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Sample records for monitoracao individual interna

  1. ["When the ad is good, the product is sold." The MonitorACAO Project and drug advertising in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Jussara Calmon Reis de Souza

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis on drug advertising in Brazil, based on the final report of the MonitorACAO Project, by the group from the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Due to a partnership between the university and the National Agency for Health Surveillance (ANVISA), drug advertisements were monitored and analyzed for one year, according to the methodology defined by the Agency. The samples were collected in medical practices and hospitals, drugstores, pharmacies and in scientific magazines. TV and radio programs were monitored, in the case of OTC drugs. 159 advertisements referring to pharmaceuticals were sent to ANVISA,from a total of 263 irregular ads analyzed between October 2004 and August 2005. The main problems found were the poor quality of drug information to health professionals, as well as misleading drug use to lay population. Based on the results of this project and on other studies, the banning of drug advertising in Brazil is proposed. PMID:21936168

  2. Ultrastructure of the theca interna of ovarian follicles in sheep.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, J D; Cran, D G; Hay, M F; Moor, R M

    1978-03-13

    The theca interna of non-atretic ovarian follicles from 2.0 mm in diameter up to the stage shortly following ovulation was studied by light and electron microscopy. In follicles less than 3.0 mm in diameter, the theca interna consisted of about 8-12 layers of flattened cells, together with many capillaries and small bundles of collagen. Two main forms of cellular differentiation were seen. These were towards either fibroblast-like cells or presumed steroidogenic cells whose cytoplasm contained large amounts of predominantly smooth tubular endoplasmic reticulum, to which some ribosomes were attached. The majority of cells were of relatively undifferentiated or intermediate structure. In larger follicles up to the early stages of oestrus the theca interna cells became larger and less flattened, and cells rich in tubular endoplasmic reticulum became proportionately more numerous. By 18 h after the onset of oestrus the theca interna was oedematous, and many cells possessed pseudopodia. Many cells also contained numerous lipid droplets, but there were no signs of thecal cell degeneration or death. Shortly after ovulation the basal lamina of the membrana granulosa was incomplete, and it became more difficult to distinguish between theca and granulosa layers. Structural heterogeneity, with two major cell types and cells of intermediate structure, was present at all stages. It was concluded that: (1) the theca interna of 2.0-2.9 mm follicles contained many cells whose structure was compatible with a steroidogenic capacity; (2) changes in the differentiated thecal cells up to the early stages of oestrus were quantitative rather than qualitative, and suggestive of an increased steroidogenic capacity; (3) the accumulation of lipid in many cells of the theca interna by 18 h after the onset of oestrus probably reflected a reduction in steroidogenic activity; and (4) there was no evidence of any structural specialization to facilitate the transport of steroids from the theca

  3. Theca interna: the other side of bovine follicular atresia.

    PubMed

    Clark, Leigh J; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2004-10-01

    Currently, histological classifications of ovarian follicular atresia are almost exclusively based on the morphology of the membrana granulosa without reference to the theca interna. Atresia in the bovine small antral ovarian follicle has been redefined into antral or basal atresia where cell death commences initially within antral or basal regions of the membrana granulosa, respectively. To examine cell death in the theca interna in the two types of atretic follicles, bovine ovaries were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry and light microscopy. Follicles were classified as healthy, antral atretic, or basal atretic. Follicle diameter was recorded and sections stained with lectin from Bandeiraea simplicifolia to identify endothelial cells or with an antibody to cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage to identify steroidogenic cells and combined with TUNEL labeling to identify dead cells. The numerical density of steroidogenic cells within the theca interna was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) in basal atretic follicles in comparison with other follicles. Cell death was greater in both endothelial cells (P < 0.05) and steroidogenic cells (P < 0.01) of the theca interna of basal atretic follicles compared with healthy and antral atretic follicles. Thus, we conclude that the theca interna is susceptible to cell death early in atresia, particularly in basal atretic follicles. PMID:15175236

  4. Hyperostosis frontalis interna in a Neandertal from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Garralda, María Dolores; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The site of Marillac (Charente, France) has yielded an important stratigraphic sequence containing numerous Neandertal remains (some of them with peri-mortem manipulations) from lithofacies 2 (Quina Mousterian). This level has been correlated with MIS 4 and is associated with a TL date of 57,600 ± 4600 years BP (before present). The study of one of the cranial fragments (Marillac 3) revealed a grade 2 or Type B Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI), remodelling and altering the internal table of the thick frontal bone. This pathology has been analysed macroscopically together with radiography and sections made using a microscanner and a scanner. The development of the HFI is compared with published evidence for Sangiran 3 (Homo erectus), two other Neandertals (Forbes' Quarry and Shanidar 5), and several archaeological samples. Forbes' Quarry seems to display more advanced HFI than either Shanidar 5 or Marillac 3. The three Neandertals may be considered mature individuals (≥40 years) and it seems likely that the aetiology of this pathology may be associated with hormonal alterations, as has been suggested for past and extant populations. While the prevalence of HFI in contemporary post-menopausal women is well documented, the identification of HFI amongst males from several archaeological samples (Neanderthals, Ancient Egypt, Syrian Bronze Age or the Anasazi), with different stages of development, confirm that the pathology affected both sexes in past populations. Additional data and research are still needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis of this illness and to better understand the relationship between environmental factors and their possible influences/consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in prehistoric populations. PMID:24491378

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna in Transition from Small to Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna layer of the ovarian follicle forms during the antral stage of follicle development and lies adjacent to and directly outside the follicular basal lamina. It supplies androgens and communicates with the granulosa cells and the oocyte by extracellular signaling. To better understand developmental changes in the theca interna, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from small (3–5 mm, n = 10) and large (9–12 mm, n = 5) healthy antral bovine follicles, representing a calculated >7-fold increase in the amount of thecal tissue. Principal Component Analysis and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed no clustering of the theca interna samples into groups depending on follicle size or subcategories of small follicles. From the over 23,000 probe sets analysed, only 76 were differentially expressed between large and small healthy follicles. Some of the differentially expressed genes were associated with processes such as myoblast differentiation, protein ubiquitination, nitric oxide and transforming growth factor β signaling. The most significant pathway affected from our analyses was found to be Wnt signaling, which was suppressed in large follicles via down-regulation of WNT2B and up-regulation of the inhibitor FRZB. These changes in the transcriptional profile could have been due to changes in cellular function or alternatively since the theca interna is composed of a number of different cell types it could have been due to any systematic change in the volume density of any particular cell type. However, our study suggests that the transcriptional profile of the theca interna is relatively stable during antral follicle development unlike that of granulosa cells observed previously. Thus both the cellular composition and cellular behavior of the theca interna and its contribution to follicular development appear to be relatively constant throughout the follicle growth phase examined

  6. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (I) Standards evaluation].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Pérez, R; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Jiménez Contreras, E

    1997-08-01

    The evaluation of scientific journal has become a necessary exercise for a variety of purposes and parties. We evaluated compliance with ISO standards for periodicals by the Spanish biomedical journal An. Med. Interna. Compliance with 136 data items based on different standards was evaluated with the help of a specially developed data sheet, and expressed as overall mean compliance (49.2%) and actual mean compliance (83.4%), i.e., compliance with those items considered necessary for the effective transfer of information via data bases. Items for which standardization was not optimal were examined in detail and specific recommendations for correction were given. We conclude that An. Med. Interna effectively fulfills its mission as an instrument for the communication of research results. In comparison with Spanish journals covering different areas and published by different organizations, compliance with international standards was better in An. Med. Interna. PMID:9376476

  7. Transcriptome Profiling of the Theca Interna from Bovine Ovarian Follicles during Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    The theca interna is a specialized stromal layer that envelops each growing ovarian follicle. It contains capillaries, fibroblasts, immune cells and the steroidogenic cells that synthesize androgens for conversion to estradiol by the neighboring granulosa cells. During reproductive life only a small number of follicles will grow to a sufficient size to ovulate, whereas the majority of follicles will undergo regression/atresia and phagocytosis by macrophages. To identify genes which are differentially regulated in the theca interna during follicular atresia, we undertook transcriptome profiling of the theca interna from healthy (n = 10) and antral atretic (n = 5) bovine follicles at early antral stages (<5 mm). Principal Component Analyses and hierarchical classification of the signal intensity plots for the arrays showed primary clustering into two groups, healthy and atretic. A total of 543 probe sets were differentially expressed between the atretic and healthy theca interna. Further analyses of these genes by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis Toolkit software found most of the genes being expressed were related to cytokines, hormones and receptors as well as the cell cycle and DNA replication. Cell cycle genes which encode components of the replicating chromosome complex and mitotic spindle were down-regulated in atretic theca interna, whereas stress response and inflammation-related genes such as TP53, IKBKB and TGFB1 were up-regulated. In addition to cell cycle regulators, upstream regulators that were predicted to be inhibited included Retinoblastoma 1, E2 transcription factor 1, and hepatocyte growth factor. Our study suggests that during antral atresia of small follicles in the theca interna, arrest of cell cycle and DNA replication occurs rather than up- regulation of apoptosis-associated genes as occurs in granulosa cells. PMID:24956388

  8. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on indium-111 leukocyte scans: potential diagnostic pitfall

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Carretta, R.

    1986-04-01

    The appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on an (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scan is reported. Recognition of the potential for normal accumulation of 111In-labeled white blood cells within this common process involving the skull is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.

  9. [Anales de Medicina Interna: standardization, dissemination and bibliometric indicators. (II) Bibliometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Contreras, E; Delgado López-Cozar, E; Ruiz Pérez, R

    1997-08-01

    National and international diffusion, composition of the collective of authors who publish in the journal, and cocitation were studies for the journal An. Med. Interna. Diffusion was analyzed by examining the presence of the journal in medical data bases and specialized libraries in Spain. The institutional affiliations and geographical location of authors were determined on the basis of the affiliations given in the article by-lines. The journal is included in the major medical data bases and in approximately 80% of the libraries studied. The predominant professional affiliation among authors was clinical (hospital); the geographical origin of the authors (expressed as a percentage of all authors) approximately paralleled the volume of scientific publications generated by each of Spain's 17 autonomous regions. The cocitation study showed that An. Med. Interna ranked somewhere in the middle of the group' of 38 Spanish medical journals considered representative of research being done in Spain. PMID:9376477

  10. Globus Pallidus Interna Deep Brain Stimulation in a Patient with Medically Intractable Meige Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Dae-Woong; Son, Byung-chul; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Medical therapies in patients with Meige syndrome, including botulinum toxin injection, have been limited because of incomplete response or adverse side effects. We evaluated a patient with Meige syndrome who was successfully treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the globus pallidus interna (GPi). This case report and other previous reports suggest that bilateral GPi DBS may be an effective treatment for medically refractory Meige syndrome, without significant adverse effects. PMID:25360233

  11. Localization of the gene for hyperostosis cranialis interna to chromosome 8p21 with analysis of three candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Borra, V M; Waterval, J J; Stokroos, R J; Manni, J J; Van Hul, W

    2013-07-01

    Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by intracranial hyperostosis and osteosclerosis, which is confined to the skull, especially the calvarium and the skull base. The rest of the skeleton is not affected. Progressive bone overgrowth causes nerve entrapment that leads to recurrent facial nerve palsy, disturbance of the sense of smell, hearing and vision impairments, impairment of facial sensibility, and disturbance of balance due to vestibular areflexia. The treatment is symptomatic. Histomorphological investigations showed increased bone formation with a normal tissue structure. Biochemical parameters were normal. Until today the disease has been described in only three related Dutch families with common progenitors and which consist of 32 individuals over five generations. HCI was observed in 12 family members over four generations. Patients are mildly to severely affected. Besides HCI, several bone dysplasias with hyperostosis and sclerosis of the craniofacial bones are known. Examples are Van Buchem disease, sclerosteosis, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, and Camurati-Engelmann disease. However, in these cases the long bones are affected as well. Linkage analysis in a family with HCI resulted in the localization of the disease-causing gene to a region on chromosome 8p21 delineated by markers D8S282 and D8S382. Interesting candidate genes in this region are BMP1, LOXL2, and ADAM28. Sequence analysis of these genes did not reveal any putative mutations. This suggests that a gene not previously involved in a sclerosing bone dysplasia is responsible for the abnormal growth in the skull of these patients. PMID:23640157

  12. Delayed cerebritis after bilateral stereotactic implantation of globus pallidus interna electrodes for treatment of dystonia.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Lessig, Stephanie; Nguyen, Andrew D; Barba, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is being used to treat an increasing number of movement and psychiatric disorders. However, the risk of infection remains as a problem that can hinder the usefulness of this technology. We report a case of a patient with dystonia who underwent bilateral globus pallidus interna electrode and impulse generator (IPG) placement, developed an infection of his IPG, and later cerebritis. The patient was initially treated with antibiotics and partial hardware removal. Follow-up cranial imaging showed an area concerning for cerebritis around one of the intracranial electrodes. The patient was then treated with complete hardware removal followed by a course of intravenous antibiotics. Four-month follow-up imaging showed resolution of the infection. This case demonstrates the importance of following cranial imaging in DBS patients with delayed infection, continued vigilance for infection in implanted patients and that partial hardware removal may not be successful in the setting of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infections. PMID:23378545

  13. Transcriptome comparisons identify new cell markers for theca interna and granulosa cells from small and large antral ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  14. Transcriptome Comparisons Identify New Cell Markers for Theca Interna and Granulosa Cells from Small and Large Antral Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Hatzirodos, Nicholas; Hummitzsch, Katja; Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm) and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm) antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3) were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2). Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna. PMID:25775029

  15. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  16. Hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI) and castration: the case of the famous singer Farinelli (1705–1782)

    PubMed Central

    Belcastro, Maria Giovanna; Todero, Antonio; Fornaciari, Gino; Mariotti, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    The famous castrato singer Farinelli (1705–1782) was exhumed by our research group in July 2006 for the purpose of gaining some insight into his biological profile through a study of his skeletal remains. Farinelli was castrated before puberty to preserve the treble pitch of the boy's voice into adult life. His powerful and sweet voice became legendary. In spite of its bad preservation state, the skeleton displayed some interesting characteristics that are probably related to the effects of castration, including long limb-bones, persistence of epiphyseal lines and osteoporosis. In particular, the frontal bone was affected by severe hyperostosis frontalis interna (HFI). This condition consists in a symmetrical thickening of the inner table of the bone. The epidemiology of HFI shows that it is relatively common in postmenopausal women but very rare in men. Men affected by this pathology suffer from diseases, syndromes or treatments causing androgen deficiency. In the case of Farinelli, castration was probably responsible for the onset and development of this lesion. PMID:21740437

  17. Preliminary evidence for human globus pallidus pars interna neurons signaling reward and sensory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nicholas A; Prescott, Ian A; Lozano, Andres M; Hodaie, Mojgan; Voon, Valerie; Hutchison, William D

    2016-07-22

    The globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is a component of the basal ganglia, a network of subcortical nuclei that process motor, associative, and limbic information. While non-human primate studies have suggested a role for the GPi in non-motor functions, there have been no single-unit studies of non-motor electrophysiological behavior of human GPi neurons. We therefore sought to extend these findings by collecting single-unit recordings from awake patients during functional stereotactic neurosurgery targeting the GPi for deep brain stimulation. To assess cellular responses to non-motor information, patients performed a reward task where virtual money could be won, lost, or neither, depending on their performance while cellular activity was monitored. Changes in the firing rates of isolated GPi neurons after the presentation of reward-related stimuli were compared between different reward contingencies (win, loss, null). We observed neurons that modulated their firing rate significantly to the presentation of reward-related stimuli. We furthermore found neurons that responded to visual-stimuli more broadly. This is the first single-unit evidence of human GPi neurons carrying non-motor information. These results are broadly consistent with previous findings in the animal literature and suggest non-motor information may be represented in the single-unit activity of human GPi neurons. PMID:27109924

  18. Individual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  19. Individualizing Medicare.

    PubMed

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  20. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  1. Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography, Wide-Field Photography, and Fundus Autofluorescence Correlation of Posterior Ophthalmomyiasis Interna.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Yannis M; Butler, Nicholas J

    2016-07-01

    Posterior ophthalmomyiasis interna is a rare, potentially devastating infestation of the posterior segment by fly larvae. The authors report the first demonstration of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), wide-field angiography (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) and photography, and fundus autofluorescence with temporal progression during a period of 6 months. A 12-year-old white female presented with acute, painless vision loss with hand motions visual acuity. No larva was visible, so she was treated with oral ivermectin. Visual acuity improved to 20/80. OCT demonstrated hyporeflective spaces of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium, which resolved during 1-month period with improved ellipsoid layer by 6 months. Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated linear hypoautofluorescent tracks. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:682-685.]. PMID:27434903

  2. Neuronal discharge patterns in the globus pallidus pars interna in a patient with Parkinson's disease and hemiballismus secondary to subthalamotomy.

    PubMed

    Cerquetti, Daniel; Obeso, José Angel; Merello, Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Alterations in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical "motor" circuit activity, have been proposed to explain many features associated with hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders. We describe the firing pattern of the globus pallidus pars interna in a Parkinson disease's patient who developed Hemichorea-Ballismus subsequent to ipsilateral subthalamotomy, and compare findings to those from PD patients submitted to pallidotomy while in the OFF-medication state. Single units obtained from extracellular recordings were extracted and mean discharge frequency, interspike interval and coefficient of variation (defined as Tonicity Score) were computed. Discharge density histograms, analysis of distribution and spectral analysis were also performed. Mean firing frequency showed no significant difference between PD patients in the OFF state and the patient we report. However, a significant difference in tonicity was found for this patient characterized by a regular, non-bursting firing pattern. The findings indicate that in HB caused by lesions to STN in the parkinsonian state, GPi firing rates can be similar to and firing pattern more regular than those observed in GPi of PD patients OFF-medication with intact STN. PMID:21786135

  3. Rethinking evolutionary individuality

    PubMed Central

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed. PMID:26039982

  4. Rethinking evolutionary individuality.

    PubMed

    Ereshefsky, Marc; Pedroso, Makmiller

    2015-08-18

    This paper considers whether multispecies biofilms are evolutionary individuals. Numerous multispecies biofilms have characteristics associated with individuality, such as internal integrity, division of labor, coordination among parts, and heritable adaptive traits. However, such multispecies biofilms often fail standard reproductive criteria for individuality: they lack reproductive bottlenecks, are comprised of multiple species, do not form unified reproductive lineages, and fail to have a significant division of reproductive labor among their parts. If such biofilms are good candidates for evolutionary individuals, then evolutionary individuality is achieved through other means than frequently cited reproductive processes. The case of multispecies biofilms suggests that standard reproductive requirements placed on individuality should be reconsidered. More generally, the case of multispecies biofilms indicates that accounts of individuality that focus on single-species eukaryotes are too restrictive and that a pluralistic and open-ended account of evolutionary individuality is needed. PMID:26039982

  5. The neurobiology of individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  6. Explicating Individual Training Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Marcel; Mueller, Normann

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explicate individual training decisions. For this purpose, we propose a framework based on instrumentality theory, a psychological theory of motivation that has frequently been applied to individual occupational behavior. To test this framework, we employ novel German individual data and estimate the effect of subjective expected…

  7. Models for Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, William, Ed.; Clark, Donald C., Ed.

    This book, consisting of five parts, provides a collection of source materials that will assist in implementing individualized instruction; provides examples of interrelated systems for individualizing instruction; and describes the components of individualized instructional systems, including flexible use of time, differentiated staffing, new…

  8. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality. PMID:27561384

  9. Problems of Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Clarence

    Due in part to the open enrollment policy in junior colleges, there is a great diversity in student reading ability that dictates a need to individualize reading instruction. Individualization, defined as personalized instruction, may be accomplished through helping the student to read course materials, helping him to read special materials, or…

  10. Elements of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svara, Ronald

    Although many schools claim to make use of individualized instruction, no common definition of this term has been agreed on. The author reviewed definitions of "individualized instruction" in five studies and then surveyed 30 community and junior colleges who claimed to be using this method of instruction to learn what their programs consisted of.…

  11. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, a comprehensive measure of achievement for individuals in grades K-12. Eight subtests assess mathematics reasoning, spelling, reading comprehension, numerical operations, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression. Its administration, standardization,…

  12. Mentoring Emotionally Sensitive Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Self, Elizabeth

    Mentoring individuals who are gifted, talented, and creative, but somewhat emotionally sensitive is a challenging and provocative arena. Several reasons individuals experience heightened sensitivity include: lack of nurturing, abuse, alcoholism in the family, low self-esteem, unrealistic parental expectations, and parental pressure to achieve.…

  13. Individualized Adult Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, C. G.

    As the proceedings of a national seminar on individualized adult science education, a total of 13 articles is compiled in this volume concerning the theory and techniques of curriculum development and the individualization process in upgrading Canadian science courses. The topics include: The Characteristics and Formulation of Behavioral…

  14. Technology and Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalier, Albert R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six papers on special education technology and individual differences are introduced. The papers illustrate the growing influence of constructivist perspectives on the use of technology to accommodate individual differences among people. The papers recognize the importance of using technology to scaffold the client's construction of different…

  15. Transcending Cognitive Individualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerubavel, Eviatar; Smith, Eliot R.

    2010-01-01

    Advancing knowledge in many areas of psychology and neuroscience, underlined by dazzling images of brain scans, appear to many professionals and to the public to show that people are on the way to explaining cognition purely in terms of processes within the individual's head. Yet while such cognitive individualism still dominates the popular…

  16. The elusive quantal individual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewold, H. J.

    1985-10-01

    In the formal hedgehog representation of quantum mechanics [5] (ambiguous) weights are derived for hedgehogs with a finite number of questions and answers, in particular applied to spin {1}/{2} and to correlated spin {1}/{2} pairs. Unavoidable negative weights are a clear signal for conceptual difficulties in quantum mechanical interpretation. If these weights had been presupposed to be non-negative, they could have led to Bell-like inequalities inconsistent with quantum mechanics. This is what has happened already in various special models. Owing to the indefinite weights, the hedgehog hypothesis of one-to-one mapping between individual physical samples and individual fictitious hedgehogs cannot be maintained. If no physical interpretation is conceived for the negative weights, the only way to avoid unsolved conceptual difficulties appears to resign (even in the hedgehog representation) to the skeptical ensemble interpretation [1], without theorizing about individual physical samples at all.

  17. Individual Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  18. AN INDIVIDUALIZED SCIENCE LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIPSON, JOSEPH I.

    THE LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH IS WORKING ON AN EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT TO EXAMINE METHODS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION IN SCIENCE AT THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL LEVEL. AT THIS TIME, THE EXPERIMENT IS FOCUSED UPON NON-READERS IN GRADES K-3. EACH STUDENT RECEIVES A TAPE CARTRIDGE AND A PLASTIC BOX CONTAINING…

  19. Individualized Instruction and Unipacs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Sylvester, Jr.

    Individualized instruction is an educational program in which grade levels and time units are designed to permit the student to work at his own pace and level with the use of unipacs. The unipac, a "unique package," is a specially designed group of learning activities based on specific behavioral objectives chosen by the student. Unipacs consist…

  20. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  1. Perspectives in Individualized Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgerber, Robert A.

    The readings presented here are an analysis of selected factors underlying the process of individualized learning. The book is organized topically and moves from theoretical considerations toward an analysis of important educational components. The readings come from a cross section of experts representing the areas of learning theory, individual…

  2. An Individualized Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy B.

    The operating procedures of a university reading and study skills center for completely individualized reading instruction are described. The program is offered as a student service (no fee) on a voluntary, noncredit basis. A prepared set of instructional tapes is used whereby students can largely serve themselves, proceeding at their own rates,…

  3. Enhancing Individual Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on enhancing individual readiness through human resource development (HRD). "Secondary School Administrator's Perception of Enhancing Self-Worth through Service" (Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Emily James Weatherford) presents results of a study to examine secondary school administrators' endorsement of…

  4. Individual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These three papers are from a symposium on individual learning issues. "A Quantitative Examination of the Feelings and Cognitive Processes of a Group of Adults Undertaking a Tertiary HRD [Human Resource Development] Program" (Bryan W. Smith) examines mental and emotional states of adults in a tertiary HRD learning situation by using stimulated…

  5. A Chronicle of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuman, Walter V.

    1978-01-01

    The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center has conducted workshops in instructional technology as they relate to the teaching of foreign language through individualization. The content and scope of the workshops on instructional technology and criterion-referenced instruction are discussed. (SW)

  6. Individualized Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Handicapped Children and Youth, Washington, DC.

    The monograph interprets individualized education program (IEP) requirements of Part B of Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. After introductory information outlining the purpose of the IEP and basic IEP requirements, a question and answer format of 60 questions provides specific details. Nine inserts highlight major…

  7. Individualized drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ann K

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacogenetics of either individual patients or tumors has been used to aid the progress of personalized medicine to generate antitumor drugs (eg, trastuzamab and erlotinib) that are active against tumors expressing particular growth factor receptors. Outside the field of cancer therapeutics, pharmacogenetic tests have been introduced to detect patient genotypes with the aim of individualizing existing treatments. For example, the analysis of thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotypes enables the prediction of toxicity in patients to be treated with either 6-mercaptopurine or azathioprine, while the uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronosyl-transferase 1A1 genotype may predict irinotecan toxicity. There is a large body of information concerning cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms and their relationship with drug toxicity and response; however, currently, there is limited use of CYP genotypes to individualize treatments. It is now well recognized that the CYP2C9 genotype, when combined with the genotype for vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1, is predictive of dose requirement for oral anticoagulants, a fact that is likely to have clinical utility. There is also potential to individualize treatments with certain drugs on the basis of CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A5 genotypes. Studies on genes encoding drug receptors in relation to individualized prescription have been limited but there is increasing information on the relationship between response to beta2-adrenoceptor agonists and the genotype for the beta2-adrenoceptor gene. The introduction of pharmacogenetic tests into routine healthcare requires both a demonstration of cost-effectiveness and the availability of appropriate accessible testing systems. PMID:17265738

  8. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  9. Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2011-01-01

    To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG. The EPA 2008 estimates appear to be equally inaccurate and substantially more biased relative to the self-reported data. Furthermore, the 2008 estimates exhibit an underestimation bias that increases with increasing fuel economy, suggesting that the new numbers will tend to underestimate the real-world benefits of fuel economy and emissions standards. By including several simple driver and vehicle attributes, the Individualized Model reduces the unexplained variance by over 55% and the standard error by 33% based on an independent test sample. The additional explanatory variables can be easily provided by the individuals.

  10. Individual Genetic Susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Hall

    2008-12-08

    Risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies of exposed populations, as well as the maximum permissible doses allowed for occupational exposure and exposure of the public to ionizing radiation are all based on the assumption that the human population is uniform in its radiosensitivity, except for a small number of individuals, such as ATM homozygotes who are easily identified by their clinical symptoms. The hypothesis upon which this proposal is based is that the human population is not homogeneous in radiosensitiviry, but that radiosensitive sub-groups exist which are not easy to identify. These individuals would suffer an increased incidence of detrimental radiation effects, and distort the shape of the dose response relationship. The radiosensitivity of these groups depend on the expression levels of specific proteins. The plan was to investigate the effect of 3 relatively rare, high penetrate genes available in mice, namely Atm, mRad9 & Brca1. The purpose of radiation protection is to prevent! deterministic effects of clinical significance and limit stochastic effects to acceptable levels. We plan, therefore to compare with wild type animals the radiosensitivity of mice heterozygous for each of the genes mentioned above, as well as double heterozygotes for pairs of genes, using two biological endpoints: a) Ocular cataracts as an important and relevant deterministic effect, and b) Oncogenic transformation in cultured embryo fibroblasts, as a surrogate for carcinogenesis, the most relevant stochastic effect.

  11. Individual Colorimetric Observer Model

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Yuta; Fairchild, Mark D.; Blondé, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a vision model for individual colorimetric observers. The proposed model can be beneficial in many color-critical applications such as color grading and soft proofing to assess ranges of color matches instead of a single average match. We extended the CIE 2006 physiological observer by adding eight additional physiological parameters to model individual color-normal observers. These eight parameters control lens pigment density, macular pigment density, optical densities of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments, and λmax shifts of L-, M-, and S-cone photopigments. By identifying the variability of each physiological parameter, the model can simulate color matching functions among color-normal populations using Monte Carlo simulation. The variabilities of the eight parameters were identified through two steps. In the first step, extensive reviews of past studies were performed for each of the eight physiological parameters. In the second step, the obtained variabilities were scaled to fit a color matching dataset. The model was validated using three different datasets: traditional color matching, applied color matching, and Rayleigh matches. PMID:26862905

  12. From Individuals to Epidemics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Simon A.; Durrett, R.

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous mixing fundamentally changes the dynamics of infectious diseases; finding ways to incorporate it into models represents a critical challenge. Phenomenological approaches are deficient in their lack of attention to underlying processes; individual-based models, on the other hand, may obscure the essential interactions in a sea of detail. The challenge then is to find ways to bridge these levels of description, starting from individual-based models and deriving macroscopic descriptions from them that retain essential detail, and filter out the rest. In this paper, attempts to achieve this transformation are described for a class of models where non-random mixing arises from the spatial localization of interactions. In general, the epidemic threshold is found to be larger owing to spatial localization than for a homogeneous mixing population. An improved estimate of the dynamics is developed by the use of moment equations, and a simple estimate of the threshold in terms of a 'dyad heuristic'. For more general models in which local infection is not described by mass action, the connection with related partial differential equations is investigated.

