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Sample records for monitoracao individual interna

  1. ["When the ad is good, the product is sold." The MonitorACAO Project and drug advertising in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis on drug advertising in Brazil, based on the final report of the MonitorACAO Project, by the group from the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Due to a partnership between the university and the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA), drug advertisements were monitored and analyzed for one year, according to the methodology defined by the Agency. The samples were collected in medical practices and hospitals, drugstores, pharmacies and in scientific magazines. TV and radio programs were monitored, in the case of OTC drugs. 159 advertisements referring to pharmaceuticals were sent to ANVISA,from a total of 263 irregular ads analyzed between October 2004 and August 2005. The main problems found were the poor quality of drug information to health professionals, as well as misleading drug use to lay population. Based on the results of this project and on other studies, the banning of drug advertising in Brazil is proposed. PMID:21936168

  2. Ultrastructure of the theca interna of ovarian follicles in sheep.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, J D; Cran, D G; Hay, M F; Moor, R M

    1978-03-13

    The theca interna of non-atretic ovarian follicles from 2.0 mm in diameter up to the stage shortly following ovulation was studied by light and electron microscopy. In follicles less than 3.0 mm in diameter, the theca interna consisted of about 8-12 layers of flattened cells, together with many capillaries and small bundles of collagen. Two main forms of cellular differentiation were seen. These were towards either fibroblast-like cells or presumed steroidogenic cells whose cytoplasm contained large amounts of predominantly smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum, to which some ribosomes were attached. The majority of cells were of relatively undifferentiated or intermediate structure. In larger follicles up to the early stages of oestrus the theca interna cells became larger and less flattened, and cells rich in tubular endoplasmic reticulum became proportionately more numerous. By 18 h after the onset of oestrus the theca interna was oedematous, and many cells possessed pseudopodia. Many cells also contained numerous lipid droplets, but there were no signs of thecal cell degeneration or death. Shortly after ovulation the basal lamina of the membrana granulosa was incomplete, and it became more difficult to distinguish between theca and granulosa layers. Structural heterogeneity, with two major cell types and cells of intermediate structure, was present at all stages. It was concluded that: (1) the theca interna of 2.0-2.9 mm follicles contained many cells whose structure was compatible with a steroidogenic capacity; (2) changes in the differentiated thecal cells up to the early stages of oestrus were quantitative rather than qualitative, and suggestive of an increased steroidogenic capacity; (3) the accumulation of lipid in many cells of the theca interna by 18 h after the onset of oestrus probably reflected a reduction in steroidogenic activity; and (4) there was no evidence of any structural specialization to facilitate the transport of steroids from the theca

  3. Theca interna: the other side of bovine follicular atresia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leigh J; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    Currently, histological classifications of ovarian follicular atresia are almost exclusively based on the morphology of the membrana granulosa without reference to the theca interna. Atresia in the bovine small antral ovarian follicle has been redefined into antral or basal atresia where cell death commences initially within antral or basal regions of the membrana granulosa, respectively. To examine cell death in the theca interna in the two types of atretic follicles, bovine ovaries were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Follicles were classified as healthy, antral atretic, or basal atretic. Follicle diameter was recorded and sections stained with lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia to identify endothelial cells or with an antibody to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage to identify steroidogenic cells and combined with TUNEL labeling to identify dead cells. The numerical density of steroidogenic cells within the theca interna was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in basal atretic follicles in comparison with other follicles. Cell death was greater in both endothelial cells (P < 0.05) and steroidogenic cells (P < 0.01) of the theca interna of basal atretic follicles compared with healthy and antral atretic follicles. Thus, we conclude that the theca interna is susceptible to cell death early in atresia, particularly in basal atretic follicles. PMID:15175236

  4. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations. PMID:24491378

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna in Transition from Small to Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna layer of the ovarian follicle forms during the antral stage of follicle development and lies adjacent to and directly outside the follicular basal lamina. It supplies androgens and communicates with the granulosa cells and the oocyte by extracellular signaling. To better understand developmental changes in the theca interna, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from small (3–5 mm, n = 10) and large (9–12 mm, n = 5) healthy antral bovine follicles, representing a calculated >7-fold increase in the amount of thecal tissue. Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed no clustering of the theca interna samples into groups depending on follicle size or subcategories of small follicles. From the over 23,000 probe sets analysed, only 76 were differentially expressed between large and small healthy follicles. Some of the differentially expressed genes were associated with processes such as myoblast differentiation, protein ubiquitination, nitric oxide and transforming growth factor β signaling. The most significant pathway affected from our analyses was found to be Wnt signaling, which was suppressed in large follicles via down-regulation of WNT2B and up-regulation of the inhibitor FRZB. These changes in the transcriptional profile could have been due to changes in cellular function or alternatively since the theca interna is composed of a number of different cell types it could have been due to any systematic change in the volume density of any particular cell type. However, our study suggests that the transcriptional profile of the theca interna is relatively stable during antral follicle development unlike that of granulosa cells observed previously. Thus both the cellular composition and cellular behavior of the theca interna and its contribution to follicular development appear to be relatively constant throughout the follicle growth phase examined

  6. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (I) Standards evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Pérez, R; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Jiménez Contreras, E

    1997-08-01

    The evaluation of scientific journal has become a necessary exercise for a variety of purposes and parties. We evaluated compliance with ISO standards for periodicals by the Spanish biomedical journal An. Med. Interna. Compliance with 136 data items based on different standards was evaluated with the help of a specially developed data sheet, and expressed as overall mean compliance (49.2%) and actual mean compliance (83.4%), i.e., compliance with those items considered necessary for the effective transfer of information via data bases. Items for which standardization was not optimal were examined in detail and specific recommendations for correction were given. We conclude that An. Med. Interna effectively fulfills its mission as an instrument for the communication of research results. In comparison with Spanish journals covering different areas and published by different organizations, compliance with international standards was better in An. Med. Interna. PMID:9376476

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna from Bovine Ovarian Follicles during Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna is a specialized stromal layer that envelops each growing ovarian follicle. It contains capillaries, fibroblasts, immune cells and the steroidogenic cells that synthesize androgens for conversion to estradiol by the neighboring granulosa cells. During reproductive life only a small number of follicles will grow to a sufficient size to ovulate, whereas the majority of follicles will undergo regression/atresia and phagocytosis by macrophages. To identify genes which are differentially regulated in the theca interna during follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from healthy (n = 10) and antral atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (<5 mm). Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. A total of 543 probe sets were differentially expressed between the atretic and healthy theca interna. Further analyses of these genes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Toolkit software found most of the genes being expressed were related to cytokines, hormones and receptors as well as the cell cycle and DNA replication. Cell cycle genes which encode components of the replicating chromosome complex and mitotic spindle were down-regulated in atretic theca interna, whereas stress response and inflammation-related genes such as TP53, IKBKB and TGFB1 were up-regulated. In addition to cell cycle regulators, upstream regulators that were predicted to be inhibited included Retinoblastoma 1, E2 transcription factor 1, and hepatocyte growth factor. Our study suggests that during antral atresia of small follicles in the theca interna, arrest of cell cycle and DNA replication occurs rather than up- regulation of apoptosis-associated genes as occurs in granulosa cells. PMID:24956388

  8. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on indium-111 leukocyte scans: potential diagnostic pitfall

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Carretta, R.

    1986-04-01

    The appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on an (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scan is reported. Recognition of the potential for normal accumulation of 111In-labeled white blood cells within this common process involving the skull is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.

