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Sample records for mongrel dogs treated

  1. Induction of specific unresponsiveness to heart allografts in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Modry, D.L.; Hoppe, R.T.; Pennock, J.L.; Bieber, C.P.; Holm, B.I.; Jamieson, S.W.; Stinson, E.B.; Schroder, J.; Suomalainen, H.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1984-02-01

    The survival of heterotopic heart allografts was determined in mongrel dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone or in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. TLI alone (total dose, 1800 rad) minimally prolonged graft survival as compared with untreated controls. However, marked synergy was observed when TLI was combined with a 10-day post-transplant course of rabbit anti-dog thymocyte globulin (ATG). Approximately 40% of recipients given TLI and ATG showed specific unresponsiveness, as judged by the lack of rejection on serial biopsies for more than 1 year and the prompt rejection of third party hearts. The addition of post-transplant azathioprine (90 to 180 days) to the TLI and ATG regimen increased the mortality of recipients and reduced the fraction of dogs showing specific unresponsiveness. Infusion of donor bone marrow cells at the time of heart transplantation failed to induced specific unresponsiveness in recipients given TLI alone or TLI in combination with post-transplant methotrexate, cyclosporine A, or ATG. The results indicate that the combination of TLI and a brief course of ATG without marrow transplantation was the most effective regimen for the induction of specific unresponsiveness in mongrel dogs.

  2. Organ transplantation in mongrel dogs using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    SciTech Connect

    Koretz, S.H.; Gottlieb, M.S.; Strober, S.; Pennock, J.; Bieber, C.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Reitz, B.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-03-01

    Although we were able to establish bone marrow chimerism in mongrel dogs using TLI at a cumulative dose of 1800 rad, it was more difficult to establish prolonged organ allograft survival in this system. We review here our experience with allogeneic heart transplantation in dogs using TLI combined with limited courses of pharmacologic immunosuppression, an approach that appears to hold considerable promise for clinical organ transplantation.

  3. Effects of chronic administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the heart rate of mongrel dogs.

    PubMed

    Jandhyala, B S; Malloy, K P; Buckley, J P

    1976-05-01

    Chronic administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) 1 mg/kg, s.c. twice a day for 7 days failed to produce any significant alterations in the peripheral autonomic transmission to the heart of mongrel dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Prior to anesthesia, heart rate of the treated dogs was slightly greater than that of the placebo group. However, under pentobarbital anesthesia, heart rate of the delta9-THC treated animals was significantly lower than that of the placebo group. The data suggested that chronic delta9-THC may have an inhibitory effect on the central vagal structures and in addition, this agent antagonizes the ability of pentobarbital to elevate heart rate in dogs. PMID:935652

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF MONGREL DOGS WITH 'GIARDIA LAMBLIA' CYSTS AND CULTURED TROPHOZOITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In light of recent epidemiologic data implicating wild and domestic animals in the transmission of giardiasis, a study was undertaken to determine whether mongrel dogs could be infected with Giardia lamblia. After careful screening by stool examination (a minimum of six stools ex...

  5. Hepatic and Whole-Body Insulin Metabolism during Proestrus and Estrus in Mongrel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Erin Nz; Winnick, Jason J; Edgerton, Dale S; Scott, Melanie F; Smith, Marta S; Farmer, Ben; Williams, Phillip E; Cherrington, Alan D; Moore, Mary Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance occurs during various stages of the estrus cycle in dogs. To quantify the effects of proestrus-estrus (PE) and determine whether PE affects liver insulin sensitivity, 11 female mongrel dogs were implanted with sampling and intraportal infusion catheters. Five of the dogs (PE group) entered proestrus after surgery; those remaining in anestrus were controls. The dogs were fasted overnight, [3-(3)H]glucose and somatostatin were infused through peripheral veins, and glucagon was infused intraportally. Insulin was infused intraportally, with the rate adjusted to maintain arterial plasma glucose at basal levels (PE, 294±25 μU/kg/min; control, 223±21 μU/kg/min). Subsequently the insulin infusion rate was increased by 0.2 mU/kg/min for 120 min (P1) and then to 1.5 mU/kg/min for the last 120 min (P2); glucose was infused peripherally as needed to maintain euglycemia. Insulin concentrations did not differ between groups at any time; they increased 3 μU/mL over baseline during P1 and to 3 times baseline during P2. The glucose infusion rate in PE dogs during P2 was 63% of that in control dogs. Net hepatic glucose output and the endogenous glucose production rate declined 40% to 50% from baseline in both groups during P1; during P2, both groups exhibited a low rate of net hepatic glucose uptake with full suppression of endogenous glucose production. The glucose disappearance rate during P1 and P2 was 35% greater in control than PE dogs. Therefore, PE in canines is associated with loss of nonhepatic (primarily muscle) but not hepatic insulin sensitivity. PMID:27298249

  6. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Deepti; Hoque, Mozammel; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Gugjoo, Mudasir Bashir; Bist, Deepika; Chaudhary, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To establish reference values of vertebral heart score (VHS) in Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever, and Mongrel dogs; to assess applicability of VHS in these three dog breeds; to determine if breed, recumbency side, gender, body weight, and thoracic depth (TD) to thoracic width (TW) ratio has an influence on the VHS measurement in these dog breeds. Materials and Methods: A total of 60, client owned, clinically healthy Indian Spitz (n=20, mean age = 4.25±2.15 years, body weight = 11.87±2.7 kg), Labrador retriever (n=20, mean age = 4.75±1.91 years, body weight = 27.31±5.43 kg), and Mongrel dogs (n=20, mean age = 4.25±1.52 years, body weight = 16.25±3.99 kg), having no radiological and clinical signs of cardiovascular or pulmonary disease were included in the study. All dogs were restrained manually and left lateral (LL) and right lateral (RL) radiographic views were obtained. The size of heart in lateral radiographs was calculated using VHS method. Besides, the TD, TW and TD: TW were calculated to determine the type of thoracic conformation in the dog breeds. In addition to this, the effect of breed, side of recumbency, gender, body weight, and TD to TW ratio on the calculation of VHS was determined. Results: VHS was calculated in all the animals of the breeds. VHS in Spitz and Labrador retriever was significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) >9.7±0.5 v. RL and LL VHS in Mongrel dog was significantly (p<0.037) >9.7±0.5 v. Significant (p<0.05) differences in the VHS were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs, being higher for Labrador retriever followed by Spitz and Mongrel dogs. VHS in RL recumbency was significantly (p<0.001) greater than VHS in LL recumbency in all three breeds. LL and RL VHS correlated significantly with each other in Spitz (r=0.58; p=0.02), Labrador retriever (r=0.87; p<0.0001), and Mongrel dogs (r=0.93; p<0.0001). Significant (p<0.05) differences in the TD and TW were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever

  7. Effect of Surgical and Immunological Castration on Haematological Variables, Reproductive Hormones and Ejaculate Characteristics in Mongrel Dogs.

    PubMed

    Ajadi, Temitope A; Gazal, Oladele S

    2016-01-01

    Welfare concerns are growing regarding surgical castration (SC) in pets, necessitating the need for non-surgical alternatives. Administration of vaccines against gonadotropins releasing hormone (GnRH) have been reported as alternative to SC. This study determined the effect of surgical and immunological castrations (IC) on complete blood counts, plasma testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and ejaculate characteristics in mongrel dogs. Ten intact male dogs were randomly divided into two groups (A & B). Dogs in group A were surgically castrated, while dogs in group B were immunologically castrated with single subcutaneous injection of GnRH vaccine (Improvac®). Blood and semen were collected before SC or IC and fortnightly until sixteen weeks. Blood was analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell count (WBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), absolute neutrophil (NEUT) and lymphocyte counts (LYMP), T and LH. Sperm volume (SV), concentration (C), motility (SM), live-dead ratio (LDR) and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa were determined for the semen. Data were presented as mean ± standard deviation and compared using analysis of variance. The PCV and HB of dogs surgically castrated increased progressively up to16th week after castration but only up to10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Both PCV and HB decreased progressively after 10 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. Similarly, the WBC of dogs surgically castrated steadily increased from 2 weeks up to week 16, while it increased from 6 weeks up to 16 weeks in dogs immunologically castrated. However, PCV, Hb, WBC, NEUT and LYMP did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between SC and IC. In both groups, the SV, SC, SM, LDR and percentage of abnormal spermatozoa did not differ significantly. It was therefore concluded that there is no significant haematological or endocrinological changes between surgical and immunological castration and that immunological castration may

  8. On the origin of mongrels: evolutionary history of free-breeding dogs in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Pilot, Małgorzata; Malewski, Tadeusz; Moura, Andre E; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Oleński, Kamil; Ruść, Anna; Kamiński, Stanisław; Ruiz Fadel, Fernanda; Mills, Daniel S; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Kłys, Grzegorz; Okhlopkov, Innokentiy M; Suchecka, Ewa; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2015-12-01

    Although a large part of the global domestic dog population is free-ranging and free-breeding, knowledge of genetic diversity in these free-breeding dogs (FBDs) and their ancestry relations to pure-breed dogs is limited, and the indigenous status of FBDs in Asia is still uncertain. We analyse genome-wide SNP variability of FBDs across Eurasia, and show that they display weak genetic structure and are genetically distinct from pure-breed dogs rather than constituting an admixture of breeds. Our results suggest that modern European breeds originated locally from European FBDs. East Asian and Arctic breeds show closest affinity to East Asian FBDs, and they both represent the earliest branching lineages in the phylogeny of extant Eurasian dogs. Our biogeographic reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a gradual westward expansion of East Asian indigenous dogs to the Middle East and Europe through Central and West Asia, providing evidence for a major expansion that shaped the patterns of genetic differentiation in modern dogs. This expansion was probably secondary and could have led to the replacement of earlier resident populations in Western Eurasia. This could explain why earlier studies based on modern DNA suggest East Asia as the region of dog origin, while ancient DNA and archaeological data point to Western Eurasia. PMID:26631564

  9. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... on top of the kidneys. Dogs, cats, and horses, as well as humans, can get Cushing's disease. ... commonly found in dogs than in cats or horses. "Cortisol is one of the body's natural steroids," ...

  10. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  11. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-02-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients.

  12. Determination of six illegal antibiotics in chicken jerky dog treats.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Robert; Mirabile, Jennifer; Hafler, Kristen

    2014-04-30

    In 2007 chicken jerky dog treats were implicated in causing illnesses and death in dogs in several countries. Affected dogs were diagnosed with acquired Fanconi syndrome, which is characterized by kidney malfunction. Known causes of this condition include a chemical assault by various contaminants including certain drugs. For this reason investigations into possible causes of the illnesses included antibiotics that may be used in animal husbandry. Targeted analyte screens of individual imported chicken jerky dog treats using LC-MS/MS detected six illegal antibiotics in imported products of several brands. Trimethoprim, tilmicosin, enrofloxacin, sulfaclozine, and sulfamethoxazole are not allowed in chicken at any level and were found as high as 2800 ng/g (ppb). Sulfaquinoxaline was found in chicken jerky treats as high as 800 ng/g, which is well above the U.S. FDA tolerance of 100 ng/g. Although there is no evidence these contaminants were responsible for the dog illnesses, their misuse could contribute to antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria. PMID:24437928

  13. Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions in Dogs Treated with Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Tina; Mueller, Ralf S.; Dobenecker, Britta; Fischer, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders in dogs and life-long treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AED) is frequently required. Adverse events of AED targeting the skin are only rarely reported in veterinary medicine and the true incidence and spectrum of cutaneous reactions in epileptic dogs remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that cutaneous reactions commonly occur in epileptic dogs and are related to AED treatment. A retrospective case review of 185 dogs treated for epilepsy identified 20.0% with simultaneous appearance of dermatologic signs. In a subsequent prospective case investigation (n = 137), we identified newly appearing or distinct worsening of skin lesions following initiation of AED therapy in 10.9% of dogs treated for epilepsy (95% CI 6.8–17.7%). Cutaneous lesions were classified as probably drug-induced in 40.0% of these cases. Patch testing and intradermal testing were further investigated as potential diagnostic methods to confirm AED hypersensitivity. They were of high specificity but sensitivity and positive predictive value appeared inappropriate to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:27148543

  14. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca exacerbation in a dog treated with systemic atenolol.

    PubMed

    Barsotti, G; Vezzosi, T

    2016-07-01

    A 6-year-old, intact, male English cocker spaniel was referred for treatment of chronic conjunctivitis and unilateral keratitis. The dog was diagnosed with bilateral immune-mediated keratoconjunctivitis sicca, treated with topical cyclosporine 0·2% ointment and sodium hyaluronate eye drops and improved considerably. After 2 months, pulmonic stenosis was diagnosed, and the dog commenced treatment with oral atenolol; the ophthalmological disease worsened dramatically within a few days. The ophthalmic signs rapidly improved after discontinuation of atenolol, and there was bilateral complete remission after 3 weeks. No oral β-blocker therapy was reintroduced, and thereafter, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was well-controlled with topical therapy. PMID:27071733

  15. Modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty. Experimental study in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This prospective experimental study evaluated the surgical procedure and results of modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty in dogs. Methods Ten skeletally mature healthy mongrel dogs with weights varying between 19 and 27 kg were used. Cemented modular femoral stems and uncemented porous-coated acetabular cups were employed. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed before surgery and at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 360 days post-operation. Results Excellent weight bearing was noticed in the operated limb in seven dogs. Dislocation followed by loosening of the prosthesis was noticed in two dogs, which were therefore properly treated with a femoral head osteotomy. Femoral fracture occurred in one dog, which was promptly treated with full implant removal and femoral osteosynthesis. Conclusions The canine modular hybrid total hip arthroplasty provided excellent functionality of the operated limb. PMID:21736758

  16. Anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy in a dog treated with epirubicin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ye-Rin; Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2015-01-01

    An 8-year-old American cocker spaniel dog was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy. Four years earlier, the dog had been diagnosed with multicentric lymphoma and had received 4 cycles of multi-agent chemotherapy, including doxorubicin and epirubicin. The total cumulative dose of epirubicin was 168 mg/m2. Dilated cardiomyopathy was considered a consequence of epirubicin toxicity. PMID:26028676

  17. [Allopurinol therapy in imported dogs with leishmaniasis treated outside the endemic area].

    PubMed

    Helm, M; Müller, W; Schaarschmidt, D; Grimm, F; Deplazes, P

    2013-10-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CL) has become one of the most frequently diagnosed travel associated infection in dogs in Switzerland and Germany. The aim of the study was to define recommendations for treatment with allopurinol and follow-up examinations of dogs with CL in a non endemic area. 31 dogs infected with Leishmania were treated with allopurinol (10 - 15 mg/kg twice daily, per os) and the effectiveness was examined. The diagnosis had been confirmed by the detection of specific anti-Leishmania antibodies and/or Leihmania-DNA. 22 dogs had clinical signs (skin lesions, lameness or lack of fitness) and 9 dogs were asymptomatic but showed abnormal laboratory parameters. Under treatment with allopurinol the symptoms disappeared within 1 - 5 months in 20 dogs. PMID:24091231

  18. S100β Levels in CSF of Nonambulatory Dogs with Intervertebral Disk Disease Treated with Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Murata Hayashi, Ayne; Fonseca Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandão Campos; Cortopassi, Silvia Renata Gaido; Marvulle, Valdecir; Ruivo Maximino, Jessica; Chadi, Gerson; Matera, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate S100β levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of nonambulatory dogs with intervertebral disk disease treated with electroacupuncture: 10 dogs with thoracolumbar disk extrusion graded 3 to 5 (EA group) and 7 dogs without neurologic dysfunction (control group). All dogs regained ambulation. S100β was detected by Western blot analysis where EA group dogs were evaluated at two time points (M1 = before EA and M2 = when the dogs return ambulation) and at one time point from control group. In EA group dogs M1-S100β levels were significantly higher than in control group. EA group dogs were divided into subgroups A (n = 7—early motor recovery; 6.7 ± 7.8 days) and B (n = 3—late motor recovery; 76 ± 17.0 days). M1-S100β levels were similar between subgroups A and B. However, M2-S100β levels were significantly higher in subgroup B than in subgroup A. An elevated S100β levels were observed in dogs with late motor recovery. S100β may be associated with neuroplasticity following spinal cord injuries with intervertebral disk extrusion. Further studies with larger numbers of subjects and control group with affected dogs are necessary to investigate the relationship between neurotrophic factors and electroacupuncture stimulation. PMID:26464906

  19. [Placement of intraluminal stents for treating tracheal collapse in dogs].

    PubMed

    Glaus, T M; Matos, J M; Baloi, P; Wenger, M

    2011-11-01

    Tracheal collapse is a progressive disease particularly of small breed dogs. In the terminal stage, when dyspnea becomes the dominating sign and is no longer manageable with medical treatment, a surgical procedure is necessary. With increasing frequency intraluminal tracheal stents are implanted minimal-invasively. In individual animals this is a lifesaving procedure, leading to immediate elimination of dyspnea. In most dogs cough for some time has to be anticipated as the stent acts as a foreign body, but severe complications like excessive formation of granulation tissue, stent migration or stent fracture are rare. Stents represent an attractive treatment modality for tracheal collapse in dogs with dyspnea. PMID:22045455

  20. Metabolic responses to adrenaline and muscle glycogen content in dogs treated with thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Z; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H

    1978-01-01

    Lipolytic, hyperglycaemic and lactacidaemic responses to 1h adrenaline infusion (0.1 microgram/kg/min) were compared in resting dogs before (control) and after prolonged thyroxine (T4) treatment. Besides, the effect of 2-week thyroxine administration on muscle glycogen content, and its changes following adrenaline infusion were examined. Prolonged T4-treatment of dogs resulted in considerable alterations of the metabolic actions of adrenaline. A marked difference between the control and T4-treated dogs was also found in the muscle glycogen content, which was significantly lower in the latter. Both in the control and T4-injected dogs adrenaline infusion caused similar depletion of the muscle glycogen store. However, in all the control animals examined supercompensation of muscle glycogen was noted 1 h following termination of adrenaline infusion, whereas T4-treated dogs were unable of incurring any significant muscle glycogen deposition. PMID:742367

  1. Positive Coombs' test results in two dogs treated with amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Calvert, C A; Sammarco, C; Pickus, C

    2000-06-15

    Effects of amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug that is effective in suppressing severe ventricular arrhythmias that are refractory to other antiarrhythmic drugs, were evaluated in 2 dogs with cardiac disease. One dog was a Doberman Pinscher with cardiomyopathy that developed severe thrombocytopenia after receiving amiodarone for 7 months. The second was a Giant Schnauzer with acquired mitral valve degeneration that developed regenerative anemia after receiving amiodarone for 5 months. Results of direct Coombs' tests were positive in both dogs. Adverse effects of amiodarone are numerous; in dogs, the most common adverse effects are anorexia and hepatotoxicosis. Frequent CBC and serum biochemical analyses should be performed when amiodarone is administered with the intent of continuing the drug indefinitely. PMID:10863591

  2. Acute phase protein and antioxidant responses in dogs with experimental acute monocytic ehrlichiosis treated with rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Karnezi, Dimitra; Ceron, Jose J; Theodorou, Konstantina; Leontides, Leonidas; Siarkou, Victoria I; Martinez, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Harrus, Shimon; Koutinas, Christos K; Pardali, Dimitra; Mylonakis, Mathios E

    2016-02-29

    There is currently lack of information on the changes of acute phase proteins (APP) and antioxidant markers and their clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). The objective of this study was to investigate the patterns of C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), ferritin and paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) during treatment of dogs with acute CME with rifampicin. Blood serum samples from ten Beagle dogs with experimental acute CME were retrospectively examined. Five dogs (Group A) were treated with rifampicin (10mg/Kg/24h), per os, for 3 weeks and 5 dogs (Group B) received no treatment (infected controls). Two Beagle dogs served as uninfected controls. Blood serum samples were serially examined prior to Ehrlichia canis inoculation and on post-inoculation days 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. Significant changes of CRP, Hp, ferritin and PON-1 values were found in the majority of infected dogs. However, their concentrations did not differ between the two groups during the treatment observation period. The results of this study indicate that although several APP and PON-1 tend to significantly change in the majority of dogs with acute CME, they were of limited clinical relevance as treatment response indicators in this experimental setting. PMID:26854345

  3. Effect of doxorubicin on (at-I-131) heptadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiography in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Styles, C.B.; Noujaim, A.A.; Jugdutt, B.I.; Sykes, T.R.; Bain, G.O.; Shnitka, T.L.; Hooper, H.R.

    1983-11-01

    The effects of serial treatment with doxorubicin on dynamic myocardidal scintigraphy with (at-I-131) heptadecanoic acid (I-131 HA), and on global left-ventricular function determined echocardiographically, were studied in a group of nine mongrel dogs. Total extractable myocaridal lipid was compared postmortem between a group of control dogs and doxorubicin-treated dogs. A significant and then progressive fall in global LV function was observed at a cumulative doxorubicin dose of 4 mg/kg. A significant increase in the myocaridal t/sub 1/2/ of the I-131 HA was observed only at a higher cumulative dose, 10 mg/kg. No significant alteration in total extractable myocardial lipids was observed between control dogs and those treated with doxorubicin. The findings suggest that the changes leading to an alteration of myocardial dynamic imaging with I-131 HA are not the initiating factor in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in dogs given antibiotics for chronic dermatological disorders, compared with non-treated control dogs.

    PubMed

    Rantala, M; Lahti, E; Kuhalampil, J; Pesonen, S; Järvinen, A K; Saijonmaa-Koulumies; Honkanen-Buzalski, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial resistance in canine staphylococci, Escherichia coli and enterococci, which were isolated from 22 dogs with pyoderma and a history of previous antibiotic treatment, compared to bacterial isolates from 56 non-treated control dogs. Two isolates of each bacterial species per dog were investigated, if detected. Staphylococcal isolates from dogs with pyoderma (35 isolates) were more resistant to sulphatrimethoprim than the isolates from controls (56 isolates) (57% vs. 25%, p < 0.004). Multiresistance in staphylococci was also more common in dogs with pyoderma (29% vs. 9%, p = 0.02). A similar trend among isolates of E. coli was detected (24 and 74 isolates from treated and control dogs, respectively), but the differences were not significant. Resistance for macrolide-lincosamides was approximately 20% among staphylococci in both groups. Resistance to ampicillin among enterococci was 4%-7%. The age of the dogs might have an impact on resistance: multiresistance among staphylococcal isolates from younger dogs (< or = 5 years) was more common than in older dogs (26 years) (24%, vs. 0%, 63 and 27 isolates, respectively, p = 0.02). Staphylococci in younger dogs were more resistant to tetracycline (48% vs. 11%, p < 0.001) and sulphatrimethoprim (48% vs. 15%, p < 0.01) than those in older dogs. In contrast, the isolates of E. coli from older dogs tended to be more resistant, although a significant difference was detected only in resistance to tetracycline (13% vs. 2% of 40 and 50 isolates respecthely, p = 0.04)). The results of this small study indicate that resistance in canine staphylococci in the capital area of Finland is comparable with many other countries in Europe. Resistance in indicator bacteria, E. coli and enterococci, was low. PMID:15535085

  5. Hepatic neosporosis in a dog treated for pemphigus foliaceus.

    PubMed

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Regan, Daniel; Dubey, Jitender P; Carol Porter, Merry; Duncan, Colleen G

    2013-11-01

    A 4-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie dog was presented for progressive lethargy, inappetence, and weakness of 4 days duration. The animal had been diagnosed with pemphigus foliaceus 3 months prior and was receiving combination immunosuppressive therapy. Serum biochemistry revealed severely elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin, and humane euthanasia was elected. Gross postmortem examination revealed a diffusely pale tan to slightly yellow, enlarged, markedly friable liver with an enhanced reticular pattern. Histologically, the hepatic changes consisted of multifocal to coalescing areas of severe vacuolar degeneration, numerous coalescing foci of hepatocellular necrosis, and myriad intra- and extracellular protozoa that reacted immunohistochemically with polyclonal antibodies to Neospora caninum, and not Toxoplasma gondii. Neosporosis in the current case is thought to be due to reactivation of latent N. caninum occurring with the administration of glucocorticoid therapy. The severe complication in the present case highlights the importance of early detection and mitigation of common infections in immunosuppressed animals. PMID:24202993

  6. Permanent contraception of dogs induced with intratesticular injection of a Zinc Gluconate-based solution.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erika C S; Moura, Maria Raquel P; de Sá, Marcelo J C; Silva, Valdemiro A; Kastelic, John P; Douglas, Robert H; Marques, Antônio P

    2012-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a single intratesticular injection of a Zinc Gluconate-based solution to induce sterility in male dogs. Fifteen pubertal mongrel dogs (8 mo to 4 y old) were assigned to two groups; Control dogs (n = 5) received a single injection of an isotonic saline solution into each testis, whereas Treated dogs (n = 10), were given Testoblock, a proprietary zinc-gluconate (13.1 mg zinc/ml) solution in a physiological vehicle. The volume of saline or Testoblock injected varied from 0.2 to 1.0 ml/testis (based on testis width). Physical examination, testis width, hematology, clinical chemistry (hepatic and renal function), plasma testosterone concentration, semen characteristics, and libido, were assessed until castration (150 d after treatment). In Treated dogs, testis width increased (approximately 20%) relative to that in Control dogs, but subsequently was not significantly different from Controls (group × time interaction, P < 0.0001). For all dogs, values for hematology and clinical chemistry consistently remained within reference ranges. Although plasma testosterone concentrations decreased over time (P < 0.006), there was only a tendency for an effect of group (P < 0.09), and libido was not significantly affected. By 63 d after Testoblock treatment, eight Treated dogs were azoospermic, whereas the remaining two were oligozoospermic (<10 × 10(6) sperm/ml). We concluded that intratesticular injection of the Zinc Gluconate-based chemical sterilant Testoblock has considerable potential to induce permanent contraception in male dogs. PMID:22192397

  7. Survival of Pochonia chlamydosporia in the gastrointestinal tract of experimentally treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Juliana M; Araújo, Jackson V; Braga, Fabio R; Araújo, Dayane M; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Soares, Filippe E F; Benjamin, Laércio dos A

    2012-10-01

    The predatory capacity of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolate VC4) after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of dogs was assessed in vivo against Toxocara canis eggs. Twelve dogs previously wormed were divided into two groups of six animals and caged. The treatments consisted of a fungus-treated group (VC4) and a control group without fungus. Each dog of the fungus-treated group received a single 4 g dose of mycelial mass of P. chlamydosporia (VC4). Fecal samples from animals of both groups (treated and control) were collected at five different times (6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h) after fungal administration, and placed in Petri dishes. Each Petri dish of both groups for each studied time interval received approximately 1000 T. canis eggs. Thirty days after the fecal samples were collected, approximately one hundred eggs were removed from each Petri dish of each studied time interval and evaluated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microscopy examination of plates inoculated with the fungus showed that the isolate VC4 was able to destroy the T. canis eggs with destruction percentages of 28.6% (6 h), 29.1% (12 h), 32.0% (24 h), 31.7% (36 h), and 37.2% (48 h). These results suggest that P. chlamydosporia can be used as a tool for the biological control of T. canis eggs in feces of contaminated dogs. PMID:22100247

  8. Systemic neosporosis in a dog treated for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Magaña, Angie; Sánchez, Félix; Villa, Karina; Rivera, Liliana; Morales, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    A 4-year-old male Toy Poodle was presented to the Small Animal Veterinary Hospital of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Autonomous University of Mexico (FMVZ, UNAM) because of depression, lethargy, and hemorrhages involving several areas of the skin and around the eyes. Hematology data and a bone marrow analysis suggested hemolytic anemia and immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. The dog was treated with prednisone, and after one month the hematology variables improved. However, the dog's clinical condition inexplicably worsened and it was euthanized. On necropsy, there were no relevant findings. However, in histology, multifocal lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalitis and necrosis, and a protozoan cyst in the cerebellum were identified. In addition, moderate multifocal lymphoplasmacytic and necrotizing pancreatitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and diffuse lymphoplasmacytic enteritis were observed. Immunohistochemistry of the cerebellum, liver, pancreas, and intestine with a specific antibody against Neospora caninum confirmed the diagnosis of systemic neosporosis. The systemic neosporosis in this dog was most likely caused by reactivation of latent parasites due to prednisone administration during the one month of treatment. It should be kept in mind that in dogs being treated with immunosuppressants for immune-mediated conditions, opportunistic parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and N caninum, can be reactivated from a latent state, as it probably happened in the present case. PMID:26345698

  9. Multiple liver abscesses in a dog secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus treated by percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization.

    PubMed

    Lemetayer, Julie D; Snead, Elizabeth C; Starrak, Greg S; Wagner, Brent A

    2016-06-01

    A 1-year-old German shepherd × husky cross dog was diagnosed with multiple liver abscesses and severe cholangitis secondary to the liver fluke Metorchis conjunctus. The dog was successfully treated with 2 percutaneous transhepatic drainage and alcoholization procedures, and a prolonged course of antibiotics and praziquantel. PMID:27247459

  10. Dogs

    MedlinePlus

    ... found on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become resistant to some antibiotics. Dogs and other animals often can carry MRSA ...