  13. The individuality of mice.

    PubMed

    Lathe, R

    2004-12-01

    Mutant mice simulating human CNS disorders are used as models for therapeutic drug development. Drug evaluation requires a coherent correlation between behavioral phenotype and drug status. Variations in behavioral responses could mask such correlations, a problem highlighted by the three-site studies of Crabbe et al. (1999) and Wahlsten et al. (2003a). Factors contributing to variation are considered, focusing on differences between individual animals. Genetic differences due to minisatellite variation suggest that each mouse is genetically distinct. Effects during gestation, including maternal stress, influence later life behavior; while endocrine exchanges between fetus and parent, and between male and female fetuses dependent on intrauterine position, also contribute. Pre and perinatal nutrition and maternal attention also play a role. In adults, endocrine cyclicity in females is a recognized source of behavioral diversity. Notably, there is increasing recognition that groups of wild and laboratory mice have complex social structures, illustrated through consideration of Crowcroft (1966). Dominance status can markedly modify behavior in test paradigms addressing anxiety, locomotion and aggressiveness, to an extent comparable to mutation or drug status. Understanding how such effects amplify the behavioral spectrum displayed by otherwise identical animals will improve testing. PMID:15544575

  14. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    El Río de la Plata (RdlP) presenta significativas variaciones naturales (hidrodinámicas y oceanográficas) asociadas a diferentes condiciones climáticas. El propósito de este trabajo es inferir los cambios de aportes continentales de sedimentos y su relación con las variaciones hidrológicas del Río de la Plata, a través del análisis de proxies sedimentológicos y geoquímicos en testigos de sedimentos de la plataforma interna uruguaya que registran los últimos 100 años, aproximadamente. A partir de la datación por 210Pb de dos testigos de sedimentos (GeoB 13813-4 y BAR1) se reconstruyó la geocronología del ambiente, y se relacionó con datos de las forzantes climáticas Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, y las anomalías hidrológicas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay. Los valores más positivos y estables del Southern Oscillation Index, los cuales corresponden a fases La Niña, se observan en el periodo correspondiente entre 1910-1970, respecto al resto de la serie, donde se aprecia una mayor variabilidad y una tendencia hacia valores más negativos (eventos El Niño). Se hicieron dendrogramas (clustering) jerárquicos para ambos testigos. Para el testigo GeoB 13813-4, se utilizó la relación Ca/Ti y la granulometría, mientras que para BAR1 se recurrió a variables granulométricas y la tasa de sedimentación. El mayor aporte continental hacia la región de la plataforma adyacente al Río de la Plata registrado a partir del año 1970, podría ser el factor principal de los agrupamientos observados en los clusters para ambos testigos. Las agrupaciones mostraron una diferenciación en la década de 1970, lo que estaría asociado al aumento de los caudales de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay, durante las últimas tres décadas del siglo XX. Por otra parte se observa que la granulometría del testigo BAR1 presentó un mayor tamaño de grano y más variabilidad que en el caso del testigo Geo

  15. A Viable Individualized Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubillo, James M.

    1977-01-01

    An individualized learning system for college algebra was devised and tested. Results indicated that the individualized system was at least as effective as traditional approaches, and superior with respect to student attitudes toward the course. (SD)

  16. The Science of the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Rouhani, Parisa; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal is to establish a science of the individual, grounded in dynamic systems, and focused on the analysis of individual variability. Our argument is that individuals behave, learn, and develop in distinctive ways, showing patterns of variability that are not captured by models based on statistical averages. As such, any meaningful attempt to…

  17. Effective Team Building Develops Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippitt, Gordon L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent research in group behavior and organizational development is centered around increasing the individual's self-esteem and on developing individual participation in group success. Effective groups depend on a variety of individual contributions and shared decision making, while in turn satisfying human needs for security, achievement, and…

  18. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    PubMed

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  19. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  20. Individualizing Reading Instruction: A Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Larry A.; Smith, Carl B.

    The articles contained in this volume were selected to support and strengthen the concept of individualized instruction through diagnostic teaching. The book is divided into six major parts, each of which is preceded by a brief overview that emphasizes the main tenets advanced by the authors of the individual articles. The six major divisions of…

  1. Readability of Individualized Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Lusa

    2014-01-01

    An individualized education program is a legal document that details information regarding the special education program of a student with a disability. For parents to determine whether they agree with the individualized education program that is proposed by the school, they must first be able to read and comprehend the document. This study aimed…

  2. Camelot: An Individualized Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Camelot is a microcomputer-based system for individualizing information in a variety of settings. The information is not prespecified in Camelot and, consequently, can take many forms including instruction, counseling, prescription, and task assignment. The basis for individualizing the information is also not predeclared; therefore, users can…

  3. Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornell, John G.

    1980-01-01

    Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

  4. INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTION IN SMALL SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western States Small Schools Project, Salt Lake City, UT.

    THIS DOCUMENT DISCUSSES PROCEDURES AND POTENTIALS FOR INDIVIDUALIZING INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN SMALL RURAL SCHOOLS. FOUR FACTORS ARE SEEN TO BE OPERANT IN THE INDIVIDUALIZATION PROCESS. THESE ARE THE INSTRUCTOR, THE CURRICULUM AND SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS, ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICE, AND PHYSICAL FACILITIES. NEW INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES SHOULD BE…

  5. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  6. Measuring relatedness between inbred individuals.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Lacy, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Genetic relatedness between individuals is an important measure in many areas of biology. However, some relatedness measures for use with molecular (allele) data assume that the individuals themselves are not inbred. Here, we present a new measure of relatedness based on the different modes of identity-by-descent for alleles that has an upper bound of 1 even when the individuals being compared are themselves inbred. This new measure is compared to several other measures of relatedness using several simple examples and pedigree data from the wolf population in Isle Royale National Park. PMID:25472983

  7. TEACHING PHYSICS: Individual work assignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. G.

    2000-09-01

    Here are two examples of techniques for individual problem-setting, one a worksheet on electricity produced using Excel, the other a computer simulation on radioactive decay. Both have been found to work well.

  8. Theme: Serving Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Marty; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for the Mentally Handicapped" (Phillips, Dormody);…

  9. Dance for Individuals With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Lapum, Jennifer L; Bar, Rachel J

    2016-03-01

    The movement and music associated with dance plays an important role in many individuals' lives and can become imprinted upon the body and mind. Dance is thus closely associated with memory because of these deep connections. Without conscious thought, dance has the potential to be initiated as individuals age. In the current article, the authors share narrative reflections about their experiences with, and the potential of, dance as an intervention for aging populations diagnosed with dementia-related diseases. They draw upon their experiences in working with the aging population and a dance program currently being developed by Canada's National Ballet School and Baycrest Health Sciences for individuals with dementia-related diseases in long-term care. The current article is structured as dialogue between the authors because it mimics dance as a dialogical encounter between movement and music, and/or between individuals. PMID:26935188

  10. Moral individualism and elective death.

    PubMed

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. PMID:23845164

  11. An experiment on individual 'parochial altruism' revealing no connection between individual 'altruism' and individual 'parochialism'.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Hargreaves Heap, Shaun P; Seger, Charles R; Tsutsui, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Is parochial altruism an attribute of individual behavior? This is the question we address with an experiment. We examine whether the individual pro-sociality that is revealed in the public goods and trust games when interacting with fellow group members helps predict individual parochialism, as measured by the in-group bias (i.e., the difference in these games in pro-sociality when interacting with own group members as compared with members of another group). We find that it is not. An examination of the Big-5 personality predictors of each behavior reinforces this result: they are different. In short, knowing how pro-social individuals are with respect to fellow group members does not help predict their parochialism. PMID:26347703

  12. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans. PMID:26939544

  13. Understanding individual human mobility patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Marta C.; Hidalgo, Cesar A.; Barabási, Albert-Lászlo

    2008-03-01

    Understanding human mobility patterns is of major importance for a number of areas, ranging from urban planning to traffic forecasting, transportation geography, and preventing the spread of biological and mobile viruses. Yet, in the absence of tools to monitor the time resolved location of a large number of individuals, our understanding of the basic laws governing human trajectories remains limited. Here we study the individual mobility pattern of mobile phone users whose position is tracked in a time resolved manner. We find that the displacement distribution of the whole population can be approximated with a truncated L'evy statistics, in agreement with earlier measurements. We show, however, that the main contribution to the observed distribution comes from the differences in the travel pattern of individuals. Furthermore, we find that the individual trajectories are bounded in space and are highly anisotropic, an effect that increases with the trajectory's radius of gyration. After we correct for differences in the radius of gyration and anisotropy all individuals are described by the same universal mobility pattern. These results open new avenues for modeling human motion, with important impact on agent based modeling, epidemic prevention, emergency response and urban planing.

  14. Individualizing Instruction: Nine Ways to Individualize MACBETH or Anything Else.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffert, Beatrice G.

    This paper describes a model for individualized instruction, in which instruction is seen as a flexible series of interactions between three factors: the student, the content, and the strategy for teaching. The model is based on the student's active involvement in the content and on the teacher's facilitation of student learning. The paper shows…

  15. Recent developments in individual psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karasu, T B

    1984-01-01

    Individual psychotherapy, the pivotal modality of psychiatry, has undergone a constant revolution since the inception of psychoanalysis; over the years the treatment models have shifted from dynamic to behavioral to experiential. The author discusses forces, such as economic pressures to establish cost-effectiveness, that have precipitated these changes. After reviewing comparative studies of the efficacy of psychotherapy, he examines new developments in individual psychotherapy such as brief treatment and cognitive therapy for depressive disorders. The efficacy of combined techniques, the impact of diagnostic tools and training manuals, and ethical issues, such as sexism, are also explored. PMID:6420312

  16. Individualized Reading, An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartain, Harry W., Comp.

    At the present time more than 600 publications concerned with individualized reading are available. The 84 items listed in this bibliography were selected to help the reader obtain varied points of view without reading 600 articles. The selected studies are arranged in four categories to include (1) carefully considered arguments for and against…

  17. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  18. Individualized Instruction in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Lawrence P.; Biedenbach, Joseph M.

    With this volume, the American Society for Engineering Education begins a series of monographs for advancing education. Although the work deals particularly with engineering education, it is intended that techniques and innovations mentioned will be applicable to all fields of education. In this volume, components of an individualized instruction…

  19. Neuroanatomy Predicts Individual Risk Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  20. Neuroanatomy predicts individual risk attitudes.

    PubMed

    Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Tymula, Agnieszka; Cooper, Nicole; Kable, Joseph W; Glimcher, Paul W; Levy, Ifat

    2014-09-10

    Over the course of the last decade a multitude of studies have investigated the relationship between neural activations and individual human decision-making. Here we asked whether the anatomical features of individual human brains could be used to predict the fundamental preferences of human choosers. To that end, we quantified the risk attitudes of human decision-makers using standard economic tools and quantified the gray matter cortical volume in all brain areas using standard neurobiological tools. Our whole-brain analysis revealed that the gray matter volume of a region in the right posterior parietal cortex was significantly predictive of individual risk attitudes. Participants with higher gray matter volume in this region exhibited less risk aversion. To test the robustness of this finding we examined a second group of participants and used econometric tools to test the ex ante hypothesis that gray matter volume in this area predicts individual risk attitudes. Our finding was confirmed in this second group. Our results, while being silent about causal relationships, identify what might be considered the first stable biomarker for financial risk-attitude. If these results, gathered in a population of midlife northeast American adults, hold in the general population, they will provide constraints on the possible neural mechanisms underlying risk attitudes. The results will also provide a simple measurement of risk attitudes that could be easily extracted from abundance of existing medical brain scans, and could potentially provide a characteristic distribution of these attitudes for policy makers. PMID:25209279

  1. Financial Resources for Disabled Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Information Studies, Falls Church, VA.

    The guide is intended to provide a practical source of information on financial resources for disabled individuals. Following an introductory chapter is a chapter discussing some fundamental principles useful in increasing the likelihood that a benefit will be awarded. Subsequent chapters contain information on financial assistance programs in…

  2. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  3. Career Futures for Exceptional Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokaska, Charles J., Ed.

    The 33 selected papers from the National Topical Conference on Career Education for Exceptional Individuals are divided into six sections: career education (overview and future perspectives); programing and instruction; vocational assessment and training; counseling and career information; community involvement; and preparation of training…

  4. Nutritional Deficiencies: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for obese children (primary through secondary level). An introductory chapter on obesity…

  5. Team Teaching and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Robert J.

    Teaching an entire class at one level inevitably leaves some students bored and frustrated; team teaching and individualized instruction eliminate this problem. A team consists of two to seven teachers, the most experienced being leader. He must analyze the strengths of the group and plan the syllabus accordingly, inviting guest instructors to…

  6. Breathing Problems: An Individualized Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    As one of the components of the Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) Teacher Training Model Kit, the manual is designed to enable the educator to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for children (prekindergarten through high school) with breathing problems. An introductory…

  7. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  8. Student Involvement, Flexibility and Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryberg, Donald

    1971-01-01

    Innovative curricular reforms in language instruction at an inner-city experimental high school are described in this article. The primary concern for flexibility in enrollment procedures, language offerings, planning of learning opportunities, and, in general, the total curriculum, is prompted by the recognition of individual differences and…

  9. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  10. Injuries and Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults with disabilities are at an increased risk of injury. Falls are the leading mechanism of injury regardless of the disability status and are even more common in those with moderate or severe disabilities. The setting for the injury differs with the disability status. Compared to individuals with moderate or no disabilities,…

  11. The Computer and Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, William W.; Glaser, Robert

    1969-01-01

    A prototype computer-based management and information system (MIS) was designed to assist teachers, developers and researchers involved in the Individually Prescribed Instruction Project. Objectives of the system were to collect and process information on each student and to supply this information to the student and/or teacher in a summarized…

  12. Individualized Learning Package about Etching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauer, Michael J.

    An individualized learning package provides step-by-step instruction in the fundamentals of the etching process. Thirteen specific behavioral objectives are listed. A pretest, consisting of matching 15 etching terms with their definitions, is provided along with an answer key. The remainder of the learning package teaches the 13 steps of the…

  13. The individual element test revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of the patch test for finite elements retains several unsettled aspects. In particular, the issue of one-element versus multielement tests needs clarification. Following a brief historical review, we present the individual element test (IET) of Bergan and Hanssen in an expanded context that encompasses several important classes of new elements. The relationship of the IET to the multielement forms A, B, and C of the patch test and to the single element test are clarified.

  14. Helping individuals to help themselves.

    PubMed

    Costain, Lyndel; Croker, Helen

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is a serious and increasing health issue. Approximately two-thirds of adults in the UK are now overweight or obese. Recent public health reports firmly reinforce the importance of engaging individuals to look after their health, including their weight. They also spell out the need for individuals to be supported more actively, on many levels, to enable this 'engagement'. Meanwhile, national surveys indicate that approximately two-thirds of adults are concerned about weight control, with one-third actively trying to lose weight. This finding is hardly surprising considering current weight statistics, plus the plethora of popular diets on offer. Weight-loss methods include diet clubs, diet books, exercise, meal replacements, advice from healthcare professionals and following a self-styled diet. Obesity is a multi-factorial problem, and losing weight and, in particular, maintaining weight loss is difficult and often elusive. It is argued that the modern obesogenic or 'toxic' environment has essentially taken body-weight control from an instinctive 'survival' process to one that needs sustained cognitive and skill-based control. The evidence suggests that health professionals can help individuals achieve longer-term weight control by supporting them in making sustainable lifestyle changes using a range of behavioural techniques. These techniques include: assessing readiness to change; self-monitoring; realistic goal setting; dietary change; increased physical activity; stimulus control; cognitive restructuring; relapse management; establishing ongoing support. Consistently working in a client-centred way is also being increasingly advocated and incorporated into practice to help motivate and encourage, rather than hinder, the individual's progress. PMID:15877927

  15. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  16. [Psychopathy: between individual and collective].

    PubMed

    Canuto, Alessandra

    2014-09-17

    In recent years, there is a growing interest of medias about psychopathy. But what is psychopathy and why it arouses a so intense public awareness? We provide here a description of the main psychopathological traits associated with this condition inspired by the pioneer work of R. D. Hare. It will be subsequently completed by a series of clinical observations based on analytical psychology in order to identify both the individual and group aspects that are part of this concept. PMID:25322499

  17. Record completeness for individual volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark

    2016-04-01

    There has been considerable recent attention paid to completeness in global and regional (e.g. Japan) eruption data bases. This has taken the form of estimating dates at which the record is complete, either at a global or regional level, at a given VEI or magnitude. This has obvious utility when estimating hazard from very large eruptions, which may have effects 1000s of km from source. However, at a more local level, the question of interest is not so much the global, or the regional, completeness level, but the completeness of the record for an individual volcano. For example, forecast hazard is critically dependent on the size of the eruption, but it is impossible even to statistically describe the size distribution without knowing the completeness of the record. Current methods for eruption catalogue completeness using extreme value statistics rely on large samples for their validity, so a new approach is required for individual volcanoes, which may have only a handful of known eruptions. We will consider one possible such approach based using a Bayesian sequential algorithm assuming that the underlying process is Poissonian and that completeness at a lower VEI implies completeness at all higher VEIs. Results for individual volcanoes are compared with regional figures and, time-permitting, implications for a statistical model of VEI discussed.

  18. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  19. Rationale for individualizing haemophilia care.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Benny; Auerswald, Günter; Benson, Gary; Elezović, Ivo; Felder, Markus; Lambert, Thierry; Morfini, Massimo; Remor, Eduardo; Salaj, Peter; Santagostino, Elena; Šalek, Silva Z; Ljung, Rolf

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the heterogeneity in the clinical phenotype of haemophilia A and B, it is now recognized that disease severity (based on factor VIII/IX activity) may no longer be the most appropriate guide for treatment and that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach is unlikely to achieve optimal therapy. Based on the present literature and consensus views of a group of experts in the field, this article highlights key gaps in the understanding of the diverse relationships between bleeding phenotype and factors such as joint health, genetic susceptibility, laboratory parameters, quality of life and management of pain. Early prophylaxis is a potential 'gold standard' therapy and issues surrounding inhibitor development, variations in its clinical use and long-term outcomes are discussed. Comprehensive treatment should be individualized for all patients (including those with mild or moderate haemophilia and carriers). Wherever possible all patients should be given prophylaxis. However, adult patients with a milder haemophilia phenotype may be candidates for ceasing prophylaxis and switching to on-demand treatment. Regardless, all treatment (on-demand and prophylaxis) should be tailored towards both the patient's personal needs and their clinical profile. In addition, as the associations between risk factors (psychosocial, condition-related and treatment-related) and clinical features are unique to each patient, an individualized approach is required to enable patients to alter their behaviour in response to them. The practical methodologies needed to reach this goal of individualized haemophilia care, and the health economic implications of this strategy, are ongoing topics for discussion. PMID:25396764

  20. 38 CFR 48.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual. 48.655...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  1. 38 CFR 48.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 48.655...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  2. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  3. Individualism-collectivism and personality.

    PubMed

    Triandis, H C

    2001-12-01

    This paper provides a review of the main findings concerning the relationship between the cultural syndromes of individualism and collectivism and personality. People in collectivist cultures, compared to people in individualist cultures, are likely to define themselves as aspects of groups, to give priority to in-group goals, to focus on context more than the content in making attributions and in communicating, to pay less attention to internal than to external processes as determinants of social behavior, to define most relationships with ingroup members as communal, to make more situational attributions, and tend to be self-effacing. PMID:11767823

  4. Individual differences in working memory.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, C; Towse, J N

    2006-04-28

    Working memory can be defined as the ability to hold in mind information in the face of potentially interfering distraction in order to guide behavior. The experimental manipulation of working memory tasks has shed considerable light on the probable structure of the human working memory system, and, to a lesser extent, the specific processes captured by working memory paradigms. However, individual differences research has also had a crucial role to play in the development of theories of working memory. In particular, correlational approaches have been particularly informative in three areas of working memory research, each of which is reviewed here. These are, first, the importance of working memory measures as correlates of high-level cognitive skills such as reading, mathematics, reasoning, and fluid intelligence; second, the extent to which human working memory relies on domain-general or domain-specific component subsystems, and third, the precise reasons why working memory measures do relate to other important indices of human cognitive functioning. The findings from each of these areas suggest that working memory depends on a combination of domain-specific representational systems and domain-general processing and control systems, and that working memory measures capture individuals' ability to combine maintenance and processing demands in a manner that limits information loss from forgetting or distraction. PMID:16325344

  5. [Individual archiving of digital angiocardiograms].

    PubMed

    Stiel, G M; Nienaber, C A; Schaps, K P; Meinertz, T

    1996-08-01

    CD-R will be introduced internationally as a standardized individual archive and exchange medium allowing individual solutions for long-term archiving in a catheterization laboratory. The concept of digital archiving on two CD-R includes a long-term primary basic archive and a secondary one edited by intelligent (medical) data reduction (IDR). The basic archive is automatically composed by a background process consisting of unprocessed images or image series and is fundamental for further transfers, storage, presentations and additional studies. The digital working archive comprises a set of images and image series edited by IDR, as well as the results of morphometric studies as well as identification and documentation data. IDR is based upon the elimination of useless and redundant images series, documentation of coronary interventions on one single representative image and on the reduction of relevant images series and physiological data into an ECG-controlled representative cardiac cycle. IDR edits a redundancy-free set of 130 images (diagnostic study) or only 85 images of an interventional study. Two cardiologists and two cardiosurgeons independently studied 24 IDR-edited angiograms and the corresponding unedited digital angiograms and found no significant differences in the diagnostically relevant coronary morphology and left ventricular function. This study shows that an edited angiogram may not only serve for digital archiving but also form the basis for further evaluation or copies. PMID:8975495

  6. The place for individual conscience.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    2001-10-01

    From a liberationist, feminist, and Catholic point of view, this article attempts to understand the decision of abortion. People are constantly testing their principles and values against the question of abortion. Advances in technology, the rise of communitarianism and the rejection of individualism, and the commodification of children are factors in the way in which the abortion debate is being constructed in society. The paper offers solutions to end the ugliness of the abortion debate by suggesting that we would be able to progress further on the issue of abortion if we looked for the good in the opposing viewpoint. The article continues with a discussion of Catholics For a Free Choice's position on abortion, and notes firstly that there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; secondly that the principle of probablism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact (in this case, on the personhood of the fetus), the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected, and thirdly that the absolute prohibition on abortion by the church is not infallible. In conclusion, only the woman herself can make the abortion decision. PMID:11574655

  7. Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The subject document is a World Wide Web (WWW) page entitled, "Reese Sorenson's Individual Professional Page." Its can be accessed at "http://george.arc.nasa.gov/sorenson/personal/index.html". The purpose of this page is to make the reader aware of me, who I am, and what I do. It lists my work assignments, my computer experience, my place in the NASA hierarchy, publications by me, awards received by me, my education, and how to contact me. Writing this page was a learning experience, pursuant to an element in my Job Description which calls for me to be able to use the latest computers. This web page contains very little technical information, none of which is classified or sensitive.

  8. The individual with high quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Kirby, N A

    1989-03-01

    Persons with quadriplegia resulting from disease or trauma have an array of disabling impairments that involve virtually every body system. During the rehabilitation process, each impairment is addressed. This article presents alternatives in three areas: respiration, communication, and environmental control. The importance of tailoring strategies to the individual is emphasized throughout. Appropriate rehabilitation of the person with high quadriplegia goes beyond maintenance of life and health. An interdisciplinary team that includes the patient unites dreams, knowledge, skills, and technology so that the patient has the possibility of noninstitutional living, major control over his or her own destiny, some autonomy, and participation in a full spectrum of life activities. As Maddox noted: "Life is a fragile, fleeting thing, under any circumstances, and living it can be comic or tragic, weird or wonderful--regardless of one's motor limitations." PMID:2522191

  9. Do deaf individuals see better?

    PubMed Central

    Bavelier, Daphne; Dye, Matthew W.G.; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that, following early auditory deprivation, the remaining senses such as vision are enhanced has been met with much excitement. However, deaf individuals exhibit both better and worse visual skills than hearing controls. We show that, when deafness is considered to the exclusion of other confounds, enhancements in visual cognition are noted. The changes are not, however, widespread but are selective, limited, as we propose, to those aspects of vision that are attentionally demanding and would normally benefit from auditory-visual convergence. The behavioral changes are accompanied by a reorganization of multisensory areas, ranging from higherorder cortex to early cortical areas, highlighting cross-modal interactions as a fundamental feature of brain organization and cognitive processing. PMID:17015029

  10. [Individual risk assessment of caries].

    PubMed

    Schaeken, M J; Mikx, F H

    1992-06-01

    The estimation of individual caries risk factors and the related preventive treatment in the dental practice are discussed. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli reflect the bacteriological attack (mutans streptococci) and sugar intake (lactobacilli). Caries resistance can be estimated by measurement of the salivary secretion rate and buffer capacity. Treatment of high caries risk patients should be directed against etiological factors. Salivary flow rates and buffer capacity can be stimulated by daily (sugar-free) gum-chewing. For the use of fluoridated toothpaste and sugar intake the dentist is dependent upon the cooperation of the patient. The bacteriological factor in the caries process can be suppressed by application of chlorhexidine varnish. PMID:11820133

  11. Transitions in individuality through symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Sylvie; Kerr, Benjamin; Morris, J Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    When a more complex, functionally integrated entity emerges from the association of simpler, initially independent entities, a major evolutionary transition has occurred. Transitions that result from the association of different species include the evolution of the eukaryotic cell and some obligate mutualisms. Recent studies are revolutionizing our understanding of how these intimate interspecific associations come to be, revealing how and to what extent each partner contributes to the relationship, and how partners mediate conflict. Here, we review work on the evolution of mutualistic symbioses in the context of transitions in individuality and highlight how a better mechanistic understanding of the ecological drivers of host-symbiont interdependencies can help elucidate the evolutionary path to symbiotic organismality. PMID:27131019

  12. Developmental dyslexia: predicting individual risk

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul A; Hulme, Charles; Nash, Hannah M; Gooch, Debbie; Hayiou-Thomas, Emma; Snowling, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    Background Causal theories of dyslexia suggest that it is a heritable disorder, which is the outcome of multiple risk factors. However, whether early screening for dyslexia is viable is not yet known. Methods The study followed children at high risk of dyslexia from preschool through the early primary years assessing them from age 3 years and 6 months (T1) at approximately annual intervals on tasks tapping cognitive, language, and executive-motor skills. The children were recruited to three groups: children at family risk of dyslexia, children with concerns regarding speech, and language development at 3;06 years and controls considered to be typically developing. At 8 years, children were classified as ‘dyslexic’ or not. Logistic regression models were used to predict the individual risk of dyslexia and to investigate how risk factors accumulate to predict poor literacy outcomes. Results Family-risk status was a stronger predictor of dyslexia at 8 years than low language in preschool. Additional predictors in the preschool years include letter knowledge, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, and executive skills. At the time of school entry, language skills become significant predictors, and motor skills add a small but significant increase to the prediction probability. We present classification accuracy using different probability cutoffs for logistic regression models and ROC curves to highlight the accumulation of risk factors at the individual level. Conclusions Dyslexia is the outcome of multiple risk factors and children with language difficulties at school entry are at high risk. Family history of dyslexia is a predictor of literacy outcome from the preschool years. However, screening does not reach an acceptable clinical level until close to school entry when letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and RAN, rather than family risk, together provide good sensitivity and specificity as a screening battery. PMID:25832320

  13. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  14. Consciousness: individuated information in action.

    PubMed

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  15. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  16. Jack London: The Paradox of Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deane, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Because of their interest in naturalism and socialism, critics often overlook the major intellectual conflict in Jack London's work: the paradox of individualism. London regards society as affecting the individual in two ways: it either promotes individuality or it demands a conformity that undermines individualism. When society fails Buck in "The…

  17. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  18. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  19. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  20. 10 CFR 835.402 - Individual monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Monitoring of Individuals and Areas § 835.402 Individual monitoring. (a) For the purpose of monitoring individual exposures to external radiation...) Individuals entering a high or very high radiation area. (b) External dose monitoring programs implemented...

  1. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  2. Models of Individual Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Alison

    This chapter describes the current state of models of individual blue stragglers. Stellar collisions, binary mergers (or coalescence), and partial or ongoing mass transfer have all been studied in some detail. The products of stellar collisions retain memory of their parent stars and are not fully mixed. Very high initial rotation rates must be reduced by an unknown process to allow the stars to collapse to the main sequence. The more massive collision products have shorter lifetimes than normal stars of the same mass, while products between low mass stars are long-lived and look very much like normal stars of their mass. Mass transfer can result in a merger, or can produce another binary system with a blue straggler and the remnant of the original primary. The products of binary mass transfer cover a larger portion of the colour-magnitude diagram than collision products for two reasons: there are more possible configurations which produce blue stragglers, and there are differing contributions to the blended light of the system. The effects of rotation may be substantial in both collision and merger products, and could result in significant mixing unless angular momentum is lost shortly after the formation event. Surface abundances may provide ways to distinguish between the formation mechanisms, but care must be taken to model the various mixing mechanisms properly before drawing strong conclusions. Avenues for future work are outlined.

