonspecific protein-DNA complex to the specific complex, we have carried out measurements of DNA bending/unbending dynamics on a cognate DNA substrate in complex with integration host factor (IHF), an architectural protein from E. coli that bends its cognate site by approximately 180 degrees . We use a laser temperature jump to perturb the IHF-DNA complex and monitor the relaxation kinetics with time-resolved FRET measurements on DNA substrates end-labeled with a FRET pair. Previously, we showed that spontaneous bending/kinking of DNA, from thermal disruption of base-pairing/-stacking interactions, may be the rate-limiting step in the formation of the specific complex (Kuznetsov, S. V.; Sugimura, S.; Vivas, P.; Crothers, D. M.; Ansari, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2006, 103, 18515). Here, we probe the effect of varying [KCl], which affects the stability of the complex, on this rate-limiting step. We find that below approximately 250 mM KCl, the observed relaxation kinetics are from the unimolecular bending/unbending of DNA, and the relaxation rate kr is independent of [KCl]. Above approximately 300 mM KCl, dissociation of the IHF-DNA complex becomes significant, and the observed relaxation process includes contributions from the association/dissociation step, with kr decreasing with increasing [KCl]. The DNA bending step occurs with a positive activation enthalpy, despite the large negative enthalpy change reported for the specific IHF-DNA complex (Holbrook, J. A.; Tsodikov, O. V.; Saecker, R. M.; Record, M. T., Jr. J. Mol. Biol. 2001, 310, 379). Our conclusion from these studies is that in the uphill climb to the transition state, the DNA is kinked, but with no release of ions, as indicated by the salt-independent behavior of k(r) at low [KCl]. Any release of ions in the unimolecular process, together with conformational changes in the protein-DNA complex that facilitate

  5. Structure Activity Relationship of Dendrimer Microbicides with Dual Action Antiviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tyssen, David; Henderson, Scott A.; Johnson, Adam; Sterjovski, Jasminka; Moore, Katie; La, Jennifer; Zanin, Mark; Sonza, Secondo; Karellas, Peter; Giannis, Michael P.; Krippner, Guy; Wesselingh, Steve; McCarthy, Tom; Gorry, Paul R.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Cone, Richard; Paull, Jeremy R. A.; Lewis, Gareth R.; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2010-01-01

    Background Topical microbicides, used by women to prevent the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections are urgently required. Dendrimers are highly branched nanoparticles being developed as microbicides. However, the anti-HIV and HSV structure-activity relationship of dendrimers comprising benzyhydryl amide cores and lysine branches, and a comprehensive analysis of their broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity and mechanism of action have not been published. Methods and Findings Dendrimers with optimized activity against HIV-1 and HSV-2 were identified with respect to the number of lysine branches (generations) and surface groups. Antiviral activity was determined in cell culture assays. Time-of-addition assays were performed to determine dendrimer mechanism of action. In vivo toxicity and HSV-2 inhibitory activity were evaluated in the mouse HSV-2 susceptibility model. Surface groups imparting the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 and HSV-2 were naphthalene disulfonic acid (DNAA) and 3,5-disulfobenzoic acid exhibiting the greatest anionic charge and hydrophobicity of the seven surface groups tested. Their anti-HIV-1 activity did not appreciably increase beyond a second-generation dendrimer while dendrimers larger than two generations were required for potent anti-HSV-2 activity. Second (SPL7115) and fourth generation (SPL7013) DNAA dendrimers demonstrated broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity. However, SPL7013 was more active against HSV and blocking HIV-1 envelope mediated cell-to-cell fusion. SPL7013 and SPL7115 inhibited viral entry with similar potency against CXCR4-(X4) and CCR5-using (R5) HIV-1 strains. SPL7013 was not toxic and provided at least 12 h protection against HSV-2 in the mouse vagina. Conclusions Dendrimers can be engineered with optimized potency against HIV and HSV representing a unique platform for the controlled synthesis of chemically defined multivalent agents as viral entry inhibitors. SPL7013 is formulated as Viva

  6. EDITORIAL: Special issue in honour of J E Allen's 75th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.

    2003-11-01

    challenging competitor when we were working on similar lines, and his research students provided me with the stimulation that comes from such interaction, be it informal or more formally in the course of D Phil vivas. Thus I have felt that there was a debt to be repaid by encouraging his students and other co-workers to contribute to this issue. More importantly, we honour someone whose contributions we know will stand the test of time.