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enterococcal Species Isolated from Antibiotic-Treated Dogs and Cats

    PubMed Central

    KATAOKA, Yasushi; UMINO, Yurie; OCHI, Hiroki; HARADA, Kazuki; SAWADA, Takuo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of the enterococci isolated from dogs and cats in Japan during 2011–2012. Fecal samples were collected from 84 dogs and 16 cats that underwent antibiotic treatment. Enterococci were detected in 70 of 84 dogs (83.3%) and 7 of 16 cats (43.8%). The most prevalent Enterococcus species was Enterococcus faecalis (64.9%); Enterococccus faecium and Enterococcus durans were also isolated from 14 of 77 (18.2%) and 5 of 77 (6.5%) of these animals, respectively. The most active resistance was observed for erythromycin (44.2%) and oxytetracycline (44.2%), and there was considerable resistance to lincomycin (41.6%), gentamicin (31.2%) and kanamycin (31.2%). Compared with the results of a similar study conducted in 2006 and 2007, enterococci susceptibility to enrofloxacin and ampicillin had significantly increased. Enterococcus gallinarum harboring vanC1 and Enterococcus casseliflavus harboring vanC2/3 were isolated from 4 of 77 enterococcal isolates. However, no enterococcal isolates were resistant to vancomycin. Multidrug resistance was found for as few as two and as many as nine antimicrobials regardless of the class. These results demonstrate that dogs and cats treated with antibiotics are commonly colonized with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci. PMID:24976587

  12. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in a dog exposed to jerky treats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IGASE, Masaya; BABA, Kenji; SHIMOKAWA MIYAMA, Takako; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya; OKUDA, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. The dog was fed beef and chicken jerky treats daily in addition to a commercial diet. Laboratory tests revealed azotemia, hypokalemia, hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis and glucosuria with normoglycemia. Urine amino acid analysis showed significant amino acid loss into the urine. Thus, Fanconi syndrome was diagnosed, and based on the case history and extensive diagnostic testing, excessive consumption of jerky treats was strongly suspected as the cause. Glucosuria resolved 7 days after the withdrawal of jerky treats and fluid therapy. Aminoaciduria was substantially, but not completely, improved 3 months after diagnosis. Mild azotemia remained, suggesting chronic renal disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fanconi syndrome following the consumption of jerky treats in Japan. PMID:26062568

  13. In vitro disappearance characteristics of selected categories of commercially available dog treats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Vermillion, Ryan; Bauer, Laura L; Yamka, Ryan; Frantz, Nolan; Jia, Tim; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    Pet owners desire treats with adequate nutritional profiles, functional benefits, long-lasting properties and an interactive nature. Therefore, it is pivotal to understand the digestion characteristics of treats produced by different processing methods and having variable nutritional composition. The objective of the present study was to measure in vitro disappearance characteristics of selected categories of commercially available treats. In vitro procedures developed by Boisen and Eggum in 1991 were modified to handle larger sample sizes. Treat samples were evaluated in triplicate. Following incubation, in vitro DM disappearance (DMD) was calculated. In vitro DMD of selected treats varied widely. For the gastric phase, DMD ranged from 6·9 to 88·8 %, whereas intestinal phase digestion resulted in a DMD range of 10·7-100·0 % (P < 0·05). Because of differences in treat composition and size, they were divided into six categories: Biscuit, Bone, Chew, Dental, Meat Product and Rawhide. In general, Bone was the least digestible treat category in both gastric and intestinal phases. Meat Product and Rawhide treats had a DMD of 71·5-100 % after the intestinal phase, whereas Biscuit had values above 93 %. Chew and Dental treats had a wide DMD range (54·5-100 %). Understanding the DMD of commercially available treats is important to verify their safety for consumption and potential digestibility once ingested. These data indicate wide variation in DMD among and within different treat categories. This information will assist pet food sale associates, pet owners and veterinarians to make more educated decisions when it relates to selection and recommendations about commercially available treats. Future work is needed to expand the knowledge on in vitro DMD and safety of treats and to further investigate their impact on in vivo DM digestibility once fed to dogs. PMID:26101615

  14. Myocardial imaging in dogs treated with grisorixin: relationship between thallium-201 uptake and coronary blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Moins, N.; Gachon, P.; Maublant, J.

    1982-04-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial imaging was performed in dogs after pretreatment with grisorixin, which appeared to increase the myocardial uptake of Tl-201. This effect of grisorixin was found to be dose dependent, with an optimal dose of 60 ..mu..g/kg. The myocardial-to-background ratio, which was 1.92 in the control dogs, rose to 4.45. The increase in the absolute myocardial uptake was demonstrated in guinea pigs that received Tl-201 after similar pretreatment with grisorixin. In the animals treated with 500 ..mu..g/kg, the uptake of Tl-201 by the heart was 35% over the control value. With 60 ..mu..g/kg grisorixin, the coronary blood flow increased from 40 to 176 ml/min 5 min after the injection. This dose, optimal for imaging, induced the maximum vasodilator effect with only a very slight concomitant increase in the left-ventricular pressure and myocardial contractility. Above 60 ..mu..g/kg, grisorixin appeared to be a potent inotropic agent, whereas below this dose it showed only coronary vasodilator properties. Some evidence for an inophore effect of this compound was found in dogs pretreated with 60 ..mu..g/kg. In these the radionuclide was injected when the coronary vasodilation had become insignificant, but a significant improvement of the M/B ratio was still evident.

  15. OUTCOME OF DOGS WITH INTRANASAL LYMPHOMA TREATED WITH VARIOUS RADIATION AND CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS: 24 CASES.

    PubMed

    George, Rebecca; Smith, Annette; Schleis, Stephanie; Brawner, William; Almond, Gregory; Kent, Michael; Wypij, Jackie; Borrego, Juan; Moore, Antony; Keyerleber, Michele; Kraiza, Sarah

    2016-05-01

    Tumors of the nasal cavity comprise approximately 1% of all neoplasms in dogs. Canine intranasal lymphoma is rare and reports evaluating the outcome of treatment are lacking. The goal of this observational, descriptive, multi-institutional study was to evaluate the overall median survival times (MSTs) in a group of dogs with intranasal lymphoma that were treated with irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Dogs meeting these inclusion criteria were retrospectively recruited from medical archives at multiple institutions. Eighteen cases of intermediate to high grade intranasal lymphoma and six cases of low-grade intranasal lymphoma were identified. The date of diagnosis, method of diagnosis, treatment received (radiation and/or chemotherapy protocols), and date of death were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed on the intermediate to high grade group to calculate overall MST. Log-rank tests were performed to compare effects of treatment with radiation therapy ± chemotherapy and chemotherapy alone. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed separately on the low-grade group. The overall MST was 375 days for the intermediate to high grade group. Cases treated with radiation ± chemotherapy had an MST of 455 days (n = 12) and those treated with chemotherapy alone (n = 6) had an MST of 157 days in the intermediate to high grade group. The MST was 823 days for the low-grade group. Results support the use of radiation therapy for treatment of canine intranasal lymphoma, however a randomized, controlled, clinical trial would be needed for more definitive recommendations. The role of adjunctive chemotherapy also may require further investigation. PMID:26763938

  16. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23227759

  17. Survival of 4 dogs with persistent atrial standstill treated by pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Justin D; Kraus, Marc S; Fallaw, Tiffany L; Calvert, Clay A

    2016-03-01

    Pacemakers were implanted in 4 client-owned female dogs which had persistent atrial standstill. Three dogs were alive after 14 to 39 months and 1 dog was euthanized after 10.5 years. This report demonstrates that some dogs with persistent atrial standstill can survive for extended time periods. PMID:26933268

  18. Elevated leukocyte phosphodiesterase as a basis for depressed cyclic adenosine monophosphate responses in the Basenji greyhound dog model of asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.C.; Hanifin, J.M.; Holden, C.A.; Thompson, W.J.; Hirshman, C.A.

    1985-08-01

    The BG dog manifests various characteristics of human asthma, including airway hyperreactivity to low concentrations of methacholine. Studies have suggested that airway hyperreactivity in asthma is related to inadequate intracellular cAMP responses. The authors studied cAMP characteristics in MNL from 19 BG and 14 mongrel dogs. beta-Adrenergic receptors were assessed by /sup 125/I CYP in the presence and absence of propranolol. The responses of cAMP to ISO were measured by radioimmunoassay. Adenylate cyclase activity was determined in homogenized MNL preparations by cAMP generation. PDE activity was quantitated by radioenzyme assay. Mongrel dog leukocyte ISO-stimulated cAMP levels doubled, whereas there were negligible increases in MNL from BG dogs. Basal PDE levels were higher in BG dogs than in mongrel dogs. The PDE inhibitor Ro 20-1724 restored ISO-stimulated cAMP responses in MNL of BG dogs. Adenylate cyclase activity was not lower in MNL homogenates from BG dogs than in mongrel dogs. Cells from both BG and mongrel dogs demonstrated similar receptor numbers and affinities of saturable, specific beta-adrenergic binding over a 10 pM to 400 pM range. The results suggest that depressed cAMP responses in BG dogs are due to high PDE activity rather than to a defect in the beta-adrenergic receptor adenylate cyclase system.

  19. Acupoint injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction and allogeneic adipose-derived stem cells to treat hip dysplasia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Selbach, Isabel; da Silva, Ariel Silveira; Braga, Luisa Maria Gomes de Macedo; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n = 4) or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n = 5) injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases. PMID:25180040

  20. Acupoint Injection of Autologous Stromal Vascular Fraction and Allogeneic Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Treat Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Camila; Silveira, Maiele Dornelles; Selbach, Isabel; da Silva, Ariel Silveira; Braga, Luisa Maria Gomes de Macedo; Camassola, Melissa; Nardi, Nance Beyer

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue show great therapeutic potential in veterinary medicine, but some points such as the use of fresh or cultured cells and route of administration need better knowledge. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF, n = 4) or allogeneic cultured adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs, n = 5) injected into acupuncture points in dogs with hip dysplasia and weak response to drug therapy. Canine ASCs have proliferation and differentiation potential similar to ASCs from other species. After the first week of treatment, clinical evaluation showed marked improvement compared with baseline results in all patients treated with autologous SVF and three of the dogs treated with allogeneic ASCs. On days 15 and 30, all dogs showed improvement in range of motion, lameness at trot, and pain on manipulation of the joints, except for one ASC-treated patient. Positive results were more clearly seen in the SVF-treated group. These results show that autologous SVF or allogeneic ASCs can be safely used in acupoint injection for treating hip dysplasia in dogs and represent an important therapeutic alternative for this type of pathology. Further studies are necessary to assess a possible advantage of SVF cells in treating joint diseases. PMID:25180040

  1. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended. PMID:27227499

  2. Histological and ultrastructural studies of renal lesions in Babesia canis infected dogs treated with imidocarb.

    PubMed

    Máthé, A; Dobos-Kovács, M; Vörös, K

    2007-12-01

    Histological and electron microscopic examinations of the kidneys of 8 dogs suffering from fatal, naturally acquired Babesia canis infection and nephropathy are presented. Seven animals were treated with imidocarb dipropionate on average 4.5 days prior to death. Severe anaemia was present only in 2 cases. Degenerative histological changes observed mostly in the proximal convoluted tubules included vacuolar-hydropic degeneration, necrosis and detachment of renal tubular epithelial (RTE) cells from the basement membrane. Necrotic debris occasionally formed acidophilic casts within the tubules. In some cases, necrosis of the whole tubule was observed. Haemoglobin casts in the tubules and haemoglobin droplets in RTE cells seldom appeared. No significant histological changes were seen in the glomeruli. Ultrastructural lesions in RTE cells included nuclear membrane hyperchromatosis, karyopyknosis, karyolysis, swelling or collapse of mitochondria with fragmentation of cristae and vacuolar-hydropic degeneration in the endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli. Nuclear oedema was also observed. Many RTE cells exhibiting necrosis collapsed. Vacuolar-hydropic degeneration and necrosis were also observed in the glomerular and interstitial capillary endothelium. The severe acute tubular necrosis described in this study is probably the result of hypoxic renal injury. Systemic hypotension leading to vasoconstriction in the kidneys might be the most important cause of renal hypoxia in B. canis infections, but anaemia may also contribute to inadequate oxygenation. Imidocarb should be applied with caution in patients with possible renal involvement until further data become available on its potential nephrotoxicity in dogs. PMID:18277710

  3. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective. PMID:26930223

  4. Humoral immunity and reinfection resistance in dogs experimentally inoculated with Babesia canis and either treated or untreated with imidocarb dipropionate.

    PubMed

    Brandão, L P; Hagiwara, M K; Myiashiro, S I

    2003-06-25

    It is proposed that the chronic asymptomatic carrier state produced by Babesia canis infection could make dogs more resistant against subsequent infections. This suggests that treatment with imidocarb dipropionate, which removes the organism, can make dogs more susceptible to reinfection in a short period of time. Ten male and female dogs of approximately 4-5 months of age were inoculated with B. canis. Half of them received treatment with imidocarb dipropionate (7 mg/kg) on days 15 and 27 post-infection and the other half were untreated. All the animals were examined using clinical and laboratory methods (CBC, platelet counts and serological study by indirect immunofluorescence test) for a 6-month period. Antibodies were first detected on day 7 post-injection and remained at high levels (1:2560) over the period in the non-treated group. This result was significantly different (P<0.001) from the treated group in which antibodies titers declined after day 34 post-infection. Six months later, after a homologous challenge infection only the dogs of treated group showed parasitaemia, thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly, which was significantly different (P<0.05) from the non-treated group. The sterilizing treatment with imidocarb dipropionate was effective in clearing the infection, but inhibited the maintenance of protective antibodies, making the animals more susceptible to reinfection. PMID:12809752

  5. Successful Management of Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia after Kidney Transplantation in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Kyung-Mee; NAM, Hyun-Suk; WOO, Heung-Myong

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 8-year-old male mongrel dog that had undergone renal transplantation was presented 25 days later with an acute cough, anorexia and exercise intolerance. During the investigation, neutrophilic leukocytosis was noted, and thoracic radiographs revealed caudal lung lobe infiltration. While being treated with two broad-spectrum antibiotics, clinical signs worsened. Pneumonia due to infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa, sensitive only to imipenem and amikacin, was confirmed by bacteria isolation. After treatment with imipenem-cilastatin without reducing the immunosuppressant dose, clinical signs completely resolved. During the 2-year follow-up period, no recurrence was observed. To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of pneumonia caused by MDR P. aeruginosa in a renal recipient dog and successful management of this disease. PMID:23842146

  6. Demodicosis caused by Demodex canis and Demodex cornei in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Sudhakara Reddy, B; Rayulu, V C

    2015-12-01

    Two mongrel dogs aged between 7 and 9 months in a same house were presented to the clinics with a history of chronic dermatitis associated with pruritus. Clinical examination revealed presence of primary and secondary skin lesions on the face, around the ears, chin, neck, fore limbs and lateral abdomen. Examination of skin scrapings revealed Demodex cornei (majority) and D. canis (minority) in both the dogs. By using hair pluck examination D. canis were detected and by tape impression smears examination large number of adult short-tail Demodex mites were found. D. cornei was identified by based on the morphological characters including short opisthosoma with blind and round terminal end. Mean length of total body, opisthosoma of both types of the mites were differed statistically significant (P < 0.01) but gnathosoma and podosoma did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Dogs were treated with daily oral ivermectin @ 500 μg/kg/day, external application of amitraz along with supportive therapy. After completion of 45 days of therapy dogs were recovered completely without any side effects. PMID:26688632

  7. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat a chronic skin wound in a dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Raduan; Plapler, Hélio; Bitar, Renata A.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an emerging and promising therapeutic modality for treatment of a wide variety of malignant and nononcologic tumors, as well as in the treatment of infected skin ulcers. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the PDT to treat a chronic skin wound that had been already subjected to several clinical and surgical type treatments in a dog. The animal with an infected chronic skin wound with 8 cm diameter in the left leg received an injection of an aqueous solution of 1% methylene blue (MB) with 2% lidocaine into the lesion. After MB injection the wound was irradiated using a LED (LED-VET MMOptics(r)) with a wavelength between 600 and 700 nm, 2 cm diameter circular light beam, of 150 mW of power, light dose of 50 J/cm2. After 3 and 6 weeks PDT was repeated and the wound was re-evaluated. Complete healing was achieved 10 weeks after the first procedure.

  8. Evaluation of small intestinal submucosa grafts for meniscal regeneration in a clinically relevant posterior meniscectomy model in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cook, James L; Fox, Derek B; Malaviya, Prasanna; Tomlinson, James L; Farr, Jack; Kuroki, Keiichi; Cook, Cristi Reeves

    2006-07-01

    Large meniscal defects are a common problem for which treatment options are limited. Successful meniscal regeneration has been achieved by using grafts of small intestinal submucosa in posterior, vascular meniscal defects in a dog model. This study investigates the long-term effects of a tibial tunnel fixation technique and a clinically based meniscectomy defect on meniscal regeneration using this model. Eight mongrel dogs underwent medial arthrotomy and partial meniscectomy. The dogs were divided into groups based on defect treatment: small intestinal submucosa (n = 4) or meniscectomy (n = 4). Dogs were scored for lameness by subjective scoring postoperatively, sacrificed at 6 months, and assessed for articular cartilage damage, gross and histologic appearance of the operated meniscus, amount of new tissue in the defect, and relative compressive stiffness of articular cartilage. Dogs in the meniscectomy group were significantly (P = .002) more lame than dogs treated with small intestinal submucosa. Small intestinal submucosa-treated joints had significantly (P = .01) less articular cartilage damage than meniscectomy joints. Small intestinal submucosa meniscal implants resulted in production of meniscal-like replacement tissue, which was consistently superior to meniscectomy in amount, type, and integration of new tissue, chondroprotection, and limb function during the study period. Small intestinal submucosa implants may be useful for treatment of large posterior vascular meniscal defects in humans. The tibial tunnel technique used for fixation may have clinical advantages and therefore warrants further investigation. PMID:16893153

  9. Concomitant infestation of Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme in a mongrel cat.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, M; Sarma, K; Mondal, D B; Ranjith Kumar, M; Vijayakumar, H

    2016-03-01

    A 3½ years old mongrel female cat was brought with the history of inappetence, seizure and lateral recumbency since 4 days and motion sickness since 2 days. Faecal examination confirmed Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma tubaeforme along with un-hatched live Toxocara cati larvae. Treatment has been initiated with Pyrantel pamoate and along with supportive therapy. PMID:27065627

  10. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF. PMID:27160397

  11. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF. PMID:27160397

  12. Effect of cyclosporin A on allotransplanted pancreatic fragments to the spleen of totally pancreatectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, D F; Reece-Smith, H; McShane, P; Denton, T; Morris, P J

    1982-03-01

    Cyclosporin A (Cy A) was evaluated in dogs to assess its effectiveness of prolonging survival of allogeneic pancreatic islet tissue transplanted to the spleens of totally pancreatectomized mongrel dogs. Thirty-seven dogs were made diabetic by total pancreatectomy. Ten untreated pancreatectomized animals survived a mean (+/-SE) of 6.3 +/- 0.9 days and died with mean (+/-SE) plasma glucose levels of 23.2 +/- 2.7 mmol/liter. Dispersed pancreatic fragments, prepared by collagenase digestion without separation of exocrine and endocrine components, were directly implanted into the splenic pulp of 27 pancreatectomized dogs. Twelve dogs given autotransplants became normoglycemic after 4.3 +/- 0.5 days and remained so until killed at 60 days post-transplant, although normal glucose tolerance tests were not achieved. Eight nonimmunosuppressed dogs given allogeneic pancreatic fragments did not become normoglycemic but survived for 13.0 +/- 2.1 days, the dogs dying with a terminal plasma glucose of 22.7 mmol/liter. An additional seven dogs given allogeneic transplants were given Cy A (oral solution), 25 mg/kg/day, for 14 days, and, although failing to become normoglycemic, survived for 28.1 +/- 5.4 days and died with terminal plasma glucose levels of 25.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/liter. Intrasplenic complications included subcapsular hematomas, intrasplenic necrosis and cavitation, capsular perforations, and arteriolar thrombosis. The failure to achieve normoglycemia with allogeneic dispersed pancreatic tissue in dogs treated with Cy A and the complications associated with the implantation of the tissue in the spleen do not suggest that this approach is worthy of clinical trial. PMID:7039036

  13. Human exposure to selamectin from dogs treated with revolution: methodological consideration for selamectin isolation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R C; Masthay, M B; Canerdy, T D; Acosta, T M; Provost, R J; Britton, D M; Atieh, B H; Keller, R J

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine selamectin residue in dog's blood and in gloves worn while petting dogs after Revolution application. Revolution contains the active ingredient selamectin (a semisynthetic avermectin), which controls endoparasites and ectoparasites, including adult fleas, flea eggs, ticks, heartworms, ear mites, and sarcoptic mange in dogs, for 30 days. Revolution was applied topically on a group of six adult house hold dogs (240 mg selamectin/dog). The gloves worn for 5 min while petting the dogs were collected in glass jars and the blood samples (5 mL/dog) were collected in EDTA tubes at 0 h, 24 h, and 72 h, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks post-Revolution application for selamectin residue determination. At no time during the study did the dogs show any signs of toxicity, weight loss, or change in body temperature. Extracts of the blood and the gloves were analyzed for selamectin residue using RP-HPLC coupled with a UV detector (246 nm). Selamectin standard used for peak identification and quantitation was purified from Revolution. Selamectin residue was detected in the blood (10.26 +/- 1.06 ng/mL) only at 72 h post-Revolution application, probably due to its poor dermal absorption and rapid elimination from the circulation. In the glove extracts, the highest concentration of selamectin (518.90 +/- 66.80 ppm) was detected 24 h after Revolution application. Transferable residue of selamectin in gloves from dog's coat was detected at a lesser magnitude after 1 week of Revolution application, and that was followed by a further descending trend during the second, third, and fourth weeks. No selamectin residue was detected in the glove extracts after the fifth week. In spite of selamectin's binding to the sebaceous glands of the skin, gloves contained significant transferable residue. Thus, these findings suggest that repeated exposure to selamectin can pose potential health risks, especially to veterinarians, veterinary technologists, dog

  14. Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalycylic acid induced gastric lesions and acid back diffusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hung, C R; Takeuchi, K; Okabe, S; Murata, T; Takagi, K

    1976-12-01

    Effects of L-glutamine on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced gastric mucosal lesions were studied in mongrel dogs. It was confirmed that when oral ASA at 1.0 or 2.0 g per dog is given in two divided doses, there is severe and consistent dose-dependent mucosal damage in the glandular portion of the stomach in fasted dogs. However, when L-glutamine 2.0 or 4.0 g per dog in two divided doses is given concomitantly with ASA 2.0 g per dog orally, the gastric irritation is significantly inhibited. Instillation of 20 mM of ASA in 100 mM HCl solution into the Heidenhain pouch of Beagle dogs produced a significant loss of H+ from the pouch and a gain of Na+ in the lumen compared with ASA-free controls. When L-glutamine (100 mM) was given concomitantly with ASA (20 mM) into the pouch, changes of electrolyte fluxes in response to ASA alone were significantly suppressed. However, 50 mM of L-glutamine had no appreciable effect on acid back diffusion caused by ASA 20 mM. The amino acid itself had little effect on the ionic movement in the pouch. Gross bleeding from the pouch treated with ASA was never observed with the concomitant dosing of ASA and L-glutamine 50 or 100 mM. PMID:15154

  15. Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

  16. Use of canine small intestinal submucosa allograft for treating perineal hernias in two dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A-Jin; Chung, Wook-Hun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Pil; Suh, Hyun Jung; Do, Sun Hee; Eom, Ki-dong

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe two dogs in which canine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) was implanted as a biomaterial scaffold during perineal herniorrhaphy. Both dogs had developed severe muscle weakness, unilaterally herniated rectal protrusions, and heart problems with potential anesthetic risks. Areas affected by the perineal hernia (PH) located between the internal obturator and external anal sphincter muscles were reconstructed with naïve canine SIS sheets. In 12 months, post-operative complications such as wound infections, sciatic paralysis, rectal prolapse, or recurrence of the hernia were not observed. Symptoms of defecatory tenesmus also improved. Neither case showed any signs of rejection or specific immune responses as determined by complete and differential cell counts. Our findings demonstrate that canine SIS can be used as a biomaterial scaffold for PH repair in dogs. PMID:23000591

  17. Prospective evaluation of serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity and troponin I concentrations in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs treated with meglumine antimonate.

    PubMed

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Chatzis, Manolis K; Kasabalis, Dimitris; Petanides, Theodoros; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2014-07-14

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an important zoonotic disease. One of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of CanL is meglumine antimonate. Drugs of this class have been associated with pancreatitis and cardiotoxicity in humans infected with Leishmania spp. The aim of this study was to measure serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (Spec cPL) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations in dogs with leishmaniosis during treatment with meglumine antimonate, and to compare them with those of dogs with leishmaniosis not treated with this drug. A total of 30 non-uremic dogs with leishmaniosis, living in Greece, were prospectively enrolled into the study. Of the 30 dogs, 20 (Group A) were treated with a combination of meglumine antimonate (100mg/kg, SC, q24 h) and allopurinol (10mg/kg, PO, q12h) for 28 days, while 10 dogs (Group B) were treated with allopurinol alone (10mg/kg, PO, q12h) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected at timepoint 0 (before treatment) and at 14 and 28 days after the initiation of treatment. None of the dogs treated with meglumine antiomonate had a Spec cPL concentration suggestive of pancreatitis (≥ 400 μg/L) or clinical signs suggestive of pancreatitis at any of the timepoints. Similarly, none of the dogs treated with meglumine antiomonate had a serum cTnI concentration above the upper limit of the reference range (>0.5 ng/mL) or clinical evidence of cardiotoxicity at any of the 3 timepoints. In the present study, meglumine antimonate treatment in dogs with leishmaniosis did not result in clinical or laboratory evidence of either pancreatitis or cardiotoxicity. PMID:24813787

  18. Myocardial imaging in dogs treated with grisorixin: relationship between /sup 201/Tl uptake and coronary blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Moins, N.; Gachon, P.; Maublant, J.

    1982-04-01

    /sup 201/Tl myocardial imaging was performed in dogs after pretreatment with grisorixin, which appeared to increase the myocardial uptake of /sup 201/Tl. This effect of grisorixin was found to be dose dependent, with an optimal dose of 60 microgram/kg. The myocardial-to-background ratio, which was 1.92 in the control dogs, rose to 4.45. The increase in the absolute myocardial uptake was demonstrated in guinea pigs that received /sup 201/Tl after similar pretreatment with grisorixin. In the animals treated with 500 microgram/kg, the uptake of /sup 201/Tl by the heart was 35% over the control value. With 60 microgram/kg grisorixin, the coronary blood flow increased from 40 to 176 ml/min 5 min after the injection. This dose, optimal for imaging, induced the maximum vasodilator effect with only a very slight concomitant increase in the left-ventricular pressure and myocardial contractility. Above 60 microgram/kg, grisorixin appeared to be a potent inotropic agent, whereas below this dose it showed only coronary vasodilator properties. Some evidence for an ionophore effect of this compound was found in dogs pretreated with 60 microgram/kg. In these the radionuclide was injected when the coronary vasodilatation had become insignificant, but a significant improvement of the M/B ratio was still evident.

  19. Prognostic Utility of Apoptosis Index, Ki-67 and Survivin Expression in Dogs with Nasal Carcinoma Treated with Orthovoltage Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    FU, Dah-Renn; KATO, Daiki; WATABE, Ai; ENDO, Yoshifumi; KADOSAWA, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apoptosis, Ki-67 and survivin expression have been reported as prognostic values in human cancer treated with radiation therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the outcome of canine nasal carcinomas treated with radiation therapy and these cancer markers. The apoptotic index (AI) was evaluated with TUNEL assays, and an immunohistochemical evaluation was performed on Ki-67 and survivin in 33 biopsy samples taken before treatment. Median survival times were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank method. The AI ranged from 0 to 0.7%, and the percentage of Ki-67-positive cells defined as the proliferative index (PI) ranged from 0.8 to 77% in all samples. Neither the AI nor the PI had a significant relationship with survival time (P=0.056 and 0.211). Survivin expression was detected in 84.9% of samples of canine nasal carcinoma. Dogs with high survivin expression were associated with poorer response to treatment and had shorter survival times (P=0.017 and 0.031). Advanced-stage tumors were also significantly associated with a high level of survivin (P=0.026). Overexpression of survivin was shown to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in dogs with nasal carcinomas treated with radiation therapy. PMID:25452259

  20. Prevalence of salmonella infection in dogs in maiduguri, northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13-24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3-6, 10-12, and 7-9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  1. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jajere, Saleh Mohammed; Onyilokwu, Samson Amali; Adamu, Nuhu Bala; Atsanda, Naphtali Nayamanda; Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Adamu, Shuaibu Gidado; Mustapha, Fatima Bukar

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females (P < 0.05). Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months (P < 0.05). The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. PMID:25404944

  2. Comparison of nested PCR with immunofluorescent-antibody assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs treated with doxycycline.

