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Sample records for monitoring human exposure

  1. EVALUATION OF A PERSONAL NEPHELOMETER FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current particulate matter (PM) exposure studies are using continuous personal nephelometers (pDR-1000, MIE, Inc.) to measure human exposure to PM. The personal nephelometer is a passive sampler which uses light scattering technology to measure particles ranging in size from 0....

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOCHEMICAL TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of immunochemical technologies including, but not limited to, immunoassays is expanding to include various aspects of environmental analysis. Ultimately, the basis for environmental investigations is concern about human and ecological exposure to potentially toxic compoun...

  3. Estimating exposure and dose to characterize health risks: the role of human tissue monitoring in exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K; Callahan, M A; Bryan, E F

    1995-01-01

    Exposure assessment is an integral part of health risk characterization. Exposure assessments typically address three critical aspects of exposure: the number of people exposed to the environmental toxicant, at specific concentrations, for the time period of interest; the resulting dose; and the relative contribution of important sources and pathways to exposure/dose. Because historically both "point-of-contact" measurements and information about dose and related pharmacokinetic processes have been lacking, exposure assessments have had to rely on construction of "scenarios" to estimate exposure and dose. This could change, however, as advances in development of biologic markers of exposure and dose make it possible to measure and interpret toxicant concentrations in accessible human tissues. The increasing availability of "biomarkers," coupled with improvements in pharmacokinetic understanding, present opportunities to estimate ("reconstruct") exposure from measurements of dose and knowledge of intake and uptake parameters. Human tissue monitoring, however, is not a substitute for more traditional methods of measuring exposure, but rather a complementary approach. A combination of exposure measurements and dose measurements provides the most credible scientific basis for exposure assessment. PMID:7635107

  4. HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  5. Environmental exposure modeling and monitoring of human pharmaceutical concentrations in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Versteeg, D.J.; Alder, A. C.; Cunningham, V. L.; Kolpin, D.W.; Murray-Smith, R.; Ternes, T.

    2005-01-01

    Human pharmaceuticals are receiving increased attention as environmental contaminants. This is due to their biological activity and the number of monitoring programs focusing on analysis of these compounds in various environmental media and compartments. Risk assessments are needed to understand the implications of reported concentrations; a fundamental part of the risk assessment is an assessment of environmental exposures. The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance on the use of predictive tools (e.g., models) and monitoring data in exposure assessments for pharmaceuticals in the environment. Methods to predict environmental concentrations from equations based on first principles are presented. These equations form the basis of existing GIS (geographic information systems)-based systems for understanding the spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals in the environment. The pharmaceutical assessment and transport (PhATE), georeferenced regional exposure assessment tool for European rivers (GREAT-ER), and geographical information system (GIS)-ROUT models are reviewed and recommendations are provided concerning the design and execution of monitoring studies. Model predictions and monitoring data are compared to evaluate the relative utility of each approach in environmental exposure assessments. In summary, both models and monitoring data can be used to define representative exposure concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the environment in support of environmental risk assessments.

  6. Human tissue monitoring and specimen banking: opportunities for exposure assessment, risk assessment, and epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Lee, L W; Griffith, J; Zenick, H; Hulka, B S

    1995-04-01

    A symposium on Human Tissue Monitoring and Specimen Banking: Opportunities for Exposure Assessment, Risk Assessment, and Epidemiologic Research was held from 30 March to 1 April 1993 in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. There were 117 registered participants from 18 states and 5 foreign countries. The first 2 days featured 21 invited speakers from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, various other government agencies, and universities in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Norway. The speakers provided a state-of-the-art overview of human exposure assessment techniques (especially applications of biological markers) and their relevance to human tissue specimen banking. Issues relevant to large-scale specimen banking were discussed, including program design, sample design, data collection, tissue collection, and ethical ramifications. The final group of presentations concerned practical experiences of major specimen banking and human tissue monitoring programs in the United States and Europe. The symposium addressed the utility and research opportunities afforded by specimen banking programs for future research needs in the areas of human exposure assessment, risk assessment, and environmental epidemiology. The third day of the symposium consisted of a small workshop convened to discuss and develop recommendations to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regarding applications and utility of large-scale specimen banking, biological monitoring, and biological markers for risk assessment activities. PMID:7635108

  7. A computerized bibliographic literature information system for total human exposure monitoring research

    SciTech Connect

    Dellarco, M.; Ott, W.; Wallace, L. ); Hunt, H. )

    1988-01-01

    Total human exposure monitoring is a new concept that seeks to determine, with known precision and accuracy, the pollutant concentrations actually reaching people through the food they eat, the water they drink, and the air they breath regardless of whether people are located indoors, outdoors, or in-transit. Such monitoring provides the key information needed to protect public health and to make risk assessment through representative samples of the general population, using personal monitors to measure air exposure and making direct measurements of contaminants in food, drinking water, and breath. This paper discusses the new field which also includes: surveys of what people do, where, and when, called human activity patterns, special models designed to predict human exposures from activity pattern data, and studies of the pollutant concentrations found in the small physical microenvironments that people visit, such as in-transit vehicles (for example, buses, automobiles, trains, and subways); indoor settings (for example, schools, auditoriums, stores, churches, offices, and homes); and outdoor settings(for example, sidewalks, intersections, outdoor parking areas, street canyons).

  8. Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, Joseph V.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring is the coordination of environmental (air, water, land, and crops) monitoring networks to collect systematically pollutant exposure data for a specific receptor, usually man. (Author/BB)

  9. HUMAN EXPOSURE AIR MONITORING: EXAMPLES FROM THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US-EPA and North Carolina Central University (NCCU) have a cross-pollination agenda to help share research opportunities between the two institutions. This presentation provides NCCU with an understanding of current air monitoring research the US EPA is involved in and some o...

  10. Immunoassays and Biosensors for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Kim, Hee-Joo; Mccoy, Mark R.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes some of the early work on pyrethroid insecticides in the Casida laboratory and briefly reviews the development and application of immunochemical approaches for the detection of pyrethroid insecticides and their metabolites for monitoring environmental and human exposure. Multiple technologies can be combined to enhance the sensitivity and speed of immunochemical analysis. The pyrethroid assays are used to illustrate the use of some of these immunoreagents such as antibodies, competitive mimics, and novel binding agents such as phage-displayed peptides. We also illustrate reporters such as fluorescent dyes, chemiluminescent compounds, and luminescent lanthanide nanoparticles, as well as the application of magnetic separation, and automatic instrumental systems, biosensor and novel immunological technologies. These new technologies alone and in combination result in an improved ability to determine both if effective levels of pyrethroids are being used in the field as well as evaluate possible contamination. PMID:21105656

  11. HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS/METHODS: DEVELOP AND TEST IMMUNOCHEMICAL AND OTHER SCREENING TECHNIQUES FOR USE IN EXPOSURE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    More data are needed to accurately determine the impact of pesticides on human health, especially for infants and young children. One of the ways to reduce uncertainties in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides, and other environmental contaminants, is through extensive...

  12. An Immunoassay for Monitoring Environmental and Human Exposure to the Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether BDE-47

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Chang; Gee, Shirley J.; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Bennett, Deborah; Nishioka, Marcia G.; Blum, Arlene; Fishman, Elana; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a selective competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to monitor environmental and human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether BDE-47 that is used as a flame retardant. 2,2’,4,4’-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) a dominant PBDE congener of toxicological concern, was the target analyte. To achieve effective hapten presentation on the carrier protein for antibody production, immunizing haptens with a rigid double-bonded hydrocarbon linker introduced at different positions on the target molecule were synthesized as well as coating haptens that mimic a characteristic fragment of the molecule. Rabbit antisera produced against each immunizing antigen were screened against competitive hapten coating antigens. Under optimized competitive indirect ELISA conditions, the linear detection range in the assay buffer that includes 50% dimethyl sulfoxide was 0.35 - 8.50 μg/L with an IC50 value of 1.75 μg/L for BDE-47. Little or no cross-reactivity (< 6%) was observed to related PBDE congeners containing the BDE-47 moiety and other halogenated compounds. Using a magnetic particle-based competitive direct ELISA increased the sensitivity by 10-fold over the indirect ELISA. The ELISA provided quantitative results when performed on small volume/weight samples such as dust, furniture foam, and blood/serum following sample preparation, suggesting a convenient screening tool. PMID:19921894

  13. Human exposure monitoring and evaluation in the Arctic: the importance of understanding exposures to the development of public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A; Avakian, Maureen D; Carpenter, David; Groopman, John D; Scammell, Madeleine; Wild, Christopher P

    2004-01-01

    Arctic indigenous peoples face significant challenges resulting from the contamination of Arctic air, water, and soil by persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, and radionuclides. International cooperative efforts among governments and research institutions are under way to collect the information needed by environmental health scientists and public health officials to address environmental contamination in the Arctic. However, the climatic, political, and cultural conditions of the land and its native populations combine to present a unique set of scientific and logistic challenges to addressing this important public health issue. Public health officials have the responsibility to respect the cultural traditions of indigenous communities, while simultaneously designing strategies that will reduce their exposure to environmental contaminants and rates of disease and dysfunction. Researchers can better understand the link between environmental exposures and disease through monitoring programs for both the subsistence diets and health status of the indigenous populations. We suggest that the incorporation of community-based participatory research methods into programs designed to assess biomarkers of contaminant exposure in children and adults may be a valuable addition to ongoing and newly developed research programs. This approach could serve as a model for international environmental health initiatives, because it involves the participation of the local communities and seeks to builds trust between all stakeholders. PMID:14757538

  14. Battery of monitoring tests for the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.B. Jr.; Legator, M.S.; Chang, L.W.; Pereira, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    Environmental and occupational exposures of human populations to mutagenic chemicals have caused concern but have been difficult to document because rapid and sensitive techniques for assessing the effects of exposure have not been available. We are evaluating a battery of tests for the detection of exposure of human populations to known or suspected mutagens. Parallel laboratory studies using the same or analogous assays are being conducted with animals and are reported in an accompanying abstract. Exposed individuals are matched for age, sex and lifestyle factors with unexposed control individuals. Blood, urine and in males, semen are collected from both age groups simultaneously. The tests performed with these samples include cytogenetic analysis of lymphocytes for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges, evaluation for DNA damage in lymphocytes by the alkaline elution technique, analysis of hemoglobin for alkylation, analysis of urine for excreted mutagens and analysis of semen for sperm count, abnormal morphology and Y chromosome non-disjunction. Our initial study is evaluating the effects of a formaldehyde exposure in a major hospital autopsy service. Environmental measurements show that individuals are exposed to transient levels of 1-5 ppm during certain activities with background levels of 0.1-0.5 ppm at other times. To date 19 exposed and 19 control subjects have been sampled a total of 101 times. The only difference indicated to date between exposed and control groups was an upward shift in the distribution of chromosome aberration rates for formaldehyde exposed subjects and alcohol consumers compared to non-drinkers.

  15. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  16. Influence of Human Activity Patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM 2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that influence personal exposures to ambient fine-particulate matter (PM2.5). We describe and compare different ambient PM2.5 exposure estimation...

  17. Biological Monitoring of Human Exposure to Neonicotinoids Using Urine Samples, and Neonicotinoid Excretion Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kouji H.; Tanaka, Keiko; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Imanaka, Mie; Niisoe, Tamon; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Inoue, Sumiko; Kusakawa, Koichi; Oshima, Masayo; Watanabe, Kiyohiko; Yasojima, Makoto; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Background Neonicotinoids, which are novel pesticides, have entered into usage around the world because they are selectively toxic to arthropods and relatively non-toxic to vertebrates. It has been suggested that several neonicotinoids cause neurodevelopmental toxicity in mammals. The aim was to establish the relationship between oral intake and urinary excretion of neonicotinoids by humans to facilitate biological monitoring, and to estimate dietary neonicotinoid intakes by Japanese adults. Methodology/Principal Findings Deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and imidacloprid) microdoses were orally ingested by nine healthy adults, and 24 h pooled urine samples were collected for 4 consecutive days after dosing. The excretion kinetics were modeled using one- and two-compartment models, then validated in a non-deuterium-labeled neonicotinoid microdose study involving 12 healthy adults. Increased urinary concentrations of labeled neonicotinoids were observed after dosing. Clothianidin was recovered unchanged within 3 days, and most dinotefuran was recovered unchanged within 1 day. Around 10% of the imidacloprid dose was excreted unchanged. Most of the acetamiprid was metabolized to desmethyl-acetamiprid. Spot urine samples from 373 Japanese adults were analyzed for neonicotinoids, and daily intakes were estimated. The estimated average daily intake of these neonicotinoids was 0.53–3.66 μg/day. The highest intake of any of the neonicotinoids in the study population was 64.5 μg/day for dinotefuran, and this was <1% of the acceptable daily intake. PMID:26731104

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

  19. IMMUNOASSAY HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Human Exposure Research Branch has developed several enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods to support human exposure assessment studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) of chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been applied to sam...

  20. Influence of human activity patterns, particle composition, and residential air exchange rates on modeled distributions of PM2.5 exposure compared with central-site monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Lisa K; Burke, Janet; Lunden, Melissa; Turpin, Barbara J; Rich, David Q; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Hodas, Natasha; Ökaynak, Halûk

    2013-01-01

    Central-site monitors do not account for factors such as outdoor-to-indoor transport and human activity patterns that influence personal exposures to ambient fine-particulate matter (PM(2.5)). We describe and compare different ambient PM(2.5) exposure estimation approaches that incorporate human activity patterns and time-resolved location-specific particle penetration and persistence indoors. Four approaches were used to estimate exposures to ambient PM(2.5) for application to the New Jersey Triggering of Myocardial Infarction Study. These include: Tier 1, central-site PM(2.5) mass; Tier 2A, the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) model using literature-based air exchange rates (AERs); Tier 2B, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Aerosol Penetration and Persistence (APP) and Infiltration models; and Tier 3, the SHEDS model where AERs were estimated using the LBNL Infiltration model. Mean exposure estimates from Tier 2A, 2B, and 3 exposure modeling approaches were lower than Tier 1 central-site PM(2.5) mass. Tier 2A estimates differed by season but not across the seven monitoring areas. Tier 2B and 3 geographical patterns appeared to be driven by AERs, while seasonal patterns appeared to be due to variations in PM composition and time activity patterns. These model results demonstrate heterogeneity in exposures that are not captured by the central-site monitor. PMID:23321856

  1. Immunologic methods for monitoring carcinogen exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santella, Regina M.; Perera, Frederica P.; Zhang, Yu J.; Chen, Chen J.; Young, Tie L.

    1993-03-01

    Immunologic methods have been developed for monitoring human exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens. These methods involve the development of monoclonal and polyclonal antisera which specifically recognize the carcinogens themselves or their DNA or protein adducts. Antisera recognizing the DNA adducts of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diol epoxides have been used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor adducts in tissue or blood samples. Elevated levels of DNA adducts have been seen in mononuclear cells of smokers and in total white blood cells of foundry and coke oven workers. Environmental exposure to PAH has been measured in individuals living in a highly polluted region of Poland. Antisera recognizing PAH-DNA adducts have also been used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor adducts in specific cells of biopsy samples. The DNA adducts of aflatoxin B1 have been monitored in liver tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patients in Taiwan. Detectable adducts were seen in 50 - 70% of the patients suggesting that dietary exposure to this carcinogen may be a risk factor for cancer induction. Thus, immunoassays for monitoring exposure to carcinogens are an important tool in epidemiologic studies.

  2. LOW COST, LOW BURDEN, EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A birth cohort study designed to evaluate the association between exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiply pathways over an extended peri...

  3. Monitoring urinary mercapturic acids as biomarkers of human dietary exposure to acrylamide in combination with acrylamide uptake assessment based on duplicate diets.

    PubMed

    Ruenz, Meike; Bakuradze, Tamara; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-04-01

    The present human intervention study investigated the relation between the intake of acrylamide (AA) in diets with minimized, low, and high AA contents and the levels of urinary exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers, the mercapturic acids, N-acetyl-S-(carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were monitored. The study was performed with 14 healthy male volunteers over a period of 9 days, under controlled conditions excluding any inadvertent AA exposure. Dietary exposure to AA was measured by determining AA contents in duplicates of all meals consumed by the volunteers. The study design included an initial washout period of 3 days on AA-minimized diet, resulting in dietary AA exposure not exceeding 41 ng/kg bw/d. Identical washout periods of 2 days each followed the AA exposure days (day 4, low exposure, and day 7, high exposure). At the respective AA intake days, volunteers ingested 0.6-0.8 (low exposure) or 1.3-1.8 (high exposure) μg AA/kg bw/d with their food. Both low and high AA intakes resulted in an AAMA output within 72 h corresponding to 58 % of the respective AA intake. At the end of the initial 3-day washout period, an AAMA baseline level of 93 ± 31 nmol/d was recorded, suggestive for an assumed net AA baseline exposure level of 0.2-0.3 μg AA/kg bw/d. PMID:25757395

  4. Monitoring Nanoaerosols and Environmental Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandin, Corinne; Le Bihan, Olivier; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    Environmental exposure refers to exposure of the population outside the occupational context (see Chap. 6.4) and excluding also medical exposure. The kind of exposure discussed in this chapter is due to the presence of nanoparticles in the various environmental compartments, such as the air (indoors or outdoors), water (water for drinking, bathing, etc.), soils, foodstuffs, and so on. These nanoparticles may come from the nanomaterials that contain them and upon which they bestow specific novel properties, or they may be formed unintentionally by human activities such as industry, traffic, domestic fuel combustion, etc., or natural phenomena such as forest fires, for example, or again by physicochemical reactions, e.g., the reaction between gases and particles in the air, spray formation, vapour condensation, and so on. This book is concerned with the former, namely manufactured nanoparticles, but the related questions and acquired knowledge must often be viewed from the perspective of what is already known about the latter, commonly referred to as ultrafine particles.

