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Sample records for monitor intervention effectiveness

  1. Effects of a Self-Monitoring Intervention on Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Susan C.; Jones, Kevin M.; Rafoth, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a self-monitoring intervention on teachers' direct behavior ratings of 3 students with traumatic brain injury. The authors used a multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate the effect of the strategy on each child's classwork and classroom behavior. The self-monitoring strategy…

  2. Monitoring the Effects of Acupoint Antioxidant Intervention by Measuring Electrical Potential Difference along the Meridian

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming-Ming; Guo, Jing-Ke; Xu, Jin-Sen; Zhang, Chao-Xin; Liu, Shu-Tao; Liao, Ri-Tao; Lin, Chun-Tong; Guo, Jian-Hui; Rao, Ping-Fan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that superoxide anions are possibly traveling along acupuncture meridians. The electrical potential difference (EPD) between acupoints may be related to the movement. To test the above hypothesis, we conducted a study investigating the effects of acupoint antioxidant interventions on the meridian EPD. Firstly, ST39 (L) and ST44 (L) were screened out for the EPD detection along the stomach meridian, and ST36 (L) was selected for interventions including acumassage with the control cream, as well as the TAT-SOD cream for 30 minutes, or injection with reduced glutathione sodium. The EPD between ST39 and ST44 was recorded for 80 minutes and measured again 48 h later. While the EPD increased during the acumassage, the acumassage with TAT-SOD cream and the glutathione injection generated waves of EPD increased, indicating the migration or removal from the visceral organ of a greater quantity of superoxide. Remarkably lower EPD readings 48 h later with both antioxidant acupoint interventions than the mere acumassage imply a more complete superoxide flushing out due to the restored superoxide pathway at the acupoint after interventions. The results confirm superoxide transportation along the meridians and demonstrate a possibility of acupoint EPD measurement as a tool to monitor changes in the meridians and acupoints. PMID:25861356

  3. Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

    2013-09-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed. PMID:24180120

  4. The Effect of Realtime Monitoring on Dose Exposure to Staff Within an Interventional Radiology Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Frederic Katzen, Barry T.; Carelsen, Bart; Diehm, Nicolas; Benenati, James F.; Peña, Constantino S.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to evaluate a new device providing real-time monitoring on radiation exposure during fluoroscopy procedures intending to reduce radiation in an interventional radiology setting.Materials and MethodsIn one interventional suite, a new system providing a real-time radiation dose display and five individual wireless dosimeters were installed. The five dosimeters were worn by the attending, fellow, nurse, technician, and anesthesiologist for every procedure taking place in that suite. During the first 6-week interval the dose display was off (closed phase) and activated thereafter, for a 6-week learning phase (learning phase) and a 10-week open phase (open phase). During these phases, the staff dose and the individual dose for each procedure were recorded from the wireless dosimeter and correlated with the fluoroscopy time. Further subanalysis for dose exposure included diagnostic versus interventional as well as short (<10 min) versus long (>10 min) procedures.ResultsA total of 252 procedures were performed (n = 88 closed phase, n = 50 learning phase, n = 114 open phase). The overall mean staff dose per fluoroscopic minute was 42.79 versus 19.81 µSv/min (p < 0.05) comparing the closed and open phase. Thereby, anesthesiologists were the only individuals attaining a significant dose reduction during open phase 16.9 versus 8.86 µSv/min (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a significant reduction of total staff dose was observed for short 51 % and interventional procedures 45 % (p < 0.05, for both).ConclusionA real-time qualitative display of radiation exposure may reduce team radiation dose. The process may take a few weeks during the learning phase but appears sustained, thereafter.

  5. An automated personalised intervention algorithm for remote patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fursse, Joanna; Clarke, Malcolm; Jones, Russell; Khemka, Sneh; Findlay, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    An automated personalised intervention algorithm was developed to determine when and if patients with chronic disease in a remote monitoring programme required intervention for management of their condition. The effectiveness of the algorithm has so far been evaluated on 29 patients. It was found to be particularly effective in monitoring newly diagnosed patients, patients requiring a change in medication as well as highlighting those that were not conforming to their medication. Our approach indicates that RPM used with the intervention algorithm and a clinical protocol can be effective in a primary care setting for targeting those patients that would most benefit from monitoring. PMID:18487728

  6. Introducing a new monitoring manual for home fortification and strengthening capacity to monitor nutrition interventions

    PubMed Central

    Jefferds, Maria Elena D.; Flores-Ayala, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lack of monitoring capacity is a key barrier for nutrition interventions and limits programme management, decision making and programme effectiveness in many low-income and middle-income countries. A 2011 global assessment reported lack of monitoring capacity was the top barrier for home fortification interventions, such as micronutrient powders or lipid-based nutrient supplements. A Manual for Developing and Implementing Monitoring Systems for Home Fortification Interventions was recently disseminated. It is comprehensive and describes monitoring concepts and frameworks and includes monitoring tools and worksheets. The monitoring manual describes the steps of developing and implementing a monitoring system for home fortification interventions, including identifying and engaging stakeholders; developing a programme description including logic model and logical framework; refining the purpose of the monitoring system, identifying users and their monitoring needs; describing the design of the monitoring system; developing indicators; describing the core components of a comprehensive monitoring plan; and considering factors related to stage of programme development, sustainability and scale up. A fictional home fortification example is used throughout the monitoring manual to illustrate these steps. The monitoring manual is a useful tool to support the development and implementation of home fortification intervention monitoring systems. In the context of systematic capacity gaps to design, implement and monitor nutrition interventions in many low-income and middle-income countries, the dissemination of new tools, such as monitoring manuals may have limited impact without additional attention to strengthening other individual, organisational and systems levels capacities. PMID:24784541

  7. Prevention of traumatic nail gun injuries in apprentice carpenters: Use of population-based measures to monitor intervention effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Hester J.; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Dement, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Nail guns are responsible for a significant injury burden in residential construction. Risk, based on hours of work, is particularly high among apprentice carpenters due in part to more frequent exposure to tool use. Methods Nail gun injuries were evaluated over 3 years among carpenters enrolled in two apprenticeship programs in the Midwest (2.3 million residential work hours observed) following initiation of training and a voluntary ANSI standard change calling for safer sequential triggers on framing nailers. Injury rates, based on hours of tool use, were calculated yearly. Rates and adjusted rate ratios were calculated with Poisson regression. Attributable risk percent and population attributable risk were calculated yearly for modifiable independent risk factors for injury including lack of training in tool use and type of trigger mechanism on tools being used. Results As apprentices received training and safer trigger mechanisms became more widespread, injury rates decreased significantly (31%). While school training and hands-on mentoring were both important, injury rates were lowest among apprentices who received both. Although injury rates changed over the observation period, the relative risk comparing trigger mechanisms did not; contact trip triggers consistently carried a two-fold risk. Conclusions Although training and safer trigger use both increased, because of the relative prevalence of training and trigger exposures in this population, the engineering solution consistently had the potential to make more difference in population risk. Our findings demonstrate the utility of observational methods including measures of population–based risk in monitoring intervention effectiveness and making recommendations that lead to injury reduction. PMID:18704898

  8. Wildlife feeding in parks: methods for monitoring the effectiveness of educational interventions and wildlife food attraction behaviors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Dvorak, R.G.; Manning, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Opportunities to view and interact with wildlife are often an important part of high quality recreational experiences. Such interactions frequently include wildlife feeding, resulting in food-conditioned behaviors that may cause harm to both wildlife and visitors. This study developed and applied efficient protocols for simultaneously evaluating wildlife feeding-related behaviors of visitors and related foraging behaviors of chipmunks along a trail in Zion National Park. Unobtrusive observation protocols permitted an evaluation of educational messages delivered, and documentation of wildlife success in obtaining human food and the strength of their food attraction behavior. Significant improvements were documented for some targeted visitor behaviors and human food available to chipmunks, with minor differences between treatments. Replication of these protocols as part of a long-term monitoring program can help protected area managers evaluate and improve the efficacy of their interventions and monitor the strength of food attraction behavior in wildlife.

  9. The effects of self-monitoring on the procedural integrity of a behavioral intervention for young children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Plavnick, Joshua B; Ferreri, Summer J; Maupin, Angela N

    2010-01-01

    The effects of self-monitoring on the procedural integrity of token economy implementation by 3 staff in a special education classroom were evaluated. The subsequent changes in academic readiness behaviors of 2 students with low-incidence disabilities were measured. Multiple baselines across staff and students showed that procedural integrity increased when staff used monitoring checklists, and students' academic readiness behavior also increased. Results are discussed with respect to the use of self-monitoring and the importance of procedural integrity in public school settings. PMID:21119907

  10. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: monitoring and evaluating interventions.

    PubMed

    Michael, Edwin; Malecela-Lazaro, Mwele N; Maegga, Bertha T A; Fischer, Peter; Kazura, James W

    2006-11-01

    Monitoring and evaluation are crucially important to the scientific management of any mass parasite control programme. Monitoring enables the effectiveness of implemented actions to be assessed and necessary adaptations to be identified; it also determines when management objectives are achieved. Parasite transmission models can provide a scientific template for informing the optimal design of such monitoring programmes. Here, we illustrate the usefulness of using a model-based approach for monitoring and evaluating anti-parasite interventions and discuss issues that need addressing. We focus on the use of such an approach for the control and/or elimination of the vector-borne parasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis. PMID:16971182

  11. The Effects of Self-Monitoring on the Procedural Integrity of a Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plavnick, Joshua B.; Ferreri, Summer J.; Maupin, Angela N.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of self-monitoring on procedural integrity of token economy implementation by 3 staff in a special education classroom were evaluated. The subsequent changes in academic readiness behaviors of 2 students with low-incidence disabilities were measured. Multiple baselines across staff and students showed that procedural integrity…

  12. Social Studies Progress Monitoring and Intervention for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Sarah J.; Lembke, Erica S.; Curs, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the technical adequacy of vocabulary-matching curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to identify and monitor the progress of 148 middle school students in social studies. In addition, the effectiveness of a reading comprehension intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001),…

  13. Program Monitoring Practices for Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…

  14. Using Parents and Teachers to Monitor Progress among Children with ASD: A Review of Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Sara E.; Nasamran, Amy; Parikh, Purvi J.; Schmitt, Heather A.; Clinton, Marianne C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing knowledge of the effectiveness of various interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it is never clear whether a particular intervention will be effective for a specific child with ASD. Careful monitoring of an individual child's progress is necessary to know whether an intervention is effective. In this…

  15. Safety Intervention Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, R.O.

    2001-10-16

    Judging safety intervention effectiveness is often left up to the eye of the beholder. Safety and Health Professionals must increase skills and increase their body of knowledge, based on scientific evidence, that can be applied confidently in the workplace. Evidence must be collected and analyzed to separate the interventions of the month with those that stand the test of time. The book Guide to Evaluating the Effectiveness of Strategies for Preventing Work injuries DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-119, April 2001, serves as a primary reference. An example study related to biorhythms, popular in the late 1970s, is used to illustrate the separating of scientific evidence and pseudo-science hype. The cited biorhythm study focuses on the relationship of the accident dates and the three biorhythmic cycles (physical, emotional, and intelligence).

  16. The Effects of a Self-Monitoring and Video Self-Modeling Intervention to Increase On-Task Behavior for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Rachel Calkins Oxnard

    2009-01-01

    Children are diagnosed with AD/HD more often than any other disorder and interventions are needed in schools to increase on-task behavior. Most studies examining on-task behavior are conducted in special education classrooms or clinical laboratories. Previous studies have not combined video self-modeling and self-monitoring as an intervention to…

  17. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  18. The Effects of Self-Monitoring and Performance Feedback on the Treatment Integrity of Behavior Intervention Plan Implementation and Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouzakitis, Angela; Codding, Robin S.; Tryon, Georgiana

    2015-01-01

    Accurate implementation of individualized behavior intervention plans (BIPs) is a critical aspect of evidence-based practice. Research demonstrates that neither training nor consultation is sufficient to improve and maintain high rates of treatment integrity (TI). Therefore, evaluation of ongoing support strategies is needed. The purpose of this…

  19. The Effects of Fading a Strategic Self-Monitoring Intervention on Students' Academic Engagement, Accuracy, and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Marcia L.; Thead, Beth K.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, using a single-case multiple-treatment reversal (A-B-A-B-C) research design, we replicated and extended previous strategic self-monitoring research by teaching five students, with and without disabilities, to use ACT-REACT to increase their academic engagement, productivity, and accuracy across new and previously learned math…

  20. Cascading Effects Following Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Gerald R.; Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Four different sources for cascade effects were examined using 9-year process and outcome data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a preventive intervention using Parent Management Training – Oregon Model (PMTO™). The social interaction learning (SIL) model of child antisocial behavior serves as one basis for predicting change. A second source addresses the issue of comorbid relationships among clinical diagnoses. The third source, collateral changes, describes events in which changes in one family member correlate with changes in another. The fourth component is based on the long-term effects of reducing coercion and increasing positive interpersonal processes within the family. New findings from the 9-year follow-up show that mothers experienced benefits as measured by standard of living (i.e., income, occupation, education, and financial stress) and frequency of police arrests. It is assumed that PMTO reduces the level of coercion, which sets the stage for a massive increase in positive social interaction. In effect, PMTO alters the family environment and thereby opens doors to healthy new social environments. PMID:20883592

  1. Response to Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of No Child Left Behind (2002) and the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) made it necessary for educators to examine achievement trends within their schools and implement a Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This study examines the achievement trends in one school district since its…

  2. But I Trust My Teen: Parents' Attitudes and Response to a Parental Monitoring Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Ice, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Parental knowledge gained from monitoring activities protects against adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring approaches are varied and may be modified with successful interventions but not all parents or adolescents respond to monitoring programs the same way. 339 parent-adolescent dyads randomized to receive a parental monitoring intervention and 169 parent-adolescent dyads in the control group were followed for one year over four measurement periods. Parent attitudes about the usefulness of monitoring, the importance of trust and respecting their teens' privacy, and the appropriateness of adolescent risk-taking behavior and experimentation were examined as predictors of longitudinal change in parental monitoring and open communication. Similar effects were found in both the intervention and control group models regarding open communication. Parental attitudes impacted longitudinal patterns of teen-reported parent monitoring, and these patterns differed across experimental groups. In the intervention group, parents' beliefs about the importance of trust and privacy were associated with a steeper decline in monitoring across time. Finally, parents' attitudes about the normative nature of teen experimentation were associated with a quadratic parental monitoring time trend in the intervention but not the control group. These findings suggest that parental attitudes may impact how families respond to an adolescent risk intervention. PMID:22720144

  3. Poisoning: Effective Clinical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Turner, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Poisoning accounts for 40-60% of suicides, is the commonest medical emergency in small children, and an important source of occupational injury. Prevention of unintentional poisoning involves primarily education of parents. In intervention, the patient—not the poison—must be treated. Self-poisoners require supportive but firm handling. Treatment is directed towards prevention of further absorption, removal of absorbed poison, symptomatic or supportive therapy, and administration of systemic antidotes. Careful attention should be paid to the physician's legal responsibilities in cases of poisoning. Imagesp2032-a PMID:21286544

  4. Self-Monitoring Interventions for At-Risk Middle School Students: The Importance of Considering Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, Donald E., III; Simonsen, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Self-monitoring is a popular, efficient, and effective intervention that is associated with improved academic and social behavior for students across age and ability levels. To date, this is the first study to directly compare the outcomes of self-monitoring functionally relevant and non-relevant replacement behaviors. Specifically, we used an…

  5. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Boerma, Ties; AbouZahr, Carla; Evans, David; Evans, Tim

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the production of

  6. Effective Intervention for Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Randie; Kellner, Millicent H.; Green, Stuart; Elias, Maurice J.

    2012-01-01

    Most professional educators are aware that every school should have an effective approach to harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) prevention in which every member of the school community participates. Regardless of the approach a school takes, all students and all staff members should be knowledgeable participants who have been trained to…

  7. Facilitating Intimacy: Intervention and Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandeneau, Michel L.; Johnson, Susan M.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated effects of interventions from Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) and Cognitive Marital Therapy (CMT) on levels of marital intimacy, dyadic trust, and dyadic adjustment. Thirty-six couples free of marital distress and seeking to enhance their intimate relationship were randomly assigned to EFT, CMT, or control group. Both treatment…

  8. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) trial: pharmacy interventions to improve hypertension control in blacks.

    PubMed

    Svarstad, Bonnie L; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Shireman, Theresa I; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Palmer, Pamela A; Vivian, Eva M; Brown, Roger L

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that involving pharmacists is an effective strategy for improving patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control. To date, few controlled studies have tested the cost-effectiveness of specific models for improving patient adherence and BP control in community pharmacies, where most Americans obtain prescriptions. We hypothesized that a team model of adherence monitoring and intervention in corporately owned community pharmacies can improve patient adherence, prescribing, and BP control among hypertensive black patients. The Team Education and Adherence Monitoring (TEAM) Trial is a randomized controlled trial testing a multistep intervention for improving adherence monitoring and intervention in 28 corporately owned community pharmacies. Patients in the 14 control pharmacies received "usual care," and patients in the 14 intervention pharmacies received TEAM Care by trained pharmacists and pharmacy technicians working with patients and physicians. Data collectors screened 1250 patients and enrolled 597 hypertensive black patients. The primary end points were the proportion of patients achieving BP control and reductions in systolic and diastolic BP measured after 6 and 12 months. Secondary end points were changes in adherence monitoring and intervention, patient adherence and barriers to adherence, prescribing, and cost-effectiveness. Researchers also will examine potential covariates and barriers to change. Involving pharmacists is a potentially powerful means of improving BP control in blacks. Pharmacists are in an excellent position to monitor patients between clinic visits and to provide useful information to patients and physicians. PMID:20031847

  9. Self-Monitoring during Whole Group Reading Instruction: Effects among Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities during Summer School Intervention Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects that a self-monitoring strategy, plus a tactile prompting device, had upon the on-task and oral reading fluency behaviors of students with emotional and/or behavioral disabilities in the general education setting when used during whole group reading instruction. A multiple-baseline across pairs…

  10. Monitoring Student Response to Mathematics Intervention: Using Data to Inform Tier 3 Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciullo, Stephen; SoRelle, Danielle; Kim, Sun A.; Seo, You-jin; Bryant, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes types of progress-monitoring techniques that mathematics interventionists and special education teachers can implement in classrooms to make informed, data-driven decisions about early mathematics intervention. Although educators may be using some of these assessment types already to inform instruction, this article…

  11. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p < 0.05) in the advice network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p > 0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  12. Childhood tuberculosis deskguide and monitoring: An intervention to improve case management in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been a neglected area in national TB control programme (NTCP) in high burden countries. The NTP Pakistan adapted the global approaches by developing and piloting its policy guideline on childhood TB in ten districts of the country. We developed an intervention package including a deskguide and a monitoring tool and tested with the ongoing childhood TB care in a district. The objective of our study was to measure effectiveness of intervention package with deskguide and monitoring tool by comparing TB case finding and treatment outcomes among districts in 2008, and performance assessment in intervention district. Method An intervention study with cohort design within a routine TB control programme comparing case findings and treatment outcomes before and after the intervention, and in districts with and without intervention. We enrolled all children below 15 years registered at all nine public sector hospitals in three districts of Pakistan. The data was collected from hospital TB records. Results In eight months during 2007 there were 164 childhood TB cases notified, and after intervention in 2008 a total of 194 cases were notified. In intervention district case finding doubled (110% increase) and correct treatment practice significantly increased in eight months. Successful outcomes were significantly higher in intervention district (37,100%) compared to control district A (18, 18%, p < 0.05) and control district B (41, 72%, p < 0.05). Conclusion Childhood TB deskguide and structured monitoring was associated with improved case management and it augmented NTP policy. More development and implementation in all health services of the district are indicated. PMID:21831308

  13. Engagement with eHealth Self-Monitoring in a Primary Care-Based Weight Management Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Steinberg, Dori M.; Lane, Ilana B.; Askew, Sandy; Greaney, Mary L.; Colditz, Graham A.; Bennett, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    Background While eHealth approaches hold promise for improving the reach and cost-effectiveness of behavior change interventions, they have been challenged by declining participant engagement over time, particularly for self-monitoring behaviors. These are significant concerns in the context of chronic disease prevention and management where durable effects are important for driving meaningful changes. Purpose “Be Fit, Be Well” was an eHealth weight loss intervention that allowed participants to self-select a self-monitoring modality (web or interactive voice response (IVR)). Participants could change their modality. As such, this study provides a unique opportunity to examine the effects of intervention modality choice and changing modalities on intervention engagement and outcomes. Methods Intervention participants, who were recruited from community health centers, (n = 180) were expected to self-monitor health behaviors weekly over the course of the 24-month intervention. We examined trends in intervention engagement by modality (web, IVR, or changed modality) among participants in the intervention arm. Results The majority (61%) of participants chose IVR self-monitoring, while 39% chose web. 56% of those who selected web monitoring changed to IVR during the study versus no change in those who initially selected IVR. Self-monitoring declined in both modalities, but completion rates were higher in those who selected IVR. There were no associations between self-monitoring modality and weight or blood pressure outcomes. Conclusions This is the first study to compare web and IVR self-monitoring in an eHealth intervention where participants could select and change their self-monitoring modality. IVR shows promise for achieving consistent engagement. PMID:26469065

  14. Effective interventions for reading disability.

    PubMed

    Williams, M C; Lecluyse, K; Rock-Faucheux, A

    1992-06-01

    A simple, readily accessible, and inexpensive intervention which produces immediate improvements in the reading comprehension abilities of reading-disabled children has been found. The intervention consists of colored overlays, or overlays which reduce the contrast of printed materials. This intervention produces reading comprehension gains in approximately 80 percent of the reading-disabled children tested. PMID:1378860

  15. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  16. [Nutritional dynamic monitoring during pregnancy: a personalized intervention of prevention].