  3. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    PubMed

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country. PMID:21147789

  4. Individual predictors of sensorimotor adaptability

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    There are large individual variations in strategies and rates of sensorimotor adaptation to spaceflight. This is seen in both the magnitude of performance disruptions when crewmembers are first exposed to microgravity, and in the rate of re-adaptation when they return to Earth’s gravitational environment. Understanding the sources of this variation can lead to a better understanding of the processes underlying adaptation, as well as provide insight into potential routes for facilitating performance of “slow adapters”. Here we review the literature on brain, behavioral, and genetic predictors of motor learning, recovery of motor function following neural insult, and sensorimotor adaptation. For example, recent studies have identified specific genetic polymorphisms that are associated with faster adaptation on manual joystick tasks and faster recovery of function following a stroke. Moreover, the extent of recruitment of specific brain regions during learning and adaptation has been shown to be predictive of the magnitude of subsequent learning. We close with suggestions for forward work aimed at identifying predictors of spaceflight adaptation success. Identification of “slow adapters” prior to spaceflight exposure would allow for more targeted preflight training and/or provision of booster training and adaptation adjuncts during spaceflight. PMID:26217197

  5. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Fisher, Roberta M; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven't taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  6. Measurements of Individual Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2002-03-01

    Studying the limits between classical and quantum physics has become a very attractive field of research which is known as 'mesoscopic' physics. New and fascinating mesoscopic effects are expected. Nanometer-sized magnetic particles are situated at the frontier between classical and quantum magnetism. In addition, their magnetic properties are technologically very challenging (permanent magnets, information storage, etc.). First, we review briefly our micro-SQUID technique (For a review, see W. Wernsdorfer, Adv. Chem. Phys., 118, 99 (2001) or http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/cond-mat/0101104) which allows us to study single nanometer-sized magnetic particles containing less than 1000 atoms, crystals of molecular clusters, or quantum spin chains. Then, we discuss our recent results concerning the magnetization reversal of individual Co and Fe clusters (3 nm). (M. Jamet, W. Wernsdorfer, C. Thirion, D. Mailly, V. Dupuis, P. Melinon, and A. Perez, Phys. Rev. Lett 86, 4676 (2001).) Using a generalized Stoner-Wohlfarth model, (E. Bonet, W. Wernsdorfer, B. Barbara, A. Benoit, D. Mailly, and A. Thiaville Phys. Rev. Lett., 83, 4188 (1999)) we show that 3D measurements of the angular dependence of the magnetization reversal yields the effective magnetic anisotropy function. The latter is important for our studies of the influence of temperature on the magnetization reversal. A new method allows us to study the magnetization switching up to the blocking temperature which is typically below 30 K. We achieved a new insight in the dynamics of magnetization reversal using ns-field pulses and micro-wave radiations. We conclude by showing how one might give a definite proof of the quantum character of a nanoparticle (S > 1000) at low temperatures.

  7. 48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70....

  8. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR 2001.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be...

  9. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470....

  10. Excellence through High-Quality Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard W.; Klingstedt, Joe Lars

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a strategy employing challenge, functionalism, high-order learning, and originality to achieve high-quality individualization in course work. Asserts that individualized instruction better prepares students to solve problems, make decisions, and produce original ideas. (MM)

  11. Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the behaviors sampled, test administration, scoring, norms, reliability, and validity of the Basic Achievement Skills Individual Screener (BASIS), an individually administered test that measures skill development in reading, mathematics, spelling, and writing. (BL)

  12. 14 CFR § 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual. § 1267.655 Section § 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  13. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  14. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  15. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  16. 14 CFR 1267.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual. 1267.655 Section 1267.655 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  17. 25 CFR 115.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 115.101 Section 115.101 Indians... INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.101 Individual accounts. Except as otherwise provided in this part, adults shall have the right to withdraw funds from their accounts. Upon their application, or...

  18. 25 CFR 115.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual accounts. 115.101 Section 115.101 Indians... INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.101 Individual accounts. Except as otherwise provided in this part, adults shall have the right to withdraw funds from their accounts. Upon their application, or...

  19. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... benefits for hospice care under title XIX. (e) The individual is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for individuals with intellectual disabilities, or other medical..., to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of the individual's income required...

  20. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individual is terminally ill and is receiving benefits for hospice care under title XIX. (e) The individual is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for individuals with... in that institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal...

  1. Linking Individual Creativity to Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, Robert C.; Ford, Cameron M.; Gentry, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We draw on 146 employee-co-worker-supervisor triads from 146 organizations to examine the role of individual perspective-taking and team creative environment in the association between individual creativity and organizational innovation. Adopting an interactionist perspective, we find that the link between individual creativity and organizational…

  2. Individualizing Exercise: Some Biomechanical and Physiological Reminders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browder, Kathy D.; Darby, Lynn A.

    1998-01-01

    It is important to individualize exercise programs to safely achieve exercise goals. The article reviews several key points to help exercise leaders individualize new exercise programs or rejuvenate routine workouts, focusing on cardiorespiratory and muscular training. The article emphasizes that individualizing exercise programs reduces injury,…

  3. 10 CFR 607.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual. 607.655 Section 607.655 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  4. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  5. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  6. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  7. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  8. 31 CFR 20.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individual. 20.655 Section 20.655 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 20.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  9. The Misplaced Adaptation to Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, James G.

    The current interest in an educational technology that stresses adaptation to individual student differences has resulted in such individualized systems as Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). However, such systems are not the answer to an avoidance of standardization of students. No one has yet…

  10. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  11. Individualizing Instruction in Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, John G.

    On the premise that individualized instruction and its many variations has become increasingly more important to the vocational and technical educator, various aspects of an individualized instructional program are discussed under eight headings: (1) What Is Meant by Individualizing Instruction in Vocational and Technical Education? (2) Why Do We…

  12. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  13. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  14. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  15. 45 CFR 630.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual. 630.655 Section 630.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.655 Individual. Individual means a...

  16. Individualized Assignments in an Experimental Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovancik, John R.

    1984-01-01

    A computer is used to individualize student assignments in statistics. The principal benefit of individualized activities is that they emphasize decision-making processes rather than correct answers. Students in an individualized assignment group scored higher on an examination than those in a comparison group. (RM)

  17. 20 CFR 439.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual. 439.655 Section 439.655 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.655 Individual. Individual means a natural person....

  18. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the Head...

  19. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the Head...

  20. 48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the EPAAR shall be submitted to the Head...

  1. Risk-Taking: Individual and Family Interests.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S

    2015-08-01

    Decisions regarding clinical procedures or research participation typically require the informed consent of individuals. When individuals are unable to give consent, the informed permission of a legally authorized representative or surrogate is required. Although many proposed procedures are aimed primarily at benefiting the individual, some are not. I argue that, particularly when individuals are asked to assume risks primarily or exclusively for the benefit of others, family members ought to be engaged in the informed consent process. Examples of procedures in which individuals are asked to assume risks primarily or exclusively for the benefit of others include living organ donation and research participation. PMID:26070660

  2. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  3. The Analysis of the Impact of Individual Weighting Factor on Individual Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Gulsen Bagci; Cakan, Mehtap

    2006-01-01

    In this study, category-based self and peer assessment were applied twice in a semester in an Elementary Science Teaching Methods course in order to assess individual contributions of group members to group projects as well as to analyze the impact of Individual Weighting Factors (IWF) on individual scores and individual grades. IWF were…

  4. Individual and Maturational Differences in Infant Expressivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    1989-01-01

    Reports that, even though young infants can discriminate among different facial expressions, there are individual differences in infants' expressivity and ability to produce and discriminate facial expressions. (PCB)

  5. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-01-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks. PMID:26648549

  6. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw and Caswell, 1996).

  7. Model-based estimation of individual fitness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Cooch, E.G.; Cam, E.

    2002-01-01

    Fitness is the currency of natural selection, a measure of the propagation rate of genotypes into future generations. Its various definitions have the common feature that they are functions of survival and fertility rates. At the individual level, the operative level for natural selection, these rates must be understood as latent features, genetically determined propensities existing at birth. This conception of rates requires that individual fitness be defined and estimated by consideration of the individual in a modelled relation to a group of similar individuals; the only alternative is to consider a sample of size one, unless a clone of identical individuals is available. We present hierarchical models describing individual heterogeneity in survival and fertility rates and allowing for associations between these rates at the individual level. We apply these models to an analysis of life histories of Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla ) observed at several colonies on the Brittany coast of France. We compare Bayesian estimation of the population distribution of individual fitness with estimation based on treating individual life histories in isolation, as samples of size one (e.g. McGraw & Caswell, 1996).

  8. Language Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gary E.; Klusek, Jessica; Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    On average, language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability) follow a consistent profile. Despite considerable individual variability, receptive language is typically stronger than expressive language, with particular challenges in phonology and syntax. We review the literature on language and literacy skills of individuals with Down syndrome, with emphasis on the areas of phonology, vocabulary, syntax, and pragmatics. We begin by describing the hearing, oral-motor, cognitive, social, and prelinguistic and early nonverbal communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome. We conclude with a discussion of clinical implications and research directions. PMID:20428477

  9. Personalized medicine for individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B

    2011-01-01

    As the cost of whole genome analysis decreases, we have the opportunity to explore the interactions of various gene changes in an individual that lead to their particular phenotype. This will provide the ability to move from the epidemiologic study of groups, in which, the individuals are treated collectively and homogenously, to personalized medicine, and a model in which the individual is recognized and treated as a distinct entity. We will be applying personalized medicine to individuals with Down syndrome in order to understand and develop biomarkers for increased risk of co-morbidities. Personalized medicine will change the "culture of intractability" of Down syndrome. PMID:21807541

  10. Unfavorable Individuals in Social Gaming Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Chen, Guanrong; Guan, Jihong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2015-12-01

    In social gaming networks, the current research focus has been on the origin of widespread reciprocal behaviors when individuals play non-cooperative games. In this paper, we investigate the topological properties of unfavorable individuals in evolutionary games. The unfavorable individuals are defined as the individuals gaining the lowest average payoff in a round of game. Since the average payoff is normally considered as a measure of fitness, the unfavorable individuals are very likely to be eliminated or change their strategy updating rules from a Darwinian perspective. Considering that humans can hardly adopt a unified strategy to play with their neighbors, we propose a divide-and-conquer game model, where individuals can interact with their neighbors in the network with appropriate strategies. We test and compare a series of highly rational strategy updating rules. In the tested scenarios, our analytical and simulation results surprisingly reveal that the less-connected individuals in degree-heterogeneous networks are more likely to become the unfavorable individuals. Our finding suggests that the connectivity of individuals as a social capital fundamentally changes the gaming environment. Our model, therefore, provides a theoretical framework for further understanding the social gaming networks.

  11. Methodological Individualism, Educational Administration, and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.; Lakomski, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    There are two major categories of explanation for organisational performance: structural and individual. With the shift away from systems-theoretic accounts that occurred in the 1980s, structural explanations have been replaced increasingly by the individualism of leadership and leader-centric explanations, especially when it comes to schools. In…

  12. 48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations....

  13. 48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR) 48 CFR 1.405(e) applies). However, see TAM 1201.403. ... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual...

  14. 48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR or VAAR 801.403 Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... deviate from the policies in the FAR or VAAR, the contracting officer, in accordance with...

  15. 48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1901.403 Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the Board Procurement Executive or a designee unless FAR 1.405(e) is applicable. The request shall cite...

  16. 42 CFR 435.1009 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... who are inmates of public institutions as defined in § 435.1010; or (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving... considered to be a patient in that institution. However, such an individual who is under age 22 and has...

  17. 42 CFR 435.1009 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... who are inmates of public institutions as defined in § 435.1010; or (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving... considered to be a patient in that institution. However, such an individual who is under age 22 and has...

  18. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving inpatient psychiatric services under § 440.160 of this subchapter. (b... individual who is under age 22 and has been receiving inpatient pyschiatric services under § 440.160 of...

  19. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving inpatient psychiatric services under § 440.160 of this subchapter. (b... individual who is under age 22 and has been receiving inpatient pyschiatric services under § 440.160 of...

  20. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301.403 Section 301.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting...

  1. 48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301.403 Section 301.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL HHS ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting...

  2. Individualizing Administrator Continuing Education. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Edward

    This paper is one of a series of vocational papers reporting results of individualized continuing education (ICE) programs for school administrators and school climate improvement programs. It summarizes the practices of some 45 school districts throughout the nation that have actually been operating individualized continuing education programs.…

  3. 42 CFR 436.1005 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (2) Individuals under age 65 who are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are... for mental diseases. (c) An individual on conditional release or convalescent leave from an institution for mental diseases is not considered to be a patient in that institution. However, such...

  4. Individual and Social Implications of Human Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridlen, Sylvia; Dane, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for understanding individual and group differences. Identifies biological, societal, and intrapsychic origins of difference. Discusses valuation of differences as a source of social status and power, and the psychological uses of differences by individuals. Suggests applications of the model in social work practice…

  5. Separation and Individuation Issues in Psychosocial Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the theoretical formulations of Margaret Mahler and her colleagues on separation and individuation to understand how to plan psycho-rehabilitation programs for emotionally disturbed adolescents and young adults. The separation-individuation process and anxiety issues are discussed and analyzed in terms of both theory and practical…

  6. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  7. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these...

  8. 17 CFR 300.101 - Individual accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual accounts. 300.101... A to Part 285 RULES OF THE SECURITIES INVESTOR PROTECTION CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.101 Individual accounts. (a) Except as otherwise provided in these...

  9. Towards an Individualized Delineation of Functional Neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Davatzikos, Christos

    2015-08-01

    The functional neuroanatomy of the human brain is known to vary between individuals, yet current descriptions are based on group-averaged data. Laumann et al. (2015) present data from one highly sampled individual and show unique fine-grained differences representing subject-specific functional architecture. PMID:26247857

  10. Individualized Marriage and the Integration of Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…

  11. Assessing Speech Discrimination in Individual Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Horn, David L.; Qi, Rong; Ting, Jonathan Y.; Gao, Sujuan

    2007-01-01

    Assessing speech discrimination skills in individual infants from clinical populations (e.g., infants with hearing impairment) has important diagnostic value. However, most infant speech discrimination paradigms have been designed to test group effects rather than individual differences. Other procedures suffer from high attrition rates. In this…

  12. Individualized Systems of Instruction in TAFE Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J.

    This report is intended to assist curriculum developers, administrators, and teachers in the Technical and Further Education (TAFE) system in deciding if and when it is appropriate to introduce individualized systems of instruction in their programs. The first section explains what individualized instruction is and examines the reasons for the…

  13. Sleep Problems in Individuals with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert; Smits, Marcel G.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of severe sleep problems and its association with other variables were investigated with 109 individuals who have Angelman syndrome. Severe settling problems, frequent night waking, and early waking were found in 2%, 37%, and 10% of the individuals, respectively. Sleep problems were persistent in this sample. No statistically…

  14. A Short Guide to Understanding Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubadeau, Duane O.; And Others

    This four-part guide is designed to help community college instructors understand and respond to individual differences in their students. First, the preface lays out a framework for an in-depth examination of individual learning differences by posing the following questions: (1) Is learning a single function or a composite of different types of…

  15. Hospitalization Burden among Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokhandwala, Tasneem; Khanna, Rahul; West-Strum, Donna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the inpatient care burden among individuals with autism using the 2007 Health Care Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample [HCUP NIS]). There were approximately 26,000 hospitalizations among individuals with autism in 2007, with an overall rate of 65.6/100,000 admissions. Rates of hospitalizations…

  16. Individuation of Pairs of Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Alan M.; Chen, Marian L.

    2007-01-01

    Looking-time studies examined whether 11-month-old infants can individuate two pairs of objects using only shape information. In order to test individuation, the object pairs were presented sequentially. Infants were familiarized either with the sequential pairs, disk-triangle/disk-triangle (XY/XY), whose shapes differed within but not across…

  17. Listening Technologies for Individuals and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marttila, Joan

    2004-01-01

    Assistive technology has always been an important component of individualized education programs. The individualized education program process can be used to supply hearing assistive technology to students. One goal of audiologists and educators is to improve the acoustic environment of classrooms for all students by constructing school buildings…

  18. 40 CFR 35.918 - Individual systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individual systems. 35.918 Section 35.918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.918 Individual systems. (a) For references to...

  19. INDIVIDUALIZED READING--AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SARTAIN, HARRY

    THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED READING IS COMPOSED OF 62 CITATIONS RANGING IN DATE FROM 1952 TO 1964. MAJOR EMPHASIS IS PLACED ON RECENT BOOKS AND WIDELY CIRCULATED PERIODICALS WHICH ARE EASILY ACCESSIBLE. LISTINGS REPRESENT VARIED PRACTICES AND POINTS OF VIEW. THEY INCLUDE ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST INDIVIDUALIZED READING,…

  20. Disturbance of sleep by noise: Individual differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, R. T.

    1984-07-01

    The literature on the effects of noise on sleep is searched for evidence on individual differences along the dimensions of age, sex, occupation, personality, neuroticism, and mental health. With the exception of age, little firm evidence is found. Thus there remains a need to establish at better than the anecdotal level whether or not real individual differences exist.

  1. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  2. 42 CFR 440.315 - Exempt individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual is terminally ill and is receiving benefits for hospice care under title XIX. (e) The individual is an inpatient in a hospital, nursing facility, intermediate care facility for the mentally retarded... institution under the State plan, to spend for costs of medical care all but a minimal amount of...

  3. Individualized Study Systems in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Klauw, C. F.; Plomp, Tj

    1974-01-01

    After a short characterization of individualized study systems (ISS) and a survey of the number and subject fields of individualized courses in the USA and Europe, the construction and evaluation of an ISS system in freshman mathematics at the Twente University of Technology, in the Netherlands, is discussed. (Editor)

  4. Individual Action Planning: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squirrell, Gillian

    This book, which is intended as a practical guide for British teachers and tutors involved in career guidance, explains the process of helping students develop Individual Action Plans (IAPs). IAPs are plans outlining individual personal, vocational, and educational aspirations that students develop in a series of discussion sessions with an…

  5. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  6. Paddling with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Teri; Medina, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a variety of literature that offers adaptations and teaching suggestions for paddling with individuals who have physical disabilities, only a few address the needs of individuals with developmental disabilities (Gullion, 2009; Zeller, 2009). Developmental disabilities refer to a diverse group of severe chronic conditions that are…

  7. Individualizing Education: A Guide for Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Steven; Gordon, Rhonda Ellen

    A background manual for tutors explains and defines their role in a system of individualized education in some detail. Differences between the role of teacher and the role of tutor are analyzed. Methods of forestalling cheating and other "black-market operations" are discussed. Tutoring procedures are outlined and individualized education manuals…

  8. Language Characteristics of Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary E.; Klusek, Jessica; Estigarribia, Bruno; Roberts, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    On average, language and communication characteristics of individuals with Down syndrome (the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability) follow a consistent profile. Despite considerable individual variability, receptive language is typically stronger than expressive language, with particular challenges in phonology and syntax. We…

  9. The Informative Analysis of Individual Trend Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Roderick P.

    2004-01-01

    Additive and non-additive models for an individual trend curve are examined, and five methods for fitting these to a set of individuals are described. It is suggested that classical fitting methods are more informative than latent curve methods, and commonly preferable. A limited study of the effect of time-structure is reported, and results on…

  10. Learning Individualized for Canadians (LINC) Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippett, Glen

    This instruction manual for the Learning Individualized for Canadians (LINC) mathematics course is designed for use in adult basic education or retraining programs focusing on individually prescribed learning. Emphasis is on developing computational and problem-solving skills and on practical applications of mathematics to everyday life skills and…

  11. Ape Metaphysics: Object Individuation without Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Natacha; Rakoczy, Hannes; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Developmental research suggests that whereas very young infants individuate objects purely on spatiotemporal grounds, from (at latest) around 1 year of age children are capable of individuating objects according to the kind they belong to and the properties they instantiate. As the latter ability has been found to correlate with language, some…

  12. Test Access & Modification for Individuals with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation.

    This guide is intended to increase access for individuals with disabilities to local, state (New York), and national testing programs, as well as facilitate the consistent provision of modifications necessary to allow these individuals to demonstrate their knowledge and abilities. Ten modules cover the following topics: (1) federal and state…

  13. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  14. Administering Individualized Education. Questions, Issues, Suggestions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palola, Ernest G.

    Individualized education works well for a particular type of student and faculty member. If you go beyond this type of student and faculty member, you run head-on into serious administrative and planning problems. In short, students are unsure and often confused about their role in individualized education. It seems that (1) students need thorough…

  15. Gnostic inner illumination and Carl Jung's individuation.

    PubMed

    Pennachio, J

    1992-09-01

    The ancient religious system of Gnosticism argued for the transcendence of the physical world and the divinity of self-knowledge. More recently, a similar argument was made by Carl Jung through his concept of individuation. This paper examines some of the similarities between Gnostic inner illumination and Jung's concept of individuation. PMID:24271053

  16. Correlates of Reminiscence Activity among Elderly Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Steven W.; Barnett, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines several psychological characteristics and life experiences that may be related to reminiscence activity among elderly individuals (n=70). Results provide support for the notion that aspects of reminiscence activity are associated with individual differences in specific psychological and situational variables. (JPS)

  17. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR...

  18. 48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect... AGAR, after coordinating with the General Counsel and the SPE. No deviations from the FAR or AGAR...

  19. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  20. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  1. 48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations....

  2. A Model for Developing Individualized Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Responding to an article (EC 618 445) describing an individualized program for young children with severe disabilities, including autism, and their families, this article notes features of the program such as its individualized nature, its emphasis on building capacity in families and early intervention providers, and its integrative practices…

  3. A Quasi Actuarial Prospect for Individual Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, William A.

    A conceptual model of individual assessment through the use of biodata responses with minimal input information is outlined. The process is considered especially applicable to industrial psychology. A scored autobiographical data form, which measures the individual's past behavior and experiences, provides for assignment to a specific subgroup…

  4. Individualized Learning in Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proia, Kathleen

    This paper describes individualized learning, a form of individualized instruction that emphasizes students' self-paced learning progress within a tutorial teaching structure, as it was used in a freshman composition program. The teachers first determined the composition skills that their students should have acquired upon completion of the three…

  5. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  6. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Qualifications Requirements § 319.302 Individual qualifications. Agency heads...

  7. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  8. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  9. 5 CFR 319.302 - Individual qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Individual qualifications. 319.302 Section 319.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... appointed to SL and ST positions. The agency head must determine that the individual meets...

  10. Group Recommender Systems: Combining Individual Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masthoff, Judith

    This chapter shows how a system can recommend to a group of users by aggregating information from individual user models and modelling the users affective state. It summarizes results from previous research in this area. It also shows how group recommendation techniques can be applied when recommending to individuals, in particular for solving the cold-start problem and dealing with multiple criteria.

  11. Characterization of individual mouse cerebrospinal fluid proteomes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeffrey S.; Angel, Thomas E.; Chavkin, Charles; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-03-20

    Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers key insight into the status of the central nervous system. Characterization of murine CSF proteomes can provide a valuable resource for studying central nervous system injury and disease in animal models. However, the small volume of CSF in mice has thus far limited individual mouse proteome characterization. Through non-terminal CSF extractions in C57Bl/6 mice and high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of individual murine samples, we report the most comprehensive proteome characterization of individual murine CSF to date. Utilizing stringent protein inclusion criteria that required the identification of at least two unique peptides (1% false discovery rate at the peptide level) we identified a total of 566 unique proteins, including 128 proteins from three individual CSF samples that have been previously identified in brain tissue. Our methods and analysis provide a mechanism for individual murine CSF proteome analysis.

  12. Individual differences, intelligence, and behavior analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  13. On the Individuality of Sleep EEG Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Achim; Rosipal, Roman; Dorffner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Research in recent years has supported the hypothesis that many properties of the electroencephalogram (EEG) are specific to an individual. In this study, the intra- and inter-individual variations of sleep EEG signals were investigated. This was carried out by analyzing the stability of the average EEG spectra individually computed for the Rechtschaffen and Kales (RK) sleep stages. Six EEG channels were used to account for the topographical aspect of the analysis. Validity of the results was supported by considering a wide dataset of 174 subjects with normal sleep. Subjects spent two consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory during which EEG recordings were obtained. High similarity between average spectra of two consecutive nights was found considering an individual. More than 89% of the second night recordings were correctly assigned to their counterparts of the first night. The average spectra of sleep EEG computed for each RK sleep stage have shown a high degree of individuality. PMID:23997385

  14. Individual Differences, Intelligence, and Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ben; Myerson, Joel; Hale, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Despite its avowed goal of understanding individual behavior, the field of behavior analysis has largely ignored the determinants of consistent differences in level of performance among individuals. The present article discusses major findings in the study of individual differences in intelligence from the conceptual framework of a functional analysis of behavior. In addition to general intelligence, we discuss three other major aspects of behavior in which individuals differ: speed of processing, working memory, and the learning of three-term contingencies. Despite recent progress in our understanding of the relations among these aspects of behavior, numerous issues remain unresolved. Researchers need to determine which learning tasks predict individual differences in intelligence and which do not, and then identify the specific characteristics of these tasks that make such prediction possible. PMID:18831127

  15. Individualizing Colonoscopy Screening by Gender and Race

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Boer, Rob; Wilschut, Janneke; Winawer, Sidney J.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increasing discussion whether colorectal cancer (CRC) screening guidelines should be individualized by gender and race. OBJECTIVES To determine individualized colonoscopic screening guidelines by gender and race for the average-risk population and to compare the cost-effectiveness of this approach to that of uniform guidelines for all. DESIGN We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate life-expectancy and lifetime CRC screening and treatment costs in a US cohort of black and white men and women at average risk for CRC. We compared the base case strategy of no screening and 3 competing colonoscopy strategies: (1) the currently recommended “uniform 10-yearly colonoscopy from age 50”, (2) with a shorter interval “uniform 8- yearly colonoscopy from age 51”, and (3) “individualized screening according to gender and race”. RESULTS The base case strategy of no screening was the least expensive, yet least effective. The uniform 10-yearly colonoscopy strategy was dominated. The uniform 8- yearly colonoscopy and individualized strategies both increased life-expectancy by 0.0433-0.0435 years per individual at a cost of $15,565 per life-year gained. In the individualized strategy, African Americans began screening 6 years earlier with a 1 year shorter interval compared to whites. The individualized policies were essentially the same for men and women, because the higher CRC risk in men is offset by their shorter life-expectancy. The results were robust for changes in model assumptions. CONCLUSIONS The improvements in costs and effects of individualizing on a population level were only marginal. Individualized guidelines, however, could contribute to decreasing disparities between African Americans and whites. The acceptability and feasibility of individualized guidelines should therefore be explored. PMID:19467539

  16. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  17. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F.; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques. PMID:27486415

  18. Life on Earth is an individual.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida

    2016-06-01

    Life is a self-maintaining process based on metabolism. Something is said to be alive when it exhibits organization and is actively involved in its own continued existence through carrying out metabolic processes. A life is a spatio-temporally restricted event, which continues while the life processes are occurring in a particular chunk of matter (or, arguably, when they are temporally suspended, but can be restarted at any moment), even though there is continuous replacement of parts. Life is organized in discrete packages, particular cells and multicellular organisms with differing degrees of individuality. Biological species, too, have been shown to be individuals, and not classes, as these collections of organisms are spatio-temporally localized, restricted, continuous, and somewhat cohesive entities, with a definite beginning and end. Assuming that all life on Earth has a common origin, all living organisms, cells, and tissues descending from this origin exhibit continuity of the life processes at the cellular level, as well as many of the features that define the individual character of species: spatio-temporal localization and restriction, continuity, historicity, and cohesiveness. Therefore, life on Earth is an ontological individual. Independent origins of life will have produced other such individuals. These provisionally called 'life-individuals' constitute a category of organization of life which has seldom been recognized. The discovery of at least one independent life-individual would go a long way toward the project of the universality of biology. PMID:26907555

  19. Bayesian Analysis of Individual Level Personality Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Edward; Wood, Robert E; Beckmann, Nadin; Lau, John; Beckmann, Jens F; Cripps, Sally Ann

    2016-01-01

    A Bayesian technique with analyses of within-person processes at the level of the individual is presented. The approach is used to examine whether the patterns of within-person responses on a 12-trial simulation task are consistent with the predictions of ITA theory (Dweck, 1999). ITA theory states that the performance of an individual with an entity theory of ability is more likely to spiral down following a failure experience than the performance of an individual with an incremental theory of ability. This is because entity theorists interpret failure experiences as evidence of a lack of ability which they believe is largely innate and therefore relatively fixed; whilst incremental theorists believe in the malleability of abilities and interpret failure experiences as evidence of more controllable factors such as poor strategy or lack of effort. The results of our analyses support ITA theory at both the within- and between-person levels of analyses and demonstrate the benefits of Bayesian techniques for the analysis of within-person processes. These include more formal specification of the theory and the ability to draw inferences about each individual, which allows for more nuanced interpretations of individuals within a personality category, such as differences in the individual probabilities of spiraling. While Bayesian techniques have many potential advantages for the analyses of processes at the level of the individual, ease of use is not one of them for psychologists trained in traditional frequentist statistical techniques. PMID:27486415

  20. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Andrew MR; Peake, Tom M; McGregor, Peter K

    2005-01-01

    Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time. We present case studies in birds where vocal individuality has been applied to conservation and we discuss its role in mammals. PMID:15960848

  1. Strength Training in Individuals with Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Janice J

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper reviews the mechanisms underlying the inability to generate force in individuals with stroke and summarizes the effects of strength training in these individuals. In addition, a systematic review of studies that have incorporated progressive strengthening interventions in individuals with stroke is presented. Summary of Key Points Central (e.g., motor recruitment) and peripheral (e.g., muscle atrophy) sources may alter muscle strength in individuals with stroke and further investigations are needed to partition and quantify their effects. As to the effect of strength training interventions in individuals with stroke, the majority of studies (albeit with small samples) that evaluated muscle strength as an outcome demonstrated improvements. With regard to the effect of strength training on functional outcomes in individuals with stroke, positive outcomes were found in less rigorous pre-test/post-test studies, but more conflicting results with controlled trials. Conclusions Although there is some suggestion that strength training alone can improve muscle strength, further research is required to optimize strength training and the transfer of these strength gains to functional tasks in individuals with stroke. PMID:23255839

  2. An ontogenetic perspective on individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Senner, Nathan R.; Conklin, Jesse R.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals can arise during any stage of life. Although several distinct processes underlying individual differences have been defined and studied (e.g. parental effects, senescence), we lack an explicit, unified perspective for understanding how these processes contribute separately and synergistically to observed variation in functional traits. We propose a conceptual framework based on a developmental view of life-history variation, linking each ontogenetic stage with the types of individual differences originating during that period. In our view, the salient differences among these types are encapsulated by three key criteria: timing of onset, when fitness consequences are realized, and potential for reversibility. To fill a critical gap in this framework, we formulate a new term to refer to individual differences generated during adulthood—reversible state effects. We define these as ‘reversible changes in a functional trait resulting from life-history trade-offs during adulthood that affect fitness’, highlighting how the adult phenotype can be repeatedly altered in response to environmental variation. Defining individual differences in terms of trade-offs allows explicit predictions regarding when and where fitness consequences should be expected. Moreover, viewing individual differences in a developmental context highlights how different processes can work in concert to shape phenotype and fitness, and lays a foundation for research linking individual differences to ecological and evolutionary theory. PMID:26336173

  3. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  4. Predicting future violence among individuals with psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Coid, Jeremy W; Ullrich, Simone; Kallis, Constantinos

    2013-11-01

    Structured risk assessment aims to help clinicians classify offenders according to likelihood of future violent and criminal behaviour. We investigated how confident clinicians can be using three commonly used instruments (HCR-20, VRAG, OGRS-II) in individuals with different diagnoses. Moderate to good predictive accuracy for future violence was achieved for released prisoners with no mental disorder, low to moderate for clinical syndromes and personality disorder, but accuracy was no better than chance for individuals with psychopathy. Comprehensive diagnostic assessment should precede an assessment of risk. Risk assessment instruments cannot be relied upon when managing public risk from individuals with psychopathy. PMID:24072757

  5. Why clinicians should embrace individual budgets.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Simon John

    2012-06-01

    The use of individual budgets in healthcare marks the beginning of a new set of opportunities for clinicians to collaborate with their patients and use approaches that are not limited to traditional medical treatments. Individual budgets will be particularly valuable in areas of healthcare where increased patient control, responsiveness, creativity or personalisation are useful. Individual budgets are likely to be particularly useful for people with chronic health conditions or mental health needs and for those people who are at the end of life. PMID:24654045

  6. Organ Transplantation for Individuals with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Overby, Kim J; Fins, Joseph J

    2016-04-01

    In 1996, Sandra Jensen became the first person with Down syndrome to receive a heart-lung transplant. Although it took place almost 20 years ago, her experience continues to shed light on contemporary challenges that individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders face in securing access to transplantation. While overt discrimination has decreased, barriers persist in physician referrals, center-specific decisionmaking regarding wait-listing, and the provision of accommodations for optimizing the assessment and medical management of these individuals. These issues arise from the persistent biases and assumptions of individuals as well as those of a healthcare system that is inadequately positioned to optimally serve the medical needs of the growing number of individuals with functional impairments. More data and greater transparency are needed to understand the nature and extent of ongoing access problems; however, long-term solutions will require changes at the healthcare professional, regional transplant center, and national levels. PMID:26957452

  7. 48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and GSAR 501.403... Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant...

