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1

Scientific drilling and the evolution of the earth system: climate, biota, biogeochemistry and extreme systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A US National Science Foundation-funded workshop occurred 17-19 May 2013 at the University of Oklahoma to stimulate research using continental scientific drilling to explore earth's sedimentary, paleobiological and biogeochemical record. Participants submitted 3-page "pre-proposals" to highlight projects that envisioned using drill-core studies to address scientific issues in paleobiology, paleoclimatology, stratigraphy and biogeochemistry, and to identify locations where key questions can best be addressed. The workshop was also intended to encourage US scientists to take advantage of the exceptional capacity of unweathered, continuous core records to answer important questions in the history of earth's sedimentary, biogeochemical and paleobiologic systems. Introductory talks on drilling and coring methods, plus best practices in core handling and curation, opened the workshop to enable all to understand the opportunities and challenges presented by scientific drilling. Participants worked in thematic breakout sessions to consider questions to be addressed using drill cores related to glacial-interglacial and icehouse-greenhouse transitions, records of evolutionary events and extinctions, records of major biogeochemical events in the oceans, reorganization of earth's atmosphere, Lagerstätte and exceptional fossil biota, records of vegetation-landscape change, and special sampling requirements, contamination, and coring tool concerns for paleobiology, geochemistry, geochronology, and stratigraphy-sedimentology studies. Closing discussions at the workshop focused on the role drilling can play in studying overarching science questions about the evolution of the earth system. The key theme, holding the most impact in terms of societal relevance, is understanding how climate transitions have driven biotic change, and the role of pristine, stratigraphically continuous cores in advancing our understanding of this linkage. Scientific drilling, and particularly drilling applied to continental targets, provides unique opportunities to obtain continuous and unaltered material for increasingly sophisticated analyses, tapping the entire geologic record (extending through the Archean), and probing the full dynamic range of climate change and its impact on biotic history.

Soreghan, G. S.; Cohen, A. S.

2013-11-01

2

Anthropogenic effects on the biota: towards a new system of principles and criteria for analysis of ecological hazards.  

PubMed

The currently accepted system of criteria for evaluating environmental and ecological hazards of man-made chemicals (pollutants) is vulnerable to criticism. In this paper, a new concept of the system of approaches towards criteria for evaluating the ecological hazard from man-made impact is proposed. It is suggested to assess the man-made impacts (including effects of pollutants and xenobiotics) on the biota according to the following four levels of disturbance in biological and ecological systems: (1) the level of individual responses; (2) the level of aggregated responses of groups of organisms; (3) the level of stability and integrity of the ecosystem; (4) the level of contributions of the ecosystem to biospheric processes. On the basis of the author's experimental studies, an example is given of how to apply the proposed approach and the system of criteria to the analysis of concrete experimental data. To exemplify the efficiency of the proposed approach, it is shown how to use it to analyze new data on effects of a synthetic surfactant on water filtering by bivalves. It is concluded that the proposed approach will be helpful in better assessing environmental and ecological hazards from anthropogenic effects on biota, including effects of man-made chemicals polluting ecosystems. PMID:12852181

Ostroumov, Sergei A

2003-01-01

3

Bacterial community under the hydrothermal system on the Suiyo Seamount: A model for archean and exo-biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial community in hydrothermal area at seafloor has been analyzed by culture-independent methods. Hydrothermal fluid from natural vents and vent chimneys have been analyzed by PCR (1-2). Hyperthermophilic microbes have been isolated from these environments (3-4). Though the analysis of these samples can provide the window to penetrate the microbial community under the seafloor, more direct analysis is desired for better understanding of the sub-seafloor microbial community In the ``Archaean Park Project'' supported by Special Coordination Fund, several holes were drilled and the holes were supported by casing pipes in the crater of the Suiyo seamount on the Izu-Bonin arc, West Pacific Ocean (about 1,400 m depth) in 2001 and 2002. Hydrothermal fluids were sampled from cased holes. The fluids were filtered to collect the microbial cells. The DNA was extracted and used to amplify 16S rDNA fragments by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using a bacteria and an archaea specific primer sets. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. FISH analysis revealed from 6 x103 to 2.5 x 106 bactrerial cells/ml in these hydrothermal fluids. PCR clone-analysis showed significant variation in bacterial sequences found in these samples. The species-patterns suggest that the contamination of ambient seawater to hydrothermal fluid samples is negligible. Difference in the dominant species depending on the location was found, suggesting that the bacterial community at sub-sea floor is not monotonous but has gradual shift from the hydrothermal center to peripheral area. The results suggest that there is chemo-autotrophic microbe-dependent biota under the hydrothermal system. References 1) Takai et al. Genetics 152: 1285-1297 (1999) 2) Takai et al. Appl. Environ. Microbioi. 67: 3618-3629 (2001) 3) Summit et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98: 2158-2163 (2001) 4) Amend, J. P. and Shodk, E. L. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25: 175-243 (2002)

Yamagishi, A.