  9. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (II) Bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Contreras, E; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Ruiz Pérez, R

    1997-08-01

    National and international diffusion, composition of the collective of authors who publish in the journal, and cocitation were studies for the journal An. Med. Interna. Diffusion was analyzed by examining the presence of the journal in medical data bases and specialized libraries in Spain. The institutional affiliations and geographical location of authors were determined on the basis of the affiliations given in the article by-lines. The journal is included in the major medical data bases and in approximately 80% of the libraries studied. The predominant professional affiliation among authors was clinical (hospital); the geographical origin of the authors (expressed as a percentage of all authors) approximately paralleled the volume of scientific publications generated by each of Spain's 17 autonomous regions. The cocitation study showed that An. Med. Interna ranked somewhere in the middle of the group' of 38 Spanish medical journals considered representative of research being done in Spain. PMID:9376477

  10. Globus Pallidus Interna Deep Brain Stimulation in a Patient with Medically Intractable Meige Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae-Woong; Son, Byung-chul; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Medical therapies in patients with Meige syndrome, including botulinum toxin injection, have been limited because of incomplete response or adverse side effects. We evaluated a patient with Meige syndrome who was successfully treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the globus pallidus interna (GPi). This case report and other previous reports suggest that bilateral GPi DBS may be an effective treatment for medically refractory Meige syndrome, without significant adverse effects. PMID:25360233

  11. Localization of the gene for hyperostosis cranialis interna to chromosome 8p21 with analysis of three candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Borra, V M; Waterval, J J; Stokroos, R J; Manni, J J; Van Hul, W

    2013-07-01

    Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by intracranial hyperostosis and osteosclerosis, which is confined to the skull, especially the calvarium and the skull base. The rest of the skeleton is not affected. Progressive bone overgrowth causes nerve entrapment that leads to recurrent facial nerve palsy, disturbance of the sense of smell, hearing and vision impairments, impairment of facial sensibility, and disturbance of balance due to vestibular areflexia. The treatment is symptomatic. Histomorphological investigations showed increased bone formation with a normal tissue structure. Biochemical parameters were normal. Until today the disease has been described in only three related Dutch families with common progenitors and which consist of 32 individuals over five generations. HCI was observed in 12 family members over four generations. Patients are mildly to severely affected. Besides HCI, several bone dysplasias with hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones are known. Examples are Van Buchem disease, sclerosteosis, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, and Camurati-Engelmann disease. However, in these cases the long bones are affected as well. Linkage analysis in a family with HCI resulted in the localization of the disease-causing gene to a region on chromosome 8p21 delineated by markers D8S282 and D8S382. Interesting candidate genes in this region are BMP1, LOXL2, and ADAM28. Sequence analysis of these genes did not reveal any putative mutations. This suggests that a gene not previously involved in a sclerosing bone dysplasia is responsible for the abnormal growth in the skull of these patients. PMID:23640157

  12. Delayed cerebritis after bilateral stereotactic implantation of globus pallidus interna electrodes for treatment of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Lessig, Stephanie; Nguyen, Andrew D; Barba, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being used to treat an increasing number of movement and psychiatric disorders. However, the risk of infection remains as a problem that can hinder the usefulness of this technology. We report a case of a patient with dystonia who underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna electrode and impulse generator (IPG) placement, developed an infection of his IPG, and later cerebritis. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics and partial hardware removal. Follow-up cranial imaging showed an area concerning for cerebritis around one of the intracranial electrodes. The patient was then treated with complete hardware removal followed by a course of intravenous antibiotics. Four-month follow-up imaging showed resolution of the infection. This case demonstrates the importance of following cranial imaging in DBS patients with delayed infection, continued vigilance for infection in implanted patients and that partial hardware removal may not be successful in the setting of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections. PMID:23378545

  13. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  14. Transcriptome comparisons identify new cell markers for theca interna and granulosa cells from small and large antral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  15. Transcriptome Comparisons Identify New Cell Markers for Theca Interna and Granulosa Cells from Small and Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  16. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705–1782)

    PubMed Central

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705–1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion. PMID:21740437

  17. Preliminary evidence for human globus pallidus pars interna neurons signaling reward and sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nicholas A; Prescott, Ian A; Lozano, Andres M; Hodaie, Mojgan; Voon, Valerie; Hutchison, William D

    2016-07-22

    The globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is a component of the basal ganglia, a network of subcortical nuclei that process motor, associative, and limbic information. While non-human primate studies have suggested a role for the GPi in non-motor functions, there have been no single-unit studies of non-motor electrophysiological behavior of human GPi neurons. We therefore sought to extend these findings by collecting single-unit recordings from awake patients during functional stereotactic neurosurgery targeting the GPi for deep brain stimulation. To assess cellular responses to non-motor information, patients performed a reward task where virtual money could be won, lost, or neither, depending on their performance while cellular activity was monitored. Changes in the firing rates of isolated GPi neurons after the presentation of reward-related stimuli were compared between different reward contingencies (win, loss, null). We observed neurons that modulated their firing rate significantly to the presentation of reward-related stimuli. We furthermore found neurons that responded to visual-stimuli more broadly. This is the first single-unit evidence of human GPi neurons carrying non-motor information. These results are broadly consistent with previous findings in the animal literature and suggest non-motor information may be represented in the single-unit activity of human GPi neurons. PMID:27109924

  18. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  19. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  20. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  1. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography, Wide-Field Photography, and Fundus Autofluorescence Correlation of Posterior Ophthalmomyiasis Interna.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Yannis M; Butler, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Posterior ophthalmomyiasis interna is a rare, potentially devastating infestation of the posterior segment by fly larvae. The authors report the first demonstration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), wide-field angiography (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) and photography, and fundus autofluorescence with temporal progression during a period of 6 months. A 12-year-old white female presented with acute, painless vision loss with hand motions visual acuity. No larva was visible, so she was treated with oral ivermectin. Visual acuity improved to 20/80. OCT demonstrated hyporeflective spaces of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium, which resolved during 1-month period with improved ellipsoid layer by 6 months. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated linear hypoautofluorescent tracks. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:682-685.]. PMID:27434903

  2. Neuronal discharge patterns in the globus pallidus pars interna in a patient with Parkinson's disease and hemiballismus secondary to subthalamotomy.

    PubMed

    Cerquetti, Daniel; Obeso, José Angel; Merello, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Alterations in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical "motor" circuit activity, have been proposed to explain many features associated with hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. We describe the firing pattern of the globus pallidus pars interna in a Parkinson disease's patient who developed Hemichorea-Ballismus subsequent to ipsilateral subthalamotomy, and compare findings to those from PD patients submitted to pallidotomy while in the OFF-medication state. Single units obtained from extracellular recordings were extracted and mean discharge frequency, interspike interval and coefficient of variation (defined as Tonicity Score) were computed. Discharge density histograms, analysis of distribution and spectral analysis were also performed. Mean firing frequency showed no significant difference between PD patients in the OFF state and the patient we report. However, a significant difference in tonicity was found for this patient characterized by a regular, non-bursting firing pattern. The findings indicate that in HB caused by lesions to STN in the parkinsonian state, GPi firing rates can be similar to and firing pattern more regular than those observed in GPi of PD patients OFF-medication with intact STN. PMID:21786135

  3. Rethinking evolutionary individuality.

    PubMed

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-08-18

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed. PMID:26039982

  4. Rethinking evolutionary individuality

    PubMed Central

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed. PMID:26039982

  5. The neurobiology of individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  6. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  7. Models for Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, William, Ed.; Clark, Donald C., Ed.

    This book, consisting of five parts, provides a collection of source materials that will assist in implementing individualized instruction; provides examples of interrelated systems for individualizing instruction; and describes the components of individualized instructional systems, including flexible use of time, differentiated staffing, new…

  8. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  9. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  10. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  11. Individualized Adult Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, C. G.

    As the proceedings of a national seminar on individualized adult science education, a total of 13 articles is compiled in this volume concerning the theory and techniques of curriculum development and the individualization process in upgrading Canadian science courses. The topics include: The Characteristics and Formulation of Behavioral…

  12. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  13. Problems of Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clarence

    Due in part to the open enrollment policy in junior colleges, there is a great diversity in student reading ability that dictates a need to individualize reading instruction. Individualization, defined as personalized instruction, may be accomplished through helping the student to read course materials, helping him to read special materials, or…

  14. Elements of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svara, Ronald

    Although many schools claim to make use of individualized instruction, no common definition of this term has been agreed on. The author reviewed definitions of "individualized instruction" in five studies and then surveyed 30 community and junior colleges who claimed to be using this method of instruction to learn what their programs consisted of.…

  15. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  16. The elusive quantal individual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In the formal hedgehog representation of quantum mechanics [5] (ambiguous) weights are derived for hedgehogs with a finite number of questions and answers, in particular applied to spin {1}/{2} and to correlated spin {1}/{2} pairs. Unavoidable negative weights are a clear signal for conceptual difficulties in quantum mechanical interpretation. If these weights had been presupposed to be non-negative, they could have led to Bell-like inequalities inconsistent with quantum mechanics. This is what has happened already in various special models. Owing to the indefinite weights, the hedgehog hypothesis of one-to-one mapping between individual physical samples and individual fictitious hedgehogs cannot be maintained. If no physical interpretation is conceived for the negative weights, the only way to avoid unsolved conceptual difficulties appears to resign (even in the hedgehog representation) to the skeptical ensemble interpretation [1], without theorizing about individual physical samples at all.