  5. 30 CFR 57.5071 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5071 Section 57.5071... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... Exposure monitoring. (a) Mine operators must monitor as often as necessary to effectively determine,...

  6. 30 CFR 57.5071 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5071 Section 57.5071... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... Exposure monitoring. (a) Mine operators must monitor as often as necessary to effectively determine,...

  7. 30 CFR 57.5071 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5071 Section 57.5071... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... Exposure monitoring. (a) Mine operators must monitor as often as necessary to effectively determine,...

  8. 30 CFR 57.5071 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5071 Section 57.5071... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation... Exposure monitoring. (a) Mine operators must monitor as often as necessary to effectively determine,...

  9. AIR TOXICS HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to improve the scientific basis for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) assessments of human exposures to air toxics by developing improved human exposure models. The research integrates the major components of the exposure paradigm, i.e., sources, tr...

  10. Monitoring human exposure to ethylene oxide by the determination of hemoglobin adducts using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, P.B.; Bailey, E.; Gorf, S.M.; Toernqvist, M.O.; Osterman-Golkar, S.; Kautiainen, A.; Lewis-Enright, D.P.

    1986-04-01

    Globin samples from ethylene oxide-exposed workers and non-exposed referrents were analyzed by two methods: (i) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of Nt-(2-hydroxyethyl)histidine as its methyl ester heptafluorobutyryl derivative, after hydrolysis of the protein and isolation of the alkylated amino acid by ion exchange chromatography. The internal standard, Nt-(2-hydroxy-d4-ethyl)histidine, was added to the protein before hydrolysis. (ii) Determination of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine after derivatization of the protein by a modified Edman procedure, extraction and g.c.-m.s. determination of alkylated N-terminal valine in the form of its pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin derivative. The internal standard used was in this case a globin with a known content of hydroxy-d4-ethylated amino acids. The two methods gave consistent results, especially at high levels of alkylated products. The average content of hydroxyethylhistidine was 0.6 nmol/g higher than the content of hydroxyethylvaline. Higher levels of background alkylation (of unknown origin) were recorded with the histidine method as compared with the valine method, suggesting that the latter assay should show greater sensitivity for low level ethylene oxide exposure monitoring.

  11. Measurement methods for human exposure analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, P J

    1995-01-01

    The general methods used to complete measurements of human exposures are identified and illustrations are provided for the cases of indirect and direct methods used for exposure analysis. The application of the techniques for external measurements of exposure, microenvironmental and personal monitors, are placed in the context of the need to test hypotheses concerning the biological effects of concern. The linkage of external measurements to measurements made in biological fluids is explored for a suite of contaminants. This information is placed in the context of the scientific framework used to conduct exposure assessment. Examples are taken from research on volatile organics and for a large scale problem: hazardous waste sites. PMID:7635110

  12. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 56.5002 Section 56.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  13. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 56.5002 Section 56.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  14. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 56.5002 Section 56.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  15. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5002 Section 57.5002..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Surface and Underground § 57.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as frequently as necessary to determine...

  16. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 56.5002 Section 56.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  17. 30 CFR 56.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agents Air Quality § 56.5002 Exposure monitoring. Dust, gas, mist, and fume surveys shall be conducted as... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 56.5002 Section 56.5002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL...

  18. HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory-Las Vegas is developing analytical methods for human exposure assessment studies. Critical exposure studies generate a large number of samples which must be analyzed in a reliable, cost-effective and timely manner. TCP (3,5,6-trichlor...

  19. EPA'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of NERL's Exposure Research Program is to improve the scientific basis for conducting human exposure assessments that are part of the EPA's risk assessment, risk management and compliance process. Overall, we aim to address aggregate and cumulative exposures that pose...

  20. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  1. Magnetic field exposure and behavioral monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A W; Drost, D J; Prato, F S

    2001-09-01

    To maximize the availability and usefulness of a small magnetic field exposure laboratory, we designed a magnetic field exposure system that has been used to test human subjects, caged or confined animals, and cell cultures. The magnetic field exposure system consists of three orthogonal pairs of coils 2 m square x 1 m separation, 1.751 m x 0.875 m separation, and 1.5 m x 0.75 m separation. Each coil consisted of ten turns of insulated 8 gauge stranded copper conductor. Each of the pairs were driven by a constant-current amplifier via digital to analog (D/A) converter. A 9 pole zero-gain active Bessel low-pass filter (1 kHz corner frequency) before the amplifier input attenuated the expected high frequencies generated by the D/A conversion. The magnetic field was monitored with a 3D fluxgate magnetometer (0-3 kHz, +/- 1 mT) through an analog to digital converter. Behavioral monitoring utilized two monochrome video cameras (viewing the coil center vertically and horizontally), both of which could be video recorded and real-time digitally Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded to CD-ROM. Human postural sway (standing balance) was monitored with a 3D forceplate mounted on the floor, connected to an analog to digital converter. Lighting was provided by 12 offset overhead dimmable fluorescent track lights and monitored using a digitally connected spectroradiometer. The dc resistance, inductance of each coil pair connected in series were 1.5 m coil (0.27 Omega, 1.2 mH), 1.75 m coil (0.32 Omega, 1.4 mH), and 2 m coil (0.38 Omega, 1.6 mH). The frequency response of the 1.5 m coil set was 500 Hz at +/- 463 microT, 1 kHz at +/- 232 microT, 150 micros rise time from -200 microT(pk) to + 200 microT(pk) (square wave) and is limited by the maximum voltage ( +/- 146 V) of the amplifier (Bessel filter bypassed). PMID:11536281

  2. In Silico Identification of a Candidate Synthetic Peptide (Tsgf118–43) to Monitor Human Exposure to Tsetse Flies in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dama, Emilie; Cornelie, Sylvie; Camara, Mamadou; Somda, Martin Bienvenu; Poinsignon, Anne; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Jamonneau, Vincent; Solano, Philippe; Remoue, Franck; Bengaly, Zakaria; Belem, Adrien Marie Gaston; Bucheton, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background The analysis of humoral responses directed against the saliva of blood-sucking arthropods was shown to provide epidemiological biomarkers of human exposure to vector-borne diseases. However, the use of whole saliva as antigen presents several limitations such as problems of mass production, reproducibility and specificity. The aim of this study was to design a specific biomarker of exposure to tsetse flies based on the in silico analysis of three Glossina salivary proteins (Ada, Ag5 and Tsgf1) previously shown to be specifically recognized by plasma from exposed individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Synthetic peptides were designed by combining several linear epitope prediction methods and Blast analysis. The most specific peptides were then tested by indirect ELISA on a bank of 160 plasma samples from tsetse infested areas and tsetse free areas. Anti-Tsgf118–43 specific IgG levels were low in all three control populations (from rural Africa, urban Africa and Europe) and were significantly higher (p<0.0001) in the two populations exposed to tsetse flies (Guinean HAT foci, and South West Burkina Faso). A positive correlation was also found between Anti-Tsgf118–43 IgG levels and the risk of being infected by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the sleeping sickness foci of Guinea. Conclusion/Significance The Tsgf118–43 peptide is a suitable and promising candidate to develop a standardize immunoassay allowing large scale monitoring of human exposure to tsetse flies in West Africa. This could provide a new surveillance indicator for tsetse control interventions by HAT control programs. PMID:24086785

  3. ISSUES IN MONITORING POPULATION EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript explores the risks associated with exposure to carcinogenic chemicals that have become a growing source of public concern. Steadily increasing numbers of agents are being identified as mutagens and carcinogens. Furthermore, we are increasingly aware of sources of ...

  4. Is plasma {beta}-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    SciTech Connect

    Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H. |. E-mail: salmaan@mib.gov.my; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Ali, Noor Suhailah; El Sersi, Magdi; Toong, Lee Mun; Zainal, Awang Mat; Hashim, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Mohd Shariman; Saidin, Mohd Nazri; Rahman, Ab Razak Ab; Rafaai, Mohd Jamil Mohd; Omar, Sollahudin; Rapiai, Rafiah; Othman, Radziah; Chan, Lee Tiong; Johari, Amran; Soon, Wong Hing; Salleh, Abdul Rahim; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-03-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The {beta}-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on {beta}-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) among the patients (1386.786 {+-} 791.291 U/L/min) but the inhibition in plasma cholinesterase activity among the farmers (7346.5 {+-} 1860.786 U/L/min) was not significant (p > 0.05). The plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) (0.737 {+-} 0.425 {mu}M/h) but not significant among the patients (p > 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma {beta}-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p < 0.01) but not among the patients (r = 0.79, p > 0.05). Thus, plasma {beta}-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma {beta}-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning.

  5. Monitoring occupational exposure to carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B

    1993-01-01

    32P-Postlabelling has been used for biomonitoring occupational exposure to complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in iron foundries, coke oven and aluminium plants and among roofers and surface-coating workers. Enhanced levels of aromatic DNA adducts have been detected in exposed populations in comparison to controls. Dose-related adduct formation has been found in iron foundry and coke-oven workers and roofers. The importance of longitudinal biomonitoring has been shown in two aluminium plants. Comparison between 32P-postlabelling and immunoassays revealed wide variations. DNA adduct levels obtained by the current methods should thus be regarded as relative values between individuals and control and exposure groups. PMID:8225504

  6. Human Exposure Estimates and Oral Equivalents of In Vitro Bioactivity for Prioritizing, Monitoring and Testing of Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-throughput, lower-cost, in vitro toxicity testing is currently being evaluated for use in prioritization and eventually for predicting in vivo toxicity. Interpreting in vitro data in the context of in vivo human relevance remains a formidable challenge. A key component in us...

  7. Human exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Diffey, B L

    1990-03-01

    Although the sun remains the main source of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in humans, the advent of artificial UVR sources has increased the opportunity for both intentional and unintentional exposure. Intentional exposure is most often to tan the skin. People living in less sunny climates can now maintain a year-round tan by using sunbeds and solaria emitting principally UVA radiation. Another reason for intentional exposure to artificial UVR is treatment of skin diseases, notably psoriasis. Unintentional exposure is normally the result of occupation. Outdoor workers, such as farmers, receive three to four times the annual solar UV exposure of indoor workers. Workers in many industries, eg, photoprinting or hospital phototherapy departments, may be exposed to UVR from artificial sources. One group particularly at risk is electric arc welders, where inadvertent exposure is so common that the terms "arc eye" or "welders flash" are often used to describe photokeratitis. In addition to unavoidable exposure to natural UVR, the general public is exposed to low levels of UVR from sources such as fluorescent lamps used for indoor lighting and shops and restaurants where UVA lamps are often used in traps to attract flying insects. PMID:2203439

  8. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5002 Section 57.5002... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Surface and Underground § 57.5002...

  9. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5002 Section 57.5002... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Surface and Underground § 57.5002...

  10. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5002 Section 57.5002... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Surface and Underground § 57.5002...

  11. 30 CFR 57.5002 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exposure monitoring. 57.5002 Section 57.5002... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Air Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Surface and Underground § 57.5002...

  12. Exposure estimates from personal lapel monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.

    1982-04-01

    For uniformly dispersed aerosols, no bias results from locating a monitor on the lapel or chest when estimating inhalation exposure. Where different results have been noted for different sampler positions, factors such as resuspended dust, spatial concentration variability, and electrostatic charges may be involved. Errors may result from electrostatic charge accumulated by plastic filter cassette holders.

  13. MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

  14. Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1997-01-01

    For centuries, several hundred pesticides have been used to control insects. These pesticides differ greatly in their mode of action, uptake by the body, metabolism, elimination from the body, and toxicity to humans. Potential exposure from the environment can be estimated by environmental monitoring. Actual exposure (uptake) is measured by the biological monitoring of human tissues and body fluids. Biomarkers are used to detect the effects of pesticides before adverse clinical health effects occur. Pesticides and their metabolites are measured in biological samples, serum, fat, urine, blood, or breast milk by the usual analytical techniques. Biochemical responses to environmental chemicals provide a measure of toxic effect. A widely used biochemical biomarker, cholinesterase depression, measures exposure to organophosphorus insecticides. Techniques that measure DNA damage (e.g., detection of DNA adducts) provide a powerful tool in measuring environmental effects. Adducts to hemoglobin have been detected with several pesticides. Determination of chromosomal aberration rates in cultured lymphocytes is an established method of monitoring populations occupationally or environmentally exposed to known or suspected mutagenic-carcinogenic agents. There are several studies on the cytogenetic effects of work with pesticide formulations. The majority of these studies report increases in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges among the exposed workers. Biomarkers will have a major impact on the study of environmental risk factors. The basic aim of scientists exploring these issues is to determine the nature and consequences of genetic change or variation, with the ultimate purpose of predicting or preventing disease. PMID:9255564

  15. Toxicologic methods: controlled human exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Utell, M J; Frampton, M W

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of risk from exposure to environmental air pollutants is complex, and involves the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human inhalation studies. Controlled, quantitative studies of exposed humans help determine health-related effects that result from breathing the atmosphere. The major unique feature of the clinical study is the ability to select, control, and quantify pollutant exposures of subjects of known clinical status, and determine their effects under ideal experimental conditions. The choice of outcomes to be assessed in human clinical studies can be guided by both scientific and practical considerations, but the diversity of human responses and responsiveness must be considered. Subjects considered to be among the most susceptible include those with asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and cardiovascular disease. New experimental approaches include exposures to concentrated ambient air particles, diesel engine exhaust, combustion products from smoking machines, and experimental model particles. Future investigations of the health effects of air pollution will benefit from collaborative efforts among the disciplines of epidemiology, animal toxicology, and human clinical studies. PMID:10931779

  16. MEASUREMENT AND DECOMPOSITION OF TOTAL EXPOSURE USING THE TOTAL-ISOLATED-BY-MICROENVIRONMENT-EXPOSURE (TIME) MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a new, highly compact and lightweight monitor that directly measures personal exposure resolved into four microenvironments. he device is the "Total-Isolated-by-Microenvironment-Exposure (TIME)" monitor. he monitor can identify electronically a subject's micr...

  17. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-06-23

    Version 01 The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a PC‑based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designedmore » to be user‑friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on‑line as well as context‑sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com.« less

  18. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    PubMed Central

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  19. Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, L.M.; Hickman, K.C.; Gaspar, S.M.; Bishop, K.P.; Naqvi, S.S.; McNeil, J.R.; Blain, M.; Draper, B.L.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of light scattered from a latent image to control photoresist exposure dose and focus conditions which results in improved control of the critical dimension (CD) of the developed photoresist. A laser at a non-exposing wavelength is used to illuminate a latent image grating. The light diffracted from the grating is directly related to the exposure dose and focus and thus to the resultant CD in the developed resist. Modeling has been done using rigorous coupled wave analysis to predict the diffraction from a latent image as a function of the substrate optical properties and the photoactive compound (PAC) concentration distribution inside the photoresist. It is possible to use the model to solve the inverse problem: given the diffraction, to predict the parameters of the latent image and hence the developed pattern. This latent image monitor can be implemented in a stepper to monitor exposure in situ, or prior to development to predict the developed CD of a wafer for early detection of bad devices. Experimentation has been conducted using various photoresists and substrates with excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental results. The technique has been used to characterize a test pattern with a focused spot as small as 36{mu}m in diameter. Using diffracted light from a simulated closed-loop control of exposure dose, CD control was improved by as much as 4 times for substrates with variations in underlying film thickness, compared to using fixed exposure time. The latent image monitor has also been applied to wafers with rough metal substrates and focus optimization.

  20. Latent image exposure monitor using scatterometry

    SciTech Connect

    Milner, L.M.; Hickman, K.C.; Gaspar, S.M.; Bishop, K.P.; Naqvi, S.S.; McNeil, J.R. . Center for High Technology Materials); Blain, M.; Draper, B.L. )

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the use of light scattered from a latent image to control photoresist exposure dose and focus conditions which results in improved control of the critical dimension (CD) of the developed photoresist. A laser at a non-exposing wavelength is used to illuminate a latent image grating. The light diffracted from the grating is directly related to the exposure dose and focus and thus to the resultant CD in the developed resist. Modeling has been done using rigorous coupled wave analysis to predict the diffraction from a latent image as a function of the substrate optical properties and the photoactive compound (PAC) concentration distribution inside the photoresist. It is possible to use the model to solve the inverse problem: given the diffraction, to predict the parameters of the latent image and hence the developed pattern. This latent image monitor can be implemented in a stepper to monitor exposure in situ, or prior to development to predict the developed CD of a wafer for early detection of bad devices. Experimentation has been conducted using various photoresists and substrates with excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental results. The technique has been used to characterize a test pattern with a focused spot as small as 36{mu}m in diameter. Using diffracted light from a simulated closed-loop control of exposure dose, CD control was improved by as much as 4 times for substrates with variations in underlying film thickness, compared to using fixed exposure time. The latent image monitor has also been applied to wafers with rough metal substrates and focus optimization.

  1. Human Exposures to PAHs: an Eastern United States Pilot Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...

  2. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  3. Environmental monitoring of secondhand smoke exposure

    PubMed Central

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Hepp, Lisa M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Gundel, Lara; Hammond, S Katharine; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hyland, Andrew; Klepeis, Neil E; Madsen, Camille C; Navas-Acien, Ana; Repace, James; Samet, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    The complex composition of secondhand smoke (SHS) provides a range of constituents that can be measured in environmental samples (air, dust and on surfaces) and therefore used to assess non-smokers' exposure to tobacco smoke. Monitoring SHS exposure (SHSe) in indoor environments provides useful information on the extent and consequences of SHSe, implementing and evaluating tobacco control programmes and behavioural interventions, and estimating overall burden of disease caused by SHSe. The most widely used markers have been vapour-phase nicotine and respirable particulate matter (PM). Numerous other environmental analytes of SHS have been measured in the air including carbon monoxide, 3-ethenylpyridine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes and volatile organic compounds, as well as nicotine in dust and on surfaces. The measurement of nicotine in the air has the advantage of reflecting the presence of tobacco smoke. While PM measurements are not as specific, they can be taken continuously, allowing for assessment of exposure and its variation over time. In general, when nicotine and PM are measured in the same setting using a common sampling period, an increase in nicotine concentration of 1 μg/m3 corresponds to an average increase of 10 μg/m3 of PM. This topic assessment presents a comprehensive summary of SHSe monitoring approaches using environmental markers and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of these methods and approaches. PMID:22949497

  4. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrewe, Ulrich J.