4

Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota  

SciTech Connect

The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

Hohreiter, D.W.

1980-05-01

5

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Contamination in South Carolina Salt Marsh-Tidal Creek Systems: Relationships Among Sediments, Biota, and Watershed Land Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments and biota from 11 tidal creeks were sampled and classified into forested, suburban, and urban\\/industrial watershed\\u000a land-use categories. Total PAH levels (?PAH16) in sediments were significantly higher in urban\\/industrialized creeks (5,795 ± 1,173 ng\\/g) compared to suburban (793 ± 131 ng\\/g)\\u000a and forested (238 ± 34 ng\\/g) creeks. No differences in ?PAH16 levels among land-use classifications were found for either oligochaetes (Monopylephorus rubroniveus) or grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio).

Thomas R. Garner; John E. Weinstein; Denise M. Sanger

2009-01-01

6

IMPACTS OF SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENTS ON BIOTA IN SURFACE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

A review of research on the impacts of sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus on aquatic biota was performed to determine the influences of sediment and nutrients on biota, to suggest directions for future research, and to provide suggestions for management of freshwater systems acro...

7

Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad

Marter

2001-01-01

8

Radionuclide data bases available for bioaccumulation factors for freshwater biota  

SciTech Connect

Aquatic models currently in use for dose assessment simulate the transfer of radionuclides in aquatic environments and the transfer to man. In these models the assimilation of a radionuclide in aquatic biota is calculated by using a simple empirical relationship known as the bioaccumulation factor (BF) to represent the transfer of the radionuclide from water to organism. The purpose of this article is to review data bases that are available for BFs for freshwater biota and to identify the uncertainties associated with them. Data bases for raidoisotopes of Co, Cs, C, H, I, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sr, and U are reviewed. With the exception of ruthenium and carbon, the review is restricted to BFs determined for natural freshwater systems. Factors influencing the variability of BFs are identified, uncertainties associated with the validation of BFs are discussed, and some guidance is given for collecting data and measuring BFs.

Blaylock, B.G.

1982-07-01

9

Extrapolation of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors  

EPA Science Inventory

When assessing risks at sites with contaminated sediments, risk assessors need to estimate residues in fish and other aquatic biota based upon the levels of contaminants in the sediments. Unfortunately, risk assessors are often challenged by data limitations, i.e., i) contaminan...

10

Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

Suseno, Heny

2014-03-01

11

Redistribution of soil biota by rainfall erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is central to the provision of multiple ecosystem services that sustain life through a myriad of chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is erosion, a natural process accelerated by human activities. Elevated erosion rates are common in agro-ecosystems causing both direct physical impacts (e.g. soil loss), and indirect biogeochemical consequences, which ultimately leads to impaired ecosystem functioning. The consequences of erosion on soil biota have hitherto been ignored, yet biota have fundamental roles in the provision of soil ecosystem services. To our knowledge few studies have addressed the gap between erosion and impacts on soil biota. Here we use soil nematodes as a model organism for assessing erosion impacts on soil (micro) fauna in temperate agro-ecosystems. Soil nematodes are ubiquitous, abundant, are represented at all levels in soil food webs and can be categorised into a range of trophic or functional groups. To quantify transport of nematodes and gain a better understanding of erosive mechanisms responsible, we measured their export from small erosion plots (0.0625m2) under a fixed-intensity design rainstorm (6mm min-1 duration: 3 min) over six slope angles (4° - 24°) and three soil texture classes (sandy silt, silty sand, silt). Runoff and eroded sediment were collected for each plot (four replicate runs), and a suite of biological and physico-chemical parameters measured. Results confirmed that, similar to soil particles, nematodes were exported at rates influenced by slope angle and soil texture. These experiments, linked with field and catchment-scale equivalents, are designed to elucidate the links between soil erosion and provision of ecosystem services and to inform biodiversity-sensitive soil and water conservation practices.

Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John; McKenzie, Blair; Neilson, Roy

2013-04-01

12

Metal contamination in sediments and biota of the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bay of Quinte receives drainage from several large river systems, including the Moira River which carried sediment from mines into the Bay from the 1880s to the 1960s. We are investigating possible metal contamination of submerged weed beds and marsh biota which may contribute to the low diversity and biomass of macrophyte beds and Typha marshes in the Bay.

Adele Crowder; William T. Dushenko; Jean Greig; John S. Poland

1989-01-01

13

Exceptionally preserved Late Ordovician biotas from Manitoba, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are few body fossil biotas known from early Paleozoic accretionary shorelines, and very few examples of Ordovician soft-bodied assemblages. This study documents two recently discovered biotas from separate sedimentary basins in Manitoba, Canada, that provide unique information about tropical shoreline communities shortly before the Late Ordovician extinction event. Each site represents a distinct depositional environment, but they share biotic elements, including eurypterids, xiphosurids, and large problematic tubes. The William Lake biota, representing more restricted conditions, includes jellyfish that are among the best hydromedusan body fossils known. Rocks at the Airport Cove site, deposited under more open circulation, contain scolecodonts and noncalcified algae. These biotas have some parallels with the recently described Middle Ordovician Winneshiek Lagerstätte, but are also similar to some Late Silurian assemblages. Considered together, early Paleozoic marginal marine deposits are a rich but as yet poorly known source of paleobiodiversity data.

Young, Graham A.; Rudkin, David M.; Dobrzanski, Edward P.; Robson, Sean P.; Nowlan, Godfrey S.

2007-10-01

14

ESTIMATION OF BIOTA SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR (BSAF) FROM PAIRED OBSERVATIONS OF CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOTA AND SEDIMENT (FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) is a parameter describing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated organic compounds or metals into tissues of ecological receptors. The report provides information on methodologies to estimate BSAF for nonionic organic chemicals. ...

15

Residues of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals in biota from Apalachicola River, Florida, 1978.  

PubMed

Seventy-seven composite samples composed of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ), channel catfish ( Ictaluras punctatus), threadfin shad ( Dorosoma petenense ), Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea ), burrowing mayfly ( Hexagenia sp.), water snake ( Natrix spp.), and little green heron ( Butorides virescens ) were collected from upper and lower reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida, in 1978 for residue analysis of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), and metals. Compared with data from the National Pesticide Monitoring Program and criteria recommended for the protection of aquatic life, residue concentrations were moderately high in the Apalachicola River. Biota from the upper river generally had higher organic and lower metal residues than those from the lower river. Highest residues in the biota were total DDT, total PCBs, and toxaphene. Although individual mean concentrations were below 2 micrograms/g and total organic contaminant residues never exceeded 5 micrograms/g, residue concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and toxaphene (particularly from the upper river) exceeded recommended permissible levels for the protection of aquatic life. Metal residues were generally below 1 microgram/g. Exceptions were arsenic residues in threadfin shad (1.07 micrograms/g) and Asiatic clams (1.75 micrograms/g), and selenium in eggs of channel catfish (1.39 micrograms/g). The residues observed in the biota, particularly from the upper station, indicated moderate contamination of the Apalachicola River system at the time samples were collected. PMID:6427177

Winger, P V; Sieckman, C; May, T W; Johnson, W W

1984-01-01

16

Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. PMID:21924530

Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

2012-06-01

17

Enhanced activities of organically bound tritium in biota samples.  

PubMed

A pilot study aimed on possible occurrence of elevated activity of non-exchangable organically bound tritium (NE-OBT) in biota was performed. The first results showed a significant surplus of NE-OBT activity in biota of the valley of Mohelno reservoir and Jihlava river. The liquid releases of HTO from the nuclear power plant Dukovany is the source of tritium in this area. This area can be a source of various types of natural samples for future studies of tritium pathways. PMID:24582481

Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L

2014-11-01

18

Comparing Laboratory and Field Measured Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of studies where biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were measured in the field, and the same sediment samples were tested in the laboratory using sediment bioaccumulation testing protocols. The focus of this review was to document the extent...

19

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota  

E-print Network

nitrogen from the air in the soil into a form that the plant host can use. When the leaves and roots die and decompose, nitrogen levels increase in the surrounding soil, improving the growth of other plants. FungiSoil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota USDA, Natural Resources

20

Radiation exposure to marine biota around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.  