    PubMed Central

    Wen, B; Rikihisa, Y; Mott, J M; Greene, R; Kim, H Y; Zhi, N; Couto, G C; Unver, A; Bartsch, R

    1997-01-01

    A partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified in Ehrlichia canis-infected cells by nested PCR. The assay was specific and did not amplify the closely related Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia muris, Neorickettsia helminthoeca, and SF agent 16S rRNA genes. The assay was as sensitive as Southern hybridization, detecting as little as 0.2 pg of E. canis DNA. By this method, all blood samples from four dogs experimentally infected with E. canis were positive as early as day 4 postinoculation, which was before or at the time of seroconversion. One hundred five blood samples from dogs from Arizona and Texas (areas of E. canis endemicity) and 30 blood samples from dogs from Ohio (area of E. canis nonendemicity) were examined by nested PCR and immunofluorescent-antibody (IFA) test. Approximately 84% of dogs from Arizona and Texas had been treated with doxycycline before submission of blood specimens. Among Arizona and Texas specimens, 46 samples were PCR positive (44%) and 80 were IFA positive (76%). Forty-three of 80 IFA-positive samples (54%) were PCR positive, and 22 of 25 IFA-negative samples (88%) were negative in the nested PCR. None of the Ohio specimens were IFA positive, but 5 specimens were PCR positive (17%). Our results indicate that the nested PCR is highly sensitive and specific for detection of E. canis and may be more useful in assessing the clearance of the organisms after antibiotic therapy than IFA, especially in areas in which E. canis is endemic. PMID:9196207

  3. Cranial cruciate ligament repair in dogs with and without meniscal lesions treated by different minimally invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Ertelt, J; Fehr, M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate different minimally invasive surgical options as therapy for cranial cruciate ligament rupture and resulting meniscal injuries. In this study, 81 stifle joints of dogs with complete or partial rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament were treated with minimally invasive surgery at the Small Animal Clinic of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. The patients were divided into three groups depending on intraoperative diagnosis and the surgical technique applied. The dogs in group I (n = 26) had an isolated rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCLR), while those in groups II (n = 26) and III (n = 29) also had an injury of the medial meniscus. Resection of the damaged meniscal part was performed by arthroscopically guided partial meniscectomy (AGPM) on the dogs in group II, while minimally invasive medial arthrotomy (MIMA) was used on the dogs of group III. All of the stifles were stabilized with a modified lateral imbrication technique using a braided, synthetic, absorbable suture material (Panacryl). Six months after surgery 76.5% of all patients were examined clinically and 74.1% radiographically for evaluation of the success of the different treatment techniques. At this examination, there were no signs of lameness in 42.1% of group I (CCLR), 65.0% of group II (AGPM) and 87.0% of group III (MIMA). Upon palpation, 75.8% of these stifle joints were found to be stable. Radiographic evaluations did not show any indication of progression of gonarthrosis in 73.3% of all stifle joints examined here. PMID:19151866

  4. Iodine speciation in dog foods and treats by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert A; Yanes, Enrique G; Kemppainen, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    An analytical method for determination of the iodine species 3-monoiodotyrosine (MIT), iodide, 3,5-diiodotyrosine (DIT), 3,5-diiodothyronine (3, 5-T2), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in dog foods and treats is reported. Iodine speciation was carried out using a HPLC method capable of both anion-exchange and reversed-phase retention coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (LC-ICP-MS). The method was evaluated by the analysis of the iodine species concentrations in twelve dog foods and treats following enzymatic digestion. The concentrations of MIT, iodide, DIT, T3, and T4 in the samples ranged from 0.64-59.5μg/g, 0.86-4.05μg/g,

  5. Efficacy of a novel oral formulation of sarolaner (Simparica™) against five common tick species infesting dogs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Young, David R; Carter, Lori; Mahabir, Sean P; Honsberger, Nicole A; Myers, Melanie R; Holzmer, Susan; Chapin, Sara; Rugg, Jady J

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of a single oral treatment with sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis), a novel isoxazoline compound, was evaluated against five tick species known to infest dogs in the United States. A total of 10 laboratory studies, two against each species, were conducted using adult purpose-bred mongrels or Beagle dogs. In each study, 16 dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 unfed adult Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis or Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs were treated with a placebo or a sarolaner tablet providing a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg. Tick counts were conducted 48h after treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions during any of the studies. Dogs in the placebo-treated group maintained tick infestations throughout the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly lower (P≤0.0001) in the sarolaner-treated group compared to the tick counts in the placebo group at all timepoints. Treatment with sarolaner resulted in ≥99.6% efficacy against existing infestations of all five tick species within 48h. The efficacy against weekly post-treatment re-infestations of all tick species was ≥96.9% for at least 35 days after treatment. Thus, a single dose of sarolaner administered orally at the minimum dosage of 2mg/kg, resulted in excellent efficacy within 48h against existing tick infestations, and against weekly re-infestations for 35 days after treatment. These studies confirmed that administration of the minimum dose of sarolaner will provide rapid treatment of existing infestations and give at least one month of control against re-infestation by the common tick species affecting dogs in the US. PMID:26935819

  6. Effect of triple pelvic osteotomy on the proximal femoral geometry in dysplastic dogs.

    PubMed

    Sarierler, Murat; Yildirim, Ismail Gokce; Ocal, Mehmet Kamil

    2012-02-01

    Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) is one of the surgical procedures for use to try to reduce subsequent degenerative joint disease or modify the progress of hip dysplasia in young dogs. Joint force and pressure distribution were changed by this procedure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out whether the remodeling of proximal femur exists or not after TPO in dysplastic dogs. Ten femora from five young dysplastic mongrel dogs, treated unilaterally with TPO using 20° canine pelvic osteotomy plates, were used. One year after TPO, neck-proximal shaft angle, femoral head, neck, diaphyseal and mid-shaft diameters, total femoral, femoral neck axis, and intertrochanteric, femoral head offset lengths as well as the lengths from head center to lateral margin of greater trochanter and to proximal femoral axis were measured from the bone. The significant differences between treatment and control side were determined in Norberg angle, neck-proximal shaft angle, neck diameter, diaphyseal diameter, mid-shaft diameter, length from head center to proximal femoral axis and femoral head offset length. In conclusion, although small number of cases was used, it was determined that the aforementioned variables are affected by TPO. So, these variables may be supply additional information about the changes to the joint following TPO in dysplastic dogs. PMID:21176929

  7. Combined preputial advancement and phallopexy as a revision technique for treating paraphimosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wasik, S M; Wallace, A M

    2014-11-01

    A 7-year-old neutered male Jack Russell terrier-cross was presented for signs of recurrent paraphimosis, despite previous surgical enlargement of the preputial ostium. Revision surgery was performed using a combination of preputial advancement and phallopexy, which resulted in complete and permanent coverage of the glans penis by the prepuce, and at 1 year postoperatively, no recurrence of paraphimosis had been observed. The combined techniques allow preservation of the normal penile anatomy, are relatively simple to perform and provide a cosmetic result. We recommend this combination for the treatment of paraphimosis in the dog, particularly when other techniques have failed. PMID:25348145

  8. Functional thyroid gland adenoma in a dog treated with surgical excision alone.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Teruo; Kojimoto, Atsuko; Nibe, Kazumi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Shii, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    An 11-year-old male Golden Retriever presented with progressive weight loss, tachycardia, hyperthermia, polyuria and polydipsia. A freely movable mass, 4.5 x 4 cm in size, was palpated at the cranioventral cervical region. Hormonal study revealed high levels of serum thyroid hormones, and a tentative diagnosis of hyperthyroidism due to a thyroid tumor was made. The tumor was removed surgically and diagnosed histopathologically as thyroid gland adenoma. Serum thyroid hormone levels decreased after surgery with improved clinical signs. At 12 months after surgery, the dog maintained a good physical condition with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:17283402

  9. Ectopic migration of an adult heartworm in a dog with dirofilariasis (case report).

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Wook; Jun, Hyung-Kyou; You, Myung-Jo; Hayasaki, Mineo; Song, Kun-Ho

    2008-09-01

    A 3-yr-old female mongrel dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Chungnam National University in the Republic of Korea. An adult heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, was found in the abdominal cavity of the dog during spaying. Dirofilariasis in this dog was also diagnosed by modified Knott's test, ELISA test, and PCR analysis. The present case is the first report on the migration of an adult dog heartworm to the abdominal cavity of a dog in the Republic of Korea. PMID:18830057

  10. Murine retroviral vector producer cells survival and toxicity in the dog liver.

    PubMed

    Link, C J; Seregina, T; Levy, J P; Martin, M; Ackermann, M; Moorman, D W

    2000-01-01

    To develop a safe method to target gene delivery into intrahepatic tumors, we examined the toxicity of intrahepatic (IH) injection of retroviral vector producer cells (VPC) into the canine liver. VPC have been demonstrated to effectively transfer genes in vivo. To evaluate for adverse effects form xenogeneic cell transplantation, mongrel dogs were injected IH with 1 x 10(9) murine LTKOSN.2 VPC divided into three aliquots. The animals were then monitored for acute toxicity induced by the VPC. The intraoperative IH injections of the cells were tolerated without difficulty. Starting 7 days after IH injection, the dogs then received intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) twice daily (5 mg/kg) for 7 days. GCV treatment did not cause significant toxicities. Dogs underwent serial blood tests to evaluate bone marrow, renal, liver and immunological function. Complete blood counts, electrolytes, liver function and renal function tests remained normal except for mild elevations of alkaline phosphatase. Histologic examination of liver tissues from the IH injection site revealed no apparent normal tissue destruction induced by the VPC. Two of the four treated dogs underwent liver biopsy on day 3. These biopsy specimens were cultured and persistent, viable VPC were recovered. The dogs mounted an antibody response to the murine VPC that was first demonstrated 5 days post injection. PCR analysis demonstrated low level gene transfer into dog liver tissue. Overall, our results demonstrate that IH xenogeneic VPC injections are not accompanied by significant adverse effects over a 1 month period following administration into the canine liver. These data support the safety aspects of using murine VPC in Phase I clinical trials. PMID:11212842

  11. The phylogenetic position and diversity of the enigmatic mongrel frog Nothophryne Poynton, 1963 (Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Conradie, Werner; Siu-Ting, Karen; Tolley, Krystal A; Channing, Alan; Cunningham, Michael; Farooq, Harith M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2016-06-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the African mongrel frog genus Nothophryne are poorly understood. We provide the first molecular assessment of the phylogenetic position of, and diversity within, this monotypic genus from across its range-the Afromontane regions of Malawi and Mozambique. Our analysis using a two-tiered phylogenetic approach allowed us to place the genus in Pyxicephalidae. Within the family, Nothophryne grouped with Tomopterna, a hypothesis judged significantly better than alternative hypotheses proposed based on morphology. Our analyses of populations across the range of Nothophryne suggest the presence of several cryptic species, at least one species per mountain. Formal recognition of these species is pending but there is a major conservation concern for these narrowly distributed populations in an area impacted by major habitat change. The phylogenetic tree of pyxicephalids is used to examine evolution of life history, ancestral habitat, and biogeography of this group. PMID:27001603

  12. Oral administration of an anti-inflammatory does not compromise the efficacy of intra-testicular injection of zinc gluconate as a contraceptive for dogs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Erika C S; Muller, Patricia M; Silva, Fernanda L M; Nery, Lorena T B; de Sá, Marcelo J C; Guerra, Maria Madalena P; Oliveira-Esquerre, Karla P; Kastelic, John P; Douglas, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether the efficacy of zinc gluconate (Testoblock(®)) as a chemical contraceptive in male dogs was compromised in the presence of metamizole sodium (a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory/analgesic agent). Ten sexually mature mongrel dogs were assigned to two groups, a control group (n = 5) and a treated group (n = 5). Testoblock(®), a proprietary zinc-gluconate (13.1 mg zinc/ml) solution in a physiological vehicle, was injected into each testis (0.2-1.0 ml/testis, based on testis width). Half of the dogs (treated group) were also given metamizole sodium (also known as sodium dipyrone) orally (25mg/kg three times a day for 2 days), starting 2-3 h after testis injection. A physical examination and assessment of testis width, hematology, clinical chemistry (hepatic and renal function) and semen characteristics, were done immediately after treatment and then every 2 months for 180 days. There was no post-treatment scrotal biting or licking, although there was transient testicular swelling in both control and treated dogs during the first 3 days after injection. At 60 days after injection, all dogs were azoospermic. At 120 and 180 days, seven dogs had azoospermia and the remaining three (two control and one treated) had apparent aspermia (no ejaculate could be collected). There were no significant differences between groups for clinical findings or any aspect of hematology, renal, or hepatic function. In conclusion, giving metamizole sodium concurrent with an intra-testicular injection of a zinc-based solution did not interfere with chemical sterilization and it improved animal welfare. PMID:22682769

  13. In vitro evidence for effects of magnesium supplementation on quinolone-treated horse and dog chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Egerbacher, M; Wolfesberger, B; Gabler, C

    2001-03-01

    Quinolones and magnesium deficiency cause similar lesions in joint cartilage of young animals. Chondrocytes cultivated in the presence of quinolones and in Mg-free medium show severe alterations in cytoskeleton and decreased ability to adhere to the culture dish. We investigated whether Mg2+ supplementation can prevent quinolone-mediated effects on chondrocytes in vitro. Chondrocytes cultivated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/HAM's F-12 medium were treated with ciprofloxacin (80 and 160 microg/ml) and enrofloxacin (100 and 150 microg/ml). Mg2+ was added at a concentration of 0.0612 mg/ml (MgCl) and 0.0488 mg/ml (MgSO4) or a triple dose. In addition, cells were cultivated in Mg-free medium and accordingly treated with Mg2+ supplementation. After 5 days in culture, the number of adherent cells per milliliter was determined. The number of chondrocytes in quinolone-treated groups decreased to 12-36% that of the control group within the culture period. With Mg2+ supplementation, the number of attached cells increased to 40-70% that of control cells. The threefold dose of Mg2+ led to better results than did the single dose. Cell proliferation tested by immunohistochemical staining with Ki67 (clone MIB5) decreased from 70% in control groups to 55%, 48%, and 30% in enrofloxacin-treated groups in a concentration dependent manner (50, 100, and 150 microg/ml). Addition of Mg2+ did not increase the rate of cell proliferation. These results suggest that a great part of quinolone-induced damage is due to magnesium complex formation, as Mg2+ supplementation is able to reduce the effects in vitro. However, quinolone effects on cell proliferation seem to be an independent process that is not influenced by magnesium supplementation. PMID:11280370

  14. Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin type- A relieves bladder outlet obstruction in human and induces prostate apoptosis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Tu, Chieh-Hsien; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Lin, Hsin-Ju; Chiang, Po-Hui; Yoshimura, Naoki; Chancellor, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    Background With the increasing interest with botulinum toxin – A (BTX-A) application in the lower urinary tract, we investigated the BTX-A effects on the canine prostate and also in men with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Transperineal injection into the prostate using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) was performed throughout the study. Saline with or without 100 U of BTX-A was injected into mongrel dogs prostate. One or 3 months later, the prostate was harvested for morphologic and apoptotic study. In addition, eight BPH patients refractory to α-blockers were treated with ultrasound guided intraprostatic injection of 200 U of BTX-A. Results In the BTX-A treated dogs, atrophy and diffuse apoptosis was observed with H&E stain and TUNEL stain at 1 and 3 months. Clinically, the mean prostate volume, symptom score, and quality of life index were significantly reduced by 18.8%, 73.1%, and 61.5% respectively. Maximal flow rate significantly increased by 72.0%. Conclusion Intraprostatic BTX-A injection induces prostate apotosis in dogs and relieves BOO in humans. It is therefore a promising alternative treatment for refractory BOO due to BPH. PMID:16620393

  15. Retrospective Study of 122 Dogs That Were Treated with the Antifibrinolytic Drug Aminocaproic Acid: 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Davis, Megan; Bracker, Kiko

    2016-01-01

    Antifibrinolytic drugs are used to promote hemostasis and decrease the need for red blood cell transfusion. Medical records of 122 dogs that were prescribed either oral or intravenous aminocaproic acid between 2010 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Of the 122 dogs, three experienced possible drug-related adverse effects. No significant differences were identified between dogs that experienced adverse effects and those that did not and the possible adverse effects noted were all minor. All dogs that received packed red blood cell transfusions were evaluated for correlations between baseline packed cell volume or dose of red blood cells and aminocaproic acid dose and no correlation was identified. Dogs that received aminocaproic acid as a treatment for active bleeding were divided by cause of hemorrhage into the following groups: neoplastic, non-neoplastic, and unknown. No significant differences in aminocaproic acid dose or the percentage of patients requiring a blood transfusion were identified between groups. PMID:27008326

  16. [On dog-days sticking for treatment of heat syndrome: discussion on the draft of Guidelines on Clinical Application of Acupoint Sticking Therapy treating Winter Diseases in Summer].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yun; Yi, Wei

    2010-06-01

    The information of Guidelines on Clinical Application of Acupoint Sticking Therapy Treating Winter Diseases in Summer suggests that acupoint sticking therapy treating winter diseases in summer is refer to deficiency-cold diseases and is not applicable to heat syndrome. According to the basic theories "maintaining yang in spring and summer" "correspondence between man and universe" in Internal Classic and combining the clinical practice, the authors then demonstrate the feasibility and necessity of dog-days sticking for treatment of heat syndrome, and expound the connotation of acupoint sticking with cold-natured or cool-natured herbal drugs and the clinical significance of dog-days sticking for treatment of heat syndrome. At the same time, the different opinion and expectation is put forward to further improve this therapy. PMID:20578392

  17. Focal metatarsal fistulae syndrome affecting a greyhound dog successfully treated with topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Fiona M; Muse, Russell; Burrows, Amanda K

    2015-12-01

    Metatarsal fistulation is an uncommon cutaneous condition reported almost exclusively in German shepherd dogs and their cross-breeds. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first reported case of focal metatarsal fistulae syndrome affecting a greyhound. Remission was obtained within 6 weeks of commencing treatment using compounded 0.1% tacrolimus ointment twice daily and the dog remained stable for another 6 months with twice weekly application before treatment was discontinued. The dog remained in remission at the time of writing, which is 1 year after treatment withdrawal. PMID:26216245

  18. Effects of crystalloid and colloid infusions on intracranial pressure and computerized electroencephalographic data in dogs with vasogenic brain edema.

    PubMed

    Tranmer, B I; Iacobacci, R I; Kindt, G W

    1989-08-01

    This experiment was designed to study the effects of intravascular volume expansion with crystalloid and colloid agents on intracranial pressure (ICP) and computerized electroencephalographic (EEG) data in dogs with cerebral vasogenic edema. A liquid nitrogen cold lesion was produced in the right parietal lobes of 30 anesthetized mongrel dogs. ICP data from an intraventricular catheter, hemodynamic data, and EEG power data were recorded continuously during the course of the experiment. Six hours after creation of the liquid nitrogen cold lesion, each dog was infused with one of the following treatments: 1) no treatment (control); 2) 5% dextrose in water (D5W) (30 ml/kg/h); 3) 0.9% NaCl (30 ml/kg/h); 4) hetastarch (10 ml/kg/h); and 5) hetastarch (30 ml/kg/h). The animals were treated for 2 hours, killed, and the brains examined and measured for water content. During the D5W infusion, ICP increased significantly (141%) but the EEG power data did not change. During the normal saline infusion, ICP increased significantly (91%) and the EEG power data showed marked deterioration. Both hetastarch infusions produced no change in ICP and demonstrated an improvement in the EEG power data (P less than 0.001). These data suggest that crystalloid infusions may have profound deleterious effects in the presence of brain edema, but colloids do not, and should be considered in the fluid management of patients with cerebral edema. PMID:2671780

  19. Successful treatment of irreversible hemorrhagic shock in dogs with fructose-1,6 diphosphate and dichloroacetate.

    PubMed

    Granot, H; Steiner, I

    1985-01-01

    Hemodynamic and metabolic effects of fructose-1,6-diphosphate (F.D.P.) and dichloroacetate sodium (D.C.A.) administration were studied in 17 mongrel dogs during experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock using a modified Wigger's technique. During the oligemic period, which was maintained for 3 hours, a control group of animals (A) received a 5% glucose solution at a rate of 3 mg/kg/min, while the treated group (B) received D.C.A. (175 mg/kg for 30 minutes) and F.D.P. (5 mg/kg/min) as aqueous solutions. After retransfusion of the shed blood, both groups of animals were left to recover. All eight dogs of the control group died within 3 hours following the experiment, while six out of the nine treated dogs survived during a week of follow-up (p = 0.007). Two hours after retransfusion, blood pressure and cardiac index in group B returned to control levels (115 +/- 4.8 mmHg and 0.097 +/- 0.008 liters/min/kg), while group A demonstrated a rapid and progressive deterioration (64 +/- 9.7 mmHg and 0.041 +/- 0.005 liters/min/kg). Severe core hypothermia (down to 33.3 degrees C) developed in group A dogs despite retransfusion, while a normal core temperature was maintained in the treated dogs. Calculated oxygen consumption during the oligemic period was significantly higher in group B animals despite similar calculated oxygen delivery in both groups of animals. Hyperlactemia was significantly lower in group B animals despite F.D.P. administration. This can be attributed to the addition of D.C.A. to the treatment. F.D.P. and D.C.A. administration prevented the occurrence of respiratory failure resulting, most probably, from respiratory muscle fatigue owing to depressed metabolic rate and increased lactate formation in these muscles during the shock period. It is suggested that administration of F.D.P. and D.C.A. during hemorrhagic shock in dogs has a favorable effect on the outcome of this life-threatening condition. PMID:3978767

  20. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation. PMID:25533260

  1. [Regulation factors of stomach emptying in dogs].

    PubMed

    Krejs, G J; Hegglin, J; Säuberli, H; Largiadér, F; Schmid, P; Blum, A L

    1976-03-01

    Gastric emptying of organic acids was studied in 6 healthy mongrel dogs. After chronic esophagostomies were performed according to the method of Komarov, a total of 340 test meals were instilled. Each test meal consisted of 300 ml of 6 different organic acids with decreasing molecular weight and different concentrations. After the experiments were achieved, each dog underwent a proximal gastric vagotomy according to the method of Amdrup, and experiments with citric acid were repeated. The results may be summarized as follows: multiple stepwise regression analysis of the data is consistent with a model in which gastric emptying of organic acids is regulated by 3 receptors. The receptors respond to concentration of the organic acid, the actual volume, and the type of acid. The volume receptor is located in the corpus of the stomach because the effect of volume accelerates the emptying rate after proximal gastric vagotomy while the effects of concentration and type of acid remain unchanged. PMID:1270294

  2. Mandibular ossifying fibroma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Miller, M A; Towle, H A M; Heng, H G; Greenberg, C B; Pool, R R

    2008-03-01

    An aged mongrel dog was admitted for hemimandibulectomy as treatment for a mandibular mass that had been diagnosed as osteosarcoma. The fibro-osseous mass that surrounded the first molar tooth and replaced alveolar and cortical bone was reclassified as ossifying fibroma on the basis of anatomic location and histologic features. The tumor was composed of isomorphic fusiform cells with few mitotic figures. Tumoral stroma contained trabeculae of woven bone that were bordered by a single layer of osteoblasts. Excision was deemed complete with no evidence of extension or metastasis by computed tomography of the skull or thoracic and abdominal radiography. The dog was reportedly healthy 6 months after initial presentation. Though far less common than osteosarcoma as a primary canine bone tumor, ossifying fibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis for fibro-osseous proliferations, especially those of the jaw. Although benign, en bloc excision may be necessary for surgical cure. PMID:18424835

  3. Regional and systemic oxygen delivery/uptake relations and lactate flux in hyperdynamic, endotoxin-treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S E; Cain, S M

    1992-02-01

    Pathologic oxygen supply dependency (PO2SD) may be etiologic in multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and has been related to mortality in sepsis. Although elevated lactate levels are generally assumed to be a marker of anaerobiosis in these patients, endotoxin may increase serum lactate by inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), unrelated to tissue PO2. We hypothesized that regional lactate flux may correlate poorly with local oxygen delivery in sepsis. This study examined both the whole-body (WB) and regional (isolated hind limb L and gut G) responses to endotoxin infusion in terms of oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and lactate flux in 12 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. To separate hypoxia-induced lactate production from that related to inactivation of PDH by endotoxin, half the dogs received dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDH activator. After endotoxin and volume resuscitation, each animal had low systemic vascular resistance with normal to high cardiac output. Despite adequate oxygen delivery to WB, L, and G, arterial lactate levels rose significantly. A 30-min hypoxic challenge (12% FIO2) did not increase lactate levels but did increase WB O2 uptake. DCA normalized lactate levels without influencing oxygen delivery and uptake relations. These data show that lactate levels in endotoxic states may be a poor marker of tissue hypoxia and may be more related to PDH activity. PMID:1736740

  4. Survival and echocardiographic data in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by mitral valve disease and treated by multiple drugs: a retrospective study of 21 cases.

    PubMed

    de Madron, Eric; King, Jonathan N; Strehlau, Günther; White, Regina Valle

    2011-11-01

    This retrospective study reports the survival time [onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) to death from any cause] of 21 dogs with mitral regurgitation (MR) and CHF treated with a combination of furosemide, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI, benazepril, or enalapril), pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine. Baseline echocardiographic data: end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices (ESVI and EDVI), left atrium to aorta ratio (LA/Ao), and regurgitant fraction (RF) are reported. Median survival time (MST) was 430 d. Initial dosage of furosemide (P = 0.0081) and LA/Ao (P = 0.042) were negatively associated with survival. Baseline echocardiographic indices (mean ± standard deviation) were 40.24 ± 16.76 for ESVI, 161.48 ± 44.49 mL/m(2) for EDVI, 2.11 ± 0.75 for LA/Ao, and 64.71 ± 16.85% for RF. Combining furosemide, ACEI, pimobendan, spironolactone, and amlodipine may result in long survival times in dogs with MR and CHF. Severity of MR at onset of CHF is at least moderate. PMID:22547843

  5. Evaluation of an immunochemotherapeutic protocol constituted of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) and the recombinant Leish-110f + MPL-SE vaccine to treat canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Miret, Jorge; Nascimento, Evaldo; Sampaio, Weverton; França, João Carlos; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Vale, André; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Vieira, Edvá; da Costa, Roberto Teodoro; Mayrink, Wilson; Campos Neto, Antonio; Reed, Steven

    2008-03-17

    The evaluation of the efficacy of an immunochemotherapy protocol to treat symptomatic dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi was studied. This clinical trial had the purpose to test the combination of N-methyl meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime and the second generation recombinant vaccine Leish-110f plus the adjuvant MPL-SE to treat the canine leishmaniasis (CanL). Thirty symptomatic naturally infected mongrel dogs were divided into five groups. Animals received standard treatment with Glucantime or treatment with Glucantime Leish-110f + MPL-SEas immunochemotherapy protocol. Additional groups received Leish-110f + MPL-SE only, MPL-SE only, or placebo. Evaluation of haematological, biochemical (renal and hepatic function) and plasmatic proteins, immunological (humoral and cellular immune response) and the parasitological test revealed improvement of the clinical parameters and parasitological cure in dogs in both chemotherapy alone and immunochemotherapy cohorts. However, the immunotherapy and immunochemotherapy cohorts had reduced number of deaths, higher survival probability, and specific cellular reactivity to leishmanial antigens, in comparison with chemotherapy cohort only and control groups (adjuvant alone and placebo). These results support the notion of using well-characterized recombinant vaccine as an adjunct to improve the current chemotherapy of CanL. PMID:18328956

  6. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  7. Esophageal and duodenal approach for testing duodenogastric reflux in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hollinger, A; Vollenweider, A; Casanova, M; Buchmann, P

    1982-01-01

    A modified Komarov-Marks esophagostomy is described. It was the aim of our experiments to show that this procedure does not harm the vagal innervation of the stomach. The vagal function was assessed by testing (1) basal secretion, (2) 2-deoxy-D-glucose-stimulated secretion, (3) pentagastrin-stimulated secretion, and (4) serum gastrin levels in five mongrel dogs. Each test was performed at least three times in each dog before and after the esophagostomy procedure, respectively. The secretion rates were not affected by surgery. It is concluded that cervical esophagostomy in dogs does not affect vagal stimulation of gastric acid secretion. For the application of tracer substances into the duodenum, two types of conduits are described: (1) a short jejunal segment and (2) a jejunal segment with an invagination valve. The pros and cons of these procedures are discussed. PMID:7100638

  8. Two-Item Sentence Comprehension by a Dog (Canis familiaris)

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Daniela; Ades, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Syntax use by non-human animals remains a controversial issue. We present here evidence that a dog may respond to verbal requests composed of two independent terms, one referring to an object and the other to an action to be performed relative to the object. A female mongrel dog, Sofia, was initially trained to respond to action (point and fetch) and object (ball, key, stick, bottle and bear) terms which were then presented as simultaneous, combinatorial requests (e.g. ball fetch, stick point). Sofia successfully responded to object-action requests presented as single sentences, and was able to flexibly generalize her performance across different contexts. These results provide empirical evidence that dogs are able to extract the information contained in complex messages and to integrate it in directed performance, an ability which is shared with other linguistically trained animals and may represent a forerunner of syntactic functioning. PMID:22312419

  9. Healing of periodontal defects treated with enamel matrix proteins and root surface conditioning--an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sakallioğlu, Umur; Açikgöz, Gökhan; Ayas, Bülent; Kirtiloğlu, Tuğrul; Sakallioğlu, Eser

    2004-05-01

    Application of enamel matrix proteins has been introduced as an alternative method for periodontal regenerative therapy. It is claimed that this approach provides periodontal regeneration by a biological approach, i.e. creating a matrix on the root surfaces that promotes cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone regeneration, thus mimicking the events occurring during tooth development. Although there have been numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating periodontal regeneration, acellular cementum formation and clinical outcomes via enamel matrix proteins usage, their effects on the healing pattern of soft and hard periodontal tissues are not well-established and compared with root conditioning alone. In the present study, the effects of Emdogain (Biora, Malmö, Sweden), an enamel matrix derivative mainly composed of enamel matrix proteins (test), on periodontal wound healing were evaluated and compared with root surface conditioning (performed with 36% orthophosphoric acid) alone (control) histopathologically and histomorphometrically by means of the soft and hard tissue profile of periodontium. An experimental periodontitis model performed at premolar teeth of four dogs were used in the study and the healing pattern of periodontal tissues was evaluated at days 7, 14, 21, 28 (one dog at each day), respectively. At day 7, soft tissue attachment evaluated by means of connective tissue and/or epithelial attachment to the root surfaces revealed higher connective tissue attachment rate in the test group and the amount of new connective tissue proliferation in the test group was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.01). New bone formation by osteoconduction initiated at day 14 in the test and control group. At day 21, the orientation of supra-alveolar and PDL fibers established, and new cementum formation observed in both groups. At day 28, although regenerated cementum was cellular in all of the roots in the control samples, an

  10. Outcome of pyometra in female dogs and predictors of peritonitis and prolonged postoperative hospitalization in surgically treated cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most common diseases in intact bitches is pyometra– a potentially life-threatening disease associated with a variety of clinical and laboratory findings. The aims of the present study were to describe complications of the disease and to investigate clinically useful indicators associated with peritonitis and/or prolonged postoperative hospitalization. Results A retrospective study was performed using records from 356 bitches diagnosed with pyometra during the years 2006–2007 at the University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Of the 356 bitches, 315 were surgically treated by ovariohysterectomy, 9 were medically treated and 32 were euthanized without treatment. In the surgically treated bitches, univariable associations between clinical and laboratory data, risk for prolonged hospitalization (≥ 3 days) and/or signs of peritonitis, were analyzed by Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test. Logistic regression models were used to assess multivariable associations. The most common complication observed in surgically treated bitches was peritonitis (40 bitches), followed by urinary tract infection (19 bitches), wound infection (8 bitches), uveitis (6 bitches), and cardiac arrhythmia (5 bitches). Leucopenia and fever/hypothermia were associated with increased risk for peritonitis (18-fold and three-fold, respectively). Moderate to severe depression of the general condition, pale mucous membranes and leucopenia were associated with increased risk (seven-fold, three-fold, and over three-point-five-fold, respectively) for prolonged postoperative hospitalization. Conclusions Several clinically useful indicators were identified. Leucopenia was the most important marker, associated with 18-fold increased risk for peritonitis and an over three-point-five increased risk for prolonged hospitalization. Fever/hypothermia, depression and pale mucous membranes were associated with increased risk for peritonitis and

  11. A single administration of the GnRH antagonist acyline inhibits basal and GnRH-stimulated serum testosterone concentrations in male dogs.