  8. 48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403 Individual deviations. (a) The Director, PAM, is authorized to approve deviations of FAR provisions (see FAR 1.4)...

  9. An Individualized Approach to Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigden, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Explains individualization of a physics course in terms of organization, testing, and philosophy. Organization of laboratory and lecture is focused on two topics, classical mechanics and relativity theory. The testing consists of quantitative and qualitative questions. (DS)

  10. [Individual pressure tolerance--a "target" pressure?].

    PubMed

    Bogdănici, C; Vancea, P P

    1999-01-01

    In literature there are many meanings for the limit between normal and pathological intraocular pressure: "normative pressure", "critic pressure", "individual tolerance pressure" and "target pressure". The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that these terms are synonymous. PMID:10756882

  11. Combining Individual Psychodynamics with Structural Family Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melito, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Presents integrative framework for combining central aspects of individual psychodynamics with structural family therapy in meaningful way. Explains how framework derives from developmental perspective. Presents case example to illustrate combined approach and demonstrate its utility. (Author/NB)

  12. Beyond Individual Leader Development: Cultivating Collective Capacities.

    PubMed

    Dugan, John P; Turman, Natasha T; Torrez, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    This chapter addresses the overemphasis on individual-leader development in leadership education, offering insights and pragmatic approaches for advancing collective leadership focused on social and political change. PMID:26895165

  13. [Individual and environmental antecedents of mobbing].

    PubMed

    Mościcka, Agnieszka; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the most common risk factors of bullying at the workplace. In the relevant literature one can find two main classes of bullying risk factors: environmental and individual. The most important environmental predictors of bullying are negative social climate, ineffective social communication and poor work organization. Among individual risk factors of bullying the most frequently pointed are functional features, such as low level of assertiveness, lack of social skills, ineffective coping with difficult situations and the few relatively stable individual characteristics, like neuroticism, trait anxiety, hostility and aggression. Most authors underline the crucial role of environmental factors in the development of bullying, and the individual characteristics of persons involved in this pathological relation are usually seen as the modifiers of bullying process. PMID:20865859

  14. Parcellating Cortical Functional Networks in Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Danhong; Buckner, Randy L.; Fox, Michael D.; Holt, Daphne J.; Holmes, Avram J.; Stoecklein, Sophia; Langs, Georg; Pan, Ruiqi; Qian, Tianyi; Li, Kuncheng; Baker, Justin T.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xiaomin; Hong, Bo; Liu, Hesheng

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to identify the unique functional architecture of an individual’s brain is a critical step towards personalized medicine and understanding the neural basis of variations in human cognition and behavior. Here, we developed a novel cortical parcellation approach to accurately map functional organization at the individual level using resting-state fMRI. A population-based functional atlas and a map of inter-individual variability were employed to guide the iterative search for functional networks in individual subjects. Functional networks mapped by this approach were highly reproducible within subjects and effectively captured the variability across subjects, including individual differences in brain lateralization. The algorithm performed well across different subject populations and data types including task fMRI data. The approach was then validated by invasive cortical stimulation mapping in surgical patients, suggesting great potential for use in clinical applications. PMID:26551545

  15. Composite weld rod corrects individual filler weaknesses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldo, S.

    1967-01-01

    Composite filler wire welds together an assembly made from components of Rene 41 nickel base alloy. Using equal parts of Rene 41 and Hastelloy W weld wire in the filler reduces the cracking and weaknesses of the individual parent metals.

  16. New Generation IGRA in Immunocompromised Individuals

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-05

    Monitoring, Immunologic; Active Tuberculosis; Tuberculosis in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients; Tuberculosis in Marrow Transplant Recipients; Tuberculosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis; Tuberculosis in Chronic Renal Failure; Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Individuals

  17. Individualized Development Plan for Female Electronic Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Helena; D'Anna, Lee

    1991-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, 17 female electronic technicians participated in an individual development plan involving mentoring, basic education, and technical training. Four have been promoted, six are pursuing associate or bachelor's degrees, and two are pursuing certification. (SK)

  18. Media, Individualized Instruction, and Clothing Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Naomi

    1975-01-01

    A system for teaching clothing design (draping or flat pattern) and advanced construction techniques by means of individualized instruction utilizing 8mm color sound filmloop is described. (Author/HB)

  19. Investigating Inter-Individual Differences in Short-Term Intra-Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this article we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models…

  20. Semiotic individuation and Ernst Cassirer's challenge.

    PubMed

    Hoffmeyer, Jesper

    2015-12-01

    The concept of individuation has suffered from its being mostly connected with Jungian psychology or nominalist philosophy. In this paper, "individuation" will be understood rather as a process; and in particular, as a series of stages (morphological and/or cognitive) that an organism passes through during its lifespan. In most species, individuation is restricted to a short period in early life, as when birds acquire their species specific songs; while in humans - and a few other species of birds or mammals (although to a much lesser degree) - individuation is a life-long, open-ended process. In this understanding, individuation becomes narrowly connected to learning. And since learning necessarily depends on what is already learned, the trajectory of learning-based individuation is necessarily indefinite and dependent on the concrete chance events and steps whereby the process has proceeded. Semiotic individuation is a historical process, and this fact explains why systems biology, as established by Ludwig van Bertalanffy, has not been capable of meeting the hope, expressed long ago by Ernst Cassirer, of bridging the mechanicist-vitalist gap in biology. Instead, a semiotic approach is called for. Human individuation, moreover, is special in a very important sense: language use implies that humans from earliest childhood inescapably become entangled in an 'as-if-world', a virtual reality, a story about who we are and how our life 'here and now' belongs within our own life-history, as well as within the greater pattern of the world around us. Human individuation is thus a double-tracked process, consisting in an incessant reconciliation or negotiation between the virtual reality that we have constructed in our minds and mind-independent reality as it impresses itself upon our lives. Human life cannot therefore be defined by its uniqueness as a particular genetic combination, but must be instead be defined by its uniqueness as a temporal outcome of semiotic

  1. Ocular Syphilis among HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Tucker, Joseph D.; Lobo, Ann-Marie; Marra, Christina M.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Papaliodis, George N.; Felsenstein, Donna; Durand, Marlene L.; Yawetz, Sigal; Robbins, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individual with ocular manifestations of secondary syphilis. Twelve other cases of HIV-associated ocular syphilis are also presented. Six of 12 individuals had normal cerebrospinal fluid study results, and 3 patients required retreatment within 1.5 years. In patients with HIV infection, clinicians should be vigilant for ocular syphilis despite normal cerebrospinal fluid measures and for syphilis reinfection. PMID:20604717

  2. Testing the individual effective dose hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hung T; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The assumption of the individual effective dose is the basis for the probit method used for analyzing dose or concentration-response data. According to this assumption, each individual has a uniquely innate tolerance expressed as the individual effective dose (IED) or the smallest dose that is sufficient to kill the individual. An alternative to IED, stochasticity suggests that individuals do not have uniquely innate tolerance; deaths result from random processes occurring among similar individuals. Although the probit method has been used extensively in toxicology, the underlying assumption has not been tested rigorously. The goal of the present study was to test which assumption, IED or stochasticity, best explained the response of Daphnia magna exposed to multiple pulses of copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) over 24 d. Daphnia magna were exposed to subsequent age-dependent 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of copper (Cu). Age-dependent 24-h LC50 values and Cu depuration test were determined prior to the 24-d bioassay. The LC50 values were inversely related to organism age. The Cu depuration of D. magna did not depend on age or Cu concentration, and 5 d was sufficient recovery time. Daphnia magna were exposed to 4 24-h Cu exposures, and surviving organisms after each exposure were transferred to Cu-free culture media for recovery before the next exposure. Stochasticity appropriately explained the survival and reproduction response of D. magna exposed to Cu. PMID:24318469

  3. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hizen, Yoichi; Kamijo, Yoshio; Okano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear. PMID:27148871

  4. Preemptive Striking in Individual and Group Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Mifune, Nobuhiro; Hizen, Yoichi; Kamijo, Yoshio; Okano, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a laboratory experiment to assess preemptive striking by and towards individuals or groups. In the framework of a preemptive strike game, we set the following four conditions: one person faced another person, one person faced a three-person group, a three-person group faced an individual, and a three-person group faced another three-person group. Previous studies have revealed that greed is activated when participants belong to a group, while fear is activated when participants interact with a group, and further, that attacking behaviors in the preemptive strike game are driven by fear. These observations led to a hypothesis that high attack rates would be realized when participants interact with a group, regardless of whether the participants make decisions as individuals or a group. The results of our experiment, however, rejected this hypothesis. Among the four conditions, the attack rate was highest when a three-person group faced an individual. As possible reasons for our observation, we discuss the potential threat stemming from the imbalance in the effectiveness of attack between individuals and groups, and the (incorrect) belief by groups that single individuals would be more likely to attack out of fear. PMID:27148871

  5. Joint Individual-Group Modeling for Tracking.

    PubMed

    Bazzani, Loris; Zanotto, Matteo; Cristani, Marco; Murino, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel probabilistic framework that jointly models individuals and groups for tracking. Managing groups is challenging, primarily because of their nonlinear dynamics and complex layout which lead to repeated splitting and merging events. The proposed approach assumes a tight relation of mutual support between the modeling of individuals and groups, promoting the idea that groups are better modeled if individuals are considered and vice versa. This concept is translated in a mathematical model using a decentralized particle filtering framework which deals with a joint individual-group state space. The model factorizes the joint space into two dependent subspaces, where individuals and groups share the knowledge of the joint individual-group distribution. The assignment of people to the different groups (and thus group initialization, split and merge) is implemented by two alternative strategies: using classifiers trained beforehand on statistics of group configurations, and through online learning of a Dirichlet process mixture model, assuming that no training data is available before tracking. These strategies lead to two different methods that can be used on top of any person detector (simulated using the ground truth in our experiments). We provide convincing results on two recent challenging tracking benchmarks. PMID:26353291

  6. Individual differneces in degraded speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Kathy M.

    One of the lasting concerns in audiology is the unexplained individual differences in speech perception performance even for individuals with similar audiograms. One proposal is that there are cognitive/perceptual individual differences underlying this vulnerability and that these differences are present in normal hearing (NH) individuals but do not reveal themselves in studies that use clear speech produced in quiet (because of a ceiling effect). However, previous studies have failed to uncover cognitive/perceptual variables that explain much of the variance in NH performance on more challenging degraded speech tasks. This lack of strong correlations may be due to either examining the wrong measures (e.g., working memory capacity) or to there being no reliable differences in degraded speech performance in NH listeners (i.e., variability in performance is due to measurement noise). The proposed project has 3 aims; the first, is to establish whether there are reliable individual differences in degraded speech performance for NH listeners that are sustained both across degradation types (speech in noise, compressed speech, noise-vocoded speech) and across multiple testing sessions. The second aim is to establish whether there are reliable differences in NH listeners' ability to adapt their phonetic categories based on short-term statistics both across tasks and across sessions; and finally, to determine whether performance on degraded speech perception tasks are correlated with performance on phonetic adaptability tasks, thus establishing a possible explanatory variable for individual differences in speech perception for NH and hearing impaired listeners.

  7. Myers-Briggs typology and Jungian individuation.

    PubMed

    Myers, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation. PMID:27192365

  8. The development of individuation in autism

    PubMed Central

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Franconeri, Steven; Wright, Catherine; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that people with autism use holistic information differently than typical adults. The current studies examine this possibility by investigating how core visual processes that contribute to holistic processing – individuation and element grouping – develop in participants with autism and typically developing (TD) participants matched for age, IQ and gender. Individuation refers to the ability to `see' up to 4 elements simultaneously; grouping these elements can change the number of elements that are rapidly apprehended. We examined these core processes using two well-established paradigms, rapid enumeration and multiple object tracking (MOT). In both tasks, a performance limit of about 4 elements in adulthood is thought to reflect individuation capacity. Participants with autism has a smaller individuation capacity than TD controls, regardless of whether they were enumerating static elements or tracking moving ones. To manipulate holistic information and individuation performance, we grouped the elements into a design or had elements move together. Participants with autism were affected to a similar degree as TD participants by the holistic information, whether the manipulation helped or hurt performance, consistent with evidence that some types of gestalt/grouping information are processed typically in autism. There was substantial development in autism from childhood to adolescence, but not from adolescence to adulthood, a pattern distinct from TD participants. These results provide important information about core visual processes in autism, as well as insight into the architecture of vision (e.g., individuation appears distinct from visual strengths in autism, such as visual search, despite similarities). PMID:22963232

  9. Individual neurophysiological profile in external effects investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schastlivtseva, Daria; Tatiana Kotrovskaya, D..

    Cortex biopotentials are the significant elements in human psychophysiological individuality. Considered that cortical biopotentials are diverse and individually stable, therefore there is the existence of certain dependence between the basic properties of higher nervous activity and cerebral bioelectric activity. The main purpose of the study was to reveal the individual neurophysiological profile and CNS initial functional state manifestation in human electroencephalogram (EEG) under effect of inert gases (argon, xenon, helium), hypoxia, pressure changes (0.02 and 0.2 MPa). We obtained 5-minute eyes closed background EEG on 19 scalp positions using Ag/AgCl electrodes mounted in an electrode cap. All EEG signals were re-referenced to average earlobes; Fast Furies Transformation analysis was used to calculate the relative power spectrum of delta-, theta-, alpha- and beta frequency band in artifact-free EEG. The study involved 26 healthy men who provided written informed consent, aged 20 to 35 years. Data obtained depend as individual EEG type and initial central nervous functional state as intensity, duration and mix of factors. Pronounced alpha rhythm in the raw EEG correlated with their adaptive capacity under studied factor exposure. Representation change and zonal distribution perversion of EEG alpha rhythm were accompanied by emotional instability, increased anxiety and difficulty adapting subjects. High power factor or combination factor with psychological and emotional or physical exertion minimizes individual EEG pattern.

  10. Red junglefowl have individual body odors.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Anna-Carin; Jensen, Per; Elgland, Mathias; Laur, Katriann; Fyrner, Timmy; Konradsson, Peter; Laska, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Olfaction may play an important role in regulating bird behavior, and has been suggested to be involved in feather-pecking. We investigated possible differences in the body odors of red junglefowl females by using an automated olfactometer which assessed the ability of trained mice to discriminate between the odors of uropygial gland secretions (the main carrier of potential individual odors in chickens) of six feather-pecked and six non-pecked birds. All mice were clearly able to discriminate between all individual red junglefowl odors, showing that each bird has an individual body odor. We analyzed whether it was more difficult to discriminate between the odors of two feather-pecked, or two non-pecked birds, than it was to discriminate between the odors of two randomly selected birds. This was not the case, suggesting that feather-pecked birds did not share a common odor signature. Analyses using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that the composition of aliphatic carboxylic acids in uropygial gland secretions differed consistently between individuals. However, chemical composition did not vary according to feather-pecking status. We conclude that red junglefowl have individual body odors which appear to be largely based on differences in the relative abundance of aliphatic carboxylic acids, but there is no evidence of systematic differences between the body odors of pecked and non-pecked birds. PMID:20435811

  11. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    PubMed

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory. PMID:15222460

  12. Piecewise power laws in individual learning curves.

    PubMed

    Donner, Yoni; Hardy, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    The notion that human learning follows a smooth power law (PL) of diminishing gains is well-established in psychology. This characteristic is observed when multiple curves are averaged, potentially masking more complex dynamics underpinning the curves of individual learners. Here, we analyzed 25,280 individual learning curves, each comprising 500 measurements of cognitive performance taken from four cognitive tasks. A piecewise PL (PPL) model explained the individual learning curves significantly better than a single PL, controlling for model complexity. The PPL model allows for multiple PLs connected at different points in the learning process. We also explored the transition dynamics between PL curve component pieces. Performance in later pieces typically surpassed that in earlier pieces, after a brief drop in performance at the transition point. The transition rate was negatively associated with age, even after controlling for overall performance. Our results suggest at least two processes at work in individual learning curves: locally, a gradual, smooth improvement, with diminishing gains within a specific strategy, which is modeled well as a PL; and globally, a discrete sequence of strategy shifts, in which each strategy is better in the long term than the ones preceding it. The piecewise extension of the classic PL of practice has implications for both individual skill acquisition and theories of learning. PMID:25711183

  13. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    PubMed

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371400

  14. Gait termination in individuals with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roeing, Kathleen L; Wajda, Douglas A; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2015-09-01

    Despite the ubiquitous nature of gait impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), there is limited information concerning the control of gait termination in individuals with MS. The purpose of this investigation was to examine planned gait termination in individuals with MS and healthy controls with and without cognitive distractors. Individuals with MS and age matched controls completed a series of gait termination tasks over a pressure sensitive walkway under non-distracting and cognitively distracting conditions. As expected the MS group had a lower velocity (89.9±33.3 cm/s) than controls (142.8±22.4 cm/s) and there was a significant reduction in velocity in both groups under the cognitive distracting conditions (MS: 73.9±30.7 cm/s; control: 120.0±25.9 cm/s). Although individuals with MS walked slower, there was no difference between groups in the rate a participant failed to stop at the target (i.e. failure rate). Overall failure rate had a 10-fold increase in the cognitively distracting condition across groups. Individuals with MS were more unstable during termination. Future research examining the neuromuscular mechanisms contributing to gait termination is warranted. PMID:26228021

  15. Inter occasion variability in individual optimal design.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersson, Anders N; Friberg, Lena E; Nyberg, Joakim

    2015-12-01

    Inter occasion variability (IOV) is of importance to consider in the development of a design where individual pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic parameters are of interest. IOV may adversely affect the precision of maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimated individual parameters, yet the influence of inclusion of IOV in optimal design for estimation of individual parameters has not been investigated. In this work two methods of including IOV in the maximum a posteriori Fisher information matrix (FIMMAP) are evaluated: (i) MAP occ-the IOV is included as a fixed effect deviation per occasion and individual, and (ii) POP occ-the IOV is included as an occasion random effect. Sparse sampling schedules were designed for two test models and compared to a scenario where IOV is ignored, either by omitting known IOV (Omit) or by mimicking a situation where unknown IOV has inflated the IIV (Inflate). Accounting for IOV in the FIMMAP markedly affected the designs compared to ignoring IOV and, as evaluated by stochastic simulation and estimation, resulted in superior precision in the individual parameters. In addition MAPocc and POP occ accurately predicted precision and shrinkage. For the investigated designs, the MAP occ method was on average slightly superior to POP occ and was less computationally intensive. PMID:26452548

  16. Read-based phasing of related individuals

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Martin, Marcel; Marschall, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Read-based phasing deduces the haplotypes of an individual from sequencing reads that cover multiple variants, while genetic phasing takes only genotypes as input and applies the rules of Mendelian inheritance to infer haplotypes within a pedigree of individuals. Combining both into an approach that uses these two independent sources of information—reads and pedigree—has the potential to deliver results better than each individually. Results: We provide a theoretical framework combining read-based phasing with genetic haplotyping, and describe a fixed-parameter algorithm and its implementation for finding an optimal solution. We show that leveraging reads of related individuals jointly in this way yields more phased variants and at a higher accuracy than when phased separately, both in simulated and real data. Coverages as low as 2× for each member of a trio yield haplotypes that are as accurate as when analyzed separately at 15× coverage per individual. Availability and Implementation: https://bitbucket.org/whatshap/whatshap Contact: t.marschall@mpi-inf.mpg.de PMID:27307622

  17. Autoantibodies in nonautoimmune individuals during infections.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Tatiana; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Blank, Miri; Matthias, Torsten; Pfeiffer, Sascha; Weis, Ingrid; Toubi, Elias; Singh, Sham; Asherson, Ronald; Fraser, Abigail; Gilburd, Boris; Sapir, Tal; Levy, Yair; Lukac, Janja; Rozman, Blaz; Kveder, Tanja; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2007-06-01

    Infections can act as environmental triggers inducing or promoting autoimmune disease in genetically predisposed individuals. Identification of microbial peptides similar to self-tissues may by molecular mimicry, provide the inducing mechanism for an immune response. The aim of this study was to identify autoantibodies (autoAbs) in nonautoimmune individuals during acute bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections. Specific Abs or specific infections with an increased autoAb load may shed insight into the mechanisms of autoimmune disease. Sera from 88 patients with acute infections (41 bacterial, 23 viral, 17 parasitic, and 7 rickettsial) were tested by the ELISA method for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) 8 Pro, and Abs to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin, phospholipids, annexin-V, laminin, anti-Saccharomyces cervisiae (ASCA), and prothrombin, along with 80 normal controls. Elevated titers of Abs to annexin-V and prothrombin were the most prevalent in viral, parasitic, and rickettsial infections and to laminin in viral and parasitic infections. Elevated titers of ASCA and ANA were found in viral and bacterial infections. Antiphospholipid Abs were found in parasitic and Q-fever infections. Thirty-four individuals harbored elevated titers of at least two Abs. An autoAb burden was detected in individuals with hepatitis A, hepatitis B, toxoplasma or Q-fever infections. In nonautoimmune individuals with various (bacterial, viral, parasitic, and rickettsial) infections, elevated titers of Abs to annexin-V, prothrombin, laminin, ASCA, ANA, and phospholipids were most frequently detected. PMID:17894023

  18. Predicting individual fusional range from optometric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrikhovski, Serguei; Jin, Elaine; Miller, Michael E.; Ford, Robert W.

    2005-03-01

    A model was developed to predict the range of disparities that can be fused by an individual user from optometric measurements. This model uses parameters, such as dissociated phoria and fusional reserves, to calculate an individual user"s fusional range (i.e., the disparities that can be fused on stereoscopic displays) when the user views a stereoscopic stimulus from various distances. This model is validated by comparing its output with data from a study in which the individual fusional range of a group of users was quantified while they viewed a stereoscopic display from distances of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 meters. Overall, the model provides good data predictions for the majority of the subjects and can be generalized for other viewing conditions. The model may, therefore, be used within a customized stereoscopic system, which would render stereoscopic information in a way that accounts for the individual differences in fusional range. Because the comfort of an individual user also depends on the user"s ability to fuse stereo images, such a system may, consequently, improve the comfort level and viewing experience for people with different stereoscopic fusional capabilities.

  19. Individual-specific antibody identification methods

    DOEpatents

    Francoeur, Ann -Michele

    1989-11-14

    An identification method, applicable to the identification of animals or inanimate objects, is described. The method takes advantage of a hithertofore unknown set of individual-specific, or IS antibodies, that are part of the unique antibody repertoire present in animals, by reacting an effective amount of IS antibodies with a particular panel, or n-dimensional array (where n is typically one or two) consisting of an effective amount of many different antigens (typically greater than one thousand), to give antibody-antigen complexes. The profile or pattern formed by the antigen-antibody complexes, termed an antibody fingerprint, when revealed by an effective amount of an appropriate detector molecule, is uniquely representative of a particular individual. The method can similarly by used to distinguish genetically, or otherwise similar individuals, or their body parts containing IS antibodies. Identification of inanimate objects, particularly security documents, is similarly affected by associating with the documents, an effective amount of a particular individual's IS antibodies, or conversely, a particular panel of antigens, and forming antibody-antigen complexes with a particular panel of antigens, or a particular individual's IS antibodies, respectively. One embodiment of the instant identification method, termed the blocked fingerprint assay, has applications in the area of allergy testing, autoimmune diagnostics and therapeutics, and the detection of environmental antigens such as pathogens, chemicals, and toxins.