    1999-02-01

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed.

  5. HUMAN POPULATION EXPOSURES TO MIREX AND KEPONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to mirex and kepone are assessed in this study. Three major paths of exposure are examined: ingestion through the food chain, inhalation of atmospheric mirex and kepone, and exposure through drinking water. Exposure through the food chain appears to be the most pr...

  6. Biological monitoring and exposure to mercury.

    PubMed

    Mason, H J; Hindell, P; Williams, N R

    2001-02-01

    Occupational health professionals' interest in controlling mercury (Hg) exposure, and the use of biological monitoring in this context, has been ongoing for a number of years. Evidence from urinary Hg results in a number of UK firms who have undertaken some form of biological monitoring or occupational health surveillance suggest that exposure has decreased over the last 10-15 years. This decrease precedes the establishment in the UK of an advisory biological monitoring guidance value (HGV) for urinary Hg and the production of updated medical guidance from the Health & Safety Executive on Hg exposure (MS12 1996). This latter document recommends a urinary sampling interval for urinary Hg of between 1 and 3 months, which is consistent with the reported toxicokinetics of Hg excretion, but we highlight that urinary Hg represents integrated exposure over many previous months. Mercury is a recognized nephrotoxin and MS12 1996 mentions the use of regular dipstick protein estimations. We review our experience of investigating proteinuria and enzymuria in a large-scale cross-sectional occupational study. The incidence of Hg-induced renal disease is probably very rare at current exposure levels. Therefore acceptance of a high false-positive rate of proteinuria not related to Hg exposure needs to be considered in any urinary protein testing regime of Hg workers. The establishment of an HGV for urinary Hg has raised questions about the uncertainty associated with a urinary Hg result, including factors such as diurnal variation, whether urine correction by creatinine or specific gravity is preferable and the possibility of non-occupational sources of Hg contributing significantly towards breaching the HGV. Correction of urinary Hg results by creatinine or specific gravity and the use of a fixed sampling time, such as the beginning or end of the day, substantially reduce the uncertainty in a urinary Hg measurement. But even with good laboratory precision, an individual with a

  7. Monitoring of occupational exposure to cytostatic anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sorsa, M; Anderson, D

    1996-08-17

    Many anticancer agents have been shown to be carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic in experimental animals and in in vitro test systems. Epidemiological data on the association of second neoplasms with a specific chemotherapy treatment is available on some 30 agents, and in the case of 10 compounds the overall evidence on human carcinogenicity has been evaluated to be conclusive (Group 1: IARC, 1987 and 1990). The primary source of human exposure to anticancer drugs is from their use in therapy of cancer. However, persons employed in the manufacture, preparation and administration of the drugs to patients and in nursing patients may also be exposed. Safe handling of anticancer drugs, since the introduction of various general handling guidelines, is now good practice in hospitals, pharmacies and drug manufacturing companies of most developed countries. Careless handling of cancer chemotherapeutic agents may lead to exposure of the personnel in amounts detectable with chemical or biological methods in the body fluids or cell samples of the subjects. The exposure is typically to mixed compounds over long-term and to low exposure levels with accidental peaks. Therefore, the use of biological exposure markers is appropriate for the monitoring of such exposure patterns. The biological markers/methods for exposure assessment are either non-specific (e.g., cytogenetic damage, point mutations or 32P-post-labelling adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes, urinary mutagenicity) or specific for a given compound (immunological methods for DNA adducts, specific analytical methods). Studies have revealed minor amounts of cyclophosphamide in the urine of pharmacy technicians and nurses handling the drug even when taking special safety precautions (Sessink et al. (1994a) J. Occup. Med., 36, 79; Sessink et al. (1994b) Arch. Env. Health, 49, 165). Another study showed surface wipe samples with measurable cyclophosphamide even away from the handling site (McDevitt et al. (1993) J

  8. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGIES FOR HUMANS AND ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists and risk assessment experts are developing approaches to estimate exposure of human populations and ecosystems to environmental contaminants. cological scientists are exploring methodologies for estimating the exposure of ecosystems and their subdivisions to environmen...

  9. HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING: CONCEPTS, METHODS, AND TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding human exposure is critical when estimating the occurrence of deleterious effects that could follow contact with environmental contaminants. For many pollutants, the intensity, duration, frequency, route, and timing of exposure is highly variable, particularly whe...

  10. OUTDOOR VS. HUMAN EXPOSURE: NERL PM EXPOSURE PANEL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An association has been demonstrated between ambient particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10) concentrations and human morbidity/mortality. However, little is known regarding the most important sources of PM exposure, interpersonal and intrapersonal variability in exposure, and the...

  11. NATIONAL HUMAN ACTIVITY PATTERN SURVEY (NHAPS): USE OF NATIONWIDE ACTIVITY DATA FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) was initiated to fill a need for updated activity information on a nationwide scale. Several recent exposure field monitoring studies have shown that human activities play a critical role in explaining the variation in human expo...

  12. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. )

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  13. TELOMERASE AND CHRONIC ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic exposure has been associated with increased risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer in humans. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis are not well understood. Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein containing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), can extend telomeres of eukary...

  14. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to sevoflurane].

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Zadra, P; Negri, S; Alessio, A; Maestri, L; Ghittori, S

    2001-01-01

    conditions for the MSD were the following: ion mass monitored = 131 m/e; dwell time = 50 msec; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier = 400 V. Urine samples were collected near the end of the shift and were analyzed for HFIP by head-space gas chromatography after glucuronide hydrolysis. 0.5 ml of urine and 1.5 ml of 10 M sulfuric acid were added to 21.8 ml headspace vials. The vials were immediately capped, vortexed, and loaded into the headspace autosampler. Samples were maintained at 100 degrees C for 30 min, after which glucuronide hydrolysis was 99% complete. Analyses were performed on a GC equipped with a MSD. The analytical conditions for urine analysis were as follows: cross-linked 5% phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm, length 25 m); column temperature = 35 degrees C; carrier gas = helium. The analytical conditions for the MSD were: monitored ions = 51.05 and 99; dwell time = 100 ms; selected ion monitoring window time = 0.1 amu; electromultiplier voltage = 2000 Volt. With our analytical procedure, the detection limit of HFIP in urine was 20 micrograms/L. The variation coefficient (CV) for HFIP measurement in urine was 8.7% (on 10 determinations; mean value = 1000 micrograms/L). The median value of CI was 0.77 ppm (Geometric Standard Deviation = 4.08; range = 0.05-27.9 ppm). The correlation between CI and HFIP (Cu, microgram/L) was: Log Cu (microgram/L) = 0.813 x Log CI (ppm) + 2.517 (r = 0.79, n = 145, p < 0.0001). On the basis of the equation it was possible to establish tentatively the biological limit values corresponding to the respective occupational exposure limit values proposed for sevoflurane. According to our experimental results, HFIP values of 488 micrograms/L and 160 micrograms/L correspond to airborne sevoflurane concentrations of 2 and 0.5 ppm respectively. PMID:11515150

  15. Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Brenda K.; Balshaw, David; Barr, John R.; Brown, David; Ellisman, Mark; Lioy, Paul; Omenn, Gilbert; Potter, John D.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sohn, Lydia; Suk, William A.; Sumner, Susan; Swenberg, James; Walt, David R.; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Claudia; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure Technology Development was convened to identify new technologies and methods for deriving personalized exposure measurements for application to environmental health studies. The committee identified a “toolbox” of methods for measuring external (environmental) and internal (biologic) exposure and assessing human behaviors that influence the likelihood of exposure to environmental agents. The methods use environmental sensors, geographic information systems, biologic sensors, toxicogenomics, and body burden (biologic) measurements. We discuss each of the methods in relation to current use in human health research; specific gaps in the development, validation, and application of the methods are highlighted. We also present a conceptual framework for moving these technologies into use and acceptance by the scientific community. The framework focuses on understanding complex human diseases using an integrated approach to exposure assessment to define particular exposure–disease relationships and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in disease occurrence. Improved methods for exposure assessment will result in better means of monitoring and targeting intervention and prevention programs. PMID:16002370

  16. Oxidative metabolism of BDE-47, BDE-99, and HBCDs by cat liver microsomes: Implications of cats as sentinel species to monitor human exposure to environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Erratico, Claudio; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    BDE-99 is different by cat and human liver microsomes. This suggests that cats are not a suitable sentinel to represent internal exposure of PBDEs for humans, but is likely a promising sentinel for internal HBCDs exposure for humans. PMID:26923239

  17. Model of multiple exposure to contaminants in monitoring the environmental impact on population health.

    PubMed

    Kliment, V

    1996-12-01

    The model study is focused on possibilities of comprehensive evaluation of the multiple exposure of humans to selected inorganic contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, zinc) monitored within the subsystems of the monitoring the environmental impact on population health (inhalation and ingestion exposure from air, drinking water and foodstuffs and biological monitoring). The mean daily intake of contaminants of average adults is assessed using the monitoring and literature data. The exposure balance showed that the total intake of individual contaminants studied did not exceed the limit values given by the exposure standards (acceptable daily intake). The highest value of exposure reaching 28% of the limit was reported for cadmium. The prevailing pathway of exposure is ingestion of foodstuffs: more than 95% in all contaminants under study. Information on the intake of contaminants is used as input in a linear multicompartmental model describing their kinetics and retention in the human organism. The results of the model computation are compared with the laboratory data obtained in the biological monitoring of adult urine. The model and monitoring sets of results were found to conform well for cadmium and zinc. For arsenic and lead the model values are roughly one order of magnitude lower than the monitored ones which should be considered as acceptable for the model studies of this type. The model study of contaminant monitoring data processing and evaluation suggests further applications of health risk assessment representing one of the basic outputs of monitoring the environmental impact on population health. PMID:8997533

  18. HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS - CHILDREN'S FOCUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996, research under this task is designed to identify those pesticides, pathways, and activities that represent the highest potential exposures to children and to determine the factors that influence these exposures. The research...

  19. Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Glenn; Maier, Andrew; Henn, Scott; Booth-Jones, Angela; Tsuneoka, Yutaka; Vermeulen, Roel; Schumann, Brenda L

    2002-08-01

    A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information. PMID:12191859

  20. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Quality, Radiation, Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Radiation-Underground Only § 57.5037 Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust...

  1. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  2. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  3. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine air by a competent person to determine if concentrations of radon daughters are present....

  4. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M.; Wu, Lemuel D.; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M. S. Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based “mSpray” app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2,865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to

  5. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  6. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  7. Controlled human exposures to diesel exhaust

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate compounds resulting from an incomplete combustion of diesel fuel. Controlled human exposures to DE and diesel exhaust particles (DEP) have contributed to understanding health effects. Such exposure studies of h...

  8. HUMAN EXPOSURE DATABASE SUPPORT AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) have performed a number of large human exposure measurement studies during the past decade. It is the goal of the NERL to make the data available to other researchers for analysis in order to further the scientific ...

  9. Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

  10. Ultraviolet Radiation: Human Exposure and Health Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenkate, Thomas D.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation and associated health effects as well as risk estimates for acute and chronic conditions resulting from such exposure. Demonstrates substantial reductions in health risk that can be achieved through preventive actions. Also includes a risk assessment model for skin cancer. Contains 36…

  11. SEROLOGIC EVALUATION OF HUMAN MICROCYSTIN EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction Microcystins (MCYST) are among the most commonly detected toxins associated with cyanobacteria blooms worldwide. Biological evidence of human exposure is needed in order to evaluate potential MCYST-associated health effects. MCYST are detectable in free and bound fo...

  12. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  13. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes. PMID:26250476

  14. Human exposure to dioxin from combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their extreme toxicity, much concern and debate has arisen about the nature and extent of human exposure to dioxin. Since municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are known to emit polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polycholorinated dibenzofurnas (PCDFs) many people who live near MSW incinerators fear that they will be exposed to high levels of dioxin and subsequently develop cancer. What is often overlooked in this debate, however, is the fact that the general population is continuously being exposed to trace amounts of dioxin as exemplified by the fact that virtually all human adipose tissue samples contain dioxin at levels of 3 parts per trillion (ppt) or greater. This paper provides a perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to dioxin by comparing this exposure source with exposure to background environmental contamination and evaluates some of the potential key sources of PCDD/PCDF input into the enviroment. 32 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Overview of Radiation Environments and Human Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by the Earth s atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high altitude and space operations.

  16. Overview of radiation environments and human exposures.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J W

    2000-11-01

    Human exposures to ionizing radiation have been vastly altered by developing technology in the last century. This has been most obvious in the development of radiation generating devices and the utilization of nuclear energy. But even air travel has had its impact on human exposure. Human exposure increases with advancing aircraft technology as a result of the higher operating altitudes reducing the protective cover provided by Earth's atmosphere from extraterrestrial radiations. This increase in operating altitudes is taken to a limit by human operations in space. Less obvious is the changing character of the radiations at higher altitudes. The associated health risks are less understood with increasing altitude due to the increasing complexity and new field components found in high-altitude and space operations. PMID:11045522

  17. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOEpatents

    Thrall, Karla D.; Kenny, Donald V.; Endres, George W. R.; Sisk, Daniel R.

    1997-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose.

  18. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  19. Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

    2004-01-01

    Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

  20. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOEpatents

    Thrall, K.D.; Kenny, D.V.; Endres, G.W.R.; Sisk, D.R.

    1997-07-08

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose. 7 figs.

  1. Bisphenol A: Human exposure and neurobehavior.

    PubMed

    Mustieles, Vicente; Pérez-Lobato, Rocío; Olea, Nicolás; Fernández, Mariana F

    2015-07-01

    The effect of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure on human brain and behavior is a relatively new issue, and particular concerns have been raised about its potential impact on children. The primary objective of this review was to analyze the current state of knowledge on the association of environmental BPA exposure during pregnancy and/or childhood with child cognitive and/or behavior outcomes. All scientific publications until March 2015 that include examination of this relationship have been reviewed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Although research on this issue has not been abundant, an association with altered neurobehavior was reported by eight out of the twelve available articles, including aggressive behavior, attention deficit, hyperactivity disorder, depression and anxiety impairments, mostly in children exposed in utero, indicating disruption of the brain during this critical window of development. Despite the reduced number of studies and their heterogeneity, the results suggest that prenatal BPA exposure may have a negative impact on neurobehavioral functioning in children and that the effects may be sex-dependent. It is therefore necessary to be vigilant towards the potential adverse effects of ubiquitous low-level BPA exposure, although more studies in humans are required to convincingly confirm or rule out the association between BPA exposure and health. Meanwhile, it is desirable to inform women planning or undergoing pregnancy about measures to reduce or avoid exposure to BPA. We discuss some key aspects of the relationship between exposure and neurobehavioral outcomes. PMID:26121921

  2. RESIDENTIAL POST-APPLICATION EXPOSURE MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods of measurement of pesticide exposures can be separated into two categories: direct and indirect (Briston et al., 1984, Nigg et al. 1990). Direct methods measure a pesticide residue in environmental media or on the skin surface before it has entered the body in order to e...

  3. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24... areas that may have airborne beryllium, as shown by the baseline inventory and hazard assessment. The... periodic monitoring of workers who work in areas where airborne concentrations of beryllium are at or...

  4. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24... areas that may have airborne beryllium, as shown by the baseline inventory and hazard assessment. The... periodic monitoring of workers who work in areas where airborne concentrations of beryllium are at or...

  5. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24... areas that may have airborne beryllium, as shown by the baseline inventory and hazard assessment. The... periodic monitoring of workers who work in areas where airborne concentrations of beryllium are at or...

  6. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24... areas that may have airborne beryllium, as shown by the baseline inventory and hazard assessment. The... periodic monitoring of workers who work in areas where airborne concentrations of beryllium are at or...

  7. 10 CFR 850.24 - Exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.24... areas that may have airborne beryllium, as shown by the baseline inventory and hazard assessment. The... periodic monitoring of workers who work in areas where airborne concentrations of beryllium are at or...

  8. Radiation exposure for human Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, L C; Wilson, J W; Kim, M H; Cucinotta, F A

    2000-11-01

    One major obstacle to human space exploration is the possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to the space environment. Even before human space flight began, the potentially brief exposure of astronauts to the very intense random solar energetic particle events was of great concern. A new challenge appears in deep-space exploration from exposure to the low-intensity heavy-ion flux of the galactic cosmic rays since the missions are of long duration, and accumulated exposures can be high. Because cancer induction rates increase behind low to moderate thicknesses of aluminum shielding, according to available biological data on mammalian exposures to galactic cosmic ray-like ions, aluminum shield requirements for a Mars mission may be prohibitively expensive in terms of mission launch costs. Alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties. In the present paper, updated estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum. PMID:11045525

  9. HUMAN EXPOSURE DATABASES DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past, data from human exposure research studies often resided with the study investigators and the only way the data were disseminated was by publication in EPA reports or peer-reviewed journal manuscripts. Data were often published only as summary statistics with limited...