    PubMed

    García Romero, G; Mattioli, G; Rosa, D; Diaz, J D; Abeyá, M; Gobello, C

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe testosterone (T) response to GnRH challenge in antagonist-treated dogs over a 30-day period. Eight mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to either the GnRH antagonist acyline 330 μg/kg sc (ACY; n = 4) or a placebo group (PLA; n = 4). The dogs were serially challenged with the GnRH agonist, buserelin 0.2 μg/kg sc on days -1, 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 21 and 30. On these days, blood samples for T determinations were collected before (-30 min) and 60, 120 and 180 min after the agonist injection. Basal (-30 min) and post-GnRH agonist stimulation T values were compared by anova for repeated measures. Before treatments (day -1), there were no differences in basal T serum concentrations between groups (p > 0.1). After treatments, basal T showed a significant interaction between treatment and day (p < 0.05). Furthermore, when both groups were analysed independently, basal T varied in the ACY (p < 0.01) but not in the PLA group (p > 0.1). On day -1, before treatments, the stimulation tests had only a time effect (p = 0.05) although on days 1 (p < 0.01), 3 (p < 0.01), 7 (p < 0.01), 10 (p < 0.01) and 14 (p < 0.05), the response to the agonist differed between groups, becoming similar on days 21 (p > 0.05) and 30 (p > 0.05). It was concluded that, in dogs, a single administration of the GnRH antagonist prevented canine gonadal axis to physiologically respond to agonistic challenge during 14 days. PMID:22044671

  12. Radiography of spontaneous periodontitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hamp, S E; Hamp, M; Olsson, S E; Lindberg, R; Schauman, P

    1997-10-01

    The pattern and distribution of periodontitis were investigated in 162 randomly selected dogs available for necropsy in veterinary practice. There were 82 males and 80 females of 50 different breeds (150 dogs were pure-bred and 12 were mongrels, aged between 7 months and 14 yr. Presence of periodontitis was determined by assessment of alveolar bone loss on radiographs of the skulls and jaws. Periodontitis occurred frequently with increasing age, although the prevalence varied markedly among and within different breeds. Of the breeds most represented in the sample, periodontitis was most frequently seen in poodles and dachshunds but was rarely recognized in German shepherd dogs. Regardless of age, the vast majority of the dogs displayed either one or both of two different radiographic patterns of alveolar bone loss. One pattern was characterized by slight, horizontal alveolar bone loss involving interradicular and interdental areas. The other pattern was one of predominantly crater-like, or narrow, vertical bone defects which, when advanced, often extended around a single root or tooth to surround the root apices. The two types of patterns did not seem to be breed-dependent. The posterior maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars were the most frequently affected teeth. Alveolar bone loss was most severe in the maxilla, while corresponding bone loss in the mandible was more often related to increasing age. PMID:9401931

  13. Hydrated nucleus pulposus herniation in seven dogs.

    PubMed

    Manunta, M L; Evangelisti, M A; Bergknut, N; Grinwis, G C M; Ballocco, I; Meij, B P

    2015-03-01

    The clinical signs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, treatment and follow-up in seven dogs with hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusion (HNPE) are reported. All dogs had tetraparesis or tetraplegia. T2-weighted MRI revealed extradural hyperintense homogeneous material compressing the cervical spinal cord. After conservative treatment (five dogs) or surgical decompression (two dogs), all dogs returned to ambulatory function within 1 month. Follow-up MRI in conservatively treated dogs revealed complete disappearance of the extruded material. Histopathological examination of surgical specimens confirmed that the retrieved material was extruded nucleus pulposus with evidence of early degeneration. PMID:25599897

  14. A long term comparison between Denacol EX-313-treated bovine jugular vein graft and ultrafine polyester fiber graft for reconstruction of tight ventricular outflow tract in dogs.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Sugiyama, Shino; Shibazaki, Akira; Tanaka, Ryou; Takashima, Kazuaki; Noishiki, Yasuharu; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2003-03-01

    A Denacol EX-313 (Denacol)-treated bovine venous graft and an ultrafine polyester fiber (UFPF) graft were transplanted as patch graft into the right ventricular outflow tract under extracorporeal circulation in six dogs each experimentally. Hemodynamics in right heart and histological findings around the graft were compared between both groups over a period of one year after grafting. Pressure measurements and angiocardiography were performed through a cardiac catheter. Right ventricular pressure, pulmonary artery pessure, and right ventricle to pulmonary artery gradient were within normal limits in both groups at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12 months or more after grafting. No difference were seen between the values for the Denacol and the UFPF group. Histologically, the medial surface at the site of grafting was covered with vascular endothelial cells at one month after grafting in both groups. The density of the vascular endothelial cells increased with time after grafting, showing no clear difference between the two groups. Subendothelial layers comprised of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and inflammatory cells decreased with time in both groups, but there was less cell infiltration in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all time points after grafting. In addition, the central cut thickness value of the graft tended to be thinner in the Denacol group than in the UFPF group at all observation time points after grafting. In the Denacol group, very slight metaplasia of cartilage was noted in a portion of the graft margin at six months or more after grafting, but no other abnormalities were observed. These results suggest that the Denacol-treated bovine venous graft has better grafting characteristics than the UFPF graft with easier intra-operative handlings and less tissue reactions after grafting. PMID:12679567

  15. Retrospective analysis of spinal arachnoid cysts in 14 dogs.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Helena; Lipsitz, David; Berry, Wayne L; Sturges, Beverly K; Vernau, Karen M; Dickinson, Peter J; Añor, Sonia A; Higgins, Robert J; LeCouteur, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    Spinal cord dysfunction secondary to spinal arachnoid cysts (SACs) has been reported previously in dogs. This retrospective study reviews the clinical signs, radiographic findings, and outcome after surgical resection of SACs in 14 dogs. Plain vertebral column radiographs and myelography were done in all dogs. Computed tomography (CT) was done in 7 dogs and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in 3 dogs. Affected dogs were between 1 and 12 years of age, and 8 of 14 were Rottweilers. Abnormalities detected on neurological examination depended on the location of the SAC. Five dogs had bilobed or multiple SACs. SACs were located in the cervical vertebral column in 11 dogs and in the thoracic vertebral column in 4 dogs. All dogs had dorsally or dorsolaterally located SACs. Two dogs also had additional ventrally located SACs. Spinal cord compression secondary to intervertebral disc extrusion or protrusion was demonstrated at the site of the SACs in 2 dogs. Surgical resection of the SACs was completed in all dogs. Eleven dogs were available for follow-up. Five weeks postoperatively, 7 dogs improved in neurological function, with some residual ataxia and paresis in 6 of these dogs. Neurological function had deteriorated in 4 dogs. It was concluded from this study that Rottweilers have a higher incidence of SACs than other breeds of dog. Furthermore, bilobed or multiple SACs can occur commonly, and myelography effectively localized SACs in dogs. Surgical resection of SACs resulted in improvement in neurological function in the majority of treated dogs. PMID:12465766

  16. Cerebellar pressor response in the dog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dormer, K. J.; Stone, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A fastigial pressor response has been elicited in the anesthetized mongrel dog. Stimulation within the rostral portions of this nucleus results in mean arterial pressure rises up to 150 mmHg above control. A proportional tachycardia is simultaneously evoked which may rapidly attain heart rates of 190 beats/min above control levels. Peak tachycardias immediately subside and often the heart rate declines below control values during stimulation while arterial pressure remains elevated. When either the carotid sinuses were isolated by ligation or a bilateral vagotomy was performed, the fastigial tachycardia was sustained. The response could still be attained when submaximal doses of alpha-chloralose anesthesia or high levels of barbiturates (30-40 mg/kg) were given. Both portions of the response result from widespread sympathetic activation; however, buffering of the response through the baroreceptor reflexes is only demonstrated in the cardiac segment of the response.

  17. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment. PMID:15845284

  18. Efficacy of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) Oil vis-a-vis Other Standard Drugs for Management of Gastric Ulceration and Erosions in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Richa; Tyagi, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted on 20 adult healthy medium-sized mongrel dogs. Injection of dexamethasone @ 1 mg/kg, IV, b.i.d., was administered to create gastric ulcerations and erosions. Thereafter all the animals were randomly divided into 5 equal treatment groups. Animals of groups I, II, III, IV, and V were treated with oral administration of lansoprazole @ 1.5 mg/kg, sucralfate @ 1 g/animal, misoprostol @ 10 µg/kg, famotidine @ 1 mg/kg, and Seabuckthorn seed oil @ 5 mL/animal, twice a day, respectively. Gastroendoscopically, complete healing of GUE lesions was earliest in Seabuckthorn- (SBT-) oil-treated group (7.5 ± 0.87) followed by famotidine (8.25 ± 1.44), lansoprazole (9.00 ± 1.23), misoprostol (10.50 ± 1.50), and sucralfate (13.50 ± 0.87), respectively. A marked improvement in appetite was observed in all animals. Melena was continued till day 3 in SBT group, day 6 in lansoprazole- and famotidine-treated animals, and day 9 in sucralfate and misoprostol group animals. Fecal occult blood test was positive in all animals till there was endoscopic evidence of gastric bleeding. Hematological parameters improved markedly towards the end of the study. Serum biochemical parameters remained within normal physiological limits throughout the study. It is concluded that Seabuckthorn oil was the best therapeutic agent for dexamethasone-induced GUE in dogs followed by famotidine, lansoprazole, misoprostol, and sucralfate. PMID:23853738

  19. Aprindine for treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in the dog.

    PubMed

    Muir, W W; Bonagura, J D

    1982-10-01

    Aprindine hydrochloride was administered IV and orally to 20 dogs with ventricular tachycardia. Seventeen of the 20 dogs had been unsuccessfully treated with conventional antiarrhythmic drugs. Fifteen of the 20 dogs converted to sinus rhythm after IV aprindine therapy, 4 dogs demonstrated marked slowing of their ventricular tachycardia, and 1 dog showed an increase in the rate of ventricular tachycardia. Emesis, ataxia, salivation, and nystamus were observed in 7 dogs after IV aprindine therapy. One dog developed clinical and laboratory evidence compatible with acute hepatitis. PMID:7149383

  20. Efficacy of albendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L; Erb, H N

    1993-06-01

    Efficacy of albendazole for treating giardiasis in dogs was assessed in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, Giardia cysts were cleared from feces of 5 of 7 dogs (as determined by the zinc-sulfate concentration technique) after the dogs received a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg of body weight, PO), whereas feces of 3 of 7 dogs became clear of cysts without treatment. In experiment 2, feces of 5 of 5 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole treatment (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses); feces of 1 of 5 untreated control dogs became clear. In experiment 3, feces of 18 of 20 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 4 doses) was given; none of the 20 control dogs had feces clear of cysts. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO) is not effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. However, 4 doses of albendazole (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) are highly effective and non-toxic for treatment of giardiasis in dogs. PMID:8323064

  1. The effect of portal infusions of epinephrine on ingestion, plasma glucose and insulin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, L L; Williams, F E

    1990-09-01

    Preabsorptive satiety has been hypothesized to occur as the result of food activating oral and gastrointestinal receptors that cause the release of catecholamines in the liver. The catecholamines were then proposed to hyperpolarize hepatic glucoreceptors and produce satiety. In the present study the hepatic portal vein was chronically cannulated in six mongrel dogs. Upon recovery the dogs were infused, over three minutes, with either saline or epinephrine (0.83 and 1.5 micrograms/kg b. wt.). Infusions ended 10 minutes prior to the animals' daily one-hour feeding period. The epinephrine infusions resulted in physiological increases in plasma glucose and insulin, but did not inhibit food consumption. The animals were next prefed 20% of their normal daily food intake 30 minutes prior to infusion of epinephrine at the above noted doses. Again plasma glucose and insulin increased, but food consumption was not affected. These data show that epinephrine infusions which produce physiological changes in plasma glucose and insulin do not alter feeding behavior of mongrel dogs. These findings are in agreement with previous data that question the physiological importance of the preabsorptive catecholamine satiety hypothesis. PMID:2176295

  2. Evaluation of hydroxylapatite particles in repair of alveolar clefts in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cullum, P E; Frost, D E; Newland, T B; Keane, T M; Ehler, W J

    1988-04-01

    Twelve adult mongrel dogs were used to evaluate the use of hydroxylapatite (HA) in the closure of alveolar clefts. Bilateral alveolar clefts were surgically created in each animal. After healing, they were implanted randomly with either HA or particulate cancellous bone and marrow (PCBM). The results were evaluated clinically, radiographically, and histologically for healing, acceptance of the implant, closure of the fistula, and bony ingrowth. The results show that HA was as successful in closure of the fistulas and re-establishing an intact maxilla as PCBM. Minimal osteoid and bone was interspersed in the HA implant sites. No complications resulted from the HA graft. PMID:2834525

  3. The effects of disopyramide phosphate on early post-coronary artery ligation dysrhythmias and on epicardial ST-segment elevation in anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, R. J.; Parratt, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    1 The antidysrhythmic, haemodynamic and metabolic effects of intravenously administered disopyramide phosphate (1 to 5 mg/kg) have been studied in greyhounds, anaesthetized with trichloroethylene. 2 In doses of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, disopyramide significantly reduced the ventricular dysrhythmias that occur in the initial 30-min period following acute coronary artery ligation. None of the disopyramide-treated animals developed ventricular fibrillations. 3 The metabolic consequences of coronary artery ligation, assessed by local coronary venous sampling from the ischaemic area, were not modified by disopyramide except that K+ egress was prevented. 4 There was evidence for substantial disopyramide-induced myocardial depression (decreased cardiac output and left ventricular dP/drmax with elevated ventricular filling pressure and pulmonary oedema and shunting) and it is suggested that great care be taken when the drug is administered intravenously in conditions where cardiac function is already compromised. Disopyramide also reduced myocardial blood flow. 5 In chloralose-anaesthetized mongrel dogs, disopyramide (2.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ST-segment elevation (assessed from epicardial recordings) that resulted from short (3 min) coronary artery occlusions. This could indicate a reduction in the extent and severity of myocardial injury or simply reflect decreased K+ efflux (since locally administered K+ itself increased ST-segment elevation). PMID:465877

  4. Congenital anorectal abnormalities in six dogs.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, N N; Papazoglou, L G; Adamama-Moraitou, K K; Galatos, A D; Gouletsou, P; Rallis, T S

    2003-07-19

    Congenital anorectal abnormalities were diagnosed in three male and three female dogs. One dog had anal stenosis, three had a persistent anal membrane, and the other two had an imperforate anus associated with a rectovaginal fistula. Five of the dogs were treated surgically, and four of them which were followed up for periods ranging from one to five years continued to pass faeces normally. PMID:12892267

  5. Phase I clinical trial and pharmacodynamic evaluation of combination hydroxychloroquine and doxorubicin treatment in pet dogs treated for spontaneously occurring lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Rebecca A; Wittenburg, Luke A; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Gustafson, Daniel L; Thorburn, Andrew; Thamm, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process that may act as a mechanism of survival in a variety of cancers. While pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being explored in human clinical trials, it has never been evaluated in canine cancers. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most prevalent tumor types in dogs and has similar pathogenesis and response to treatment as human NHL. Clinical trials in canine patients are conducted in the same way as in human patients, thus, to determine a maximum dose of HCQ that can be combined with a standard chemotherapy, a Phase I, single arm, dose escalation trial was conducted in dogs with spontaneous NHL presenting as patients to an academic, tertiary-care veterinary teaching hospital. HCQ was administered daily by mouth throughout the trial, beginning 72 h prior to doxorubicin (DOX), which was given intravenously on a 21-d cycle. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsies were collected before and 3 d after HCQ treatment and assessed for autophagy inhibition and HCQ concentration. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the trial. HCQ alone was well tolerated with only mild lethargy and gastrointestinal-related adverse events. The overall response rate (ORR) for dogs with lymphoma was 93.3%, with median progression-free interval (PFI) of 5 mo. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a 100-fold increase in HCQ in tumors compared with plasma. There was a trend that supported therapy-induced increase in LC3-II (the cleaved and lipidated form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/LC3, which serves as a maker for autophagosomes) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) after treatment. The superior ORR and comparable PFI to single-agent DOX provide strong support for further evaluation via randomized, placebo-controlled trials in canine and human NHL. PMID:24991836

  6. Simultaneous evaluation of the pre- and postsynaptic interactions of alpha-2 adrenergic agents in the phenoxybenzamine-treated dog saphenous vein

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, S.; Morse, P.; DeBernardis, J.; Kyncyl, J.

    1986-03-01

    Functional alpha-2 adrenergic receptors can be demonstrated on both the neuronal and muscular sides of the sympathetic synapse in the superfused, electrically stimulated, /sup 3/H-NE-loaded dog saphenous vein (DSV). Selective alkylation of the alpha-1 subtype in this tissue by phenoxybenzamine produced a preparation which contained functional alpha adrenergic receptors of only the alpha-2 subtype at both locations and provided an experimental model suitable for differentiating alpha-2 selective compounds according to their pre- vs postsynaptic preference. A number of standard alpha-2 selective agonists and antagonists were tested in this model. None of these agents exhibited any significant degree of presynaptic or postsynaptic selectivity.

  7. Thrombocytosis associated with a myeloproliferative disorder in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Degen, M.A.; Feldman, B.F.; Turrel, J.M.; Goding, B.; Kitchell, B.; Mandell, C.P. )

    1989-05-15

    A dog with a myeloproliferative disorder and thrombocytosis had clinical signs that were consistent with a diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia. The dog was treated with aspirin, radioactive phosphorus, and melphalan. Eighteen months after referral, the disorder progressed to chronic granulocytic leukemia, and treatment was switched to hydroxyurea. Fourteen months later, the dog was euthanatized because of uncontrollable atrial fibrillation.

  8. Dog bites.

    PubMed

    1991-04-01

    Although our canine companions can provide us with many hours of unyielding love and faithfulness, it is important to remember that these same loving creatures inflict 500,000 to one million bites per year, accounting for one percent of all emergency room visits nationwide. Ten percent of these injuries require suturing, one to two percent require hospitalization, and approximately one-third of dog bite injuries cause lost time from work or school. The United States Postal Service spends more than $250,000 annually just for prevention and treatment of dog bite injuries involving letter carriers! Still think that adorable pooch is harmless? Read on. PMID:1857330

  9. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and coexistence with Toxoplasma gondii in dogs.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Kader; Yasa Duru, Sibel; Yagci, Bugrahan B; Babur, Cahit; Ocal, Naci; Gurcan, Safa; Karaca, Seda

    2009-01-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoal agent causing abortion and infertility problems in dairy cattle. The objective of the present study was to detect the seroprevalence of N.caninum in dogs and its co-existence with Toxoplasma gondii in some rural and urban regions of Kirikka-le province. A total of 121 blood samples were examined with indirect immunoflorescent antibody test to detect the presence of N.caninum IgG antibodies. The seropositivity of N.caninum was 28.9% in dogs. The seropositivity rate was higher in male dogs than that of females (p < 0.05). The seropositivity rate of N.caninum was 36.5% and 20.7% for pure breed and mongrel dogs, respectively (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference amongst the age groups and location of the dogs (rural or urban) (p > 0.05). The N.caninum positive serum samples were also examined for the presence of antibodies for T.gondii by Sabin-Feldman Dye test in order to identify the possible serological co-infection, 1/16 and higher titres were evaluated as positive. According to test results, 19 out of 35 N.caninum seropositive dogs (54.3%) showed T.gondii seropositivity. PMID:19598086

  10. Thyrotoxicosis in a dog induced by the consumption of feces from a levothyroxine-supplemented housemate.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, Steven R; Ridgway, Marcella D; Kubier, Amy

    2013-10-01

    A 9-year-old golden retriever dog was evaluated for polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, and elevated serum thyroxine. Targeted questioning revealed that the dog was coprophagic and routinely ingested the feces of a dog that was treated with twice-daily levothyroxine. Clinical signs resolved and serum thyroxine decreased to normal levels in the affected dog with prevention of coprophagy. PMID:24155422

  11. Long-term outcome of myotonia associated with hyperadrenocorticism in 2 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Yuki, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Two dogs were diagnosed with myotonia associated with hyperadrenocorticism and treated with trilostane. One dog showed temporary improvement, but the other dog showed no improvement. The dogs survived 2383 and 1902 days, respectively. Findings suggest that myotonia persists despite treatment, but this condition is not associated with a poor prognosis for survival. PMID:26347041

  12. Dog Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2010-01-01

    Bringing service animals into schools raises serious questions about how to meet one student's special needs while ensuring the educational well-being of all. This article discusses how schools grapple with the practical and legal questions involved in allowing service dogs on campus. The author cites a case in 2009 called "Kalbfleisch v. Columbia…

  13. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in a dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi from Rio de Janeiro – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired disorder characterized by the activation of intravascular coagulation and excessive fibrin formation. It always occurs in association with other clinical conditions, including parasitic diseases. DIC has been described as a unusual complication in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Case presentation DIC was found in a seven-year-old male mongrel dog naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Haemostasis parameters demonstrated changes in primary and secondary haemostasis and fibrinolysis. Conclusion DIC is a unusual condition described in canine visceral leishmaniasis and it seems to be associated with several immunological and pathological mechanisms involved in the disease. PMID:23497531

  14. A quantitative study on the trachea of the dog.

    PubMed

    Dabanoğlu, I; Ocal, M K; Kara, M E

    2001-02-01

    This study was carried out to record the detailed morphometric structure of the trachea in dogs using 15 female and four male healthy adult mongrel dogs. The diameter and thickness of each tracheal ring were measured, the number of tracheal rings varying from 36 to 45. All data were subjected to statistical analysis which was carried out on individual sections of the trachea, i.e. the cranial cervical, middle cervical, thoracic inlet and the intrathoracic tracheal regions, which consisted of 12, 12, nine and 12 tracheal rings, respectively. Fusion of the tracheal rings was especially obvious in the cranial cervical and thoracic inlet regions as a result of neck movements. The diameter and thickness of the tracheal rings are smallest at the thoracic inlet level because the direction of the trachea changes at this point where the thoracic inlet is relatively small and surrounded by bone. The ratios of inner transverse to inner vertical and outer transverse to outer vertical diameters were almost the same, between 1.14 and 1.25 in all regions, which indicated that the trachea is near-circular in shape in the dog. At the thoracic inlet level cross-sectional lumen areas are 7 and 6% smaller than those in the middle cervical and intrathoracic regions, respectively. The thinnest cartilage was seen at the thoracic inlet level where there is a risk of tracheal collapse. PMID:11284164

  15. [Postvaccinal fatal Streptococcus zooepidemicus necrotizing fasciitis in a young dog: a case report].

    PubMed

    Greijdanus-Van Der Putten, S W M; Vos, J H; Duvekot, J R V; Paillot, R; McLean, R; Brokers, H J; Heuvelink, A E; Meertens, N M; Waller, A S

    2014-09-01

    A 2.5-years-old female mongrel dog was routinely subcutaneously vaccinated. A few hours later mental dullness was noticed by the owner progressing into stupor the next day and resulting in a comatose state and death within 48 hours after vaccination. At post mortem examination, which was extended with histology and bacteriology, a necrotizing fasciitis and bacteremia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus were established. In the isolated Streptococcus strain four different superantigens were demonstrated that appeared to be able to produce exotoxins in vitro. Therefore, it is concluded that the minor skin trauma caused by vaccination enabled this strain to gain access to the subcutaneous tissue and to induce a necrotizing fasciitis. This process was complicated with a bacterial septicemia leading to death of the dog within 48 hours. PMID:25272902

  16. Prevention of the formation of arterial thrombi using different antiplatelet drugs: Experimental study in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero-Vela, M.C.; Alvarez, L.; Rodriguez, V.; del Moral, J.H.; Millan, I.; Castillo-Olivares, J.L.

    1989-05-01

    We have induced the formation of arterial thrombosis in dogs by means of an intima lesion produced by continuous current. The platelets were labeled with 111-In-oxine. Groups of 7 mongrel dogs received treatment for 7 days prior to the trial: Group I, control; Group II, 5 mg/kg body weight/day acetylsalicylic acid; Group III, 20 mg/kg body wt/day acetylsalicylic acid; Group IV, 15 mg/kg body wt/day triflusal + 5 mg/kg body wt/day dipyridamole; Group V, 15 mg/kg body wt/day triflusal; and Group VI, 5 mg/kg body wt/day acetylsalicylic acid + 5 mg/kg body wt/day dipyridamole. The only effective treatment for arterial thrombosis prevention was that employed in Group II (p less than 0.05).

  17. Prevention of fatal hemorrhagic shock in dog by pretreatment with chronic high-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Rocchini, A P; Gallagher, K P; Botham, M J; Lemmer, J H; Szpunar, C A; Behrendt, D

    1985-09-01

    The ability of a chronic high-salt diet to prevent fatal hemorrhagic shock was examined in 36 mongrel dogs. Twenty-one dogs received a dietary supplement of 9 g sodium chloride/day for 6 wk, and 15 dogs received the same basic diet for 6 wk but without the sodium chloride supplement. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in all dogs by bleeding into an overhanging sealed reservoir. After 3 h of shock, salt-pretreated dogs had a lower systemic vascular resistance of 0.70 +/- 0.02 versus 1.44 +/- 0.04 mmHg X ml-1 X min X kg (P less than 0.01) and a higher cardiac output of 53 +/- 3 versus 26 +/- 3 ml X min-1 X kg-1 (P less than 0.01) than was observed in controls. At 2.5 h of shock, the salt-pretreated dogs also experienced an increase in gastrointestinal (P less than 0.01), hepatic arterial, (P less than 0.05), kidney (P less than 0.05), brain (P less than 0.01), and heart blood flows (P less than 0.001) compared with 0.5 h of shock, whereas the control dogs experienced no increased flow during this same period. We also observed that after 3 h of hypotension there was a significantly smaller increase in plasma renin activity in the salt-pretreated dogs. Administration of 0.1 U X kg-1 X min-1 of hog renin eliminated the differences in systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, and survival in five salt-pretreated dogs. PMID:3929625

  18. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG) state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry) evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania). The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal) irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance). PMID:22166041

  19. Allergic inhalant dermatitis attributable to marijuana exposure in a dog.

    PubMed

    Evans, A G

    1989-12-01

    Exposure to marijuana was believed to be responsible for clinical signs consistent with allergic inhalant dermatitis in a dog. The dog had facial and pedal pruritus associated with bilateral ocular discharge. Clinical signs resolved when the dog was kenneled, but returned when the dog was returned to its home. The results of intradermal skin testing, using a standard tray of 51 inhalant extracts, did not adequately account for the dog's clinical signs. Later, the owners indicated that previous residents of the owners' home had cultivated marijuana intensively inside and outside of the home. Intradermal skin testing with a source of marijuana pollen extract was performed, yielding a positive reaction in the dog and a negative reaction in another dog without clinical or historical evidence of allergic inhalant dermatitis. The affected dog was treated successfully and exclusively by hyposensitization with marijuana pollen extract. PMID:2599943

  20. Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal in Dogs with Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Felix Kaspar; Hoppe, Sonja; Löscher, Wolfgang; Tipold, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs and is treated by chronic administration of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In human beings with epilepsy, it is common clinical practice to consider drug withdrawal after a patient has been in remission (seizure free) for three or more years, but withdrawal is associated with the risk of relapse. In the present study, the consequences of AED withdrawal were studied in dogs with epilepsy. Therefore, 200 owners of dogs with idiopathic or presumed idiopathic epilepsy were contacted by telephone interview, 138 cases could be enrolled. In 11 cases, the therapy had been stopped after the dogs had become seizure free for a median time of 1 year. Reasons for AED withdrawal were appearance or fear of adverse side effects, financial aspects, and the idea that the medication could be unnecessary. Following AED withdrawal, four of these dogs remained seizure free, seven dogs suffered from seizure recurrence, of which only three dogs could regain seizure freedom after resuming AED therapy. Due to the restricted case number, an exact percentage of dogs with seizure recurrence after AED withdrawal cannot be given. However, the present study gives a hint that similar numbers as in human patients are found, and the data can help owners of epileptic dogs and the responsible clinician to decide when and why to stop antiepileptic medication. PMID:26664952

  1. Healing of a surgically created partial detachment of the posterior cruciate ligament using marrow stimulation: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rodkey, William G; Arnoczky, Steven P; Steadman, J Richard

    2006-01-01

    The inability of intra-articular (cruciate) ligaments to generate a substantive reparative response may preclude the primary surgical repair of such lesions. A marrow stimulation technique that provides access to a fibrin scaffold, cytokines, and mesenchymal stem cells has been shown to be successful in generating a repair response in articular cartilage. We hypothesized that a similar approach may be effective in initiating and supporting a healing response in cruciate ligament injuries. The ability to treat cruciate ligament injuries by primary repair may have significant advantages over the more extensive reconstructive procedures currently advocated. Bilateral subtotal (75% of width) lacerations were made in the proximal aspect of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 10 adult mongrel dogs. A marrow stimulation technique in which small holes were made through the femoral origin of the PCL into the marrow cavity immediately adjacent to the lesion was performed in one limb. The contralateral limb served as the non-stimulated control. Twelve weeks after surgery the extent of healing and the histological character of the repair tissue in both groups were compared. Marrow stimulation resulted in a statistically significant (P<.05) improvement in the healing of subtotal lacerations made in the PCL. The marrow-stimulated repair tissue was more cellular and had a more organized extracellular matrix than the repair tissue in the non-stimulated group. Our hypothesis was confirmed. Marrow stimulation can induce a "healing response" in intra-articular (cruciate) ligaments. This technique may have clinical applications in primary surgical repair of these structures. PMID:16468489

  2. Efficacy of oxfendazole for the treatment of giardiosis in dogs. Experiments in dog breeding kennels.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, V; Beugnet, F; Bourdoiseau, G

    2000-09-01

    Giardiosis is one of the most frequent parasites of dogs and cats. Since several years, the treatment is based on the use of metronidazole. A coproscopic study in four dog kennels was conducted to demonstrate, at a significant level, the efficacy of oxfendazole (Dolthène, Merial). At the posology of 11.3 mg/kg each day during three days (D1, D2 and D3), no dogs eliminated Giardia cysts and all dogs are clinically cured. The importance of hygienic measures is underlined. In kennels 1 and 2 where hygienic conditions were poor, dogs reexcreted cysts again after treatment. In kennels where the boxes were disinfected, no dogs, treated with 22.6 or 11.3 mg/kg, reexcreted Giardia cysts. PMID:11031759

  3. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some ...