  20. Sortal concepts, object individuation, and language.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei

    2007-09-01

    Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary enterprise. This review highlights how the philosophical notion of a 'sortal'--a concept that provides principles of individuation and principles of identity - has been introduced into cognitive developmental psychology. Although the notion 'sortal' originated in metaphysics, importing it into the cognitive sciences has bridged a gap between philosophical and psychological discussions of concepts and has generated a fruitful and productive research enterprise. As I review here, the sortal concept has inspired several lines of empirical work in the past decade, including the study of object individuation; object identification; the relationship between language and acquisition of kind concepts; the representational capacities of non-human primates; object-based attention and cognitive architecture; and the relationship between kind concepts and individual concepts. PMID:17698404

  1. Memory Awareness in Individuals with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Desirée A.; Best, Catherine A.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known regarding metacognition in individuals with autism. Specifically, it is unclear how individuals with autism think about their own mental states. The current study assessed memory awareness during a facial recognition task. High-functioning children (M=13,1 years, n=18) and adults (M=27.5 years, n =16) with autism matched with typically developing children (M =14.3 years, n =13) and adults (M =26.9 years, n=15) were tested. Children with autism demonstrated less accurate memory awareness and less reliable differentiation between their confidence ratings compared to typically developing children. Subtle impairments in memory awareness were also evident in adults with autism. Results indicate that broader metacognitive deficits may exist in individuals with autism, possibly contributing to other known impairments. PMID:20300817

  2. Individualism/collectivism and organizational citizenship behavior.

    PubMed

    Dávila de León, María Celeste; Finkelstein, Marcia A

    2011-08-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) are workplace activities that exceed an employee's formal job requirements and contribute to the effective functioning of the organization. We explored the roles of the dispositional traits of individualism and collectivism in the prediction of OCB. The relationship was examined in the context of other constructs known to influence OCB, specifically, motives and identity as an organizational citizen. A total of 367 employees in 24 organizations completed surveys measuring individualism/collectivism, OCB motives, strength of organizational citizen role identity, and amount of OCB. The results showed collectivism to be a significant predictor of Organizational Concern and Prosocial Values motives, role identity, and OCB. Individualism predicted Impression Management motives and was a significant negative predictor of a role identity as one who helps others. The findings are discussed with regard to previous research in OCB. PMID:21774892

  3. Individual variation by self-organisation.

    PubMed

    Hemelrijk, C K; Wantia, J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we show that differences in dominance and spatial centrality of individuals in a group may arise through self-organisation. Our instrument is a model, called DomWorld, that represents two traits that are often found in animals, namely grouping and competing. In this model individual differences grow under the following conditions: (1) when the intensity of aggression increases and grouping becomes denser, (2) when the degree of sexual dimorphism in fighting power increases. In this case the differences among females compared to males grow too, (3) when, upon encountering another individual, the tendency to attack is 'obligate' and not conditional, namely 'sensitive to risks'. Results resemble phenomena described for societies of primates, mice, birds and pigs. PMID:15652260

  4. The human transcriptome across tissues and individuals

    PubMed Central

    Melé, Marta; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Reverter, Ferran; DeLuca, David S.; Monlong, Jean; Sammeth, Michael; Young, Taylor R.; Goldmann, Jakob M; Pervouchine, Dmitri D.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Johnson, Rory; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Djebali, Sarah; Niarchou, Anastasia; Wright, Fred A.; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Calvo, Miquel; Getz, Gad; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Ardlie, Kristin G.; Guigó, Roderic

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation and posttranscriptional processing underlie many cellular and organismal phenotypes. We used RNA sequence data generated by Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project to investigate the patterns of transcriptome variation across individuals and tissues. Tissues exhibit characteristic transcriptional signatures that show stability in postmortem samples. These signatures are dominated by a relatively small number of genes—which is most clearly seen in blood—though few are exclusive to a particular tissue and vary more across tissues than individuals. Genes exhibiting high interindividual expression variation include disease candidates associated with sex, ethnicity, and age. Primary transcription is the major driver of cellular specificity, with splicing playing mostly a complementary role; except for the brain, which exhibits a more divergent splicing program. Variation in splicing, despite its stochasticity, may play in contrast a comparatively greater role in defining individual phenotypes. PMID:25954002

  5. Individual Hearing Loss: Characterization, Modelling, Compensation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Andersen, Ture; Poulsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that hearing loss does not only lead to a reduction of hearing sensitivity. Large individual differences are typically observed among listeners with hearing impairment in a wide range of suprathreshold auditory measures. In many cases, audiometric thresholds cannot fully account for such individual differences, which make it challenging to find adequate compensation strategies in hearing devices. How to characterize, model, and compensate for individual hearing loss were the main topics of the fifth International Symposium on Auditory and Audiological Research (ISAAR), held in Nyborg, Denmark, in August 2015. The following collection of papers results from some of the work that was presented and discussed at the symposium. PMID:27566802

  6. Individuals' openness to migrate and job mobility.

    PubMed

    Huinink, Johannes; Vidal, Sergi; Kley, Stefanie

    2014-03-01

    In this article we extend the scope of the interdependence between migration and job mobility: We investigate whether an individual's openness to migrate not only increases the probability of migration but also the likelihood to conduct a job search and exhibit job mobility. Using data from a three-wave panel study, which allows the analysis of temporal links between decision-making and subsequent events regarding migration and job mobility, a joint estimation of multiple equations is performed. We show that considering migration as an option for the future, which is our indicator of individuals' openness to migrate, is positively associated with both migration and job mobility. It even increases job mobility independently of whether migration takes place or not. These findings contribute significantly to our body of knowledge about the interdependence of migration and job mobility. Additionally, they enhance our understanding of the mechanisms behind a common selectivity of migrants and job mobile individuals. PMID:24468430

  7. Individual-based ecology of coastal birds.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Richard A; Goss-Custard, John D

    2010-08-01

    Conservation objectives for non-breeding coastal birds (shorebirds and wildfowl) are determined from their population size at coastal sites. To advise coastal managers, models must predict quantitatively the effects of environmental change on population size or the demographic rates (mortality and reproduction) that determine it. As habitat association models and depletion models are not able to do this, we developed an approach that has produced such predictions thereby enabling policy makers to make evidence-based decisions. Our conceptual framework is individual-based ecology, in which populations are viewed as having properties (e.g. size) that arise from the traits (e.g. behaviour, physiology) and interactions of their constituent individuals. The link between individuals and populations is made through individual-based models (IBMs) that follow the fitness-maximising decisions of individuals and predict population-level consequences (e.g. mortality rate) from the fates of these individuals. Our first IBM was for oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus and accurately predicted their density-dependent mortality. Subsequently, IBMs were developed for several shorebird and wildfowl species at several European sites, and were shown to predict accurately overwinter mortality, and the foraging behaviour from which predictions are derived. They have been used to predict the effect on survival in coastal birds of sea level rise, habitat loss, wind farm development, shellfishing and human disturbance. This review emphasises the wider applicability of the approach, and identifies other systems to which it could be applied. We view the IBM approach as a very useful contribution to the general problem of how to advance ecology to the point where we can routinely make meaningful predictions of how populations respond to environmental change. PMID:19961470

  8. Individualized p-Doped Carbon Nanohorns.

    PubMed

    Stergiou, Anastasios; Liu, Zheng; Xu, Bin; Kaneko, Toshiro; Ewels, Christopher P; Suenaga, Kazu; Zhang, Minfang; Yudasaka, Masako; Tagmatarchis, Nikos

    2016-08-22

    A facile approach to individualize spherically aggregated pristine carbon nanohorns (pr-CNHs) was established. Specifically, we found that treatment of pr-CNHs with chlorosulfonic acid generates positively charged polarized species, which disintegrate toward individualized carbon nanohorns (in-CNHs). Interestingly, the isolated in-CNHs were revealed to be p-doped owing to the adsorption of chlorosulfonate units. The findings were confirmed by data derived from high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and additionally supported by theoretical calculations and thermogravimetry. PMID:27444516

  9. Discrimination of SM-identified individuals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The belief that sadomasochism (SM) is violence or abusive behavior has resulted in harassment, physical attacks, and discrimination against SM-identified individuals. Historically, they were often opposed by self-identified feminists. One reason the women who practiced SM were targeted was the official opposition to sadomasochistic practices promulgated by the National Organization for Women (NOW). Current statistics of incidents of discrimination, harassment and physical attacks against SM-identified individuals and SM groups are compiled by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF). PMID:16803765

  10. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics and individualized drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Naveen L.; Weinshilboum, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of individualized drug therapy requires physicians to be able to accurately predict an individual’s response to a drug. Both genetic and environmental factors are known to influence drug response. ‘Pharmacogenetics’ is the study of the role of inheritance in variation in drug response phenotypes. Pharmacogenetics is now moving genome-wide to become ‘pharmacogenomics’, resulting in the recognition of novel biomarkers for individual variation in drug response. This article reviews the development, promise and challenges facing pharmacogenomics, using examples of drugs used to treat or prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:19707183

  11. DNA diagnosis of human genetic individuality.

    PubMed

    Pena, S D; Prado, V F; Epplen, J T

    1995-11-01

    DNA studies of the human genome have shown polymorphic variation at thousands of sites, defining an absolute genetic uniqueness for each individual. There are many circumstances in which it may be desirable to diagnose this molecular individuality, as for instance, in criminal investigations or paternity testing. Several techniques can be used for this DNA diagnosis and we can choose among them the one that best suits the specific problem at hand. In this review we describe the main methodologies in current use to investigate human DNA polymorphisms, discussing the best application of each option, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:8751139

  12. Pharmacogenetics and individualizing drug treatment during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Haas, David M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics as a tool to aid clinicians implement individualized pharmacotherapy is utilized in some areas of medicine. Pharmacogenetics in pregnancy is still a developing field. However, there are several areas of obstetric therapeutics where data are emerging that give glimpses into future therapeutic possibilities. These include opioid pain management, antihypertensive therapy, antidepressant medications, preterm labor tocolytics, antenatal corticosteroids and drugs for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, to name a few. More data are needed to populate the therapeutic models and to truly determine if pharmacogenetics will aid in individualizing pharmacotherapy in pregnancy. The objective of this review is to summarize current data and highlight research needs. PMID:24329192

  13. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  14. 48 CFR 1001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1001.403 Section 1001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ACQUISITION REGULATION (DTAR) SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1001.403...

  15. Individual Differences in Exploration Using Desktop VR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modjeska, David; Chignell, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information visualization and computer graphics focuses on a study that contrasted performance in three dimensional (3D) and two dimensional zooming interactively (2.5D) virtual worlds for people with differing levels of spatial and structure learning ability. Suggests implications of individual differences for the usability and…

  16. Sequential Recall in Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Chapman, Robin S.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to recall correctly ordered information was examined using two auditory tasks (narrative recall and digit span) and a nonverbal, visual task, with 47 individuals with Down's syndrome (ages 5 to 20) and 47 mentally aged-matched children. Although Down's syndrome subjects recalled less information than controls, no differences in the…

  17. Behavioral Indices of Individual and Group Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azima, Fern J.

    The general aim of this study was to provide a research strategy for members of interdisciplinary teams in exploring the interrelationship between group and individual in the therapy group process. The special focus of the study was to provide a design model that could synthesize a wide variety of data gained from group interaction, individual…

  18. Identifying Individual Differences: A Cognitive Styles Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Perry R.; Conti, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Although One-Stop Career Centers are mandated to promote client-centered services, patrons are ordinarily funneled through a standard procedure. Adult education principles suggest that these centers should be learner-centered and address individual differences. Therefore, the purpose of the this study was to describe the interaction of the…

  19. 48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 30.201-3, 30.201-4; the requirements of the Cost Accounting Standards board rules and regulations at 48 CFR chapter 99 (FAR appendix); and part 50). Submit requests per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.7000... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order,...

  20. Robust Correlated and Individual Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Panagakis, Yannis; Nicolaou, Mihalis A; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2016-08-01

    Recovering correlated and individual components of two, possibly temporally misaligned, sets of data is a fundamental task in disciplines such as image, vision, and behavior computing, with application to problems such as multi-modal fusion (via correlated components), predictive analysis, and clustering (via the individual ones). Here, we study the extraction of correlated and individual components under real-world conditions, namely i) the presence of gross non-Gaussian noise and ii) temporally misaligned data. In this light, we propose a method for the Robust Correlated and Individual Component Analysis (RCICA) of two sets of data in the presence of gross, sparse errors. We furthermore extend RCICA in order to handle temporal incongruities arising in the data. To this end, two suitable optimization problems are solved. The generality of the proposed methods is demonstrated by applying them onto 4 applications, namely i) heterogeneous face recognition, ii) multi-modal feature fusion for human behavior analysis (i.e., audio-visual prediction of interest and conflict), iii) face clustering, and iv) thetemporal alignment of facial expressions. Experimental results on 2 synthetic and 7 real world datasets indicate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed methodson these application domains, outperforming other state-of-the-art methods in the field. PMID:26552077

  1. Posture Support Improves Object Individuation in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e.,…

  2. Negotiating Authority by Designing Individualized Grading Contracts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Nathan D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined how authority was negotiated in an undergraduate teacher education course in which I, as the teacher of the course, involved students in establishing their obligations for the semester by designing individualized grading contracts. The findings suggest that seeking mutually satisfactory agreement, finding several…

  3. Bricklayer's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bill

    This individualized, competency-based study guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for bricklayer's helpers in providing students with general information for immediate reinforcement on the job and developing an understanding of the job prior to employment. A progress chart is provided to allow…

  4. Food Service Worker. Supplemental Individualized Student Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasty, Liswa E.; Bridwell, Terry B.

    Developed to supplement the food service worker modules published in 1977, this handbook provides fourteen additional individualized student modules. The topics included are as follow: (1) personal grooming; (2) safe handling of food and eating utensils; (3) setting up tables; (4) handling customers; (5) menus; (6) taking and placing the order;…

  5. Individualized Cooperative Education (Second Year). Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide is designed to direct and support instruction for advanced business and office, home economics, and agriculture and marketing education students across Oklahoma who are in their second year of individualized cooperative education programs. The following topics are covered in the 12 competency-based instructional units…

  6. Set Size, Individuation, and Attention to Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Lisa; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated a shape bias in categorizing and naming solid objects. This research has shown that when an entity is conceptualized as an individual object, adults and children attend to the object's shape. Separate research in the domain of numerical cognition suggest that there are distinct processes for quantifying small and…

  7. 31 CFR 357.31 - Certifying individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 357.31 Section 357.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN...

  8. Children Prefer Certain Individuals over Perfect Duplicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Bruce M.; Bloom, Paul.

    2008-01-01

    Adults value certain unique individuals--such as artwork, sentimental possessions, and memorabilia--more than perfect duplicates. Here we explore the origins of this bias in young children, by using a conjurer's illusion where we appear to produce identical copies of real-world objects. In Study 1, young children were less likely to accept an…

  9. An Individualized Projects Model for Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, Myrna

    1983-01-01

    Teachers may choose from one of three options in completing an individualized project as part of inservice mainstreaming training: (1) product completion, (2) creation of instructional practices/procedures, and (3) planning and conducting an inservice session. Sample summaries of each type are included. (CL)

  10. Methods for control over learning individual trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsel, A. A.; Cherniaeva, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    The article discusses models, methods and algorithms of determining student's optimal individual educational trajectory. A new method of controlling the learning trajectory has been developed as a dynamic model of learning trajectory control, which uses score assessment to construct a sequence of studied subjects.

  11. Are Individual Differences Undertreated in Instructional Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…

  12. 42 CFR 435.1009 - Institutionalized individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are patients in an institution for mental diseases unless they are under age 22 and are receiving... inmate of a public institution or a patient in an institution for tuberculosis or mental diseases. (c) An individual on conditional release or convalescent leave from an institution for mental diseases is...

  13. The Health Educator and Individually Guided Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elaine J.

    As health education moves toward a conceptual approach to teaching health concepts, concerned educators are carefully evaluating appropriate educational models which could be used. The Instructional Programming Model (IPM), which is at the heart of Individually Guided Education (IGE), specifically takes into account each pupil's beginning level of…

  14. Individualized Instruction in Sociology: Myth and Fact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jioia, Joseph

    This study attempts to determine the value of individualized instruction used in three sociology classes at Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois). The classes incorporated a programed learning textbook, measurable behavioral objectives, instructor-student conferences, self-paced learning, and immediate student gratification. A questionnaire…

  15. A PSYCHOLOGY OF TEACHING READING TO INDIVIDUALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, S. ALAN

    INCLUDED ARE CASE DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO RETARDED READERS WHOSE ORAL READING SCORES WERE TWO GRADE LEVELS ABOVE PLACEMENT, A DESCRIPTION OF CLASSROOM TEACHNIQUE THAT TEACHES WITH A 25 TO 1 PUPIL-TEACHER RATIO, AND A DISCUSSION OF THE PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATING INSTRUCTION TO MEET INDIVIDUAL NEEDS. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE…

  16. ILA: Individualized Learning for Adults. Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    Individualized Learning for Adults (ILA), a program designed to meet the needs of adults enrolled in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes, is presented. The curriculum of the ILA program consists of two carefully constructed continuums sequenced along two dimensions: area and level. There are 257 performance objectives, or skills, in the…

  17. 29 CFR 1614.106 - Individual complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual complaints. 1614.106 Section 1614.106 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Agency Program To Promote Equal Employment Opportunity § 1614.106...

  18. Individualized Inquiry: Encouraging Able Students to Investigate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W.; McKenrick, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Describes the nature and procedure of individualized inquiry and provides an illustration of its use in one social studies classroom. Steps include problem definition, hypothesis formation, information gathering, data analysis, hypothesis testing, and drawing conclusions. Recommends that teachers select responsible, intellectually capable, and…

  19. Individual Innovativeness Levels of Educational Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci

    2012-01-01

    In the present study carried out with 190 educational administrators, the individual innovativeness of educational administrators was examined. As a result of the study, it was found out that the educational administrators considered themselves as early adaptors. It was also revealed that professional seniority was not important in terms of…

  20. Separation-Individuation in Female Adult Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Deborah

    This study examined separation-individuation development issues for young adult women, from the perspective of object-relations theory. Its purpose was to explore a woman's perception of her relationship with mother as it is affected by age and request for psychotherapy as well as the relationship between mother-daughter bond and personality…

  1. Community, Individualism, and the American Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, William F.

    1985-01-01

    This essay addresses the ambiguity and confusion arising out of two values that have been embodied in American public library ideology since at least the last quarter of the nineteenth century: concept of the public library as community institution; the public library's emphasis on service to the individual. (27 references) (EJS)

  2. Individualized Healthcare Plans (IHP). Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that students whose healthcare needs affect or have the potential to affect safe and optimal school attendance and academic performance require the professional school nurse to write an Individualized Healthcare Plan (IHP), in collaboration with the student, family, educators,…

  3. Video Modeling Interventions for Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delano, Monica E.

    2007-01-01

    Video modeling interventions involve a child watching videotapes of positive examples of adults, peers, or him- or herself engaging in a behavior that is being taught. The purpose of this review was to examine empirical studies in which video modeling interventions were applied to individuals with autism. Nineteen studies published between 1985…

  4. Child Rearing and Individuality Among Suburban Malays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, David J.; Banks, Ellen

    This study focuses on Malaysians' perceptions of individuality in their children and on general characteristics of Malaysian child training practices. Research was carried out in three adjoining villages where well over half of the income of residents is derived from wage and salaried employment in industrial towns. The study consisted of…

  5. Periscope: Views of the Individualized Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Bluma B., Ed.

    The collection of 41 papers from a conference on individualized education programs (IEPs) for handicapped students addresses four main topics (sample titles and authors in parentheses): communication and group process ("Establishing and Maintaining the IEP Team" by W. Morgan and N. Bray; "Child and Parent Involvement in Educational Planning" by M.…

  6. Individualized Foreign Language Islands: Sample Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain View School District, CA.

    Students at Mountain View High School, California, are participating in an experimental foreign language program which is based on individualized instruction within a modular schedule. This collection of sample materials which students and parents receive reflects the goals and requirements of the program. Materials include: (1) program…

  7. Complex Reconstitution from Individual Protein Modules.

    PubMed

    Basquin, Jérôme; Taschner, Michael; Lorentzen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    Cellular function relies on protein complexes that work as nano-machines. The structure and function of protein complexes is an outcome of the specific combination of protein subunits, or modules, within the complex. A major focus of molecular biology is thus to understand how protein subunits assemble to form complexes with distinct biological function. To this end, in vitro reconstitution of complexes from individual subunits to study their assembly, structure and activity is of central importance. With purified individual subunits and sub-modules at hand one can systematically dissect the hierarchical assembly of larger complexes using direct protein-protein interaction assays. Furthermore, activity assays can be carried out with individual subunits or smaller sub-complexes and compared to those of the fully assembled complex to precisely map functional sites and provide a molecular basis for in vivo observations. In this chapter we review methods for protein complex assembly from individual subunits and provide examples of advantages and potential pitfalls to this approach. PMID:27165333

  8. Becoming Individual in Education and Cyberspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John

    2004-01-01

    This article traces key competences that are necessary to master as teachers are increasingly obliged to orchestrate learning as initiation into individual autonomy. The context is one that acknowledges that learning increasingly dissipates out into cyberspace. Inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Michel Foucault, the article explores preconditions for…

  9. Career Readiness and Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David; Zanskas, Stephen; Lustig, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to investigate the relationship between career readiness, defined as capability and complexity, and vocational identity for individuals with disabilities. Method: Forty-three consumers participating in vocational evaluation services for a state-federal vocational rehabilitation agency completed the…

  10. Individual Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, John L.; Dodd, Louise; Rose, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the efficacy of programs to reduce inappropriate aggression in people with intellectual disabilities. These have been provided in groups and for individuals in forensic settings. People with intellectual disability and inappropriately expressed anger who were referred to a community psychology service were assigned to…

  11. Development of individually distinct recognition cues.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jill M

    2006-11-01

    Despite extensive research on the functions of kin recognition, little is known about ontogenetic changes in the cues mediating such recognition. In Belding's ground squirrels, Spermophilus beldingi, secretions from oral glands are both individually distinct and kin distinct, and function in social recognition across many contexts. Behavioral studies of recognition and kin preferences suggest that these cues may change across development, particularly around the time of weaning and emergence from natal burrows (around 25 days of age). I used an habituation-discrimination task with captive S. beldingi, presenting subjects with odors collected from a pair of pups at several ages across early development. I found that at 21 days of age, but not at 7 or 14, young produce detectable odors. Odors are not individually distinct, however, until 28 days of age, after young have emerged from their burrows and begun foraging. In addition, an individual's odor continues to develop after emergence: odors produced by an individual at 20 and 40 days of age are perceived as dissimilar, yet odors produced at 28 and 40 days are treated as similar. Developmental changes in odors provide a proximate explanation for why S. beldingi littermate preferences are not consolidated until after natal emergence, and demonstrate that conspecifics must update their recognition templates as young develop. PMID:17016836

  12. Contextual Affordances of Rural Appalachian Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sara Lynne Rieder

    2008-01-01

    Vocational psychology has recently begun examining the career development of marginalized and underrepresented populations. Social cognitive career theory provides a theoretical understanding of how cultural differences, resources, and barriers may affect the vocational choices and actions of individuals from minority populations. Contextual…

  13. 48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual deviations. 2001.403 Section 2001.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and the NRCAR...

  14. Multisensory Exploration and Object Individuation in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Teresa; Woods, Rebecca; Chapa, Catherine; McCurry, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Recent research indicates that by 4.5 months, infants use shape and size information as the basis for individuating objects but that it is not until 11.5 months that they use color information for this purpose. The present experiments investigated the extent to which infants' sensitivity to color information could be increased through select…

  15. Testing for Impaired, Disabled, and Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    Intended for individuals working with the handicapped, the guide provides information about physical fitness tests, perceptual-motor scales, and developmental profiles. Covered in an introductory section are the rationale and relevance of testing, basic concepts about tests, interpretation of test results, adapted physical education programs, and…

  16. Annotated Bibliography: Perspectives on Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Yang, Hannah; Anderson, Christian K.

    2009-01-01

    During their three-year research project, the authors found that most practitioners, researchers, and policymakers in the education field were not familiar with Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) or the existing research on IDAs. Therefore, in this paper the authors compiled a list of some of the references that they found useful and that they…

  17. Individualizing Science Curricula for the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Sanford J.

    Reported are methods of accelerating and individualizing science and mathematics curricula for extremely gifted junior high school students as developed by the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) and the Intellectually Gifted Child Study Group. Given are examples of acceleration such as allowing the student to take more advanced…

  18. Executive Functions in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, D.; Addona, F.; Costanzo, F.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study was aimed at investigating working memory (WM) and executive functions capacities in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) as compared with mental-age matched typically developing (TD) children. Method: In order to serve the study goal, a sizeable battery of tasks tapping WM as well as attention, memory, planning,…

  19. Individualization of Instruction: A Teaching Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Virgil M.

    The readings presented here are the result of a review of numerous professional journals (dating from 1960 on), curriculum bulletins, other publications by district and county offices, and addresses and materials prepared for workshops and conferences. The materials chosen were felt to be the most significant descriptions of individualization as a…

  20. Stress Process Model for Individuals with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Katherine S.; Menne, Heather L.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals with dementia (IWDs) face particular challenges in managing and coping with their illness. The experience of dementia may be affected by the etiology, stage, and severity of symptoms, preexisting and related chronic conditions, and available informal and formal supportive services. Although several studies have examined…

  1. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  2. Consumer Information Use: Individual Versus Social Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschis, George P.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a study which attempts to link current theory to practical problems of applied communication. The power of coorientational variables is tested and compared with the power of commonly used individual characteristics in predicting the amounts and types of information sought by buyers of cosmetics. (JMF)

  3. PARC, Lau, Rodriguez, and Individualized Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhool, Tom

    1978-01-01

    The values of individualized education have in recent years taken on new strength. The cases and the statutes which have contributed to that increasing strength suggest that it may be possible to realize these values within the public school system itself. (Author/EB)

  4. Pre-Class Planning for Individualized Accounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Dean; Brooke, Joyce Ann

    1974-01-01

    Pre-class planning of individualized accounting is involved with goals, objectives, and activities developed and selected by the teacher in providing compatibility between accounting content and teaching strategy. A systematic arrangement of activities should be developed so that students can understand and apply accounting principles at their own…

  5. Student Communities and Individualism in American Cinema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Dawson, Heather S.; Smith, D. Spencer; Vosburg-Bluem, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Hollywood films partially construct how Americans think about education. Recent work on the representation of schools in American cinema has highlighted the role of class difference in shaping school film genres. It has also advanced the idea that a nuanced understanding of American individualism helps to explain why the different class genres are…

  6. 31 CFR 357.31 - Certifying individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 357.31 Section 357.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... DIRECT Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct) § 357.31...

  7. Individualized Education Program. Self-Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Div. of Specialized Education Services.

    This self-audit package is intended for use by Illinois administrative units to determine to what extent they meet the requirements of Public Law 94-142 and the State Rules and Regulations to Govern the Administration and Operation of Special Education. Such determination can be achieved by auditing the Individualized Education Program (IEP)…

  8. Vocational Rehabilitation Services for Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwill Industries of North Central Pennsylvania, Inc., DuBois.

    The manual describes the vocational rehabilitation program and services for handicapped individuals that are provided by Goodwill Industries of North Central Pennsylvania, Inc., which services an eight-county outreach area. An introductory section provides general background information regarding program objectives, philosophy, and organizational…

  9. Team-Based Testing Improves Individual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Jane S.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, 90 undergraduates took six tests as part of an educational psychology course. Using a crossover design, students took three tests individually without feedback and then took the same test again, following the process of team-based testing (TBT), in teams in which the members reached consensus for each question and answered…

  10. The Applied Music (Individual Study) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Students in Texas who seek to advance their proficiency in vocal or instrumental performance may participate in the Applied Music (Individual Study) Program. Enrollment in the courses of this program and the establishment of time parameters are determined by contracts between students and schools. The first part of this guide discusses the…

  11. 31 CFR 306.75 - Individual fiduciaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individual fiduciaries. 306.75 Section 306.75 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments by or in Behalf of Trustees...

  12. Bivalves: From individual to population modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, S.; van der Meer, J.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.; Ruardij, P.

    2014-11-01

    An individual based population model for bivalves was designed, built and tested in a 0D approach, to simulate the population dynamics of a mussel bed located in an intertidal area. The processes at the individual level were simulated following the dynamic energy budget theory, whereas initial egg mortality, background mortality, food competition, and predation (including cannibalism) were additional population processes. Model properties were studied through the analysis of theoretical scenarios and by simulation of different mortality parameter combinations in a realistic setup, imposing environmental measurements. Realistic criteria were applied to narrow down the possible combination of parameter values. Field observations obtained in the long-term and multi-station monitoring program were compared with the model scenarios. The realistically selected modeling scenarios were able to reproduce reasonably the timing of some peaks in the individual abundances in the mussel bed and its size distribution but the number of individuals was not well predicted. The results suggest that the mortality in the early life stages (egg and larvae) plays an important role in population dynamics, either by initial egg mortality, larvae dispersion, settlement failure or shrimp predation. Future steps include the coupling of the population model with a hydrodynamic and biogeochemical model to improve the simulation of egg/larvae dispersion, settlement probability, food transport and also to simulate the feedback of the organisms' activity on the water column properties, which will result in an improvement of the food quantity and quality characterization.

  13. Assessing and Managing Risk with Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linehan, Marsh M.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Ward-Ciesielski, Erin F.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Washington Risk Assessment Protocol (UWRAP) and Risk Assessment and Management Protocol (UWRAMP) have been used in numerous clinical trials treating high-risk suicidal individuals over several years. These protocols structure assessors and treatment providers to provide a thorough suicide risk assessment, review standards of care…

  14. Soundwalk approach to identify urban soundscapes individually.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Hong, Joo Young; Lee, Pyoung Jik

    2013-07-01

    This study proposes a soundwalk procedure for evaluating urban soundscapes. Previous studies, which adopted soundwalk methodologies for investigating participants' responses to visual and acoustic environments, were analyzed considering type, evaluation position, measurement, and subjective assessment. An individual soundwalk procedure was then developed based on asking individual subjects to walk and select evaluation positions where they perceived any positive or negative characteristics of the urban soundscape. A case study was performed in urban spaces and the results were compared with those of the group soundwalk to validate the individual soundwalk procedure. Thirty subjects (15 architects and 15 acousticians) participated in the soundwalk. During the soundwalk, the subjects selected a total of 196 positions, and those were classified into 4 groups. It was found that soundscape perceptions were dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and openness. It was also revealed that perceived elements of the acoustic environment and visual image differed across classified soundscape groups, and there was a difference between architects and acousticians in terms of how they described their impressions of the soundscape elements. The results show that the individual soundwalk procedure has advantages for measuring diverse subjective responses and for obtaining the perceived elements of the urban soundscape. PMID:23862886

  15. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  16. Exploring Individual Differences in Language Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray; Doering, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanders appear to routinely and immediately evaluate the congruence of discourse at many levels of analysis, processes often labeled "validation." This study was an initial exploration of individual differences in discourse validation. Text "reading-time" profiles were examined as a function of two negligibly correlated…

  17. Consumer Information Use: Individual Vs. Social Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    A study of women's information-seeking behavior with regard to the purchase of cosmetics was conducted to determine the effects on their behavior of six individual variables (ambiguity about cosmetic products, price consciousness, income, amount of money spent on cosmetics, age, and education) and six social variables (perceived social utility of…

  18. Bacterial Diversity across Individual Lichens▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mushegian, Alexandra A.; Peterson, Celeste N.; Baker, Christopher C. M.; Pringle, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Symbioses are unique habitats for bacteria. We surveyed the spatial diversity of bacterial communities across multiple individuals of closely related lichens using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and pyrosequencing. Centers of lichens house richer, more consistent assemblages than species-poor and compositionally disparate lichen edges, suggesting that ecological succession plays a role in structuring these communities. PMID:21531831

  19. Individual alerting efficiency modulates time perception

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiduo; Yang, Wenjing; Yuan, Xiangyong; Bi, Cuihua; Chen, Antao; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Time perception plays a fundamental role in human perceptual and motor activities, and can be influenced by various factors, such as selective attention and arousal. However, little is known about the influence of individual alerting efficiency on perceived duration. In this study, we explored this question by running two experiments. The Attentional Networks Test was used to evaluate individual differences in alerting efficiency in each experiment. Temporal bisection (Experiment 1) and time generalization task (Experiment 2) were used to explore the participants’ perception of duration. The results indicated that subjects in the high alerting efficiency group overestimated interval durations and estimated durations more accurately compared with subjects in the low alerting efficiency group. The two experiments showed that the sensitivity of time was not influenced by individual alerting efficiency. Based on previous studies and current findings, we infer that individual differences in alerting efficiency may influence time perception through modulating the latency of the attention-controlled switch and the speed of the peacemaker within the framework of the internal clock model. PMID:25904881

  20. The Neighboring Field of Brief Individual Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Jim

    1987-01-01

    Presents field of brief individual psychotherapy as coherent set of conventions, despite its diverse origins in schools of dynamic, behavioral, interpersonal or cognitive, and strategic psychotherapy. Proposes advantages and drawbacks of shared conventions and discusses how neighboring field could help field of family therapy reduce its errors.…

  1. Individual and Group Rights in a Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the decade of the 1970's is experiencing an uneasy equilibrium among three sets of rights--those of the individual, of disadvantaged groups, and of social institutions designed to serve a post-industrial society. No one of these rights are said to have been chosen for preference by American society. (Author/AM)

  2. [Dose individualization for carboplatin in cancer chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Oudard, S; Lauraine, E P

    1997-06-01

    The aim of optimizing drug therapy for an individual patient is to maximize the likelihood of a desired therapeutic effect and to minimize the likelihood of toxicity. The excellent correlations between renal function and carboplatin total body clearance and between carboplatin area under the plasma concentration by time curve and thrombocytopenia allow calculation by Chatelut formula of carboplatin dosage. PMID:9295872

  3. Cost-Effectiveness in Individual Development Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiner, Mark; Ng, Guat Tin; Sherraden, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Because resources are limited, the benefits and costs of social-work interventions--like all interventions--must be compared with the benefits and costs of alternatives. Evidence-based practice should ask, What works? How well does it work? And what does it cost? This article analyzes the provision of Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) with a…

  4. Accreditation's Benefits for Individuals and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Participation in accreditation processes, on visiting teams as well as through institutional self-study, is an excellent opportunity for individual academics to augment their professional expertise in a range of higher education issues: strategic planning and assessment, resource management and capital investments, curriculum planning and program…

  5. Evaluating Individualized Reading Programs: A Bayesian Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Martha

    Simple Bayesian approaches can be applied to answer specific questions in evaluating an individualized reading program. A small reading and study skills program located in the counseling center of a major research university collected and compiled data on student characteristics such as class, number of sessions attended, grade point average, and…

  6. 45 CFR 1173.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 1173.655 Section 1173.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE...