  17. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  18. Individual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These three papers are from a symposium on individual learning issues. "A Quantitative Examination of the Feelings and Cognitive Processes of a Group of Adults Undertaking a Tertiary HRD [Human Resource Development] Program" (Bryan W. Smith) examines mental and emotional states of adults in a tertiary HRD learning situation by using stimulated…

  19. Perspectives in Individualized Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Robert A.

    The readings presented here are an analysis of selected factors underlying the process of individualized learning. The book is organized topically and moves from theoretical considerations toward an analysis of important educational components. The readings come from a cross section of experts representing the areas of learning theory, individual…

  20. An Individualized Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy B.

    The operating procedures of a university reading and study skills center for completely individualized reading instruction are described. The program is offered as a student service (no fee) on a voluntary, noncredit basis. A prepared set of instructional tapes is used whereby students can largely serve themselves, proceeding at their own rates,…

  1. Enhancing Individual Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on enhancing individual readiness through human resource development (HRD). "Secondary School Administrator's Perception of Enhancing Self-Worth through Service" (Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Emily James Weatherford) presents results of a study to examine secondary school administrators' endorsement of…

  2. AN INDIVIDUALIZED SCIENCE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIPSON, JOSEPH I.

    THE LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH IS WORKING ON AN EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT TO EXAMINE METHODS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN SCIENCE AT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LEVEL. AT THIS TIME, THE EXPERIMENT IS FOCUSED UPON NON-READERS IN GRADES K-3. EACH STUDENT RECEIVES A TAPE CARTRIDGE AND A PLASTIC BOX CONTAINING…

  3. Individualized Instruction and Unipacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    Individualized instruction is an educational program in which grade levels and time units are designed to permit the student to work at his own pace and level with the use of unipacs. The unipac, a "unique package," is a specially designed group of learning activities based on specific behavioral objectives chosen by the student. Unipacs consist…

  4. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  5. A Chronicle of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuman, Walter V.

    1978-01-01

    The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center has conducted workshops in instructional technology as they relate to the teaching of foreign language through individualization. The content and scope of the workshops on instructional technology and criterion-referenced instruction are discussed. (SW)

  6. Individualized Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth, Washington, DC.

    The monograph interprets individualized education program (IEP) requirements of Part B of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. After introductory information outlining the purpose of the IEP and basic IEP requirements, a question and answer format of 60 questions provides specific details. Nine inserts highlight major…

  7. Individualized drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacogenetics of either individual patients or tumors has been used to aid the progress of personalized medicine to generate antitumor drugs (eg, trastuzamab and erlotinib) that are active against tumors expressing particular growth factor receptors. Outside the field of cancer therapeutics, pharmacogenetic tests have been introduced to detect patient genotypes with the aim of individualizing existing treatments. For example, the analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotypes enables the prediction of toxicity in patients to be treated with either 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine, while the uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 genotype may predict irinotecan toxicity. There is a large body of information concerning cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms and their relationship with drug toxicity and response; however, currently, there is limited use of CYP genotypes to individualize treatments. It is now well recognized that the CYP2C9 genotype, when combined with the genotype for vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, is predictive of dose requirement for oral anticoagulants, a fact that is likely to have clinical utility. There is also potential to individualize treatments with certain drugs on the basis of CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes. Studies on genes encoding drug receptors in relation to individualized prescription have been limited but there is increasing information on the relationship between response to beta2-adrenoceptor agonists and the genotype for the beta2-adrenoceptor gene. The introduction of pharmacogenetic tests into routine healthcare requires both a demonstration of cost-effectiveness and the availability of appropriate accessible testing systems. PMID:17265738

  8. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  9. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  10. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  11. Individual Colorimetric Observer Model

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Yuta; Fairchild, Mark D.; Blondé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a vision model for individual colorimetric observers. The proposed model can be beneficial in many color-critical applications such as color grading and soft proofing to assess ranges of color matches instead of a single average match. We extended the CIE 2006 physiological observer by adding eight additional physiological parameters to model individual color-normal observers. These eight parameters control lens pigment density, macular pigment density, optical densities of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments, and λmax shifts of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments. By identifying the variability of each physiological parameter, the model can simulate color matching functions among color-normal populations using Monte Carlo simulation. The variabilities of the eight parameters were identified through two steps. In the first step, extensive reviews of past studies were performed for each of the eight physiological parameters. In the second step, the obtained variabilities were scaled to fit a color matching dataset. The model was validated using three different datasets: traditional color matching, applied color matching, and Rayleigh matches. PMID:26862905

  12. From Individuals to Epidemics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Simon A.; Durrett, R.

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous mixing fundamentally changes the dynamics of infectious diseases; finding ways to incorporate it into models represents a critical challenge. Phenomenological approaches are deficient in their lack of attention to underlying processes; individual-based models, on the other hand, may obscure the essential interactions in a sea of detail. The challenge then is to find ways to bridge these levels of description, starting from individual-based models and deriving macroscopic descriptions from them that retain essential detail, and filter out the rest. In this paper, attempts to achieve this transformation are described for a class of models where non-random mixing arises from the spatial localization of interactions. In general, the epidemic threshold is found to be larger owing to spatial localization than for a homogeneous mixing population. An improved estimate of the dynamics is developed by the use of moment equations, and a simple estimate of the threshold in terms of a 'dyad heuristic'. For more general models in which local infection is not described by mass action, the connection with related partial differential equations is investigated.

  13. The individuality of mice.

    PubMed

    Lathe, R

    2004-12-01

    Mutant mice simulating human CNS disorders are used as models for therapeutic drug development. Drug evaluation requires a coherent correlation between behavioral phenotype and drug status. Variations in behavioral responses could mask such correlations, a problem highlighted by the three-site studies of Crabbe et al. (1999) and Wahlsten et al. (2003a). Factors contributing to variation are considered, focusing on differences between individual animals. Genetic differences due to minisatellite variation suggest that each mouse is genetically distinct. Effects during gestation, including maternal stress, influence later life behavior; while endocrine exchanges between fetus and parent, and between male and female fetuses dependent on intrauterine position, also contribute. Pre and perinatal nutrition and maternal attention also play a role. In adults, endocrine cyclicity in females is a recognized source of behavioral diversity. Notably, there is increasing recognition that groups of wild and laboratory mice have complex social structures, illustrated through consideration of Crowcroft (1966). Dominance status can markedly modify behavior in test paradigms addressing anxiety, locomotion and aggressiveness, to an extent comparable to mutation or drug status. Understanding how such effects amplify the behavioral spectrum displayed by otherwise identical animals will improve testing. PMID:15544575

  14. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  15. A Viable Individualized Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubillo, James M.

    1977-01-01

    An individualized learning system for college algebra was devised and tested. Results indicated that the individualized system was at least as effective as traditional approaches, and superior with respect to student attitudes toward the course. (SD)

  16. Effective Team Building Develops Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippitt, Gordon L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent research in group behavior and organizational development is centered around increasing the individual's self-esteem and on developing individual participation in group success. Effective groups depend on a variety of individual contributions and shared decision making, while in turn satisfying human needs for security, achievement, and…

  17. The Science of the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…

  18. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  19. Readability of Individualized Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Lusa

    2014-01-01

    An individualized education program is a legal document that details information regarding the special education program of a student with a disability. For parents to determine whether they agree with the individualized education program that is proposed by the school, they must first be able to read and comprehend the document. This study aimed…

  20. Camelot: An Individualized Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Camelot is a microcomputer-based system for individualizing information in a variety of settings. The information is not prespecified in Camelot and, consequently, can take many forms including instruction, counseling, prescription, and task assignment. The basis for individualizing the information is also not predeclared; therefore, users can…

  1. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  2. Individualizing Reading Instruction: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Larry A.; Smith, Carl B.

    The articles contained in this volume were selected to support and strengthen the concept of individualized instruction through diagnostic teaching. The book is divided into six major parts, each of which is preceded by a brief overview that emphasizes the main tenets advanced by the authors of the individual articles. The six major divisions of…

  3. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  4. INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTION IN SMALL SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western States Small Schools Project, Salt Lake City, UT.