    PubMed

    De Cristofaro, Paolo; Pompilii, Sonia; Di Bonifacio, M Teresa; Malatesta, Guido; Pantoni, Natascia; Xhebraj, Elona; Dragani, Beatrice

    2008-06-01

    Obesity is an increasing condition spreading out in all of the world, independently by race, sex and age. Obesity in pregnancy represent a risk condition for both mother and her offspring. All of the studies are observational and show intervention strategies on weight gain improvement during gestational period, a current topic, but still controversial. Our study is based on nutritional dynamic monitoring during pregnancy in order to improve health and wellbeing status of both mother and her offspring, through an early and efficacy prevention. PMID:18710061

  17. Effective monitoring of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

    2011-06-01

    An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

  18. International project on individual monitoring and radiation exposure levels in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Padovani, R; Le Heron, J; Cruz-Suarez, R; Duran, A; Lefaure, C; Miller, D L; Sim, H K; Vano, E; Rehani, M; Czarwinski, R

    2011-03-01

    Within the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR), a new International Atomic Energy Agency initiative, a Working Group on interventional cardiology, aims to assess staff radiation protection (RP) levels and to propose an international database of occupational exposures. A survey of regulatory bodies (RBs) has provided information at the country level on RP practice in interventional cardiology (IC). Concerning requirements for wearing personal dosemeters, only 57 % of the RB specifies the number and position of dosemeters for staff monitoring. Less than 40 % of the RBs could provide occupational doses. Reported annual median effective dose values (often <0.5 mSv) were lower than expected considering validated data from facility-specific studies, indicating that compliance with continuous individual monitoring is often not achieved in IC. A true assessment of annual personnel doses in IC will never be realised unless a knowledge of monitoring compliance is incorporated into the analysis. PMID:21051431

  19. Effectiveness of management interventions to control invasion by Rhododendron ponticum.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Claire; Pullin, Andrew S; Stewart, Gavin B

    2006-04-01

    Rhododendron ponticum is an invasive species in many countries, including the United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium, and France. It poses a serious threat to native flora and fauna, as it is capable of altering entire seminatural communities through its vigorous spread. Control is essential if the conservation value of some communities, such as oak woodland and lowland heath, are to be successfully maintained. Commonly used interventions are herbicide application, herbicide application postcut, and cutting (manual or mechanical) alone. Various techniques have been developed to apply these interventions, but often retreatment of the area is required, increasing the cost of control. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of some commonly used interventions for R. ponticum control using a systematic review methodology. Eleven studies provided data for statistical analysis. Meta-analyses of captured data show that postcut application of the herbicide Glyphosate or applying the herbicides Metsulfuron-methyl or Imazapyr (no cut) can effectively reduce a R. ponticum stand. There is insufficient available experimental evidence for effectiveness of any other intervention. The systematic review process has demonstrated the lack of replicated studies with controls or long-term monitoring and increases the call for more rigorous monitoring of all conservation management interventions. The quality of experimental evidence of the effectiveness of some interventions contrasts with the acceptance of their use through dissemination of experience. The collection and objective review of experience will require active collaboration of organizations concerned with R. ponticum control. PMID:16456628

  20. Examining the Effects of Linking Student Performance and Progression in a Tier 2 Kindergarten Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Coyne, Michael D.; Simmons, Leslie E.; Oslund, Eric; Fogarty, Melissa; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite the emerging evidence base on response to intervention, there is limited research regarding how to effectively use progress-monitoring data to adjust instruction for students in Tier 2 intervention. In this study, we analyzed extant data from a series of randomized experimental studies of a kindergarten supplemental reading intervention to…

  1. Evaluating the Effects of On-Task in a Box as a Class-Wide Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglia, Allison A.; Radley, Keith C.; Ness, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of the On-Task in a Box intervention on student on-task behavior when used as a class-wide intervention. The intervention package includes self-monitoring, video modeling, and reinforcement contingency components. A multiple baseline design across three elementary classrooms was used to determine the effects…

  2. Designing effective nutrition interventions for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Evans, Alexandra; Parcel, Guy S; Kelder, Steven H

    2002-03-01

    By altering dietary behaviors, nutrition interventions during adolescence have the potential of affecting children at that time and later in life. The majority of interventions implemented in the teen years have occurred in schools, but other intervention sites have included after-school programs, summer camps, community centers, libraries, and grocery stores. Programs with successful outcomes have tended to be behaviorally based, using theories for the developmental framework; included an environmental component; delivered an adequate number of lessons; and emphasized developmentally appropriate strategies. One planning method that can be used in the development of nutrition interventions is Intervention Mapping. The steps of Intervention Mapping include conducting a needs assessment, developing proximal program objectives, mapping appropriate strategies and methods to address the objectives, planning the program design, planning program adoption and implementation, and evaluation. The use of intervention-planning techniques, coordination of nutrition and physical education interventions, using technological advances such as CD-ROMs, incorporation of policy changes into intervention efforts, and dissemination of effective programs are all trends that will influence the future development of effective nutrition programs for adolescents. PMID:11902389

  3. ADHD in the Classroom: Effective Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…

  4. A computer-based intervention for improving the appropriateness of antiepileptic drug level monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chen, Philip; Tanasijevic, Milenko J; Schoenenberger, Ronald A; Fiskio, Julie; Kuperman, Gilad J; Bates, David W

    2003-03-01

    We designed and implemented 2 automated, computerized screens for use at the time of antiepileptic drug (AED) test order entry to improve appropriateness by reminding physicians when a potentially redundant test was ordered and providing common indications for monitoring and pharmacokinetics of the specific AED. All computerized orders for inpatient serum AED levels during two 3-month periods were included in the study. During the 3-month period after implementation of the automated intervention, 13% of all AED tests ordered were canceled following computerized reminders. For orders appearing redundant, the cancellation rate was 27%. For nonredundant orders, 4% were canceled when information on specific AED monitoring and pharmacokinetics was provided. The cancellation rate was sustained after 4 years. There has been a 19.5% decrease in total AED testing volume since implementation of this intervention, despite a 19.3% increase in overall chemistry test volume. Inappropriateness owing to repeated testing before pharmacologic steady state was reached decreased from 54% of all AED orders to 14.6%. A simple, automated, activity-based intervention targeting a specific test-ordering behavior effectively reduced inappropriate laboratory testing. The sustained benefit supports the idea that computerized interventions may durably affect physician behavior. Computerized delivery of such evidence-based boundary guidelines can help narrow the gap between evidence and practice. PMID:12645347

  5. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client's status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients' status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors' rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  6. Monitoring and Evaluating Psychosocial Intervention Outcomes in Humanitarian Aid

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Kaz; Ariti, Cono; van der Kam, Saskia; Mooren, Trudy; Shanks, Leslie; Pintaldi, Giovanni; Kleber, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Existing tools for evaluating psychosocial interventions (un-validated self-reporting questionnaires) are not ideal for use in non-Western conflict settings. We implement a generic method of treatment evaluation, using client and counsellor feedback, in 18 projects in non-Western humanitarian settings. We discuss our findings from the perspective of validity and suggestions for future research. A retrospective analysis is executed using data gathered from psychosocial projects. Clients (n = 7,058) complete two (complaints and functioning) rating scales each session and counsellors rate the client’s status at exit. The client-completed pre- and post-intervention rating scales show substantial changes. Counsellor evaluation of the clients’ status shows a similar trend in improvement. All three multivariable models for each separate scale have similar associations between the scales and the investigated variables despite different cultural settings. The validity is good. Limitations are: ratings give only a general impression and clinical risk factors are not measured. Potential ceiling effects may influence change of scales. The intra and inter-rater reliability of the counsellors’ rating is not assessed. The focus on client and counsellor perspectives to evaluate treatment outcome seems a strong alternative for evaluation instruments frequently used in psychosocial programming. The session client rated scales helps client and counsellor to set mutual treatment objectives and reduce drop-out risk. Further research should test the scales against a cross-cultural valid gold standard to obtain insight into their clinical relevance. PMID:27315263

  7. Bifunctional nanoparticles for SERS monitoring and magnetic intervention of assembly and enzyme cutting of DNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liqin; Crew, Elizabeth; Yan, Hong; Shan, Shiyao; Skeete, Zakiya; Mott, Derrick; Krentsel, Tatiana; Yin, Jun; Chernova, Natasha A.; Luo, Jin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Li, Qingbiao; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2013-07-27

    The ability to detect and intervene in DNA assembly, disassembly, and enzyme cutting processes in a solution phase requires effective signal transduction and stimulus response. This report demonstrates a novel bifunctional strategy for the creation of this ability using gold- and silver-coated MnZn ferrite nanoparticles (MZF@Au or MZF@Ag) that impart magnetic and surfaceenhanced Raman scattering (SERS) functionalities to these processes. The double-stranded DNA linkage of labeled gold nanoparticles with MZF@Au (or MZF@Ag) produces interparticle "hot-spots" for real-time SERS monitoring of the DNA assembly, disassembly, or enzyme cutting processes, during which the magnetic component provides an effective means for intervention in the solution. The unique combination of the nanoprobes functionalities serves a new paradigm for the design of functional nanoprobes in biomolecular recognition and intervention.

  8. Modelling intervention effects after cancer relapses

    PubMed Central

    González, Juan R.; Peña, Edsel A.; Slate, Elizabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article addresses the problem of incorporating information regarding the effects of treatments or interventions into models for repeated cancer relapses. In contrast to many existing models, our approach permits the impact of interventions to differ after each relapse. We adopt the general model for recurrent events proposed by Peña and Hollander, in which the effect of interventions is represented by an effective age process acting on the baseline hazard rate function. To accommodate the situation of cancer relapse, we propose an effective age function that encodes three possible therapeutic responses: complete remission, partial remission, and null response. The proposed model also incorporates the effect of covariates, the impact of previous relapses, and heterogeneity among individuals. We use our model to analyse the times to relapse for 63 patients with a particular subtype of indolent lymphoma and compare the results to those obtained using existing methods. PMID:16320269

  9. Effective corrosion monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.F.; Tofield, B.C.

    1988-04-01

    The results of two surveys (conducted in 1981 and 1984) of users of corrosion monitoring equipment are described. The benefits to be obtained from a well-designed corrosion monitoring system, especially if a corrosion control program is used, are outlined together with the difficulties and barriers that can obstruct successful application. Developing methods such as AC impedance, electrochemical noise, and thin layer activation are discussed in view of the comments received from the surveys.

  10. Early interventional therapy for acute massive pulmonary embolism guided by minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihua; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Weiwen; Lu, Wei; Chen, Meiqin; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring in the early catheter-based intervention for acute massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods: A total of 40 cases with acute massive PE were randomized into experimental and control group with 20 cases in each group. In the experimental group, the hemodynamics was monitored via Vigileo/FloTrac system, while echocardiography was used in the control group. Twelve hours after systemic thrombolysis, catheter-based clot fragmentation and local thrombolysis were employed in the experimental group if Vigileo/FloTrac system revealed hemodynamic abnormality. For the control group, the application of catheter was determined by the findings in echocardiography at 24 hours after systemic thrombolysis. Results: A total of 12 cases in the experimental group underwent catheter therapy successfully while 4 cases in the control group received the same treatment. Compared to the control group, 12 hours after catheter intervention the experimental group had higher PaO2/FIO2 and right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) but lower pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), indicating the effectiveness of Vigileo/FloTrac monitoring. The 28-day survival rates were identical between the groups although one patent in the control group died. Both the RVEF and PASP were significantly improved in the experimental group in 6 months compared to the control group. Conclusions: In massive PE, hemodynamic monitoring via Vigileo/FloTrac system might be useful in the decision making for catheter intervention after systemic thrombolysis and might improve the outcomes for patients. PMID:26550360

  11. In Vivo Long-Term Monitoring of Circulating Tumor Cells Fluctuation during Medical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Juratli, Mazen A.; Siegel, Eric R.; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat; Cai, Chengzhong; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Suen, James Y.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research was to study the long-term impact of medical interventions on circulating tumor cell (CTC) dynamics. We have explored whether tumor compression, punch biopsy or tumor resection cause dissemination of CTCs into peripheral blood circulation using in vivo fluorescent flow cytometry and breast cancer-bearing mouse model inoculated with MDA-MB-231-Luc2-GFP cells in the mammary gland. Two weeks after tumor inoculation, three groups of mice were the subject of the following interventions: (1) tumor compression for 15 minutes using 400 g weight to approximate the pressure during mammography; (2) punch biopsy; or (3) surgery. The CTC dynamics were determined before, during and six weeks after these interventions. An additional group of tumor-bearing mice was used as control and did not receive an intervention. The CTC dynamics in all mice were monitored weekly for eight weeks after tumor inoculation. We determined that tumor compression did not significantly affect CTC dynamics, either during the procedure itself (P = 0.28), or during the 6-week follow-up. In the punch biopsy group, we observed a significant increase in CTC immediately after the biopsy (P = 0.02), and the rate stayed elevated up to six weeks after the procedure in comparison to the tumor control group. The CTCs in the group of mice that received a tumor resection disappeared immediately after the surgery (P = 0.03). However, CTC recurrence in small numbers was detected during six weeks after the surgery. In the future, to prevent these side effects of medical interventions, the defined dynamics of intervention-induced CTCs may be used as a basis for initiation of aggressive anti-CTC therapy at time-points of increasing CTC number. PMID:26367280

  12. The Effectiveness and Precision of Intervention Fidelity Measures in Preschool Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Catherine L.

    2013-01-01

    A quantifiable measure of teachers' intervention fidelity when delivering curriculum-based interventions allows researchers to interpret the effectiveness of the curricula under scrutiny. Fidelity measures, however, must accurately represent the critical components of an intervention to confirm that the intervention was delivered as intended…

  13. Intervention Effectiveness in Reducing Prejudice against Transsexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kim A.; Stewart, Briana

    2013-01-01

    The transgender community encounters pervasive prejudice, discrimination, and violence, yet social science literature lacks research that focuses on reduction of antitransgender prejudice. This experimental study examined the effectiveness of three interventions aimed at decreasing negative attitudes toward transsexuals, correcting participants'…

  14. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  15. Measuring Fidelity to Improve Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, John W.; Flower, Andrea; Ciullo, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for using evidence-based practices to improve students' academic and behavioral outcomes. Although teachers have access to a variety of resources on evidence-based practices, poor implementation can adversely affect their effectiveness. However, an inadequate student response to intervention may also be the result of…

  16. Differential effects of self-monitoring attention, accuracy, and productivity.

    PubMed Central

    Maag, J W; Reid, R; DiGangi, S A

    1993-01-01

    Effects of self-monitoring on-task behavior, academic productivity, and academic accuracy were assessed with 6 elementary-school students with learning disabilities in their general education classroom using a mathematics task. Following baseline, the three self-monitoring conditions were introduced using a multiple schedule design during independent practice sessions. Although all three interventions yielded improvements in either arithmetic productivity, accuracy, or on-task behavior, self-monitoring academic productivity or accuracy was generally superior. Differential results were obtained across age groups: fourth graders' mathematics performance improved most when self-monitoring productivity, whereas sixth graders' performance improved most when self-monitoring accuracy. PMID:8407682

  17. Effectiveness of total worker health interventions.

    PubMed

    Anger, W Kent; Elliot, Diane L; Bodner, Todd; Olson, Ryan; Rohlman, Diane S; Truxillo, Donald M; Kuehl, Kerry S; Hammer, Leslie B; Montgomery, Dede

    2015-04-01

    Total Worker Health (TWH) was introduced and the term was trademarked in 2011 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to formally signal the expansion of traditional occupational safety and health (OSH) to include wellness and well-being. We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, and other databases using keywords TWH, health promotion, health protection, and variants for articles meeting the criteria of (a) employing both occupational safety and/or health (OSH, or health protection) and wellness and/or well-being (health promotion, or HP) in the same intervention study, and (b) reporting both OSH and HP outcomes. Only 17 published studies met these criteria. All but 1 of the 17 TWH interventions improved risk factors for injuries and/or chronic illnesses, and 4 improved 10 or more risk factors. Several TWH interventions reported sustained improvements for over a year, although only 1 is readily available for dissemination. These results suggest that TWH interventions that address both injuries and chronic diseases can improve workforce health effectively and more rapidly than the alternative of separately employing more narrowly focused programs to change the same outcomes in serial fashion. These 17 articles provide useful examples of how TWH interventions can be structured. The promise of simultaneous improvements in safety, health, and well-being leads to the call to pursue TWH research to identify and disseminate best practices. PMID:25528687

  18. Real-time human collaboration monitoring and intervention

    DOEpatents

    Merkle, Peter B.; Johnson, Curtis M.; Jones, Wendell B.; Yonas, Gerold; Doser, Adele B.; Warner, David J.

    2010-07-13

    A method of and apparatus for monitoring and intervening in, in real time, a collaboration between a plurality of subjects comprising measuring indicia of physiological and cognitive states of each of the plurality of subjects, communicating the indicia to a monitoring computer system, with the monitoring computer system, comparing the indicia with one or more models of previous collaborative performance of one or more of the plurality of subjects, and with the monitoring computer system, employing the results of the comparison to communicate commands or suggestions to one or more of the plurality of subjects.

  19. Monitoring Children with Reading Disabilities' Response to Phonics Intervention: Are There Differences between Intervention Aligned and General Skill Progress Monitoring Assessments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Lambert, Warren; Compton, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether 2 different progress monitoring assessments differentially predicted growth in reading skills associated with systematic phonics instruction. Oral reading fluency (ORE) was compared with an intervention aligned word list (IAWL) as predictors of growth in untimed and timed decoding and word identification and text…

  20. Response to Intervention Screening and Progress-Monitoring Practices in 41 Local Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl F.; McKnight, Melinda; Woods, Kari

    2009-01-01

    This study describes response to intervention (RTI) screening and progress-monitoring instruments and procedures in 41 local school settings. For screening the schools most often used published reading assessments or commercial products; a three-times-per-year screening schedule was most prevalent. For progress monitoring schools most often relied…

  1. Monitoring Progress: Response to Intervention's Promise and Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Response to intervention began as a way to identify and teach struggling readers and special education students. It's fast becoming a way to change schooling for everyone. This special report examines the many forms the approach is now taking, its research base, its influence on the educational marketplace, and the federal regulations that both…

  2. On predicting monitoring system effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Carlo; Sigurdardottir, Dorotea; Glisic, Branko; Zonta, Daniele; Pozzi, Matteo

    2015-03-01

    While the objective of structural design is to achieve stability with an appropriate level of reliability, the design of systems for structural health monitoring is performed to identify a configuration that enables acquisition of data with an appropriate level of accuracy in order to understand the performance of a structure or its condition state. However, a rational standardized approach for monitoring system design is not fully available. Hence, when engineers design a monitoring system, their approach is often heuristic with performance evaluation based on experience, rather than on quantitative analysis. In this contribution, we propose a probabilistic model for the estimation of monitoring system effectiveness based on information available in prior condition, i.e. before acquiring empirical data. The presented model is developed considering the analogy between structural design and monitoring system design. We assume that the effectiveness can be evaluated based on the prediction of the posterior variance or covariance matrix of the state parameters, which we assume to be defined in a continuous space. Since the empirical measurements are not available in prior condition, the estimation of the posterior variance or covariance matrix is performed considering the measurements as a stochastic variable. Moreover, the model takes into account the effects of nuisance parameters, which are stochastic parameters that affect the observations but cannot be estimated using monitoring data. Finally, we present an application of the proposed model to a real structure. The results show how the model enables engineers to predict whether a sensor configuration satisfies the required performance.

  3. Reading Intervention: The Effectiveness of Leveled Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton-Archie, Sonya H.