  7. 45 CFR 1155.655 - Individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual. 1155.655 Section 1155.655 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...

  8. Changing Persepectives from Individual to Organizational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Most training and educational professionals have focused their efforts on inculcating learning within individuals rather than within organizations. This is understandable, writes Forman, because so much needs to be accomplished to improve the efficacy of schools and corporate training programs. The notion of organizational learning has been…

  9. Mapping individual logical processes in information searching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    An interactive dialog with a computerized information collection was recorded and plotted in the form of a flow chart. The process permits one to identify the logical processes employed in considerable detail and is therefore suggested as a tool for measuring individual thought processes in a variety of situations. A sample of an actual test case is given.

  10. 42 CFR 600.305 - Eligible individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Eligible individuals. 600.305 Section 600.305 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BASIC HEALTH PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION, ELIGIBILITY, ESSENTIAL HEALTH BENEFITS, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, SERVICE DELIVERY REQUIREMENTS, PREMIUM AND...

  11. An Integrated Preprofessional Individually Paced Instruction Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollom, Kenneth A.; Kurtz, Edwin B.

    The individually-paced instruction program carried out by the engineering faculty at Oklahoma State University is described in this article to illustrate its goals, principles, characteristics, developments, and present status. The instructional model is discussed in connection with behavioral objectives, criteria for performance, and student…

  12. Electrician's Helper. Coordinator's Guide. Individualized Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, Danny

    This guide is designed to assist teacher-coordinators supervising cooperative education programs for electrician's helpers in helping students complete a set of individualized, competency-based training activities dealing with electricity and electrical circuits and equipment. The first part of the manual includes a progress chart, a study guide…

  13. Modifying Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Deaf Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Amanda; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Therapies that rely on written materials, information, or procedures involving familiarity with the dominant culture (e.g., colloquialisms, history) often pose barriers to people who use another language, have low English literacy, or are less familiar with the dominant culture. All this applies deaf individuals. One of the most well-validated…

  14. Philosophizing about Debate and Individual Events Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittus, James K.; Davies, Miriam R.

    A joint forensics program including both debate and individual events offers important benefits to students and coaches in training. A complete forensics experience provides what some would consider a true liberal arts education. When exposed to all events, students learn a variety of argumentative styles and develop a variety of universal skills…

  15. Motivation Through Individual Projects in Freshman Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skellings, Louise Noah

    In order to determine whether an alternative teaching strategy would improve student motivation in freshman composition, two sections of freshman composition were studied. The experimental group spent the majority of a term concentrating on individualized projects which were chosen, planned, carried out, and presented by each student. Students…

  16. Individualization: An Emergent Concept in Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford; Appel, Marilyn

    These proceedings include abstracts of the formal papers presented during a conference in Philadelphia on December 8 and 9, 1967. The conference, sponsored by Research for Better Schools, Inc., was concerned with individualization of science instruction, particularly in elementary schools. Thirty-three scientists and science educators from various…

  17. Teaching and Learning with Individually Unique Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerding, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the pedagogical benefits of giving students individually unique homework exercises from an exercise template. Evidence from a test of this approach shows statistically significant improvements in subsequent exam performance by students receiving unique problems compared with students who received traditional…

  18. Mindfulness in the Treatment of Suicidal Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Jason B.; Villatte, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is exhibited by a diverse population of individuals and spans many diagnostic categories. In order to develop effective prevention and treatment programs, it is important to identify transdiagnostic processes that impact the many pathways to suicidality, are amenable to intervention, and affect clinical outcomes when modified. A…

  19. Excellence through Minimum Essentials and Individual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, William M.

    1986-01-01

    The author states that throughout the past century or more, especially during the twentieth century, the continuing conflict between proponents of the minimum essentials approach to curriculum excellence and those of the individual development approach has been an obstacle to the achievement of excellence. (CT)

  20. Infusing Transition into Individualized Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avoke, Selete; And Others

    This document is intended to assist Iowa school districts and area education agencies in planning and recording the transition service needs of students with disabilities. Its purpose is to provide educators responsible for the development of Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) with additional strategies, ways of thinking, and ways to…

  1. Humanism and Individualism: Maslow and His Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Elaine M.; Podeschi, Ronald L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the philosophical issue of the individual-society relationship through a focus on Maslow's humanistic psychology and its significant influence on adult education. Analyzes the conflicting viewpoints of Maslow and recent critics, particularly Marxist and postmodern scholars. Concludes that a humanistic perspective is possible, but…

  2. Individual Freedom and Institutional Frameworks in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this article I explore Amartya Sen's contention that individual freedom represents both the objective of development and the means through which development is to take place. Examining the conceptualisation of freedom central to Sen's capability approach, I distinguish between two notions of freedom, autonomy and agency, where the former…

  3. Individual Differences in Online Personalized Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samah, Norazrena Abu; Yahaya, Noraffandy; Ali, Mohamad Bilal

    2011-01-01

    The need has arise for the consideration of individual differences, to include their learning styles, learning orientations, preferences and needs in learning to allow learners engage and be responsible for their own learning, retain information longer, apply the knowledge more effectively, have positive attitudes towards the subject, have more…

  4. Legal Liability of Individual School Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leverett, E. Freeman

    Federal court decisions and federal statutes have established a number of new rights for individuals in recent years, and the Supreme Court decided in 1975 that school board members have only limited immunity from liability for the possible denial of those rights by school board actions. These two developments have drastically increased the amount…

  5. Protecting Individual Privacy in Evaluation Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Federal Agency Evaluation Research.

    The Committee on Federal Agency Evaluation Research believes that evaluation of government programs is very much in the public interest and should not endanger the privacy of individuals who give information about themselves. It will not be easy to work out procedures and legal arrangements that balance the conflicting objectives of fostering…

  6. The Individualized Bachelor's Degree: Some Reconsiderations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amy D.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of the movement to individualize the curriculum in higher education are examined. The background and basic premises of the movement are explored and the realities and problems of the program at Empire State College are examined. The nature of contract education is discussed. (Author/MLW)

  7. Preschool Test Matrix: Individual Test Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coordinating Office for Regional Resource Centers, Lexington, KY.

    Provided via a text matrix and individual test descriptor sheets is information on 127 tests intended for evaluation of and educational prescription for preschool handicapped children. Brief sections explain the procedures used for selection of assessment devices and define each of the descriptor dimensions--type of assessment device,…

  8. Individualized Healthcare Plans for the School Nurse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Health Association (NJ3), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This resource sets the standard for school nurses concerning the formulation of individualized healthcare plans designed to fit the unique health needs of students. Eighteen chapters focus on special issues and school nursing concepts. Computer software, which accompanies the manual, assists in the development and creation of individualized…

  9. Assessing Teacher Skills: Necessary Component of Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laval S.

    1974-01-01

    The Hempstead schools on Long Island are among the nation's most progressive. The district has been cited by the USOE for its exemplary compensatory program. The system was individualized, but the quality of instruction could not be determined until each teacher was assessed. To do this, the district used a teaching survey instrument called the…

  10. The Development of Individuation in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hearn, Kirsten; Franconeri, Steven; Wright, Catherine; Minshew, Nancy; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that people with autism rely less on holistic visual information than typical adults. The current studies examine this by investigating core visual processes that contribute to holistic processing--namely, individuation and element grouping--and how they develop in participants with autism and typically developing (TD)…

  11. 31 CFR 357.31 - Certifying individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 357.31 Section 357.31 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... institutions, corporate central credit unions, and institutions that are members of...

  12. 31 CFR 306.45 - Certifying individuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certifying individuals. 306.45 Section 306.45 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... employees of depository institutions, corporate central credit unions, and institutions that are members...

  13. Individual Differences Methods for Randomized Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments allow researchers to randomly vary the key manipulation, the instruments of measurement, and the sequences of the measurements and manipulations across participants. To date, however, the advantages of randomized experiments to manipulate both the aspects of interest and the aspects that threaten internal validity have been primarily used to make inferences about the average causal effect of the experimental manipulation. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing experimental data in order to make inferences about individual differences in causal effects. Approaches to analyzing the data produced by a number of classical designs, and two more novel designs, are discussed. Simulations highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the data produced by each design with respect to internal validity. Results indicate that, although the data produced by standard designs can be used to produce accurate estimates of average causal effects of experimental manipulations, more elaborate designs are often necessary for accurate inferences with respect to individual differences in causal effects. The methods described here can be diversely applied by researchers interested in determining the extent to which individuals respond differentially to an experimental manipulation or treatment, and how differential responsiveness relates to individual participant characteristics. PMID:21744970

  14. Behaviorist EE Research: Environmentalism as Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian; Hart, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This article continues a dialogue about the nature of environmental education research by establishing the behaviorist nature of the dominant approach to environmental education research and exploring implications for environmentalism of one aspect of the politics of methods of this dominant behaviorist approach--the tendency to individualize the…

  15. Individual and Family Life. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This instructional guide for a one-half-credit technical course for grades 10-12 focuses on personal development, interpersonal relationships, effective individual and family functioning, and career preparation. Introductory materials consist of a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and a section on…

  16. Substance Abuse among Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…

  17. Endotoxin levels in sera of elderly individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Goto, T; Edén, S; Nordenstam, G; Sundh, V; Svanborg-Edén, C; Mattsby-Baltzer, I

    1994-01-01

    The endotoxin levels in serum of 377 72-year-old individuals were quantitated. The study population was a representative sample of this age group and was participating in a general study of health and disease among the elderly in Göteborg, Sweden. The endotoxin levels in serum were quantified by the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and were correlated with the health status and laboratory findings for each individual. The mean endotoxin levels (+/- 1 standard deviation) in men and women, when excluding four outliers, were 6.6 +/- 3.8 and 6.9 +/- 3.8 pg/ml, respectively. All included, 21.5% of individuals had endotoxin levels equal to or above the sensitivity limit of 10 pg/ml. Strong positive correlations were found between endotoxin levels and plasma triglycerides (P > 0.995) and between endotoxin levels and serum protein (P > 0.9875). The endotoxin activity also correlated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P < 0.005, negative correlation), body mass index (P > 0.9875), and decreased appetite (P > 0.9875). A high alcohol consumption was associated with increased endotoxin levels (P = 0.995). There are no previous studies which examine endotoxin levels in serum samples from individuals representative of the population. This study showed that elderly individuals had the same mean level of endotoxin as has been found in other age groups. The increased endotoxin levels seen in heavy drinkers may be explained by a decreased ability of the liver to remove endotoxin. The correlations found between endotoxin and triglycerides, protein, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, decreased appetite, and body mass index are discussed. PMID:8556521

  18. Individual diversity of functional brain network economy

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S.; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness and connection cost, though, an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with 7 Tesla functional MRI and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=−0.97) and the physical connection cost in 3D space (r=−0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=−0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at 3 Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

  19. Posture support improves object individuation in infants.

    PubMed

    Woods, Rebecca J; Wilcox, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    A hierarchical progression in infants' ability to use surface features, such as color, as a basis for object individuation in the first year has been well established (Tremoulet, Leslie, & Hall, 2000; Wilcox, 1999). There is evidence, however, that infants' sensitivity to surface features can be increased through multisensory (i.e., visuohaptic) exploration of objects (Wilcox, Woods, Chapa, & McCurry, 2007). Three studies were conducted to investigate the effect of multisensory experience on infants' sensitivity to pattern information. Experiments 1 and 2 confirmed that 5.5- and 6.5-month-olds do not spontaneously use pattern differences to individuate objects and revealed that 6.5- but not 5.5-month-olds can be primed to attend to pattern differences if allowed multisensory experience with the objects prior to the individuation task. However, the 5.5-month-olds also had greater difficulty maintaining a self-sitting posture during the multisensory priming experience. In Experiment 3, 4.5- and 5.5-month-olds were given full postural support during the multisensory exploration period. In this situation, the 5.5-month-olds successfully individuated the objects, but even with full postural support, 4.5-month-old infants did not use the pattern differences to individuate the objects. These results demonstrate that multisensory priming is effective with infants as young as 5.5 months and extends multisensory priming to another surface feature, pattern. Furthermore, these results indicate that constraints are placed on the multisensory experience by the physical and motor development of the infant. PMID:23046431

  20. Individual diversity of functional brain network economy.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Ganger, Sebastian; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    On average, brain network economy represents a trade-off between communication efficiency, robustness, and connection cost, although an analogous understanding on an individual level is largely missing. Evaluating resting-state networks of 42 healthy participants with seven Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory revealed that not even half of all possible connections were common across subjects. The strongest similarities among individuals were observed for interhemispheric and/or short-range connections, which may relate to the essential feature of the human brain to develop specialized systems within each hemisphere. Despite this marked variability in individual network architecture, all subjects exhibited equal small-world properties. Furthermore, interdependency between four major network economy metrics was observed across healthy individuals. The characteristic path length was associated with the clustering coefficient (peak correlation r=0.93), the response to network attacks (r=-0.97), and the physical connection cost in three-dimensional space (r=-0.62). On the other hand, clustering was negatively related to attack response (r=-0.75) and connection cost (r=-0.59). Finally, increased connection cost was associated with better response to attacks (r=0.65). This indicates that functional brain networks with high global information transfer also exhibit strong network resilience. However, it seems that these advantages come at the cost of decreased local communication efficiency and increased physical connection cost. Except for wiring length, the results were replicated on a subsample at three Tesla (n=20). These findings highlight the finely tuned interrelationships between different parameters of brain network economy. Moreover, the understanding of the individual diversity of functional brain network economy may provide further insights in the vulnerability to mental and neurological disorders. PMID:25411715

  1. An Attitude Scale on Individual Instrument and Individual Instrument Course: Validity-Reliability Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuçukosmanoglu, Hayrettin Onur

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a scale to determine students' attitude levels on individual instruments and individual instrument courses in instrument training, which is an important dimension of music education, and to conduct a validity-reliability research of the scale that has been developed. The scale consists of 16 items. The…

  2. Parents' Goals for Children: The Dynamic Coexistence of Individualism and Collectivism in Cultures and Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kalman, Ronit Kahana; Niwa, Erika Y.

    2008-01-01

    Current scholarship on the cultural value systems of individualism and collectivism, and the associated developmental goals of autonomy and relatedness, has moved beyond grand divide theories to emphasize variation within individuals and cultures. We present a theoretical model on the dynamic coexistence of cultural value systems (at the macro…

  3. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual...

  4. The Role of Individualism-Collectivism in the Individual Creative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Xiang; Wang, Shuhong; Dang, Junhua; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    This study is among the first to examine how individuals' cultural value orientations impact 2 separate stages of creativity: idea generation and idea implementation. A total of 247 Chinese employees completed questionnaires including individualism-collectivism culture orientation and their idea generation behavior. Supervisor ratings of idea…

  5. Individual Needs (Part I of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on meeting individual needs in second language instruction are included: (1) "Sprachenlernen: Beduerfnisse des Individuums in verschiedenen Leben- und Lernsituationen (Language Learning: Individual Needs in Various Life and Learning Situations)," by Eugen Egger; (2) "Peut-on accorder les besoins de l'etudiant et ceux de son…

  6. 33 CFR 155.1026 - Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualified individual and alternate qualified individual. 155.1026 Section 155.1026 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Tank Vessel Response Plans...

  7. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual...

  8. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual...

  9. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual...

  10. 42 CFR 50.206 - Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual or of an institutionalized individual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.206 Sterilization of a mentally incompetent individual...

  11. Working It Out: Workplace Experiences of Individuals with HIV and Individuals with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fesko, Sheila Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-two individuals with cancer or HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) were interviewed concerning their employment related experiences and concerns. Findings indicated that the decision to tell their supervisor and/or co-workers about their health status varied substantially between individuals with HIV and those with cancer. All study…

  12. A Comparison of Work Value Preferences of Individuals with Disabilities and Individuals without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Zanskas, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the work value preferences of individuals with disabilities with the work value preferences for a sample of individuals without disabilities. Methods: The preferred work values of a sample of vocational rehabilitation consumers were compared to workers employed in a Southeastern university.…

  13. Chemical analysis of individual mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Yeung, E.S.

    1994-12-31

    The extremely small size of mammalian cells creates an unusual challenge for the analytical chemist, both in terms of separation and detection. Under a microscope, it is possible to confirm the injection of individual cells such as erythrocyte into capillaries with 10-{mu}m i.d. by hydrostatic pressure. The ionic contents can then be separated by capillary electrophoresis after the cell lyses. Enzymes at the zeptomole level can be monitored by on-column fluorescence enzyme assay. On-column particle-counting immunoassay can be applied to a broad range of analytes (antigens), also at the zeptomole level. The authors report here the simultaneous determination of the amounts of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and their activities in individual erythrocytes by using a combination of the two detection schemes. Insights into the degradation of proteins as a function of cell age can be derived.

  14. Mechanical Control of Individual Superconducting Vortices.

    PubMed

    Kremen, Anna; Wissberg, Shai; Haham, Noam; Persky, Eylon; Frenkel, Yiftach; Kalisky, Beena

    2016-03-01

    Manipulating individual vortices in a deterministic way is challenging; ideally, manipulation should be effective, local, and tunable in strength and location. Here, we show that vortices respond to local mechanical stress applied in the vicinity of the vortex. We utilized this interaction to move individual vortices in thin superconducting films via local mechanical contact without magnetic field or current. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices and to apply local vertical stress with the tip of our sensor. Vortices were attracted to the contact point, relocated, and were stable at their new location. We show that vortices move only after contact and that more effective manipulation is achieved with stronger force and longer contact time. Mechanical manipulation of vortices provides a local view of the interaction between strain and nanomagnetic objects as well as controllable, effective, and reproducible manipulation technique. PMID:26836018

  15. Microwell Arrays for Studying Many Individual Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folch, Albert; Kosar, Turgut Fettah

    2009-01-01

    "Laboratory-on-a-chip" devices that enable the simultaneous culturing and interrogation of many individual living cells have been invented. Each such device includes a silicon nitride-coated silicon chip containing an array of micromachined wells sized so that each well can contain one cell in contact or proximity with a patch clamp or other suitable single-cell-interrogating device. At the bottom of each well is a hole, typically 0.5 m wide, that connects the well with one of many channels in a microfluidic network formed in a layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) on the underside of the chip. The microfluidic network makes it possible to address wells (and, thus, cells) individually to supply them with selected biochemicals. The microfluidic channels also provide electrical contact to the bottoms of the wells.

  16. Petroleum and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Abridged summary: In general, petroleum negatively affects living organisms through physical contact, toxic action, and habitat modification, whereas individual PAHs have toxic effects. Partially metabolized PAHs can induce genetic damage and developmental abnormalities and can induce cancerous and noncancerous tumors. Evidence linking environmental concentrations of PAHs to the induction of cancer in wild animals is limited. Although concentrations of individual PAHs in aquatic environments are usually much lower than concentrations that are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms, sublethal effects can be produced. Population changes caused by petroleum spills are easier to document for macrophytes and animals with limited mobility than for mobile animals (fish, birds, mammals, reptiles). Effects of spills on populations of mobile species have been difficult to determine beyond immediate losses in local populations.

  17. How might the motor cortex individuate movements?

    PubMed

    Schieber, M H

    1990-11-01

    The ability to individuate movements--that is, the ability to move one or more body parts independently of the movement or posture of other contiguous body parts--imparts an increasing flexibility to the motor repertoire of higher mammals. The movements used in walking, grasping, or eating contrast greatly with the phylogenetically more recent movements of the same body parts used, respectively, in dancing, playing a musical instrument, or talking. The movements used in the latter functions depend critically on the primary motor cortex (area 4). With advances in our understanding of the output organization of the motor cortex (reviewed recently by Roger Lemon), which have been based largely on studies of the hand area in primates, we can now consider more fully certain problems inherent in moving body parts individually, and some ways in which the motor cortex might accomplish this feat. PMID:1701575

  18. Individual privacy in an information dependent society

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    The extraordinary technologies and capabilities of the Information Age have vastly improved communication, while allowing executives to have ultra-current information about their companies, subsidiaries, staff, clients, and practically any individual in the world. These advances, however, have stripped the individual of his privacy. Although invasions of privacy do not require a computer, computers have made it much easier to gather and select informatin, which means that it is also much easier to invade privacy. The increased value of information to policy makers leads them to covet information, even when acquiring it invades someone`s pricacy; not only do managers of private companies gather personal data, almost every citizen has files about him in Federal agencies and administrations.

  19. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    PubMed

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  20. Mechanical Control of Individual Superconducting Vortices

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating individual vortices in a deterministic way is challenging; ideally, manipulation should be effective, local, and tunable in strength and location. Here, we show that vortices respond to local mechanical stress applied in the vicinity of the vortex. We utilized this interaction to move individual vortices in thin superconducting films via local mechanical contact without magnetic field or current. We used a scanning superconducting quantum interference device to image vortices and to apply local vertical stress with the tip of our sensor. Vortices were attracted to the contact point, relocated, and were stable at their new location. We show that vortices move only after contact and that more effective manipulation is achieved with stronger force and longer contact time. Mechanical manipulation of vortices provides a local view of the interaction between strain and nanomagnetic objects as well as controllable, effective, and reproducible manipulation technique. PMID:26836018

  1. Environment and individual: a dialectic relationship.

    PubMed

    Scapini, F

    2001-01-01

    The role of development in current neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory is still underestimated. Only a few experimental and theoretical efforts have been made to bridge the gap, among which the theories of genetic assimilation, stabilising selection and autopoiesis. The relationship between the organism and its environment is a focal point for understanding development. The organism itself determines which environmental features are relevant to it, what represents a stimulus that would trigger its behaviour, and continuously affects the environment through its activities, in a dialectic relationship. Such a relationship is unique and diachronic, changing with time and defining the individual. Development in the broad sense and behavioural plasticity refer to the individual unlike evolution, which refers to populations. PMID:11702653

  2. Handwriting individualization using distance and rarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yi; Srihari, Sargur; Srinivasan, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Forensic individualization is the task of associating observed evidence with a specific source. The likelihood ratio (LR) is a quantitative measure that expresses the degree of uncertainty in individualization, where the numerator represents the likelihood that the evidence corresponds to the known and the denominator the likelihood that it does not correspond to the known. Since the number of parameters needed to compute the LR is exponential with the number of feature measurements, a commonly used simplification is the use of likelihoods based on distance (or similarity) given the two alternative hypotheses. This paper proposes an intermediate method which decomposes the LR as the product of two factors, one based on distance and the other on rarity. It was evaluated using a data set of handwriting samples, by determining whether two writing samples were written by the same/different writer(s). The accuracy of the distance and rarity method, as measured by error rates, is significantly better than the distance method.

  3. Divorce and Health: Beyond Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Sbarra, David A.; Hasselmo, Karen; Bourassa, Kyle J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews what is known about the association between marital dissolution and health outcomes in adults. Two of the major empirical findings in the literature—that most people do well following marital separation and that this life event increases risk for poor outcomes—appear to be in contrast. This paper provides an individual differences framework for reconciling these competing perspectives and suggests that the bulk of the risk for poor outcomes following marital dissolution is carried by a minority of people. Research focusing on at-risk populations is beginning to shed light on mechanisms of action, the processes that explain why and how marital separation and divorce are associated with ill health. The paper outlines a series of future directions that go beyond individual differences to study these mechanisms. PMID:25892857

  4. Central recruitment in individual with auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Preeti; Mishra, Rajkishor; Mahallik, Debadatta; Ansari, Imran; Mungutwar, Varsha

    2014-12-01

    Auditory neuropathy (AN) describes patients with dysfunction of the auditory nerve in the presence of preserved cochlear outer hair-cell receptor functions in presence of normal otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics. In individuals with auditory neuropathy speech are disproportionate to their hearing sensitivity and reported to be dependent on cortical evoked potentials. In individuals with AN, who have normal cortical potentials have better speech identification scores when compared to those with abnormal cortical potentials reflect relation between the cortical potentials and the speech identification scores. One group comparison research design was used for present study. The purpose of the study was to compare shift in latency of LLR peaks at different sensation level in subjects with auditory neuropathy and age matched normal individuals. 6 subjects (11 ears) diagnosed as having auditory neuropathy and 6 subjects (12 ears) with normal hearing Sensitivity participated for the study. Pure tone audiometry, immittance, reflexometry and otoacoustic emissions were administered. ABR was recorded for all the subjects at a repetition rate of 11.1 at an intensity of 90 dB nHL. LLR was carried out at different intensity levels for/da/speech stimulus at an intensity of 90 dB nHL. Latency of N1 and P2 of LLR was calculated at different sensation levels for both the groups. Descriptive analysis was carried out to find out the mean and standard deviation for latency of N1 and P2 for both, AN and normal hearing group. There was delay in latency of N1 and P2 for individuals with auditory neuropathy. PMID:26396961

  5. Diffusion of individual birds in starling flocks.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, A; Duarte Queirós, S M; Giardina, I; Stefanini, F; Viale, M

    2013-04-01

    Flocking is a paradigmatic example of collective animal behaviour, where global order emerges out of self-organization. Each individual has a tendency to align its flight direction with those of neighbours, and such a simple form of interaction produces a state of collective motion of the group. When compared with other cases of collective ordering, a crucial feature of animal groups is that the interaction network is not fixed in time, as each individual moves and continuously changes its neighbours. The possibility to exchange neighbours strongly enhances the stability of global ordering and the way information is propagated through the group. Here, we assess the relevance of this mechanism in large flocks of starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We find that birds move faster than Brownian walkers both with respect to the centre of mass of the flock, and with respect to each other. Moreover, this behaviour is strongly anisotropic with respect to the direction of motion of the flock. We also measure the amount of neighbours reshuffling and find that neighbours change in time exclusively as a consequence of the random fluctuations in the individual motion, so that no specific mechanism to keep one's neighbours seems to be enforced. On the contrary, our findings suggest that a more complex dynamical process occurs at the border of the flock. PMID:23407827

  6. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  7. Individuality and togetherness in joint improvised motion.