    THIS DOCUMENT DISCUSSES PROCEDURES AND POTENTIALS FOR INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN SMALL RURAL SCHOOLS. FOUR FACTORS ARE SEEN TO BE OPERANT IN THE INDIVIDUALIZATION PROCESS. THESE ARE THE INSTRUCTOR, THE CURRICULUM AND SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS, ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE, AND PHYSICAL FACILITIES. NEW INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES SHOULD BE…

  5. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  6. Measuring relatedness between inbred individuals.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lacy, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relatedness between individuals is an important measure in many areas of biology. However, some relatedness measures for use with molecular (allele) data assume that the individuals themselves are not inbred. Here, we present a new measure of relatedness based on the different modes of identity-by-descent for alleles that has an upper bound of 1 even when the individuals being compared are themselves inbred. This new measure is compared to several other measures of relatedness using several simple examples and pedigree data from the wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. PMID:25472983

  7. Theme: Serving Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Marty; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for the Mentally Handicapped" (Phillips, Dormody);…

  8. TEACHING PHYSICS: Individual work assignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. G.

    2000-09-01

    Here are two examples of techniques for individual problem-setting, one a worksheet on electricity produced using Excel, the other a computer simulation on radioactive decay. Both have been found to work well.

  9. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals. PMID:26935188

  10. Moral individualism and elective death.

    PubMed

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. PMID:23845164

  11. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  12. Understanding individual human mobility patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Marta C.; Hidalgo, Cesar A.; Barabási, Albert-Lászlo

    2008-03-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns is of major importance for a number of areas, ranging from urban planning to traffic forecasting, transportation geography, and preventing the spread of biological and mobile viruses. Yet, in the absence of tools to monitor the time resolved location of a large number of individuals, our understanding of the basic laws governing human trajectories remains limited. Here we study the individual mobility pattern of mobile phone users whose position is tracked in a time resolved manner. We find that the displacement distribution of the whole population can be approximated with a truncated L'evy statistics, in agreement with earlier measurements. We show, however, that the main contribution to the observed distribution comes from the differences in the travel pattern of individuals. Furthermore, we find that the individual trajectories are bounded in space and are highly anisotropic, an effect that increases with the trajectory's radius of gyration. After we correct for differences in the radius of gyration and anisotropy all individuals are described by the same universal mobility pattern. These results open new avenues for modeling human motion, with important impact on agent based modeling, epidemic prevention, emergency response and urban planing.

  13. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans. PMID:26939544

  14. Individualizing Instruction: Nine Ways to Individualize MACBETH or Anything Else.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffert, Beatrice G.

    This paper describes a model for individualized instruction, in which instruction is seen as a flexible series of interactions between three factors: the student, the content, and the strategy for teaching. The model is based on the student's active involvement in the content and on the teacher's facilitation of student learning. The paper shows…

  15. Recent developments in individual psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karasu, T B

    1984-01-01

    Individual psychotherapy, the pivotal modality of psychiatry, has undergone a constant revolution since the inception of psychoanalysis; over the years the treatment models have shifted from dynamic to behavioral to experiential. The author discusses forces, such as economic pressures to establish cost-effectiveness, that have precipitated these changes. After reviewing comparative studies of the efficacy of psychotherapy, he examines new developments in individual psychotherapy such as brief treatment and cognitive therapy for depressive disorders. The efficacy of combined techniques, the impact of diagnostic tools and training manuals, and ethical issues, such as sexism, are also explored. PMID:6420312

  16. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  17. Career Futures for Exceptional Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaska, Charles J., Ed.

    The 33 selected papers from the National Topical Conference on Career Education for Exceptional Individuals are divided into six sections: career education (overview and future perspectives); programing and instruction; vocational assessment and training; counseling and career information; community involvement; and preparation of training…

  18. Nutritional Deficiencies: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for obese children (primary through secondary level). An introductory chapter on obesity…

  19. Team Teaching and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Robert J.

    Teaching an entire class at one level inevitably leaves some students bored and frustrated; team teaching and individualized instruction eliminate this problem. A team consists of two to seven teachers, the most experienced being leader. He must analyze the strengths of the group and plan the syllabus accordingly, inviting guest instructors to…

  20. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  1. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  2. Individualized Reading, An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartain, Harry W., Comp.

    At the present time more than 600 publications concerned with individualized reading are available. The 84 items listed in this bibliography were selected to help the reader obtain varied points of view without reading 600 articles. The selected studies are arranged in four categories to include (1) carefully considered arguments for and against…

  3. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  4. Individualized Instruction in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Lawrence P.; Biedenbach, Joseph M.

    With this volume, the American Society for Engineering Education begins a series of monographs for advancing education. Although the work deals particularly with engineering education, it is intended that techniques and innovations mentioned will be applicable to all fields of education. In this volume, components of an individualized instruction…

  5. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  6. Neuroanatomy predicts individual risk attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2014-09-10

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  7. Financial Resources for Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Information Studies, Falls Church, VA.

    The guide is intended to provide a practical source of information on financial resources for disabled individuals. Following an introductory chapter is a chapter discussing some fundamental principles useful in increasing the likelihood that a benefit will be awarded. Subsequent chapters contain information on financial assistance programs in…

  8. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  9. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  10. The Computer and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, William W.; Glaser, Robert

    1969-01-01

    A prototype computer-based management and information system (MIS) was designed to assist teachers, developers and researchers involved in the Individually Prescribed Instruction Project. Objectives of the system were to collect and process information on each student and to supply this information to the student and/or teacher in a summarized…

  11. Student Involvement, Flexibility and Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryberg, Donald

    1971-01-01

    Innovative curricular reforms in language instruction at an inner-city experimental high school are described in this article. The primary concern for flexibility in enrollment procedures, language offerings, planning of learning opportunities, and, in general, the total curriculum, is prompted by the recognition of individual differences and…

  12. Injuries and Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults with disabilities are at an increased risk of injury. Falls are the leading mechanism of injury regardless of the disability status and are even more common in those with moderate or severe disabilities. The setting for the injury differs with the disability status. Compared to individuals with moderate or no disabilities,…

  13. Helping individuals to help themselves.

    PubMed

    Costain, Lyndel; Croker, Helen

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is a serious and increasing health issue. Approximately two-thirds of adults in the UK are now overweight or obese. Recent public health reports firmly reinforce the importance of engaging individuals to look after their health, including their weight. They also spell out the need for individuals to be supported more actively, on many levels, to enable this 'engagement'. Meanwhile, national surveys indicate that approximately two-thirds of adults are concerned about weight control, with one-third actively trying to lose weight. This finding is hardly surprising considering current weight statistics, plus the plethora of popular diets on offer. Weight-loss methods include diet clubs, diet books, exercise, meal replacements, advice from healthcare professionals and following a self-styled diet. Obesity is a multi-factorial problem, and losing weight and, in particular, maintaining weight loss is difficult and often elusive. It is argued that the modern obesogenic or 'toxic' environment has essentially taken body-weight control from an instinctive 'survival' process to one that needs sustained cognitive and skill-based control. The evidence suggests that health professionals can help individuals achieve longer-term weight control by supporting them in making sustainable lifestyle changes using a range of behavioural techniques. These techniques include: assessing readiness to change; self-monitoring; realistic goal setting; dietary change; increased physical activity; stimulus control; cognitive restructuring; relapse management; establishing ongoing support. Consistently working in a client-centred way is also being increasingly advocated and incorporated into practice to help motivate and encourage, rather than hinder, the individual's progress. PMID:15877927

  14. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  15. The individual element test revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of the patch test for finite elements retains several unsettled aspects. In particular, the issue of one-element versus multielement tests needs clarification. Following a brief historical review, we present the individual element test (IET) of Bergan and Hanssen in an expanded context that encompasses several important classes of new elements. The relationship of the IET to the multielement forms A, B, and C of the patch test and to the single element test are clarified.

  16. [Psychopathy: between individual and collective].

    PubMed

    Canuto, Alessandra

    2014-09-17

    In recent years, there is a growing interest of medias about psychopathy. But what is psychopathy and why it arouses a so intense public awareness? We provide here a description of the main psychopathological traits associated with this condition inspired by the pioneer work of R. D. Hare. It will be subsequently completed by a series of clinical observations based on analytical psychology in order to identify both the individual and group aspects that are part of this concept. PMID:25322499

  17. Record completeness for individual volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent attention paid to completeness in global and regional (e.g. Japan) eruption data bases. This has taken the form of estimating dates at which the record is complete, either at a global or regional level, at a given VEI or magnitude. This has obvious utility when estimating hazard from very large eruptions, which may have effects 1000s of km from source. However, at a more local level, the question of interest is not so much the global, or the regional, completeness level, but the completeness of the record for an individual volcano. For example, forecast hazard is critically dependent on the size of the eruption, but it is impossible even to statistically describe the size distribution without knowing the completeness of the record. Current methods for eruption catalogue completeness using extreme value statistics rely on large samples for their validity, so a new approach is required for individual volcanoes, which may have only a handful of known eruptions. We will consider one possible such approach based using a Bayesian sequential algorithm assuming that the underlying process is Poissonian and that completeness at a lower VEI implies completeness at all higher VEIs. Results for individual volcanoes are compared with regional figures and, time-permitting, implications for a statistical model of VEI discussed.