    2014-01-01

    Reading challenges are still evident for more than 90 million adults in the United States who are functioning at the lowest levels of literacy (United States Department of Education, 2004). Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) is one program designed to address these educational needs. The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the…

  4. How Effective Are School Bullying Intervention Programs? A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.; Ross, Scott W.; Isava, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on effectiveness of school bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across studies. The authors conducted a meta-analytic study of school bullying intervention research across the…

  5. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:23307563

  6. Effective non-pharmacological birth interventions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jude

    2015-02-01

    Midwifery expertise is in 'normal' birth. What constitutes 'normal' is debatable, but well embedded within 'normal' are the birth plans of women who aspire to give birth without using drugs. To give birth without drugs for many may seem undesirable or intolerable, especially to those whose cultural references to birth have been overwhelmingly negative, fearful or risk-obsessed. However, significant numbers of women have confidence in their innate ability to birth their babies and are rightfully concerned about the undesirable side effects of pharmacological interventions. As well as providing wider choice for women, looking for alternative ways of addressing pain and progress in labour enhances birth attendants' knowledge and becomes a delightful journey of discovering the ancient and modern arts of midwifery. Shared here are a collection of ideas to contribute to the toolkit of knowledge about non-pharmacological interventions. PMID:26333246

  7. Use of Email and Telephone Prompts to Increase Self-Monitoring in a Web-Based Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Bennett, Gary G; Puleo, Elaine; Haines, Jess; Viswanath, K Vish; Emmons, Karen M

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring is a key behavior change mechanism associated with sustained health behavior change. Although Web-based interventions can offer user-friendly approaches for self-monitoring, engagement with these tools is suboptimal. Increased use could encourage, promote, and sustain behavior change. Objective To determine whether email prompts or email plus telephone prompts increase self-monitoring of behaviors on a website created for a multiple cancer risk reduction program. Methods We recruited and enrolled participants (N = 100) in a Web-based intervention during a primary care well visit at an urban primary care health center. The frequency of daily self-monitoring was tracked on the study website. Participants who tracked at least one behavior 3 or more times during week 1 were classified as meeting the tracking threshold and were assigned to the observation-only group (OO, n = 14). This group was followed but did not receive prompts. Participants who did not meet the threshold during week 1 were randomly assigned to one of 2 prompting conditions: automated assistance (AA, n = 36) or automated assistance + calls (AAC, n = 50). During prompting periods (weeks 2–3), participants in the AA and AAC conditions received daily automated emails that encouraged tracking and two tailored self-monitoring reports (end of week 2, end of week 3) that provided feedback on tracking frequency. Individuals in the AAC condition also received two technical assistance calls from trained study staff. Frequency of self-monitoring was tracked from week 2 through week 17. Results Self-monitoring rates increased in both intervention conditions during prompting and declined when prompting ceased. Over the 16 weeks of observation, there was a significant between-group difference in the percentage who met the self-monitoring threshold each week, with better maintenance in the AAC than in the AA condition (P < .001). Self-monitoring rates were greater in the OO group than

  8. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of a collaborative patient education hypertension intervention in Utah.

    PubMed

    Trogdon, Justin G; Larsen, Barbara; Larsen, David; Salas, Wendy; Snell, Matt

    2012-11-01

    This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of a patient hypertension education intervention that provided patient education through interactive voice response technology and distribution of automated blood pressure monitors to high-risk plan members with uncontrolled hypertension. A total of 17,318 members were identified with hypertension in an administrative database. The study sample consisted of all 534 high-risk hypertensive plan members who received blood pressure monitors. Using data on activity-based program costs and changes in hypertension control, this study modeled the intervention's cost-effectiveness relative to no intervention. The intervention was estimated to have brought hypertension under control in 151 patients during the study year. Across all 534 participants in 1 year, 0.3 events (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, congestive heart failure, and renal failure) were avoided and 2.77 life-years were gained (LYG). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the intervention compared with no intervention was $767 per person brought under control or $41,927 per LYG. If the gains in hypertension control from 1 year's investment were assumed to last 10 years, the 10-year ICER relative to no intervention was $1857 per LYG. The intervention is a cost-effective strategy to address hypertension and can serve as a model for future innovations. PMID:23126347

  9. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes) it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions) and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression). Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months) and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months). Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring). No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long-term effectiveness suggested the

  10. Data and safety monitoring in social behavioral intervention trials: the REACH II experience

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J; Schulz, Richard; Belle, Steven H; Burgio, Louis D; Armstrong, Nell; Gitlin, Laura N; Coon, David W; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Klinger, Julie; Stahl, Sidney M

    2006-01-01

    Background Psychosocial and behavioral interventions trials targeting a broad range of complex social and behavioral problems such as smoking, obesity and family caregiving have proliferated in the past 30 years. At the same time the use of Data and Safety Monitoring Boards (DSMBs) to monitor the progress and quality of intervention trials and the safety of study participants has increased substantially. Most of the existing literature and guidelines for safety monitoring and reporting of adverse events focuses on medical interventions. Consequently, there is little guidance for investigators conducting social and behavior trials. Purpose This paper summarizes how issues associated with safety monitoring and adverse event reporting were handled in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer’s Caregiver Health (REACH II) program, a multisite randomized clinical trial, funded by the National Institutes on Aging (NIA) and the National Institutes of Nursing Research (NINR), that tested the efficacy of a multicomponent social/behavioral intervention for caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods A task force was formed to define adverse events for the trial and protocols for reporting and resolving events that occurred. The task force conducted a review of existing polices and protocols for data and safety monitoring and adverse event reporting and identified potential risks particular to the study population. An informal survey regarding data and safety monitoring procedures with investigators on psychosocial intervention trials was also conducted. Results Two categories of events were defined for both caregivers and patients; adverse events and safety alerts. A distinction was also made between events detected at baseline assessment and those detected post-randomization. Standardized protocols were also developed for the reporting and resolution of events that occurred and training of study personnel. Results from the informal survey indicated wide

  11. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency.

  12. Masked Intervention Effects: Analytic Methods for Addressing Low Dosage of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Boxmeyer, Caroline; Powell, Nicole; Roth, David L.; Windle, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines how a particular strategy for analyzing evaluation data, intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses, may underestimate the true effects of interventions. Such underestimation of intervention effects can profoundly influence policies for prevention and treatment of children's mental health problems, which can in turn lead to negative…

  13. Effects of a Forgiveness Intervention for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…

  14. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  15. A Blueprint for Effectively Using RTI Intervention Block Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins Averill, Orla; Baker, Diana; Rinaldi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Many schools have adopted schoolwide intervention blocks as a component of response-to-intervention (RTI) implementation to ensure that students who need intervention are receiving it. However, virtually no peer-reviewed guidance exists for helping teachers manage this time effectively. This article presents a blueprint for organizing intervention…

  16. Teaching Strategies for Effective Fifth Grade Math Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zank, Alicia A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine what effects explicit and systematic math intervention instruction will have on student's performance on math assessments. The study will focus on a small group of fifth grade students that have been identified as needing targeted intervention (tier 2) and intensive interventions (tier 1) through the…

  17. The Effectiveness of Emergency Obstetric Referral Interventions in Developing Country Settings: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Julia; Kanguru, Lovney; Astin, Margaret; Munjanja, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    . To inform the implementation of effective referral interventions, improved monitoring and evaluation practices are necessary, along with studies that develop better understanding of how interventions work. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:22807658

  18. Advancing Intervention Science through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Adamson, Lena; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Eichas, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i.e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized by…

  19. Effects of Intensive Reading Intervention for Eighth-Grade Students with Persistently Inadequate Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Leroux, Audrey; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the effects of a yearlong, very small-group, intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with serious reading difficulties who had demonstrated low response to intervention (RTI) in both Grades 6 and 7. At the beginning of Grade 6, a cohort of students identified as having reading difficulties were randomized to…

  20. The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

    2007-01-01

    A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

  1. The Utility of Brief Experimental Analysis and Extended Intervention Analysis in Selecting Effective Mathematics Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mong, Michael D.; Mong, Kristi W.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the utility of brief experimental analysis (BEA) in predicting effective interventions for increasing the math fluency of 3 elementary students identified as having math skill deficits. Baseline data were collected followed by implementation of a BEA consisting of the following interventions: cover, copy, and compare,…

  2. Systematic Review of School-based Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior: Does Intervention Intensity Impact Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…

  3. Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…

  4. Effects of intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with persistently inadequate response to intervention.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Leroux, Audrey; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the effects of a yearlong, very small-group, intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with serious reading difficulties who had demonstrated low response to intervention (RTI) in both Grades 6 and 7. At the beginning of Grade 6, a cohort of students identified as having reading difficulties were randomized to treatment or comparison conditions. Treatment group students received researcher-provided reading intervention in Grade 6, which continued in Grade 7 for those with low response to intervention; comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention. Participants in the Grade 8 study were members of the original treatment (N = 28) and comparison (N = 13) conditions who had failed to pass a state-mandated reading comprehension test in both Grades 6 and 7. In Grade 8, treatment group students received a 50-minute, daily, individualized, intensive reading intervention in groups of two to four students per teacher. The results showed that students in the treatment condition demonstrated significantly higher scores than comparison students on standardized measures of comprehension (effect size = 1.20) and word identification (effect size = 0.49), although most continued to lack grade-level proficiency in reading despite 3 years of intervention. Findings from this study provide a rationale for intensive intervention for middle school students with severe reading difficulties. PMID:21512102

  5. Effects of Intensive Reading Intervention for Eighth-Grade Students With Persistently Inadequate Response to Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Wexler, Jade; Leroux, Audrey; Roberts, Greg; Denton, Carolyn; Barth, Amy; Fletcher, Jack

    2013-01-01

    The authors report the effects of a yearlong, very small-group, intensive reading intervention for eighth-grade students with serious reading difficulties who had demonstrated low response to intervention (RTI) in both Grades 6 and 7. At the beginning of Grade 6, a cohort of students identified as having reading difficulties were randomized to treatment or comparison conditions. Treatment group students received researcher-provided reading intervention in Grade 6, which continued in Grade 7 for those with low response to intervention; comparison students received no researcher-provided intervention. Participants in the Grade 8 study were members of the original treatment (N = 28) and comparison (N = 13) conditions who had failed to pass a state-mandated reading comprehension test in both Grades 6 and 7. In Grade 8, treatment group students received a 50-minute, daily, individualized, intensive reading intervention in groups of two to four students per teacher. The results showed that students in the treatment condition demonstrated significantly higher scores than comparison students on standardized measures of comprehension (effect size = 1.20) and word identification (effect size = 0.49), although most continued to lack grade-level proficiency in reading despite 3 years of intervention. Findings from this study provide a rationale for intensive intervention for middle school students with severe reading difficulties. PMID:21512102

  6. Reactive Effects of Self-Monitoring Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Bryan; Fox, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the use of Wolpe's notion of subjective units of disturbance (SUDS) to monitor anxiety. Two studies were conducted to test for reactive effects of the self-monitoring. Results indicated that self-monitoring can have a positive effect on perceived anxiety level. (Author/RC)

  7. A remote monitoring and telephone nurse coaching intervention to reduce readmissions among patients with heart failure: study protocol for the Better Effectiveness After Transition - Heart Failure (BEAT-HF) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure is a prevalent health problem associated with costly hospital readmissions. Transitional care programs have been shown to reduce readmissions but are costly to implement. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of telemonitoring in managing the care of this chronic condition is mixed. The objective of this randomized controlled comparative effectiveness study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a care transition intervention that includes pre-discharge education about heart failure and post-discharge telephone nurse coaching combined with home telemonitoring of weight, blood pressure, heart rate, and symptoms in reducing all-cause 180-day hospital readmissions for older adults hospitalized with heart failure. Methods/Design A multi-center, randomized controlled trial is being conducted at six academic health systems in California. A total of 1,500 patients aged 50 years and older will be enrolled during a hospitalization for treatment of heart failure. Patients in the intervention group will receive intensive patient education using the ‘teach-back’ method and receive instruction in using the telemonitoring equipment. Following hospital discharge, they will receive a series of nine scheduled health coaching telephone calls over 6 months from nurses located in a centralized call center. The nurses also will call patients and patients’ physicians in response to alerts generated by the telemonitoring system, based on predetermined parameters. The primary outcome is readmission for any cause within 180 days. Secondary outcomes include 30-day readmission, mortality, hospital days, emergency department (ED) visits, hospital cost, and health-related quality of life. Discussion BEAT-HF is one of the largest randomized controlled trials of telemonitoring in patients with heart failure, and the first explicitly to adapt the care transition approach and combine it with remote telemonitoring. The study population also includes patients with a

  8. Choosing among Techniques for Quantifying Single-Case Intervention Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolov, Rumen; Solanas, Antonio; Sierra, Vicenta; Evans, Jonathan J.

    2011-01-01

    If single-case experimental designs are to be used to establish guidelines for evidence-based interventions in clinical and educational settings, numerical values that reflect treatment effect sizes are required. The present study compares four recently developed procedures for quantifying the magnitude of intervention effect using data with known…

  9. Costs and Effectiveness of Interventions in Child Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Howard

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews cost-effectiveness evaluations of child maltreatment interventions. Though methodologically sound research is limited, existing research suggests that home health visitors, lay group counseling, and family and group therapy are promising interventions. Medical foster care substantially reduces costs, but its effectiveness has not…

  10. A review of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions in adult males – a guide for intervention strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy excess, low fruit and vegetable intake and other suboptimal dietary habits contribute to an increased poor health and the burden of disease in males. However the best way to engage males into nutrition programs remains unclear. This review provides a critical evaluation of the nature and effectiveness of nutrition interventions that target the adult male population. Methods A search for full-text publications was conducted using The Cochrane Library; Web of Science; SCOPUS; MEDLINE and CINAHL. Studies were included if 1) published from January 1990 to August 2011 and 2) male only studies (≥18 years) or 3) where males contributed to >90% of the active cohort. A study must have described, (i) a significant change (p<0.05) over time in an objective measure of body weight, expressed in kilograms (kg) OR Body Mass Index (BMI) OR (ii) at least one significant change (p<0.05) in a dietary intake measure to qualify as effective. To identify emerging patterns within the research a descriptive process was used. Results Nine studies were included. Sample sizes ranged from 53 to 5042 male participants, with study durations ranging from 12 weeks to 24 months. Overlap was seen with eight of the nine studies including a weight management component whilst six studies focused on achieving changes in dietary intake patterns relating to modifications of fruit, vegetable, dairy and total fat intakes and three studies primarily focused on achieving weight loss through caloric restriction. Intervention effectiveness was identified for seven of the nine studies. Five studies reported significant positive changes in weight (kg) and/or BMI (kg/m2) changes (p≤0.05). Four studies had effective interventions (p<0.05) targeting determinants of dietary intake and dietary behaviours and/or nutritional intake. Intervention features, which appeared to be associated with better outcomes, include the delivery of quantitative information on diet and the use of self-monitoring

  11. Text Messaging Data Collection for Monitoring an Infant Feeding Intervention Program in Rural China: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all

  12. Eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel: dosemeters, calibration and practical aspects of H p (3) monitoring. A 2015 review.

    PubMed

    Carinou, Eleftheria; Ferrari, Paolo; Bjelac, Olivera Ciraj; Gingaume, Merce; Merce, Marta Sans; O'Connor, Una

    2015-09-01

    A thorough literature review about the current situation on the implementation of eye lens monitoring has been performed in order to provide recommendations regarding dosemeter types, calibration procedures and practical aspects of eye lens monitoring for interventional radiology personnel. Most relevant data and recommendations from about 100 papers have been analysed and classified in the following topics: challenges of today in eye lens monitoring; conversion coefficients, phantoms and calibration procedures for eye lens dose evaluation; correction factors and dosemeters for eye lens dose measurements; dosemeter position and influence of protective devices. The major findings of the review can be summarised as follows: the recommended operational quantity for the eye lens monitoring is H p (3). At present, several dosemeters are available for eye lens monitoring and calibration procedures are being developed. However, in practice, very often, alternative methods are used to assess the dose to the eye lens. A summary of correction factors found in the literature for the assessment of the eye lens dose is provided. These factors can give an estimation of the eye lens dose when alternative methods, such as the use of a whole body dosemeter, are used. A wide range of values is found, thus indicating the large uncertainty associated with these simplified methods. Reduction factors from most common protective devices obtained experimentally and using Monte Carlo calculations are presented. The paper concludes that the use of a dosemeter placed at collar level outside the lead apron can provide a useful first estimate of the eye lens exposure. However, for workplaces with estimated annual equivalent dose to the eye lens close to the dose limit, specific eye lens monitoring should be performed. Finally, training of the involved medical staff on the risks of ionising radiation for the eye lens and on the correct use of protective systems is strongly recommended. PMID

  13. Effectiveness of job search interventions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songqi; Huang, Jason L; Wang, Mo

    2014-07-01

    The current meta-analytic review examined the effectiveness of job search interventions in facilitating job search success (i.e., obtaining employment). Major theoretical perspectives on job search interventions, including behavioral learning theory, theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and coping theory, were reviewed and integrated to derive a taxonomy of critical job search intervention components. Summarizing the data from 47 experimentally or quasi-experimentally evaluated job search interventions, we found that the odds of obtaining employment were 2.67 times higher for job seekers participating in job search interventions compared to job seekers in the control group, who did not participate in such intervention programs. Our moderator analysis also suggested that job search interventions that contained certain components, including teaching job search skills, improving self-presentation, boosting self-efficacy, encouraging proactivity, promoting goal setting, and enlisting social support, were more effective than interventions that did not include such components. More important, job search interventions effectively promoted employment only when both skill development and motivation enhancement were included. In addition, we found that job search interventions were more effective in helping younger and older (vs. middle-aged) job seekers, short-term (vs. long-term) unemployed job seekers, and job seekers with special needs and conditions (vs. job seekers in general) to find employment. Furthermore, meta-analytic path analysis revealed that increased job search skills, job search self-efficacy, and job search behaviors partially mediated the positive effect of job search interventions on obtaining employment. Theoretical and practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:24588365

  14. Effective Bullying-Trauma Intervention Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in many sectors of society in trauma intervention. School yard bullying has been getting a lot of attention as of late. It is widely reported and analyzed repeatedly in the media. As a clinical psychologist and adjunct psychology professor for over 30 years, the author has had occasion to see bullying in many forms…

  15. Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions--A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Evan A; Tellez-Sanchez, Sarita; Wick, Carson; Kirby, Miles; Zambrano, Laura; Abadie Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F; Nagel, Corey

    2016-04-01

    Subject reactivity--when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed--has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more. PMID:26986617

  16. The Use of Individual Growth and Developmental Indicators for Progress Monitoring and Intervention Decision Making in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith J.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Buzhardt, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Progress monitoring tools have been shown to be essential elements in current approaches to intervention problem-solving models. Such tools have been valuable not only in marking individual children's level of performance relative to peers but also in measuring change in skill level in a way that can be attributed to intervention and development.…

  17. Effects of Career Choice Intervention on Components of Career Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivisto, Petri; Vinokur, Amiram D.; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    This randomized experimental study (N = 1,034) examines both the direct and the indirect effects of the Towards Working Life intervention on 2 components of adolescents' career preparation: preparedness for career choice and attitude toward career planning. The intervention comprised a 1-week workshop program, the proximal goals of which were to…

  18. Developing Effective Behavior Intervention Plans: Suggestions for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killu, Kim

    2008-01-01

    With federal mandates to develop and implement programs for students with disabilities who have behavior problems that impede their educational performance, school personnel are faced with increasing responsibility for developing individualized interventions. Developing interventions that appropriately, effectively, and efficiently address the…

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Early Years Language Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickford-Smith, Abigail; Wijayatilake, Lilani; Woods, Glinette

    2005-01-01

    Research into the long-term effects of language delay reflects an increasing concern that many childrens needs are not being met by current early years educational practice. This paper reports on a twopart intervention designed to improve language skills within a nursery setting. In the first part of the intervention, a directly taught small group…

  20. Effect of a Targeted Early Literacy Intervention for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…

  1. The Effectiveness of an Emergent Literacy Intervention for Teenage Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Amy; van Bysterveldt, Anne; McNeill, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of an experimental emergent literacy intervention, targeting teenage mothers attending an educational facility. Using a pretest/posttest research design, 27 participants completed a 7­-week intervention based in the classroom, targeting a range of emergent literacy skills that they could utilize when reading…

  2. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  3. Confidentiality Intervention: Effects on Provider-Consumer-Family Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Tina; Solomon, Phyllis

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses a model intervention clarifying confidentiality policies regarding releasing information to families or significant others was evaluated for its effectiveness in improving provider-consumer-family collaboration. The intervention was implemented in one agency, and a comparison agency continued with previously used procedures.…

  4. Insights into workplace bullying: psychosocial drivers and effective interventions

    PubMed Central

    Escartín, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi-) experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of antibullying interventions must flourish and be improved, requiring close cooperation between practitioners and academics to design, implement, and evaluate effective interventions based