    PubMed

    Hart, Yuval; Noy, Lior; Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Mayo, Avraham E; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes. PMID:24533054

  8. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    PubMed

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity. PMID:27250037

  9. Offering Individual Genetic Research Results: Context Matters

    PubMed Central

    Beskow, Laura M.; Burke, Wylie

    2011-01-01

    The disclosure of individual genetic research results to participants continues to be the subject of vigorous debate, centered primarily on the nature of the results: What are the criteria for the kinds of information that should, could, or should not be offered? There are widely diverging views about how to define these categories, as reasonable people can disagree about the value of various kinds of information. Data concerning participant preferences regarding receipt of results are important, but not determinative of researchers’ fundamental obligations. We suggest that research context is a vital consideration that has not been sufficiently incorporated into the discussion. We adapt an ancillary care framework to explore what different contexts might call for with regard to offering individual genetic research results. Our analysis suggests that, beyond exceptionally rare circumstances that give rise to a duty to rescue, a “one size fits all” threshold cannot be developed for decisions about return of individual results. Instead, researchers and IRBs must consider the scope of entrustment involved in the research, the intensity and duration of interactions with participants, and the vulnerability and dependence of the study population. The strength of this approach is that research context is foreseeable at the time a study is designed. Assessments of the nature and value of the information may still be required to decide whether to offer a particular result, but perhaps will be facilitated by a more grounded understanding of researchers’ obligations in different contexts. PMID:20592417

  10. Individuality and Togetherness in Joint Improvised Motion

    PubMed Central

    Feniger-Schaal, Rinat; Mayo, Avraham E.; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Actors, dancers and musicians that improvise together report special moments of togetherness: high performance and synchrony, seemingly without a leader and a follower. Togetherness seems to conflict with individuality- the idiosyncratic character of each person's performance. To understand the relation of individuality and togetherness, we employed the mirror game paradigm in which two players are asked to mirror each other and create interesting synchronized motion, with and without a designated leader. The mirror game enables quantitative characterization of moments of togetherness in which complex motion is generated with high synchrony. We find that each person as a leader does basic strokes of motion with a characteristic signature, in terms of the shape of their velocity profile between two stopping events. In moments of togetherness both players change their signature to a universal stroke shape. This universal velocity profile resembles a half-period of a sine wave, and is therefore symmetric and maximally smooth. Thus, instead of converging to an intermediate motion signature, or having one player dominate, players seem to shift their basic motion signatures to a shape that is altogether different from their individually preferred shapes; the resulting motion may be easier to predict and to agree on. The players then build complex motion by using such smooth elementary strokes. PMID:24533054

  11. Inferring individual rules from collective behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lukeman, Ryan; Li, Yue-Xian; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Social organisms form striking aggregation patterns, displaying cohesion, polarization, and collective intelligence. Determining how they do so in nature is challenging; a plethora of simulation studies displaying life-like swarm behavior lack rigorous comparison with actual data because collecting field data of sufficient quality has been a bottleneck. Here, we bridge this gap by gathering and analyzing a high-quality dataset of flocking surf scoters, forming well-spaced groups of hundreds of individuals on the water surface. By reconstructing each individual's position, velocity, and trajectory, we generate spatial and angular neighbor-distribution plots, revealing distinct concentric structure in positioning, a preference for neighbors directly in front, and strong alignment with neighbors on each side. We fit data to zonal interaction models and characterize which individual interaction forces suffice to explain observed spatial patterns. Results point to strong short-range repulsion, intermediate-range alignment, and longer-range attraction (with circular zones), as well as a weak but significant frontal-sector interaction with one neighbor. A best-fit model with such interactions accounts well for observed group structure, whereas absence or alteration in any one of these rules fails to do so. We find that important features of observed flocking surf scoters can be accounted for by zonal models with specific, well-defined rules of interaction. PMID:20616032

  12. Workaholism in Brazil: measurement and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat; Berger, Rita; Netto Da Costa, Francisco Franco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is the measurement and assessment of individual differences of workaholism in Brazil, an important issue which affects the competitiveness of companies. The WART 15-PBV was applied to a sample of 153 managers from companies located in Brazil, 82 (53.6%) women and 71 (46.4%) men. Ages ranged from 20 to 69 years with an average value of 41 (SD=9.06). We analyzed, on one hand, the factor structure of the questionnaire, its internal consistency and convergent (with the Dutch Work Addiction Scale - DUWAS) and criterion validity (with General Health Questionnaire – GHQ). On the other hand, we analyzed individual gender differences on workaholism. WART15-PBV has good psychometric properties, and evidence for convergent and criterion validity. Females and males differed on Impaired Communication / Self-Absorption dimension. This dimension has a direct effect only on men’s health perception, while Compulsive tendencies dimension has a direct effect for both genders. The findings suggest the WART15-PBV is a valid measure of workaholism that would contribute to the workers’ health and their professional and personal life, in order to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace taking into account workers’ individual differences. PMID:25578002

  13. Recombination-aware alignment of diploid individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditionally biological similarity search has been studied under the abstraction of a single string to represent each genome. The more realistic representation of diploid genomes, with two strings defining the genome, has so far been largely omitted in this context. With the development of sequencing techniques and better phasing routines through haplotype assembly algorithms, we are not far from the situation when individual diploid genomes could be represented in their full complexity with a pair-wise alignment defining the genome. Results We propose a generalization of global alignment that is designed to measure similarity between phased predictions of individual diploid genomes. This generalization takes into account that individual diploid genomes evolve through a mutation and recombination process, and that predictions may be erroneous in both dimensions. Even though our model is generic, we focus on the case where one wants to measure only the similarity of genome content allowing free recombination. This results into efficient algorithms for direct application in (i) evaluation of variation calling predictions and (ii) progressive multiple alignments based on labeled directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) to represent profiles. The latter may be of more general interest, in connection to covering alignment of DAGs. Extensions of our model and algorithms can be foreseen to have applications in evaluating phasing algorithms, as well as more fundamental role in phasing child genome based on parent genomes. PMID:25572943

  14. Beamwidth measurement of individual lithotripter shock waves

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Wayne; Bailey, Michael R.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    New lithotripters with narrower foci and higher peak pressures than the original Dornier HM3 electrohydraulic lithotripter have proven to be less effective and less safe. Hence, accurate measurements of the focal characteristics of lithotripter shock waves are important. The current technique for measuring beamwidth requires a collection of single-point measurements over multiple shock waves, thereby introducing error as a result of any shock-to-shock variability. This work reports on the construction of a hydrophone array sensor and on array measurements of individual lithotripter shock waves. Beamwidths for an electrohydraulic lithotripter with a broad-focus HM3-style reflector and a narrow-focus modified reflector were measured using both new and worn electrodes as well as two different electrical charging potentials. The array measured the waveform, beamwidth, and focal location of individual shock waves. The HM3-style reflector produced repeatable focal waveforms and beam profiles at an 18 kV charging potential with new and worn electrodes. Corresponding measurements suggest a narrower beamwidth than reported previously from averaged point measurements acquired under the same conditions. In addition, a lack of consistency in the measured beam profiles at 23 kV underscores the value of measuring individual shock waves. PMID:19206897

  15. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and relaxation of office workers, on need for recovery. Individual work performance was a secondary outcome measure of the trial. In total, 39 hypotheses were formulated concerning correlations between changes on the IWPQ scales and changes on similar constructs (e.g., presenteeism) and distinct constructs (e.g., need for recovery) used in the trial. Results 260 Participants completed the IWPQ at both baseline and 12 months of follow-up. For the IWPQ scales, 23%, 15%, and 38%, respectively, of the hypotheses could be confirmed. In general, the correlations between change scores were weaker than expected. Nevertheless, at least 85% of the correlations were in the expected direction. Conclusions Based on results of the current study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Several reasons may account for the weaker than expected correlations. Future research on the IWPQ’s responsiveness should be conducted, preferably in other populations and intervention studies, where greater changes over time can be expected. PMID:24885593

  16. Individual diversity management and salutogenic functioning.

    PubMed

    Cilliers, Frans

    2011-12-01

    Individual diversity management was framed as how individual managers engage with and experience diversity situations. Salutogenesis was chosen as the psychological model to understand individual' management of diversity. The aim of the research was to investigate whether and how sense of coherence (SOC) acts as differentiator between ineffective and effective diversity management amongst managers. Based on their quantitatively measured SOC scores, 33 managers in a financial services organization were divided into a (statistically significantly different) low and high functioning subgroup. This was followed by a qualitative interview based on their experienced comprehension, manageability and meaningfulness of diversity experiences. Compared to the low subgroup, the high SOC subgroup reported understanding of the necessity of diversity discussions, managing themselves as representatives of a specific race, gender and age group, and finding diversity experiences meaningful towards identity forming and effective interpersonal relationships. Their SOC was linked to other salutogenic constructs. It was recommended that this organization design its diversity programme based on salutogenesis as theoretical model. PMID:22272587

  17. Individual biotransformation rates in chlorinated aliphatic mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, J.B.; Parkin, G.F.

    1996-02-01

    Anaerobic biotransformation of chlorinated aliphatics has been widely studied over the past decade, and anaerobic bioremediation is considered a promising technique for restoration of contaminated aquifers. Studies using batch cultures and continuously fed attached-growth systems investigated the effect of mixtures of chlorinated aliphatics on the anaerobic biotransformation rates of individual components of the mixture. Dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform (CF), and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) were selected for study because of their frequent detection in groundwater. Biotransformation of CF and TCA occurred in all systems. When CF and TCA were fed together, transformation rates for both aliphatics were lower than when fed individually. DCM generally had minor to negligible effects on the transformation of CF and TCA, but in one case, it caused a slight but statistically significant decrease in TCA transformation (p = 0.05). DCM transformation was not observed when fed individually or in mixtures to batch resting cultures, so the effect of CF and TCA on DCM transformation could not be determined.

  18. Impact of committed individuals on vaccination behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2012-11-01

    We study how the presence of committed vaccinators, a small fraction of individuals who consistently hold the vaccinating strategy and are immune to influence, impact the vaccination dynamics in well-mixed and spatially structured populations. For this purpose, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of a flu-like vaccination by integrating an epidemiological process into a simple agent-based model of adaptive learning, where individuals (except for those committed ones) use anecdotal evidence to estimate costs and benefits of vaccination. We show that the committed vaccinators, acting as “steadfast role models” in the populations, can efficiently avoid the clustering of susceptible individuals and stimulate other imitators to take vaccination, hence contributing to the promotion of vaccine uptake. We substantiate our findings by making comparative studies of our model on a full lattice and on a randomly diluted one. Our work is expected to provide valuable information for decision-making and design more effective disease-control strategy.

  19. Individual Joblessness, Contextual Unemployment, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tapia Granados, José A.; House, James S.; Ionides, Edward L.; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979–1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals—the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population. PMID:24993734

  20. Entropic measures of individual mobility patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallotti, Riccardo; Bazzani, Armando; Degli Esposti, Mirko; Rambaldi, Sandro

    2013-10-01

    Understanding human mobility from a microscopic point of view may represent a fundamental breakthrough for the development of a statistical physics for cognitive systems and it can shed light on the applicability of macroscopic statistical laws for social systems. Even if the complexity of individual behaviors prevents a true microscopic approach, the introduction of mesoscopic models allows the study of the dynamical properties for the non-stationary states of the considered system. We propose to compute various entropy measures of the individual mobility patterns obtained from GPS data that record the movements of private vehicles in the Florence district, in order to point out new features of human mobility related to the use of time and space and to define the dynamical properties of a stochastic model that could generate similar patterns. Moreover, we can relate the predictability properties of human mobility to the distribution of time passed between two successive trips. Our analysis suggests the existence of a hierarchical structure in the mobility patterns which divides the performed activities into three different categories, according to the time cost, with different information contents. We show that a Markov process defined by using the individual mobility network is not able to reproduce this hierarchy, which seems the consequence of different strategies in the activity choice. Our results could contribute to the development of governance policies for a sustainable mobility in modern cities.

  1. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  2. Individualizing endpoints in randomized clinical trials to better inform individual patient care: the TARGET proposal.

    PubMed

    Iwashyna, Theodore J; Deane, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    In practice, critical care practitioners individualize treatments and goals of care for each patient in light of that patient's acute and chronic pathophysiology, as well as their beliefs and values. Yet critical care researchers routinely measure one endpoint for all patients during randomized clinical trials (RCTs), eschewing any such individualization. More recent methodology work has explored the possibility that enrollment criteria in RCTs can be individualized, as can data analysis plans. Here we propose that the specific endpoints of a RCT can be individualized-that is, different patients within a single RCT might have different secondary endpoints measured. If done rigorously and objectively, based on pre-randomization data, such individualization of endpoints may improve the bedside usefulness of information obtained during a RCT, while perhaps also improving the power and efficiency of any RCT. We discuss the theoretical underpinnings of this proposal in light of related innovations in RCT design such as sliding dichotomies. We discuss what a full elaboration of such individualization would require, and outline a pragmatic initial step towards the use of "individualized secondary endpoints" in a large RCT evaluating optimal enteral nutrition targets in the critically ill. PMID:27485596

  3. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  4. Transport and optical studies on individual nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qian

    Nanotechnology is considered a very important scientific discipline. It probably will offer tremendous growth opportunities to many industries. Numerous nanostructures showing interesting and practical properties have been synthesized. In order to fully understand and assemble these nanostructures into useful "nano-machines", investigations on individual nanostructures are needed. This thesis will present electron transport studies on individual organic molecules, a new method of fabricating asymmetric junctions to contact individual nanostructures, and synthesis, electrical and optical characterizations on single vanadium dioxide nanobeams. Chapter 1 serves as a brief introduction to the progress and challenges in nanotechnology. Chapter 2 first introduces single charge tunneling theory, and then discusses in detail the fabrication of single molecule transistors. Finally, this chapter presents a novel electrodeposition-based method to fabricate electrode pairs of dissimilar metals with a nanometer-sized gap between them. This electrodeposition-based method prevents cross-contamination of the different metals and enables simultaneous fabrication of multiple electrode pairs in a self-limiting manner. Chapter 3 presents electron transport studies on single molecule transistors based on individual ferrocene and nickelocene molecules. These devices show clean Coulomb blockade and energy quantization at liquid helium temperature. Low energy excited states are attributed to ring-torsion and center-of-mass vibrational modes of these molecules. Chapter 4 discusses electron transport properties of single molecule transistors based on individual [W6CCl18]n- molecules. Besides Coulomb blockade and energy quantization, these transistors demonstrate that tunneling electrons change the vibrational spectrum of [W 6CCl18]n- molecules and the vibrational modes in turn affect electron tunneling. Chapter 5 presents a vapor transport synthetic method of single crystalline vanadium

  5. Individual antigenic specificity and cross-reactions among amyloid preparations from different individuals

    PubMed Central

    Husby, G.; Natvig, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils were isolated from eleven amyloid-laden organs of six patients. By alkaline degradation, soluble units were obtained which gave antibody formation in rabbits. Gel precipitation and haemagglutination inhibition were used to characterize antigens of the amyloid. Evidence was obtained that amyloids from different organs of the same individual were identical in the antigenicity. In contrast, amyloids from different individuals each showed unique individual specificity. Besides this, antigenic cross-reactions were noted between the amyloid preparations. Finally, evidence for antigenic cross-reactivity between certain amyloid preparations and immunoglobulin light chains was obtained. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:4624554

  6. Individual- and perceived contextual-level antecedents of individual technical information inquiry in organizations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Zhao, Bin

    2003-11-01

    The authors conducted an empirical study in research and development centers and research-oriented commercial companies in Singapore to test a model for understanding individuals' technical information inquiry behavior in organization settings. Individual-level antecedents (learning orientation, risk-taking propensity, and self-efficacy) and perceived contextual-level antecedents (management support, relationship quality, organizational norms favoring technical information inquiry, and accessibility of the information source) were theorized to affect one's evaluation of the potential benefits and costs in making technical information inquiries. The results showed that the perceived norms favoring technical information inquiry affected the willingness of individuals to make technical information inquiries through the mediating variable, expectancy value. In addition, compared with individual-level variables, perceived contextual-level variables explained slightly more variance in the willingness to make technical information inquiries. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:14992350

  7. Detection of heteroplasmy in individual mitochondrial particles.

    PubMed

    Poe, Bobby G; Duffy, Ciarán F; Greminger, Michael A; Nelson, Bradley J; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been associated with disease and aging. Since each cell has thousands of mtDNA copies, clustered into nucleoids of five to ten mtDNA molecules each, determining the effects of a given mtDNA mutation and their connection with disease phenotype is not straightforward. It has been postulated that heteroplasmy (coexistence of mutated and wild-type DNA) follows simple probability rules dictated by the random distribution of mtDNA molecules at the nucleoid level. This model has been used to explain how mutation levels correlate with the onset of disease phenotype and loss of cellular function. Nonetheless, experimental evidence of heteroplasmy at the nucleoid level is scarce. Here, we report a new method to determine heteroplasmy of individual mitochondrial particles containing one or more nucleoids. The method uses capillary cytometry with laser-induced fluorescence detection to detect individual mitochondrial particles stained with PicoGreen, which makes it possible to quantify the mtDNA copy number of each particle. After detection, one or more particles are collected into polymerase chain reaction (PCR) wells and then subjected to real-time multiplexed PCR amplification. This PCR strategy is suitable to obtain the relative abundance of mutated and wild-type mtDNA. The results obtained here indicate that individual mitochondrial particles and nucleoids contained within these particles are not heteroplasmic. The results presented here suggest that current models of mtDNA segregation and distribution (i.e., heteroplasmic nucleoids) need further consideration. PMID:20467729

  8. Clutter Management for Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although there is substantial anecdotal evidence that clutter is common among people with multiple sclerosis (MS), the literature contains no reports of studies on the actual prevalence of the problem or its impact on functional performance in this population. Clutter promotes confusion and places individuals in potentially dangerous situations by increasing their risks of falling, losing medications, and misplacing important documents. In addition, it may negatively affect activities of daily living (ADLs). Many common MS symptoms such as decreased mobility, visual or cognitive changes, fatigue, and depression can exacerbate clutter accumulation, which in turn can have detrimental effects on physical, financial, emotional, cognitive, and social functioning. It is critical for MS clinicians to address clutter management in order to improve patients' overall functional independence and participation. Methods: A clutter reduction protocol was developed and implemented at our institution for individuals with MS. Our group program addresses psychosocial issues preventing organization and offers practical strategies for clutter removal and management to improve performance in ADLs. A clutter questionnaire is administered to individuals before and after their participation in the group program. Results: Anecdotal reports indicate that the intervention helped to reduce clutter, promote a more realistic attitude toward “possessions,” and establish a sense of accomplishment in controlling one's environment. Participants also reported fewer falls, feeling less isolated, increased ease in finding their medications, and a general sense of cognitive clarity in accomplishing ADLs. Outcome assessments are now being developed to objectively measure these effects as well as the prevalence of clutter within the MS population. Conclusions: Clutter management is an important area for MS clinicians to address because it can significantly affect patients' functioning

  9. Safety Considerations for Physically Handicapped Individuals in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Anne Barrett; Steere, Norman V.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews safety records of physically handicapped individuals, relating safety for all individuals in the laboratory to special concerns for the mobility handicapped, visually handicapped, and hearing impaired individuals. Discusses legal responsibilities and liability. (CS)

  10. A multilevel analysis of neighborhood and individual effects on individual smoking and drinking in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Li, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Hua; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2007-01-01

    Background We assessed direct effects of neighborhood-level characteristics and interactive effects of neighborhood-level characteristics and individual socioeconomic position on adult smoking and drinking, after consideration of individual-level characteristics in Taiwan. Methods Data on individual sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and drinking were obtained from Taiwan Social Change Survey conducted in 1990, 1995, and 2000. The overall response rate was 67%. A total of 5883 women and men aged over 20 living in 434 neighborhoods were interviewed. Participants' addresses were geocoded and linked with Taiwan census data for measuring neighborhood-level characteristics including neighborhood education, neighborhood concentration of elderly people, and neighborhood social disorganization. The data were analyzed with multilevel binomial regression models. Results Several interaction effects between neighborhood characteristics and individual socioeconomic status (SES) were found in multilevel analyses. Our results indicated that different neighborhood characteristics led to different interaction patterns. For example, neighborhood education had a positive effect on smoking for low SES women, in contrast to a negative effect on smoking for high SES women. This result supports the hypothesis of "relative deprivation," suggesting that poor people living in affluent neighborhoods suffer from relative deprivation and relative standing. On the other hand, neighborhood social disorganization has positive effects on drinking for low SES individuals, but not for high SES individuals. These interactive effects support the hypothesis of the double jeopardy theory, suggesting that living in neighborhoods with high social disorganization will intensify the effects of individual low SES. Conclusion The findings of this study show new evidence for the effects of neighborhood characteristics on individual smoking and drinking in Taiwan, suggesting that more studies are needed

  11. Analysis of individual lipoproteins and liposomes

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.L.; Keller, R.A.; Nolan, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the application of single molecule detection (SMD) technologies for the analysis of natural (serum lipoproteins) and synthetic (liposomes) transport systems. The need for advanced analytical procedures of these complex and important systems is presented with the specific enhancements afforded by SMD with flowing sample streams. In contrast to bulk measurements which yield only average values, measurement of individual species allows creation of population histograms from heterogeneous samples. The data are acquired in minutes and the analysis requires relatively small sample quantities. Preliminary data are presented from the analysis of low density lipoprotein, and multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles.

  12. Bacterial Ventures into Multicellularity: Collectivism through Individuality.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Simon; Ackermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes can perform functions that exceed the possibilities of an individual cell. These functions emerge through interactions between differentiated cells that are precisely arranged in space. Bacteria also form multicellular collectives that consist of differentiated but genetically identical cells. How does the functionality of these collectives depend on the spatial arrangement of the differentiated bacteria? In a previous issue of PLOS Biology, van Gestel and colleagues reported an elegant example of how the spatial arrangement of differentiated cells gives rise to collective behavior in Bacillus subtilus colonies, further demonstrating the similarity of bacterial collectives to higher multicellular organisms. PMID:26038821

  13. Bacterial Ventures into Multicellularity: Collectivism through Individuality

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, Simon; Ackermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes can perform functions that exceed the possibilities of an individual cell. These functions emerge through interactions between differentiated cells that are precisely arranged in space. Bacteria also form multicellular collectives that consist of differentiated but genetically identical cells. How does the functionality of these collectives depend on the spatial arrangement of the differentiated bacteria? In a previous issue of PLOS Biology, van Gestel and colleagues reported an elegant example of how the spatial arrangement of differentiated cells gives rise to collective behavior in Bacillus subtilus colonies, further demonstrating the similarity of bacterial collectives to higher multicellular organisms. PMID:26038821

  14. Luck Egalitarianism, Individual Responsibility and Health.

    PubMed

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-07-01

    Luck Egalitarianism has frequently been discussed in the recent literature because of the potential impact of this theory on health financing. Luck Egalitarianism puts forth a theory of distributive justice which says that the fundamental aim of equality is to compensate people for undeserved bad luck such as being born with poor native endowments, having difficult family circumstances or suffering from accidents and illness. On the other hand, if individuals face ill health because of faults of their own, then society has no duty to supply health services to them. Many arguments for and against this theory have been raised since it was first introduced. The proponents of Luck Egalitarianism focus on the concepts that free choice and respecting the autonomy of the individual determine whether health services are deserved. The criticisms against the concept of Luck Egalitarianism are that it is harsh to the needy and abandons the wretched, discriminates against the disabled, is against basic humanitarian principles, is incompatible with human dignity, and is in dissonance with real life. We agree with the basic proposition of Luck Egalitarian theory, which states that "inequalities deriving from unchosen features of people's circumstances are unjust and therefore should be compensated for". Our agreement leads us to an opposite conclusion. We propose that the "unchosen features of people's circumstances" include more than personal disadvantages. The social features to be included in the context of inequalities deriving from unchosen features of peoples circumstances are, socioeconomic status (SES), access to social determinants of health, and the ethnic, cultural and religious identity of individuals. Our other propositions are the mutable character of choices which makes individual responsibility of preferences implausible; the problematic causal relationship between responsibility and ill-health; the disregard of the motives behind decisions; problems with

  15. Revitalization - an organizational program for the individual

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.M.

    1983-07-01

    Progressive devitalization is a malady that afflicts many workers resulting in tremendous costs to organizations. This malady has long been recognized by management but little has been done to treat it. A new approach to the problem has been insitituted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in the form of a group program called Revitalization. Early results have been very encouraging. The program will continue to be designed and improved in the hope of bringing more productivity to the organization and self-esteem to the individual.

  16. Luck Egalitarianism, Individual Responsibility and Health

    PubMed Central

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Luck Egalitarianism has frequently been discussed in the recent literature because of the potential impact of this theory on health financing. Luck Egalitarianism puts forth a theory of distributive justice which says that the fundamental aim of equality is to compensate people for undeserved bad luck such as being born with poor native endowments, having difficult family circumstances or suffering from accidents and illness. On the other hand, if individuals face ill health because of faults of their own, then society has no duty to supply health services to them. Many arguments for and against this theory have been raised since it was first introduced. The proponents of Luck Egalitarianism focus on the concepts that free choice and respecting the autonomy of the individual determine whether health services are deserved. The criticisms against the concept of Luck Egalitarianism are that it is harsh to the needy and abandons the wretched, discriminates against the disabled, is against basic humanitarian principles, is incompatible with human dignity, and is in dissonance with real life. We agree with the basic proposition of Luck Egalitarian theory, which states that “inequalities deriving from unchosen features of people’s circumstances are unjust and therefore should be compensated for”. Our agreement leads us to an opposite conclusion. We propose that the “unchosen features of people’s circumstances” include more than personal disadvantages. The social features to be included in the context of inequalities deriving from unchosen features of peoples circumstances are, socioeconomic status (SES), access to social determinants of health, and the ethnic, cultural and religious identity of individuals. Our other propositions are the mutable character of choices which makes individual responsibility of preferences implausible; the problematic causal relationship between responsibility and ill-health; the disregard of the motives behind decisions; problems

  17. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  18. Individualized Treatment Guidelines for Postpubertal Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is a well-known congenital anomaly in children. However, its diagnosis is often delayed for reasons including patient unawareness or denial of abnormal findings in the testis. Moreover, it has been difficult to establish an optimal treatment strategy for postpubertal cryptorchidism, given the small number of patients. Unlike cryptorchidism in children, postpubertal cryptorchidism is associated with an increased probability of neoplasms, which has led orchiectomy to be the recommended treatment. However, routine orchiectomy should be avoided in some cases due to quality-of-life issues and the potential risk of perioperative mortality. Based on a literature review, this study proposes individualized treatment guidelines for postpubertal cryptorchidism. PMID:26770935

  19. Wetting and spreading of individual latex particles

    SciTech Connect

    Unertl, W.N.; Luo, Y.; Woodland, D.; Bediwi, A.B.E.; Kamal, M.; El Farrash, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The wetting and spreading of individual latex particles is an important factor in controlling the mechanical properties of coatings such as those used on paper. The interactions between latex particles that lead to coalescence and film formation has been extensively studied and the basic mechanisms have been identified. Surface aspects of the coalescence and film formation for bulk films and dense monolayers have also been studied including the effects of surfactants. However, in many practical applications, including most paper coatings, latex is present in concentrations that are too small for latex-latex interactions to be important. In these applications, the wetting, spreading, and adhesion of individual latex particles on surfaces of the other constituents of the coating are most important. In spite of its importance, this topic has received little attention. This paper describes measurements of the contact angle {theta} and determination of the work of adhesion W of styrene-butadiene latex particles on calcite, mica, cellophane, and polystyrene surfaces. The effects of humidity and latex glass transition temperature on the wetting and spreading are also described. Some implications for the strength of coatings containing low levels of latex binders are also discussed.

  20. Individual Susceptibility to Hypobaric Environments: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Watkins, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts are at risk for developing decompression sickness (DCS) while exposed to the hypobaric environment of the extravehicular suit in space, in terrestrial hypobaric chambers, and during ascent from neutral buoyancy training dives. There is increasing recognition that DCS risk is different between diving and altitude exposures, with many individual parameters and environmental factors implicated as risk factors for development of DCS in divers but are not recognized as risk factors in altitude exposures. Much of the literature to date has focused on patent foramen ovale (PFO), which has long been considered a major risk factor for DCS in diving exposures, but its link to serious DCS in altitude exposures remains unclear. Knowledge of those risk factors specific to hypobaric DCS may help identify susceptible individuals and aid in astronaut selection, crew assignment, and mission planning. This paper reviews the current literature pertaining to these risk factors, including PFO, anthropometric parameters, gender, menstrual cycle, lifetime diving experience, physical fitness, biochemical levels, complement activation, cigarette smoking, fluid balance, and ambient temperature. Further research to evaluate pertinent risk factors for DCS in altitude exposures is recommended.

  1. Discrete interferometer with individual trapped atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Andreas; Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Belmechri, Noomen; Hild, Sebastian; Karski, Michal; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter; Quantum Technology Team

    2011-05-01

    Coherent control and delocalization of individual atoms is a pivotal challenge in quantum technologies. As a new step on this road, we present an individual atom interferometer that is capable of splitting a trapped Cs atom by up to 10 μm , allowing us to measure potential gradients on the microscale. The atom is confined in a 1D optical lattice, which is capable of performing discrete state-dependent shifts to split the atom by the desired number of sites. We establish a high degree of control, as the initial atom position, vibrational state and spin state can all be prepared with above 95% fidelity. To unravel decoherence effects and phase influences, we have explored several basic interferometer geometries, among other things demonstrating a positional spin echo to cancel background effects. As a test case, an inertial force has been applied and successfully measured using the atomic phase. This will offer us a new tool to investigate the interaction between two atoms in a controlled model system.

  2. Subcortical correlates of individual differences in aptitude.

    PubMed

    Jung, Rex E; Ryman, Sephira G; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16-29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math--higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary--higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding--higher right thalamus volume; Foresight--lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning--higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

  3. Romantic relationships: do socially anxious individuals benefit?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elizabeth A; Heimberg, Richard G; Montesi, Jennifer L; Fauber, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Psychological health and interpersonal functioning mutually influence each other. Social anxiety has a pervasive effect on interpersonal functioning, resulting in smaller social networks, increased likelihood of being single or divorced, and less intimacy in relationships. However, little is known about how relationships affect socially anxious individuals in return. We utilized a structured interview to assess how romantic relationships were perceived as influencing three aspects of psychological health (well-being, social anxiety and comfort in social situations) and whether these patterns differed as a function of social anxiety in an undergraduate sample. The perceived importance of several reasons for these effects, including those that could be characterized as both protective and harmful, was also assessed. Relationships were perceived as having contributed positively in each domain. However, when positive and negative reasons were examined separately, socially anxious individuals reported benefiting more from the positive reasons and being harmed more by negative reasons. Further, social anxiety was associated with endorsing certain reasons as important. PMID:22413773

  4. Subcortical Correlates of Individual Differences in Aptitude

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Rex E.; Ryman, Sephira G.; Vakhtin, Andrei A.; Carrasco, Jessica; Wertz, Chris; Flores, Ranee A.