  18. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  19. Rationale for individualizing haemophilia care.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Benny; Auerswald, Günter; Benson, Gary; Elezović, Ivo; Felder, Markus; Lambert, Thierry; Morfini, Massimo; Remor, Eduardo; Salaj, Peter; Santagostino, Elena; Šalek, Silva Z; Ljung, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype of haemophilia A and B, it is now recognized that disease severity (based on factor VIII/IX activity) may no longer be the most appropriate guide for treatment and that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach is unlikely to achieve optimal therapy. Based on the present literature and consensus views of a group of experts in the field, this article highlights key gaps in the understanding of the diverse relationships between bleeding phenotype and factors such as joint health, genetic susceptibility, laboratory parameters, quality of life and management of pain. Early prophylaxis is a potential 'gold standard' therapy and issues surrounding inhibitor development, variations in its clinical use and long-term outcomes are discussed. Comprehensive treatment should be individualized for all patients (including those with mild or moderate haemophilia and carriers). Wherever possible all patients should be given prophylaxis. However, adult patients with a milder haemophilia phenotype may be candidates for ceasing prophylaxis and switching to on-demand treatment. Regardless, all treatment (on-demand and prophylaxis) should be tailored towards both the patient's personal needs and their clinical profile. In addition, as the associations between risk factors (psychosocial, condition-related and treatment-related) and clinical features are unique to each patient, an individualized approach is required to enable patients to alter their behaviour in response to them. The practical methodologies needed to reach this goal of individualized haemophilia care, and the health economic implications of this strategy, are ongoing topics for discussion. PMID:25396764

  20. 38 CFR 48.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual. 48.655...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  1. 38 CFR 48.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 48.655...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  2. Individualism-collectivism and personality.

    PubMed

    Triandis, H C

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides a review of the main findings concerning the relationship between the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism and personality. People in collectivist cultures, compared to people in individualist cultures, are likely to define themselves as aspects of groups, to give priority to in-group goals, to focus on context more than the content in making attributions and in communicating, to pay less attention to internal than to external processes as determinants of social behavior, to define most relationships with ingroup members as communal, to make more situational attributions, and tend to be self-effacing. PMID:11767823

  3. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  4. The place for individual conscience.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    2001-10-01

    From a liberationist, feminist, and Catholic point of view, this article attempts to understand the decision of abortion. People are constantly testing their principles and values against the question of abortion. Advances in technology, the rise of communitarianism and the rejection of individualism, and the commodification of children are factors in the way in which the abortion debate is being constructed in society. The paper offers solutions to end the ugliness of the abortion debate by suggesting that we would be able to progress further on the issue of abortion if we looked for the good in the opposing viewpoint. The article continues with a discussion of Catholics For a Free Choice's position on abortion, and notes firstly that there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; secondly that the principle of probablism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact (in this case, on the personhood of the fetus), the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected, and thirdly that the absolute prohibition on abortion by the church is not infallible. In conclusion, only the woman herself can make the abortion decision. PMID:11574655

  5. Individual differences in working memory.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

    2006-04-28

    Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

  6. [Individual archiving of digital angiocardiograms].

    PubMed

    Stiel, G M; Nienaber, C A; Schaps, K P; Meinertz, T

    1996-08-01

    CD-R will be introduced internationally as a standardized individual archive and exchange medium allowing individual solutions for long-term archiving in a catheterization laboratory. The concept of digital archiving on two CD-R includes a long-term primary basic archive and a secondary one edited by intelligent (medical) data reduction (IDR). The basic archive is automatically composed by a background process consisting of unprocessed images or image series and is fundamental for further transfers, storage, presentations and additional studies. The digital working archive comprises a set of images and image series edited by IDR, as well as the results of morphometric studies as well as identification and documentation data. IDR is based upon the elimination of useless and redundant images series, documentation of coronary interventions on one single representative image and on the reduction of relevant images series and physiological data into an ECG-controlled representative cardiac cycle. IDR edits a redundancy-free set of 130 images (diagnostic study) or only 85 images of an interventional study. Two cardiologists and two cardiosurgeons independently studied 24 IDR-edited angiograms and the corresponding unedited digital angiograms and found no significant differences in the diagnostically relevant coronary morphology and left ventricular function. This study shows that an edited angiogram may not only serve for digital archiving but also form the basis for further evaluation or copies. PMID:8975495

  7. Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The subject document is a World Wide Web (WWW) page entitled, "Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page." Its can be accessed at "http://george.arc.nasa.gov/sorenson/personal/index.html". The purpose of this page is to make the reader aware of me, who I am, and what I do. It lists my work assignments, my computer experience, my place in the NASA hierarchy, publications by me, awards received by me, my education, and how to contact me. Writing this page was a learning experience, pursuant to an element in my Job Description which calls for me to be able to use the latest computers. This web page contains very little technical information, none of which is classified or sensitive.

  8. The individual with high quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A

    1989-03-01

    Persons with quadriplegia resulting from disease or trauma have an array of disabling impairments that involve virtually every body system. During the rehabilitation process, each impairment is addressed. This article presents alternatives in three areas: respiration, communication, and environmental control. The importance of tailoring strategies to the individual is emphasized throughout. Appropriate rehabilitation of the person with high quadriplegia goes beyond maintenance of life and health. An interdisciplinary team that includes the patient unites dreams, knowledge, skills, and technology so that the patient has the possibility of noninstitutional living, major control over his or her own destiny, some autonomy, and participation in a full spectrum of life activities. As Maddox noted: "Life is a fragile, fleeting thing, under any circumstances, and living it can be comic or tragic, weird or wonderful--regardless of one's motor limitations." PMID:2522191

  9. [Individual risk assessment of caries].

    PubMed

    Schaeken, M J; Mikx, F H

    1992-06-01

    The estimation of individual caries risk factors and the related preventive treatment in the dental practice are discussed. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli reflect the bacteriological attack (mutans streptococci) and sugar intake (lactobacilli). Caries resistance can be estimated by measurement of the salivary secretion rate and buffer capacity. Treatment of high caries risk patients should be directed against etiological factors. Salivary flow rates and buffer capacity can be stimulated by daily (sugar-free) gum-chewing. For the use of fluoridated toothpaste and sugar intake the dentist is dependent upon the cooperation of the patient. The bacteriological factor in the caries process can be suppressed by application of chlorhexidine varnish. PMID:11820133

  10. Transitions in individuality through symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Sylvie; Kerr, Benjamin; Morris, J Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    When a more complex, functionally integrated entity emerges from the association of simpler, initially independent entities, a major evolutionary transition has occurred. Transitions that result from the association of different species include the evolution of the eukaryotic cell and some obligate mutualisms. Recent studies are revolutionizing our understanding of how these intimate interspecific associations come to be, revealing how and to what extent each partner contributes to the relationship, and how partners mediate conflict. Here, we review work on the evolution of mutualistic symbioses in the context of transitions in individuality and highlight how a better mechanistic understanding of the ecological drivers of host-symbiont interdependencies can help elucidate the evolutionary path to symbiotic organismality. PMID:27131019

  11. Do deaf individuals see better?

    PubMed Central

    Bavelier, Daphne; Dye, Matthew W.G.; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that, following early auditory deprivation, the remaining senses such as vision are enhanced has been met with much excitement. However, deaf individuals exhibit both better and worse visual skills than hearing controls. We show that, when deafness is considered to the exclusion of other confounds, enhancements in visual cognition are noted. The changes are not, however, widespread but are selective, limited, as we propose, to those aspects of vision that are attentionally demanding and would normally benefit from auditory-visual convergence. The behavioral changes are accompanied by a reorganization of multisensory areas, ranging from higherorder cortex to early cortical areas, highlighting cross-modal interactions as a fundamental feature of brain organization and cognitive processing. PMID:17015029

  12. Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul A; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Background Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. Methods The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6 months (T1) at approximately annual intervals on tasks tapping cognitive, language, and executive-motor skills. The children were recruited to three groups: children at family risk of dyslexia, children with concerns regarding speech, and language development at 3;06 years and controls considered to be typically developing. At 8 years, children were classified as ‘dyslexic’ or not. Logistic regression models were used to predict the individual risk of dyslexia and to investigate how risk factors accumulate to predict poor literacy outcomes. Results Family-risk status was a stronger predictor of dyslexia at 8 years than low language in preschool. Additional predictors in the preschool years include letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and executive skills. At the time of school entry, language skills become significant predictors, and motor skills add a small but significant increase to the prediction probability. We present classification accuracy using different probability cutoffs for logistic regression models and ROC curves to highlight the accumulation of risk factors at the individual level. Conclusions Dyslexia is the outcome of multiple risk factors and children with language difficulties at school entry are at high risk. Family history of dyslexia is a predictor of literacy outcome from the preschool years. However, screening does not reach an acceptable clinical level until close to school entry when letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and RAN, rather than family risk, together provide good sensitivity and specificity as a screening battery. PMID:25832320

  13. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  14. Consciousness: individuated information in action.