  5. Insights into workplace bullying: psychosocial drivers and effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Escartín, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Research on effectiveness of workplace bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across empirical studies. This study addresses the question of whether workplace bullying can be reduced in prevalence and consequences, if so to what extent and by which strategies and interventions. It opens with a brief overview of the nature of bullying at work and discussion of some precursors and existing interventions. However, its principal focus is on the findings obtained from selected (quasi-) experimental longitudinal studies on antibullying interventions, drawing together the results of studies conducted in Europe, USA, and Australia, including several economic sectors, and concerned about primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs and strategies. Additional emphasis is considered from the psychosocial drivers highlighted both from prescriptive and cross-sectional studies and factual empirical studies. One randomized control study and seven quasiexperimental longitudinal studies were identified by searching electronic databases and bibliographies and via contact with experts. The majority of outcomes evidenced some level of change, mostly positive, suggesting that workplace bullying interventions are more likely to affect knowledge, attitudes, and self-perceptions, but actual bullying behaviors showed much more mixed results. In general, growing effectiveness was stated as the level of intervention increased from primary to tertiary prevention. However, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs in most studies do not allow direct attribution of these findings to the interventions. Overall, the evaluation of antibullying interventions must flourish and be improved, requiring close cooperation between practitioners and academics to design, implement, and evaluate effective interventions based

  6. Addiction industry studies: understanding how proconsumption influences block effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    The legalized consumption of products with addiction potential, such as tobacco and alcohol, contributes in myriad ways to poor physical and mental health and to deterioration in social well- being. These impacts are well documented, as are a range of public health interventions that are demonstrably effective in reducing harm. I have discussed the capacity for the profits from these substances to be deployed in ways that block or divert resources from interventions known to be effective. Addiction industry studies constitute a new and previously neglected area of research focusing specifically on understanding the salient relationships that determine policy and regulation. This understanding will increase the odds of adopting effective interventions. PMID:23409882

  7. Addiction Industry Studies: Understanding How Proconsumption Influences Block Effective Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The legalized consumption of products with addiction potential, such as tobacco and alcohol, contributes in myriad ways to poor physical and mental health and to deterioration in social well- being. These impacts are well documented, as are a range of public health interventions that are demonstrably effective in reducing harm. I have discussed the capacity for the profits from these substances to be deployed in ways that block or divert resources from interventions known to be effective. Addiction industry studies constitute a new and previously neglected area of research focusing specifically on understanding the salient relationships that determine policy and regulation. This understanding will increase the odds of adopting effective interventions. PMID:23409882

  8. Cost-effectiveness of monitoring free flaps.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Shiva; Sharp, David; Jardim, Christopher; Batstone, Martin D

    2016-06-01

    Methods of free flap monitoring have become more sophisticated and expensive. This study aims to determine the cost of free flap monitoring and examine its cost effectiveness. We examined a group of patients who had had free flaps to the head and neck over a two-year period, and combined these results with costs obtained from business managers and staff. There were 132 free flaps with a success rate of 99%. The cost of monitoring was Aus $193/flap. Clinical monitoring during this time period cost Aus$25 476 and did not lead to the salvage of any free flaps. Cost equivalence is reached between monitoring and not monitoring only at a failure rate of 15.8%. This is to our knowledge the first study to calculate the cost of clinical monitoring of free flaps, and to examine its cost-effectiveness. PMID:27015730

  9. Effect assessment in work environment interventions: a methodological reflection.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W P; Eklund, J; Hansson, B; Lindbeck, L

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of issues for work environment intervention (WEI) researchers in light of the mixed results reported in the literature. If researchers emphasise study quality over intervention quality, reviews that exclude case studies with high quality and multifactorial interventions may be vulnerable to 'quality criteria selection bias'. Learning from 'failed' interventions is inhibited by both publication bias and reporting lengths that limit information on relevant contextual and implementation factors. The authors argue for the need to develop evaluation approaches consistent with the complexity of multifactorial WEIs that: a) are owned by and aimed at the whole organisation; and b) include intervention in early design stages where potential impact is highest. Context variety, complexity and instability in and around organisations suggest that attention might usefully shift from generalisable 'proof of effectiveness' to a more nuanced identification of intervention elements and the situations in which they are more likely to work as intended. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper considers ergonomics interventions from perspectives of what constitutes quality and 'proof". It points to limitations of traditional experimental intervention designs and argues that the complexity of organisational change, and the need for multifactorial interventions that reach deep into work processes for greater impact, should be recognised. PMID:20069488

  10. Validity Estimates and Functionality of Materials and Procedures Used to Monitor the Implementation Integrity of a Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John; Upright, James; Easton, Julia; Ehrenbock, Cassia; Tunstall, Kali

    2013-01-01

    Observing for, documenting, and improving implementation integrity are critical components of effective intervention services in schools. Without them, students may not receive effective intervention, and systems-level models of intervention service-delivery may never be properly evaluated or realize its potential. The purpose of this study was to…

  11. Examining the effects of linking student performance and progression in a tier 2 kindergarten reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Deborah C; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-Man; Coyne, Michael D; Simmons, Leslie E; Oslund, Eric; Fogarty, Melissa; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Little, Mary E; Rawlinson, D'Ann

    2015-01-01

    Despite the emerging evidence base on response to intervention, there is limited research regarding how to effectively use progress-monitoring data to adjust instruction for students in Tier 2 intervention. In this study, we analyzed extant data from a series of randomized experimental studies of a kindergarten supplemental reading intervention to determine whether linking performance on formative assessments to curriculum progression improved kindergarten reading outcomes over standard implementation. We were interested in whether specific progression adjustments would enhance the effects of supplemental reading intervention. Growth-mixture modeling using data from kindergarteners (n = 136) whose intervention progression (e.g. repeat lessons, skip lessons) was adjusted every 4 weeks based on mastery data identified four latent classes characterized by unique profiles of curriculum progression adjustments. Multilevel analyses comparing the performance of students in the four classes with that of propensity matched groups whose intervention was not adjusted (n = 101) indicated positive effects of curriculum progression for (a) students whose formative assessment performance exceeded 90% and received early and sustained lesson acceleration and (b) students who initially performed below 70% on assessments and who repeated early lessons and progressed to conventional implementation. Effects of curriculum adjustments for the two smallest groups were less clear. PMID:23907163

  12. Differential Effects of Reinforcement on the Self-Monitoring of On-Task Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, Tiffany L.; Haut, Jillian M.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without…

  13. Use of a Tier 3 Evidence-Based Intervention with Progress Monitoring, Formative Assessment, and Student Goal-Setting: An Evaluation of the Immediate and Long-Term Effects on Student Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMasters, Angela B.

    2011-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for students at risk for reading failure is essential to establish the foundational skills necessary for students to become skilled readers. The focus on evidence-based practices and data-driven decision making leads educators to consider additional instructional approaches, such as formative assessment (FA)…

  14. Intervention Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of a Successful Telephonic Intervention to Promote Diabetes Control

    PubMed Central

    Schechter, Clyde B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Shmukler, Celia; Walker, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the costs and cost-effectiveness of a telephonic behavioral intervention to promote glycemic control in the Improving Diabetes Outcomes study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using the provider perspective and a time horizon to the end of the 1-year intervention, we calculate the costs of a telephonic intervention by health educators compared with an active control (print) intervention to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. We calculate the cost-effectiveness ratios for a reduction of one percentage point in hemoglobin A1c (A1C), as well as for one participant to achieve an A1C <7%. Base-case and sensitivity analysis results are presented. RESULTS The intervention cost $176.61 per person randomized to the telephone group to achieve a mean 0.36 percentage point of A1C improvement. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $490.58 per incremental percentage point of A1C improvement and $2,617.35 per person over a 1-year intervention in achieving the A1C goal. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the median (interquartile range) of per capita cost, cost per percentage point reduction in A1C, and cost per person achieving the A1C goal of <7% are $175.82 (147.32–203.56), $487.75 (356.50–718.32), and $2,312.88 (1,785.58–3,220.78), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The costs of a telephonic intervention for diabetes self-management support are moderate and commensurate to the modest associated improvement in glycemic control. PMID:22851599

  15. The cost-effectiveness of forty health interventions in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jha, P; Bangoura, O; Ranson, K

    1998-09-01

    Addressing diseases of a high burden with the most cost-effective interventions could do much to reduce disease in the population. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of 40 health interventions in Guinea, a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa, using local data. Interventions were selected from treatment protocols at health centres, first referral hospitals and national programmes in Guinea, based upon consultation with health care providers and government plans. For each intervention, we calculated the costs (comprising labour, drugs, supplies, equipment, and overhead) in relation to years of life saved, discounted at 3%. The results show that the per capita costs and effectiveness of any intervention vary considerably. Average costs show no clear pattern by level of care, but effectiveness is generally highest for curative hospital interventions. Several interventions have a cost-effectiveness of US$100 per year of life saved (LYS) or less, and address more than 5% of total years of life lost. These include health centre interventions such as: treatment of childhood pneumonia ($3/LYS); rehydration therapy for diarrhoea ($7/LYS); integrated management of childhood pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea ($8/LYS); short-course treatment of tuberculosis ($12/LYS); treatment of childhood malaria ($13/LYS), and childhood vaccination ($25/LYS). Outreach programmes for impregnated bed nets against malaria cost $43/LYS. Maternal and perinatal diseases, have slightly less cost-effective interventions: integrated family planning, prenatal and delivery care at health centres ($109/LYS) or outreach programmes to provide prenatal and delivery care ($283/LYS). A minimum package of health services would cost approximately $13 per capita, and would address a large proportion (69%) of major causes of premature mortality. This minimum package would cost about three times the current public spending on health, suggesting that health spending needs to rise to achieve good health

  16. Therapeutic Effectiveness of Setting and Monitoring Goals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Russell R.

    1978-01-01

    Evaluated therapeutic effectiveness of setting goals in behavioral terms while monitoring subject's progress in attaining these goals. Greater beneficial changes in patient attainment of goals were effected using a structured patient-therapist collaboration on weekly goals. Results indicate the goal attainment model with periodic monitoring is…

  17. The use of selected interventions in monitoring primary health care implementation in rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egwu, I N

    1992-03-01

    Nigeria's Primary Health Care (PHC)-based health system development aims to strengthen PHC in the local government areas (LGA) through technical planning and implementation that emphasize maternal and child health services. Convenient variables, including expanded programme on immunization (EPI), antenatal care (ANC) utilization and attended births, were selected as interventions to monitor the progress of implementation of PHC activities during 1985-90 in Odukpani LGA. Analysis of available data at the LGA showed that immunization coverage for most EPI antigens increased; ANC services showed increased utilization; health worker-attended births increased as traditional birth deliveries declined during the period. Some of the increases were modest but are considered important. The study offers a pilot approach to monitoring implementation of PHC activities in Odukpani LGA. The implications of the findings for similar studies are discussed. PMID:1589661

  18. Thresholds for the cost-effectiveness of interventions: alternative approaches.

    PubMed

    Marseille, Elliot; Larson, Bruce; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kahn, James G; Rosen, Sydney

    2015-02-01

    Many countries use the cost-effectiveness thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization's Choosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective project (WHO-CHOICE) when evaluating health interventions. This project sets the threshold for cost-effectiveness as the cost of the intervention per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted less than three times the country's annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Highly cost-effective interventions are defined as meeting a threshold per DALY averted of once the annual GDP per capita. We argue that reliance on these thresholds reduces the value of cost-effectiveness analyses and makes such analyses too blunt to be useful for most decision-making in the field of public health. Use of these thresholds has little theoretical justification, skirts the difficult but necessary ranking of the relative values of locally-applicable interventions and omits any consideration of what is truly affordable. The WHO-CHOICE thresholds set such a low bar for cost-effectiveness that very few interventions with evidence of efficacy can be ruled out. The thresholds have little value in assessing the trade-offs that decision-makers must confront. We present alternative approaches for applying cost-effectiveness criteria to choices in the allocation of health-care resources. PMID:25883405

  19. Thresholds for the cost–effectiveness of interventions: alternative approaches

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Bruce; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kahn, James G; Rosen, Sydney

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many countries use the cost–effectiveness thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization’s Choosing Interventions that are Cost–Effective project (WHO-CHOICE) when evaluating health interventions. This project sets the threshold for cost–effectiveness as the cost of the intervention per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted less than three times the country’s annual gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Highly cost–effective interventions are defined as meeting a threshold per DALY averted of once the annual GDP per capita. We argue that reliance on these thresholds reduces the value of cost–effectiveness analyses and makes such analyses too blunt to be useful for most decision-making in the field of public health. Use of these thresholds has little theoretical justification, skirts the difficult but necessary ranking of the relative values of locally-applicable interventions and omits any consideration of what is truly affordable. The WHO-CHOICE thresholds set such a low bar for cost–effectiveness that very few interventions with evidence of efficacy can be ruled out. The thresholds have little value in assessing the trade-offs that decision-makers must confront. We present alternative approaches for applying cost–effectiveness criteria to choices in the allocation of health-care resources. PMID:25883405

  20. Intervention fidelity and effectiveness of a UK worksite physical activity intervention funded by the BUPA Foundation, UK.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Rebecca; Mceachan, Rosie; Jackson, Cath; West, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to test whether the effectiveness of a worksite physical activity intervention delivered in five work organizations varied as a function of intervention fidelity. We conducted a fidelity analysis as part of a large matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial of a worksite physical activity intervention (AME for Activity). Participants (N = 1260) were employees from five organizations in the UK. The primary trial outcome was physical activity at 9 months post intervention. Adherence, exposure, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness/engagement were measured to assess fidelity. Qualitative data about the context in which the intervention was delivered were collected via focus groups, interviews and field notes. Multi-level modelling was used to provide a comparison of the effect of the intervention on increases in physical activity for worksites where intervention fidelity was good, compared with those where intervention fidelity was poor or moderate. Intervention fidelity was poor in two organizations, moderate in two organizations and good in one organization (local council). Re-analysis of the trial data comparing employees in the local council (N = 443) with employees in all other worksites (N = 611) revealed a significant effect of the intervention on physical activity levels among council employees only. These findings suggest that the measurement of fidelity and the testing of the effects of intervention fidelity on outcomes, as part of the evaluation of complex interventions, are essential to understand the context and conditions in which interventions are most effective. PMID:25296727

  1. Multidisciplinary meetings as an effective clinical intervention.

    PubMed

    MacCallam, Jackie; Higgins, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    When used well, multidisciplinary meetings can function in the same way as other clinical interventions to improve communication, efficiency and outcomes. They help break down barriers, manage difficult emotions, and benefit service users and staff. But it is imperative that they are well prepared, well attended, and that the purpose and agenda are agreed. It is also vital to have an efficient chair and that meetings take place in an environment where feelings can be shared openly and respected. Services should recognise and address relevant training and support requirements. PMID:24914667

  2. Efficacy of Internet-Based Self-Monitoring Interventions on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes in Perinatal Diabetic Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Htun, Tha Pyai; Wong, Suei Nee; Tam, Wai San Wilson; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-monitoring using the Internet offers new opportunities to engage perinatal diabetic women in self-management to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. Objective This review aims to synthesize the best available evidence to evaluate the efficacy of Internet-based self-monitoring interventions in improving maternal and neonatal outcomes among perinatal diabetic women. Methods The review was conducted using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsyINFO, Scopus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses to search for English-language research studies without any year limitation. A risk of bias table was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan software. Cochran Q and I2 tests were used to assess heterogeneity. The overall effect was assessed using z tests at P<.05. Of the 438 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, nine experimental studies from 10 publications were selected. Results Half of the selected studies showed low risk of bias and comprised 852 perinatal diabetic women in six countries. The meta-analysis revealed that Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the level of maternal glycated hemoglobin A1c (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among perinatal diabetic women at postintervention. Moreover, Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the cesarean delivery rate (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among the mixed group at postintervention. Conclusions This review shows neonatal or other maternal outcomes are similar between Internet-based self-monitoring interventions and usual diabetes care among perinatal diabetic women. The long-term effects of the intervention must be confirmed in future studies using randomized controlled trials and follow-up data. PMID:27526637

  3. Effect of reactive pharmacy intervention on quality of hospital prescribing.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkey, C J; Hodgson, S; Norman, A; Daneshmend, T K; Garner, S T

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the medical impact of reactive pharmacy intervention. DESIGN--Analysis of all interventions during 28 days by all 35 pharmacists in hospitals in Nottingham. SETTING--All (six) hospitals in the Nottingham health authority (a teaching district), representing 2530 mainly acute beds, 781 mental illness beds, and 633 mainly health care of the elderly beds. PATIENTS--Hospital inpatients and outpatients. INTERVENTIONS--Recording of every important intervention made by pharmacists to prescriptions for both inpatients and outpatients when they perceived inadequacies of drug prescription or administration, including characterisation of the problem, coding of outcome, recording of time taken to initiate and resolve intervention, and grade of prescribing doctor. The problems were independently assessed for their potential to cause medical harm. RESULTS--769 Interventions (about 2.9% of prescriptions) were made, of which 60 concerned prescriptions rated as having a major potential for medical harm. The commonest problems concerned dosage, which was wrong in 280 prescriptions (102 for antibiotics) and not stated in 50 (one for antibiotics), especially those associated with a major potential for medical harm (32 prescriptions). These concerned sedatives; analgesics; cardiovascular drugs or diuretics; and iron, vitamin, or mineral preparations. Also common were overprolonged prescription of antibiotics (48 prescriptions), confusion of drug names (nine), and inadvertent coprescription of excessive quantities of aspirin or paracetamol in plain and compound preparations (seven). The pharmacist's recommendation was accepted in 639 instances (86%), and the prescription was altered in 575, leading to an appreciable (246 cases) or minor (231 cases) improvement. Interventions had little effect on costs; 427/646 had no effect and 130 produced savings less than 50p. Pharmacy intervention (730/769 interventions) occupied on average 41 minutes per pharmacist per week

  4. Physical activity interventions: effects of duration and intensity.

    PubMed

    Buchan, D S; Ollis, S; Thomas, N E; Buchanan, N; Cooper, S-M; Malina, R M; Baker, J S

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercising at different intensities over 7 weeks on components of physical fitness and CVD risk factors. Forty-seven boys and 10 girls, (16.4±0.7 years of age) were divided into a moderate, high intensity, or a control group. All participants had indices of obesity and blood pressure recorded in addition to four physical performance measures pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the intervention groups repeated the physical performance measures at the 4th week phase of the intervention. Following the intervention, significant improvements (P<0.05) in the high-intensity group were found in the 20 MSFT, agility, CMJ and 10 m sprint post-intervention. Participants in the moderate intensity group displayed significant improvements (P<0.05) in both the CMJ and 20 MSFT post-intervention. Body fat % significantly improved (P<0.01) in the moderate group only post-intervention. Interestingly, Systolic blood pressure significantly improved post-intervention (112±10 vs 106±11 mmHg) (P=0.017) in the high intensity group. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise over 7 weeks is a very time efficient means of improving important components of physical fitness in adolescents. PMID:21518010

  5. Personal dosimetry for interventional operators: when and how should monitoring be done?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C J

    2011-01-01

    Objective Assessment of the potential doses to the hands and eyes for interventional radiologists and cardiologists can be difficult. A review of studies of doses to interventional operators reported in the literature has been undertaken. Methods Distributions for staff dose to relevant parts of the body per unit dose–area product and for doses per procedure in cardiology have been analysed and mean, median and quartile values derived. The possibility of using these data to provide guidance for estimation of likely dose levels is considered. Results Dose indicator values that could be used to predict orders of magnitude of doses to the eye, thyroid and hands from interventional operator workloads have been derived, based on the third quartile values, from the distributions of dose results analysed. Conclusion Dose estimates made in this way could be employed in risk assessments when reviewing protection and monitoring requirements. Data on the protection provided by different shielding and technique factors have also been reviewed to provide information for risk assessments. Recommendations on the positions in which dosemeters are worn should also be included in risk assessments, as dose measurements from suboptimal dosemeter use can be misleading. PMID:21159809

  6. The novel application of Benford's second order analysis for monitoring radiation output in interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Cournane, S; Sheehy, N; Cooke, J

    2014-06-01

    Benford's law is an empirical observation which predicts the expected frequency of digits in naturally occurring datasets spanning multiple orders of magnitude, with the law having been most successfully applied as an audit tool in accountancy. This study investigated the sensitivity of the technique in identifying system output changes using simulated changes in interventional radiology Dose-Area-Product (DAP) data, with any deviations from Benford's distribution identified using z-statistics. The radiation output for interventional radiology X-ray equipment is monitored annually during quality control testing; however, for a considerable portion of the year an increased output of the system, potentially caused by engineering adjustments or spontaneous system faults may go unnoticed, leading to a potential increase in the radiation dose to patients. In normal operation recorded examination radiation outputs vary over multiple orders of magnitude rendering the application of normal statistics ineffective for detecting systematic changes in the output. In this work, the annual DAP datasets complied with Benford's first order law for first, second and combinations of the first and second digits. Further, a continuous 'rolling' second order technique was devised for trending simulated changes over shorter timescales. This distribution analysis, the first employment of the method for radiation output trending, detected significant changes simulated on the original data, proving the technique useful in this case. The potential is demonstrated for implementation of this novel analysis for monitoring and identifying change in suitable datasets for the purpose of system process control. PMID:24321401

  7. A pragmatic approach to measuring, monitoring and evaluating interventions for improved tuberculosis case detection

    PubMed Central

    Blok, Lucie; Creswell, Jacob; Stevens, Robert; Brouwer, Miranda; Ramis, Oriol; Weil, Olivier; Klatser, Paul; Sahu, Suvanand; Bakker, Mirjam I.