    2014-01-01

    The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of several broad aptitudes including Math, Vocabulary, Foresight, Paper Folding, and Inductive Reasoning in a large (N = 107), healthy, young (age range  = 16–29) cohort. Subcortical volumes were measured using an automated technique (FreeSurfer) across structures including bilateral caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala, and five equal regions of the corpus callosum. We found that performance on measures of each aptitude was predicted by different subcortical structures: Math – higher right nucleus accumbens volume; Vocabulary – higher left hippocampus volume; Paper Folding – higher right thalamus volume; Foresight – lower right thalamus and higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume; Inductive Reasoning – higher mid anterior corpus callosum volume. Our results support general findings, within the cognitive neurosciences, showing lateralization of structure-function relationships, as well as more specific relationships between individual structures (e.g., left hippocampus) and functions relevant to particular aptitudes (e.g., Vocabulary). PMID:24586770

  5. [The rights of criminally insane individuals].

    PubMed

    Correia, Ludmila Cerqueira; Lima, Isabel Maria Sampaio Oliveira; Alves, Vânia Sampaio

    2007-09-01

    The Psychiatric Reform Movement has supported proposals to reorient the hegemonic mental health care model. In Brazil, a facility for the criminally insane was created, called the Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH). The maintenance of such a structure, known as total institutionalization, has reinforced individual exclusion, limiting the patients' social rehabilitation. This article discusses the right to health in the CPTH from a human rights perspective. The advances achieved in Brazil under the National Mental Health Policy have failed to include reorientation of the care provided in such facilities for the criminally insane. The institution has remained an isolationist asylum, reflecting a historical denial of human rights. Progress in policy, per se, does not guarantee the materialization of recent strides gained through the Psychiatric Reform, particularly in relation to criminals with mental disorders. The state, through shared responsibility with society, should promote the effective reorientation of the health care model for these individuals, whose criminal responsibility should be acknowledged, while providing simultaneously for specialized care. Respect for human rights is not synonymous with impunity. PMID:17700929

  6. Impact of Ions on Individual Water Entropy.

    PubMed

    Saha, Debasis; Mukherjee, Arnab

    2016-08-01

    Solutes determine the properties of a solution. In this study, we probe ionic solutions through the entropy of individual water molecules in the solvation shells around different cations and anions. Using a method recently developed by our group, we show the solvation shell entropy stemming from the individual contributions correlates extremely well with experimental values for both polarizable and nonpolarizable force fields. The behavior of water entropy as a function of distance reveals significant (∼20%) contributions from the second solvation shell even for the low concentration considered here. While for the cations, contributions from both translational and rotational entropy loss are similar in different solvation shells, water around anions loses much more rotational entropy due to their ability to accept hydrogen bonds. Most importantly, while charge density of cations or anions correlates with the translational entropy loss, anions with similar charge density as that of cations has a much stronger and long-range effect on water. We also show how the modulation of water entropy by ions is correlated to the structural modifications of hydration shell. This study thus provides a step toward understanding the entropic behavior of water in molecular recognition processes between proteins and drug molecules. PMID:27404917

  7. Contextualising eating problems in individual diet counselling.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Søren T; Køster, Allan

    2014-05-01

    Health professionals consider diet to be a vital component in managing weight, chronic diseases and the overall promotion of health. This article takes the position that the complexity and contextual nature of individual eating problems needs to be addressed in a more systematic and nuanced way than is usually the case in diet counselling, motivational interviewing and health coaching. We suggest the use of narrative practice as a critical and context-sensitive counselling approach to eating problems. Principles of externalisation and co-researching are combined within a counselling framework that employs logistic, social and discursive eating problems as analytic categories. Using cases from a health clinic situated at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen, we show that even if the structural conditions associated with eating problems may not be solvable through individual counselling sessions, exploration of the complex structures of food and eating with the client can provide agency by helping them navigate within the context of the problem. We also exemplify why a reflexive and critical approach to the way health is perceived by clients should be an integrated part of diet counselling. PMID:24443502

  8. Resting State Network Estimation in Individual Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Carl D.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Szrama, Nicholas P.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Snyder, Abraham Z.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain networks associated with both normal and pathological cognitive function. The objective of this work is to reliably compute resting state network (RSN) topography in single participants. We trained a supervised classifier (multi-layer perceptron; MLP) to associate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlation maps corresponding to pre-defined seeds with specific RSN identities. Hard classification of maps obtained from a priori seeds was highly reliable across new participants. Interestingly, continuous estimates of RSN membership retained substantial residual error. This result is consistent with the view that RSNs are hierarchically organized, and therefore not fully separable into spatially independent components. After training on a priori seed-based maps, we propagated voxel-wise correlation maps through the MLP to produce estimates of RSN membership throughout the brain. The MLP generated RSN topography estimates in individuals consistent with previous studies, even in brain regions not represented in the training data. This method could be used in future studies to relate RSN topography to other measures of functional brain organization (e.g., task-evoked responses, stimulation mapping, and deficits associated with lesions) in individuals. The multi-layer perceptron was directly compared to two alternative voxel classification procedures, specifically, dual regression and linear discriminant analysis; the perceptron generated more spatially specific RSN maps than either alternative. PMID:23735260

  9. The cricothyroid joint in elderly Japanese individuals.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Masamitu; Yamamoto, Masahito; Kawamoto, Ai; Katori, Yukio; Kinoshita, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    Using 15 cricothyroid joint (CT joint) specimens obtained from donated cadavers of elderly individuals, we examined the morphologies of the ceratocricoid ligaments as well as the synovial tissue. The ligaments consistently contained abundant elastic fibers: the fibers tended to be straight on the anterior side in contrast to a mesh-like arrangement on the posterior side. Thick and/or long synovial folds were often evident in the CT joint. The synovial tissue usually contained CD68-positive macrophages, but the positive cells were often restricted to certain parts of the tissue. Factor VIII-positive capillaries were present but few in number, and CD3- or IgM-positive lymphocytes were absent in the synovial tissue. Degenerative changes in the joint cartilage, such as roughness or thinning, were often present, but no cartilage defects were evident. Therefore, in contrast to the small, non-weight-bearing joints of the musculoskeletal system, we considered the degeneration of the CT joint to be a specific, silent form of osteoarthritis. For high-pitched phonation and ossification of the laryngeal cartilage, the CT joint in elderly individuals seemed to maintain its anterior gliding and rotation with the aid of elastic fiber-rich tissues compensating for the loss of congruity between the joint cartilage surfaces. PMID:26286109

  10. Individualized grid-enabled mammographic training system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, M. H.; Gale, A. G.

    2009-02-01

    The PERFORMS self-assessment scheme measures individuals skills in identifying key mammographic features on sets of known cases. One aspect of this is that it allows radiologists' skills to be trained, based on their data from this scheme. Consequently, a new strategy is introduced to provide revision training based on mammographic features that the radiologist has had difficulty with in these sets. To do this requires a lot of random cases to provide dynamic, unique, and up-to-date training modules for each individual. We propose GIMI (Generic Infrastructure in Medical Informatics) middleware as the solution to harvest cases from distributed grid servers. The GIMI middleware enables existing and legacy data to support healthcare delivery, research, and training. It is technology-agnostic, data-agnostic, and has a security policy. The trainee examines each case, indicating the location of regions of interest, and completes an evaluation form, to determine mammographic feature labelling, diagnosis, and decisions. For feedback, the trainee can choose to have immediate feedback after examining each case or batch feedback after examining a number of cases. All the trainees' result are recorded in a database which also contains their trainee profile. A full report can be prepared for the trainee after they have completed their training. This project demonstrates the practicality of a grid-based individualised training strategy and the efficacy in generating dynamic training modules within the coverage/outreach of the GIMI middleware. The advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed together with future plans.

  11. Investigating inter-individual differences in short-term intra-individual variability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan (Peggy); Hamaker, Ellen; Bergeman, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    Intra-individual variability over a short period of time may contain important information about how individuals differ from each other. In this paper we begin by discussing diverse indicators for quantifying intra-individual variability and indicate their advantages and disadvantages. Then we propose an alternative method that models inter-individual differences in intra-individual variability by separately considering both the amplitude of fluctuations and temporal dependency in the data. In the proposed model, temporal dependency and amplitude of fluctuations are both included as random effects. Parameter estimation is done with a multiple-step approach using maximum likelihood, or with a recommended one-step approach using a Bayesian method. The similarity and differences between the proposed method and some existing methods are discussed and investigated using diary study data from older adults. The results from empirical data analysis revealed that temporal dependency and amplitude of fluctuations have different predictability of health outcomes and thus should be modeled and considered separately. PMID:22924600

  12. Rehabilitation of individuals with intestinal ostomy.

    PubMed

    Martins, Lívia Módolo; Sonobe, Helena Megumi; Vieira, Flávia De Siqueira; De Oliveira, Marissa Silva; Lenza, Nariman De Felício Bortucan; Da Silva Teles, André Aparecido

    2015-12-10

    This article will discuss an ethnographic study interpreting the rehabilitation experience of 15 individuals with an intestinal ostomy in Brazil, analysed using thematic analysis from the perspective of the sociology of health. The decoded meanings included: 'dealing with treatment and intestinal ostomy', and led to the theme 'the rehabilitation experience of patients with intestinal ostomy due to chronic illness', which addressed normality of life before intestinal illness, defining oneself and life, considering personal, family, social and therapeutic difficulties, and preparing to live with an intestinal ostomy, considering both the private and public spheres. This study will contribute to the specialised care provided in the various contexts of healthcare delivery, especially in relation to the humanisation of care of patients and implementation of appropriate strategies to meet the needs of patients. PMID:26653721

  13. Nanoscale fluid transportation through individual carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin; Cao, Di; Pang, Pei; Luo, Tao; Lindsay, Stuart; Kristic, Predrag; Nuckolls, Colin

    2011-03-01

    There are great interest in both simulation and experiment of fluid flow on the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes, with their extremely small inner diameter (usually below 2 nm) and atomic smooth inner surface, are ideal materials for studying nanoconfinement and ion and molecule nanoscale translocation. The excellent electrical properties of CNTs can also be integrated to achieve nanoelectrofluidic device. This presentation describes our recent progress in studying fluid transport through individual carbon nanotubes, including simultaneously ionic and electronic measurements during water, ion and molecule translocation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01).

  14. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy - Pharmacogenomic aspect

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Bhavik; Shankarkumar, Aruna; Ghosh, K.

    2015-01-01

    Combination therapy with three drug regimens for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection significantly suppresses the viral replication. However, this therapeutic impact is restricted by adverse drug events and response in terms of short and long term efficacy. There are multiple factors involved in different responses to antiretrovirals (ARVs) such as age, body weight, disease status, diet and heredity. Pharmacogenomics deals with individual genetic make-up and its role in drug efficacy and toxicity. In depth genetic research has provided evidence to predict the risk of developing certain toxicities for which personalized screening and surveillance protocols may be developed to prevent side effects. Here we describe the use of pharmacogenomics for optimal use of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy). PMID:26831415

  15. Individual Decisions to Migrate During Civil Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bohra-Mishra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    The existing literature on forced migration limits our understanding of how violence affects migration to competing destinations. This article adds to the literature on forced migration by studying how armed violence during a period of civil conflict in south-central Nepal influenced the likelihood of local, internal, and international migration. We find that violence has a nonlinear effect on migration, such that low to moderate levels of violence reduce the odds of movement, but when violence reaches high levels, the odds of movement increase. We also find that the effect of violence on mobility increases as the distance of the move increases. When we consider the influence of violence on microlevel decision-making, we find that the effects of individual and household-level determinants were mostly consistent with hypotheses derived from contemporary theories of voluntary migration and that no predictor of migration influenced the decision to migrate differently in the presence of violence. PMID:21541805

  16. Optical Plasmons of Individual Gold Nanosponges

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The search for novel plasmonic nanostructures, which can act simultaneously as optical detectors and stimulators, is crucial for many applications in the fields of biosensing, electro- and photocatalysis, electrochemistry, and biofuel generation. In most of these areas, a large surface-to-volume ratio, as well as high density of active surface sites, is desirable. We investigate sponge-like, that is, fully porous, nanoparticles, called nanosponges, where both the gold and the air phase are fully percolated in three dimensions. We correlate, on a single nanoparticle basis, their optical scattering spectra (using dark field microscopy) with their individual morphology (using electron microscopy). We find that the scattering spectra of nanosponges depend only weakly on their size and outer shape, but are greatly influenced by their unique percolation, in qualitative agreement with numerical simulations. PMID:26523285

  17. Modelling larval movement data from individual bioassays.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Chris R; Worton, Bruce J; Deasy, William; Birch, A Nicholas E

    2015-05-01

    We consider modelling the movements of larvae using individual bioassays in which data are collected at a high-frequency rate of five observations per second. The aim is to characterize the behaviour of the larvae when exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. Mixtures of diffusion processes, as well as Hidden Markov models, are proposed as models of larval movement. These models account for directed and localized movements, and successfully distinguish between the behaviour of larvae exposed to attractant and repellent compounds. A simulation study illustrates the advantage of using a Hidden Markov model rather than a simpler mixture model. Practical aspects of model estimation and inference are considered on extensive data collected in a study of novel approaches for the management of cabbage root fly. PMID:25764283

  18. Energy efficiency: Perspectives on individual behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, W.; Neiman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A collection of research papers on the personal behavior and attitudes that affect residential energy use. Articles in the first section address the factors that affect decision-making by consumers; convenience and personal opinions often override rational economic choices. The research in the second section uses aggregate survey data to gain insight into energy behavior. Papers in the third section use detailed monitoring of individual households to analyze personal behavior and home energy management, and the fourth section includes papers on the interaction of building systems with occupants. These papers demonstrate that, to be successful, energy conservation programs must consider the ''human factor'' in addition to the conventional energy parameters (e.g. weather, insulation, and appliance efficiencies). Main emphasis was given to: energy conservation; consumers; personal behavior; economic decision-making; buildings; energy policy; hot water use; thermostats; attitudes; applied anthropology.

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Family Processes, and Individual Development

    PubMed Central

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.

    2010-01-01

    Research during the past decade shows that social class or socioeconomic status (SES) is related to satisfaction and stability in romantic unions, the quality of parent-child relationships, and a range of developmental outcomes for adults and children. This review focuses on evidence regarding potential mechanisms proposed to account for these associations. Research findings reported during the past decade demonstrate support for an interactionist model of the relationship between SES and family life, which incorporates assumptions from both the social causation and social selection perspectives. The review concludes with recommendations for future research on SES, family processes and individual development in terms of important theoretical and methodological issues yet to be addressed. PMID:20676350

  20. Tinea versicolor in dark-skinned individuals.

    PubMed

    Kallini, Joseph R; Riaz, Fauzia; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-02-01

    In this article, we review the salient features of tinea versicolor and describe the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and histopathology of this mycosis in dark-skinned individuals. Tinea versicolor is caused by an overgrowth of the Malassezia genus. It manifests clinically as asymptomatic hypopigmented macules, hyperpigmented macules, or a combination of the two. Under light microscopy, Malassezia presents as a dimorphic fungus - in both the hyphal and yeast form. Most clinicians have found that the majority of dark-skinned patients present solely with hypopigmented lesions. Under light microscopy, lesions on dark skin involved with tinea versicolor tend to have a thicker stratum corneum, more tonofilaments in the granulosum, and more sequestered melanosomes. Differential diagnosis includes confluent and reticulated papillomatosis, seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis alba, and vitiligo. Tinea versicolor can be successfully managed in most cases with topical antifungal treatments. Cases of recurrence, such as those seen in immunocompromised patients, may necessitate scheduled oral or topical therapy. PMID:24320140

  1. The social individual in clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    1992-01-01

    Except for several provocative final sentences, Sigrid Fry-Revere's "A Libertarian Critique of H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.'s The Foundations of Bioethics" is not a libertarian so much as it is a philosophical critique. Engelhardt's work has been widely reviewed, and its arguments have been discussed in Fry-Revere's article and elsewhere. Although it would be impractical in this context to undertake the development of a full-scale, philosophical alternative to libertarianism in bioethics, some recent work in philosophy and clinical ethics bears strongly on the challenge that Engelhardt's work represents. In this commentary I will focus on the implications of a certain alternative philosophy -- and by comparison the limitations of Engelhardt's libertarianism -- for one important aspect of clinical ethics: our understanding of the nature of individuality, with special reference to the situation of the patient. I write as an admiring critic of Engelhardt's work, from which I have learned and drawn inspiration.... PMID:11643056

  2. Mindfulness in the Treatment of Suicidal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Luoma, Jason B.; Villatte, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is exhibited by a diverse population of individuals and spans many diagnostic categories. In order to develop effective prevention and treatment programs, it is important to identify transdiagnostic processes that impact the many pathways to suicidality, are amenable to intervention, and affect clinical outcomes when modified. A growing body of data suggests that experiential avoidance, or the tendency to escape or avoid unwanted psychological experiences, even when such efforts cause harm, may represent one such universal process. This article reviews theory and evidence that support mindfulness and psychological acceptance as a means to target experiential avoidance in suicidal clients and thereby reduce the risk of suicide. The article also provides two case examples of the application of mindfulness to suicidality and discusses how mindfulness may help clinicians in managing the stress associated with treating suicidal clients. PMID:22745525

  3. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs. PMID:25908013

  4. Procedural Learning and Individual Differences in Language

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine different aspects of procedural memory in young adults who varied with regard to their language abilities. We selected a sample of procedural memory tasks, each of which represented a unique type of procedural learning, and has been linked, at least partially, to the functionality of the corticostriatal system. The findings showed that variance in language abilities is associated with performance on different domains of procedural memory, including the motor domain (as shown in the pursuit rotor task), the cognitive domain (as shown in the weather prediction task), and the linguistic domain (as shown in the nonword repetition priming task). These results implicate the corticostriatal system in individual differences in language. PMID:26190949

  5. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts. PMID:20798810

  6. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  7. Individual Atoms in their Quantum Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Eyal; Sompet, Pimonpan; Fung, Yin Hsien; Andersen, Mikkel F.

    2016-05-01

    An ultimate control of pure quantum states is an excellent platform for various quantum science and engineering. In this work, we perform quantum manipulation of individual Rubidium atoms in a tightly focus optical tweezer in order to cool them into their vibrational ground state via Raman sideband cooling. Our experimental scheme involves a combination of Raman sideband transitions and optical pumping of the atoms that couples two magnetic field sublevels indifferent to magnetic noise thus providing a much longer atomic coherence time compared to previous cooling schemes. By installing most of the atoms in their ground state, we managed to achieve two-dimensional cooling on the way to create a full nil entropy quantum state of single atoms and single molecules. We acknowledge the Marsden Fund, CORE and DWC for their support.

  8. Imaging Brain Development: Benefiting from Individual Variability

    PubMed Central

    Sharda, Megha; Foster, Nicholas E.V.; Hyde, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    Human brain development is a complex process that evolves from early childhood to young adulthood. Major advances in brain imaging are increasingly being used to characterize the developing brain. These advances have further helped to elucidate the dynamic maturational processes that lead to the emergence of complex cognitive abilities in both typical and atypical development. However, conventional approaches involve categorical group comparison models and tend to disregard the role of widespread interindividual variability in brain development. This review highlights how this variability can inform our understanding of developmental processes. The latest studies in the field of brain development are reviewed, with a particular focus on the role of individual variability and the consequent heterogeneity in brain structural and functional development. This review also highlights how such heterogeneity might be utilized to inform our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders and recommends the use of more dimensional approaches to study brain development. PMID:26648753

  9. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of individual catalytic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Yu, Yun; Zacher, Brian J; Mirkin, Michael V

    2014-12-15

    Electrochemistry at individual metal nanoparticles (NPs) can provide new insights into their electrocatalytic behavior. Herein, the electrochemical activity of single AuNPs attached to the catalytically inert carbon surface is mapped by using extremely small (≥3 nm radius) polished nanoelectrodes as tips in the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). The use of such small probes resulted in the spatial resolution significantly higher than in previously reported electrochemical images. The currents produced by either rapid electron transfer or the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction at a single 10 or 20 nm NP were measured and quantitatively analyzed. The developed methodology should be useful for studying the effects of nanoparticle size, geometry, and surface attachment on electrocatalytic activity in real-world application environment. PMID:25332196

  10. Post endodontic Aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B.; Nunia, Kalpana; Mohanty, Sujata; Gupta, Shalini

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive aspergillosis in immunocompetent individuals subsequent to post endodontic treatment can involve the maxillary antrum. An early and accurate diagnosis will aid in prompt and effective treatment. A 35 year old female patient reported with a painful nasomaxillary swelling. Previous records revealed the failure of the endodontic treatment of maxillary left second premolar which was subsequently extracted. Root piece was accidently left behind which resulted in a painful nasomaxillary swelling. The extraction socket was curetted and tissue was sent for histopathological examination, which revealed abundant septate fungal hyphae with numerous spores characteristic of Aspergillus. The patient showed marked improvement in the symptoms with systemic itraconazole at 3 months follow up and complete resolution occurred within 6 months. Inclusion of aspergilloma infections in the differential diagnosis is advocated when patients present with post-endodontic nasomaxillary swelling. Key words:Aspergillosis, fungal sinusitis, post root canal treatment. PMID:26535103

  11. Determinants of individual and group performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    A broad exploration of individual and group/organizational factors that influence performance in demanding environments such as space and air transport was undertaken. Primary efforts were directed toward defining critical issues, developing new methodologies for the assessment of performance in such environments, and developing new measures of personality and attitudes as predictors of performance. Substantial clarification of relevant issues for research and validation was achieved. A reliable instrument to assess crewmembers' attitudes regarding crew coordination and flightdeck management was validated. Major efforts in data collection to validate concepts were initiated. The results suggest that substantial improvements can be made in the prediction of performance and in the selection of crewmembers for aviation and space.

  12. [Modality of individual response to stress ].

    PubMed

    Cassitto, M G

    2009-01-01

    "Stress is a state which is accompanied by physical, psychological or social complaints or dysfunctions and which results from individuals feeling unable to bridge the gap with the requirements or expectations placed on them......stress is not a disease but prolonged exposure to it may reduce effectiveness at work and may cause ill health". This is the stress definition reported by the EU Framework Agreement on Work Related Stress signed 8 October '04 by four workers and employers signatory parties. In order to describe this state of distress, four observation levels can be used, namely data from literature, the subjective symptoms, the related or observed behaviour dysfunctions and the occupational, social performance dysfunctions. Analysis of and interrelations among these four areas can help a better identification of the stress effects and characterize the most frequently observed aspects. PMID:19827284

  13. Thermoacoustic transduction in individual suspended carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Mason, Blake J; Chang, Shun-Wen; Chen, Jihan; Cronin, Stephen B; Bushmaker, Adam W

    2015-05-26

    We report an experimental measurement of the acoustic signal emitted from an individual suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) approximate 2 μm in length, 1 nm in diameter, and 10(-21) kg in mass. This system represents the smallest thermoacoustic system studied to date. By applying an AC voltage of 1.4 V at 8 kHz to the suspended CNT, we are able to detect the acoustic signal using a commercial microphone. The acoustic power detected is found to span a range from 0.1 to 2.4 attoWatts or 0.2 to 1 μPa of sound pressure. This corresponds to thermoacoustic efficiencies ranging from 0.007 to 0.6 Pa/W for the seven devices that were measured in this study. Here, the small lateral dimensions of these devices cause large heat losses due to thermal conduction, which result in the relatively small observed thermoacoustic efficiencies. PMID:25961803

  14. Buckling Behavior of Individual and Bundled Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Soheilypour, Mohammad; Peyro, Mohaddeseh; Peter, Stephen J.; Mofrad, Mohammad R.K.

    2015-01-01

    As the major structural constituent of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs) serve a variety of biological functions that range from facilitating organelle transport to maintaining the mechanical integrity of the cell. Neuronal MTs exhibit a distinct configuration, hexagonally packed bundles of MT filaments, interconnected by MT-associated protein (MAP) tau. Building on our previous work on mechanical response of axonal MT bundles under uniaxial tension, this study is focused on exploring the compression scenarios. Intracellular MTs carry a large fraction of the compressive loads sensed by the cell and therefore, like any other column-like structure, are prone to substantial bending and buckling. Various biological activities, e.g., actomyosin contractility and many pathological conditions are driven or followed by bending, looping, and buckling of MT filaments. The coarse-grained model previously developed in our lab has been used to study the mechanical behavior of individual and bundled in vivo MT filaments under uniaxial compression. Both configurations show tip-localized, decaying, and short-wavelength buckling. This behavior highlights the role of the surrounding cytoplasm and MAP tau on MT buckling behavior, which allows MT filaments to bear much larger compressive forces. It is observed that MAP tau interconnections improve this effect by a factor of two. The enhanced ability of MT bundles to damp buckling waves relative to individual MT filaments, may be interpreted as a self-defense mechanism because it helps axonal MTs to endure harsher environments while maintaining their function. The results indicate that MT filaments in a bundle do not buckle simultaneously implying that the applied stress is not equally shared among the MT filaments, that is a consequence of the nonuniform distribution of MAP tau proteins along the bundle length. Furthermore, from a pathological perspective, it is observed that axonal MT bundles are more vulnerable to failure in

  15. Individual muscle contributions to circular turning mechanics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Jessica D; Klute, Glenn K; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-04-13

    Turning is an activity of daily living that involves both the acceleration of the body center-of-mass (COM) towards the center of curvature and rotation of the pelvis towards the new heading. The purpose of this study was to understand which muscles contribute to turning using experimentation, musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. Ten healthy adults consented to walk around a 1-m radius circular path at their self-selected walking speed and then along a straight line at the same speed. Forward dynamics simulations of the individual subjects during the turning and straight-line walking tasks were generated to identify the contributions of individual muscle groups to the body mediolateral and anterior-posterior COM acceleration impulse and to the pelvis angular acceleration impulse. The stance leg gluteus medius and ankle plantarflexor muscles and the swing leg adductor muscles were the primary contributors to redirect the body's COM relative to straight-line walking. In some cases, contributions to mediolateral COM acceleration were modulated through changes in leg orientation rather than through changes in muscle force. While modulation of the muscle contributions generally occurred in both the inner and outer legs, greater changes were observed during inner single-leg support than during outer single-leg support. Total pelvis angular acceleration was minimal during the single-support phase, but the swing leg muscles contributed significantly to balancing the internal and external rotation of the pelvis. The understanding of which muscles contribute to turning the body during walking may help guide the development of more effective locomotor therapies for those with movement impairments. PMID:25700608

  16. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Zoe C; Alibhai, Sky K; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN(1). It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor(2). Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,905(3) to 13,520(4). The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique(5) is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify

  17. Spotting Cheetahs: Identifying Individuals by Their Footprints

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Zoe C.; Alibhai, Sky K.; Weise, Florian; Munro, Stuart; Van Vuuren, Marlice; Van Vuuren, Rudie

    2016-01-01

    The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is Africa's most endangered large felid and listed as Vulnerable with a declining population trend by the IUCN1. It ranges widely over sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of the Middle East. Cheetah conservationists face two major challenges, conflict with landowners over the killing of domestic livestock, and concern over range contraction. Understanding of the latter remains particularly poor2. Namibia is believed to support the largest number of cheetahs of any range country, around 30%, but estimates range from 2,9053 to 13,5204. The disparity is likely a result of the different techniques used in monitoring. Current techniques, including invasive tagging with VHF or satellite/GPS collars, can be costly and unreliable. The footprint identification technique5 is a new tool accessible to both field scientists and also citizens with smartphones, who could potentially augment data collection. The footprint identification technique analyzes digital images of footprints captured according to a standardized protocol. Images are optimized and measured in data visualization software. Measurements of distances, angles, and areas of the footprint images are analyzed using a robust cross-validated pairwise discriminant analysis based on a customized model. The final output is in the form of a Ward's cluster dendrogram. A user-friendly graphic user interface (GUI) allows the user immediate access and clear interpretation of classification results. The footprint identification technique algorithms are species specific because each species has a unique anatomy. The technique runs in a data visualization software, using its own scripting language (jsl) that can be customized for the footprint anatomy of any species. An initial classification algorithm is built from a training database of footprints from that species, collected from individuals of known identity. An algorithm derived from a cheetah of known identity is then able to classify free

  18. Does individualism bring happiness? Negative effects of individualism on interpersonal relationships and happiness

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Yuji; Uchida, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    We examined the negative effects of individualism in an East Asian culture. Although individualistic systems decrease interpersonal relationships through competition, individualistic values have prevailed in European American cultures. One reason is because individuals could overcome negativity by actively constructing interpersonal relationships. In contrast, people in East Asian cultures do not have such strategies to overcome the negative impact of individualistic systems, leading to decreased well-being. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship between individualistic values, number of close friends, and subjective well-being (SWB). Study 1 indicated that individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB for Japanese college students but not for American college students. Moreover, Study 2 showed that even in an individualistic workplace in Japan, individualistic values were negatively related with the number of close friends and SWB. We discuss how cultural change toward increasing individualism might affect interpersonal relationships and well-being. PMID:24634663

  19. 32 CFR 310.17 - Individual access to personal information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individual access to personal information. 310.17 Section 310.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Access by Individuals § 310.17 Individual access to personal information. (a) Individual access....

  20. 32 CFR 310.17 - Individual access to personal information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individual access to personal information. 310.17 Section 310.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Access by Individuals § 310.17 Individual access to personal information. (a) Individual access....