    PubMed

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  15. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  16. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  17. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  18. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  19. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  20. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in "The…

  1. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  2. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country. PMID:21147789

  3. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  4. Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of “slow adapters”. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of “slow adapters” prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and/or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight. PMID:26217197

  5. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Fisher, Roberta M; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven't taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  6. Measurements of Individual Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    Studying the limits between classical and quantum physics has become a very attractive field of research which is known as 'mesoscopic' physics. New and fascinating mesoscopic effects are expected. Nanometer-sized magnetic particles are situated at the frontier between classical and quantum magnetism. In addition, their magnetic properties are technologically very challenging (permanent magnets, information storage, etc.). First, we review briefly our micro-SQUID technique (For a review, see W. Wernsdorfer, Adv. Chem. Phys., 118, 99 (2001) or http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0101104) which allows us to study single nanometer-sized magnetic particles containing less than 1000 atoms, crystals of molecular clusters, or quantum spin chains. Then, we discuss our recent results concerning the magnetization reversal of individual Co and Fe clusters (3 nm). (M. Jamet, W. Wernsdorfer, C. Thirion, D. Mailly, V. Dupuis, P. Melinon, and A. Perez, Phys. Rev. Lett 86, 4676 (2001).) Using a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model, (E. Bonet, W. Wernsdorfer, B. Barbara, A. Benoit, D. Mailly, and A. Thiaville Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 4188 (1999)) we show that 3D measurements of the angular dependence of the magnetization reversal yields the effective magnetic anisotropy function. The latter is important for our studies of the influence of temperature on the magnetization reversal. A new method allows us to study the magnetization switching up to the blocking temperature which is typically below 30 K. We achieved a new insight in the dynamics of magnetization reversal using ns-field pulses and micro-wave radiations. We conclude by showing how one might give a definite proof of the quantum character of a nanoparticle (S > 1000) at low temperatures.

  7. 48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  8. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be...

  9. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470....

  10. Excellence through High-Quality Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard W.; Klingstedt, Joe Lars

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a strategy employing challenge, functionalism, high-order learning, and originality to achieve high-quality individualization in course work. Asserts that individualized instruction better prepares students to solve problems, make decisions, and produce original ideas. (MM)

  11. Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the behaviors sampled, test administration, scoring, norms, reliability, and validity of the Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS), an individually administered test that measures skill development in reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing. (BL)

  12. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  13. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  14. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  15. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  16. Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

  17. 10 CFR 607.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 607.655 Section 607.655 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  18. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  19. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  20. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  1. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  2. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  3. 14 CFR § 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual. § 1267.655 Section § 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  4. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  5. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  6. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  7. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  8. 25 CFR 115.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 115.101 Section 115.101 Indians... INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.101 Individual accounts. Except as otherwise provided in this part, adults shall have the right to withdraw funds from their accounts. Upon their application, or...

  9. 25 CFR 115.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual accounts. 115.101 Section 115.101 Indians... INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.101 Individual accounts. Except as otherwise provided in this part, adults shall have the right to withdraw funds from their accounts. Upon their application, or...

  10. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits for hospice care under title XIX. (e) The individual is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for individuals with intellectual disabilities, or other medical..., to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of the individual's income required...

  11. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individual is terminally ill and is receiving benefits for hospice care under title XIX. (e) The individual is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for individuals with... in that institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal...

  12. Linking Individual Creativity to Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Robert C.; Ford, Cameron M.; Gentry, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We draw on 146 employee-co-worker-supervisor triads from 146 organizations to examine the role of individual perspective-taking and team creative environment in the association between individual creativity and organizational innovation. Adopting an interactionist perspective, we find that the link between individual creativity and organizational…

  13. Individualized Assignments in an Experimental Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovancik, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A computer is used to individualize student assignments in statistics. The principal benefit of individualized activities is that they emphasize decision-making processes rather than correct answers. Students in an individualized assignment group scored higher on an examination than those in a comparison group. (RM)

  14. 20 CFR 439.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 439.655 Section 439.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  15. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the Head...

  16. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the Head...

  17. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the Head...

  18. Individualizing Instruction in Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, John G.

    On the premise that individualized instruction and its many variations has become increasingly more important to the vocational and technical educator, various aspects of an individualized instructional program are discussed under eight headings: (1) What Is Meant by Individualizing Instruction in Vocational and Technical Education? (2) Why Do We…

  19. The Misplaced Adaptation to Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, James G.

    The current interest in an educational technology that stresses adaptation to individual student differences has resulted in such individualized systems as Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). However, such systems are not the answer to an avoidance of standardization of students. No one has yet…

  20. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  1. Risk-Taking: Individual and Family Interests.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2015-08-01

    Decisions regarding clinical procedures or research participation typically require the informed consent of individuals. When individuals are unable to give consent, the informed permission of a legally authorized representative or surrogate is required. Although many proposed procedures are aimed primarily at benefiting the individual, some are not. I argue that, particularly when individuals are asked to assume risks primarily or exclusively for the benefit of others, family members ought to be engaged in the informed consent process. Examples of procedures in which individuals are asked to assume risks primarily or exclusively for the benefit of others include living organ donation and research participation. PMID:26070660

  2. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  3. The Analysis of the Impact of Individual Weighting Factor on Individual Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

    2006-01-01

    In this study, category-based self and peer assessment were applied twice in a semester in an Elementary Science Teaching Methods course in order to assess individual contributions of group members to group projects as well as to analyze the impact of Individual Weighting Factors (IWF) on individual scores and individual grades. IWF were…

  4. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  5. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks. PMID:26648549

  6. Language Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gary E.; Klusek, Jessica; Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    On average, language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability) follow a consistent profile. Despite considerable individual variability, receptive language is typically stronger than expressive language, with particular challenges in phonology and syntax. We review the literature on language and literacy skills of individuals with Down syndrome, with emphasis on the areas of phonology, vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics. We begin by describing the hearing, oral-motor, cognitive, social, and prelinguistic and early nonverbal communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome. We conclude with a discussion of clinical implications and research directions. PMID:20428477

  7. Personalized medicine for individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2011-01-01

    As the cost of whole genome analysis decreases, we have the opportunity to explore the interactions of various gene changes in an individual that lead to their particular phenotype. This will provide the ability to move from the epidemiologic study of groups, in which, the individuals are treated collectively and homogenously, to personalized medicine, and a model in which the individual is recognized and treated as a distinct entity. We will be applying personalized medicine to individuals with Down syndrome in order to understand and develop biomarkers for increased risk of co-morbidities. Personalized medicine will change the "culture of intractability" of Down syndrome. PMID:21807541

  8. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-12-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks.

  9. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw and Caswell, 1996).

  10. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla ) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw & Caswell, 1996).

  11. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR...

  12. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR...

  13. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  14. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  15. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  16. Gnostic inner illumination and Carl Jung's individuation.