  10. DEVELOPING MEANINGFUL COHORTS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes numerous statistical analyses focused on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), used by many exposure modelers as the basis for data on what people do and where they spend their time. In doing so, modelers ...

  11. HUMAN EXPOSURE SYSTEM FOR CONTROLLED OZONE ATMOSPHERES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental exposure system for health effects research in environmental pollutants that permits the introduction and control of ozone (O3) to an acrylic plastic chamber in which a human subject actively resides is described. Ozone is introduced into the chamber air intake an...

  12. HUMAN EXPOSURE ANALYSIS, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relatively new and expanding field of human exposure analysis has its genesis in the environmental movement and the interest of scientists and the public in understanding the interaction between anthropogenic and biogenic chemicals and people. The universe is full of chemi...

  13. A Translatable Predictor of Human Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Suchindran, Sunil; Nakamura, Mai; Chao, Nelson J.; Himburg, Heather; Minor, Kerry; Phillips, Gary; Ross, Joel; Abedi, Majid; Terbrueggen, Robert; Chute, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism using radiological dirty bombs or improvised nuclear devices is recognized as a major threat to both public health and national security. In the event of a radiological or nuclear disaster, rapid and accurate biodosimetry of thousands of potentially affected individuals will be essential for effective medical management to occur. Currently, health care providers lack an accurate, high-throughput biodosimetric assay which is suitable for the triage of large numbers of radiation injury victims. Here, we describe the development of a biodosimetric assay based on the analysis of irradiated mice, ex vivo-irradiated human peripheral blood (PB) and humans treated with total body irradiation (TBI). Interestingly, a gene expression profile developed via analysis of murine PB radiation response alone was inaccurate in predicting human radiation injury. In contrast, generation of a gene expression profile which incorporated data from ex vivo irradiated human PB and human TBI patients yielded an 18-gene radiation classifier which was highly accurate at predicting human radiation status and discriminating medically relevant radiation dose levels in human samples. Although the patient population was relatively small, the accuracy of this classifier in discriminating radiation dose levels in human TBI patients was not substantially confounded by gender, diagnosis or prior exposure to chemotherapy. We have further incorporated genes from this human radiation signature into a rapid and high-throughput chemical ligation-dependent probe amplification assay (CLPA) which was able to discriminate radiation dose levels in a pilot study of ex vivo irradiated human blood and samples from human TBI patients. Our results illustrate the potential for translation of a human genetic signature for the diagnosis of human radiation exposure and suggest the basis for further testing of CLPA as a candidate biodosimetric assay. PMID:25255453

  14. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Peters, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary, central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual’s exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-hour monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  15. New Methods for Personal Exposure Monitoring for Airborne Particles.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kirsten A; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Airborne particles have been associated with a range of adverse cardiopulmonary outcomes, which has driven its monitoring at stationary central sites throughout the world. Individual exposures, however, can differ substantially from concentrations measured at central sites due to spatial variability across a region and sources unique to the individual, such as cooking or cleaning in homes, traffic emissions during commutes, and widely varying sources encountered at work. Personal monitoring with small, battery-powered instruments enables the measurement of an individual's exposure as they go about their daily activities. Personal monitoring can substantially reduce exposure misclassification and improve the power to detect relationships between particulate pollution and adverse health outcomes. By partitioning exposures to known locations and sources, it may be possible to account for variable toxicity of different sources. This review outlines recent advances in the field of personal exposure assessment for particulate pollution. Advances in battery technology have improved the feasibility of 24-h monitoring, providing the ability to more completely attribute exposures to microenvironment (e.g., work, home, commute). New metrics to evaluate the relationship between particulate matter and health are also being considered, including particle number concentration, particle composition measures, and particle oxidative load. Such metrics provide opportunities to develop more precise associations between airborne particles and health and may provide opportunities for more effective regulations. PMID:26385477

  16. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references.

  17. Indoor air and human exposure assessment--needs and approaches.

    PubMed

    Kotzias, Dimitris

    2005-07-01

    The Commission launched on June 9, 2004 the Environment and Health Action Plan to reduce diseases caused by a polluted environment. The plan would develop an EU system integrating information on the state of the environment, the ecosystem and human health. The action plan identifies 13 actions (including an action on indoor air quality), which refer to initiatives on how to better understand the environment-health link and establish how environmental exposure leads to epidemiological effects. The ultimate goal of the proposed "Environment and Health Strategy" is to develop an environment and health "cause-effect framework" that will provide the necessary information for the development of Community policy dealing with sources and the impact pathway of health stressors. The need for policy-science interface in the EU guided in the last few years the research on indoor air pollution. In particular, the lack of information regarding human exposure to air pollutants makes it necessary, in line with the Environment and Health Action Plan, to develop targeted strategies to evaluate the impact of indoor air pollution on human health. This includes apart from specific measurements in selected confined spaces (homes, schools, public buildings, etc.), large-scale monitoring campaigns at European level, specifically designed to assess indoor and outdoor air quality and personal exposure to pollutants in combination with micro-environmental activity patterns. Information from these studies will be considered as crucial for a first evaluation of the overall situation in indoor environments and the possible sources and source strengths of pollutants to which humans are exposed during working, commuting and rest time. As a first approach to systematically evaluate the relationship between indoor air pollution and human (chronic) exposure to pollutants, we started at the end of 2003 with the AIRMEX project (Indoor Air Monitoring and Exposure Assessment Study). In the frame of

  18. EPA perspective - exposure and effects prediction and monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk-based decisions for environmental chemicals often rely on estimates of human exposure and biological response. Biomarkers have proven a useful empirical tool for evaluating exposure and hazard predictions. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Preventio...

  19. Reducing human exposure to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2013-08-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of Mycobacterium avium pulmonary disease and the challenges of treating patients with M. avium infection, consideration of measures to reduce exposure is warranted. Because M. avium inhabits water and soil, humans are surrounded by that opportunistic pathogen. Because infection has been linked to the presence of M. avium in household plumbing, increasing hot water temperature, reducing aerosol (mist) exposures in bathrooms and showers, and installing filters that prevent the passage of mycobacteria will likely reduce M. avium exposure. Granular activated carbon (charcoal) filters support the growth of M. avium and should be avoided. When gardening, avoid the inhalation of soil dusts by using a mask or wetting the soil because peat-rich potting soils have high numbers of mycobacteria. PMID:23952861

  20. Assessment of human exposure level to PM10 in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xingqin; Hou, Qing; Li, Nan; Zhai, Shixian

    2013-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that atmospheric particulate matter, especially PM10 (inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm) is one of the pollutants that are harmful to human health. In recent years, particulate matter pollution in China is becoming increasingly serious and PM10 has become the primary pollutant in Beijing and other cities. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out studies and a health damage assessment of PM10. In human health damage assessment, measuring human exposure level to PM10 is required and crucial to provide accurate exposure data for the exposure-response relationship, and also for the accurate quantitative assessment of human exposure. The spatial distribution of particle concentration in China is variable because of spatial differences in the local economic level and the geographical environment. Along with the accelerating urbanisation in China, city population density is high, and the population distribution is variable between and within cities, thus resulting in different population numbers exposed to different concentration ranges. Therefore, an accurate assessment of China's level of exposure to particulate matter is a priority and the basis for assessing the damage to public health caused by particle pollution. Using high accuracy population and PM10 monitoring data, this study analysed the human exposure to PM10 in different regions and typical cities of China. The results show that for most areas of China, the population-weighted PM10 exposure concentration is slightly higher than the annual mean concentration, meaning that more of the population is exposed to high concentrations, and most of the population is exposed to levels that meet the second national standard (between 40 and 100 μg m-3), occupying about 83.7% of population and 76.3% of area in China. The population exposure to PM10 is higher in two types of typical regions and cities: areas with dense human populations

  1. Assessment of carcinogenic risk from personal exposure to benzo(a)pyrene in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.P.; Post, G.B.; Lioy, P.J.; Waldman, J.M.; Greenberg, A. )

    1993-07-01

    The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) was an investigation of multimedia exposure to the ubiquitous environmental carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The three-phase study was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey and involved the participation of 14-15 individuals (8-10 homes) during each 14-day monitoring period. Microenvironmental sampling of air, food, water and soil indicated that environmental exposure to BaP was primarily through air and food. Exposure and risk estimates were, therefore, based on the results of personal monitoring of breathing zone air and prepared food samples. Based on a comparison of the range and magnitude of inhalation and dietary BaP exposures, food ingestion was clearly the predominant exposure to pathway. The relative contributions of other potential sources of community exposure to BaP (e.g., soil and drinking water ingestion) were also assessed. The excess cancer risk estimates for food ingestion were consistently greater than those for personal air, reflecting both the predominantly higher BaP exposures through the diet and the higher carcinogenic potency value for oral exposure. Overall, the total lifetime risk from personal exposure to BaP for nonsmokers in the community was estimated at 10(-5). In identifying risk reduction options, it is important to account for the observation that personal activities, lifestyle, and diet strongly influenced individual exposures to BaP.

  2. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure) and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure), which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed. PMID:25985312

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is designed to develop and demonstrate relevant, low-cost, low-burden monitoring strategies that could be used in large longitudinal exposure/epidemiological studies, such as the National Children's Study. The focus of this study is on (1) recruiting and retaining p...

  4. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    SHEDS-Pesticides (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Pesticides) is a physically-based stochastic model developed to quantify exposure and dose of humans to multimedia, multipathway pollutants. Probabilistic inputs are combined in physical/mechanistic algorit...

  5. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  6. Personal exposure monitoring of PM2.5 in indoor and outdoor microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Steinle, Susanne; Reis, Stefan; Sabel, Clive E; Semple, Sean; Twigg, Marsailidh M; Braban, Christine F; Leeson, Sarah R; Heal, Mathew R; Harrison, David; Lin, Chun; Wu, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution are a global challenge and of widespread concern. Recent high ambient concentration episodes of air pollutants in European cities highlighted the dynamic nature of human exposure and the gaps in data and knowledge about exposure patterns. In order to support health impact assessment it is essential to develop a better understanding of individual exposure pathways in people's everyday lives by taking account of all environments in which people spend time. Here we describe the development, validation and results of an exposure method applied in a study conducted in Scotland. A low-cost particle counter based on light-scattering technology - the Dylos 1700 was used. Its performance was validated in comparison with equivalent instruments (TEOM-FDMS) at two national monitoring network sites (R(2)=0.9 at a rural background site, R(2)=0.7 at an urban background site). This validation also provided two functions to convert measured PNCs into calculated particle mass concentrations for direct comparison of concentrations with equivalent monitoring instruments and air quality limit values. This study also used contextual and time-based activity data to define six microenvironments (MEs) to assess everyday exposure of individuals to short-term PM2.5 concentrations. The Dylos was combined with a GPS receiver to track movement and exposure of individuals across the MEs. Seventeen volunteers collected 35 profiles. Profiles may have a different overall duration and structure with respect to times spent in different MEs and activities undertaken. Results indicate that due to the substantial variability across and between MEs, it is essential to measure near-complete exposure pathways to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the exposure risk a person encounters on a daily basis. Taking into account the information gained through personal exposure measurements, this work demonstrates the added value of data generated by the

  7. Gene-environment interaction and biological monitoring of occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirvonen, Ari . E-mail: Ari.Hirvonen@ttl.fi

    2005-09-01

    Biological monitoring methods and biological limit values applied in occupational and environmental medicine have been traditionally developed on the assumption that individuals do not differ significantly in their biotransformation capacities. It has become clear, however, that this is not the case, but wide inter-individual differences exist in the metabolism of chemicals. Integration of the data on individual metabolic capacity in biological monitoring studies is therefore anticipated to represent a significant refinement of the currently used methods. We have recently conducted several biological monitoring studies on occupationally exposed subjects, which have included the determination of the workers' genotypes for the metabolic genes of potential importance for a given chemical exposure. The exposure levels have been measured by urine metabolites, adducts in blood macromolecules, and cytogenetic alterations in lymphocytes. Our studies indicate that genetic polymorphisms in metabolic genes may indeed be important modifiers of individual biological monitoring results of, e.g., carbon disulphide and styrene. The information is anticipated to be useful in insuring that the workplace is safe for everyone, including the most sensitive individuals. This knowledge could also be useful to occupational physicians, industrial hygienists, and regulatory bodies in charge of defining acceptable exposure limits for environmental and/or occupational pollutants.

  8. Space Radiation and Human Exposures, A Primer.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Gregory A

    2016-04-01

    The space radiation environment is a complex field comprised primarily of charged particles spanning energies over many orders of magnitude. The principal sources of these particles are galactic cosmic rays, the Sun and the trapped radiation belts around the earth. Superimposed on a steady influx of cosmic rays and a steady outward flux of low-energy solar wind are short-term ejections of higher energy particles from the Sun and an 11-year variation of solar luminosity that modulates cosmic ray intensity. Human health risks are estimated from models of the radiation environment for various mission scenarios, the shielding of associated vehicles and the human body itself. Transport models are used to propagate the ambient radiation fields through realistic shielding levels and materials to yield radiation field models inside spacecraft. Then, informed by radiobiological experiments and epidemiology studies, estimates are made for various outcome measures associated with impairments of biological processes, losses of function or mortality. Cancer-associated risks have been formulated in a probabilistic model while management of non-cancer risks are based on permissible exposure limits. This article focuses on the various components of the space radiation environment and the human exposures that it creates. PMID:27018778

  9. Human factors error and patient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T; Beatty, P C W

    2002-08-01

    A wide range of studies have shown that human factors errors are the major cause of critical incidents that threaten patient safety in the medical environments where patient monitoring takes place, contributing to approximately 87% of all such incidents. Studies have also shown that good cognitively ergonomic design of monitoring equipment for use in these environments should reduce the human factors errors associated with the information they provide. The purpose of this review is to consider the current state of knowledge concerning human factors engineering in its application to patient monitoring. It considers the prevalence of human factors error, principles of good human factors design, the effect of specific design features and the problem of the measurement of the effectiveness of designs in reducing human factors error. The conclusion of the review is that whilst the focus of human factors studies has, in recent years, moved from instrument design to organizational issues, patient monitor designers still have an important contribution to make to improving the safety of the monitored patient. Further, whilst better psychological understanding of the causes of human factors errors will in future guide better human factors engineering, in this area there are still many practical avenues of research that need exploring from the current base of understanding. PMID:12214768

  10. Three-Day Continuous Exposure Monitoring of CNT Manufacturing Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kang Ho; Kim, Sun Man; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Gun Ho; Han, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring for possible exposure to carbon nanotubes was conducted over a period of 2 to 3 days at workplaces that manufacture multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). To estimate the potential emission of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring using an scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and dust monitor were conducted at workplaces where the workers manufactured CNTs. The personal and area sampling of the total suspended particulate (TSP) at the MWCNT manufacturing facilities ranged from 0.031 to 0.254 and from N.D (not detected) to 0.253 mg/m3, respectively. This 2- to 3-day monitoring study found that nanoparticles were released when opening the chemical vapor deposit (CVD) reactor door after the synthesis of MWCNTs, when transferring the MWCNTs to containers and during blending and grinding. However, distinguishing the background concentration from the work process particle emission was complicated due to sustained and even increased particle concentrations after the work processes were terminated. The MWCNTs sampled for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation exhibited a tangled shape with no individual dispersed CNT structures. PMID:26125022

  11. Three-Day Continuous Exposure Monitoring of CNT Manufacturing Workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Kang Ho; Kim, Sun Man; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Gun Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring for possible exposure to carbon nanotubes was conducted over a period of 2 to 3 days at workplaces that manufacture multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). To estimate the potential emission of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and potential exposure of workers, personal sampling, area monitoring, and real-time monitoring using an scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and dust monitor were conducted at workplaces where the workers manufactured CNTs. The personal and area sampling of the total suspended particulate (TSP) at the MWCNT manufacturing facilities ranged from 0.031 to 0.254 and from N.D (not detected) to 0.253 mg/m(3), respectively. This 2- to 3-day monitoring study found that nanoparticles were released when opening the chemical vapor deposit (CVD) reactor door after the synthesis of MWCNTs, when transferring the MWCNTs to containers and during blending and grinding. However, distinguishing the background concentration from the work process particle emission was complicated due to sustained and even increased particle concentrations after the work processes were terminated. The MWCNTs sampled for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation exhibited a tangled shape with no individual dispersed CNT structures. PMID:26125022

  12. Assessment of human exposure to gaseous pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, L.B.; Falco, J.W. )

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model to aid in assessment of human environmental exposure to volatile organic substances is presented. The model simulates the convective and diffusive transport of gas from the ambient environment into the human body by way of the respiratory and circulatory systems. Data required include easily obtained physical and chemical properties of substances as well as several estimated or measured physiological parameters. Transient and steady-state tissue concentrations resulting from an input atmospheric partial pressure are predicted. From these concentrations, an effective dose may be calculated, allowing for the determination of an exposure-response relationship based upon independently obtained dose-response data. The model's results compare favorably to experimental data on oxygen and halothane. Steady-state conditions are reached very rapidly. These results suggest that uptake of these substances is limited by both ventilation and perfusion. Rates are demonstrated to be essentially linear within the current neighborhoods. Conditions in which the primary processes of ventilation, diffusion, perfusion, and elimination limit uptake of gases are considered. Expressions describing the conditions necessary for a single process to limit gas uptake are derived. Accompanying equations for estimating tissue concentrations under these limiting conditions are presented.