    2014-01-01

    The inability to detect all individuals with active tuberculosis has led to a growing interest in new approaches to improve case detection. Policy makers and program staff face important challenges measuring effectiveness of newly introduced interventions and reviewing feasibility of scaling-up successful approaches. While robust research will continue to be needed to document impact and influence policy, it may not always be feasible for all interventions and programmatic evidence is also critical to understand what can be expected in routine settings. The effects of interventions on early and improved tuberculosis detection can be documented through well-designed program evaluations. We present a pragmatic framework for evaluating and measuring the effect of improved case detection strategies using systematically collected intervention data in combination with routine tuberculosis notification data applying historical and contemporary controls. Standardized process evaluation and systematic documentation of program implementation design, cost and context will contribute to explaining observed levels of success and may help to identify conditions needed for success. Findings can then guide decisions on scale-up and replication in different target populations and settings. PMID:25100402

  8. Adherence to Self-Monitoring via Interactive Voice Response Technology in an eHealth Intervention Targeting Weight Gain Prevention Among Black Women: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. Objective This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Methods The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Results Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =−.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate <80% (−1.97 kg, SE 0.67 vs 0.48 kg, SE 0.69; P=.01). Similar outcomes were found for change in body mass index (BMI; mean difference −0.94 kg, 95% CI −1.64 to −0.24; P=.009). Older, more educated participants were more likely to achieve high IVR call completion. Participants reported positive attitudes toward IVR self-monitoring. Conclusions Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence

  9. A PDA-based dietary self-monitoring intervention to reduce sodium intake in an in-center hemodialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Mary Ann; Stone, Roslyn A; Novak, Matthew; Piraino, Beth; Snetselaar, Linda; Marsh, Rita M; Hall, Beth; Lash, Heather; Bernardini, Judith; Burke, Lora E

    2008-01-01

    . In a HD patient who was willing to self-monitor his dietary intake, BalanceLog® allowed the dietitian to target problematic foods and provide counseling that appeared to be effective in reducing sodium intake, reducing interdialytic weight gain, and alleviating hyperphosphatemia and hyperkalemia. Additional research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. PMID:19920960

  10. Effectiveness of a Pregnancy Smoking Intervention: The Tennessee Intervention for Pregnant Smokers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known dangers of pregnancy smoking, rates remain high, especially in the rural, Southern United States. Interventions are effective, but few have been developed and tested in regions with high rates of pregnancy smoking, a culture that normalizes smoking, and a hard-to-reach prenatal population. The goals were to describe a smoking…

  11. Reducing implicit racial preferences: II. Intervention effectiveness across time.

    PubMed

    Lai, Calvin K; Skinner, Allison L; Cooley, Erin; Murrar, Sohad; Brauer, Markus; Devos, Thierry; Calanchini, Jimmy; Xiao, Y Jenny; Pedram, Christina; Marshburn, Christopher K; Simon, Stefanie; Blanchar, John C; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A; Conway, John; Redford, Liz; Klein, Rick A; Roussos, Gina; Schellhaas, Fabian M H; Burns, Mason; Hu, Xiaoqing; McLean, Meghan C; Axt, Jordan R; Asgari, Shaki; Schmidt, Kathleen; Rubinstein, Rachel; Marini, Maddalena; Rubichi, Sandro; Shin, Jiyun-Elizabeth L; Nosek, Brian A

    2016-08-01

    Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454041

  12. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values < 0.001). However, objectively measured sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents. PMID:26378797

  13. Effective Coverage: A Metric for Monitoring Universal Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Marie; Fullman, Nancy; Dieleman, Joseph L.; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Lim, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in monitoring universal health coverage (UHC) is identifying an indicator that can adequately capture the multiple components underlying the UHC initiative. Effective coverage, which unites individual and intervention characteristics into a single metric, offers a direct and flexible means to measure health system performance at different levels. We view effective coverage as a relevant and actionable metric for tracking progress towards achieving UHC. In this paper, we review the concept of effective coverage and delineate the three components of the metric — need, use, and quality — using several examples. Further, we explain how the metric can be used for monitoring interventions at both local and global levels. We also discuss the ways that current health information systems can support generating estimates of effective coverage. We conclude by recognizing some of the challenges associated with producing estimates of effective coverage. Despite these challenges, effective coverage is a powerful metric that can provide a more nuanced understanding of whether, and how well, a health system is delivering services to its populations. PMID:25243780

  14. Minimizing risks and monitoring safety of an antenatal care intervention to mitigate domestic violence among young Indian women: The Dil Mil trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Domestic violence - physical, psychological, or sexual abuse perpetrated against women by one or more family members – is highly prevalent in India. However, relatively little research has been conducted on interventions with the potential to mitigate domestic violence and its adverse health consequences, and few resources exist to guide safety planning and monitoring in the context of intervention research. Dil Mil is a promising women’s empowerment-based intervention developed in India that engages with young women (daughters-in-law) and their mothers-in-law to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes. This paper describes the design of a randomized controlled trial of Dil Mil in Bengaluru, India, with a focus on strategies used to minimize study-related risks and monitor safety. Methods/design A phase 2 randomized controlled trial using a parallel comparison of the Dil Mil intervention versus standard care will be implemented in three public primary health centers in Bengaluru. Young pregnant women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy will be recruited from antenatal services at study health centers and through community outreach. If eligible and willing, their mother-in-law will also be recruited. Once enrolled, dyads will participate in a baseline interview and then randomized either to the control arm and receive standard care or to the intervention arm and receive standard care plus the Dil Mil intervention. Additional evaluations will be conducted at 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Data will be analyzed to examine the feasibility and safety of the intervention and the effect of the intervention on intermediary outcomes (the empowerment of daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law), incidence of domestic violence among daughters-in-law, and health outcomes including perceived quality of life, psychosocial status and maternal and infant health outcomes. Discussion This study offers approaches that may help guide

  15. Measuring the effectiveness of targeted interventions.

    PubMed

    Hassig, S

    1991-06-01

    Considered opinion is that multiple indicators must be used to evaluate a project's success in slowing HIV transmission. There may be difference only over which is the best measure. The 4 indicators recommended for availability, accuracy, and usefulness are 1) reported condom use, 2) reported number of sexual partners, 3) condom sales, and 4) incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's). These measures are workable during program start-up, ongoing program implementation, and concurrent with evaluation. Methodologies employed for data collection are quantitative methods such as surveys and qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews or focus groups, direct observation or medical data from clinical exams, tests, or medical records. Reported condom use, albeit a surrogate measure, may be more valid when the questions asked about condom use during the last sex act, or a 1-week recall. Another reliability check would be to compare consistency with actual use in a focus group or reports from peer educators. Change in number of partners is important for intervention projects in STD clinics, workplace, or other social settings. The example given is for Trinidad's KAP surveys which measure changes in numbers of partners, condom use, and condom sales or distribution figures. Condom sales data, rather than free distribution figures, reflect a commitment to using condoms, and frequently condom use is already part of AIDS campaigns. Free condoms if part of a peer education project are more useful. In Mali, 82 prostitutes reported using 62,000 condoms while 58,000 were distributed in a month period. This is close enough to validate the data. STD rates are important measures because of the finding that STD's can increase the chance of HIV transmission by up to 100 times in a single act of intercourse. The number of STD cases can be substituted for costly incidence data. PMID:12316889

  16. The Effectiveness of Interventions for Non-Communicable Diseases in Humanitarian Crises: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Alexander; Knight, Abigail; Perel, Pablo; Blanchet, Karl; Roberts, Bayard

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are of increasing concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) affected humanitarian crises. Humanitarian agencies and governments are increasingly challenged with how to effectively tackle NCDs. Reviewing the evidence of interventions for NCDs in humanitarian crises can help guide future policies and research by identifying effective interventions and evidence gaps. The aim of this paper is to systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of interventions targeting NCDs during humanitarian crises in LMICs. Methods A systematic review methodology was followed using PRISMA standards. Studies were selected on NCD interventions with civilian populations affected by humanitarian crises in low- and middle-income countries. Five bibliographic databases and a range of grey literature sources were searched. Descriptive analysis was applied and a quality assessment conducted using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for experimental studies. Results The search yielded 4919 references of which 8 studies met inclusion criteria. Seven of the 8 studies were observational, and one study was a non-blinded randomised-controlled trial. Diseases examined included hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, thalassaemia, and arthritis. Study settings included locations in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and South Asia. Interventions featuring disease-management protocols and/or cohort monitoring demonstrated the strongest evidence of effectiveness. No studies examined intervention costs. The quality of studies was limited, with a reliance on observational study designs, limited use of control groups, biases associated with missing data and inadequate patient-follow-up, and confounding was poorly addressed. Conclusions The review highlights the extremely limited quantity and quality of evidence on this topic. Interventions that

  17. Differential effects of reinforcement on the self-monitoring of on-task behavior.

    PubMed

    Otero, Tiffany L; Haut, Jillian M

    2016-03-01

    In the current study, the differential effects of reinforcement on a self-monitoring intervention were evaluated. Three students nominated by their teachers for having a marked difficultly maintaining on-task behaviors participated in the study. Using an alternating treatments single-case design to assess self-monitoring with and without reinforcement, students self-monitored their on-task behavior while being prompted by a vibrating timer at 1-min intervals for 20-min sessions. The investigators collected data regarding the students' percentage of intervals on-task and the accuracy of their recordings. Accuracy was measured by calculating the percent of agreement between the observer and student. For half of the self-monitoring sessions, students were provided reinforcement for matching at least 80% of their self-monitored ratings with those of the observer. Results indicated that self-monitoring alone was effective for 2 students in increasing their on-task behaviors in a general education classroom and self-monitoring with reinforcement was effective for all 3. Two students demonstrated an increase in on-task behavior when self-monitoring was paired with the opportunity to receive reinforcement compared to self-monitoring alone. Percentage of nonoverlapping data for self-monitoring without reinforcement ranged from 16.6% to 100%, and self-monitoring with reinforcement ranged from 83% to 100%. Additionally, the opportunity to receive reinforcement impacted students' accuracy in self-monitoring resulting in more accurate self-recording of on-task behavior. Including reinforcement as a component of a self-monitoring intervention package is an important consideration as it may impact the effectiveness of the intervention for students with significant difficulties maintaining attention to tasks. PMID:25688807

  18. Effective Interventions for Individuals with High-Functional Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ann X.; Wheeler, John J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of high functioning autism (HFA) is not the end of comprehensive assessments. Since the 1970s, although a great deal of research has focused on developing effective educational approaches and interventions for children with autism, there is an increasing need to develop differentially effective educational approaches or interventions…

  19. Economics of mycotoxins: evaluating costs to society and cost-effectiveness of interventions.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The economic impacts of mycotoxins to human society can be thought of in two ways: (i) the direct market costs associated with lost trade or reduced revenues due to contaminated food or feed, and (ii) the human health losses from adverse effects associated with mycotoxin consumption. Losses related to markets occur within systems in which mycotoxins are being monitored in the food and feed supply. Food that has mycotoxin levels above a particular maximum allowable level is either rejected outright for sale or sold at a lower price for a different use. Such transactions can take place at local levels or at the level of trade among countries. Sometimes this can result in heavy economic losses for food producers, but the benefit of such monitoring systems is a lower risk of mycotoxins in the food supply. Losses related to health occur when mycotoxins are present in food at levels that can cause illness. In developed countries, such losses are often measured in terms of cost of illness; around the world, such losses are more frequently measured in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). It is also useful to assess the economics of interventions to reduce mycotoxins and their attendant health effects; the relative effectiveness of public health interventions can be assessed by estimating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with each intervention. Cost-effectiveness assessment can be conducted to compare the cost of implementing the intervention with the resulting benefits, in terms of either improved markets or improved human health. Aside from cost-effectiveness, however, it is also important to assess the technical feasibility of interventions, particularly in low-income countries, where funds and infrastructures are limited. PMID:23477200

  20. Assessing intervention effects in the Minnesota Heart Health Program.

    PubMed

    Murray, D M; Hannan, P J; Jacobs, D R; McGovern, P J; Schmid, L; Baker, W L; Gray, C

    1994-01-01

    The Minnesota Heart Health Program is a 13-year research and demonstration project to reduce morbidity and mortality from coronary heart disease in whole communities in the upper Midwest. Six communities were selected for the study: three intervention and three comparison sites, matched to increase baseline comparability. After 2-4 years of baseline observations, a 5- to 6-year program of intensive intervention was introduced in the three intervention communities. Periodic cross-sectional and cohort surveys provided data on risk factors and related behaviors. Regression adjustments within and between communities reduced the confounding influences of important covariates and the variance inflation associated with the nesting of individuals within communities and surveys. Post hoc stratification allowed exploration of the main and strata-specific effects of the intervention program. Finally, the intervention effect was modeled as a departure from the trend line fit to the nonintervention city-year means. Together, these procedures explicitly acknowledged the component of variance associated with communities, and so avoided a major source of bias created in the usual analysis when that variation is ignored. They also increased the interpretability of the analyses and reduced the mean square errors used to assess the treatment effects. PMID:8296778

  1. Helping working Equidae and their owners in developing countries: monitoring and evaluation of evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Upjohn, Melissa M; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Verheyen, Kristien L P

    2014-02-01

    There are an estimated 112 million Equidae (horses, donkeys, mules) in the developing world, providing essential resources for their owners' livelihoods and well-being. The impoverished situation of their owners and the often harsh conditions in which they work mean that the animals' welfare is a cause for concern. A number of equine non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate within working equid communities providing veterinary care, education and training programmes aimed at improving equine welfare. However, there is little published information available that describes monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of such interventions using objective outcome-based indicators and where baseline data are available. The aim of this paper is to summarise the peer-reviewed reports of M&E in this sector and identify the key issues which need to be addressed in ensuring that such evaluations provide useful information on the work of these organisations. A rigorous evidence base for designing future interventions will provide an opportunity for enhancing the effectiveness of working equid NGO operations. Increased availability of M&E reports in the peer-reviewed literature will enable NGOs to learn from one another and disseminate to a wider audience information on the role of working Equidae and the issues they face. PMID:24269105

  2. Effect of depressive symptoms on asthma intervention in urban teens

    PubMed Central

    Guglani, Lokesh; Havstad, Suzanne L.; Johnson, Christine Cole; Ownby, Dennis R.; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature suggests that depression is an important comorbidity in asthma that can significantly influence disease management and quality of life (QOL). Objective To study the effect of coexisting depressive symptoms on the effectiveness of self-management interventions in urban teens with asthma. Methods We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial of Puff City, a web-based, tailored asthma management intervention for urban teens, to determine whether depression modulated intervention effectiveness for asthma control and QOL outcomes. Teens and caregivers were classified as depressed based on responses collected from baseline questionnaires. Result Using logistic regression analysis, we found that a lower percentage of treatment students had indicators of uncontrolled asthma compared with controls (adjusted odds ratios <1). However, for teens depressed at baseline, QOL scores at follow-up were significantly higher in the treatment group compared with the control group for the emotions domain (adjusted relative risk, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–3.63; P = .01; interpreted as emotional QOL for treatment students increased by a factor of 2.08 above controls). Estimates for overall QOL and symptoms QOL were borderline significant (adjusted relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.93–2.63; P = .09; and adjusted relative risk, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.94–3.15; P = .08; respectively). Among teens not depressed at baseline, no significant differences were observed between treatment and control groups in QOL domains at follow-up. Conclusion Our results suggest that depression modified the relationship between the effectiveness of an asthma intervention and emotional QOL in urban teens. Further assessment of self-management behavioral interventions for asthma should explore the mechanism by which depression may alter the intervention effect. PMID:23010228

  3. Effectiveness of Four Supplemental Reading Comprehension Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James-Burdumy, Susanne; Deke, John; Gersten, Russell; Lugo-Gil, Julieta; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca; Dimino, Joseph; Haymond, Kelly; Liu, Albert Yung-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    This article presents evidence from a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the effects of four supplemental reading comprehension curricula (Project CRISS, ReadAbout, Read for Real, and Reading for Knowledge) on students' understanding of informational text. Across 2 school years, the study included 10 school districts, more than 200…

  4. Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin

    2015-10-01

    Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection.

  5. Modeling the effect of comprehensive interventions on Ebola virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mingwang; Xiao, Yanni; Rong, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Since the re-emergence of Ebola in West Africa in 2014, comprehensive and stringent interventions have been implemented to decelerate the spread of the disease. The effectiveness of interventions still remains unclear. In this paper, we develop an epidemiological model that includes various controlling measures to systematically evaluate their effects on the disease transmission dynamics. By fitting the model to reported cumulative cases and deaths in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia until March 22, 2015, we estimate the basic reproduction number in these countries as 1.2552, 1.6093 and 1.7994, respectively. Model analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the effectiveness of isolation, below which increasing the fraction of latent individuals diagnosed prior to symptoms onset or shortening the duration between symptoms onset and isolation may lead to more Ebola infection. This challenges an existing view. Media coverage plays a substantial role in reducing the final epidemic size. The response to reported cumulative infected cases and deaths may have a different effect on the epidemic spread in different countries. Among all the interventions, we find that shortening the duration between death and burial and improving the effectiveness of isolation are two effective interventions for controlling the outbreak of Ebola virus infection. PMID:26515898

  6. Prenatal depression effects and interventions: a review.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-12-01

    This review covers research on the negative effects of prenatal depression and cortisol on fetal growth, prematurity and low birthweight. Although prenatal depression and cortisol were typically measured at around 20 weeks gestation, other research suggests the stability of depression and cortisol levels across pregnancy. Women with Dysthymia as compared to Major Depression Disorder had higher cortisol levels, and their newborns had lower gestational age and birthweight. The cortisol effects in these studies were unfortunately confounded by low serotonin and low dopamine levels which in themselves could contribute to non-optimal pregnancy outcomes. The negative effects of depression and cortisol were also potentially confounded by comorbid anxiety, by demographic factors including younger age, less education and lower SES of the mothers and by the absence of a partner or a partner who was unhappy about the pregnancy or a partner who was depressed. Substance use (especially caffeine use) was still another risk factor. All of these problems including prenatal depression, elevated cortisol, prematurity and low birthweight and even postpartum depression have been reduced by prenatal massage therapy provided by the women's partners. Massage therapy combined with group interpersonal psychotherapy was also effective for reducing depression and cortisol levels. Several limitations of these studies were noted and suggestions for future research included exploring other predictor variables like progesterone/estriol ratios, immune factors and genetic determinants. Further research is needed both on the potential use of cortisol as a screening measure and the use of other therapies that might reduce prenatal depression and cortisol in the women and prematurity and low birthweight in their infants. PMID:20471091

  7. Behavioral interventions--rationale, measurement, and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2005-06-01

    Effective STD and HIV prevention requires synergism of individual-based prevention behaviors and societal/structural supports that will promote and maintain these behaviors. We should also expect the unexpected. STD rates in gay men have risen after effective prevention of HIV/STD in gay men and effective antiretroviral therapy. New drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine ("crystal meth"), have induced risky sexual behaviors in gay and heterosexual communities. Economic dislocation in Eastern Europe has resulted in trafficking of commercial sex workers to Europe, the Mideast, and Asia, all with the potential for STD and HIV spread. James Curran, formerly director of the HIV epidemiology and prevention effort at the CDC, has written: It is ironic that the two clearest examples of large-scale success in HIV prevention-reduction in HIV transmission in gay men in the United States and national declines in HIV incidence in Thailand-arise in societies/communities known in their own way for sexual openness....the openness in both communities provided the environment to make the powerful revolutionary changes needed. In Africa, the powerful voice of President Museveni of Uganda has also encouraged candor about sexual risk-taking and facilitated that nation's encouraging early success in reducing HIV prevalence...Unfortunately, most of the world remains unable or unwilling to deal frankly and consistently with sexuality despite the considerable risks of HIV infection in many communities. There is a worldwide sexual hangup hampering HIV prevention efforts. PMID:15963887

  8. Effectiveness of individual and group interventions for people with type 2 diabetes1

    PubMed Central

    Imazu, Maria Fernanda Manoel; Faria, Barbara Nascimento; de Arruda, Guilherme Oliveira; Sales, Catarina Aparecida; Marcon, Sonia Silva

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the effectiveness of two educational interventions used by a healthcare provider in the monitoring of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), regarding knowledge of the disease, impact on quality of life and adoption of self-care actions. METHODS: comparative, longitudinal, prospective study performed with 150 subjects with type 2 diabetes, analyzed according to the type of participation in the program (individual and/or group). Participants of the individual intervention (II) received nursing consultations every six months and those of the group intervention (GI) took part in weekly meetings for three months. Data were collected through four questionnaires: Identification questionnaire, Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID), Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire (SDSCA) and the Diabetes Knowledge Scale (DKN-A). Data were analyzed using the Friedman and Mann Whitney tests, considering a statistical significance of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: there was an increase in knowledge about the disease in the II (p<0.003) and GI (p<0.007), with reduction of the impact on the quality of life in the II (p<0.007) and improvement in self-care actions in the GI (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: in both intervention models improvements were observed in the indicators, over the six month monitoring period. PMID:26039289

  9. Introduction: Why is intrapartum foetal monitoring necessary - Impact on outcomes and interventions.

    PubMed

    Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining maternal oxygen supply is essential for foetal life, and labour constitutes an increased challenge to this. Good clinical judgement is required to evaluate the signs of reduced foetal oxygenation, to diagnose the underlying cause, to judge the reversibility of the condition and to determine the best timing for delivery. The main aim of intrapartum foetal monitoring is to identify foetuses that are being inadequately oxygenated, enabling appropriate action before the occurrence of injury. It is also to provide reassurance in cases of adequate foetal oxygenation, and thus to avoid unnecessary obstetric intervention. Poor foetal oxygenation is diagnosed by documenting metabolic acidosis in the umbilical cord immediately after birth or in the newborn circulation during the first minutes of life. However, most newborns recover quickly, and they do not develop relevant short- or long-term complications. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is the short-term neurological dysfunction caused by inadequate intrapartum foetal oxygenation, and cerebral palsy of the spastic quadriplegic or dyskinetic types is the long-term neurological complication most commonly associated with it. Although there is insufficient evidence from randomised controlled trials to demonstrate that any form of intrapartum foetal monitoring reduces the incidence of adverse outcomes, reports from the clinical setting have documented a decrease in metabolic acidosis, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and intrapartum death over the last decades. It may be difficult to demonstrate the benefit of diagnostic techniques in complex environments such as the labour ward, but a reduction in the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes constitutes important evidence that intrapartum foetal monitoring makes a difference. PMID:26189688

  10. Effectiveness of Workplace Weight Management Interventions: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Weerasekara, Yasoma Kumari; Roberts, Susan B; Kahn, Mira A; LaVertu, Amy E; Hoffman, Ben; Das, Sai Krupa

    2016-06-01

    A systematic review was conducted of randomized trials of workplace weight management interventions, including trials with dietary, physical activity, environmental, behavioral, and incentive-based components. Main outcomes were defined as change in weight-related measures. Keywords related to weight management and workplace interventions were used to search relevant databases, and 23 eligible studies were reviewed in detail using a data extraction form and quality assessment checklist. The trials were conducted mainly in the USA and Europe, with four additional countries represented. Interventions were mostly multicomponent and were implemented in both sexes and in a range of employment categories. Intervention effectiveness appeared unrelated to region of the world and was highest in 6-12-month trials. The results ranged widely from clinically significant 8.8-kg weight loss in one trial to less effective than the control treatment in others. Some workplace interventions achieve clinically significant benefits, and further studies are needed to replicate those results in wider sociocultural and geographical contexts. PMID:27023071

  11. The Reliability and User-Feasibility of Materials and Procedures for Monitoring the Implementation Integrity of a Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Easton, Julia E.; Upright, James J.; Tunstall, Kali R.; Ehrenbock, Cassia A.