    PubMed

    Pennachio, J

    1992-09-01

    The ancient religious system of Gnosticism argued for the transcendence of the physical world and the divinity of self-knowledge. More recently, a similar argument was made by Carl Jung through his concept of individuation. This paper examines some of the similarities between Gnostic inner illumination and Jung's concept of individuation. PMID:24271053

  17. Correlates of Reminiscence Activity among Elderly Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Steven W.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines several psychological characteristics and life experiences that may be related to reminiscence activity among elderly individuals (n=70). Results provide support for the notion that aspects of reminiscence activity are associated with individual differences in specific psychological and situational variables. (JPS)

  18. Sleep Problems in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of severe sleep problems and its association with other variables were investigated with 109 individuals who have Angelman syndrome. Severe settling problems, frequent night waking, and early waking were found in 2%, 37%, and 10% of the individuals, respectively. Sleep problems were persistent in this sample. No statistically…

  19. A Short Guide to Understanding Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubadeau, Duane O.; And Others

    This four-part guide is designed to help community college instructors understand and respond to individual differences in their students. First, the preface lays out a framework for an in-depth examination of individual learning differences by posing the following questions: (1) Is learning a single function or a composite of different types of…

  20. Hospitalization Burden among Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem; Khanna, Rahul; West-Strum, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the inpatient care burden among individuals with autism using the 2007 Health Care Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample [HCUP NIS]). There were approximately 26,000 hospitalizations among individuals with autism in 2007, with an overall rate of 65.6/100,000 admissions. Rates of hospitalizations…

  1. Individuation of Pairs of Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Alan M.; Chen, Marian L.

    2007-01-01

    Looking-time studies examined whether 11-month-old infants can individuate two pairs of objects using only shape information. In order to test individuation, the object pairs were presented sequentially. Infants were familiarized either with the sequential pairs, disk-triangle/disk-triangle (XY/XY), whose shapes differed within but not across…

  2. Listening Technologies for Individuals and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttila, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Assistive technology has always been an important component of individualized education programs. The individualized education program process can be used to supply hearing assistive technology to students. One goal of audiologists and educators is to improve the acoustic environment of classrooms for all students by constructing school buildings…

  3. 40 CFR 35.918 - Individual systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual systems. 35.918 Section 35.918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.918 Individual systems. (a) For references to...

  4. INDIVIDUALIZED READING--AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SARTAIN, HARRY

    THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED READING IS COMPOSED OF 62 CITATIONS RANGING IN DATE FROM 1952 TO 1964. MAJOR EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON RECENT BOOKS AND WIDELY CIRCULATED PERIODICALS WHICH ARE EASILY ACCESSIBLE. LISTINGS REPRESENT VARIED PRACTICES AND POINTS OF VIEW. THEY INCLUDE ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST INDIVIDUALIZED READING,…

  5. Disturbance of sleep by noise: Individual differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individual differences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individual differences exist.

  6. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  7. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual is terminally ill and is receiving benefits for hospice care under title XIX. (e) The individual is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded... institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of...

  8. Individualized Study Systems in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Klauw, C. F.; Plomp, Tj

    1974-01-01

    After a short characterization of individualized study systems (ISS) and a survey of the number and subject fields of individualized courses in the USA and Europe, the construction and evaluation of an ISS system in freshman mathematics at the Twente University of Technology, in the Netherlands, is discussed. (Editor)

  9. Individual Action Planning: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squirrell, Gillian

    This book, which is intended as a practical guide for British teachers and tutors involved in career guidance, explains the process of helping students develop Individual Action Plans (IAPs). IAPs are plans outlining individual personal, vocational, and educational aspirations that students develop in a series of discussion sessions with an…

  10. A Model for Developing Individualized Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Responding to an article (EC 618 445) describing an individualized program for young children with severe disabilities, including autism, and their families, this article notes features of the program such as its individualized nature, its emphasis on building capacity in families and early intervention providers, and its integrative practices…

  11. Methodological Individualism, Educational Administration, and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    There are two major categories of explanation for organisational performance: structural and individual. With the shift away from systems-theoretic accounts that occurred in the 1980s, structural explanations have been replaced increasingly by the individualism of leadership and leader-centric explanations, especially when it comes to schools. In…

  12. 48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations....

  13. 48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies). However, see TAM 1201.403. ... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual...

  14. 48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR or VAAR 801.403 Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... deviate from the policies in the FAR or VAAR, the contracting officer, in accordance with...

  15. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1901.403 Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the Board Procurement Executive or a designee unless FAR 1.405(e) is applicable. The request shall cite...

  16. 42 CFR 435.1009 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... who are inmates of public institutions as defined in § 435.1010; or (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving... considered to be a patient in that institution. However, such an individual who is under age 22 and has...

  17. 42 CFR 435.1009 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... who are inmates of public institutions as defined in § 435.1010; or (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving... considered to be a patient in that institution. However, such an individual who is under age 22 and has...

  18. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving inpatient psychiatric services under § 440.160 of this subchapter. (b... individual who is under age 22 and has been receiving inpatient pyschiatric services under § 440.160 of...

  19. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving inpatient psychiatric services under § 440.160 of this subchapter. (b... individual who is under age 22 and has been receiving inpatient pyschiatric services under § 440.160 of...

  20. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301.403 Section 301.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting...

  1. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301.403 Section 301.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting...

  2. Individualizing Administrator Continuing Education. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Edward

    This paper is one of a series of vocational papers reporting results of individualized continuing education (ICE) programs for school administrators and school climate improvement programs. It summarizes the practices of some 45 school districts throughout the nation that have actually been operating individualized continuing education programs.…

  3. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are... for mental diseases. (c) An individual on conditional release or convalescent leave from an institution for mental diseases is not considered to be a patient in that institution. However, such...

  4. Individual and Social Implications of Human Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridlen, Sylvia; Dane, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for understanding individual and group differences. Identifies biological, societal, and intrapsychic origins of difference. Discusses valuation of differences as a source of social status and power, and the psychological uses of differences by individuals. Suggests applications of the model in social work practice…

  5. Separation and Individuation Issues in Psychosocial Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the theoretical formulations of Margaret Mahler and her colleagues on separation and individuation to understand how to plan psycho-rehabilitation programs for emotionally disturbed adolescents and young adults. The separation-individuation process and anxiety issues are discussed and analyzed in terms of both theory and practical…

  6. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  7. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these...

  8. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these...

  9. Towards an Individualized Delineation of Functional Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-08-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of the human brain is known to vary between individuals, yet current descriptions are based on group-averaged data. Laumann et al. (2015) present data from one highly sampled individual and show unique fine-grained differences representing subject-specific functional architecture. PMID:26247857

  10. Individualized Marriage and the Integration of Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…

  11. Assessing Speech Discrimination in Individual Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Horn, David L.; Qi, Rong; Ting, Jonathan Y.; Gao, Sujuan

    2007-01-01

    Assessing speech discrimination skills in individual infants from clinical populations (e.g., infants with hearing impairment) has important diagnostic value. However, most infant speech discrimination paradigms have been designed to test group effects rather than individual differences. Other procedures suffer from high attrition rates. In this…

  12. Individualized Systems of Instruction in TAFE Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J.

    This report is intended to assist curriculum developers, administrators, and teachers in the Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system in deciding if and when it is appropriate to introduce individualized systems of instruction in their programs. The first section explains what individualized instruction is and examines the reasons for the…

  13. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  14. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Qualifications Requirements § 319.302 Individual qualifications. Agency heads...

  15. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  16. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  17. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  18. Test Access & Modification for Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation.

    This guide is intended to increase access for individuals with disabilities to local, state (New York), and national testing programs, as well as facilitate the consistent provision of modifications necessary to allow these individuals to demonstrate their knowledge and abilities. Ten modules cover the following topics: (1) federal and state…

  19. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  20. Administering Individualized Education. Questions, Issues, Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palola, Ernest G.

    Individualized education works well for a particular type of student and faculty member. If you go beyond this type of student and faculty member, you run head-on into serious administrative and planning problems. In short, students are unsure and often confused about their role in individualized education. It seems that (1) students need thorough…

  1. A Quasi Actuarial Prospect for Individual Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, William A.

    A conceptual model of individual assessment through the use of biodata responses with minimal input information is outlined. The process is considered especially applicable to industrial psychology. A scored autobiographical data form, which measures the individual's past behavior and experiences, provides for assignment to a specific subgroup…

  2. Individualized Learning in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proia, Kathleen

    This paper describes individualized learning, a form of individualized instruction that emphasizes students' self-paced learning progress within a tutorial teaching structure, as it was used in a freshman composition program. The teachers first determined the composition skills that their students should have acquired upon completion of the three…

  3. Paddling with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri; Medina, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a variety of literature that offers adaptations and teaching suggestions for paddling with individuals who have physical disabilities, only a few address the needs of individuals with developmental disabilities (Gullion, 2009; Zeller, 2009). Developmental disabilities refer to a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are…

  4. Language Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary E.; Klusek, Jessica; Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    On average, language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability) follow a consistent profile. Despite considerable individual variability, receptive language is typically stronger than expressive language, with particular challenges in phonology and syntax. We…

  5. The Informative Analysis of Individual Trend Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Additive and non-additive models for an individual trend curve are examined, and five methods for fitting these to a set of individuals are described. It is suggested that classical fitting methods are more informative than latent curve methods, and commonly preferable. A limited study of the effect of time-structure is reported, and results on…

  6. Learning Individualized for Canadians (LINC) Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Glen

    This instruction manual for the Learning Individualized for Canadians (LINC) mathematics course is designed for use in adult basic education or retraining programs focusing on individually prescribed learning. Emphasis is on developing computational and problem-solving skills and on practical applications of mathematics to everyday life skills and…

  7. Ape Metaphysics: Object Individuation without Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some…

  8. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  9. Individualizing Education: A Guide for Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Steven; Gordon, Rhonda Ellen

    A background manual for tutors explains and defines their role in a system of individualized education in some detail. Differences between the role of teacher and the role of tutor are analyzed. Methods of forestalling cheating and other "black-market operations" are discussed. Tutoring procedures are outlined and individualized education manuals…

  10. Group Recommender Systems: Combining Individual Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masthoff, Judith

    This chapter shows how a system can recommend to a group of users by aggregating information from individual user models and modelling the users affective state. It summarizes results from previous research in this area. It also shows how group recommendation techniques can be applied when recommending to individuals, in particular for solving the cold-start problem and dealing with multiple criteria.