  4. COMPARISON BETWEEN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING ESTIMATES OF EXTRACRANIAL CEREBROSPINAL FLUID VOLUME AND PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, László Z; Bajzik, Gábor; Garamvölgyi, Rita; Petneházy, Örs; Lassó, András; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Lőrincz, Borbála; Sótonyi, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Dosages for myelography procedures in dogs are based on a hypothetical proportional relationship between bodyweight and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. Anecdotal radiographic evidence and recent studies have challenged the existence of such a defined relationship in dogs. The objectives of this prospective cross-sectional study were to describe CSF volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a group of clinically healthy dogs, measure the accuracy of MRI CSF volumes, and compare MRI CSF volumes with dog physical measurements. A sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip-angle evolution MRI examination of the central nervous system was carried out on 12 healthy, male mongrel dogs, aged between 3 and 5 years with a bodyweight range of 7.5-35.0 kg. The images were processed with image analysis freeware (3D Slicer) in order to calculate the volume of extracranial CSF. Cylindrical phantoms of known volume were included in scans and used to calculate accuracy of MRI volume estimates. The accuracy of MRI volume estimates was 99.8%. Extracranial compartment CSF volumes ranged from 20.21 to 44.06 ml. Overall volume of the extracranial CSF increased linearly with bodyweight, but the proportional volume (ml/bodyweight kilograms) of the extracranial CSF was inversely proportional to bodyweight. Relative ratios of volumes in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbosacral regions were constant. Findings indicated that the current standard method of using body weight to calculate dosages of myelographic contrast agents in dogs may need to be revised. PMID:26311617

  5. [Ankyloglossia in an Anatolian Shepherd dog].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, S; Hofmann, A

    2006-08-01

    Ankyloglossia, commonknown as tongue-tie, is a rare congenital oral anomaly in dogs. A complete attachment of the lingual frenulum to the floor of the oral cavity leads to limited mobility of the tongue including problems during eating and swallowing. In humans ankyloglossia is a common anomaly in newborn infants. In our report a 5-month old Anatolian Shepherd dog was surgically treated and full function of the tongue could be achieved with a horizontal-to-vertical frenuloplasty. PMID:16933707

  6. Dog Models for Blinding Inherited Retinal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Komáromy, András M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  7. Dog models for blinding inherited retinal dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Komáromy, András M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous canine models exist for several inherited retinal dystrophies. This review will summarize the models and indicate where they have been used in translational gene therapy trials. The RPE65 gene therapy trials to treat childhood blindness are a good example of how studies in dogs have contributed to therapy development. Outcomes in human clinical trials are compared and contrasted with the result of the preclinical dog trials. PMID:25671556

  8. Role of collagen membrane in lateral onlay grafting with bovine hydroxyapatite incorporated with collagen matrix in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, Jung-Seok; Lee, Geun; Lee, In-Kyeong; Hwang, Ji-Wan; Kim, Min-Soo; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of collagen membranes (CMs) when used in conjunction with bovine hydroxyapatite particles incorporated with collagen matrix (BHC) for lateral onlay grafts in dogs. Methods The first, second, and third premolars in the right maxilla of mongrel dogs (n=5) were extracted. After 2 months of healing, two BHC blocks (4 mm×4 mm×5 mm) were placed on the buccal ridge, one with and one without the coverage by a CM. The animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks for histometric analysis. Results The collagen network of the membranes remained and served as a barrier. The quantity and quality of bone regeneration were all significantly greater in the membrane group than in the no-membrane group (P<0.05). Conclusions The use of barrier membranes in lateral onlay grafts leads to superior new bone formation and bone quality compared with bone graft alone. PMID:23678389

  9. Acellular dermal matrix allograft used alone and in combination with enamel matrix protein in gingival recession: histologic study in dogs.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Aparecida; Spolidório, Luís Carlos; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Marcantonio, Roseemary Adriana Chiérici

    2005-12-01

    Gingival recession was created in six mongrel dogs. The dogs were divided into two groups based on treatment: group 1--AlloDerm only, group 2--AlloDerm + Emdogain. The histologic results were compared. At the end of the study, the mean values were, for groups 1 and 2, respectively: 0.06 and 0.32 mm for cementum regeneration; -0.75 and -0.86 mm for bone regeneration; -2.15 and -3.11 mm for attachment level; and 4.90 and 5.51 mm for defect extent. The epithelial formation parameter was 2.88 mm in group 1 and 2.15 mm in group 2, which was a statistically significant difference. It could be concluded that Emdogain did not result in beneficial effects when associated with AlloDerm. PMID:16353534

  10. Artificial phrenoesophageal ligament. An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sader, A A; Dantas, R O; Campos, A D; Evora, P R B

    2016-01-01

    This report deals with the preparation of a 'true' artificial phrenoesophageal ligament aimed at restoring effective anchoring of the esophagus to the diaphragm, keeping the esophagogastric sphincter in the abdomen. A total of 24 mongrel dogs were assigned to four groups: (i) Group I (n = 4): the esophageal diaphragm hiatus left wide open; (ii) Group II (n = 8): the anterolateral esophagus walls were attached to the diaphragm by the artificial ligament and the esophageal hiatus was left wide opened; (iii) Group III (n = 5): in addition to the use of the artificial ligament, the esophageal hiatus was narrowed with two retroesophageal stitches; (iv) Group IV (n = 7): the only procedure was the esophageal hiatus narrowing with two retroesophageal stitches. The phrenoesophagogastric connections were released, sparing the vagus nerves. Five animals of groups III and IV, which did not develop hiatal hernia, were submitted to esophageal manometry immediately before and 15 days after surgery. In group I, all animals developed huge sliding hiatal hernias. In group II, two dogs (25%) had a paraesophageal hernia between the two parts of the artificial ligament. In group III, neither sliding hiatal hernia nor paraesophageal hernia occurred. In group IV, two animals (28.6%) developed sliding esophageal hiatus hernia. Regarding esophageal manometry, postoperative significant difference between groups III and IV (P = 0.008) was observed. Thus, the artificial phrenoesophageal ligament maintained the esophagus firmly attached to the diaphragm in all animals and the esophagogastric sphincter pressure was significantly higher in this group. PMID:25604516

  11. [Dose dependent effects of dichloroacetate on lactic acidosis in dogs].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Y; Fukui, A; Yoshida, H; Ohsumi, A; Sakai, T; Takaori, M

    1989-08-01

    Dose dependent effects of DCA (dichloroacetate) on lactic acidosis were studied in 30 mongrel dogs under pentobarbital anesthesia. Lactic acidosis was induced by infusion of either lactate (n = 15) or pyruvate (n = 15) for 20 min. In each dog, saline or DCA (100 mg.kg-1 or 300 mg.kg-1) was given for ten min iv. at ten min after the beginning of lactate or pyruvate infusions. Reduction in serum pyruvate levels was more prominent than that in lactate levels in both the lactate and pyruvate infusion groups. DCA in a dose of 100 mg.kg-1 was more effective to reduce serum pyruvate levels and arterial pH than 300 mg.kg-1 of DCA. There were no differences between saline and DCA (100 mg.kg-1 or 300 mg.kg-1) administrations in mean arterial pressure and cardiac index. This study confirmed the hypothesis that DCA reduces serum lactate levels via acceleration of pyruvate metabolism. It was concluded that the ability of DCA to reduce serum lactate levels is dose-dependent and a large dose of DCA (300 mg.kg-1) would not be necessary for lactic acidosis. PMID:2810694

  12. Intracranial biodegradable silica-based nimodipine drug release implant for treating vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage in an experimental healthy pig and dog model.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Simola, Outi; Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

  13. Clinical and biochemical changes in 53 Swedish dogs bitten by the European adder - Vipera berus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Every year many dogs in Sweden are bitten by Vipera berus, the only venomous viper in Sweden. This prospective study investigated clinical signs, some biochemical parameters, treatment, and progress of disease after snakebite in 53 dogs. Effects of treatment with and without glucocorticoids were evaluated. Methods All fifty-three dogs bitten by Vipera berus were examined the same day the dog was bitten and the next day. Two more examinations during 23 days post snake bite were included. Creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bile acid results were followed through 3 to 4 samplings from 34 of the dogs. Results All dogs had variable severity of local swelling in the bite area and 73 per cent had affected mental status. Initial cardiac auscultation examination was normal in all dogs, but six dogs had cardiac abnormalities at their second examination, including cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac murmurs. All dogs received fluid therapy, 36 dogs were given analgesics, 22 dogs were treated with glucocorticoids, and ten dogs were treated with antibiotics. Evidence of transient muscle damage (increased CK) was seen one day after the snake bite in 15 (54%) of 28 sampled dogs. Moderate changes in hepatic test results occurred in 1 dog and several dogs (22 of 34) had transient, minor increases in one or more hepatic test result. No dog died during the observation period as a consequence of the snake bite. Conclusions Snake bite caused local swelling in all dogs and mental depression of short duration in most dogs. Some dogs had transient clinical signs that could be indicative of cardiac injury and some other had transient biochemical signs of liver injury. Treatment with glucocorticoids did not have any clear positive or negative effect on clinical signs and mortality. PMID:20416040

  14. Failure of papyerine hydrocholoride and doxycycline hyclate as antipruritis agents in pruritic dogs: Results of an open clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Danny W.; Cayatte, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    Papaverine hydrochloride (150 to 300 mg/dog every 12 hours) and doxycycline hyclate (3 mg/kg every 12 hours) were both administered orally as individual agents to 13 dogs with pruritus of allergic or idiopathic origin. No dog improved. Depression, anorexia, and vomiting were seen in one dog treated with papaverine hydrochloride. Under the conditions of the study, papaverine and doxycycline were not useful antipruritic agents for the dog. PMID:17424184

  15. Comparing the effects of first-line antiepileptic drugs on the gait of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Suiter, E J; Packer, R M A; Volk, H A

    2016-06-25

    Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) is a common chronic neurological disease of the dog. Previous studies of anti-epileptic drug (AED) treatment have indicated that acceptable AED adverse effects are as important to owners as reductions in seizure frequency. AEDs in both dogs and human beings are frequently associated with the adverse-effect ataxia. The aim of this study was to compare ataxia levels in dogs with IE treated chronically with phenobarbitone or imepitoin, the two currently available first-line AED treatments. The gait of 6 imepitoin-treated dogs, 8 phenobarbitone-treated dogs and 10 age-matched healthy control dogs were compared. Fifty strides from a walking gait were analysed for each dog, quantifying ataxia via the variability in six established gait parameters. Three variables differed significantly between groups: lateral distance between (i) pelvic paw placements, (ii) thoracic paw placements and (iii) stance time, which were significantly more variable in the phenobarbitone-treated dogs than imepitoin-treated or control dogs. These results indicate that dogs treated with phenobarbitone experience ataxia compared with controls and imepitoin-treated dogs. Conversely, there was no difference between imepitoin-treated dogs and controls. These results along with further research are needed to quantify AEDs adverse effects, to help vets and owners make more informed drug-choices. PMID:27302918

  16. Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Barr, S C; Bowman, D D; Heller, R L

    1994-07-01

    Efficacy of fenbendazole at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs was assessed. Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-1 dogs (as determined by use of the zinc sulfate concentration technique) after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses). Cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-2 dogs after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, PO, q 8 h, for 3 days). However, cysts were not detected in the feces of only 1 of 6 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that the current label dosage (for the treatment of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, and Taenia pisiformis, but not Giardia spp) of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 3 doses) is also effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. PMID:7978640

  17. Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of recurring aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spugnini, Enrico P.; Di Tosto, Giovanni; Salemme, Scirin; Pecchia, Luca; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baldi, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the clinical findings, histopathology, and clinical outcome of a rare case of aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog. The dog was treated with 4 courses of electrochemotherapy using the drugs cisplatin and bleomycin. There was complete remission and the dog was still disease-free after 18 months. PMID:24155455

  18. Electrochemotherapy for the treatment of recurring aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Di Tosto, Giovanni; Salemme, Scirin; Pecchia, Luca; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Baldi, Alfonso

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports the clinical findings, histopathology, and clinical outcome of a rare case of aponeurotic fibromatosis in a dog. The dog was treated with 4 courses of electrochemotherapy using the drugs cisplatin and bleomycin. There was complete remission and the dog was still disease-free after 18 months. PMID:24155455

  19. Diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in young dogs by cytology and PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatozoon canis is a widespread tick-borne protozoan affecting dogs. The diagnosis of H. canis infection is usually performed by cytology of blood or buffy coat smears, but this method may not be sensitive. Our study aimed to evaluate the best method to achieve a parasitological diagnosis of H. canis infection in a population of receptive young dogs, previously negative by cytology and exposed to tick infestation for one summer season. Results A total of 73 mongrel dogs and ten beagles younger than 18 months of age, living in an animal shelter in southern Italy where dogs are highly infested by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, were included in this study. In March-April 2009 and in October 2009, blood and bone marrow were sampled from each dog. Blood, buffy coat and bone marrow were examined by cytology only (at the first sampling) and also by PCR for H. canis (second sampling). In March-April 2009, only one dog was positive for H. canis by cytological examination, whereas in October 2009 (after the summer season), the overall incidence of H. canis infection by cytological examinations was 43.9%. Molecular tests carried out on samples taken in October 2009 showed a considerably higher number of dogs positive by PCR (from 27.7% up to 51.2% on skin and buffy coat tissues, respectively), with an overall positivity of 57.8%. All animals, but one, which were positive by cytology were also PCR-positive. PCR on blood or buffy coat detected the highest number of H. canis-positive dogs displaying a sensitivity of 85.7% for both tissues that increased up to 98% when used in parallel. Twenty-six (74.8%) out of the 28 H. canis-positive dogs presented hematological abnormalities, eosinophilia being the commonest alteration observed. Conclusions The results suggest that PCR on buffy coat and blood is the best diagnostic assay for detecting H. canis infection in dogs, although when PCR is not available, cytology on buffy coat should be preferred to blood smear evaluation

  20. Effects of dextran sulfate on tracheal mucociliary velocity in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sudo, E; Boyd, W A; King, M

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that low molecular weight dextran, as a potential mucolytic agent, reduced the viscoelasticity and spinnability of cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum and improved its ciliary transportability in vitro; it also reduced viscoelasticity of healthy dog mucus in in vitro testing. In anesthetized dogs, dextran administered by aerosol at 65 mg/mL increased tracheal mucus velocity, but this increase was not sustained for higher concentrations. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate whether low mol. wt. dextran sulfate, a charged oligosaccharide, exhibits similar effects to previously tested neutral dextran when administered by aerosol to anesthetized dogs in terms of mucus rheology and mucociliary clearance rate. Healthy mongrel dogs were anesthetized with pentobarbital and intubated. Aerosols of Ringer's solution or dextran sulfate (m.w. 5000) dissolved in Ringer's were generated by Pari LC STAR nebulizer, and delivered during 30-min periods of spontaneous breathing. Tracheal transepithelial potential difference (PD, using agar filled electrodes) and tracheal mucociliary velocity (TMV, by charcoal marker particle transport) were measured under bronchoscopic control, and mucus for viscoelasticity analysis by magnetic rheometry was collected by the endotracheal tube method. We performed experiments in seven dogs, involving 30-min administrations of aerosol, separated by 30-min periods of no aerosol. All dogs received inhalations of 6.5 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, and 65 mg/mL dextran sulfate. Tracheal mucus viscoelasticity (average log G* over 1-100 rad/s) decreased progressively with increasing dose of dextran sulfate; for the highest concentration (65 mg/mL), log G* decreased by a factor of 2.61 (p = 0.021). A modest increase in the TMV was observed for the first dose of dextran sulfate (128% of baseline at 6.5 mg/mL, p = 0.066); thereafter TMV was stable. PD increased significantly at each concentration of dextran sulfate compared with Ringer control; however, there

  1. [Morpho-functional characteristic of dog spinal ganglion neurons in post-distraction period].

    PubMed

    Safonova, G D; Kovalenko, A P

    2005-01-01

    The object of this work was to study the morpho-functional state of spinal ganglion neurons and to conduct the comparative quantitative analysis of the changes of neuronglial relations after hindlimb elongation in mongrel dogs by 14-16% of its initial length using different elongation rates. The longitudinal 5 microm thick serial sections of L(VI), L(VII) and S(I) ganglia stained with Nissl's thionine and cresyl violet and Einarssons's gallocyanin-chrome alume were studied. By days 45-48 of an experiment the reversible changes in the structure of some part of neurons were demonstrated, which included cytoplasmic and nuclear hyperchromatism, peripheral chromatolysis, nuclear and nucleolar dislocation, increase in the number of peri- and interneuronal gliocytes. The changes were most marked in the ganglia ipsilateral to the lengthening side with distraction rate of 3 mm per day; they were minimal contralaterally with the lengthening rate of 1 mm per day. PMID:16201332

  2. VAC protocol for treatment of dogs with stage III hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco J; Hosoya, Kenji; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Kisseberth, William; Couto, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Hemangiosarcomas (HSAs) are aggressive tumors with a high rate of metastasis. Clinical stage has been considered a negative prognostic factor for survival. The study authors hypothesized that the median survival time (MST) of dogs with metastatic (stage III) HSA treated with a vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) chemotherapy protocol would not be different than those with stage I/II HSA. Sixty-seven dogs with HSA in different anatomic locations were evaluated retrospectively. All dogs received the VAC protocol as an adjuvant to surgery (n = 50), neoadjuvant (n = 3), or as the sole treatment modality (n = 14). There was no significant difference (P = 0.97) between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II HSA. For dogs presenting with splenic HSA alone, there was no significant difference between the MST of dogs with stage III and stage I/II disease (P = 0.12). The overall response rate (complete response [CR] and partial response [PR]) was 86%). No unacceptable toxicities were observed. Dogs with stage III HSA treated with the VAC protocol have a similar prognosis to dogs with stage I/II HSA. Dogs with HSA and evidence of metastases at the time of diagnosis should not be denied treatment. PMID:24051260

  3. Radiotherapy of metastatic seminoma in the dog. Case reports

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.K.; Walker, M.; Legendre, A.M.; vanEe, R.T.; Gompf, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    Four dogs with metastatic seminoma were treated with cesium 137 teleradiotherapy. Minimum total tumor dose ranged from 17 to 40 gray (Gy) and was usually given through bilateral opposing sublumbar ports in eight to ten fractions, with three fractions given weekly. The tumor regressed in all four dogs. The first dog (case 1) was free of tumor and died of non-tumor related causes at 57 months. The second dog (case 2) was free of tumor but was euthanatized at 37 months for a limb fracture. The third dog (case 3) was euthanatized for undertermined pulmonary disease 43 months after radiotherapy. The fourth dog (case 4) was euthanatized 6 months following radiotherapy because of transitional cell carcinoma and renal failure. No evidence of seminoma was found at necropsy. Radiotherapy was shown to be effective treatment for seminoma with regional metastasis.

  4. Inflammatory mammary carcinoma in 12 dogs: Clinical features, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and response to piroxicam treatment

    PubMed Central

    de M. Souza, Carlos H.; Toledo-Piza, Evandro; Amorin, Renee; Barboza, Andrigo; Tobias, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) is a rare, locally aggressive, highly metastatic tumor that is poorly responsive to treatment. The purposes of this study were to retrospectively evaluate the history, signalment, and clinical signs of dogs with IMC; compare the outcome of affected dogs treated with traditional chemotherapy with those treated with piroxicam; evaluate Cox-2 expression of IMC cells; and correlate Cox-2 expression with outcome based on treatment. Strong cyclooxygenase-2 expression was present in all tumors. Improvement in clinical condition and disease stability was achieved in all dogs treated with piroxicam, with mean and median progression-free survival of 171 and 183 days, respectively. Median survival time of 3 dogs treated with doxorubicin-based protocols was 7 days, which was significantly less than that of dogs treated with piroxicam (median, 185 days). In conclusion, piroxicam should be considered as a single agent for the treatment of dogs with inflammatory mammary carcinoma. PMID:19436636

  5. Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, E T; Ijaopo, O K; Okonko, I O

    2016-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between ages of dogs, breeds, post-vaccination period, and the level of immunity. In conclusion, this study has further confirmed the presence of IgG antibodies against canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value

  6. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. PMID:26763220

  7. Liver biomarker and in vitro assessment confirm the hepatic origin of aminotransferase elevations lacking histopathological correlate in beagle dogs treated with GABA{sub A} receptor antagonist NP260

    SciTech Connect

    Harrill, Alison H.; Eaddy, John S.; Rose, Kelly; Cullen, John M.; Ramanathan, Lakshmi; Wanaski, Stephen; Collins, Stephen; Ho, Yu; Watkins, Paul B.; LeCluyse, Edward L.

    2014-06-01

    NP260 was designed as a first-in-class selective antagonist of α4-subtype GABA{sub A} receptors that had promising efficacy in animal models of pain, epilepsy, psychosis, and anxiety. However, development of NP260 was complicated following a 28-day safety study in dogs in which pronounced elevations of serum aminotransferase levels were observed, although there was no accompanying histopathological indication of hepatocellular injury. To further investigate the liver effects of NP260, we assayed stored serum samples from the 28-day dog study for liver specific miRNA (miR-122) as well as enzymatic biomarkers glutamate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, which indicate liver necrosis. Cytotoxicity assessments were conducted in hepatocytes derived from dog, rat, and human liver samples to address the species specificity of the liver response to NP260. All biomarkers, except ALT, returned toward baseline by Day 29 despite continued drug treatment, suggesting adaptation to the initial injury. In vitro analysis of the toxicity potential of NP260 to primary hepatocytes indicated a relative sensitivity of dog > human > rat, which may explain, in part, why the liver effects were not evident in the rodent safety studies. Taken together, the data indicate that a diagnostic biomarker approach, coupled with sensitive in vitro screening strategies, may facilitate interpretation of toxicity potential when an adaptive event masks the underlying toxicity. - Highlights: • NP260 caused ALT elevations in dogs without evidence of hepatocellular injury. • SDH, GLDH, and miRNA-122 elevations occurred, confirming hepatocellular necrosis. • NP260 toxicity is greater in dog and human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes. • Species sensitivity may explain why the rodent studies failed to indicate risk. • Diagnostic biomarkers and hepatocyte studies aid interpretation of hepatotoxicity.

  8. The attitudes of owners and veterinary professionals in the United Kingdom to the risk of adverse events associated with using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to treat dogs with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Zoe; Asher, Lucy; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-09-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed by veterinary surgeons for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis, and affected dogs may receive these drugs for long periods of time. Whilst short term administration of NSAIDs to dogs is linked to adverse events such as gastrointestinal haemorrhage and renal injury, reports of adverse events associated with their long-term administration are limited in the veterinary literature. This study aimed to investigate the attitudes towards the long term use of NSAIDs for canine osteoarthritis held by three groups who manage osteoarthritic dogs in the United Kingdom: dog owners, veterinary surgeons and veterinary nurses. A qualitative methodology was adopted, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Thematic analysis of these data identified three themes: awareness of potential risks; recognition of adverse events; and influence of risk perception on the use of NSAIDs. Awareness of, and concern about, the risk of adverse events associated with NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis was high in all groups, with veterinary surgeons being one of a variety of information sources used by owners to acquire this knowledge. Veterinary surgeons described difficulty in recognising, managing and avoiding adverse events associated with NSAIDs. When adverse events occurred, a wide range of management approaches were adopted ranging from a brief drug respite to permanent cessation of administration of any NSAIDs to that dog. Commonly employed approaches to minimise risk included dose reduction and screening blood tests. This study describes a high level of concern about the risks associated with long term NSAID administration to dogs with osteoarthritis and highlights a diverse range of strategies employed to minimise these risks. The evidence base for these strategies is poor, and this may present a risk to animal welfare if the affected dogs are not receiving adequate analgesia. In order to

  9. Pseudoketogenesis in hepatectomized dogs.

    PubMed

    Des Rosiers, C; Montgomery, J A; Garneau, M; David, F; Mamer, O A; Daloze, P; Toffolo, G; Cobelli, C; Landau, B R; Brunengraber, H

    1990-03-01

    Overestimation of ketone body turnover in vivo, measured by tracer kinetics, could occur if specific activity or molar percent enrichment is diluted in extrahepatic tissues by label exchange via reversal of 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase, a process we call pseudoketogenesis. To test this hypothesis, euglycemic hepatectomized dogs were injected with a bolus of acetoacetate (0.8 mmol/kg), 32% enriched in [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. Concentrations and labeling patterns of blood acetoacetate and R-3-hydroxybutyrate were measured by selected ion-monitoring gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. During the 60 min after bolus injection of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate, the molar percent enrichment of blood [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate decreased to 73 +/- 3% (n = 5) in controls and to 11.5 +/- 0.8% (n = 3) during infusion of dichloroacetate, an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The enrichment of R-3-hydroxy-[3,4-13C2]butyrate followed closely that of [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate. These dilutions occurred despite a net uptake of ketone bodies. Concomitantly, 10.6 +/- 2.2 (n = 5) and 6.0 +/- 2.9% (n = 3) of [13C]acetoacetate molecules were labeled on all four carbons in control and dichloroacetate-treated dogs, respectively. This uniformly labeled acetoacetate arises from partial equilibration between [3,4-13C2]acetoacetate and [1,2-13C2]acetyl-CoA via the reactions catalyzed by 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase and acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. Our data demonstrate the reversibility of the 3-oxoacid-CoA transferase in intact extrahepatic tissues and support the concept of pseudoketogenesis. This phenomenon has been quantitated by kinetic analysis of the data. PMID:2316645

  10. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001) lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05) better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. PMID:27317462

  11. Cervical spondylomyelopathy (wobbler syndrome) in dogs.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C

    2010-09-01

    Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) is a common and controversial disease of the cervical spine of large and giant breed dogs. Not many diseases in veterinary medicine have been referred to by 14 different names and have had 21 surgical techniques proposed to treat it. This article reviews the current knowledge of CSM with regard to its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. PMID:20732597

  12. Apparent tick paralysis by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato

    2012-09-10

    Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal. PMID:22546547

  13. Murine retroviral vector producer cells survival and toxicity in the peritoneal cavity of dogs.

    PubMed

    Link, C J; Moorman, D W; Ackerman, M; Levy, J P; Seregina, T

    2000-01-01

    Retroviral vector producer cells (VPC) can effectively transfer genes in vivo. To develop a safe method to target gene delivery into intraperitoneal tumors, we have examined the toxicity of intraperitoneal (i.p.) infusion of retroviral VPC in a xenogeneic canine model. Mongrel dogs were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 2 x 10(9) murine LTKOSN.2 VPC. The animals did not demonstrate acute toxicity and tolerated the i.p. infusion of the cells without difficulty. Starting 7 days after i.p. injection, the dogs received intravenous injections of ganciclovir (GCV) twice daily (5 mg/kg) for 7 days. The treatment dogs underwent peritoneal washings on days 3, 7 and 14 after their initial infusion of cells to study the persistence of the VPC. GCV treatment did not cause significant toxicities. Dogs underwent serial blood tests to evaluate bone marrow, renal, liver and immunological function. Complete blood counts, electrolytes and renal function remained normal throughout the study. Although, transient mild elevations occurred of serum alkaline phosphate, the remaining hepatic enzymes remained normal. Histologic examination of tissues from animals sacrificed after the i.p. administration of the VPC revealed no tissue destruction of the normal peritoneal lining. The dogs mounted an antibody response to the murine VPC that was first observed 7 days post injection. PCR analysis of selected tissues after GCV administration did not reveal persistent vector sequences. These results demonstrated that the injection of xenogeneic VPC is not accompanied by significant adverse effects over a 1 month period following administration into the canine peritoneal cavity. These data support the potential clinical application of the VPC in Phase I clinical trials in humans. PMID:11212841

  14. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, Uwe; Burke, Edward J.; Butler, Bruce D.; Davis, Karen L.; Katz, Jeffrey; Melamed, Evan; Morris, William P.; Allen, Steven J.

    1993-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 years ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 deg down (LLR-10 deg; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  15. Body position does not affect the hemodynamic response to venous air embolism in dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehlhorn, U.; Burke, E. J.; Butler, B. D.; Davis, K. L.; Katz, J.; Melamed, E.; Morris, W. P.; Allen, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Current therapy for massive venous air embolism (VAE) includes the use of the left lateral recumbent (LLR) position. This recommendation is based on animal studies, conducted 50 yr ago, which looked primarily at survival. Little is known, however, about the concomitant hemodynamic response after VAE in various body positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes in various body positions after VAE. Twenty-two mechanically ventilated supine mongrel dogs received a venous air infusion of 2.5 mL/kg at a rate of 5 mL/s. One minute after the infusion, 100% oxygen ventilation was commenced and the body position of the dogs was changed to either the LLR (n = 6), the LLR with the head 10 degrees down (LLR-10 degrees; n = 6) or the right lateral recumbent (RLR; n = 5) position. Five dogs were maintained in the supine position (SUP; n = 5). One dog died in every group except in the SUP group, where all the dogs recovered. There were no significant differences among the various body positions in terms of heart rate, mean arterial pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, or cardiac output. The acute hemodynamic changes occurring during the first 5-15 min after VAE recovered to 80% of control within 60 min. Our data suggest that body repositioning does not influence the cardiovascular response to VAE. Specifically, our data do not support the recommendation of repositioning into the LLR position for the treatment of VAE.