    2014-01-01

    Within the realm of school-based interventions, implementation integrity is important for practical, legal, and ethical purposes. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that proper monitoring of implementation integrity is often absent from both research and practice. School psychology practitioners and researchers have reported that a major barrier to…

  12. Effective Delivery of Therapeutic Interventions: Findings from Four Site Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy; Squires, Garry; Bragg, Joanna; Wasilewski, David; Muscutt, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This project follows a survey into the role of UK educational psychologists (EPs) in delivering therapeutic interventions to children and young people. Four educational psychology services (EPSs) that identified themselves as providing effective therapeutic practice were selected on the basis of their qualitative responses to the survey. Site…

  13. Effectiveness of Abstinence-Only Intervention in Middle School Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borawski, Elaine A.; Trapl, Erika S.; Lovegreen, Loren D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Block, Tonya

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage curriculum on knowledge, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and behavior. Methods: Nonrandomized control trial involving 2069 middle school students with a 5-month follow-up. Results: Intervention students reported increases in knowledge and abstinence beliefs, but decreases in…

  14. Analysis of Complex Intervention Effects in Time-Series Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Cathleen

    An iterative least squares procedure for analyzing the effect of various kinds of intervention in time-series data is described. There are numerous applications of this design in economics, education, and psychology, although until recently, no appropriate analysis techniques had been developed to deal with the model adequately. This paper…

  15. Long-Term Effects of First-Grade Multitier Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kim, Young-Suk; Wanzek, Jeanne; Petscher, Yaacov; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term effects of 2 first-grade Response to Intervention (RTI) models (Dynamic and Typical RTI) on the reading performance of students in second and third grade. Participants included 419 first-grade students (352 in second grade and 278 in third grade after attrition). Students were classified based…

  16. Effects of Preschool Intervention Strategies on School Readiness in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Nelson, Regena F.; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.

    2015-01-01

    Using hierarchical linear modeling, the present study aimed to examine whether targeted intervention strategies implemented individually during a preschool program exhibited any short-term and long-term effects on children's school readiness in kindergarten, utilizing data gathered through the Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids…

  17. Repeated Reading Intervention Effects in Kindergartners with Partial Letter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gorp, Karly; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    The direct, transfer and retention effects of a repeated reading intervention study of single CVC (consonant in the onset and a vowel and consonant in the rime) words in kindergartners with partial letter knowledge were examined. A total of 26 second-year kindergartners participated in this study. Participants were divided over two feedback…

  18. Power to Detect Intervention Effects on Ensembles of Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Tracy M.; Junker, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The hierarchical network model (HNM) is a framework introduced by Sweet, Thomas, and Junker for modeling interventions and other covariate effects on ensembles of social networks, such as what would be found in randomized controlled trials in education research. In this article, we develop calculations for the power to detect an intervention…

  19. Cognitive Counselling Intervention: Treatment Effectiveness in an Italian University Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strepparava, Maria Grazia; Bani, Marco; Zorzi, Federico; Corrias, Deborah; Dolce, Rossella; Rezzonico, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Offering counselling to students is increasingly considered as a key academic service. However, the reduction of resources allocated to Italian universities emphasises the need to assess the quality of interventions. This paper presents data reporting the effectiveness of a university counselling service. A sample of 45 undergraduate students…

  20. Effects of Video Modeling on Treatment Integrity of Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGennaro-Reed, Florence D.; Codding, Robin; Catania, Cynthia N.; Maguire, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of individualized video modeling on the accurate implementation of behavioral interventions using a multiple baseline design across 3 teachers. During video modeling, treatment integrity improved above baseline levels; however, teacher performance remained variable. The addition of verbal performance feedback increased…

  1. Implementation and Effectiveness of the Response to Intervention (RTI) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Jessica Elaine; McGahey, James Todd

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether or not student test scores on the Georgia Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) were positively impacted by the implementation of the Response to Intervention (RTI) program. This paper will review the implementation and effectiveness of the RTI method.

  2. Early Intervention Services: Effectively Supporting Maori Children and their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…

  3. Effects of an Intervention Program on Reading and Math Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anthony C.

    2010-01-01

    This action research project examined the effects of an intervention program on student reading and math achievement. TCAP reading and math assessments and ThinkLink Learning reading and math assessments were used for the measures on student achievement. Student perceptions and attitudes were measured with a questionnaire and four open-ended…

  4. Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...

  5. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  6. A Comparison of the Effects of Interventions on Stress Coping Resources of Beginning Associate Degree Nursing Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollant, Paulette D.; Curlette, William

    A study examined the effectiveness of group and self-directed interventions for developing stress-coping resources among students in three associate degree nursing programs. The 46 students in the modified curriculum group received instruction in two stress-monitoring techniques and three tension control exercises. The second group (n = 61)…

  7. The Differential Effects of Chaplain Interventions on Patient Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vanshdeep; Marin, Deborah B; Sosunov, Eugene; Ozbay, Fatih; Goldstein, Rafael; Handzo, George F

    2016-01-01

    There is an acute need to define the specific skills that make chaplains integral to the healthcare team. This prospective study attempts to identify those skills that may be specific to chaplains, for whom no other member of the health care team has similar training, and to examine if these skills have a differential effect on patient satisfaction. A total of 59 interventions were identified and grouped into 10 categories by focus groups comprised of chaplains. Subsequently, Principal Component Analysis yielded two independent variables; Component 1 representing the "Religious/Spiritual" dimension, and Component 2 representing the "Psychosocial" dimension of chaplains' work. The two components were used in an OLS regression model to measure patient satisfaction. Interventions that comprise the "Religious/Spiritual" dimension may be considered to be specific skills that chaplains contribute to patient care and these have a slightly stronger correlation with patient satisfaction than the interventions of the "Psychosocial" dimension. PMID:27191221

  8. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P < 0.01) and bedroom (22%, P = 0.02), but at 3 months, a significant reduction was seen only in the kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. PMID:24329966

  9. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  10. Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) radiometry uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF radiometry, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with radiometry measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or

  11. Effects of Music Interventions on Emotional States and Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Andrew M.; Davis, Paul A.; Devonport, Tracey J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of two different music interventions on changes in emotional states before and during running, and also explored effects of music interventions upon performance outcome. Volunteer participants (n = 65) who regularly listened to music when running registered online to participate in a three-stage study. Participants attempted to attain a personally important running goal to establish baseline performance. Thereafter, participants were randomly assigned to either a self-selected music group or an Audiofuel music group. Audiofuel produce pieces of music designed to assist synchronous running. The self-selected music group followed guidelines for selecting motivating playlists. In both experimental groups, participants used the Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2 (BMRI-2) to facilitate selection of motivational music. Participants again completed the BMRI-2 post- intervention to assess the motivational qualities of Audiofuel music or the music they selected for use during the study. Results revealed no significant differences between self-selected music and Audiofuel music on all variables analyzed. Participants in both music groups reported increased pleasant emotions and decreased unpleasant emotions following intervention. Significant performance improvements were demonstrated post-intervention with participants reporting a belief that emotional states related to performance. Further analysis indicated that enhanced performance was significantly greater among participants reporting music to be motivational as indicated by high scores on the BMRI-2. Findings suggest that both individual athletes and practitioners should consider using the BMRI-2 when selecting music for running. Key points Listening to music with a high motivational quotient as indicated by scores on the BMRI-2 was associated with enhanced running performance and meta-emotional beliefs that emotions experienced during running helped performance. Beliefs on the

  12. An Examination of Treatment Intensity with an Oral Reading Fluency Intervention: Do Intervention Duration and Student-Teacher Instructional Ratios Impact Intervention Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Sarah G.; Begeny, John C.

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing percentage of schools moving toward approaches to data-based instructional problem-solving and early remediation of learning difficulties, the development and execution of intervention plans often warrants the pragmatic question: How intensive should an intervention be so that it is effective, while also feasible and time…

  13. Network Effects of Risk Behavior Change Following Prophylactic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Rajaraman, Rajmohan; Sun, Zhifeng; Sundaram, Ravi; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2013-01-01

    We formulated a network-based model to understand how risk behavior change in conjunction with failure of prophylactic interventions can lead to unintended outcomes where “less (intervention) is more (effective).” Our model captures the distinction between one- and two-sided risk behavior change. In one-sided situations (e.g. influenza/H1N1) it is sufficient for either individual in an interaction to exhibit risk behavior change whereas in two-sided situations (e.g. AIDS/HIV) it is necessary for both individuals in the interaction to exhibit risk behavior change, for a potential transmission of the disease. A central discovery is that this phenomenon occurs at differing levels of intervention coverage depending upon the “sidedness” of the interaction. We find that for one-sided interactions, sufficiently high vaccination coverage is necessary for mitigating the effects of risk behavior; for two-sided interactions, it is essential to combine prophylactic treatments with programs aimed at reducing risky behavior. Furthermore, again dependent on the “sidedness,” targeting highly connected nodes can be strictly worse than uniformly random interventions at the same level of coverage. PMID:23936290

  14. Technical WOrk Plan for: Construction Effects Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    2006-09-14

    This document is the technical work plan (TWP) for performing the Construction Effects Monitoring (CEM) activity, which is one of 20 testing and monitoring activities included in Performance Confirmation Plan (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172452]). Collectively, the 20 activities make up the Performance Confirmation Program described in the plan. Each of the other 19 activities will have a separate TWP. This plan, though titled Construction Effects Monitoring, in accordance with the Performance Confirmation Plan, also includes testing that may be performed in addition to monitoring, if required. Performance confirmation is required by regulation 10 CFR Part 63 [DIRS 173273], and was started during site characterization (consistent with the regulation) and will continue until permanent closure of the repository (10 CFR 63.13 1 (b) [DIRS 173273]). This CEM activity has two primary goals: (1) to collect, analyze, and report on repository rock properties data for the purpose of confirming geotechnical and design parameters used in repository design, and (2) to provide information intended to confirm that the ability to retrieve waste from the repository has been preserved. It will be necessary for information from this CEM activity to be evaluated in combination with that obtained from other Performance Confirmation Program activities to achieve these goals. These relationships with other Performance Confirmation Program activities (e.g., drift inspection, subsurface mapping, and seismicity monitoring) will be discussed in later sections of this TWP.

  15. Research considerations for more effective groundwater monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since numerous pathogens can occur in feces, water has traditionally been monitored for fecal contamination by detecting fecal indicator organisms rather than the pathogens themselves. Although this approach is backed up by health effects data in recreational waters, it has been...

  16. Environmental monitoring: the key to effective sanitation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Alan; Wilfred, Antonia G; Hidell, Timothy B

    2003-05-01

    Judicious and effective use of chemical decontaminants has a critical function in meeting the bioexclusion and biocontainment objectives established in every well-managed animal research facility. The authors provide an overview of the components to consider when developing and implementing an environmental monitoring program. PMID:19757613

  17. The effects of contamination on biological monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kleinegger, C L; Yeager, D L; Huling, J K; Drake, D R

    2001-06-01

    We investigated the frequency and patterns of biological-monitoring-test contamination and the effect of contamination on the growth of test organisms. Overall, the contamination rate was 0.81%, but the rate of contamination varied significantly by sterilization method. Contamination did not appear to inhibit growth of test organisms. PMID:11519922

  18. Response to Intervention for Middle School Students with Reading Difficulties: Effects of a Primary and Secondary Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Fletcher, Jack M.; Denton, Carolyn D.; Barth, Amy; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a yearlong, researcher-provided, Tier 2 (secondary) intervention with a group of sixth-graders. The intervention emphasized word recognition, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. Participants scored below a proficiency level on their state accountability test and were compared to a similar group of…

  19. Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions With Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Karlene; Berch, Daniel B.; Helmers, Karin F.; Jobe, Jared B.; Leveck, Mary D.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Rebok, George W.; Smith, David M.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Cognitive function in older adults is related to independent living and need for care. However, few studies have addressed whether improving cognitive functions might have short- or long-term effects on activities related to living independently. Objective To evaluate whether 3 cognitive training interventions improve mental abilities and daily functioning in older, independent-living adults. Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial with recruitment conducted from March 1998 to October 1999 and 2-year follow-up through December 2001. Setting and Participants Volunteer sample of 2832 persons aged 65 to 94 years recruited from senior housing, community centers, and hospital/clinics in 6 metropolitan areas in the United States. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: 10-session group training for memory (verbal episodic memory; n=711), or reasoning (ability to solve problems that follow a serial pattern; n=705), or speed of processing (visual search and identification; n=712); or a no-contact control group (n=704). For the 3 treatment groups, 4-session booster training was offered to a 60% random sample 11 months later. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive function and cognitively demanding everyday functioning. Results Thirty participants were incorrectly randomized and were excluded from the analysis. Each intervention improved the targeted cognitive ability compared with baseline, durable to 2 years (P<.001 for all). Eighty-seven percent of speed-, 74% of reasoning-, and 26% of memory-trained participants demonstrated reliable cognitive improvement immediately after the intervention period. Booster training enhanced training gains in speed (P<.001) and reasoning (P<.001) interventions (speed booster, 92%; no booster, 68%; reasoning booster, 72%; no booster, 49%), which were maintained at 2-year follow-up (P<.001 for both). No training effects on everyday functioning were detected at 2 years. Conclusions Results support the

  20. Relative Effectiveness of DRO and Self-Monitoring in a General Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Michael J.; Gresham, Frank M.; Dart, Evan H.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes a research project designed to examine the relative effectiveness of a two non-function-based interventions (differential reinforcement of other behavior and self- monitoring) for decreasing problem behavior in a general education classroom for three students whose problem behaviors were hypothesized to be functionally…

  1. How to Effectively Monitor and Evaluate NCD Programmes in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anand; Gupta, Vivek; Ritvik; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Thakur, Js

    2011-12-01

    Program monitoring and evaluation (M and E) are important components of any program and are critical to sound strategic planning. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, launched the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardio-vascular diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) with the objectives to prevent and control common noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) through behaviour and lifestyle changes, and to provide early diagnosis and management of common NCDs. M and E of program requires identification of indicators that measure inputs, process, outputs, and outcomes. The frequency of collecting information for these indicators will vary depending on the level of use and type of indicator as well as time interval over which we expect to see a change in that parameter. A group of indicators for different domains in the three major strategies has been proposed. For effective monitoring and evaluation of NPCDCS, the way forward is to finalize the list of indicators; evolve sustainable systems for surveillance; collect baseline assessment of the indicators at district level; fix targets for each indicator for different time frames; periodic review at state and national level for monitoring progress; and establish external review mechanisms. Monitoring and evaluation require complex set of co-ordinated action, responsibility for which has to be taken up by the NCD Cell within the Ministries of Health at state and national level. However, the routine data collection and compilation could be the responsibility of Central Bureau of Health Intelligence. Integrated population-based surveys with existing disease and behaviour surveillance could be undertaken by National Centre for Disease Control. The national NCD cell should compile all these information into a meaningful policy brief so that appropriate programmatic interventions can be identified. The launch of a national program to tackle the burden of NCDs is just the beginning, and

  2. Indoor air pollution and childhood asthma: effective environmental interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Etzel, R A

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to indoor air pollutants such as tobacco smoke and dust mites may exacerbate childhood asthma. Environmental interventions to reduce exposures to these pollutants can help prevent exacerbations of the disease. Among the most important interventions is the elimination of environmental tobacco smoke from the environments of children with asthma. However, the effectiveness of reducing asthmatic children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke on the severity of their symptoms has not yet been systematically evaluated. Dust mite reduction is another helpful environmental intervention. This can be achieved by enclosing the child's mattresses, blankets, and pillows in zippered polyurethane-coated casings. Primary prevention of asthma is not as well understood. It is anticipated that efforts to reduce smoking during pregnancy could reduce the incidence of asthma in children. European studies have suggested that reducing exposure to food and house dust mite antigens during lactation and for the first 12 months of life diminishes the development of allergic disorders in infants with high total IgE in the cord blood and a family history of atopy. Many children with asthma and their families are not receiving adequate counseling about environmental interventions from health care providers or other sources. PMID:8549490

  3. The Effects of Peer Monitoring Training on the Emergence of the Capability to Learn from Observing Instruction Received by Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado, Jo Ann Pereira; Greer, R. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    We tested the effects of teaching peer monitoring on the emergence of an observational learning (OL) capability in 2 experiments using delayed multiple probe designs with children diagnosed with developmental disabilities. In probes for the OL capability before and after each stage of the peer monitoring intervention, participants received…

  4. The Effects of Self-Monitoring of Story Elements on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, Tim; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Konrad, Moira

    2010-01-01

    This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of self-monitoring and active responding on the reading comprehension of three high school seniors with learning disabilities and significant attention problems. The self-monitoring intervention required the participants to read a story and stop reading at three…

  5. Locomotor disability: meaning, causes and effects of interventions.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shah; Adamson, Joy; Ayis, Salma; Beswick, Andrew; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of a long-term programme of MRC-funded work on locomotor disability in older people. Specifically it describes the meaning and experience of disability, examines the risk factors for disability and systematically reviews the evidence from randomized trials of complex interventions for disability. We undertook a national prospective study of a representative sample of 999 people aged 65 years or more plus in-depth interviews with a small subsample and a selected sample obtained from hospital sources. Secondary analysis of several large prospective studies was carried out and a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials of the effects of complex interventions for disability. Very few participants subscribed to the constructs of longstanding illness, disability or infirmity that surveys often use. A wide range of social and psychological factors, independently of chronic diseases, were strongly associated with disability. People with greater functional reserve capacity and those with greater self-efficacy were generally less likely to suffer from catastrophic decline in ability and had better quality of life in the face of disability. In reviewing 89 trials (over 97,000 participants) of complex interventions for disability, evidence of benefits was found although no relationship with intensity of intervention was apparent. Our findings on the meaning and experience of disability suggest the need for modifications to routinely used survey questions and for different ways of understanding the need for and receipt of care among older people with disabilities. The diverse risk factors for disability suggest that novel approaches across social, psychological as well as more traditional rehabilitation and behavioural risk factor modification would be worth exploring. Complex interventions appeared to help older people to live independently and limit functional decline irrespective of age and health status