  7. Mid-childhood fruit and vegetable consumption: The roles of early liking, early consumption, and maternal consumption.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kai Ling; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that early liking, early consumption, and maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) each predict children's F&V consumption, but no one has examined the independent contributions of these three correlated factors. We aim to examine the extent to which each of these 3 factors is associated with F&V consumption in mid-childhood after accounting for the other 2 in the analysis. We analyzed data from 901 mother-child dyads from Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study. Mothers reported their child's early liking and consumption of F&V at age 2 years and later consumption at mid-childhood (median age 7.7 years). They also reported their own consumption of F&V at 6 months postpartum. We used multivariable linear regression models to examine the independent associations of these 3 factors with mid-childhood consumption, adjusting for socio-demographic, pregnancy, and child confounders. At 2 years, 53% of the mothers strongly agreed that their child liked fruit and 25% strongly agreed that their child liked vegetables. F&V consumption was 2.5 (1.3) and 1.8 (1.1) times/d at age 2 y and 1.5 (1.1) and 1.3 (0.8) times/d in mid-childhood. Maternal F&V consumption was 1.4 (1.1) and 1.5 (1.0) times/d, respectively. Children's early consumption played the most predominant role. For every 1 time/d increment in children's early consumption of F&V, mid-childhood consumption was higher by 0.25 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.19, 0.30) times/d for fruits and 0.21 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) times/d for vegetables, adjusted for confounders plus the other 2 exposures. In conclusion, children's early F&V consumption has the most significant influence on children's later consumption. PMID:27238899

  8. Bringing soil science to society after catastrophic events such as big forest fires. Some examples of field approaches in Spanish Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Cerdà, Artemi; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Moltó, Jorge; Chrenkovà, Katerina; Torres, Pilar; Lozano, Elena; Jimenez-Pinilla, Patricia; Jara-Navarro, Ana B.

    2015-04-01

    participation of people on the days when we started field research with installation of plots and soil samplings, field trips with volunteers of some NGO's, etc., are some of examples of what we will show in this presentation of how to bring soil science to society. Acknowledgements: to the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R), FUEGORED, Spanish Soil Science Society, Alcoi and Javea councils, Botánica Mediterrànea, ACIF Alcoi, ACIF Marina Alta, Xàbia Viva, Montgó Viu, and Sierra de Mariola and Montgó Natural Parks for their collaboration.

  9. 15 Years of Ocean Education and Outreach Activities by the College of Exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since 1997 the College of Exploration has created ocean related interactive and engaging online and onsite education and outreach programs that have reached over 15,000 particpants in over 30 countries. Partners and funders have included in the USA the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Geographic, and many others. In the UK the Natural Environment Research Council and the National Oceanography Center, and in Europe Portugal's Ciencia Viva. The first online and onsite program was in partnership with the now Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences. With funding from NSF the project took the online Bermuda Atlanic Time Series (BATS) dataset and made it more accessible to teachers and students in a custom spreadsheet with easier to use macros and graphs. Online training and workshops helped teachers learn more about using BATS in the classroom. The next project in 1998 in partnership with the University of Southern California Sea Grant was an online workshop on El Nino. This was one of the first teacher professional development projecs offered online. Scientists with expertise in El Nino were able to meet and discuss with teachers. Over the past 15 years there have numerous programs, workshops and activities on topics such as Autosub Under Ice, Ocean Exploration then,now and the future, Ocean Observing Systems, Harmful Algal Blooms, Coral Reefs, and much more. These will be summarized. Every activity has been evaluated and assessed. The cumulative results of these evaluations will be presented along with the results of a recent survey of all participants over the past 15 years. Since 2002 the College of Exploration has played a key role in the development and promotion of the Ocean Literacy campaign, an effort to bring innovative approaches to promoting the ocean in K-12 education as well integrating the ocean into national standards and curriculum and promoting the ocean to the general public. A

  10. The International Polar Year in Portugal: A New National Polar Programme and a Major Education and Outreach project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes-Victor, L.; Vieira, G.; Xavier, J.; Canario, A.

    2008-12-01

    Before the International Polar Year, in Portugal polar research was conducted by a very small group of scientists integrated in foreign projects or research institutions. Portugal was not member of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR), the European Polar Board (EPB), neither a subscriber of the Antarctic Treaty. In 2004 Portuguese Polar researchers considered the IPY as an opportunity to change this situation and organized the national Committee for the IPY. The objectives were ambitious: to answer the aforementioned issues in defining and proposing a National Polar Programme. In late 2008, close to the end of the IPY, the objectives were attained, except the Antarctic Treaty signature that is, however, in an advanced stage, having been approved by consensus at the National Parliament in early 2007. Portugal joined SCAR in July 2006, the EPB in 2007 and a set of 5 Antarctic research projects forming the roots of the National Polar Programme (ProPolar) have been approved by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT-MCTES). Scientifically, the IPY can already be considered a major success in Portugal with an improvement in polar scientific research, in the number of scientists performing field work in the Antarctic, organizing polar science meetings and producing an expected increase in the number of polar science peer- reviewed papers. The Portuguese IPY scientific activities were accompanied by a major education and outreach project funded by the Agencia Ciência Viva (MCTES): LATITUDE60! Education for the Planet in the IPY. This project lead by the universities of Algarve, Lisbon and by the Portuguese Association of Geography Teachers is heavily interdisciplinary, programmed for all ages, from kindergarten to adults, and hoped to bring together scientists and society. LATITUDE60! was a major success and focussed on showing the importance of the polar regions for Earth's environment, emphasising on the implications of polar change for