  16. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. PMID:25150161

  17. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans. PMID:22950145

  18. Effect of free dietary glutamate on gastric secretion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, Vasiliy; Khropycheva, Raisa; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Torii, Kunio

    2009-07-01

    The amino acid, L-glutamate, which is abundant in many foodstuffs, is a potent stimulator of gastric vagal afferents. The aim of the study was to evaluate a role of dietary glutamate in neuroendocrine control of gastric secretion of acid, pepsinogen, and fluid. In mongrel dogs with small gastric pouches surgically prepared according to Pavlov (vagally innervated) or Heidenhain (vagally decentralized), secretion in a pouch was induced by infusion into the main stomach of an amino acid-rich diet lacking glutamate (Elental) or the same diet supplemented with monosodium glutamate (MSG). Having no effect alone, MSG (100 mM) potentiated secretion induced by Elental both in Pavlov and Heidenhain models. In the Pavlov pouch, the effect of MSG was markedly reduced after i.v. injection of granisetron, an antagonist of 5-HT(3) receptors. In the Heidenhain model, MSG enhanced the stimulatory effect of pentagastrin (1 microg/kg, s.c.). In conclusion, dietary glutamate at doses not exceeding its common concentrations in foods substantially potentiates gastric phase secretion induced by stimulation of gastric mucosa with an amino acid-rich diet or by administration of pentagastrin. The effect of glutamate is partially mediated via serotonin secretion and stimulation of 5-HT(3) receptors. PMID:19686114

  19. Gastric emptying of organic acids in the dog.

    PubMed

    Blum, A L; Hegglin, J; Krejs, G J; Largiadèr, F; Säuberli, H; Schmid, P

    1976-10-01

    Test meals of 300 ml. of six different organic acids were instilled into the stomach of six healthy mongrel dogs. Citric, acetic, propionic, lactic, tartaric and succinic acid were given in 50, 100, 150, and 200 mN concentrations. 2. During the emptying process, the gastric contents were aspirated and immediately re-instilled at 10 min intervals, and the following parameters were recorded: volume, concentration of the organic anion, pH, hydrogen ion concentration and osmolarity. 3. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, the combination of parameters which most effectively determines gastric emptying rate was found to be: concentration of the organic anion, followed by intragastric volume and number of previous test meals given on the same day. These three parameters appear in the equation for gastric emptying rate in which the individual characteristic of each acid is expressed by a constant. 4. Among the various acids, inhibition of emptying rate increases with rising number of carboxylic groups of the acid and its molecular weight. 5. After proximal gastric vagotomy, emptying rate of organic acids is independent of volume, and emptying approaches an exponential pattern. 6. A model for gastric emptying of organic acids with at least three different receptors is proposed: one for the structure of the organic acid, one for concentration and one for intragastric volume. PMID:10436

  20. Gastric emptying of organic acids in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, A L; Hegglin, J; Krejs, G J; Largiadèr, F; Säuberli, H; Schmid, P

    1976-01-01

    Test meals of 300 ml. of six different organic acids were instilled into the stomach of six healthy mongrel dogs. Citric, acetic, propionic, lactic, tartaric and succinic acid were given in 50, 100, 150, and 200 mN concentrations. 2. During the emptying process, the gastric contents were aspirated and immediately re-instilled at 10 min intervals, and the following parameters were recorded: volume, concentration of the organic anion, pH, hydrogen ion concentration and osmolarity. 3. By multiple stepwise regression analysis, the combination of parameters which most effectively determines gastric emptying rate was found to be: concentration of the organic anion, followed by intragastric volume and number of previous test meals given on the same day. These three parameters appear in the equation for gastric emptying rate in which the individual characteristic of each acid is expressed by a constant. 4. Among the various acids, inhibition of emptying rate increases with rising number of carboxylic groups of the acid and its molecular weight. 5. After proximal gastric vagotomy, emptying rate of organic acids is independent of volume, and emptying approaches an exponential pattern. 6. A model for gastric emptying of organic acids with at least three different receptors is proposed: one for the structure of the organic acid, one for concentration and one for intragastric volume. PMID:10436

  1. Proteinuria in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  2. Proteinuria in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Harley, Leyenda; Langston, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Proteinuria is defined as the presence of protein in the urine. Normally, circulating serum proteins are blocked by the glomerulus due to size and/or charge. Any small proteins that pass through a healthy glomerulus are reabsorbed by the renal tubules or broken down by renal tubular epithelial cells. Persistent proteinuria, in the absence of lower urinary tract disease or reproductive tract disease, is usually an indication of renal damage or dysfunction. Less commonly persistent proteinuria can be caused by increased circulating levels of low molecular weight proteins. This article reviews mechanisms of proteinuria in dogs and cats and discusses the importance of screening for and ultimately treating proteinuria. PMID:23204582

  3. The use of a Giardia vaccine as an immunotherapeutic agent in dogs.

    PubMed

    Olson, M E; Hannigan, C J; Gaviller, P F; Fulton, L A

    2001-11-01

    Dogs (n = 13), which had failed to be cured of giardiosis following chemotherapeutic measures, were treated with a Giardia vaccine (2-3 injections). Clinical signs resolved between 16 and 42 days postvaccination and cessation of fecal cyst shedding was between 21 and 70 days. Vaccination is a potential method of treating giardiosis in dogs. PMID:11708205

  4. Efficacy, safety and palatability of a new broad-spectrum anthelmintic formulation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Schmid, K; Rohdich, N; Zschiesche, E; Kok, D J; Allan, M J

    2010-10-23

    The efficacy, safety and palatability of a new flavoured chewable anthelmintic tablet were investigated in dogs. The efficacy, based on worm counts, of a single recommended therapeutic dose (RTD) of 5 mg pyrantel + 20 mg oxantel + 5 mg praziquantel/kg bodyweight was assessed in experimental infections (EI) and natural infections (NI) with Trichuris vulpis, Echinococcus granulosus and Toxocara canis. For T vulpis, the efficacy of the treatment was 99.3 per cent in EI (comparing groups of six treated and six control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (nine treated and nine control dogs). For E granulosus, the efficacy was more than 99.9 per cent in EI (11 treated and 11 control dogs). For T canis, the efficacy was 94.3 per cent in EI (10 treated and 10 control dogs) and 100 per cent in NI (12 treated and 13 control dogs). In a field study, Ancylostoma caninum (11 dogs) and T canis (11 dogs) faecal egg counts were reduced by more than 99 per cent, and in eight dogs with Dipylidium caninum proglotides in the faeces the efficacy was 100 per cent. The tablets were readily consumed by 56 of 64 (87.5 per cent) privately owned dogs. Safety was assessed in groups of six dogs treated either once with twice the RTD, once with six times the RTD, with twice the RTD on three consecutive days, or untreated. There were no significant differences in blood parameters between the groups, and no abnormal clinical findings. Two dogs treated with six times the RTD vomited, but no vomiting was observed when administration was repeated two days later. PMID:21257464

  5. Identification of mast cells in buffy coat preparations from dogs with inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Cayatte, S M; McManus, P M; Miller, W H; Scott, D W

    1995-02-01

    In 100 dogs with 4 inflammatory dermatologic diseases, buffy coat preparations from EDTA-treated blood samples were examined cytologically. Fifty-four dogs had atopy, 26 had flea-bite hypersensitivity, 17 had sarcoptic mange, and 3 had food allergy. Twenty-eight dogs had 2 or more concurrent skin diseases; most of these had secondary pyoderma. Dogs did not have mast cell tumors. Thirteen samples contained 1 or more mast cells/4 slides reviewed. This study revealed that dogs with inflammatory skin diseases can have a few to many mast cells evident on cytologic examination of buffy coat preparations. PMID:7751239

  6. Greater omentectomy improves insulin sensitivity in nonobese dogs.

    PubMed

    Lottati, Maya; Kolka, Cathryn M; Stefanovski, Darko; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Bergman, Richard N

    2009-04-01

    Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, little evidence directly demonstrates that visceral fat per se impairs insulin action. Here, we examine the effects of the surgical removal of the greater omentum and its occupying visceral fat, an omentectomy (OM), on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and beta-cell function in nonobese dogs. Thirteen male mongrel dogs were used in this research study; animals were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with either OM (n = 7), or sham-surgery (SHAM) (n = 6). OM failed to generate measurable changes in body weight (+2%; P = 0.1), or subcutaneous adiposity (+3%; P = 0.83) as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The removal of the greater omentum did not significantly reduce total visceral adipose volume (-7.3 +/- 6.4%; P = 0.29); although primary analysis showed a trend for OM to increase S(I) when compared to sham operated animals (P = 0.078), further statistical analysis revealed that this minor reduction in visceral fat alleviated insulin resistance by augmenting S(I) of the periphery (+67.7 +/- 35.2%; P = 0.03), as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Insulin secretory response during the hyperglycemic step clamp was not directly influenced by omental fat removal (presurgery 6.82 +/- 1.4 vs. postsurgery: 6.7 +/- 1.2 pmol/l/mg/dl, P = 0.9). These findings provide new evidence for the deleterious role of visceral fat in insulin resistance, and suggest that a greater OM procedure may effectively improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:19214178

  7. Efficacy of Malarone® in Dogs Naturally Infected with Babesia gibsoni

    PubMed Central

    IGUCHI, Aiko; SHIRANAGA, Nobuyuki; MATSUU, Aya; HIKASA, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of Malarone® alone and in combination with doxycycline (DOXY) against Babesia gibsoni infections was examined in 8 dogs. In all dogs except one treated with Malarone®, parasitemia decreased, and anemia improved soon after initiation of treatment. However, 3 of 4 dogs treated with Malarone® relapsed, and relapse was inhibited in 2 of 4 dogs treated with Malarone® and DOXY. All relapsed dogs responded well to the second treatment, but 1 dog relapsed again and did not respond to the third treatment. Malarone® may be useful for acute stage of B. gibsoni infections, and at least second repeating treatment might be effective. PMID:24909969

  8. Intranasal administration of oxytocin promotes social play in domestic dogs

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper,1 we examined whether oxytocin in the domestic dog modulates the maintenance of close social bonds in non-reproductive contexts. We found that exogenous oxytocin promotes positive social behaviors not only toward conspecifics, but also toward human partners. Here we examined in further detail the effect that oxytocin manipulation has on social play. When sprayed with oxytocin, subjects initiated play sessions more often and played for longer periods of time than when sprayed with saline. Furthermore, after oxytocin nasal intake dogs displayed play signals more often than after saline administration, suggesting that oxytocin enhances dogs' play motivation. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that oxytocin promotes social play in the domestic dog. We use these results to hypothesize on the potential therapeutic use of oxytocin for promoting social behaviors and treating social deficits in the domestic dog. PMID:26478773

  9. Do Dogs Know Bifurcations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minton, Roland; Pennings, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    When a dog (in this case, Tim Pennings' dog Elvis) is in the water and a ball is thrown downshore, it must choose to swim directly to the ball or first swim to shore. The mathematical analysis of this problem leads to the computation of bifurcation points at which the optimal strategy changes.

  10. Effects of chronic digitalization on cardiac and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate activity and circulating catecholamines in the dog.

    PubMed

    Nechay, B R; Jackson, R E; Ziegler, M G; Neldon, S L; Thompson, J D

    1981-09-01

    To extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of digitalis drugs, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs), renal function, plasma concentrations of catecholamines, and myocardial and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate (Na+ + K+ ATPase) activity in chronically digitalized dogs. Five healthy, male, mongrel dogs received a therapeutic regimen of digoxin (0.1 mg/kg on day 1 in three divided doses followed by 0.025 mg/kg per day) orally for 2-4 months. This resulted in plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.1 to 4.7 ng/ml as determined by radioimmunoassay. Six control dogs received daily gelatin capsules by mouth. ECGs monitored throughout the study showed no changes. Digitalized dogs had elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations (347 vs. 137 pg/ml in controls) and no change in plasma epinephrine concentrations. Digitalized dogs had elevated glomerular filtration rates (0.74 vs. 0.94 ml/min per g of kidney) without significant changes in renal handling of electrolytes and water. All of the above studies were done without the aid of restraining drugs or infusions. The animals were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital for in vitro studies. In digitalized dogs, microsomal Na+ + K+ ATPase-specific activity was 26 to 33% lower in the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla, and 46% lower in the cardiac left ventricle than in control dogs. Digitalization did not alter the osmolalities of renal tissues. We conclude that chronic reduction Na+ + K+ ATPase activity by one-third dose does not cause abnormalities in renal handling of electrolytes and water, and inhibition of Na+ + K+ ATPase in the left ventricular muscle by one-half is associated with no obvious ECG changes in the dog. Further, elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations may contribute to both the therapeutic and the toxic effects of digitalis. PMID:6266687

  11. The dog genome.

    PubMed

    Galibert, F; André, C

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few centuries, several hundred dog breeds have been artificially selected through intense breeding, resulting in the modern dog population having the widest polymorphism spectrum in terms of body shape, behavior and aptitude among mammals. Unfortunately, this diversification has predisposed most breeds to specific diseases of genetic origin. The highly fragmented nature of the dog population offers a great opportunity to track the genes and alleles responsible for these diseases as well as for the various phenotypic traits. This has led to a thorough analysis of the dog genome. Here, we report the main results obtained during the last ten years, culminating in the recent publication of a complete dog genome sequence. PMID:18753768

  12. Detection of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia vogeli, and Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the Brain of Dogs Naturally Infected with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Cardinot, Cinthya B; Silva, José E S; Yamatogi, Ricardo S; Nunes, Cáris M; Biondo, Alexander W; Vieira, Rafael F C; Junior, João P Araujo; Marcondes, Mary

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Leishmania infantum and possible co-infection with Anaplasma platys , Babesia vogeli, Ehrlichia canis , and Toxoplasma gondii in the brain of 24 dogs naturally infected by L. infantum . A total of 24 mongrel adult dogs (22 clinically affected, 2 with neurological signs, and 2 subclinically infected) aged between 2 and 5 yr, naturally infected by visceral leishmaniasis, were selected. Fragments from meninges, frontal cortex, thalamus, cerebellum, and choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles and fourth ventricle were collected, mixed, and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in 95.8% (23/24) of the infected dogs, including the subclinically infected. A total of 14/24 (58.3%) dogs were co-infected by E. canis and L. infantum , 4/24 (16.7%) were co-infected by E. canis , B. vogeli, and L. infantum , 2/24 (8.3%) were co-infected by B. vogeli and L. infantum , and 1/24 (4.2%) dog was co-infected by E. canis , B. vogeli, T. gondii , and L. infantum . All 24 brain samples tested negative for A. platys . These results demonstrate that L. infantum is able to penetrate into the brain parenchyma, either alone or in association to other zoonotic pathogens. In addition, qPCR could be considered for adequate evaluation of Leishmania in the brain tissue of dogs with neurological signs that have died. PMID:26765523

  13. Dextrose containing intravenous fluid impairs outcome and increases death after eight minutes of cardiac arrest and resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    D'Alecy, L G; Lundy, E F; Barton, K J; Zelenock, G B

    1986-09-01

    Use of dextrose in intravenous resuscitation fluids is common practice; however, this study indicates that 5% dextrose solutions, even if administered in physiologic quantities, greatly worsens the outcome of survivable cardiac arrest. Twelve adult male mongrel dogs were premedicated with morphine, anesthetized with halothane, instrumented, intubated, and ventilated. Each dog was first given 500 ml of either lactated Ringer's (LR) (n = 6) or 5% dextrose in LR (D5LR) (n = 6). Halothane was stopped and fibrillation was induced (60 Hz). Blood glucose just before cardiac arrest was 129 mg/dl in the LR dogs and was increased to 335 mg/dl in the D5LR dogs. After eight minutes of arrest, resuscitation, including internal cardiac massage and standard advanced cardiac life support drug protocols (modified for dogs), was begun. When stable cardiac rhythm was obtained, the chest was closed, and LR or D5LR continued until a total of 1L was given. A neurologic score (0 = normal to 100 = dead) was assigned at 1, 2, 6, and 24 hours. The LR group did not differ statistically from the D5LR group in operative time, number of defibrillatory shocks, time to spontaneous ventilation, time to extubation, or drugs required. Resuscitation was successful in all six LR and five of six D5LR group; however, by 2 hours after resuscitation and thereafter, D5LR group had a significantly greater neurologic deficit (p less than 0.05) than did the LR group. By 9 hours, four of six D5LR dogs displayed convulsive activity and died. At 24 hours the D5LR group had a greater (p less than 0.008) neurologic deficit (82 +/- 11) than did the LR group (21 +/- 7), which walked and ate. We conclude that the addition of 5% dextrose to standard intravenous fluids greatly increases the morbidity and mortality associated with cardiac resuscitation. PMID:3738770

  14. Traumatic lung injury attributed to tornadic activity-induced barometric pressure changes in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Cichocki, Brandy N; Dugat, Danielle R; Snider, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old castrated male Italian Greyhound (dog 1) and an approximately 1-year-old female Labrador Retriever (dog 2) were evaluated because of respiratory distress 8 and 10 days, respectively, after a tornado. CLINICAL FINDINGS No obvious external injuries were identified auscultation revealed decreased bronchovesicular sounds in the affected hemithorax of both dogs. Clinicopathologic changes were mild, with evidence of inflammation in both dogs. Thoracic radiography of both dogs revealed pneumothorax and pleural effusion with effacement of the diaphragm; findings on CT included severe pulmonary atelectasis of affected lung lobes with normal bronchial tree configurtion and no evidence of diaphragmatic hernia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory thoracotomy of both dogs confirmed CT findings Pulmonary parenchymal damage consistent with a large rupture was found in both patients. A large hematoma was adhered to the ruptured lung lobe of dog 1. Grossly affected lung tissue was removed; histologic examination revealed atelectasis, pulmonary fib osis, thrombosis, and minimal (dog 1) to marked (dog 2) inflammation Microbial culture of lung tissue yielded no growth for dog 1 and Streptococcus spp and Escherichia coli susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for dog 2. Dog 1 had a recurrence of pneumothorax treated by drainage with a thoracostomy tube 1 month after surgery. Eighteen months after surgery, both dogs were reportedly doing well. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Development of clinical signs after a tornado, together with clinical, diagnostic imaging, surgical, and histologic findings led to a presumptive diagnosis of pulmonary barotrauma for both dogs. Long-term outcome for these dogs, treated at a referral hospital, was good. PMID:27172344

  15. Lungworm (Crenosoma vulpis) infection in dogs on Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed Central

    Bihr, T; Conboy, G A

    1999-01-01

    Crenosoma vulpis is a nematode lungworm that is highly prevalent in the red fox population of Atlantic Canada. Dogs are susceptible to infection with clinical signs consisting primarily of a chronic cough. A recent report of C. vulpis infection in 3 dogs on Prince Edward Island prompted an investigation into the importance of this parasite as a cause of chronic respiratory disease in Island dogs. A general prevalence was determined through the necropsy of dogs euthanized at the local humane society. Lungs were removed and examined for parasites using a lung flush technique. Rectal feces was collected and examined for first-stage larvae using the Baermann technique and zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation. Ten of 310 dogs (3.2%) were positive with 0-35 worms (mean = 11.0 +/- 13.4) recovered. First-stage larvae of C. vulpis were recovered in the rectal feces of the one animal in which no worms were recovered on lung flush. A second survey was conducted examining fecal samples with the Baermann technique from afebrile dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough that had no history of recent anthelmintic treatment and showed no signs of cardiac disease, based on physical examination. Fifteen of 55 dogs examined (27.3%) were definitively diagnosed as C. vulpis-positive. All of the infected dogs were treated with fenbendazole (50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. q24 h for 3-7 days). Clinical signs resolved in all of the dogs and fecal samples were negative 2-4 weeks posttreatment. It was concluded that C. vulpis infection was a significant cause of upper respiratory disease in dogs on Prince Edward Island and should be considered in all dogs with presenting signs of chronic cough. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:12001335

  16. Impact of Toceranib/Piroxicam/Cyclophosphamide Maintenance Therapy on Outcome of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma following Amputation and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mathie, Tamra; Stingle, Nicole; Portela, Roberta; Pennell, Michael L.; Clifford, Craig A.; Rosenberg, Mona P.; Vail, David M.; Williams, Laurel E.; Cronin, Kim L.; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Borgatti, Antonella; Henry, Carolyn J.; Bailey, Dennis B.; Locke, Jennifer; Northrup, Nicole C.; Crawford-Jakubiak, Martin; Gill, Virginia L.; Klein, Mary K.; Ruslander, David M.; Thamm, Doug H.; Phillips, Brenda; Post, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy. Methods and Findings This was a randomized, prospective clinical trial in which dogs with OSA free of gross metastatic disease (n = 126) received carboplatin chemotherapy (4 doses) following amputation. On study entry, dogs were randomized to receive piroxicam/cyclophosphamide with or without toceranib (n = 63 each) after completing chemotherapy. Patient demographics were not significantly different between both groups. During or immediately following carboplatin chemotherapy, 32 dogs (n = 13 toceranib; n = 19 control) developed metastatic disease, and 13 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Following carboplatin chemotherapy, 81 dogs (n = 46 toceranib; n = 35 control) received the metronomic treatment; 35 dogs (n = 20 toceranib; n = 15 control) developed metastatic disease during the maintenance therapy, and 26 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Nine toceranib-treated and 11 control dogs completed the study without evidence of metastatic disease 1-year following amputation. Toceranib-treated dogs experienced more episodes of diarrhea, neutropenia and weight loss than control dogs, although these toxicities were low-grade and typically resolved with supportive care. More toceranib-treated dogs (n = 8) were removed from the study for therapy-associated adverse events compared to control dogs (n = 1). The median DFI for control and toceranib treated dogs was 215 and 233 days, respectively (p = 0.274); the median OS for control and toceranib treated dogs was 242 and 318 days, respectively (p = 0.08). The one year survival rate for control dogs was 35% compared to 38% for dogs receiving toceranib. Conclusions The

  17. Allopurinol Resistance in Leishmania infantum from Dogs with Disease Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Jaffe, Charles L.; David, Lior; Baneth, Gad

    2016-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic, life threatening parasitic disease. Domestic dogs are the main peridomestic reservoir, and allopurinol is the most frequently used drug for the control of infection, alone or in combination with other drugs. Resistance of Leishmania strains from dogs to allopurinol has not been described before in clinical studies. Methodology/Principal Findings Following our observation of clinical disease relapse in dogs under allopurinol treatment, we tested susceptibility to allopurinol of L. infantum isolated from groups of dogs pre-treatment, treated in remission, and with disease relapse during treatment. Promastigote isolates obtained from four treated relapsed dogs (TR group) showed an average half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 996 μg/mL. A significantly lower IC50 (P = 0.01) was found for isolates from ten dogs before treatment (NT group, 200 μg/mL), as well as for five isolates obtained from treated dogs in remission (TA group, 268 μg/mL). Axenic amastigotes produced from isolates of the TR group also showed significantly higher (P = 0.002) IC50 compared to the NT group (1678 and 671 μg/mL, respectively). The lower sensitivity of intracellular amastigotes from the TR group relative to those from the NT group (P = 0.002) was confirmed using an infected macrophage model (6.3% and 20% growth inhibition, respectively at 300 μg/mL allopurinol). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate allopurinol resistance in L. infantum and to associate it with disease relapse in the canine host. These findings are of concern as allopurinol is the main drug used for long term control of the disease in dogs, and resistant L. infantum strains may enhance uncontrolled transmission to humans and to other dogs. PMID:26735519

  18. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  19. Dogs discriminate identical twins.

    PubMed

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  20. Dogs Discriminate Identical Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pinc, Ludvík; Bartoš, Luděk; Reslová, Alice; Kotrba, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown variation among experimental attempts to establish whether human monozygotic twins that are genetically identical also have identical individual scents. In none of the cases were the dogs able to distinguish all the individual scents of monozygotic twins living in the same environment if the scents were presented to them separately. Ten specially trained police German Shepherd dogs of three Czech Republic Police Regional Headquarters were used for scent identification in our study. The dogs were supposed to match scents of two monozygotic pairs (5 and 7 years old) and two dizygotic twin pairs (8 and 13 years old). Scents were collected on cotton squares stored in glass jars. Dog handlers were blind to the experiment details. In each trial (line-up), one scent was used as a starting scent and the dog was then sent to determine if any of the 7 presented glass jars contained a matching scent. Scents of children of similar ages were used as distractors. In the matching procedure, the dogs matched correctly the scent of one twin with the other, as well as two scents collected from every single identical and non-identical twin to prove their efficacy and likewise, the presence of the matching twin scent in any given glass jar. All dogs in all trials distinguished correctly the scents of identical as well as non-identical twins. All dogs similarly matched positively two scents collected from the same individuals. Our findings indicated that specially trained German Shepherd dogs are able to distinguish individual scents of identical twins despite the fact that they live in the same environment, eat the same food and even if the scents are not presented to them simultaneously. PMID:21698282

  1. Increased apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) during general and epidural anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Simeonova, Galina P; Slavov, Emil; Usunov, Roustislav; Halacheva, Krasimira; Dinev, Dinco N

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hypothesis that perioperative lymphocytopenia was due to apoptosis of these cells induced by either halothane or epidural anaesthesia in dogs. The relationship between apoptosis induction and plasma concentrations of the stress hormone cortisol and the cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10 was examined as well. The study was performed on 22 healthy mongrel dogs, equal numbers from both genders, weighing 18.3 +/- 2.9 kg, and aged between 3-5 years. Dogs were divided in three groups. Eight of the animals were anaesthetized with halothane, another eight received epidural anaesthesia using lidocaine, and six served as controls. Venous blood samples were obtained immediately before (0 minute) anaesthesia, during deep anaesthesia (120 minute), and on the next day (24 hour) in order to determine the following parameters: the total lymphocyte counts, the percentage of apoptotic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by flow cytometry, plasma concentrations of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and plasma cortisol levels by radioimmune assay. Both halothane and epidural anaesthesia in dogs induces apoptosis of PBMC with slight decrease in total lymphocyte counts. These immunomodulatory effects were transient and faded till the 24th hour. Concerning the mechanism of inducing lymphocyte apoptosis by general or epidural anaesthesia, it seemed that neither cortisol, nor the tested cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-10 were implicated in this process. Further investigations are necessary to confirm this assumption. PMID:18491210

  2. Effects of Lidocaine, Dexmedetomidine or Their Combination on the Minimum Alveolar Concentration of Sevoflurane in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    MORAN-MUÑOZ, Rafael; IBANCOVICHI, J. A.; Gutierrez-BLANCO, Eduardo; ACEVEDO-ARCIQUE, Carlos M.; Victoria MORA, J. Mauro; TENDILLO, Francisco J.; SANTOS-GONZALEZ, Martin; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effects of lidocaine (LIDO) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) or their combination (LIDO–DEX), administered by constant-rate infusion (CRI), on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs. Seven healthy mongrel dogs were used with a 2-week washout interval between treatments in this study. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen, and MAC of sevoflurane was determined after 90 min equilibration period in the dogs (SEV-MACBASAL). Then, sevoflurane MAC was determined again in the dogs after 45 min equilibration period of one of the following treatments: an intravenous loading dose of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by 6 mg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACLIDO); an intravenous loading dose of dexmedetomidine 2 µg/kg followed by 2 µg/kg/hr CRI (SEV-MACDEX); or their combination (SEV-MACLIDO-DEX). These SEV-MACs were determined in duplicate. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and post hoc Tuckey test when appropriate. The SEV-MACBASAL was 1.82 ± 0.06%, SEV-MACLIDO was 1.38 ± 0.08%, SEV-MACDEX was 1.22 ± 0.10%, and SEV-MACLIDO-DEX was 0.78 ± 0.06%. The CRI administration of lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination produced a significant reduction in the MAC of sevoflurane by 26.1 ± 9.0% (P<0.0001), 43.7 ± 11.8% (P<0.0002) and 54.4 ± 9.8% (P<0.0001), respectively. The MAC reduction was significantly greater after the CRI combination of lidocaine and dexmedetomidine when compared with lidocaine CRI (P<0.0001) or dexmedetomidine CRI treatments (P<0.025). PMID:24572631

  3. Recovery from myocardial stunning is faster with desflurane compared with propofol in chronically instrumented dogs.

    PubMed

    Meissner, A; Weber, T P; Van Aken, H; Zbieranek, K; Rolf, N

    2000-12-01

    Volatile anesthetics exert a protective role in myocardial ischemia. An increase in sympathetic tone might exert deleterious effects on the ischemic myocardium. The use of the volatile anesthetic desflurane in myocardial ischemia is controversial because of its sympathetic activation. We compared propofol and desflurane on myocardial stunning in chronically instrumented dogs. Mongrel dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, rate of rise of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed the induction of reversible LAD-ischemia. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over fashion on separate days: 1) Induction of 10 min of LAD-ischemia during desflurane anesthesia and 2) Induction of 10 min of LAD-ischemia during propofol anesthesia. Both anesthetics were discontinued immediately after completion of ischemia. WTF was measured at predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. Both anesthetics caused a significant decrease of WTF in the LAD-perfused myocardium. LAD-ischemia led to a further significant decrease of LAD-WTF in both groups. During the first 3 h of reperfusion, WTF was significantly larger in the desflurane group. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were greater during ischemia and the first 10 min of reperfusion in the desflurane group compared with the propofol group. Recovery from myocardial stunning in dogs was faster when desflurane was used at the time of ischemia as compared with propofol anesthesia. The mechanism for this difference is unclear, but sympathetic activation by desflurane was not a limiting factor for ischemic tolerance in chronically instrumented dogs. PMID:11093975

  4. Cholangiohepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Forrester, S D; Rogers, K S; Relford, R L

    1992-06-01

    Cholangiohepatitis was diagnosed in a dog with a 4-day history of anorexia, vomiting, fever, and icterus. Additional findings included signs of depression, dehydration, hepatosplenomegaly, and abdominal discomfort. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and specimens of liver, spleen, and bile were obtained. Histologic evaluation of liver and spleen revealed acute, suppurative cholangio-hepatitis and splenitis, respectively. Cultures of liver and bile yielded Klebsiella sp. The dog responded to rehydration and intravenous administration of chloramphenicol. Although uncommon, cholangiohepatitis should be suspected in dogs with anorexia, fever, vomiting, icterus, and signs of abdominal discomfort. Definitive diagnosis requires bacterial cultures of liver and bile. Administration of an appropriate antibiotic should resolve clinical signs. PMID:1624352

  5. [Fatal dog bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Pollak, S; Mortinger, H

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of her parents, a girl of 4 months was killed by a 2-year old male Rottweiler dog belonging to the same family. The dog's front teeth left marks of individual, circular or scratch-like abrasions as well as slit-like severances of the skin, arranged in curved lines. The pattern of the skin-lesions largely correspond to the anatomy of the dog's set of teeth. No tissue defects (effects of devour) could be detected. Multiple traumatization of the trunk had led to serial rib fractures and ruptures of several organs. PMID:2818522

  6. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  7. Intraduodenal capsaicin inhibits gastric migrating motor complex via an extrinsic neural reflex in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Shibata, C; Naito, H; Ueno, T; Jin, X-L; Funayama, Y; Fukushima, K; Matsuno, S; Sasaki, I

    2002-10-01

    The aim was to study the effect of intraduodenal capsaicin on interdigestive gastric contractions. Mongrel dogs were equipped with strain-gauge force transducers to measure gastroduodenal motility. The effects of intraduodenal capsaicin with or without pharmacological antagonists on spontaneous and motilin-induced interdigestive gastric contractions and on plasma motilin were studied in dogs with intact stomachs. The effect of intraduodenal capsaicin on gastric contractions was also studied in vagally denervated gastric (Heidenhain) pouch and vagally innervated antral pouch. Intraduodenal capsaicin inhibited spontaneous and motilin-induced gastric contractions. The spontaneous peak in plasma motilin was inhibited by intraduodenal capsaicin. The effect of intraduodenal capsaicin on motilin-induced gastric contractions was not affected by blockade of nitric oxide synthase, or by beta-adrenoceptor antagonist. Administration of alpha-adrenergic blocker inhibited basal interdigestive gastric motility. Intraduodenal capsaicin had no effect on contractions in the Heidenhain pouch but inhibited those in vagally innervated antral pouch. Duodenal afferent fibres stimulated by capsaicin inhibit gastric contractions via a nitric oxide-independent extrinsic neural reflex. PMID:12358683

  8. [Recombinant thrombopoietin antiradiation therapeutic effectiveness evaluation on dogs according to hemopoiesis and survival criteria].