  6. Effective monitoring of agriculture: a response.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Jeffrey D; Remans, Roseline; Smukler, Sean M; Winowiecki, Leigh; Andelman, Sandy J; Cassman, Kenneth G; Castle, David; DeFries, Ruth; Denning, Glenn; Fanzo, Jessica; Jackson, Louise E; Leemans, Rik; Lehmann, Johannes; Milder, Jeffrey C; Naeem, Shahid; Nziguheba, Generose; Palm, Cheryl A; Pingali, Prabhu L; Reganold, John P; Richter, Daniel D; Scherr, Sara J; Sircely, Jason; Sullivan, Clare; Tomich, Thomas P; Sanchez, Pedro A

    2012-03-01

    The development of effective agricultural monitoring networks is essential to track, anticipate and manage changes in the social, economic and environmental aspects of agriculture. We welcome the perspective of Lindenmayer and Likens (J. Environ. Monit., 2011, 13, 1559) as published in the Journal of Environmental Monitoring on our earlier paper, "Monitoring the World's Agriculture" (Sachs et al., Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560). In this response, we address their three main critiques labeled as 'the passive approach', 'the problem with uniform metrics' and 'the problem with composite metrics'. We expand on specific research questions at the core of the network design, on the distinction between key universal and site-specific metrics to detect change over time and across scales, and on the need for composite metrics in decision-making. We believe that simultaneously measuring indicators of the three pillars of sustainability (environmentally sound, social responsible and economically viable) in an effectively integrated monitoring system will ultimately allow scientists and land managers alike to find solutions to the most pressing problems facing global food security. PMID:22293996

  7. Effects of exercise interventions during different treatments in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Focht, Brian C; Lucas, Alexander R; Lustberg, Maryam B

    2016-05-01

    Previous findings suggest that exercise is a safe and efficacious means of improving physiological and psychosocial outcomes in female breast cancer survivors. To date, most research has focused on post-treatment interventions. However, given that the type and severity of treatment-related adverse effects may be dependent on the type of treatment, and that the effects are substantially more pronounced during treatment, an assessment of the safety and efficacy of exercise during treatment is warranted. In this review, we present and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted during breast cancer treatment. We conducted literature searches to identify studies examining exercise interventions in breast cancer patients who were undergoing chemotherapy or radiation. Data were extracted on physiological and psychosocial outcomes. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for each outcome. A total of 17 studies involving 1,175 participants undergoing active cancer therapy met the inclusion criteria. Findings revealed that, on average, exercise interventions resulted in moderate to large improvements in muscular strength: resistance exercise (RE, = 0.86), aerobic exercise (AE, = 0.55), small to moderate improvements in cardiovascular functioning (RE, = 0.45; AE, = 0.17, combination exercise (COMB, = 0.31) and quality of life (QoL; RE, = 0.30; AE, = 0.50; COMB, = 0.63). The results of this review suggest that exercise is a safe, feasible, and efficacious intervention in breast cancer patients who are undergoing different types of treatment. Additional research addressing the different modes of exercise during each type of treatment is warranted to assess the comparable efficacy of the various exercise modes during established breast cancer treatments. PMID:27258052

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Practice: Interventions to Improve High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona; Bowden, A. Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Levin, Henry M.; Cheng, Henan; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Hanisch-Cerda, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we perform cost-effectiveness analysis on interventions that improve the rate of high school completion. Using the What Works Clearinghouse to select effective interventions, we calculate cost-effectiveness ratios for five youth interventions. We document wide variation in cost-effectiveness ratios between programs and between…

  9. Effects of Three Interventions on the Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities in Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Stefan; Falth, Linda; Svensson, Idor; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    In a longitudinal intervention study, the effects of three intervention strategies on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2 were analyzed. The interventions consisted of computerized training programs: One bottom-up intervention aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the second…

  10. Differential Effects of the Gestalt Two-Chair Intervention and Problem Solving in Resolving Decisional Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Katherine M.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    1986-01-01

    Compared an affective (Gestalt two-chair intervention) and a cognitive-behavioral (problem-solving) counseling intervention used to help clients resolve intrapersonal conflicts related to a decision. A one-way analysis of variance revealed that affective intervention was more effective than cognitive behavioral intervention or no treatment for…

  11. Effects of Self-monitoring Technique on Inattentive Behaviors of Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mirnasab, Mir Mahmoud; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of stimulants on core symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been reported in several studies. Behavioral interventions have also been proposed as empirically supported interventions for ADHD. Although cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have been criticized for the lack of evidence-based data, some studies have indicated the positive effects of CBT techniques on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reports the effects of self-monitoring technique, as a CBT technique, on inattentive behaviors of children with ADHD. PMID:22952528

  12. Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians☆

    PubMed Central

    Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. PMID:24056298

  13. Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. PMID:24056298

  14. Health monitoring for effective management of infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, A. Emin; Catbas, Fikret N.; Grimmelsman, Kirk A.; Pervizpour, Mesut; Curtis, Joshua M.; Shen, Kaizhen; Qin, Xiaoli

    2002-06-01

    Significance of effectively managing civil infrastructure systems (CIS) throughout CIS life-cycles, and especially during and after natural or man-made disasters is well recognized. Disaster mitigation includes preparedness for hazards to avoid casualties and human suffering, as well as to ensure that critical CIS components can become operational within a short amount of time following a disaster. It follows that mitigating risk due to disasters and CIS managementare intersecting and interacting societal concerns. A coordinated, multi-disciplinary approach that integrates field, theoretical and laboratory research is necessary for innovating both hazard mitigation and infrastructure management. Health monitoring (HM) of CIS is an emerging paradigm for effective management, including emergency response and recovery management. Challenges and opportunities in health monitoring enabled by recent advances in information technology are discussed in this paper. An example of HM research on an actual CIS test-bed is presented.

  15. Improving temperature monitoring in the vaccine cold chain at the periphery: an intervention study using a 30-day electronic refrigerator temperature logger (Fridge-tag).

    PubMed

    Kartoğlu, Umit; Nelaj, Erida; Maire, Denis

    2010-05-28

    This intervention study was conducted in Albania to establish the superiority of the Fridge-tag (30-day electronic refrigerator temperature logger) against thermometers. Intervention sites used Fridge-tag and a modified temperature control record sheet, while control sites continued with their routine operation with thermometers. All refrigerators in both groups were equipped with downloadable electronic data loggers to record temperatures for reference. Focus group sessions were conducted with involved staff to discuss temperature monitoring, Fridge-tag use and its user-friendliness. Significant discrepancies were observed between thermometer readings and the electronic data loggers in control sites, while all alarms from Fridge-tag were confirmed in the intervention group. Thermometers are not sufficient to monitor temperatures in refrigerators since they miss the great majority of low and high alarms. Fridge-tag has proven to be an effective tool in providing health workers with the information they need to take the necessary actions when there are refrigerator temperature variations. PMID:20398615

  16. Response to Intervention for Middle School Students With Reading Difficulties: Effects of a Primary and Secondary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T.; Wanzek, Jeanne; Wexler, Jade; Fletcher, Jack M.; Denton, Carolyn D.; Barth, Amy; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a yearlong, researcher-provided, Tier 2 (secondary) intervention with a group of sixth-graders. The intervention emphasized word recognition, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension, Participants scored below a proficiency level on their slate accountability test and were compared to a similar group of struggling readers receiving school-provided instruction. All students received the benefits of content area teachers who participated in researcher-provided professional development designed to integrate vocabulary and comprehension practices throughout the school day (Tier 1). Students who participated in the Tier 2 intervention showed gains on measures of decoding, fluency, and comprehension, but differences relative to students in the comparison group were small (median d = +0.16). Students who received the re searcher-provided intervention scored significantly higher than students who received comparison intervention on measures of word attack, spelling, the state accountability measure, passage comprehension, and phonemic decoding efficiency, although most often in particular subgroups. PMID:21479079

  17. Curriculum-based assessment of oral language and listening comprehension: a tool for intervention and progress monitoring in the Common Core State Standards.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Wendy

    2012-05-01

    The Common Core State Standards and a Response to Intervention framework are movements sweeping the nation. Speech-language pathologists are uniquely positioned to play a pivotal role in supporting successful implementation of these movements. This article explores the assessment tools speech-language pathologists SLPs will need to identify and progress monitor critical language/literacy skills such as listening comprehension and oral narratives skills. Foundational research demonstrates that communication units, total words spoken, and major story components are measures that will discriminate between students with adequate language skills and language disorders and are curriculum-based, sensitive to change, and useful to determine the effectiveness of language/literacy interventions. Speech-language pathologist can broaden the impact of their knowledge and skills to improve outcomes for all students. PMID:22538711

  18. Design and Implementation of an Effective Telephone Counseling Intervention for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Ludman, Evette J.; Marek, Patrick M.; Mann, Sue L.; Bricker, Jonathan B.; Peterson, Arthur V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Effective smoking cessation for youth is urgently needed, but the literature guiding such efforts is nascent. We evaluated the implementation of a proactive intervention for adolescent smoking cessation that incorporated motivational interviewing (MI) and cognitive behavioral skills training (CBST). Methods We proactively identified 1058 smokers via classroom survey of enrolled juniors in 25 experimental high schools. After parental consent was obtained, trained counselors telephoned participants to invite their participation and deliver personalized smoking cessation counseling that combined MI and CBST. Implementation quality was assessed via weekly supervision of counselors, monitoring of counselor adherence to protocol via review of 5% of each counselor’s calls, and formal evaluation of counselor fidelity to MI via review of a random sample of 19.8% of counseling calls using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. Results Among identified smokers, 948 (89.6%) were eligible for intervention by age (≥18 years) or parental consent, 736 (70%) agreed to participate in telephone counseling, 691 (65%) completed one or more counseling calls, and 499 (47%) completed all planned calls. Telephone delivery of the personalized MI and CBST counseling intervention to a general population of adolescents was done with greater than 90% adherence to the intervention protocol. Review of the random sample of counselors’ calls demonstrated that more than 85% of counselors’ calls met or exceeded benchmark scores for four of six evaluated behaviors: MI spirit (99.1%), empathy (96.2%), ratio of reflections to questions (97.2%), and MI adherent (85.7%). Conclusion An effective proactive telephone counseling intervention consisting of MI and CBST can be successfully implemented with reach and fidelity in a general population of adolescent smokers. PMID:19822837

  19. Sustainability of Intervention Effects of an Evidence-based HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women who Smoke Crack Cocaine*

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Novak, Scott P.; Zule, William A.; Browne, Felicia A.; Kral, Alex H.; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Kline, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV prevention intervention efficacy is often assessed in the short term. Thus, we conducted a long-term (mean 4.4 years) follow-up of a Woman-Focused HIV intervention for African American crack smokers, for which we had previously observed beneficial short-term gains. Methods 455 out-of-treatment African American women in central North Carolina participated in a randomized field experiment and were followed up to determine sustainability of intervention effects across three conditions: the Woman-Focused intervention, a modified NIDA intervention, and a delayed treatment control condition. We compared these groups in terms of HIV risk behavior at short-term follow-up (STFU; 3–6 months) and long-term follow-up (LTFU; average 4 years). Results The analyses revealed two distinct groups at STFU: women who either eliminated or greatly reduced their risk behaviors (low-risk class) and women who retained high levels of risk across multiple risk domains (high-risk class). At STFU, women in the Woman-Focused intervention were more likely to be in the low HIV-risk group than the women in control conditions, but this effect was not statistically significant at LTFU. However, low-risk participants at STFU were less likely to be retained at LTFU, and this retention rate was lowest among women in the Woman-Focused intervention. Conclusions Short-term intervention effects were not observed over four years later, possibly due to differential retention across conditions. The retention of the highest risk women presents an opportunity for extending intervention effects through the booster sessions for those who need it the most. PMID:20219294

  20. Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rotavirus infection has been reported to be responsible for the majority of severe diarrhea in children under-5-years-old in Indonesia. Breast milk is considered to give protection against rotavirus infection. Increasing breastfeeding promotion programs could be an alternative target to reduce the incidence of rotavirus diarrhea. This study aims to investigate the effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia, focusing on breastfeeding education and support interventions. Methods An age-structured cohort model was developed for the 2011 Indonesia birth cohort. We compared four interventions in scenarios: (i) base-case ( I 0 ) reflecting the current situation for the population of under-5-years-old, (ii) with an additional breastfeeding education intervention ( I 1 ), (iii) with a support intervention on initiation and duration ( I 2 ) and (iv) with both of these two interventions combined ( I 3 ). The model applied a 5-years time horizon, with 1 month analytical cycles for children less than 1 year of age and annually thereafter. Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the economic acceptability and affordability of rotavirus vaccination. Results Rotavirus immunization would effectively reduce severe cases of rotavirus during the first 5 years of a child's life even assuming various breastfeeding promotion interventions. The total yearly vaccine cost would amount to US$ 64 million under the market vaccine price. Cost-effectiveness would increase to US$ 153 per quality-adjusted-life-year (societal perspective) with an optimal breastfeeding promotion intervention. Obviously, this is much lower than the 2011 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of US$ 3,495. Affordability results showed that at the market vaccine price, rotavirus vaccination could be affordable for the Indonesian health system. Conclusions Rotavirus immunization would be a highly cost-effective public health

  1. Using an eHealth Intervention to Stimulate Health Behavior for the Prevention of Cognitive Decline in Dutch Adults: A Study Protocol for the Brain Aging Monitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-delivered intervention programs are an effective way of changing health behavior in an aging population. The same population has an increasing number of people with cognitive decline or cognitive impairments. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors such as physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, and stress all influence the probability of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Objective This study aims to answer two questions: (1) Is the use of a self-motivated, complex eHealth intervention effective in changing multiple health behaviors related to cognitive aging in Dutch adults in the work force, especially those aged 40 and over? and (2) Does this health behavior change result in healthier cognitive aging patterns and contribute to preventing or delaying future onset of neurodegenerative syndromes? Methods The Brain Aging Monitor study uses a quasi-experimental 2-year pre-posttest design. The Brain Aging Monitor is an online, self-motivated lifestyle intervention program. Recruitment is done both in medium to large organizations and in the Dutch general population over the age of 40. The main outcome measure is the relationship between lifestyle change and cognitive aging. The program uses different strategies and modalities such as Web content, email, online newsletters, and online games to aid its users in behavior change. To build self-regulatory skills, the Brain Aging Monitor offers its users goal-setting activities, skill-building activities, and self-monitoring. Results Study results are expected to be published in early 2016. Conclusions This study will add to the body of evidence on the effectiveness of eHealth intervention programs with the combined use of state-of-the-art applied games and established behavior change techniques. This will lead to new insights on how to use behavior change techniques and theory in multidimensional lifestyle eHealth research, and how these techniques

  2. Self-Monitoring as an Intervention to Decrease Swimmers Stroke Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polaha, Jodi; Allen, Keith; Studley, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Self-monitoring of stroke count by swimmers is a common coaching strategy, it is but one that has little data to support it. Although research has demonstrated that self-monitoring can motivate behavior change, little research has focused on whether self-monitoring can enhance skill development. The purpose of the present set of studies was to…

  3. A School-Based Mindfulness Intervention for Urban Youth: Exploring Moderators of Intervention Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…

  4. Response to Intervention: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fluency Interventions on Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Kimberly T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative heuristic case study (supported by quantitative data) was to investigate the change in reading comprehension after implementation of a fluency intervention. The study participants were five students on tier 2 of the Response to Intervention pyramid. The study was guided by three research questions. RQ1: Why does…

  5. The Effectiveness of a Technologically Facilitated Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: The Targeted Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Ginsberg, Marnie C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a classroom-teacher-delivered reading intervention for struggling readers called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), designed particularly for kindergarten and first-grade teachers and their struggling students in rural, low-wealth communities. The TRI was delivered via an innovative…

  6. Monitoring the outcomes of interventions against Taenia solium: options and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Garcia, H H; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M; Abela-Ridder, B

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in reducing the incidence of human neurocysticercosis, caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium. Several intervention trials are currently assessing various options for control of T. solium transmission. A critical aspect of these trials will be the evaluation of whether the interventions have been successful. However, there is no consensus about the most appropriate or valuable methods that should be used. Here, we undertake a critical assessment of the diagnostic tests which are currently available for human T. solium taeniasis and human and porcine cysticercosis, as well as their suitability for evaluation of intervention trial outcomes. Suggestions are made about which of the measures that are available for evaluation of T. solium interventions would be most suitable, and which methodologies are the most appropriate given currently available technologies. Suggestions are also made in relation to the most urgent research needs in order to address deficiencies in current diagnostic methods. PMID:26538513

  7. Effectiveness of a motivational interviewing intervention on medication compliance.

    PubMed

    Minkin, Alison; Snider-Meyer, Jill; Olson, Debra; Gresser, Susan; Smith, Heather; Kier, Frederick J

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of training geriatric home-based primary care (HBPC) nursing staff in motivational interviewing (MI) techniques, with the goal of increasing patient medication adherence. Nursing staff received 4 hours of training in MI techniques from a licensed psychologist. Results indicated that the MI training increased medication adherence in the HBPC veteran sample by a small, but statistically significant, margin both 1 month and 6 months after the intervention. Although the effect size may be considered small, the clinical and cost ramifications of even a small gain in adherence are extremely important for the patient, clinician, and the medical facility. MI techniques may provide a cost-effective and impactful means of enhancing patient adherence to medications. PMID:25171241

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Moderate Physical Activity: A Study in Nine UK Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Cooke, Carlton; Gilson, Nicholas; Marsh, Kevin; McKenna, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: With growing concerns to establish the value for returns on public health investment, there is a need to identify cost-effective physical activity interventions. This study measured change in moderate physical activity (MPA) in seven community-based intervention types, costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and possible…

  9. The Effects of Fluency Training on Implementation Fidelity of a Reading Intervention Conducted by Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keeffe, Breda Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Improving educational outcomes involves many variables, including identifying effective interventions and ensuring that they are effectively implemented in schools. Within a "response to intervention" model, treatment integrity of academic interventions has become increasingly important. However, recent research has suggested that ensuring…

  10. Causal Client Models in Selecting Effective Interventions: A Cognitive Mapping Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Kwaadsteniet, Leontien; Hagmayer, York; Krol, Nicole P. C. M.; Witteman, Cilia L. M.