  13. Systems biology of human benzene exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; McHale, Cliona M.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Li, Guilan; Ji, Zhiying; Vermeulen, Roel; Hubbard, Alan E.; Ren, Xuefeng; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen M.; North, Matthew; Skibola, Christine F.; Yin, Songnian; Vulpe, Christopher; Chanock, Stephen J.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Toxicogenomic studies, including genome-wide analyses of susceptibility genes (genomics), gene expression (transcriptomics), protein expression (proteomics), and epigenetic modifications (epigenomics), of human populations exposed to benzene are crucial to understanding gene-environment interactions, providing the ability to develop biomarkers of exposure, early effect and susceptibility. Comprehensive analysis of these toxicogenomic and epigenomic profiles by bioinformatics in the context of phenotypic endpoints, comprises systems biology, which has the potential to comprehensively define the mechanisms by which benzene causes leukemia. We have applied this approach to a molecular epidemiology study of workers exposed to benzene. Hematotoxicity, a significant decrease in almost all blood cell counts, was identified as a phenotypic effect of benzene that occurred even below 1ppm benzene exposure. We found a significant decrease in the formation of progenitor colonies arising from bone marrow stem cells with increasing benzene exposure, showing that progenitor cells are more sensitive to the effects of benzene than mature blood cells, likely leading to the observed hematotoxicity. Analysis of transcriptomics by microarray in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of exposed workers, identified genes and pathways (apoptosis, immune response, and inflammatory response) altered at high (>10ppm) and low (<1ppm) benzene levels. Serum proteomics by SELDI-TOF-MS revealed proteins consistently down-regulated in exposed workers. Preliminary epigenomics data showed effects of benzene on the DNA methylation of specific genes. Genomic screens for candidate genes involved in susceptibility to benzene toxicity are being undertaken in yeast, with subsequent confirmation by RNAi in human cells, to expand upon the findings from candidate gene analyses. Data on these and future biomarkers will be used to populate a large toxicogenomics database, to which we will apply bioinformatic

  14. Monitoring radiation exposure to medical personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, F.C.; Auster, M.; Beck, T.J.; Chang, R.; Marshall, F.F.

    1986-09-01

    To ascertain radiation exposure to medical personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy, lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were utilized for the radiographic monitoring of 7 consecutive patients. Average fluoroscopy time per procedure was 27.8 minutes of which 15.1 minutes were for nephrostomy tube insertion and 12.7 minutes were for calculi extraction. The 2 radiologists received 4.5 and 5.1 mrad per procedure, while the 2 urologists received 2.5 and 3.7 mrad. All other ancillary personnel received less than 2.1 mrad per procedure except the anesthesiologists whose mean exposure was 4.7 mrad. By taking appropriate precautions and using the proper equipment, percutaneous nephrolithotomy can be performed with a low level of radiation exposure for all involved physicians and personnel.

  15. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in human exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential dose received by an individual during defined exposure situations can be determined using personal dosimeters or estimated by combining information on exposure scenarios with the environmental concentration (C.) of chemicals. With the latter approach, not only the potential dose but also the internal dose (i.e., amount of chemical that has been absorbed and available for interaction with receptors) and biologically-effective dose (i.e., amount of chemical that actually reaches the cellular sites where interaction with macromolecules occur) can be estimated if C. is provided as an input to PBPK models. These models are mathematical representations of the interrelationships among the critical determinants of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of chemicals in biota. Since the compartments in this model correspond to biologically relevant tissues or tissue groups, the amount of chemical reaching specific target organ(s) can be estimated. Further, the PBPK models permit the use of biological monitoring data such as urinary levels of metabolites, hemoglobin adduct levels, and alveolar air concentrations, to reconstruct the exposure levels and scenarios for specific subgroups of populations. These models are also useful in providing estimates of target tissue dose in humans simultaneously exposed to chemicals in various media (air, water, soil, food) by different routes (oral, dermal, inhalation). Several examples of exposure assessment for volatile organic chemicals using PBPK models for mammals will be presented, and the strategies for development of these models for other classes of chemicals highlighted.

  16. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): OPPORTUNITIES AND LESSONS LEARNED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) in its fullest sense is a conceptual design, which upon implementation, will have long-term implications to exposure research and assessment. The ultimate goal is to document national distribution of human exposure to pote...

  17. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  18. AN APPROACH TO METHODS DEVELOPMENT FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure assessment studies require methods that are rapid, cost-effective and have a high sample through-put. The development of analytical methods for exposure studies should be based on specific information for individual studies. Human exposure studies suggest that di...

  19. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  20. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure... Information § 159.170 Human epidemiological and exposure studies. Information must be submitted which concerns... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  1. Biomarkers of human exposure to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, W.E.; Henderson, R.F. )

    1993-01-01

    Three biomarkers for benzene exposure were developed. The first biomarker, muconic acid in urine, results from the ring opening of a benzene metabolite. A gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) assay was developed to measure urinary muconic acid, and the analyte in urine samples from workers occupationally exposed to benzene was determined. Workers exposed to benzene concentrations as low as 4.4 ppm over an 8-h day showed higher urinary muconic acid concentrations than did any control individual (p < .005). The second biomarker, S-phenylcysteine (SPC) in hemoglobin (Hb), results from the addition of benzene oxide to a cysteine sulfhydryl group. A GC/MS assay was developed to measure SPC in the blood of F344/N rats and B67C3F mice exposed to benzene by inhalation. The cysteine moiety on rat Hb is at a more accessible site than on Hb of mice or humans, and rats showed considerably higher levels of SPC than did mice. As yet, we have been unable to detect SPC in the globin of humans occupationally exposed to benzene. The third biomarker is SPC in albumin. In humans occupationally exposed to average concentrations of 0, 4.4, 8.4, and 23.1 ppm benzene, 8 h/d, 5 d/wk, SPC increased in the exposed groups linearly, giving a statistically significant slope (p < .001) of 0.044 [+-] 0.008 pmol/mg albumin/ppm. The assay for SPC is arduous and often imprecise; assuming these difficulties can be overcome, muconic acid in urine and SPC in albumin may be useful for accurately determining benzene exposure. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Biological monitoring of nitroglycerin exposure by urine analysis.

    PubMed

    Akrill, Peter; Guiver, Robert; Cocker, John

    2002-08-01

    Historically biological monitoring to assess exposure has been difficult due to the rapid half-life of NG. However, the recent development of a method to assess NG and its metabolites (glycerol dinitrates, GDNs) in urine has made biological monitoring more feasible. The data reported here result from samples taken from three sites using NG. Two of the sites are munitions manufacturing sites and the other site is a pharmaceutical manufacturing site. The range of urinary GDN concentrations found in the samples at the two munitions sites were 0.9-18, and 0-4.7 micromol/mol creatinine, and at the pharmaceutical site were 0-0.9 micromol/mol creatinine). The presence of nitroglycols in the urine of workers despite the use of personal protective equipment and local exhaust ventilation shows the usefulness of biological monitoring to assess the efficacy of any controls in place and the potential of dermal absorption of NG. PMID:12191888

  3. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  4. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  5. USE OF EXHALED BREATH CONDENSATE IN A HUMAN EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive, repeatable collection technique to sample biomarkers of lung inflammation, oxidative stress, and environmental exposure. It is unclear whether EBC is an effective tool in human environmental exposure studies with multi-day samplin...

  6. THE ROLE OF EXPOSURE ANALYSIS IN HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will cover the basic methodologies used for assessing human exposures to environmental pollutants, and some of the scientific challenges involved in conducting exposure and risk assessments in support of regulatory evaluations.

  7. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  8. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS) DATA ANALYSIS WORK GROUP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three field studies were under conducted the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey. These studies measured exposures in three study regions - Arizona, the six EPA Region V States (Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota), and Baltimore and four surrounding cou...

  9. MICROBES, MONITORING AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 20,000 wastewater treatment plants in the United States. These plants discharge about 50 trillion gallons of wastewater daily into the nation's surface waters. Most wastewater contains human feces, which are a potential source of microbial pathogens. Pathogens ...

  10. Preventable Exposures Associated With Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Baan, Robert; Straif, Kurt; Grosse, Yann; Lauby-Secretan, Béatrice; El Ghissassi, Fatiha; Bouvard, Véronique; Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Guha, Neela; Freeman, Crystal; Galichet, Laurent; Wild, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the causes of cancer at specific sites is important to cancer control planners, cancer researchers, cancer patients, and the general public. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monograph series, which has classified human carcinogens for more than 40 years, recently completed a review to provide up-to-date information on the cancer sites associated with more than 100 carcinogenic agents. Based on IARC’s review, we listed the cancer sites associated with each agent and then rearranged this information to list the known and suspected causes of cancer at each site. We also summarized the rationale for classifications that were based on mechanistic data. This information, based on the forthcoming IARC Monographs Volume 100, offers insights into the current state-of-the-science of carcinogen identification. Use of mechanistic data to identify carcinogens is increasing, and epidemiological research is identifying additional carcinogens and cancer sites or confirming carcinogenic potential under conditions of lower exposure. Nevertheless, some common human cancers still have few (or no) identified causal agents. PMID:22158127

  11. Arsenic occurrence in Brazil and human exposure.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Bernardino Ribeiro; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Angélica, Rômulo Simões

    2007-04-01

    Environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in terms of public health is receiving increasing attention worldwide following cases of mass contamination in different parts of the world. However, there is a scarcity of data available on As geochemistry in Brazilian territory, despite the known occurrence of As in some of the more severely polluted areas of Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to discuss existing data on As distribution in Brazil based on recent investigations in three contaminated areas as well as results from the literature. To date, integrated studies on environmental and anthropogenic sources of As contamination have been carried out only in three areas in Brazil: (1) the Southeastern region, known as the Iron Quadrangle, where As was released into the drainage systems, soils and atmosphere as a result of gold mining; (2) the Ribeira Valley, where As occurs in Pb-Zn mine wastes and naturally in As-rich rocks and soils; (3) the Amazon region, including the Santana area, where As is associated with manganese ores mined over the last 50 years. Toxicological studies revealed that the populations were not exposed to elevated levels of As, with the As concentrations in surface water in these areas rarely exceeding 10 microg/L. Deep weathering of bedrocks along with formation of Fe/Al-enriched soils and sediments function as a chemical barrier that prevents the release of As into the water. In addition, the tropical climate results in high rates of precipitation in the northern and southeastern regions and, hence, the As contents of drinking water is diluted. Severe cases of human As exposure related to non-point pollution sources have not been reported in Brazil. However, increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of As will eventually lead to a more complete picture of the distribution of As in Brazil. PMID:17351814

  12. Activity Monitors Help Users Get Optimum Sun Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Goddard scientist Shahid Aslam was investigating alternative methods for measuring extreme ultraviolet radiation on the Solar Dynamics Observatory when he hit upon semiconductors that measured wavelengths pertinent to human health. As a result, he and a partner established College Park, Maryland-based Sensor Sensor LLC and developed UVA+B SunFriend, a wrist monitor that lets people know when they've received their optimal amounts of sunlight for the day.

  13. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) Version 2.0 is a population exposure and dose model for particulate matter developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). EPA SHEDS-PM 2.0 uses a probabilistic approach t...

  14. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Air Toxics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for Air Toxics (SHEDS-AirToxics) is a multimedia, multipathway population-based exposure and dose model for air toxics developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). SHEDS-AirToxics uses a probabili...

  15. An introduction to the indirect exposure assessment approach: modeling human exposure using microenvironmental measurements and the recent National Human Activity Pattern Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, N E

    1999-01-01

    Indirect exposure approaches offer a feasible and accurate method for estimating population exposures to indoor pollutants, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In an effort to make the indirect exposure assessment approach more accessible to people in the health and risk assessment fields, this paper provides examples using real data from (italic>a(/italic>) a week-long personal carbon monoxide monitoring survey conducted by the author; and (italic>b(/italic>) the 1992 to 1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) for the United States. The indirect approach uses measurements of exposures in specific microenvironments (e.g., homes, bars, offices), validated microenvironmental models (based on the mass balance equation), and human activity pattern data obtained from questionnaires to predict frequency distributions of exposure for entire populations. This approach requires fewer resources than the direct approach to exposure assessment, for which the distribution of monitors to a representative sample of a given population is necessary. In the indirect exposure assessment approach, average microenvironmental concentrations are multiplied by the total time spent in each microenvironment to give total integrated exposure. By assuming that the concentrations encountered in each of 10 location categories are the same for different members of the U.S. population (i.e., the NHAPS respondents), the hypothetical contribution that ETS makes to the average 24-hr respirable suspended particle exposure for Americans working their main job is calculated in this paper to be 18 microg/m3. This article is an illustrative review and does not contain an actual exposure assessment or model validation. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10350522

  16. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure monitoring surveys and development of exposure groups.

    PubMed

    Coble, Joseph B; Stewart, Patricia A; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T; Attfield, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m⁻³ at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m⁻³ at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m⁻³ across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m⁻³, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m⁻³ by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average

  17. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: II. Exposure Monitoring Surveys and Development of Exposure Groups

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Yereb, Daniel; Stanevich, Rebecca; Blair, Aaron; Silverman, Debra T.; Attfield, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Air monitoring surveys were conducted between 1998 and 2001 at seven non-metal mining facilities to assess exposure to respirable elemental carbon (REC), a component of diesel exhaust (DE), for an epidemiologic study of miners exposed to DE. Personal exposure measurements were taken on workers in a cross-section of jobs located underground and on the surface. Air samples taken to measure REC were also analyzed for respirable organic carbon (ROC). Concurrent measurements to assess exposure to nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), two gaseous components of DE, were also taken. The REC measurements were used to develop quantitative estimates of average exposure levels by facility, department, and job title for the epidemiologic analysis. Each underground job was assigned to one of three sets of exposure groups from specific to general: (i) standardized job titles, (ii) groups of standardized job titles combined based on the percentage of time in the major underground areas, and (iii) larger groups based on similar area carbon monoxide (CO) air concentrations. Surface jobs were categorized based on their use of diesel equipment and proximity to DE. A total of 779 full-shift personal measurements were taken underground. The average REC exposure levels for underground jobs with five or more measurements ranged from 31 to 58 μg m−3 at the facility with the lowest average exposure levels and from 313 to 488 μg m−3 at the facility with the highest average exposure levels. The average REC exposure levels for surface workers ranged from 2 to 6 μg m−3 across the seven facilities. There was much less contrast in the ROC compared with REC exposure levels measured between surface and underground workers within each facility, as well as across the facilities. The average ROC levels underground ranged from 64 to 195 μg m−3, while on the surface, the average ROC levels ranged from 38 to 71 μg m−3 by facility, an ∼2- to 3-fold difference. The average NO and

  18. Biological monitoring of isocyanates and related amines. IV. 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine in hydrolysed plasma and urine after test-chamber exposure of humans to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Brorson, T; Skarping, G; Sangö, C

    1991-01-01

    Two men were exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) atmospheres at three different air concentrations (ca. 25, 50 and 70 micrograms/m3). The TDI atmospheres were generated by a gas-phase permeation method, and the exposures were performed in an 8-m3 stainless-steel test chamber. The effective exposure period was 4 h. The isomeric composition of the air in the test chamber was 30% 2,4-TDI and 70% 2,6-TDI. The concentration of TDI in air of the test chamber was determined by an HPLC method using the 9-(N-methyl-amino-methyl)-anthracene reagent and by a continuous-monitoring filter-tape instrument. Following the hydrolysis of plasma and urine, the related amines, 2,4-toluenediamine (2,4-TDA) and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,6-TDA), were determined as pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) derivatives by capillary gas chromatography using selected ion monitoring (SIM) in the electron-impact mode. In plasma, 2,4- and 2,6-TDA showed a rapid-phase elimination half-time of ca. 2-5 h, and that for the slow phase was greater than 6 days. A connection was observed between concentrations of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI in air and the levels of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA in plasma. The cumulated amount of 2,4-TDA excreted in the urine over 24 h was ca. 15%-19% of the estimated inhaled dose of 2,4-TDI, and that of 2,6-TDA was ca. 17%-23% of the inhaled dose of 2,6-TDI. A connection was found between the cumulated (24-h) urinary excretion of 2,4- and 2,6-TDA and the air concentration of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI in the test chamber.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1660449

  19. PROBLEMS IN THE ESTIMATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO COMPONENTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problems associated with estimation of human exposures to ambient air pollution are discussed. Ideally the authors would prefer to have some indication of actual dose. For most pollutants this is not presently feasible. Specific problems discussed are adequacy of outdoor monitors...

  20. Novel Approaches for Estimating Human Exposure to Air Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous health studies have used measurements from a few central-site ambient monitors to characterize air pollution exposures. Relying on solely on central-site ambient monitors does not account for the spatial-heterogeneity of ambient air pollution patterns, the temporal varia...

  1. Hair as a monitor of toxic chemicals exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.F.; Adams, S.; Baumgartner, W.A.

    1982-08-31

    The possibility of using hair analysis as a monitor of exposure to hydrazines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. Two female Hartley guinea pigs injected with 0.6 milligrams (mg) of Aroclor-1254 had analyzable concentrations of the PCB in their hair. Analysis was made using glass capillary gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. The levels ranged from 10 picograms/milligram (pg/mg) of Aroclor-1254 in washed hair to 100pg/mg in unwashed hair. Female Fischer-344 rats injected intraperitoneally with 60mg/kg unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH), 10mg/kg monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and/or 10mg/kg hydrazine did not have detectable amounts of these chemicals in their hair at 14, 30 or 42 days after injection. The hair samples did take up the hydrazines when suspended above solutions of the test compounds. The authors concluded that analyzing the PCB content of hair may be useful in providing a history of on-the-job PCB exposure.