    PubMed

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shliakova, T G; Shchegoleva, R A; Lisina, N I; Zorin, V V

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human thrombopoietin (rh TPO) has been investigated as a means of acute radiation disease urgent treatment in the experiments on 24 mongrel dogs. The animals were exposed to total acute gamma-irradiation at the doses of 3.5 Gy (exceeding LD50/45 under our conditions) and 3 Gy. All the dogs including control ones received antibiotics Ampicillin and Gentamicin twice a day during the acute period from the 7th to the 21st day. TPO was injected one time s/c or i/v at the doses of5 or 10 mkg/kg 1.5-2 h after exposure. TPO at a dose of 5 mkg/kg was ineffective. TPO at a dose of 10 mkg/kg had a positive effect on the kinetics of blood forming units, especially platelets (nadir, restoration rate) in terms of the 45-day survival. As a result, in TPO groups, nadir averaged at both exposure doses on leucocytes (1.3-1.4) x 10(9)/l vs (0.70-0.75) x 10(9)/l in control groups and on thrombocytes (102-112) x 10(9)/l vs (44-33) x 10(9)/l in control ones. Despite the low number of animals in experimental groups, the results permit to regard rhTPO as a worth-while urgent therapeutic means for the acute radiation damage treatment and preventing thrombopenia. PMID:24450209

  9. Quantitative and qualitative scintigraphic measurement of renal function in dogs exposed to toxic doses of Gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Lora-Michiels, M; Anzola, K; Amaya, G; Solano, M

    2001-01-01

    Five, 3-month-old mongrel dogs weighing between 4.5 to 5.5 kg were studied to evaluate and compare the efficiency of 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-MAG3, and 99mTc-DMSA in detecting gentamicin-induced renal tubular injury. After baseline renograms using all three methods, all dogs received daily intramuscular injections of gentamicin at a dose of 30-45 mg/kg. Additional studies were obtained after a cumulative dose of 450, 1,575, and 2,250 mg of gentamicin was reached. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), and percentage of total renal uptake measurements were calculated. Baseline and post-gentamicin injection blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine values were determined. A Duncan test revealed significant renal function impairment at 450 mgs of cumulated gentamicin with 99mTc-DMSA and at 1,575 mgs of cumulated gentamicin for 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-MAG3. There was no correlation between BUN and serum creatinine values when compared to gentamicin (p > 0.05). The images obtained with 99mTc-MAG3 were of better quality than those obtained with 99mTc-DTPA even under severe renal dysfunction. Percentage of 99mTc-DMSA uptake indicated renal damage, before than GFR and ERPF. BUN and serum creatinine measurements were poor indicators of gentamicin-induced renal failure. PMID:11768525

  10. Effect of loading on the development of nerve fibers around oral implants in the dog mandible.

    PubMed

    Wada, S; Kojo, T; Wang, Y H; Ando, H; Nakanishi, E; Zhang, M; Fukuyama, H; Uchida, Y

    2001-06-01

    Occlusal forces cause stress which morphologically affects the supporting tissues of implants. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of occlusal forces on the distribution of neurofilament protein (NFP)-positive nerve fibers in the tissue of peri-implant bone. The bilateral 2nd, 3rd and 4th mandibular premolars and the 1st molars were extracted from three mongrel dogs. After 4 months of healing, 4 screw-type implants were inserted in the oral cavity. Three months after insertion, the implants on the molar site were loaded by occlusal forces, while those on the premolar site were unloaded. After a further 3 months, the dogs were sacrificed, and specimens were prepared for immunohistochemical NFP-positive staining by the labeled-streptavidin-biotin method. Many NFP-positive nerve fibers were found in the tissues of the loaded site when compared with the unloaded site. These fibers were localized in both the bone marrow space and in the peri-implant fibrous tissue. They had two types of nerve endings: simple free nerve endings, and nerve endings with tree-like ramifications. The present results suggest that loading by occlusal force causes an increase in the number of NFP-positive nerve fibers, many of which have free nerve endings in the peri-implant tissue. The possible role of these NFP-positive nerve fibers is discussed. PMID:11359478

  11. Surgical treatment of mammary carcinomas in dogs with or without postoperative chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tran, C M; Moore, A S; Frimberger, A E

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study identified prognostic factors associated with survival; and compared survival data in 94 canine mammary carcinoma (MCA) dogs treated with surgery (n = 58), or surgery and adjunct chemotherapy (n = 36), and a subset of dogs with poor prognostic factors. On multivariate analysis independent predictors of median survival time (MST) were clinical stage, lymphatic invasion (LI; present 179 days; none 1098 days), ulceration (present 118 days; none 443 days) and surgical margins (incomplete 70 days; complete 872 days). Complete surgical margins were associated with MST in dogs with stages 1-3 MCA (incomplete 68 days; complete 1098 days) and dogs with LI (incomplete 70 days; complete 347 days). There was no statistically significant improvement in MST in dogs with advanced disease (stage 4 or LI) treated with adjunctive chemotherapy (chemotherapy 228 days; none 194 days); although five dogs with complete surgical margins that received mitoxantrone and carboplatin had a mean survival of 1139 days. PMID:24735412

  12. Jealousy in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christine R.; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some “primordial” form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans. PMID:25054800

  13. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  14. Global Positioning System Derived Performance Measures Are Responsive Indicators of Physical Activity, Disease and the Success of Clinical Treatments in Domestic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Elizabeth A.; Guthrie, James W.; Ellwood, Stephen A.; Mellanby, Richard J.; Clements, Dylan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of Global Positioning System receiver (GPS) derived performance measures for differentiating between: 1) different outdoor activities in healthy dogs; 2) healthy dogs and those with osteoarthritis; 3) osteoarthritic dogs before and after treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesia. Design Prospective study. Animals Ten healthy dogs and seven dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint (OA dogs). Procedure Healthy dogs were walked on a standard route on-lead, off-lead and subjected to playing activity (chasing a ball) whilst wearing a GPS collar. Each dog was walked for five consecutive days. Dogs with OA were subjected to a single off-lead walk whilst wearing a GPS collar, and then administered oral Carprofen analgesia daily for two weeks. OA dogs were then subjected to the same walk, again wearing a GPS collar. Results GPS derived measures of physical performance could differentiate between on-lead activity, off-lead activity and playing activity in healthy dogs, and between healthy dogs and OA dogs. Variation in the performance measures analysed was greater between individual dogs than for individual dogs on different days. Performance measures could differentiate healthy dogs from OA dogs. OA Dogs treated with Carprofen analgesia showed improvements in their physical performance, which returned to values indistinguishable from those of healthy dogs on nearly all the measures assessed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance GPS derived measures of physical performance in dogs are objective, easy to quantify, and can be used to gauge the effects of disease and success of clinical treatments. Specific stimuli can be used to modulate physical performance beyond the self-governed boundaries that dogs will naturally express when allowed to exercise freely without stimulation. PMID:25692761

  15. Hybrid vigour in dogs?

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Frank W; Arnott, Elizabeth R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2.5% to -6.0% for components of a standardised applied-stimulus behavioural test, and the second being at least +12.4% for chance of graduating as a guide dog. The third study provides a minimum estimate of negative actual hybrid vigour: crossbreds between Labrador retrievers and poodles had a higher prevalence of multifocal retinal dysplasia than the average prevalence in their purebred parent breeds. The lack of estimates of actual hybrid vigour can be overcome by including the exact nature of the cross (e.g. F1, F2 or backcross) and their purebred parental breeds in the specification of mixed-bred dogs. Even if only F1 crossbreds can be categorised, this change would enable researchers to conduct substantial investigations to determine whether hybrid vigour has any utility for dog breeding. PMID:27387730

  16. Disease control through fertility control: Secondary benefits of animal birth control in Indian street dogs.

    PubMed

    Yoak, Andrew J; Reece, John F; Gehrt, Stanley D; Hamilton, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    We sought to (1) survey sexually intact street dogs for a wide range of diseases in three cities in Rajasthan, India and (2) evaluate links between the health of non-treated dogs and both the presence and duration of animal birth control (ABC) programs. ABC regimes sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs in an attempt to control their population and the spread of rabies. They are commonly suggested to improve the health of those dogs they serve, but here we provide evidence that these benefits also extend to untreated dogs in the community. Viral and bacterial disease seroprevalences were assessed in 240 sexually intact street dogs from Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Sawai Madhopur cities in October and September 2011. Those individuals and 50 additional dogs were assessed for the presence of ticks, fleas, fight wounds, and given body condition scores. Dogs in cities with an ABC program had with significantly (p<0.05) higher overall body condition scores, lower prevalence of open wounds likely caused by fighting, flea infestations, infectious canine hepatitis, Ehrlichia canis, Leptospira interrogans serovars, and canine distemper virus antibodies. However, those same dogs in cities with ABC programs had significantly higher prevalence of Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) infestations. Canine parvovirus and Brucella canis prevalences were not significantly different between cities. This study is the first to demonstrate the health benefits of ABC on non-vaccinated diseases and non-treated individuals. PMID:24239212

  17. Efficacy and safety of deracoxib for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bienhoff, Stephen E; Smith, Eric S; Roycroft, Linda M; Roberts, Elizabeth S; Baker, Larry D

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of deracoxib administered at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days was assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery in dogs. Client-owned dogs scheduled for dental extractions were premedicated with butorphanol and randomly assigned to receive either deracoxib (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31) preoperatively and again once daily for 2 additional days. Dogs were evaluated prior to and after surgery using a modified Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (mGCPS). Dogs could be rescued at any time if they scored ≥4 on the mGCPS or in cases of obvious discomfort. Rescued dogs were considered treatment failures for determining treatment response and were removed from the study. Of the 62 dogs enrolled, 57 were usable for the efficacy analyses and all were assessed for safety. Four of 27 deracoxib-treated dogs (14.8%) were rescued compared to 20 of 30 placebo dogs (66.7%) (P = 0.0006). Deracoxib-treated dogs also had numerically lower mGCPS scores. Eight of 31 deracoxib dogs (26%) had adverse events reported compared to 6 of 31 placebo dogs (19%). Results indicate perioperative administration of deracoxib to dogs at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly improves analgesia after dental surgery. PMID:23738113

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Deracoxib for the Control of Postoperative Pain and Inflammation Associated with Dental Surgery in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bienhoff, Stephen E.; Smith, Eric S.; Roycroft, Linda M.; Roberts, Elizabeth S.; Baker, Larry D.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of deracoxib administered at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days was assessed for the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with dental surgery in dogs. Client-owned dogs scheduled for dental extractions were premedicated with butorphanol and randomly assigned to receive either deracoxib (n = 31) or placebo (n = 31) preoperatively and again once daily for 2 additional days. Dogs were evaluated prior to and after surgery using a modified Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (mGCPS). Dogs could be rescued at any time if they scored ≥4 on the mGCPS or in cases of obvious discomfort. Rescued dogs were considered treatment failures for determining treatment response and were removed from the study. Of the 62 dogs enrolled, 57 were usable for the efficacy analyses and all were assessed for safety. Four of 27 deracoxib-treated dogs (14.8%) were rescued compared to 20 of 30 placebo dogs (66.7%) (P = 0.0006). Deracoxib-treated dogs also had numerically lower mGCPS scores. Eight of 31 deracoxib dogs (26%) had adverse events reported compared to 6 of 31 placebo dogs (19%). Results indicate perioperative administration of deracoxib to dogs at 1-2 mg/kg/day for 3 days significantly improves analgesia after dental surgery. PMID:23738113

  19. Bacterial overgrowth in the duodenum of dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Williams, D A; Batt, R M; McLean, L

    1987-07-15

    Bacterial overgrowth (greater than 10(5) colony-forming units/ml duodenal juice) in the duodenum was demonstrated in 8 of 11 dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). In 4 of these 8 dogs, the overgrowth included large numbers (greater than 10(4) colony-forming units/ml) of obligate anaerobic bacteria and was associated with decreased activities of several brush border marker enzymes and, in 2 dogs, with partial villous atrophy in the jejunum. Changes in the jejunal mucosa of the remaining dogs (with either no overgrowth or overgrowth of aerobic bacteria alone) were characterized by increased activities of some brush border disaccharides and of lysosomal hydrolases. One dog was euthanatized without treatment, at the owner's request. The response of 4 of the remaining 10 dogs treated with enzyme replacement alone was poor or suboptimal, and all of these 4 dogs had bacterial overgrowth. One of these dogs had an excellent clinical response when also given oxytetracycline orally for 14 days, but the other 3 dogs did not improve further in response to the same treatment. It was concluded that bacterial overgrowth in the duodenum is common in dogs with EPI and that, when such overgrowth includes large numbers of obligate anaerobes, there may be associated biochemical and morphologic abnormalities in jejunal mucosa. Functional disturbances related to abnormal intestinal microflora may be responsible for the failure of some dogs with EPI to respond fully to oral pancreatic enzyme supplementation without antibiotic therapy. PMID:3610795

  20. Managing Neuropathic Pain in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of the somatosensory system such as neuropathic pain are common in people with chronic neurologic and musculoskeletal diseases, yet these conditions remain an underappreciated morbidity in veterinary patients. This is likely because assessment of neuropathic pain in people relies heavily on self-reporting, something our veterinary patients are not able to do. The development of neuropathic pain is a complex phenomenon, and concepts related to it are frequently not addressed in the standard veterinary medical curriculum such that veterinarians may not recognize this as a potential problem in patients. The goals of this review are to discuss basic concepts in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain, provide definitions for common clinical terms used in association with the condition, and discuss pharmacological treatment options for dogs with neuropathic pain. The development of neuropathic pain involves key mechanisms such as ectopic afferent nerve activity, peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, impaired inhibitory modulation, and pathologic activation of microglia. Treatments aimed at reducing neuropathic pain are targeted at one or more of these mechanisms. Several drugs are commonly used in the veterinary clinical setting to treat neuropathic pain. These include gabapentin, pregabalin, amantadine, and amitriptyline. Proposed mechanisms of action for each drug, and known pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs are discussed. Strong evidence exists in the human literature for the utility of most of these treatments, but clinical veterinary-specific literature is currently limited. Future studies should focus on objective methods to document neuropathic pain and monitor response to therapy in veterinary patients. PMID:26942185

  1. [Diagnostic aspects of Borrelia-infections in dogs].

    PubMed

    Hovius, K E; Houwers, D J

    2007-08-15

    This paper discusses the problem of diagnosing borreliosis (Lyme disease) in dogs. A prospective cohort study in the Kempen district, a known Borrelia focus in The Netherlands, showed that dogs with the presumptive symptoms of borreliosis, episodic malaise and lameness, had significantly higher and longer lasting anti-Borrelia IgG titers than asymptomatic dogs. A small part of these dogs also had antibodies directed against the IR6 (C6) antigen which indicates persistent active Borrelia infection. A few typical case histories are presented. Dogs with episodic malaise and lameness with persistent high IgG titers are suspect of suffering from borreliosis. IR6 antibodies make this diagnosis likely. Initially, such patients should be treated with doxycyclin (10 mg/kg 1dd) for 10 days. If the symptoms recurr within a few months, a longer treatment (eg 6 weeks) should be considered. Bernese mountain dogs were strongly over-represented among the borreliosis patients in the cohort study and most high titered samples among those submitted for--diagnostic--serology appear to come from this breed, which suggests that these dogs have difficulties with clearing this tick-borne infection. PMID:17849909

  2. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  3. 90-Day toxicity study of dichloroacetate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cicmanec, J L; Condie, L W; Olson, G R; Wang, S R

    1991-08-01

    Male and female juvenile beagle dogs were dosed daily for 90 days with dichloroacetate (DCA). The compound was administered orally via gelatin capsules at doses of 0, 12.5, 39.5, and 72 mg/kg/day. Each dose group consisted of five males and five females. The dogs were observed clinically and blood samples were taken at 15-day intervals for hematologic and serum chemistry values. Decreased total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels were observed in mid- and high-dose dogs beginning at Day 30. Serum concentrations of LDH were elevated at Days 30 and 45 in females and at Day 75 in males treated with DCA at 72 mg/kg/day. One female of the high-dose group died at Day 50 and two high-dose males died at Days 51 and 74. Hindlimb partial paralysis was observed in many high-dose dogs. Vacuolization of myelinated white tracts of cerebrum, cerebellum, and/or spinal cord was observed in many high-dose dogs as well as some mid- and low-dose subjects. Degeneration of testicular germinal epithelium and syncytial giant cell formation was noted in males of all dose groups. Hepatic vacuolar change and chronic hepatitis appeared only in DCA-treated dogs. In addition, suppurative bronchopneumonia and chronic pancreatitis were noted in many high-dose and some middose subjects. A "no-adverse-effect level" was not determined in this study. PMID:1765225

  4. Hyperthyroid dog left ventricle has the same oxygen consumption versus pressure-volume area (PVA) relation as euthyroid dog.

    PubMed

    Suga, H; Tanaka, N; Ohgoshi, Y; Saeki, Y; Nakanishi, T; Futaki, S; Yaku, H; Goto, Y

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effects of hyperthyroidism on the relation between O2 consumption (Vo2) and the pressure-volume area (PVA) of the left ventricle (LV) in dogs. PVA is a measure of the total mechanical energy generated per beat of LV. Dogs were treated by daily intramuscular injection of 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg L-thyroxine over 2-5 weeks. Hyperthyroid dogs had a 40 times higher serum T4, a 40% higher sinus heart rate, and a 35% higher LV Emax (an index of ventricular contractility) than euthyroid dogs. Hyperthyroid dog hearts had linear Vo2-PVA relations like euthyroid dog hearts. The regression line was Vo2 = A x PVA + B, where A was 2.30 (dimensionless) and B was 0.53 J/beat per 100 g LV. B was significantly increased with dobutamine and decreased with propranolol, whereas A was not significantly changed by them. These A and B values were comparable to euthyroid data. Hyperthyroidism did not significantly affect myosin Ca-ATPase activity and V3-type myosin predominance, but increased the speed of the force transient response to length perturbation by 20%-70%, suggesting similar increases in crossbridge cycling rate. We conclude that in spite of accelerated crossbridge cycling rate the Vo2-PVA relation was not altered by hyperthyroidism in dogs. PMID:1830045

  5. Prevalence of borreliosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs and vectors in Voronezh Reserve (Russia).

    PubMed

    Volgina, N S; Romashov, B V; Romashova, N B; Shtannikov, A V

    2013-12-01

    Most of the dogs studied for the prevalence of CVBD have previously received acaricidal and insecticidal treatments. In the present work, a very specific population of dogs (Group 1) that had never been treated against ticks and mosquitoes was studied. Moreover, the territory occupied by this population has also never been treated, because it is a protected area--Voronezh Natural Reserve. Canine patients from veterinary clinics (Group 2) that had been treated against VBD vectors were studied for comparison. Eighty-two dogs (Group 1) were enrolled in June, 2008. Blood samples were tested using the IDEXX SNAP(®) 4Dx(®) test. A specific heartworm antigen was detected in 12.2% samples. The seroprevalence for Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found to be 34.1%. The antibodies to Borrelia C6 peptide and to Ehrlichia canis were detected in 2.4% of the samples. Almost all dogs with infections had no clinical signs. Only 3 mixed-infected dogs showed non-specific clinical signs. During the tick season, 358 Ixodes ricinus were collected; the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum was 21.9% and 0.6%, respectively. Four hundred and forty dogs (Group 2) were studied for comparison. Antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected only in one dog, seroprevalence for A. phagocytophilum represented 1.1%, no E. canis seropositive dogs were identified, and 8.2% dogs were found infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Fifty-six percent of dogs with dirofilariosis had clinical signs. All dogs with anaplasmosis showed specific clinical signs--fever, anemia, splenitis. Three dogs died within a few days. PMID:24054985

  6. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs. PMID:27487354

  7. Efficacy of a spot-on formulation of pyriprole on dogs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Fourie, J J; Horak, I G; de la Puente Redondo, V

    2010-09-18

    To determine the efficacy of a 12.5 per cent spot-on formulation of pyriprole (Prac-Tic; Novartis Animal Health) and that of a combination of 10 per cent imidacloprid and 2.5 per cent moxidectin (Advocate; Bayer Animal Health) against Sarcoptes scabiei on dogs, 20 naturally infested adult dogs were ranked according to their pretreatment mite counts, allocated to one of two groups and housed individually in pens. Two spot-on treatments with each product, 30 days apart, were administered. Mite counts and clinical assessments were performed on each dog two days before treatment, and 28, 60 and 90 days after treatment. Efficacy was measured on the basis of the presence or absence of live mites. Except for day 60 following treatment, on which a single dog in the group treated with pyriprole was positive, no live mites were found on the treated dogs during the assessments on days 28, 60 and 90. Thus, efficacy measured on the basis of this finding (day 90 assessment) was 100 per cent. On final assessment, all dogs treated with pyriprole had 100 per cent resolution of papules, but crusts resembling healing lesions were still present on two dogs. Those treated with imidacloprid and moxidectin had 100 per cent resolution of papules and crusts. Hair regrowth, to greater than 90 per cent of pretreatment hair cover, was observed on all 20 dogs. PMID:20852247

  8. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports. PMID:27389748

  9. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  10. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN51 Service Dogs AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Proposed... veterans in need of service dogs. Under current regulations, VA provides benefits to veterans with guide dogs, and this rulemaking would broaden and clarify those benefits. This rulemaking would...

  11. Surgical management of extrathoracic tracheal collapse in two large-breed dogs.

    PubMed

    Spodnick, G J; Nwadike, B S

    1997-12-15

    Collapse of the cervical portion of the trachea was diagnosed for 2 young large-breed dogs. Clinical signs included worsening respiratory stridor and coughing exacerbated by exercise. The diagnosis was confirmed by use of conventional radiography and fluoroscopy of the trachea. A polypropylene, spiral ring, extraluminal, tracheal prosthesis was used to successfully treat tracheal collapse in each dog. Although tracheal collapse typically affects middle-aged and old small-breed dogs, tracheal collapse should be considered as a differential diagnosis for large-breed dogs with a honking cough and respiratory stridor. PMID:9412681

  12. Administration of levothyroxine to euthyroid dogs does not affect echocardiographic and electrocardiographic measurements.

    PubMed

    Panciera, D L; Keene, B W; Mier, H C

    1992-07-01

    The effects of a replacement dose of levothyroxine on electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters in euthyroid dogs were examined. Two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiograms and electrocardiograms were obtained before and after administration of levothyroxine (0.5 mg m-2 twice a day) to 10 euthyroid dogs for a period of eight weeks; four untreated dogs acted as controls. The resting serum total thyroxine concentration was significantly increased in treated dogs during weeks 4 to 8. There were no significant differences in any of the echocardiographic or electrocardiographic measurements resulting from treatment. PMID:1410811

  13. The biological effects of radium-224 injected into dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    A life-span study was conducted in 128 beagle dogs to determine the biological effects of intravenously injected {sup 224}Ra chloride. The {sup 224}Ra chloride was prepared by the same method used for intravenous injections in humans who were treated for ankylosing spondylitis and tuberculosis. Thus the results obtained from dogs can be compared directly to the population of treated humans, both for the elucidation of the effect of exposure rate and for comparison with other radionuclides for which data for humans are unavailable. Using equal numbers of males and females, the dogs were injected with one of four levels of {sup 224}Ra resulting in initial body burdens of approximately 13, 40, 120 or 350 kBq of {sup 224}Ra kg{sup -1} body mass. A control group of dogs was injected with diluent only. All dogs were divided further into three groups for which the amount of injected {sup 224}Ra (half-life of 3.62 days) or diluent was given in a single injection or divided equally into 10 or 50 weekly injections. As a result of these three injection schedules, the accumulation of dose from the injected {sup 224}Ra was distributed over approximately 1, 3 or 12 months. Each injection schedule included four different injection levels resulting in average absorbed {alpha}-particle doses to bone of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Gy, respectively. The primary early effect observed was a hematological dyscrasia in the dogs receiving either of the two highest injection levels. The effect was most severe in the dogs receiving a single injection of {sup 224}Ra and resulted in the death of three dogs injected at the highest level. The late-occurring biological effects were tumors. Bone tumors were the most common followed by tumors in the nasal mucosa. 52 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Facial dog attack injuries.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2015-02-01

    The exposed position of the face makes it vulnerable to dog bite injuries. This fact combined with the short stature of children makes them a high-risk group for such attacks. In contrast to wounds inflicted by assaults and accidents, dog bite wounds are deep puncture type wounds compounded by the presence of pathologic bacteria from the saliva of the attacking dog. This, combined with the presence of crushed, devitalized tissue makes these wounds highly susceptible to infection. Key to successful management of such wounds are meticulous cleansing of the wound, careful debridement, primary repair, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and rabies and tetanus immunization where indicated. This review presents an overview of the epidemiology, presentation, management of such emergencies, and the recent advances in the care of such patients. PMID:25829713

  15. Examination of the thoracic cavity and lung lobectomy by means of thoracoscopy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    García, F; Prandi, D; Peña, T; Franch, J; Trasserra, O; de la Fuente, J

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of thoracoscopy for viewing the chest cavity and performing pulmonary lobectomy was assessed in 8 mongrel dogs. Previously, selective intubation had been performed in another group of dogs (n = 8) in order to monitor respiratory physiology and assess its safety. Each hemithorax was intubated using a double-barrelled endotracheal tube with one barrel placed in the left main bronchus and the other in the bifurcation of the trachea. The thoracoscope was introduced through a cannula inserted through a 2-cm incision at the ventral third of the left 5th intercostal space. The cranial, dorsal, and caudal surfaces of the pleura, lobes of the left lung, and the mediastinum were examined. A 2nd cannula was located in the dorsal 3rd of the 5th intercostal space with a prior incision and used for the introduction of forceps to separate the viscera. To biopsy, a 3rd cannula was inserted at the dorsal third of the 8th intercostal space with a prior incision, through which a 12-mm diameter stapler was introduced. Should a lobectomy be necessary, a 4th cannula is located in the middle third of the 4th intercostal space. Excision of the left caudal pulmonary lobe was performed through the incision made for the 12-mm diameter cannula (8th intercostal space); a twisting movement facilitated removal. Thoracoscopy is a procedure that can be used in dogs and is particularly suitable for examination, collection of biopsy specimens, and even lung lobectomies. Images Figure 2.1. Figure 2.2. Figure 2.3. Figure 2.4. Figure 2.5. Figure 2.6. Figure 2.7. Figure 2.8. PMID:9592615

  16. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (P<0.05 from GluBC). Compared with NaCl infusion, attenuated both Delta-Tre and Delta-Tmu BC and AC, respectively. Compared with GluBC, GluAC attenuated Delta-Tmu but not Delta-Tre. Thus. with similar heat production, the mechanism for attenuation at bad body temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  17. Effects of intravenous methyl palmoxirate on the turnover and oxidation of fatty acids in conscious dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.; Jensen, M.D.; Miles, J.M. )

    1991-04-01

    Methyl palmoxirate (MP) is a member of a class of hypoglycemic agents that inhibit fatty acid oxidation in vitro. The studies presented here were undertaken to determine the effects of intravenous (IV) MP on tracer-determined rates of fatty acid oxidation and systemic adipose tissue lipolysis in dogs. MP (40 mg/kg) was administered IV to five mongrel dogs using a primed continuous infusion of (1-{sup 14}C)palmitate to determine palmitate kinetics. Palmitate concentration and rate of appearance decreased rapidly (from 155 +/- 25 to 47 +/- 6 mumol/L and 2.9 +/- 0.5 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, at 15 minutes, both P less than .05). Palmitate oxidation also decreased, from 1.5 +/- 0.4 to 0.3 +/- 0.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P less than .05. Oxidative clearance decreased by approximately 50% 90 minutes after MP administration (P less than .05). Fractional oxidation of palmitate also decreased by approximately 40% (P less than .05). Plasma insulin increased from 45 +/- 6 to 240 +/- 93 pmol/L at 15 minutes (P less than .05). Plasma glucose decreased over the course of study by approximately 20% (P less than .05). In summary, MP has a specific inhibitory effect on plasma free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation in dogs, confirming previous in vitro observations in an in vivo model. In addition, it has a potent antilipolytic effect when administered IV, an effect likely mediated by stimulation of insulin secretion. The observation that systemic FFA oxidation was only partially suppressed at this relatively high dose of MP is consistent with previous studies suggesting that MP may exert its major effect in the liver, and may be less potent in extrahepatic tissues.

  18. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia in conscious dogs: opioid modulation of catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Rose, C E; Latham, L B; Brashers, V L; Rose, K Y; Sandridge, M P; Carey, R M; Althaus, J S; Miller, E D

    1988-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioids in systemic and renal circulatory changes during combined acute hypoxemia and hypercapnic acidosis was evaluated in seven conscious female mongrel dogs in rigid sodium balance. Animals were studied 2 wk apart in separate protocols of combined acute hypoxemia (arterial O2 tension = 33 +/- 1 mmHg) and hypercapnic acidosis (arterial CO2 tension = 56 +/- 1 mmHg, pH = 7.19 +/- 0.01) of 40 min duration during 1) naloxone, 5 mg/kg iv bolus followed by an intravenous infusion of 5 mg.kg-1.h-1, and 2) vehicle (5% dextrose in water) alone. Systemic circulatory changes during the combined acute blood-gas derangement including increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output and decreased total peripheral resistance were comparable between naloxone and vehicle treatments. However, in striking contrast to the brief fall in renal hemodynamic function during combined acute hypoxemia and hypercapnic acidosis with vehicle, naloxone administration during the combined acute blood-gas derangement resulted in a sustained decrease in effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate, and filtered sodium load and enhanced rise in circulating norepinephrine and epinephrine. Changes in plasma renin activity were comparable between vehicle and naloxone protocols except that plasma renin activity increased from the first to the second 20-min periods of combined hypoxemia and hypercapnic acidosis with naloxone. These observations suggest that endogenous opioids may contribute to preservation of renal hemodynamic function during acute blood-gas derangements, possibly through attenuation of sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotension activation. PMID:3276221

  19. The effect of ivomec super on dogs experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei isolated from a patient.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Abdel-Mawla, M Y; Morsy, A T

    2001-04-01

    Scabies infestation is a community health problem worldwide. This is particularly true in overcrowded and unhygienic areas. Seven dogs were experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei freshly recovered from a patient. The dogs after infestation were treated with a mixture of ivermectin and clorsulon (Ivomec Super). The dose given to a single dog was 1 ml/50 kg body weight. This is equivalent to 200 mcg ivermectin and 2 mg clorsulon per Kg body weight. Five of the dogs (71.43%) were completely cured with 1 ml/50 Kg body weight. The remaining two dogs needed each, another injection of the same dose two weeks later. So, ivomec super is effective against the human strain of Sarcoptes scabiei in experementally infested dogs. A general discussion was given. PMID:12557931

  20. [Giardiasis in dogs in a breeding kennel].