    2010-01-01

    An important reason to choose an intervention to treat psychological problems of clients is the expectation that the intervention will be effective in alleviating the problems. The authors investigated whether clinicians base their ratings of the effectiveness of interventions on models that they construct representing the factors causing and…

  11. The effectiveness of early intervention: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Parry, T S

    1992-10-01

    The following principles are now clearly defined in the management of children with developmental delay: (1) Multidisciplinary teams are more effective than individual therapeutic approaches. (2) The whole development of the child needs to be considered rather than a single deficient area alone. (3) Home-based programmes are more effective in the young preschool child than centre-based programmes alone. (4) Parent involvement in partnership with professionals is essential for sustained progress. (5) Maximum effectiveness is achieved when parental skills are increased. (6) Programmes commencing earlier in preschool years are more effective than those that commence late. This concept has been recently challenged and evidence supports benefits for the disadvantaged rather than the disabled. White also contends that there is 'simply not enough information to be confident about the long-term impact of early intervention with handicapped children and evidence in support of many of the commonly held positions about mediating variables (e.g. parental involvement, age at start) is either non-existent or contradictory. Early intervention is clearly effective in offering parental support, fostering parent/child relationships and diminishing anxiety even for those programmes that have not at present been proven in altering the developmental disability. Programmes that involve high cost, disrupt total family functioning, deflect scarce resources away from more proven areas of effectiveness should be discouraged, and they should never cause guilt in either parent or professional when they seem ineffective. Future research should include investigation of outcomes other than cognitive and physical functioning alone. We should be warned from the somewhat crisp statement of Mark Twain: 'There is something fascinating about science. One gets such wholesale returns of conjecture out of such a trifling investment in fact'.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1382490

  12. Background for Real-Time Monitoring and Intervention Related to Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Beckjord, Ellen; Shiffman, Saul

    2014-01-01

    Real-time assessment, known as ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and real-time intervention (ecological momentary intervention [EMI]) can significantly extend the reach and impact of interventions to help individuals reduce their drinking behavior. For EMA, the user provides information on the variable of interest (e.g., drinking or craving) via a mobile device. This data reporting can occur either at pre-specified times or in certain high-risk situations. The primary benefits of EMA include external validity, minimized recall bias, and the ability to capture dynamic patterns in human behavior. EMI refers to interventions that are delivered via mobile devices at the time when the user needs it (i.e., in a high-risk situation). Key constructs of EMI are what interventions are delivered and when they are delivered. The timing of the EMI often is determined by the user’s EMA reports. Both EMA and EMI have been studied in people with alcohol use disorders. EMA and EMI often are used in conjunction with each other because EMA can help inform the optimal timing of EMI and help tailor its content. Further development of high-impact, algorithm-driven, technology-mediated real-time intervention may help reduce drinking and promote positive health behavior change. PMID:26258996

  13. Assessment Effects in Educational and Psychosocial Intervention Trials: An Important but Often-Overlooked Problem

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Baseline assessments and repeated measures are an essential part of educational and psychosocial intervention trials, but merely measuring an outcome of interest can modify that outcome, either by the measurement process alone or by interacting with the intervention to strengthen or weaken the intervention effects. Assessment effects can result in biased estimates of intervention effects and may not be controlled by the usual two-group randomized controlled trial design. In this paper, we review the concept of assessment effects and other related phenomena, briefly describe study designs that estimate assessment effects separately from intervention effects and discuss their strengths and limitations, review evidence regarding the strength of assessment effects in intervention trials targeting behavior change, and discuss implications for intervention research. PMID:25728502

  14. Comparing Models of Helper Behavior to Actual Practice in Telephone Crisis Intervention: A Silent Monitoring Study of Calls to the U.S. 1-800-SUICIDE Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Chagnon, Francois; Daigle, Marc; Balan, Bogdan; Raymond, Sylvaine; Marcoux, Isabelle; Bardon, Cecile; Campbell, Julie K.; Berman, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Models of telephone crisis intervention in suicide prevention and best practices were developed from a literature review and surveys of crisis centers. We monitored 2,611 calls to 14 centers using reliable behavioral ratings to compare actual interventions with the models. Active listening and collaborative problem-solving models describe help…

  15. Cervical zygapophysial (facet) joint pain: effectiveness of interventional management strategies.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks have been utilized in the diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain in patients without disk herniation or radicular pain due to a lack of reliable noninvasive diagnostic measures. Therapeutic interventions include intra-articular injections, facet joint nerve blocks and radiofrequency neurotomy. The diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of facet joint interventions have been assessed in multiple diagnostic accuracy studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic reviews in managing chronic neck pain. This assessment shows there is Level II evidence based on a total of 11 controlled diagnostic accuracy studies for diagnosing cervical facet joint pain in patients without disk herniation or radicular pain utilizing controlled diagnostic blocks. Due to significant variability and internal inconsistency regarding prevalence in a heterogenous population; despite 11 studies, evidence is determined as Level II. Prevalence ranged from 36% to 67% with at least 80% pain relief as the criterion standard with a false-positive rate ranging from 27% to 63%. The evidence is Level II for the long-term effectiveness of radiofrequency neurotomy and facet joint nerve blocks in managing cervical facet joint pain. There is Level III evidence for cervical intra-articular injections. PMID:26653406

  16. Sex effects in cocaine using methadone patients randomized to contingency management interventions

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Ashley E.; Rash, Carla J.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment for promoting cocaine abstinence in patients receiving methadone maintenance. However, few studies have examined the effect of sex on treatment outcomes in this population. This study evaluated the impact of sex on longest duration of abstinence (LDA) and percent negative urine samples in 323 cocaine-using methadone patients from four randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard methadone care. Overall, women had better treatment outcomes compared to men, demonstrated by an increase in both LDA and percentages of negative samples. Patients receiving CM also had significantly higher LDA and percentages of negative samples compared to patients receiving standard care, but sex by treatment condition effects were not significant. These data suggest that cocaine using methadone patients who are women have better substance use outcomes than men in interventions that regularly monitor cocaine use, and CM is equally efficacious regardless of sex. PMID:26237326

  17. Effectiveness of Diabetes Interventions in the Patient-Centered Medical Home

    PubMed Central

    Ackroyd, Sarah A.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) is an innovative care model for the provision of primary care that is being rapidly adopted in the U.S. with the support of federal agencies and professional organizations. Its goal is to provide comprehensive, patient-centered care with increased access, quality, and efficiency. Diabetes, as a common, costly, chronic disease that requires ongoing management by patients and providers, is a condition that is frequently monitored as a test case in PCMH implementations. While in theory a PCMH care model that supports patient engagement and between-visit care may help improve diabetes care delivery and outcomes, the success of this approach may depend largely upon the specific strategies used and implementation approach. The cost-effectiveness of diabetes care in the PCMH model is not yet clear. Interventions have been most effective and most cost-effective for those with the poorest diabetes management at baseline. PMID:24477830

  18. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. Results A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Conclusions Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care. PMID:20973985

  19. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary intervention to improve hypertension control in an urban underserved practice.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Robert J; Nagel, Angela K; Rose, Emily; McCann, Robert; Teeters, John C; Quigley, Denise D; Bisognano, John D; Legette-Sobers, Sharon; Liu, Chang; Rocco, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Patient-centered, multidisciplinary interventions offer one of the most promising strategies to improve blood pressure (BP) control, yet effectiveness trials in underserved real-world settings are limited. We used a multidisciplinary strategy to improve hypertension control in an underserved urban practice. We collected 1007 surveys to monitor medication adherence and used weighted generalized estimating equations to examine trends in BP control. We examined 13,404 visits from patients with hypertension between August 2010 and February 2014. Overall, BP control rates increased from 51.0% to 67.4% (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-1.74) by the end of the intervention phase and were maintained during the postintervention phase (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-1.82). Medication adherence scores increased across the intervention (5.9-6.6; P < .001), but were not sustained at the conclusion of the study (5.9-6.2; P = .16). A multidisciplinary team approach involving registered nurses, pharmacists, and physicians resulted in substantial improvements in hypertension control in a real-world underserved setting. PMID:26687551

  20. Providing Effective Early Intervention Vocational Rehabilitation at the Community Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Saralynn J.; Niu, Jingbo; Zhu, Yanyan; Brett, Belle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the translation of positive research findings about a job retention intervention for persons with chronic illnesses to rehabilitation practice. A program to provide the intervention was developed and marketed in the community. Fifty-seven consumers with chronic illnesses received the intervention provided…

  1. Preparing Therapists as Effective Practitioners in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa H.; Chiarello, Lisa; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Milbourne, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Occupational and physical therapists and speech language pathologists provide services for almost half of the children enrolled in early intervention programs nationally. Each professional association has adopted documents defining practice in early intervention that advocate for family-centered practices and interventions embedded in family…

  2. The impact of a brief mindfulness meditation intervention on cognitive control and error-related performance monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Michael J.; Steffen, Patrick R.; Primosch, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Meditation is associated with positive health behaviors and improved cognitive control. One mechanism for the relationship between meditation and cognitive control is changes in activity of the anterior cingulate cortex-mediated neural pathways. The error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP) represent cingulate-mediated functions of performance monitoring that may be modulated by mindfulness meditation. We utilized a flanker task, an experimental design, and a brief mindfulness intervention in a sample of 55 healthy non-meditators (n = 28 randomly assigned to the mindfulness group and n = 27 randomly assigned to the control group) to examine autonomic nervous system functions as measured by blood pressure and indices of cognitive control as measured by response times, error rates, post-error slowing, and the ERN and Pe components of the ERP. Systolic blood pressure significantly differentiated groups following the mindfulness intervention and following the flanker task. There were non-significant differences between the mindfulness and control groups for response times, post-error slowing, and error rates on the flanker task. Amplitude and latency of the ERN did not differ between groups; however, amplitude of the Pe was significantly smaller in individuals in the mindfulness group than in the control group. Findings suggest that a brief mindfulness intervention is associated with reduced autonomic arousal and decreased amplitude of the Pe, an ERP associated with error awareness, attention, and motivational salience, but does not alter amplitude of the ERN or behavioral performance. Implications for brief mindfulness interventions and state vs. trait affect theories of the ERN are discussed. Future research examining graded levels of mindfulness and tracking error awareness will clarify relationship between mindfulness and performance monitoring. PMID:23847491

  3. Evaluating Effectiveness of Tier-2 Interventions within a Response-to-Intervention Framework: A Comparative Analysis of Corrected Means and Propensity Score Analysis Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roshong, Edward Dean

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a standard protocol Tier 2 reading intervention among third and fifth grade students and the methodologies used to determine the intervention's effectiveness. Several confounding covariates were observed as a result of utilizing eligibility criteria for assignment to the Tier 2 intervention condition.…

  4. Attributes of Effective and Efficient Kindergarten Reading Intervention: An Examination of Instructional Time and Design Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Deborah C.; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Harn, Beth; Coyne, Michael D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Santoro, Lana Edwards; Smith, Sylvia B.; Beck, Carrie Thomas; Kaufman, Noah K.

    2007-01-01

    A randomized experimental design with three levels of intervention was used to compare the effects of beginning reading interventions on early phonemic, decoding, and spelling outcomes of 96 kindergartners identified as at risk for reading difficulty. The three instructional interventions varied systematically along two dimensions--time and design…

  5. Enhancing Student Motivation and Engagement: The Effects of a Multidimensional Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the effects of a multidimensional educational intervention on high school students' motivation and engagement. The intervention incorporated: (a) multidimensional targets of motivation and engagement, (b) empirically derived intervention methodology, (c) research-based risk and protective factors, (d)…

  6. The Effects of Interventions to Prevent Substance Use among Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…

  7. Effects of Two Interventions on Solving Basic Fact Problems by Second Graders with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Minyi Shih; Sorrells, Audrey McCray; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used a multiple probe across participants design, replicated across two interventions and counterbalanced across participant groups to examine the effects of number sense intervention and extensive practice intervention on strategy transformation when students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) solved basic fact problems. In…

  8. Influence of behavioral theory on fruit and vegetable intervention effectiveness among children: A meta-analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that interventions clearly based on theory, multiple theories, or a formal intervention planning process will be more effective in changing fruit and vegetable consumption among children than interventions with no behavioral theoretical foundati...

  9. The Effect of a "Mindful Restaurant Eating" Intervention on Weight Management in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Gayle M.; Brown, Adama

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a "Mindful Restaurant Eating" intervention on weight management. Design: Randomized control trial. Setting: Greater metropolitan area of Austin, Texas. Participants: Women (n = 35) 40-59 years old who eat out at least 3 times per week. Intervention: The intervention, using 6 weekly 2-hour, small group sessions,…

  10. Effects of a Tier 2 Supplemental Reading Intervention for At-Risk Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Montanaro, Elizabeth A.; Speece, Deborah L.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated a Tier 2 intervention in the context of a response-to-intervention (RTI) model for 123 fourth-grade students identified as having a high probability of reading failure. A randomized control trial was used to evaluate the effects of a 24-session multicomponent supplemental intervention targeting fluency and expository…

  11. The Effect of Population Heterogeneity on Statistical Power in the Design and Evaluation of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra; Yao, Hongxing

    2010-01-01

    Do interventions work and for whom? For this article, we examined the influence of population heterogeneity on power in designing and evaluating interventions. On the basis of Monte Carlo simulations in Study 1, we demonstrated that the power to detect the overall intervention effect is lower for a mixture of two subpopulations than for a…

  12. Effects of a Tier 3 Phonological Awareness Intervention on Preschoolers' Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Sean; Spencer, Trina D.; Kruse, Lydia; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This multiple baseline design study examined the effects of a Tier 3 early literacy intervention on low-income preschool children's phonological awareness (PA). Seven preschool children who did not make progress on identifying first sounds in words during a previous Tier 2 intervention participated in a more intensive Tier 3 intervention.…

  13. Effects of Self-Monitoring on Classroom Preparedness Skills of Middle School Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creel, Chrissy; Fore, Cecil, III; Boon, Richard T.; Bender, William N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a self-monitoring procedure to increase classroom preparedness skills of four sixth grade students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study used a multiple-baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention. The baseline,…

  14. Physical Interventions for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Survey of Use, Policy, Training and Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveau, Roy; McGill, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perceived problems around the use of physical intervention (PI) to manage challenging behaviour have led to UK initiatives to encourage policy development and accredited training. However, information on PI use and the impact of these initiatives remains limited. Method: Adult residential services within an English region were sent a…

  15. Improving Behavior by Using Multicomponent Self-Monitoring within a Targeted Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison; Watt, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have documented the interrelatedness of reading and behavior (McIntosh, Sadler, & Brown, 2012). Thus, research examining the best way to intervene with students who exhibit problems in both skill sets is merited. Recently, taking an integrated approach to reading and behavioral intervention has been suggested (Mooney, Ryan, Uhing,…

  16. Progress Monitoring in Reading: Using Curriculum-Based Measurement in a Response-to-Intervention Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Todd W.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the use of curriculum-based measurement (CBM) reading measures within a response-to-intervention (RTI) framework. They examine the characteristics of the measures to illustrate their technical adequacy for use at each tier in an RTI model. Finally, they look at the use of the measures at Tier 3 (special…

  17. Proactive Routine Monitoring and Intervention to Reduce the Psychosocial Impact of Cancer Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girgis, Afaf; Boyes, Allison

    2005-01-01

    Much of the psychosocial morbidity experienced by cancer patients goes undetected and therefore untreated. This paper describes infrastructure to routinely screen patients for psychosocial problems and provide targeted intervention in the cancer care setting. Cancer patients will complete a psychosocial screening survey via touchscreen computer at…

  18. Neuromodulation for fecal incontinence: an effective surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Asteria, Corrado R; Whitehead, William E

    2013-11-01

    Fecal incontinence is a disabling symptom with medical and social implications, including fear, embarrassment, isolation and even depression. Most patients live in seclusion and have to plan their life around the symptom, with secondary impairment of their quality of life. Conservative management and biofeedback therapy are reported to benefit a good percentage of those affected. However, surgery must be considered in the non-responder population. Recently, sacral nerve electrostimulation, lately named neuromodulation, has been reported to benefit patients with fecal incontinence in randomized controlled trials more than placebo stimulation and conservative management, by some unknown mechanism. Neuromodulation is a minimally invasive procedure with a low rate of adverse events and apparently favorable cost-efficacy profile. This review is intended to expand knowledge about this effective intervention among the non-surgically skilled community who deals with this disabled group of patients. PMID:24222947

  19. Effects of language intervention on syntactic skill levels in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of input in the growth of syntactic skills have generated substantial debate within psychology and linguistics. The authors address these questions by investigating the effects of experimentally manipulated input on children's skill with the passive voice. The study involved 72 four-year-olds who listened to stories containing either a high proportion of passive voice sentences or a high proportion of active voice sentences. Following 10 story sessions, children's production and comprehension of passives were assessed. Intervention type affected performance--children who heard stories with passive sentences produced more passive constructions (and with fewer mistakes) and showed higher comprehension scores than children who heard stories with active sentences. Theoretical implications of these results for the understanding of the nature of syntactic skills and practical implications for the development of preschool materials are discussed. PMID:16420126

  20. Improving meat cutters' work: changes and effects following an intervention.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K; Karltun, J; Eklund, J; Engkvist, I-L

    2013-11-01

    Meat cutters face higher risks of injury and musculoskeletal problems than most other occupational groups. The aims of this paper were to describe ergonomics changes implemented in three meat cutting plants and to evaluate effects related to ergonomics on the individual meat cutters and their work. Data was collected by interviews, observations, document studies and a questionnaire (n = 247), as a post intervention study. The changes implemented consisted of reducing knife work to a maximum of 6 h per day and introducing a job rotation scheme with work periods of equal length. Tasks other than traditional meat cutting were added. A competence development plan for each meat cutter and easy adjustment of workplace height were introduced. The questionnaire showed a reduction in perceived physical work load. In general, the changes were perceived positively. Figures from the company showed a positive trend for injuries and sick leave. PMID:23647887

  1. Quality assurance for interventions in clinical trials. Multicenter data monitoring, data management, and analysis.

    PubMed

    Pollock, B H

    1994-11-01

    Quality assurance for the management of multicenter clinical trials requires timely patient and data accrual and consistency with design parameters. Data from central pathology review, treatment modality, and follow-up as well as trial end points direct the selection of appropriate compliance measures. To integrate these data to monitor group performance on a specific protocol, to monitor discipline performance, or to monitor an institution's performance is a formidable task. This is especially true for a group such as the Pediatric Oncology Group, where there are a large number of protocols, many diseases, and widely differing protocol requirements. Quality assurance methods for the Pediatric Oncology Group are discussed. PMID:7954280

  2. Cost-effectiveness of growth monitoring and promotion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R A

    1993-08-01

    50 million children/year are in growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) programs in developing countries and 30 million growth charts are printed annually in India alone. GMP is a simple technology of weighing and charting, but it must be properly implemented under conditions that are conducive to program success. Critics of GMP argue that its effectiveness remains to be proved. If GMP programs lead to improved growth, health, and nutritional status, will it work when expanded to the national level and is it cost-effective? A community intervention trial in South India considered the cost-effectiveness component of these concerns, but yielded only mixed results and the recommendation that replicate studies be conducted in other countries. An observational study of 179 health workers in 100 rural health facilities in 9 developing countries found deficiencies so severe in weighing, plotting, and interpreting that GMP activities simply consumed time and resources which could have been better allocated elsewhere within the health system. GMP is unlikely to succeed in the absence of training and supervision for assessment, analysis, and action. Community involvement in and ownership of GMP are also recommended. PMID:8101577

  3. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children) which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building that might enable parents

  4. A pilot study of an automated voice response system and nursing intervention to monitor adherence to oral chemotherapy agents.

    PubMed

    Decker, Veronica; Spoelstra, Sandra; Miezo, Emily; Bremer, Renee; You, Mei; Given, Charles; Given, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and test a system to monitor adherence with nonhormonal oral chemotherapeutic agents using an automated voice response (AVR) system plus nursing intervention. Participants were patients diagnosed with solid tumor cancers, primarily breast, colon, and lung cancers, who received the Symptom Management Toolkit and participated in an interview for symptom severity, satisfaction, and beliefs about oral agents. Patients received weekly AVR calls, which assessed adherence to oral agents and severity of 15 symptoms. Patients who reported adherence of below 100% of the prescribed oral agents or symptoms of 4 or greater (0-10 scale) for 3 consecutive weeks were called by a nurse for assistance with symptom management and adherence to oral chemotherapy medications. After the 8 weekly AVR calls, patients participated in a follow-up interview and medical record review. Participants were 30 oncology patients who were ambulatory and treated at 2 cancer centers in Midwest United States. The results indicate 23.3% nonadherence rate to oral chemotherapy medications due to symptoms and forgetting to take the medication. An association between symptom management and adherence was found. Symptom severity and beliefs about medications were not significantly different between adherent and nonadherent patients. This pilot study demonstrated the ability to accrue patients for a longitudinal trial and informed intervention design while providing guidance for future interventions and research studies. PMID:19816160

  5. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Its Effectiveness and Role in Broader Crisis Intervention Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…

  6. Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Camosso-Stefinovic, Janette; Gillies, Clare; Shaw, Elizabeth J; Cheater, Francine; Flottorp, Signe; Robertson, Noelle

    2014-01-01

    Background In the previous version of this review, the effectiveness of interventions tailored to barriers to change was found to be uncertain. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change on professional practice or patient outcomes. Search methods For this update, in addition to the EPOC Register and pending files, we searched the following databases without language restrictions, from inception until August 2007: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI and HMIC. We searched the National Research Register to November 2007. We undertook further searches to October 2009 to identify potentially eligible published or ongoing trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions tailored to address prospectively identified barriers to change that reported objectively measured professional practice or healthcare outcomes in which at least one group received an intervention designed to address prospectively identified barriers to change. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently assessed quality and extracted data. We undertook quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative analyses had two elements. We carried out a meta-regression to compare interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change with either no interventions or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers.We carried out heterogeneity analyses to investigate sources of differences in the effectiveness of interventions. These included the effects of: risk of bias, concealment of allocation, rigour of barrier analysis, use of theory, complexity of interventions, and the reported presence of administrative constraints. Main results We included 26 studies comparing an intervention tailored to address identified barriers to change to no intervention or an intervention(s) not tailored to the barriers. The effect sizes of these studies varied both across and within studies. Twelve studies provided

  7. Combined Home and School Obesity Prevention Interventions for Children: What Behavior Change Strategies and Intervention Characteristics Are Associated with Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.

    2012-01-01

    This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Pre-Diagnosis Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)-Targeted Intervention with Ontario's Autism Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Melanie; Rayar, Meera; Bashir, Naazish; Roberts, S. Wendy; Hancock-Howard, Rebecca L.; Coyte, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Novel management strategies for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) propose providing interventions before diagnosis. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the costs and dependency-free life years (DFLYs) generated by pre-diagnosis intensive Early Start Denver Model (ESDM-I); pre-diagnosis parent-delivered ESDM (ESDM-PD); and the Ontario…

  9. Posttraining Interventions To Enhance Transfer: The Moderating Effects of Work Environments. [and] Invited Reaction: Posttraining Interventions To Enhance Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman-Hirsch, Wendy L.

    2001-01-01

    After 267 workers were trained, one group received goal-setting training, a second group self-management training, and a third no additional training. Goal setting improved perceptions of transfer; both interventions were more effective in supportive work environments. (Dale M. Brethower's invited reaction critiques the study from the perspective…

  10. Effect on Reading Fluency of Struggling Third Grade Students: Computer-Assisted Intervention versus Teacher-Guided Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Corey; Elfreth, Jaime; Feng, Jay

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined two intervention programs, Read Naturally (computer-assisted) and The Six-Minute Solution (teacher-guided), for the purpose of finding their effects on reading fluency with 3rd grade students at an elementary school. The participants were from two separate third grade classrooms, randomly assigned to one of the two…