  2. Design and clinical feasibility of personal wearable monitor for measurement of activity and environmental exposure.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard Ribón; Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Robinson, Alyssa I

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to specific environmental factors (e.g. air quality, lighting, and sound) is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases (e.g. asthma) and mental health disorders (e.g. anxiety). However, conventional fixed environmental monitoring stations are sparsely located and, despite environmental models, cannot adequately assess individual exposure levels. New forms of low-cost portable monitors have begun to emerge that enable the collection of higher spatial density "crowd sourced" data; however, the first generation of these low-cost environmental monitors have generally not been suitable for clinical environmental health studies due to practical challenges such as calibration, reproducibility, form factor, and battery life. In this paper, we present a wearable environmental monitor that overcomes these challenges and can be used in clinical studies The new device, called "Eco-Mini," can be used without a smart phone and is capable of locally sampling and recording a variety of environmental parameters (Ozone, Sulfur Dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds, humidity, temperature, ambient light color balance, and sound level) as well as individual activity (3-axis accelerometer) and location (GPS). In this paper, we also report findings and discuss lessons learned from a feasibility study conducted for one week with pediatric patients as part of an ongoing asthma research study. PMID:25570098

  3. HEALTH RISKS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the health effects, if any, associated with occupational exposure to biological agents present in municipal wastewater. An additional objective was to determine the sensitivity of the methodology for detecting potential heal...

  4. INDOOR, OUTDOOR, AND PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORING OF PARTICULATE AIR POLLUTION: THE BALTIMORE ELDERLY EPIDEMIOLOGY-EXPOSURE PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was...

  5. TOLUENE EXPERIMENTAL EXPOSURES IN HUMANS: PHARMACOKINETICS AND BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toluene Experimental Exposures in Humans:
    Pharmacokinetics and Behavioral Effects
    (Ongoing Research)

    Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2

    Human subjects will be exposed to 250 and 500 ppm toluene for one hour in the Human St...

  6. Human dermal exposure to galaxolide from personal care products.

    PubMed

    Correia, P; Cruz, A; Santos, L; Alves, A

    2013-06-01

    Musks are synthetic fragrances applied on personal care and household products as fixatives, by retarding the release of other fragrances with higher volatility. Galaxolide is the most used polycyclic musk since the 90th decade, and it has been detected in several environmental and biological matrices, particularly in human tissues and fluids. For exposure assessment purposes, large-monitoring data need to be obtained and rapid but reliable analytical techniques are requested. The main objective of this study is to develop and validate a new and fast analytical methodology to quantify galaxolide in personal care products and to apply this method to real matrices like skin care products (creams and lotions), shower products (soap bar), hair care products (shampoo and hair conditioner) and oral care products (toothpaste), to evaluate the human dermal exposure risk. A dispersive solid-phase extraction is proposed, using QuEChERS methodology, followed by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Some extraction parameters were studied, like the ratio of sample/solvent amounts, the homogenization time, the salt addition effect and the used sorbents. The validation parameters of the developed method were the following: a linearity range of 0.005-1.002 mg kg⁻¹ sample, a limit of detection of 0.001 mg kg⁻¹ sample, repeatability between 0.7% and 11.3% (variation coefficient of six standard injections), an intermediate precision of 2.5% (variation coefficient of six independent analysis of the same sample), mean recoveries ranging from 65% (soap bar) to 95% (body cream) and 3% of global uncertainty in most of the working range. The time of analysis, including the extraction steps, is 60 min, allowing a throughput of 4 samples h⁻¹ . Galaxolide was detected in all of the seven analysed products in concentrations ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ sample (toothpaste) to 280.78 ± 8.19 mg kg⁻¹ sample (perfumed body cream), which may correspond to a significant estimated

  7. Environmental chemical exposures and human epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Dong; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Every year more than 13 million deaths worldwide are due to environmental pollutants, and approximately 24% of diseases are caused by environmental exposures that might be averted through preventive measures. Rapidly growing evidence has linked environmental pollutants with epigenetic variations, including changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Environ mental chemicals and epigenetic changes All of these mechanisms are likely to play important roles in disease aetiology, and their modifications due to environmental pollutants might provide further understanding of disease aetiology, as well as biomarkers reflecting exposures to environmental pollutants and/or predicting the risk of future disease. We summarize the findings on epigenetic alterations related to environmental chemical exposures, and propose mechanisms of action by means of which the exposures may cause such epigenetic changes. We discuss opportunities, challenges and future directions for future epidemiology research in environmental epigenomics. Future investigations are needed to solve methodological and practical challenges, including uncertainties about stability over time of epigenomic changes induced by the environment, tissue specificity of epigenetic alterations, validation of laboratory methods, and adaptation of bioinformatic and biostatistical methods to high-throughput epigenomics. In addition, there are numerous reports of epigenetic modifications arising following exposure to environmental toxicants, but most have not been directly linked to disease endpoints. To complete our discussion, we also briefly summarize the diseases that have been linked to environmental chemicals-related epigenetic changes. PMID:22253299

  8. Biomarkers of organophosphorus (OP) exposures in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marsillach, Judit; Richter, Rebecca J.; Kim, Jerry H.; Stevens, Richard C.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Tomazela, Daniela; Suzuki, Stephanie M.; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana; Furlong, Clement E.

    2011-01-01

    There are ongoing events where aircraft engine lubricant containing tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) contaminates aircraft cabins. Some individuals have experienced tremors or other neurological symptoms that may last for many months following exposures. Mass spectrometric (MS) protocols are being developed to determine the percentage of “biomarker proteins” that are modified by such exposures, specifically on active site serines. Both plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and red cell acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) are readily inhibited by 2-(o-cresyl)-4H-1:3:2:benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (CBDP) or phenyl saligenin cyclic phosphate (PSP) and have the potential to provide information about the level of exposure of an individual. We have developed immunomagnetic bead-based single-step purification protocols for both BChE and APH and have characterized the active site serine adducts of BChE by MS. PMID:21767566

  9. Human exposure limits to hypergolic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, H. D.; James, J. T.; Limero, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past four decades, many studies have been conducted on the toxicities of the rocket propellants hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MH). Numerous technical challenges have made it difficult to unambiguously interpret the results of these studies, and there is considerable divergence between results obtained by different investigators on the inhalation concentrations (MAC's) for each toxic effect inducible by exposure to hypergolic fuels in spacecraft atmospheres, NASA undertook a critical review of published and unpublished investigations on the toxicities of these compounds. The current state of the art practices for similar studies. While many questions remain unanswered, MAC's were determined using the best available data for a variety of toxic endpoints for potential continuous exposure durations ranging from 1 hour to 180 days. Spacecraft MAC's (SMAC's) were set for each compound based on the most sensitive toxic endpoint at each exposure duration.

  10. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY AT THE U.S. EPA, NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH BRANCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HERB has developed several immunoassay methods for environmental and human exposure studies. Immunoassays to detect low levels (<10 ng/mL) chlorpyrifos in food, track-in dirt and house dust have been developed for dietary and indoor exposure surveys. An immunoassay for th...

  11. ASSESSING RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE USING THE STOCHASTIC HUMAN EXPOSURE AND DOSE SIMULATION (SHEDS) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a workshop sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development and Office of Pesticide Programs, the Aggregate Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) Model was used to assess potential aggregate residential pesticide e...

  12. NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is a new publication that will provide an ongoing assessment of the U.S. population's exposure to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. For this Report, an environmental chemical means a chemical compound or ...

  13. Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives

    EPA Science Inventory

    SHEDS-Wood (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Wood Preservatives) is a physically-based stochastic model that was developed to quantify exposure and dose of children to wood preservatives on treated playsets and residential decks. Probabilistic inputs are co...

  14. SECOND NATIONAL REPORT ON HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals is an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. The first Report on 27 chemicals was issued in March 2001. This Second Report, released in January 20...

  15. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  16. 40 CFR 159.170 - Human epidemiological and exposure studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Human epidemiological and exposure studies. 159.170 Section 159.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... that a correlation may exist between exposure to a pesticide and observed adverse effects in...

  17. INTEGRATED HUMAN EXPOSURE SOURCE-TO-DOSE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NERL human exposure research program is designed to provide a sound, scientifically-based approach to understanding how people are actually exposed to pollutants and the factors and pathways influencing exposure and dose. This research project serves to integrate and incorpo...

  18. Data Sources for Prioritizing Human Exposure to Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans may be exposed to thousands of chemicals through contact in the workplace, home, and via air, water, food, and soil. A major challenge is estimating chemical exposures, which requires understanding potential exposure pathways directly related to how chemicals are used. Wit...

  19. Reconstructing Human Exposures Using Biomarkers and other "Clues"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring is the process by which biomarkers are measured in human tissues and specimens to evaluate exposures. Given the growing number of population-based biomonitoring surveys, there is now an escalated interest in using biomarker data to reconstruct exposures for supporti...

  20. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three NHEXAS Studies were conducted from 1995-1997 to evaluate total human exposure to multiple chemicals on community and regional scales. EPA established cooperative agreements with three Consortia to conduct three interrelated NHEXAS field studies. The University of Arizona...

  1. Controlled human exposures to ambient pollutant particles in susceptible populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have established an association between exposures to air pollution particles and human mortality and morbidity at concentrations of particles currently found in major metropolitan areas. The adverse effects of pollution particles are most prominent in suscep...

  2. Human Health Effects Associated with Exposure to Toxic Cyanobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports of toxic cyanobacteria blooms are increasing worldwide. Warming and eutrophic surface water systems support the development of blooms. We examine the evidence for adverse human health effects associated with exposure to toxic blooms in drinking water, recreational water a...

  3. Identification and characterization of biomarkers of organophosphorus exposures in humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jerry H; Stevens, Richard C; MacCoss, Michael J; Goodlett, David R; Scherl, Alex; Richter, Rebecca J; Suzuki, Stephanie M; Furlong, Clement E

    2010-01-01

    Over 1 billion pounds of organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are manufactured worldwide each year, including 70 million pounds of pesticides sprayed in the US. Current methods to monitor environmental and occupational exposures to OPs such as chlorpyrifos (CPS) have limitations, including low specificity and sensitivity, and short time windows for detection. Biomarkers for the OP tricresyl phosphate (TCP), which can contaminate bleed air from jet engines and cause an occupational exposure of commercial airline pilots, crewmembers and passengers, have not been identified. The aim of our work has been to identify, purify, and characterize new biomarkers of OP exposure. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition has been a standard for monitoring OP exposure. By identifying and characterizing molecular biomarkers with longer half-lives, we should be able to clinically detect TCP and OP insecticide exposure after longer durations of time than are currently possible. Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) is a red blood cell (RBC) cytosolic serine proteinase that removes N-acetylated amino acids from peptides and cleaves oxidized proteins. Due to its properties, it is an excellent candidate for a biomarker of exposure. We have been able to purify APH and detect inhibition by both CPS and metabolites of TCP. The 120-day lifetime of the RBC offers a much longer window for detecting exposure. The OP-modified serine conjugate in the active site tryptic peptide has been characterized by mass spectrometry. This research uses functional proteomics and enzyme activities to identify and characterize useful biomarkers of neurotoxic environmental and occupational OP exposures. PMID:20221871

  4. Identification and Characterization of Biomarkers of Organophosphorus Exposures in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jerry H.; Stevens, Richard C.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Goodlett, David R.; Scherl, Alex; Richter, Rebecca J.; Suzuki, Stephanie M.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2010-01-01

    Over 1 billion pounds of organophosphorus (OP) chemicals are manufactured worldwide each year, including 70 million pounds of pesticides sprayed in the US. Current methods to monitor environmental and occupational exposures to OPs such as chlorpyrifos (CPS) have limitations, including low specificity and sensitivity, and short time windows for detection. Biomarkers for the OP tricresyl phosphate (TCP), which can contaminate bleed air from jet engines and cause an occupational exposure of commercial airline pilots, crewmembers and passengers, have not been identified. The aim of our work has been to identify, purify, and characterize new biomarkers of OP exposure. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition has been a standard for monitoring OP exposure. By identifying and characterizing molecular biomarkers with longer half-lives, we should be able to clinically detect TCP and OP insecticide exposure after longer durations of time than are currently possible. Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) is a red blood cell (RBC) cytosolic serine proteinase that removes N-acetylated amino acids from peptides and cleaves oxidized proteins. Due to its properties, it is an excellent candidate for a biomarker of exposure. We have been able to purify APH and detect inhibition by both CPS and metabolites of TCP. The 120-day lifetime of the RBC offers a much longer window for detecting exposure. The OP-modified serine conjugate in the active site tryptic peptide has been characterized by mass spectrometry. This research uses functional proteomics and enzyme activities to identify and characterize useful biomarkers of neurotoxic environmental and occupational OP exposures. PMID:20221871

  5. Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Human Lymphoblastoid TK6 Cells Following [13C2]-Acetaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Swenberg, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The dose-response relationship for biomarkers of exposure (N2-ethylidene-dG adducts) and effect (cell survival and micronucleus formation) was determined across 4.5 orders of magnitude (50nM–2mM) using [13C2]-acetaldehyde exposures to human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells for 12h. There was a clear increase in exogenous N 2-ethylidene-dG formation at exposure concentrations ≥ 1µM, whereas the endogenous adducts remained nearly constant across all exposure concentrations, with an average of 3.0 adducts/107 dG. Exogenous adducts were lower than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≤ 10µM and were greater than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≥ 250µM. When the endogenous and exogenous adducts were summed together, statistically significant increases in total adduct formation over the endogenous background occurred at 50µM. Cell survival and micronucleus formation were monitored across the exposure range and statistically significant decreases in cell survival and increases in micronucleus formation occurred at ≥ 1000µM. This research supports the hypothesis that endogenously produced reactive species, including acetaldehyde, are always present and constitute the majority of the observed biological effects following very low exposures to exogenous acetaldehyde. These data can replace default assumptions of linear extrapolation to very low doses of exogenous acetaldehyde for risk prediction. PMID:23425604

  6. MULTIMEDIA HUMAN EXPOSURE AND RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposures and health risk comparisons from different sites may be used for allocating limited resources available for remedial action. It is important that comparisons between different sites use similar levels of site-specific data and/or screening level data. Risk assessment c...

  7. EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exhaled breath collection and analysis has historically been used in environmental research studies to characterize exposures to volatile organic compounds. The use of this approach is based on the fact that many compounds present in blood are reflected in the breath, and that...

  8. Human rights monitoring in virtual community.

    PubMed

    El Morr, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Holistic disability rights monitoring is essential in order to translate rights on paper into rights in reality for people with disabilities. At the same time, evidence-based knowledge produced through holistic monitoring has to be made accessible to a broad range of groups - researchers, representatives of disability community, people with disabilities, the media, policy makers, general public - and also has to contribute to building capacity within disability community around human rights issues. This article focuses on the design process of a complex Virtual Knowledge Network (VKN) as an operational tool to support mobilization and dissemination of evidence-based knowledge produced by the Disability Rights Promotion International Canada (DRPI-Canada) project. This tool is embedded in the more general framework of the project grounded in a human rights approach to disability and that acknowledges the importance of creating knowledgeable communities in order to make the disability rights monitoring efforts sustainable, advancing thus the decision making process in Canada in order to enhance the quality of life of people with disabilities. PMID:22874302

  9. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  10. LEAD EXPOSURES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment,...

  11. MANAGEMENT AND DISSEMINATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE DATABASES AND OTHER DATABASES NEEDED FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) have performed a number of large human exposure measurement studies during the past decade. It is the goal of the NERL to make the data available to other researchers for analysis in order to further the scientific ...