  11. Individual differences, intelligence, and behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  12. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  13. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  14. On the Individuality of Sleep EEG Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Achim; Rosipal, Roman; Dorffner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Research in recent years has supported the hypothesis that many properties of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are specific to an individual. In this study, the intra- and inter-individual variations of sleep EEG signals were investigated. This was carried out by analyzing the stability of the average EEG spectra individually computed for the Rechtschaffen and Kales (RK) sleep stages. Six EEG channels were used to account for the topographical aspect of the analysis. Validity of the results was supported by considering a wide dataset of 174 subjects with normal sleep. Subjects spent two consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory during which EEG recordings were obtained. High similarity between average spectra of two consecutive nights was found considering an individual. More than 89% of the second night recordings were correctly assigned to their counterparts of the first night. The average spectra of sleep EEG computed for each RK sleep stage have shown a high degree of individuality. PMID:23997385

  15. Individualizing Colonoscopy Screening by Gender and Race

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Boer, Rob; Wilschut, Janneke; Winawer, Sidney J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increasing discussion whether colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines should be individualized by gender and race. OBJECTIVES To determine individualized colonoscopic screening guidelines by gender and race for the average-risk population and to compare the cost-effectiveness of this approach to that of uniform guidelines for all. DESIGN We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate life-expectancy and lifetime CRC screening and treatment costs in a US cohort of black and white men and women at average risk for CRC. We compared the base case strategy of no screening and 3 competing colonoscopy strategies: (1) the currently recommended “uniform 10-yearly colonoscopy from age 50”, (2) with a shorter interval “uniform 8- yearly colonoscopy from age 51”, and (3) “individualized screening according to gender and race”. RESULTS The base case strategy of no screening was the least expensive, yet least effective. The uniform 10-yearly colonoscopy strategy was dominated. The uniform 8- yearly colonoscopy and individualized strategies both increased life-expectancy by 0.0433-0.0435 years per individual at a cost of $15,565 per life-year gained. In the individualized strategy, African Americans began screening 6 years earlier with a 1 year shorter interval compared to whites. The individualized policies were essentially the same for men and women, because the higher CRC risk in men is offset by their shorter life-expectancy. The results were robust for changes in model assumptions. CONCLUSIONS The improvements in costs and effects of individualizing on a population level were only marginal. Individualized guidelines, however, could contribute to decreasing disparities between African Americans and whites. The acceptability and feasibility of individualized guidelines should therefore be explored. PMID:19467539

  16. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F.; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques. PMID:27486415

  17. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  18. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood—reversible state effects. We define these as ‘reversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness’, highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. PMID:26336173

  19. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques. PMID:27486415

  20. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew MR; Peake, Tom M; McGregor, Peter K

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals. PMID:15960848

  1. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  2. Life on Earth is an individual.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Life is a self-maintaining process based on metabolism. Something is said to be alive when it exhibits organization and is actively involved in its own continued existence through carrying out metabolic processes. A life is a spatio-temporally restricted event, which continues while the life processes are occurring in a particular chunk of matter (or, arguably, when they are temporally suspended, but can be restarted at any moment), even though there is continuous replacement of parts. Life is organized in discrete packages, particular cells and multicellular organisms with differing degrees of individuality. Biological species, too, have been shown to be individuals, and not classes, as these collections of organisms are spatio-temporally localized, restricted, continuous, and somewhat cohesive entities, with a definite beginning and end. Assuming that all life on Earth has a common origin, all living organisms, cells, and tissues descending from this origin exhibit continuity of the life processes at the cellular level, as well as many of the features that define the individual character of species: spatio-temporal localization and restriction, continuity, historicity, and cohesiveness. Therefore, life on Earth is an ontological individual. Independent origins of life will have produced other such individuals. These provisionally called 'life-individuals' constitute a category of organization of life which has seldom been recognized. The discovery of at least one independent life-individual would go a long way toward the project of the universality of biology. PMID:26907555

  3. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  4. Predicting future violence among individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Coid, Jeremy W; Ullrich, Simone; Kallis, Constantinos

    2013-11-01

    Structured risk assessment aims to help clinicians classify offenders according to likelihood of future violent and criminal behaviour. We investigated how confident clinicians can be using three commonly used instruments (HCR-20, VRAG, OGRS-II) in individuals with different diagnoses. Moderate to good predictive accuracy for future violence was achieved for released prisoners with no mental disorder, low to moderate for clinical syndromes and personality disorder, but accuracy was no better than chance for individuals with psychopathy. Comprehensive diagnostic assessment should precede an assessment of risk. Risk assessment instruments cannot be relied upon when managing public risk from individuals with psychopathy. PMID:24072757

  5. Why clinicians should embrace individual budgets.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Simon John

    2012-06-01

    The use of individual budgets in healthcare marks the beginning of a new set of opportunities for clinicians to collaborate with their patients and use approaches that are not limited to traditional medical treatments. Individual budgets will be particularly valuable in areas of healthcare where increased patient control, responsiveness, creativity or personalisation are useful. Individual budgets are likely to be particularly useful for people with chronic health conditions or mental health needs and for those people who are at the end of life. PMID:24654045

  6. Beyond Individual Leader Development: Cultivating Collective Capacities.

    PubMed

    Dugan, John P; Turman, Natasha T; Torrez, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    This chapter addresses the overemphasis on individual-leader development in leadership education, offering insights and pragmatic approaches for advancing collective leadership focused on social and political change. PMID:26895165

  7. [Individual and environmental antecedents of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Mościcka, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the most common risk factors of bullying at the workplace. In the relevant literature one can find two main classes of bullying risk factors: environmental and individual. The most important environmental predictors of bullying are negative social climate, ineffective social communication and poor work organization. Among individual risk factors of bullying the most frequently pointed are functional features, such as low level of assertiveness, lack of social skills, ineffective coping with difficult situations and the few relatively stable individual characteristics, like neuroticism, trait anxiety, hostility and aggression. Most authors underline the crucial role of environmental factors in the development of bullying, and the individual characteristics of persons involved in this pathological relation are usually seen as the modifiers of bullying process. PMID:20865859

  8. Parcellating Cortical Functional Networks in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.; Fox, Michael D.; Holt, Daphne J.; Holmes, Avram J.; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual’s brain is a critical step towards personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variations in human cognition and behavior. Here, we developed a novel cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state fMRI. A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting great potential for use in clinical applications. PMID:26551545

  9. Composite weld rod corrects individual filler weaknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldo, S.

    1967-01-01

    Composite filler wire welds together an assembly made from components of Rene 41 nickel base alloy. Using equal parts of Rene 41 and Hastelloy W weld wire in the filler reduces the cracking and weaknesses of the individual parent metals.

  10. Organ Transplantation for Individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Fins, Joseph J

    2016-04-01

    In 1996, Sandra Jensen became the first person with Down syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant. Although it took place almost 20 years ago, her experience continues to shed light on contemporary challenges that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders face in securing access to transplantation. While overt discrimination has decreased, barriers persist in physician referrals, center-specific decisionmaking regarding wait-listing, and the provision of accommodations for optimizing the assessment and medical management of these individuals. These issues arise from the persistent biases and assumptions of individuals as well as those of a healthcare system that is inadequately positioned to optimally serve the medical needs of the growing number of individuals with functional impairments. More data and greater transparency are needed to understand the nature and extent of ongoing access problems; however, long-term solutions will require changes at the healthcare professional, regional transplant center, and national levels. PMID:26957452