    PubMed

    Horejs, R; Koudela, B

    1994-01-01

    Giardia intestinalis is a pathogenic protozoan which infects humans and a wide range of animals including dogs. Giardia infections in dogs have been reported by several authors. Prevalence of Giardia varies widely depending on the detection method, geographic localization, and population studied. The objective of the study reported here was to determine the prevalence of giardiasis in German Shepherd Dogs in a breeding unit. In our trial conducted over 18 months, 28 bitches, 5 adult males and 101 puppies (between 1.5 and 12 months old) were subjected to individual fecal examination for Giardia cysts, coccidial oocysts and helminth ova. Total 494 individual fecal samples were examined by the magnesium sulphate flotation technique (1.30 sp. gr) and Giardia cysts were detected in 36.2% of fecal samples. Giardia cysts were observed in 1 of 29 (3.4%) fecal samples from adult males, 11 of 157 (7.0%) fecal samples from bitches and 164 of 308 (53.2%) puppies' fecal specimens. No association between bouts of diarrhea and peaks of Giardia cysts shedding could be demonstrated. The source of infection for the pups was not ascertained, as no temporal association between shedding of Giardia cyst by bitches and their litters could be demonstrated. The majority of pups had passed peak of Giardia cyst shedding between week 6 of age 12 week of age. When Giardia infection was detected, the dogs were treated with either ornidazole (Avrazor, Léciva) at 25 mg/kg or metronidazole (Entizol, Polfa) 50 mg/kg for three to five days. Within seven days of completing a course of treatment fecal examinations were carried out on each dog to determine whether treatment had been effective.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8184530

  1. Cardiac beta-adrenoceptor changes in experimental hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hoey, A; Brown, L; Marchant, C; Atwell, R; Sernia, C

    1992-11-01

    1. Triiodothyronine (T3; 1.0 mg/kg per day subcutaneously) was administered to 10 dogs for 14 days; 10 saline-treated dogs served as controls. T3-treated dogs showed the expected physiological responses of hyperthyroidism; further, chronotropic responses to isoprenaline in vivo were significantly increased in T3-treated dogs. 2. Beta-adrenoceptor subtype density was measured in membrane preparations by displacement of 125I-iodocyanopindolol binding by the selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118, 551. T3 treatment led to a 93% increase in right atrial beta 1-adrenoceptor density and a 141% increase in left ventricular beta 1-adrenoceptor density; beta 2-adrenoceptor densities in right atrial, left ventricular and lung membranes were unchanged. 3. T3-treatment did not change basal or maximally stimulated adenylate cyclase activities in left ventricular membranes. 4. Thus, the cardiovascular changes in experimental hyperthyroidism in dogs were accompanied by an increased chronotropic response in vivo to isoprenaline and an increased beta 1-adrenoceptor density in atrial and ventricular membranes. However, there was no corresponding change in basal or maximal responsiveness of adenylate cyclase in ventricular membranes. PMID:1335380

  2. Clinical effects of vinorelbine administration in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs: 58 cases (1997–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Wouda, Raelene M.; Miller, Mairin E.; Chon, Esther; Stein, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of vinorelbine in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs. Design Retrospective case series. Animals 58 dogs with malignant tumors, including pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31), histiocytic sarcoma (9), mast cell tumor (5), lymphoma (4), melanoma (2), and 7 other tumor types (1 each). Procedures Medical records of dogs treated with vinorelbine from December 1997 to December 2012 were reviewed for data regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic test results, diagnostic imaging results, vinorelbine doses and dose frequency, surgery and radiotherapy details when applicable, other chemotherapeutics administered, and outcomes. Descriptive, comparative, and survival statistics were computed for all dogs and for dogs by histologic subgroup of tumors. Results Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to 44 (76%) dogs. One (2%) dog had a complete response for 162 days, 5 (11%) dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days, 19 (43%) dogs had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days, and 19 (43%) dogs developed progressive disease after a median duration of 21 days. Clinical benefit was more difficult to assess in the remaining 14 (24%) dogs that received vinorelbine as an adjuvant treatment. Overall median time to tumor progression was 103 days (range, 5 to 1,533 days). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Vinorelbine appeared to be effective in the treatment of several tumor types in dogs. Follow-up prospective studies of the clinical benefit of the drug in specific clinical scenarios will be necessary to support this conclusion. PMID:25970220

  3. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  4. Clinical and laboratory observations in 91 dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Koutinas, A F; Saridomichelakis, M N; Patsikas, M N; Leontidis, L S; Roubies, N A; Desiris, A K

    2000-04-15

    The medical records of 91 dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection were reviewed, and diagnoses were established by using parasitological and immunological methods. Twenty-one animals were asymptomatic (stage I), 57 had mild to moderate clinical signs (stage II), and 13 had the severe form of the disease including right congestive heart failure and the caval syndrome (stage III). Thoracic radiography revealed right ventricular enlargement in 38 of the dogs, pulmonary vascular enlargement in 43, and parenchymal lesions in 27. Only the cardiac and vascular changes were correlated positively with the clinical stages. D. immitis microfilaraemia was detected in 75 of 85 dogs. Occult infection occurred only in eight stage II and two stage III dogs. Thirty-two of the dogs were treated with thiacetarsamide and 39 were treated with melarsomine, and no differences were found in terms of drug efficacy or complication rate; nine stage II dogs suffered pulmonary thromboembolism and one suffered acute liver disease and there were six fatalities. The 50 treated dogs in stages II and III which were followed up for six months all recovered completely. The performance of 38 of 61 working dogs was completely restored, and the performance of another four was partially restored. PMID:10819132

  5. Fentanyl-induced asystole in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Jang, M; Son, W-G; Lee, I

    2015-06-01

    Fentanyl is used in small animals for perioperative analgesia during anaesthesia. Severe bradycardia and asystole were observed on bolus administration of a 3 µg/kg loading dose of fentanyl in two dogs under isoflurane anaesthesia. Premedication with 10 µg/kg glycopyrrolate did not prevent asystole in the first case; and although bradycardia was treated with 5 µg/kg glycopyrrolate administered intravenously in the second case, the heart rate continuously decreased and asystole subsequently developed. Asystole in both cases was quickly corrected by intravenous administration of 0 · 04 mg/kg atropine and closed chest compressions. This case report describes asystole induced by fentanyl administration in isoflurane anaesthetised dogs. Atropine was more effective than glycopyrrolate in the treatment of fentanyl-induced asystole. PMID:25599659

  6. Longitudinal analysis of serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune®.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Mary; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Félix; de Araújo, Maria de Fátima Lereno; Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi; Tolezano, José Eduardo; Vieira, Rafael F C; Biondo, Alexander W

    2013-11-01

    Development of vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) may provide a prophylactic barrier, but antibody response detected by standard diagnostic techniques may not separate vaccinated from naturally infected dogs. Moreover, anti-Leishmania antibody levels in vaccinated dogs may be detectable for months. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate an "in-house" ELISA with three serological tests officially adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health for the diagnosis of CVL in dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®). A total of 18 mongrel dogs were submitted to a complete protocol of the vaccine, monitored and evaluated in 5 times (T0-T4) up to 180 days after T0. Twenty-one days after the first dose (T1), 50% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA and 5.5% by IFAT, while by the official ELISA and DPP(®) CVL rapid test all dogs tested negative. At time T2, 42 days after of the first dose, 100%, 83.3%, 11.1%, and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, IFAT, official ELISA kit and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Ninety days after the first dose (T3), 100%, 83.3%, 72.2% and 33.3% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, IFAT, and the DPP(®) CVL rapid test, respectively. Finally, at time T4, 88.8%, 33.3%, 11.1% and 5.5% of the dogs were seropositive by the "in-house" ELISA, official ELISA kit, DPP(®) CVL rapid test and IFAT, respectively. In conclusion, dogs vaccinated with Leishmune(®) cross-react by an "in-house" ELISA and by the three official Brazilian serological tests for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis up to six months after the first vaccine dose, and may be mistakenly diagnosed and removed. PMID:23920056

  7. Neosporosis in dogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  8. Automatic imitation in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    After preliminary training to open a sliding door using their head and their paw, dogs were given a discrimination task in which they were rewarded with food for opening the door using the same method (head or paw) as demonstrated by their owner (compatible group), or for opening the door using the alternative method (incompatible group). The incompatible group, which had to counterimitate to receive food reward, required more trials to reach a fixed criterion of discrimination performance (85% correct) than the compatible group. This suggests that, like humans, dogs are subject to ‘automatic imitation’; they cannot inhibit online the tendency to imitate head use and/or paw use. In a subsequent transfer test, where all dogs were required to imitate their owners' head and paw use for food reward, the incompatible group made a greater proportion of incorrect, counterimitative responses than the compatible group. These results are consistent with the associative sequence learning model, which suggests that the development of imitation depends on sensorimotor experience and phylogenetically general mechanisms of associative learning. More specifically, they suggest that the imitative behaviour of dogs is shaped more by their developmental interactions with humans than by their evolutionary history of domestication. PMID:20667875

  9. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  10. Zen Hot Dog Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Substituted cycloalkanes with one branch illustrating each topic in an instructional unit can serve as summaries or reviews in courses of organic chemistry. The hungry Zen master told the hot dog vendor to make him one with everything. You can do the same for your students.

  11. Effects of doxycycline on heartworm embryogenesis, transmission, circulating microfilaria, and adult worms in microfilaremic dogs.

    PubMed

    McCall, J W; Kramer, L; Genchi, C; Guerrero, J; Dzimianski, M T; Mansour, A; McCall, S D; Carson, B

    2014-11-15

    Tetracycline treatment of animals or humans infected with filariae that harbor Wolbachia endosymbionts blocks further embryogenesis, and existing microfilariae gradually die. This treatment also kills developing larvae and has a slow-kill effect on adult filariae, all presumably due to elimination of the Wolbachia. Also, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae in blood collected from dogs up to 25 days after the last dose of doxycycline developed to infective L3 that were normal in appearance and motility in mosquitoes but did not continue to develop or migrate normally after subcutaneous (SC) injection into dogs. The present study was designed to determine whether heartworm microfilariae collected at later times after treatment would regain the ability to continue normal development in a dog. The study also was expected to yield valuable data on the effects of treatment on microfilariae and antigen levels and adult worms. The study was conducted in 16 dogs as two separate replicates at different times. A total of five dogs (two in Replicate A and three in Replicate B) infected either by SC injection of L3 or intravenous transplantation of adult heartworms were given doxycycline orally at 10mg/kg twice daily for 30 days, with three untreated controls. Microfilarial counts in the five treated dogs gradually declined during the 12-13 months after treatment initiation. Two dogs were amicrofilaremic before necropsy and three had 13 or fewer microfilariae/ml. Only one treated dog was negative for heartworm antigen before necropsy. Overall, treated dogs generally had fewer live adult heartworms than controls, and most of their live worms were moribund. All three control dogs remained positive for microfilariae and antigen and had many live worms. L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood collected 73-77 or 161-164 days after initiation of doxycycline treatments were injected SC into five dogs. None of the dogs injected with L3 from mosquitoes fed on blood from doxycycline-treated dogs

  12. Efficacy of Nikkomycin Z for respiratory coccidioidomycosis in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Shubitz, Lisa F; Roy, Michael E; Nix, David E; Galgiani, John N

    2013-10-01

    Nikkomycin Z (NikZ) is a chitin synthase inhibitor with antifungal efficacy against Coccidioides spp. and other endemic fungi. Dogs suffer a rate and range of natural coccidioidomycosis similar to humans and were considered an excellent model for initially testing NikZ against naturally acquired disease. Twelve dogs with coccidioidal pneumonia that had been present for an average of three months were treated with 250 mg (5-15 kg) or 500 mg (> 15-30 kg) twice daily for 60 days. Nine dogs completed the course of treatment and seven dogs had improvement in disease based on radiographs, clinicopathological parameters, physical examination findings, and subjective assessment by owners; three dogs had resolution or near resolution of disease. Based on this small study, NikZ shows efficacy to treat naturally acquired coccidioidomycosis and merits further development for trials in humans. PMID:23488972

  13. Intestinal strangulation caused by intra-abdominal lipomas in a dog.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, R; Kuzma, A B

    1991-12-01

    Pedunculated, intra-abdominal lipomas caused intestinal strangulation in a Doberman Pinscher. The dog was treated surgically to remove the lipomas and the devitalized intestine but died soon after surgery. Histologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of lipoma. PMID:1778747

  14. Rectovaginal fistula with anal atresia in 5 dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Sheila C.; Vicente, Cristiane S.; Mortari, Ana C.; Mamprim, Maria J.; Caporalli, Evelyn H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Five dogs with rectovaginal fistula and atresia ani that had been treated by surgical correction of the malformations were studied retrospectively. Ages at presentation varied from 1 to 3 months and weight from 350 g to 7.5 kg. The histories included voiding of feces through the vulva, with or without tenesmus, usually observed after weaning. Atresia ani, presence of feces in the vaginal canal, abdominal distention, and discomfort on abdominal palpation were observed during clinical examination. Also, 3 dogs had partial tail agenesis. In all dogs, the rectovaginal fistula was isolated and transected, the vulvar and rectal defects were closed separately, and the atresia ani was repaired. Normal defecation was restored, but 1 dog had fecal incontinence that subsequently resolved. One dog died 2.5 months postoperatively, and follow-up was done on the others for periods ranging from 1.6 year to 7.7 years. Surgical correction in dogs with rectovaginal fistula and atresia ani may result in a favorable outcome, if it is done early. PMID:17824325

  15. The periodontal tissues in healed degree III furcation defects. An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Araújo, M; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the present study was (i) to describe the periodontal tissue that formed in degree III furcation defects in mandibular molars of dogs following GTR therapy and (ii) to compare this healed periodontium to the corresponding tissue of pristine furcations. The study was performed in 10 mongrels dogs. In 6 of the dogs (group A), the 2nd and 4th premolars in both sides of the mandible were extracted 2 months prior to the start of the study. The 4 remaining dogs (group B) were used as normal untreated controls. In the dogs of group A, a furcation defect was produced in the 3rd mandibular premolars and reconstructive surgery was later performed in accordance with the GTR technique. 5 months after reconstructive surgery, all 10 animals (groups A+B) were sacrificed and perfused with a solution of 10% neutral, buffered formalin through the carotid arteries. Tissue blocks containing the experimental teeth were excised, demineralized in EDTA, embedded in paraffin. Serial sections were cut in the mesiodistal plane and parallel with the long axis of the roots. The microtome was set at 7 microns. The sections were stained in hematoxyline and eosin or Van Gieson's connective tissue staining. From each biopsy, 3 sections, 14 microns apart, and representing the central part of the furcation, were selected for light microscopic examination. In the healed furcation sites, histometric and morphometric measurements were performed at different levels (zones), either at the mesial or distal root surfaces; (zone 1) immediately apical of the notch; (zone 2) coronal to the notch where the newly formed alveolar bone was in continuity with the reduced bone crest; (zone 3) coronal to the notch; representing the most coronally positioned area of new bone formation; (zone 4) coronal to the notch; representing areas with no alveolar bone present. In the pristine furcation sites, the measurements were made at zones which corresponded to the location of the zones in the healed furcations

  16. Efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis in naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Petry, Gabriele; Altreuther, Gertraut; Wolken, Sonja; Swart, Petro; Kok, Dawie J

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of emodepside plus toltrazuril oral suspension for dogs (Procox®, Bayer) against Trichuris vulpis was evaluated in a controlled, blinded and randomised laboratory study. Twenty naturally infected dogs were included. Dogs in the treatment group received the minimum therapeutic dose of 0.45 mg emodepside and 9 mg toltrazuril per kg body weight, while dogs in the control group were left untreated. Efficacy was calculated based on worm counts after necropsy on Day 7 post treatment. Additionally, all faeces were collected and examined for expelled worms. The treatment was 100 % effective. A total of 233 adult worms (geometric mean 17.0) and 3 immature adult worms were found in the control group at necropsy. Adequacy of infection was demonstrated. The treated group excreted a total of 186 adult worms within 2 days after treatment. Additionally, all dogs were co-infected with Uncinaria stenocephala. Efficacy against this parasite was 99.8 %. No side effects of the treatment were observed. This study demonstrates that in addition to the formerly proven efficacy against Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, emodepside plus toltrazuril suspension is also effective against T. vulpis and thus represents a convenient treatment option for dogs co-infected with whipworms and coccidia. PMID:23756961

  17. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P < 0.05) than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P < 0.05). Findings supported our hypothesis that Pekingese dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. PMID:23094756

  18. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  19. The efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of naturally acquired infestations of sarcoptes scabiei on dogs.

    PubMed

    Shanks, D J; McTier, T L; Behan, S; Pengo, G; Genchi, C; Bowman, D D; Holbert, M S; Smith, D G; Jernigan, A D; Rowan, T G

    2000-08-23

    Selamectin, a novel avermectin, was evaluated for its effect on naturally occurring infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei in 42 dogs. In two controlled and masked laboratory studies conducted in the USA and Italy, infested dogs received treatment with either selamectin (6mgkg(-1); range: 6-12mgkg(-1)) or the vehicle only (negative control). Treatments were administered topically to the skin on each animal's back at the base of the neck in front of the scapulae. Study day 0 was defined as the first day of treatment administration. Dogs were treated on days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by counting viable mites recovered from skin scrapings performed on each dog on days 14, 29 or 30, 44, and 60, and by categorising the clinical signs of canine scabies on the same days. Percentage reductions in geometric mean mite counts for selamectin, compared with vehicle, on days 14, 29 or 30, 44, and 60 were > or =98.1, > or =93.5, 100, and 100%, respectively. Analysis of variance, confirmed by Savage Scores, showed that ln(mite counts+1) values for selamectin-treated dogs were significantly lower (P< or =0.0391) than those for vehicle-treated dogs on all post-treatment assessment days. Clinical signs of scabies were markedly reduced in selamectin-treated dogs, compared with vehicle-treated dogs. Topical administration to the skin in a single spot of a single unit dose of selamectin, or of two unit doses given 1 month apart, each providing at least the recommended minimum dosage of 6mgkg(-1), was highly effective against naturally acquired infestations of S. scabiei in dogs, reducing mite counts by >93% (single dose) and 100% (two doses). PMID:10940528

  20. Treatment of naturally occurring, asymptomatic Giardia sp. in dogs with Drontal Plus flavour tablets.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Liotta, Janice L; Ulrich, Michael; Charles, Sam D; Heine, Josef; Schaper, Roland

    2009-08-01

    The administration of three consecutive daily doses of the recommended 1x dose of Drontal Plus flavour tablets (Bayer) was examined for its effect on Giardia sp. cyst-shedding in 7 treated and 7 untreated random-source dogs. Dogs were treated on study days 0, 1 and 2. Cysts were quantified using direct immunofluorescent labelling on days -7, -5, -3 and -2, and daily from day 1 through 11. Three treated dogs never shed cysts again during the study, one shed again only on day 4, and the remaining three dogs started to shed again on days 8, 9 and 11. The mean numbers of cysts per gramme in the faeces of the treated dogs were significantly reduced (t-tests using log(10)(counts)) on days 1 and 2 (geometric means: controls = 447,000; treated = 1,050; p = 0.004) and days 3 to 8 (geometric means: controls = 23,400; treated 5.0; p < 0.001). Four controls that had been consistently positive, changed to negative status on day 11, and thus, on the final day of the trial, there were only three positive control and three positive treated dogs. Three consecutive days of treatment with Drontal Plus flavour tablets halted Giardia sp. cyst shedding by dogs. But starting six days post third treatment, some of the dogs started shedding cysts again. Since the prepatent period of Giardia sp. can be as short as 4 days, shedding of Giardia sp. cysts 6 days after treatment could be caused by a reinfection. PMID:19575233

  1. Impact of collaborative care on survival time for dogs with congestive heart failure and revenue for attending primary care veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Lefbom, Bonnie K; Peckens, Neal K

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of in-person collaborative care by primary care veterinarians (pcDVMs) and board-certified veterinary cardiologists (BCVCs) on survival time of dogs after onset of congestive heart failure (CHF) and on associated revenue for the attending pcDVMs. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 26 small-breed dogs treated for naturally occurring CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease at a multilocation primary care veterinary hospital between 2008 and 2013. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were reviewed to identify dogs with confirmed CHF secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease and collect information on patient care, survival time, and pcDVM revenue. Data were compared between dogs that received collaborative care from the pcDVM and a BCVC and dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone. RESULTS Dogs that received collaborative care had a longer median survival time (254 days) than did dogs that received care from the pcDVM alone (146 days). A significant positive correlation was identified between pcDVM revenue and survival time for dogs that received collaborative care (ie, the longer the dog survived, the greater the pcDVM revenue generated from caring for that patient). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that collaborative care provided to small-breed dogs with CHF by a BCVC and pcDVM could result in survival benefits for affected dogs and increased revenue for pcDVMs, compared with care provided by a pcDVM alone. PMID:27308884

  2. Presumptive exercise-associated peracute thoracolumbar disc extrusion in 48 dogs.

    PubMed

    McKee, W M; Downes, C J; Pink, J J; Gemmill, T J

    2010-04-24

    Forty-eight dogs were diagnosed with presumptive exercise-associated peracute thoracolumbar disc extrusion. The median age was seven years (range two to 11 years), and median bodyweight was 23 kg (range 10 to 41 kg). The duration of signs before presentation ranged from 0.5 to four days. Twenty-nine dogs were non-ambulatory, of which 17 were incontinent and two had lost pain perception. Pelvic limbs were hyporeflexic or areflexic in 11 dogs. Intervertebral disc narrowing was evident on radiographs in 44 dogs. Myelography demonstrated a small, extradural space-occupying lesion dorsal to an intervertebral disc between T11-12 and L3-4 with adjacent spinal cord swelling. Forty-six dogs were treated non-surgically, one was euthanased and one was managed by hemilaminectomy (and subsequently euthanased). Follow-up information was available for 46 dogs 1.5 to 55 months after injury (median 22 months) showing that pelvic limb function had improved in all cases and all non-ambulatory dogs had regained the ability to walk. Six dogs remained faecally incontinent, and one dog remained urinarily and faecally incontinent. PMID:20418513

  3. Re-emergence of Babesia conradae and effective treatment of infected dogs with atovaquone and azithromycin.

    PubMed

    Di Cicco, Michael F; Downey, Megan E; Beeler, Emily; Marr, Henry; Cyrog, Peter; Kidd, Linda; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Cohn, Leah A; Birkenheuer, Adam J

    2012-06-01

    Babesia conradae (B. conradae) causes hemolytic anemia in dogs. This organism has not been reported clinically since it was originally described in southern California in 1991. To date, no anti-protozoal therapies have been associated with clearance of B. conradae. This report describes the use of atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of dogs naturally infected with B. conradae and report the re-emergence of B. conradae in southern California. Twelve dogs naturally infected with B. conradae were identified by practicing veterinarians and public health officials in southern California. Treatments consisted of a 10 day course of atovaquone (13.3mg/kg PO q 8h) and azithromycin (10-12.5mg/kg PO q 24h). Four dogs were treated in a randomized blinded placebo-controlled fashion, four additional cases were treated in a non-random, non-blinded fashion and one dog received no treatment. All dogs were tested for B. conradae DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) initially and then once or 3 times post treatment (60-210 days). B. conradae infected dogs that received treatment did not have any detectable Babesia DNA by PCR after treatment. In contrast, dogs receiving placebo had detectable Babesia DNA by PCR throughout the study period. Combination therapy with atovaquone and azithromycin appears to be effective for acute and chronic babesiosis caused by B. conradae. PMID:22305297

  4. Probable essential thrombocythemia in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, P.E.; Mandell, C.P.; Turrel, J.M.; Jain, N.C.; Tablin, F.; Zinkl, J.G.

    1989-04-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET), in an 11-year-old dog was characterized by persistently high platelet counts range, 4.19 X 10(6)/microliters to 4.95 X 10(6)/microliters, abnormal platelet morphology, marked megakaryocytic hyperplasia in the bone marrow, absence of circulating megakaryoblasts, and history of splenomegaly and gastrointestinal bleeding. Increased numbers of megakaryocytes and megakaryoblasts (15% to 20%) in the bone marrow were confirmed by a positive acetylcholinesterase reaction. Another significant finding was the presence of a basophilia in blood (4,836/microliters) and bone marrow. The marked persistent thrombocytosis, absence of reactive (secondary) thrombocytosis, abnormal platelet morphology, and quantitative and qualitative changes in the megakaryocytic series in the bone marrow suggested the presence of a myeloproliferative disease. Cytochemical and ultrastructural findings aided in the diagnosis of ET. The dog was treated with radiophosphorus. The results was a rapid decline in the numbers of megakaryoblasts and megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and platelets and basophils in the peripheral blood. The dog died unexpectedly of acute necrotizing pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus before a complete remission was achieved.

  5. Toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in dogs.

    PubMed

    Herron, C E; Brueckner, C C; Chism, J P; Kemp, D C; Prescott, J S; Smith, G A; Melich, D H; Oleas, N; Polli, J W

    2015-11-15

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (e.g., statins) are an important clinical option to lower cholesterol and treat co-morbidities. Atorvastatin is the most prescribed statin and has obtained generic status. We recently had a clinical development program evaluating a combination of atorvastatin with a GPR119 agonist as a treatment for dyslipidemia, where toxicological evaluations in dogs were completed. There were several challenges related to selecting doses for atorvastatin, including understanding the dose-exposure relationship from different drug forms used by the innovator in their general toxicology studies, bioanalytical assays that did not separate and quantify parent from metabolites, and high variability in the systemic exposures following oral dosing. The studies in this report characterized the toxicokinetics and toxicity of atorvastatin in the dog for up to 13-weeks. Overall, there were no notable differences in the toxicokinetics of atorvastatin or the two active hydroxylated metabolites between the sexes at Week 13. However, systemic exposures were markedly lower at Week 13 compared to that observed at Week 4, suggesting induction of metabolism or reduced absorption from the gastrointestinal tract following oral dosing. Changes in laboratory chemistries included increased liver enzyme levels and lower cholesterol levels. Histopathologic evaluation revealed multifocal minimal to slight hemorrhages in the submucosa of the gallbladder; all findings were reversible. The information from these studies along with the existing clinical experience with atorvastatin can be used to design robust toxicology studies in dogs and reduce animal use. PMID:26386191

  6. Efficacy of combined atovaquone and azithromycin for therapy of chronic Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections in dogs.

    PubMed

    Birkenheuer, Adam J; Levy, Michael G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2004-01-01

    Babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni (Asian genotype) is an emerging disease in dogs in the United States. To date, no drugs have been shown to eliminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections from dogs. Twenty-two dogs that remained persistently infected with B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) after either imidocarb diproprionate and or diminazine aceturate therapy were identified and randomly and evenly distributed into 2 groups. One group was treated with atovaquone and azithromycin combination therapy, and the other group received a placebo. Eight of 10 dogs in the treatment group had no detectable B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) DNA, as determined by a sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, in any of their posttreatment samples. In contrast, B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) DNA was detectable by PCR in the posttreatment samples from 11 of 11 of the placebo-treated dogs. One dog in the treatment group was excluded from the treatment outcome analysis. This dog had 2 consecutive negative PCR assay results and was euthanized because of ongoing degenerative joint disease prior to completion of the study. No adverse effects of treatment were reported in any dog during the study period. A combination of atovaquone and azithromycin is the 1st described treatment that will either eliminate B. gibsoni (Asian genotype) infections or suppress the parasitemia below the limit of detection in the majority of treated dogs. PMID:15320586

  7. Renal Function and Morphology in Aged Beagle Dogs Before and after Hydrocortisone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Smets, Pascale M. Y.; Lefebvre, Hervé P.; Aresu, Luca; Croubels, Siska; Haers, Hendrik; Piron, Koen; Meyer, Evelyne; Daminet, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal structural changes and proteinuria in aged Beagle dogs before and after hydrocortisone (HC) administration. Eleven Beagle dogs ≥10 years old were treated with either hydrocortisone (HC group, n = 6) or placebo (control group, n = 5). Urinary markers, GFR and kidney biopsies were evaluated before (T0), during (T16 wks) and after discontinuing HC administration (T24 wks). Results indicate that HC administration causes a significant increase in GFR. At all time points except T16 wks, proteinuria was higher in the control group than in the HC group, and there was no significant difference in urinary markers between groups. At T16 wks, proteinuria, urinary albumin-to-creatinine (c) ratio, immunoglobulin G/c and retinol-binding protein/c were higher compared to baseline in the HC group. At T0, rare to mild renal lesions were detected in all HC dogs and rare to moderate changes in all control dogs. Glomerulosclerosis progressed in both groups until T24 wks. Tubular atrophy was detected in three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, but also in five control dogs throughout the study. At every time point, five HC dogs and all control dogs had rare to moderate interstitial inflammation. Rare to mild interstitial fibrosis was found in up to three HC dogs at T16 wks and T24 wks, and severe fibrosis in one HC dog at T24 wks. Up to four control dogs had rare to mild fibrosis at all time points. These findings indicate that clinically healthy, aged Beagle dogs may have considerable renal lesions and proteinuria, which could have implications for experimental or toxicological studies. Additional research is needed to elucidate glucocorticoid effects on renal structure, but functional changes such as hyperfiltration and proteinuria warrant attention to kidney function of canine patients with Cushing's syndrome or receiving exogenous glucocorticoids. PMID:22393368

  8. [Canine leishmaniosis in Central Europe: retrospective survey and serological study of imported and travelling dogs].

    PubMed

    Mettler, Maik; Grimm, Felix; Naucke, Torsten J; Maasjost, Christiane; Deplazes, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a common parasitic disease in Central Europe affecting dogs imported or returning from endemic countries around the Mediterranean basin. Through an internet discussion forum owners of dogs with suspected or proven leishmaniosis living in Central Europe (D, A, CH), were questioned about the dog's history. Additionally, serologic examinations of the dogs for anti-Leishmania antibodies (ELISA using antigen of promastigote stages) were offered to the participants. From February to October 2003, 291 dogs imported or returning from Southern Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, France, Malta, Portugal and others) were analysed. Serologically, 111 dogs (38%) were classified positive; 103 being imported and eight travelling dogs. The majority of seropositive dogs originated from Spain (67%). No significant correlation could be established between race, sex and age and the incidence of the disease. The clinical symptoms in the seropositive dogs varied widely and ranged from mild general symptoms to visceral manifestations with chronic renal failure. Skin disorders were found in 78% of the seropositive, symptomatic animals. In the country of origin or after import or return, 174 out of 291 dogs (60%) had been tested for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies by different immunofluorescence antibody tests (IFAT). Discrepancies between the ELISA and the various IFATs used were noted in 55 cases (32%), especially in cases of low IFAT titers. Most of the seropositive dogs (80%) had been treated against leishmaniosis. In 91% of these cases, Allopurinol as monotherapy or in combination with Glucantime had been used. For diagnostics and therapy, dog owners had spent an average of 1,100 euros (median 900 euros, maximum 5,800 euros). PMID:15690634

  9. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    PubMed Central

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  10. Using dogs for tiger conservation and research.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Linda L

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a review of the history, development and efficacy of using dogs in wildlife studies and considers the use of dogs in the research and conservation of wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758). Using scat detection dogs, scent-matching dogs, law enforcement detection dogs and protection dogs are proven methods that can be effectively used on tigers. These methods all take advantage of the dog's extremely evolved sense of smell that allows them to detect animals or animal byproducts (often the focus of tiger studies). Dogs can be trained to communicate this information to their handlers. PMID:21392356