  12. Biomonitoring of the mycotoxin Zearalenone: current state-of-the art and application to human exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Mally, Angela; Solfrizzo, Michele; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin with high estrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo, is a widespread food contaminant that is commonly detected in maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, rye and other grains. Human exposure estimates based on analytical data on ZEN occurrence in various food categories and food consumption data suggest that human exposure to ZEN and modified forms of ZEN may be close to or even exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for some consumer groups. Considering the inherent uncertainties in estimating dietary intake of ZEN that may lead to an under- or overestimation of ZEN exposure and consequently human risk and current lack of data on vulnerable consumer groups, there is a clear need for more comprehensive and reliable exposure data to refine ZEN risk assessment. Human biomonitoring (HBM) is increasingly being recognized as an efficient and cost-effective way of assessing human exposure to food contaminants, including mycotoxins. Based on animal and (limited) human data on the toxicokinetics of ZEN, it appears that excretion of ZEN and its major metabolites may present suitable biomarkers of ZEN exposure. In view of the limitations of available dietary exposure data on ZEN and its modified forms, the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies utilizing HBM to monitor and assess human exposure to ZEN. Considerations are given to animal and human toxicokinetic data relevant to HBM, analytical methods, and available HBM data on urinary biomarkers of ZEN exposure in different cohorts. PMID:27034246

  13. An overview of human exposure modeling activities at the USEPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Furtaw, E J

    2001-06-01

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessment paradigm. In exposure assessment, we analyze the source-to-dose sequence of processes, in which pollutants are released from sources into the environment, where they may move through multiple environmental media, and to human receptors via multiple pathways. Exposure occurs at the environment-human interface, where pollutants are contacted in the course of human activities. Exposure may result in a dose, by which chemicals enter the body through multiple portals of entry, primarily inhalation, ingestion, and dermal absorption. Within the body, absorbed pollutants are distributed to, metabolized within, and eliminated from various organs and tissues, where they may cause toxicologic responses or adverse health effects. The NERL's modeling efforts are directed at improving our understanding of this sequence of processes, by characterizing the various factors influencing exposures and dose, and their associated variabilities and uncertainties. Modeling at the NERL is one of three essential programmatic elements, along with measurements and methods development. These are pursued interactively to advance our understanding of exposure-related processes. Exposure models are developed and run using the best currently available measurement data to simulate and predict population exposure and dose distributions, and to identify the most important factors and their variabilities and uncertainties. This knowledge is then used to guide the development of improved methods and measurements needed to obtain better data to improve the assessment and reduce critical uncertainties. These models and measurement results are tools that can be used in risk assessments and in risk management decisions in order

  14. 75 FR 69617 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... addressing Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors. The proposed rule was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412) and is available on MSHA's Web...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  15. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure. PMID:21506878

  16. Exposure, epidemiology and human cancer incidence of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Griego, Fumie Y; Bogen, Kenneth T; Price, Paul S; Weed, Douglas L

    2008-07-01

    This report provides a summary of deliberations conducted under the charge for members of Module B participating in the Naphthalene State-of-the-Science Symposium (NS(3)), Monterey, CA, October 9-12, 2006. The panel's charge was to derive consensus estimates of human exposure to naphthalene under various conditions, cancer incidence plausibly associated with these exposures, and identify quintessential research that could significantly reduce or eliminate material uncertainties to inform human cancer risk assessment. Relying in large part on a commissioned paper [Price, P.S., Jayjock, M.A., 2008. Available data on naphthalene exposures: strengths and limitations, in this issue], exposure levels were estimated for background (0.0001-0.003 microg/m(3)), ambient air (0.001-1.0 microg/m(3)), vehicles (0.003-3.0 microg/m(3)), residences (0.1-10 microg/m(3)), mothball use (on-label: 1-100 microg/m(3); off-label: 10-100 microg/m(3)), and occupational (low: 3-100 microg/m(3); high: 30-1,000 microg/m(3)). There have been few published reports of human cancer associated with naphthalene exposure. Several research projects are suggested that could reduce uncertainty in our understanding of human exposure. Using best scientific judgment, it is reasonably certain that the largest non-occupational exposures to naphthalene are indoor/residential exposures, particularly in households that use naphthalene-based products such as mothballs. However, even the highest of these exposures is likely to fall one or more orders of magnitude below moderate or high-level occupational exposure levels experienced by the few known cohorts exposed occupationally to naphthalene alone or as part of chemical mixtures such as jet fuel. PMID:18423820

  17. The total human environmental exposure study (THEES) to benzo (A) pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J.; Waldman, J.M. ); Greenberg, A. ); Harkov, R.; Pietarinan, C. )

    1987-01-01

    The traditional approach to examining the concentration patterns of pollutants or the uptake by humans usually has been to focus on a single medium, e.g. air or water. In recent years progress has been made in extending study designs to multimedia; however, these have usually been limited in scope and the data available from each medium are not always compatible for estimating exposure. The exposure assessment guidelines developed by EPA have illustrated some of the important types of source, measurement and pathway information necessary to conduct a multimedia analysis for a pollutant or class of pollutants. However, at present there is a lack of systematic approaches to the quantitative study of multimedia human exposures. The need to systematically examine exposure led to the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES). It is a four year project that includes microenvironmental, personal monitoring protocols, and the development of human exposure models. In this paper the experimental design is described, and the indoor-outdoor air results of the first phase, a Winter, 1987 microenvironmental study, are presented.

  18. The evaluation of stack metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators: Assessing human exposure through noninhalation pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sedman, R.M.; Polisini, J.M.; Esparza, J.R.

    1994-06-01

    Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human exposure due to direct contact with shallow soil or the ingestion of surface water were then ascertained. Projected changes in dietary intakes of metals due to incinerator emissions were estimated based on changes from baseline dietary intakes that are monitored in U.S. Food and Drug Administration total diet studies. Changes from baseline intake were deemed to be proportional to the projected changes in soil or surface water metal concentrations. Human exposure to metals emitted from nine hazardous waste incinerators were then evaluated. Metal emissions from certain facilities resulted in tangible human exposure through noninhalation pathways. However, the analysis indicated that the deposition of metals from ambient air would result in substantially greater human exposure through noninhalation pathways than the emissions from most of the facilities. 51 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  19. The evaluation of stack metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators: assessing human exposure through noninhalation pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M; Polisini, J M; Esparza, J R

    1994-01-01

    Potential public health effects associated with exposure to metal emissions from hazardous waste incinerators through noninhalation pathways were evaluated. Instead of relying on modeling the movement of toxicants through various environmental media, an approach based on estimating changes from baseline levels of exposure was employed. Changes in soil and water As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, and Be concentrations that result from incinerator emissions were first determined. Estimates of changes in human exposure due to direct contact with shallow soil or the ingestion of surface water were then ascertained. Projected changes in dietary intakes of metals due to incinerator emissions were estimated based on changes from baseline dietary intakes that are monitored in U.S. Food and Drug Administration total diet studies. Changes from baseline intake were deemed to be proportional to the projected changes in soil or surface water metal concentrations. Human exposure to metals emitted from nine hazardous waste incinerators were then evaluated. Metal emissions from certain facilities resulted in tangible human exposure through noninhalation pathways. However, the analysis indicated that the deposition of metals from ambient air would result in substantially greater human exposure through noninhalation pathways than the emissions from most of the facilities. PMID:7925180

  20. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

  1. Inferior retinal light exposure is more effective than superior retinal exposure in suppressing melatonin in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glickman, Gena; Hanifin, John P.; Rollag, Mark D.; Wang, Jenny; Cooper, Howard; Brainard, George C.

    2003-01-01

    Illumination of different areas of the human retina elicits differences in acute light-induced suppression of melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare changes in plasma melatonin levels when light exposures of equal illuminance and equal photon dose were administered to superior, inferior, and full retinal fields. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Plexiglass eye shields were modified to permit selective exposure of the superior and inferior halves of the retinas of each subject. The Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer was used both to confirm intact full visual fields and to quantify exposure of upper and lower visual fields. On study nights, eyes were dilated, and subjects were exposed to patternless white light for 90 min between 0200 and 0330 under five conditions: (1) full retinal exposure at 200 lux, (2) full retinal exposure at 100 lux, (3) inferior retinal exposure at 200 lux, (4) superior retinal exposure at 200 lux, and (5) a dark-exposed control. Plasma melatonin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. ANOVA demonstrated a significant effect of exposure condition (F = 5.91, p < 0.005). Post hoc Fisher PLSD tests showed significant (p < 0.05) melatonin suppression of both full retinal exposures as well as the inferior retinal exposure; however, superior retinal exposure was significantly less effective in suppressing melatonin. Furthermore, suppression with superior retinal exposure was not significantly different from that of the dark control condition. The results indicate that the inferior retina contributes more to the light-induced suppression of melatonin than the superior retina at the photon dosages tested in this study. Findings suggest a greater sensitivity or denser distribution of photoreceptors in the inferior retina are involved in light detection for the retinohypothalamic tract of humans.

  2. ANALYSIS AND PRODUCTS FROM NHEXAS -- NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) was developed as a federal interagency research effort to examine the full range of environmental pollutants and chemicals (volatile organic chemicals, metals, and pesticides) that humans are exposed to in daily life. The pu...

  3. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  4. MULTIPLE SOLVENT EXPOSURE IN HUMANS: CROSS-SPECIES EXTRAPOLATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple Solvent Exposures in Humans:
    Cross-Species Extrapolations
    (Future Research Plan)

    Vernon A. Benignus1, Philip J. Bushnell2 and William K. Boyes2

    A few solvents can be safely studied in acute experiments in human subjects. Data exist in rats f...

  5. TOTAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MODEL (THEM) FOR RESPIRABLE SUSPENDED PARTICLES (RSP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Total Human Exposure Model (THEM) has been developed that calculates 24-hour profiles using real human activity patterns and indoor air models derived from actual measurements of pollutants. HEM was designed for implementation on personal computers. urrently, the model uses the...

  6. BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN HUMANS UPON EXPOSURE TO OZONE AND EXERCISE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 44 human subjects were exposed to 784 micrograms/cu.m.(0.4 ppm) ozone and 30 human subjects were exposed to air as controls. A four hour exposure was given on each of five consecutive days. Half of each group received a higher level of treadmill exercise than the other...

  7. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

  8. The Influence of Human and Environmental Exposure Factors on Personal NO2 Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency’s (US EPA) Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) deployed a total of over 2000 nitrogen dioxide, NO2, passive monitors during 3 years of field data collections. These 24-h based personal, residential outdoor and comm...

  9. The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies.

  10. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (p<0.0001). Boron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups. PMID:19962437

  11. Long duration human exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

  12. Long duration human exposure to microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

  13. Lead exposures in the human environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment, and pinpointing the primary sources of lead in any particular environmental component is difficult. Nevertheless, our purpose is to describe the total exposure of humans to environmental lead and to determine the sources of lead contributing to this exposure. The total exposure is the total amount of lead consumed by ingestion and inhalation. Excluding lead exposure from choice or circumstance, a baseline level of potential human exposure can be defined for a normal individual eating a typical diet and living in a non-urban community remote from industrial sources of lead in a house without lead-based paints. Beyond this level, additive exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational and smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g. pica, smoking, drinking and hobbies), with variation for age, sex or socioeconomic status.

  14. Human inhalation exposure to ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Jörn; Csanády, György A; Faller, Thomas H; Filser, Johannes G

    2003-08-01

    Two male volunteers (A and B) inhaled 1.43 and 1.34 mmol, respectively, of vaporous (13)C-labeled ethylene glycol ((13)C(2)-EG) over 4 h. In plasma, (13)C(2)-EG and its metabolite (13)C(2)-glycolic acid ((13)C(2)-GA) were determined together with the natural burden from background GA using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Maximum plasma concentrations of (13)C(2)-EG were 11.0 and 15.8 micromol/l, and of (13)C(2)-GA were 0.9 and 1.8 micromol/l, for volunteers A and B, respectively. Corresponding plasma half-lives were 2.1 and 2.6 h for (13)C(2)-EG, and 2.9 and 2.6 h for (13)C(2)-GA. Background GA concentrations were 25.8 and 28.3 micro mol/l plasma. Unlabeled background EG, GA and oxalic acid (OA) were detected in urine in which the corresponding (13)C-labeled compounds were also quantified. Within 28 h after the start of the exposures, 6.4% and 9.3% (13)C(2)-EG, 0.70% and 0.92% (13)C(2)-GA, as well as 0.08% and 0.28% (13)C(2)-OA of the inhaled amounts of (13)C(2)-EG, were excreted in urine by volunteers A and B, respectively. The amounts of (13)C(2)-GA represented 3.7% and 14.2% of background urinary GA excreted over 24 h (274 and 88 micromol). The amounts of (13)C(2)-OA were 0.5% and 2.1% of background urinary OA excreted over 24 h (215 and 177 micromol). From the findings obtained in plasma and urine and from a toxicokinetic analysis of these data, it is highly unlikely that workplace EG exposure according to the German exposure limit (MAK-value 10 ppm EG, 8 h) could lead to adverse effects from the metabolically formed GA and OA. PMID:12856104

  15. HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING FOR CUMULATIVE RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) has identified cumulative risk assessment as a priority research area. This is because humans and other organisms are exposed to a multitude of chemicals, physical agents, and other stressors through multiple pathways, routes, an...

  16. HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS OF AIR TOXICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's air toxics program is moving toward a risk-based focus. The framework for such a focus was laid out in the National Air Toxics Program: Integrated Urban Strategy which included the requirement for EPA to conduct a National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) of human expos...

  17. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: Methods, results and assessment of environmental exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dekant, Wolfgang Voelkel, Wolfgang

    2008-04-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A is controversially discussed. This review critically assesses methods for biomonitoring of bisphenol A exposures and reported concentrations of bisphenol A in blood and urine of non-occupationally ('environmentally') exposed humans. From the many methods published to assess bisphenol A concentrations in biological media, mass spectrometry-based methods are considered most appropriate due to high sensitivity, selectivity and precision. In human blood, based on the known toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in humans, the expected very low concentrations of bisphenol A due to rapid biotransformation and the very rapid excretion result in severe limitations in the use of reported blood levels of bisphenol A for exposure assessment. Due to the rapid and complete excretion of orally administered bisphenol A, urine samples are considered as the appropriate body fluid for bisphenol A exposure assessment. In urine samples from several cohorts, bisphenol A (as glucuronide) was present in average concentrations in the range of 1-3 {mu}g/L suggesting that daily human exposure to bisphenol A is below 6 {mu}g per person (< 0.1 {mu}g/kg bw/day) for the majority of the population.

  18. Benzene exposure: An overview of monitoring methods and their findings

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Clifford P.

    2014-01-01

    Benzene has been measured throughout the environment and is commonly emitted in several industrial and transportation settings leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposures. Inhalation is the most common exposure route but benzene rapidly penetrates the skin and can contaminant water and food resulting in dermal and ingestion exposures. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it still is a component of petroleum products, including gasoline, and is a trace impurity in industrial products resulting in continued sub to low ppm occupational exposures, though higher exposures exist in small, uncontrolled workshops in developing countries. Emissions from gasoline/petrochemical industry are its main sources to the ambient air, but a person’s total inhalation exposure can be elevated from emissions from cigarettes, consumer products and gasoline powered engines/tools stored in garages attached to homes. Air samples are collected in canisters or on adsorbent with subsequent quantification by gas chromatography. Ambient air concentrations vary from sub-ppb range, low ppb, and tens of ppb in rural/suburban, urban, and source impacted areas, respectively. Short-term environmental exposures of ppm occur during vehicle fueling. Indoor air concentrations of tens of ppb occur in microenvironments containing indoor sources. Occupational and environmental exposures have declined where regulations limit benzene in gasoline (<1%) and cigarette smoking has been banned from public and work places. Similar controls should be implemented worldwide to reduce benzene exposure. Biomarkers of benzene used to estimate exposure and risk include: benzene in breath, blood and urine; its urinary metabolites: phenol, t,t-muconic acid (t,tMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (sPMA); and blood protein adducts. The biomarker studies suggest benzene environmental exposures are in the sub to low ppb range though non-benzene sources for urinary metabolites

  19. Benzene exposure: an overview of monitoring methods and their findings.

    PubMed

    Weisel, Clifford P

    2010-03-19

    Benzene has been measured throughout the environment and is commonly emitted in several industrial and transportation settings leading to widespread environmental and occupational exposures. Inhalation is the most common exposure route but benzene rapidly penetrates the skin and can contaminant water and food resulting in dermal and ingestion exposures. While less toxic solvents have been substituted for benzene, it still is a component of petroleum products, including gasoline, and is a trace impurity in industrial products resulting in continued sub to low ppm occupational exposures, though higher exposures exist in small, uncontrolled workshops in developing countries. Emissions from gasoline/petrochemical industry are its main sources to the ambient air, but a person's total inhalation exposure can be elevated from emissions from cigarettes, consumer products and gasoline powered engines/tools stored in garages attached to homes. Air samples are collected in canisters or on adsorbent with subsequent quantification by gas chromatography. Ambient air concentrations vary from sub-ppb range, low ppb, and tens of ppb in rural/suburban, urban, and source impacted areas, respectively. Short-term environmental exposures of ppm occur during vehicle fueling. Indoor air concentrations of tens of ppb occur in microenvironments containing indoor sources. Occupational and environmental exposures have declined where regulations limit benzene in gasoline (<1%) and cigarette smoking has been banned from public and work places. Similar controls should be implemented worldwide to reduce benzene exposure. Biomarkers of benzene used to estimate exposure and risk include: benzene in breath, blood and urine; its urinary metabolites: phenol, t,t-muconic acid (t,tMA) and S-phenylmercapturic acid (sPMA); and blood protein adducts. The biomarker studies suggest benzene environmental exposures are in the sub to low ppb range though non-benzene sources for urinary metabolites, differences

  20. Anogenital distance as a marker of androgen exposure in humans.

    PubMed

    Thankamony, A; Pasterski, V; Ong, K K; Acerini, C L; Hughes, I A

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal foetal testis development has been proposed to underlie common disorders of the male reproductive system such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, reduced semen quality and testicular germ cell tumour, which are regarded as components of a 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome'. The increasing trends and geographical variation in their incidence have been suggested to result from in utero exposure to environmental chemicals acting as endocrine disruptors. In rodents, the anogenital distance (AGD), measured from the anus to the base of genital tubercle, is a sensitive biomarker of androgen exposure during a critical embryonic window of testis development. In humans, several epidemiological studies have shown alterations in AGD associated with prenatal exposure to several chemicals with potential endocrine disrupting activity. However, the link between AGD and androgen exposure in humans is not well-defined. This review focuses on the current evidence for such a relationship. As in rodents, a clear gender difference is detected during foetal development of the AGD in humans which is maintained thereafter. Reduced AGD in association with clinically relevant outcomes of potential environmental exposures, such as cryptorchidism or hypospadias, is in keeping with AGD as a marker of foetal testicular function. Furthermore, AGD may reflect variations in prenatal androgen exposure in healthy children as shorter AGD at birth is associated with reduced masculine play behaviour in preschool boys. Several studies provide evidence linking shorter AGD with lower fertility, semen quality and testosterone levels in selected groups of adults attending andrology clinics. Overall, the observational data in humans are consistent with experimental studies in animals and support the use of AGD as a biomarker of foetal androgen exposure. Future studies evaluating AGD in relation to reproductive hormones in both infants and adults, and to gene polymorphisms, will help to further delineate

  1. [Clinical monitoring in areas of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Suvorov, I M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical syndromes induced by high intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic field chronic exposure are described. Persons injured by occupational exposure have been observed central nervous system changes in diencephalic syndrome form, cardio-vascular system changes revealed in atherosclerosis, isch(a)emic heart disease and coronary insufficiency rapid progressive expansion. General public living in territory of radar station exposure zone different functional disorders have been identified: vegetative dystonia (asthenovegetative syndrome), thrombocytopenia, decrease of blood coagulation index, and thyroid gland function changes. Observed diseases clinical variability may be determined by electromagnetic exposure characteristics. PMID:23785812

  2. Human exposure assessment: a graduate level course

    SciTech Connect

    Lioy, P.J. )

    1991-07-01

    The course has been offered three times. The content and the approach to each lecture has evolved after each time it was given. This is not unexpected since the field has been undergoing major transformations, and new approaches to measurement and modeling are being applied to current problems. The most recent student evaluation, 1990, indicates a difficulty rating of just right' (70%) to difficult' (30%). Most felt the course stimulated their interest in the topic (72%) and the examinations were learning experiences as well as a grading exercise. The major need for the discipline is an adequate text book. The GRAPE program has excellent potential as an educational tool, but it needs to make more interactions and allow introduction of activities and data. The major strengths of the course are the problems provided to the students for homework. These give the student quantitative perspective on the concepts, range in values, variables, and uncertainties necessary to complete an assessment. In addition, the development of the mathematical and conceptional continuum for placing exposure assessment in the context of toxicology, environmental science, epidemiology, and clinical intervention provides a basic framework for the discipline.

  3. Assessment of human exposure to atrazine through the determination of free atrazine in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Catenacci, G. ); Maroni, M. ); Cottica, D. ); Pozzoli, L.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on metabolism and excretion of atrazine in man are not available in the literature. The present study has investigated human exposure to atrazine during its industrial production by means of assessment of ambient exposure and determination of free atrazine in urine. Four workers exposed to atrazine during its manufacture and packaging in a production plant, volunteered for the study. Atrazine was determined in airborne dust of the working environment obtained by personal sampling, on skin pads according to the WHO standard method, and on the skin of the hands of the workers by means of a washing procedure. Urine was collected before, during, and after exposure. A 24 hr collection before the first workshift, all the urine voided during the monitoring period, subdivided in 8 hr fractions; and one or more 12 hr samples after the end of the exposure period were collected.

  4. Dose-Response Relationships in Human Experimental Exposure to Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Carelli, Giovanni; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies carried out in the field of experimental toxicology have shown evidence of biphasic dose-response relationships for different experimental models, endpoints and chemicals tested. As these studies excluded humans as the experimental model, we have examined the literature of the last three decades in order to verify data concerning human experimental exposure with the aim of highlighting possible biphasic dose-response relationships. The substances used for experimental exposures included hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, ketones, ethers, glycoethers, halogenated hydrocarbons, and carbon sulphide; the absorption route was inhalation. We did not detect any biphasic dose-response relationship and, in the studies reviewed, our examination revealed major methodological limitations that prevented us making a more detailed examination of experimental data. We concluded that the experimental data available did not allow us to support evidence of biphasic dose-response relationships in human experimental exposure to the above-mentioned chemical substances. PMID:18648639

  5. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. EPA NERL'S HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessment para...

  6. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  7. Human UVA exposures estimated from ambient UVA measurements.

    PubMed

    Kimlin, Michael G; Parisi, Alfio V; Downs, Nathan D

    2003-04-01

    The methods presented in this paper allow for the estimation of human UVA exposure using measured UVA irradiance values. Using measured broadband UVA irradiances over the period of a year, it was estimated that for humans in an upright posture and not moving the head with respect to the body, the nose received 26.5% of the available ambient UVA radiation, whilst the shoulders and vertex of the head received 81% and 100% respectively of the available ambient UVA radiation. Measurement of the exposure ratios for a series of solar zenith angles between 90 degrees and 0 degrees will allow extension of this technique to other latitudes. PMID:12760531

  8. A dermatotoxicokinetic model of human exposures to jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Andersen, Melvin E; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-09-01

    Workers, both in the military and the commercial airline industry, are exposed to jet fuel by inhalation and dermal contact. We present a dermatotoxicokinetic (DTK) model that quantifies the absorption, distribution, and elimination of aromatic and aliphatic components of jet fuel following dermal exposures in humans. Kinetic data were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers following a single dose of JP-8 to the forearm over a surface area of 20 cm2. Blood samples were taken before exposure (t = 0 h), after exposure (t = 0.5 h), and every 0.5 h for up to 3.5 h postexposure. The DTK model that best fit the data included five compartments: (1) surface, (2) stratum corneum (SC), (3) viable epidermis, (4) blood, and (5) storage. The DTK model was used to predict blood concentrations of the components of JP-8 based on dermal-exposure measurements made in occupational-exposure settings in order to better understand the toxicokinetic behavior of these compounds. Monte Carlo simulations of dermal exposure and cumulative internal dose demonstrated no overlap among the low-, medium-, and high-exposure groups. The DTK model provides a quantitative understanding of the relationship between the mass of JP-8 components in the SC and the concentrations of each component in the systemic circulation. The model may be used for the development of a toxicokinetic modeling strategy for multiroute exposure to jet fuel. PMID:16801332

  9. Worker-specific exposure monitor and method for surveillance of workers

    DOEpatents

    Lovejoy, Michael L.; Peeters, John P.; Johnson, A. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A person-specific monitor that provides sensor information regarding hazards to which the person is exposed and means to geolocate the person at the time of the exposure. The monitor also includes means to communicate with a remote base station. Information from the monitor can be downloaded at the base station for long term storage and analysis. The base station can also include means to recharge the monitor.

  10. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer mortality in 40,761 employees of three UK nuclear industry facilities who had been monitored for external radiation exposure was examined according to whether they had also been monitored for possible internal exposure to tritium, plutonium or other radionuclides (uranium, polonium, actinium or other unspecified). Death rates from cancer were compared both with national rates and with rates in radiation workers not monitored for exposure to any radionuclides. Among workers monitored for tritium exposure, overall cancer mortality was significantly below national rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 83, 165 deaths; 2P = 0.02] and none of the cancer-specific death rates was significantly above either the national average or rates in non-monitored workers. Although the overall death rate from cancer in workers monitored for plutonium exposure was also significantly low relative to national rates (SMR = 89, 581 deaths; 2P = 0.005), mortality from pleural cancer was significantly raised (SMR = 357, nine deaths; 2P = 0.002); none of the rates differed significantly from those of non-monitored workers. Workers monitored for radionuclides other than tritium or plutonium also had a death rate from all cancers combined that was below the national average (SMR = 86, 418 deaths; 2P = 0.002) but prostatic cancer mortality was raised both in relation to death rates in the general population (SMR = 153, 37 deaths; 2P = 0.02) and to death rates in radiation workers who had not been monitored for exposure to any radionuclide [rate ratio (RR) = 1.65; 2P = 0.03]. Mortality from cancer of the lung was also significantly increased in workers monitored for other radionuclides compared with those of radiation workers not monitored for exposure to radionuclides (RR = 1.31, 164 deaths; 2P = 0.01). For cancers of the lung, prostate and all cancers combined, death rates in monitored workers were examined according to the timing and duration of monitoring for radionuclide

  11. Development and evaluation of a technique for in vivo monitoring of 60Co in human lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mello, J. Q.; Lucena, E. A.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    60Co is a fission product of 235U and represents a risk of internal exposure of workers in nuclear power plants, especially those involved in the maintenance of potentially contaminated parts and equipment. The control of 60Co intake by inhalation can be performed through in vivo monitoring. This work describes the evaluation of a technique through the minimum detectable activity and the corresponding minimum detectable effective doses, based on biokinetic and dosimetric models of 60Co in the human body. The results allow to state that the technique is suitable either for monitoring of occupational exposures or evaluation of accidental intake.

  12. Analysis of human exposure to benzo(a)pyrene via inhalation and food ingestion in the Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES)

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.M.; Lioy, P.J.; Greenberg, A.; Butler, J.P. )

    1991-04-01

    The Total Human Environmental Exposure Study (THEES) focuses on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as an example of a combustion-generated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compound. Primary pathways for environmental exposures to BaP are inhalation and ingestion. This program of field studies was conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, a small, industrial city in the Delaware River valley. The study protocols included direct monitoring of BaP exposures via inhalation and ingestion pathways during three separate periods, each lasting 14 days. BaP concentrations in air were sampled at outdoor and in-home locations, with personal air sampling added during the latter two phases. Cooked food samples from each household were acquired, using a constant portion second plate' of each meal prepared at home. Ambient levels were 4-10 times higher during the cold months compared with the late summer study period. Space heating and regional aerosol were major contributors to community levels of BaP in the air during the wintertime. Penetration of outdoor air, cooking activities, combustion appliances, and cigarette smoke were important sources of indoor air exposures. Cooking activities, besides releasing BaP-enriched particles indoors, produced food imbued with BaP and added substantially to exposure via the ingestion route. Among the study subjects, the range and magnitude of dietary exposures (2 to 500 ng/d) were much greater than for inhalation (10 to 50 ng/d). Nevertheless, there were ample individual cases where inhalation of BaP was the predominant exposure route. Indoor air BaP levels were closely correlated with ambient levels in most of the homes. For some individuals, measured personal air BaP exposures were adequately predicted by time-weighting of microenvironmental (i.e., outdoor and in-home) concentrations.

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING ACTIVITIES AT THE U.S. EPA'S NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The computational modeling of human exposure to environmental pollutants is one of the primary activities of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)'s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). Assessment of human exposures is a critical part of the overall risk assessm...

  14. Monitoring of troponin release from cardiomyocytes during exposure to toxic substances using surface plasmon resonance biosensing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Henrik; Kågedal, Bertil; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    Troponin T (TnT) is a useful biomarker for studying drug-induced toxicity effects on cardiac cells. We describe how a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was applied to monitor the release of TnT from active HL-1 cardiomyocytes in vitro when exposed to cardiotoxic substances. Two monoclonal human TnT antibodies were compared in the SPR immunosensor to analyse the TnT release. The detection limit of TnT was determined to be 30 ng/ml in a direct assay set-up and to be 10 ng/ml in a sandwich assay format. Exposure of the cardiomyocytes to doxorubicin, troglitazone, quinidine and cobalt chloride for periods of 6 and 24 h gave significant SPR responses, whereas substances with low toxicity showed insignificant effects (ascorbic acid, methotrexate). The SPR results were verified with a validated immunochemiluminescence method which showed a correlation of r (2) = 0.790. PMID:20694813

  15. EXPOSURE MONITORING COMPONENT FOR DETROIT CHILDREN'S HEALTH STUDY ( DCHS )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conventional, regulatory-based air monitoring is expensive and, thus, conducted at one or few locations in a city. This provides limited info on intra-urban variability and spatial distribution of air pollution. Research-oriented urban network monitoring has progressed with inc...

  16. FIELD SURVEYS OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN COMMERCIAL SETTINGS USING PERSONAL EXPOSURE MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study employed miniaturized personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure carbon monoxide (CO) in 588 different commercial settings (e.g., retail stores, office buildings, hotels, restaurants) in five California cities. Altogether, 5000 CO observations were made by recording ...

  17. Biological monitoring of environment exposure to safrole and the Taiwanese betel quid chewing.

    PubMed

    Chang, M J W; Ko, C Y; Lin, R F; Hsieh, L L

    2002-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive biological monitoring (BM) method for assessing exposure to the environmental carcinogen safrole has been developed. The method is an isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of urinary dihydroxychavicol (DHAB) and eugenol, the urinary metabolites of safrole. Good linearity, precision, and accuracy were demonstrated. A recovery of 98.8 +/- 5.4% (SD, n = 3) was found for DHAB and 84.1 +/- 3.4% (n = 3) for eugenol. The quantitation limits of the method were 8 ng for DHAB and 10 ng for eugenol. The validity of the method was demonstrated by a linear dose-response relationship observed in rats given oral doses of safrole at 30, 75, and 150 mg/kg body weight. The method was also used to monitor the environmental exposure to the Taiwanese betel quid (TBQ) chewing, because TBQ used in Taiwan not only contains areca (betel) nut, slaked lime, and catechu but also Piper betle inflorescence or its leaves. Both of the latter have a high content of safrole. The feasibility of the method to monitor TBQ chewing was demonstrated by an analysis of 153 spot human urine samples. The results showed that the p value of the nonparametric group comparison was < 0.001 for DHAB and 0.832 for eugenol. The TBQ chewers also exhibited a significantly higher rate of urinary DHAB (but not eugenol) than the nonchewers with an odd ratio of 3.47 (95% CI, 1.61-7.51). However, when only the eugenol-positive subjects were taken into analysis, the ratio rose to 24.38 (95% CI, 3.00-197.90). PMID:12399914

  18. Combined Toxic Exposures and Human Health: Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect

    PubMed Central

    Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Procedures for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, combined and cumulative exposures are under development, but the scientific database needs considerable expansion. In particular, there is a lack of knowledge on how to monitor effects of complex exposures, and there are few reviews on biomonitoring complex exposures. In this review we summarize articles in which biomonitoring techniques have been developed and used. Most examples describe techniques for biomonitoring effects which may detect early changes induced by many chemical stressors and which have the potential to accelerate data gathering. Some emphasis is put on endocrine disrupters acting via epigenetic mechanisms and on carcinogens. Solid evidence shows that these groups of chemicals can interact and even produce synergistic effects. They may act during sensitive time windows and biomonitoring their effects in epidemiological studies is a challenging task. PMID:21556171

  19. Exposure and Health Effects of Fungi on Humans.

    PubMed

    Baxi, Sachin N; Portnoy, Jay M; Larenas-Linnemann, Désirée; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms that are present in outdoor and indoor environments. Previous research has found relationships between environmental fungal exposures and human health effects. We reviewed recent articles focused on fungal exposure and dampness as risk factors for respiratory disease development, symptoms, and hypersensitivity. In particular, we reviewed the evidence suggesting that early exposure to dampness or fungi is associated with the development of asthma and increased asthma morbidity. Although outdoor exposure to high concentrations of spores can cause health effects such as asthma attacks in association with thunderstorms, most people appear to be relatively unaffected unless they are sensitized to specific genera. Indoor exposure and dampness, however, appears to be associated with an increased risk of developing asthma in young children and asthma morbidity in individuals who have asthma. These are important issues because they provide a rationale for interventions that might be considered for homes and buildings in which there is increased fungal exposure. In addition to rhinitis and asthma, fungus exposure is associated with a number of other illnesses including allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, allergic fungal sinusitis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Additional research is necessary to establish causality and evaluate interventions for fungal- and dampness-related health effects. PMID:26947460

  20. ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

  1. INTRAUTERINE EXPOSURE OF HUMANS TO PCBS (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS): NEWBORN EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low-level chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from consumption of Lake Michigan fish was assessed in pregnant women and their newborn offspring. Low levels of PCBs remain in the human body for some time, and caused, in this sample, decreases in birt...

  2. THE EFFECT OF CONTROLLED OZONE EXPOSURE ON HUMAN LUMPHOCYTE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of ozone (03) on cell-mediated immunity were studied in 16 human subjects exposed to 1176 micrograms/cu.m. 03 (0.6 ppm) for 2 hr in an environmentally controlled exposure chamber. Venous blood smaples were taken before and immediately after controlled air and 03 expos...

  3. DETERMINING THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF IMPROVED HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA develops and revises environmental regulations and policies to protect the environment and human health. One of the key components of the regulatory process is establishing the proposed action level, which requires high quality exposure data. In many cases, expos...

  4. DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DISPOSITION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE IN HUMANS FOLLOWING ORAL AND DERMAL EXPOSURE. TL Leavens1, MW Case1, RA Pegram1, BC Blount2, DM DeMarini1, MC Madden1, and JL Valentine3. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3RTI, RTP, NC, USA.
    The disinfection byproduct ...

  5. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  6. Total Human Exposure Risk Database and Advance Simulaiton Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    THERdbASE is no longer supported by EPA and is no longer available as download.

    THERdbASE is a collection of databases and models that are useful to assist in conducting assessments of human exposure to chemical pollutants, especial...

  7. NATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT SURVEY (NHEXAS): ANALYSIS OF EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AND ROUTES FOR ARSENIC AND LEAD IN EPA REGION 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 (Great Lakes Area) provides extensive exposure data on a representative sample of approximately 250 residents of the region. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood...

  8. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects for human exposure to nanomaterials: The challenge ahead.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Laetitia; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2016-01-01

    Exposures to nanomaterials (NMs), with their specific physico-chemical characteristics, are likely to increase over the next years, as their production for industrial, consumer and medical applications is steadily rising. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the implementation of human biomonitoring studies of genotoxic effects after NM exposures in order to monitor and assure safety for workers and the general population. In this review, most commonly used biomarkers of early genetic effects were analyzed for their adequacy after NM exposures. A more in depth analysis of the ex vivo/in vitro lymphocyte MN assay was performed, although, in literature no studies are available using this assay for NM exposures. Therefore, the known factors determining the NMs tissue/cellular targets and the multiplicity of modes of action of NMs were summarized. The main pending questions are whether (1) lymphocytes are a NM target or an adequate surrogate tissue, (2) whether the buccal MN assay might be more suitable for NM exposures via inhalation or ingestion, as buccal cells might be exposed more directly. While the current state-of-the-art does not allow for drawing firm conclusions, major research gaps are identified and some cautious recommendations can be formulated. Therefore in vitro and in vivo studies should be conducted comparing methodologies side-by-side in the same subjects and for different types of NMs. The ex vivo/in vitro MN assay in its automated version, allowing objective analysis of large cohorts and detection of direct and indirect genotoxic effects, remains a valuable candidate for human biomonitoring to NM exposure. Considering the potential cancer risk from exposure to NMs and previous dramatic experiences with too late surveillance of occupational exposures to similar substances (e.g. to asbestos), there is an urgent need to define and implement adequate scientifically sound biomonitoring methods and programme for exposure to NMs. PMID:27234560

  9. 76 FR 25277 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... FR 64412), MSHA published a proposed rule, Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust... the proposed rule. The proposal was published on October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64412). DATES: All comments...' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety...

  10. RESULTS FROM EXPOSURE MONITORING PERFORMED DURING THE 1997 BALTIMORE PM PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An eighteen day winter-time ambient and personal exposure monitoring study of particulate matter (PM) was conducted as part of an.integrated epidemiological-exposure pilot study of an aged population. Goals of the study were to determine the feasibility of performing active per...