PubMed

The dose rates for six marine organisms, pelagic fish, benthic fish, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and polychaete worms, representative in marine ecosystems, have been predicted by the equilibrium model with the measured seawater activity concentrations at three locations around the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plant after the accident on March 11, 2011. Model prediction showed that total dose rates for the biota in the costal sea reached 4.8E4 ?Gy/d for pelagic fish, 3.6E6 ?Gy/d for crustaceans, 3.8E6 ?Gy/d for benthic fish, 5.2E6 ?Gy/d for macroalgae, 6.6E6 ?Gy/d for mollusks, and 8.0E6 ?Gy/d for polychaete worms. The predicted total dose rates remained above the UNSCEAR's (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) benchmark level (1.0E4 ?Gy/d for an individual aquatic organism), for only the initial short period, which seems to be insufficiently long to bring about any detrimental effect on the marine biota at the population level. Furthermore, the total dose rates for benthic fish and crustaceans approximated using the measured activity concentration of the biota and bottom sediment was well below the benchmark level. From these results, it may be concluded that the impact of the ionizing radiation on the marine biota around the Fukushima NPP as a consequence of the accident would be insignificant. PMID:24374805

Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

2014-05-01

21

Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: The unabridged edition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossils of the Ediacara biota offer our earliest insight into diverse macroscopic life on this planet. In particular, given the diversity and range of exquisite soft-bodied preservation, the potential for unraveling aspects of the paleobiology and paleoecology is great. Clearly, however, there can be a taphonomic overprint that dictates how complete the assemblage is. New diversity data (including richness and

Mary L. Droser; James G. Gehling; Sören R. Jensen

2006-01-01

22

Direct Extrapolation of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs)  

EPA Science Inventory

Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for fish and shellfish were extrapolated directly from one location and species to other species, to other locations within a site, to other sites, and their combinations. The median errors in the extrapolations across species at a loc...

23

Scales of mussel bed complexity: structure, associated biota and recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchically scaled surveys were carried out on beds of the brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus) on the South coast of South Africa. The object was to assess spatial and temporal variations in the complexity of mussel beds and to investigate relationships between mussel bed complexity and mussel recruitment. Complexity was divided into three components: physical complexity; demographic complexity; associated biota.

S. M. Lawrie; C. D. McQuaid

2001-01-01

24

The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on  

E-print Network

The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end Resources, Chengdu 610081, China 2 School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia 3 School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS

Benton, Michael

25

Modeling the importance of biota and black carbon as vectors of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Baltic Sea ecosystem.  

PubMed

The POPCYCLING-Baltic model, a nonsteady state spatially resolved mass balance model of chemical transport in the Baltic Sea environment was modified to include black carbon (BC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and food-web bioaccumulation. The importance of these modifications to the transport of PBDE congeners BDE-47, -99, -153, and -209 was assessed by comparing time-series simulated with and without black carbon and biota between 1970 and 2005. Inclusion of black carbon improved the model fit to measurements from air, soil, and biota, and had a major effect on the mass balance. Modeled bulk concentrations of PBDEs in sediments and soils increased by a factor of 3 while concentrations in biota decreased by a factor of 2-5. Black carbon also doubled the recovery time of the system due to the limited availability of PBDEs for degradation. In comparison, the inclusion of biota had only a minor effect on the overall mass balance and recovery times. The modified model is constructed as a flexible matrix and can also be applied to persistent organic pollutants in other ecosystems besides the Baltic Sea. PMID:18678013

Mattila, Tuomas J; Verta, Matti

2008-07-01

26

Estimation of Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) from Paired Observations of Chemical Concentrations in Biota and Sediment (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was written in response to a March 2004 request from EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) for information about estimating Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs). BSAF is a parameter describing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated organic compounds or...

27

Analytical Methods for Measuring Mercury in Water, Sediment and Biota  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) exists in a large number of physical and chemical forms with a wide range of properties. Conversion between these different forms provides the basis for mercury's complex distribution pattern in local and global cycles and for its biological enrichment and effects. Since the 1960’s, the growing awareness of environmental mercury pollution has stimulated the development of more accurate, precise and efficient methods of determining mercury and its compounds in a wide variety of matrices. During recent years new analytical techniques have become available that have contributed significantly to the understanding of mercury chemistry in natural systems. In particular, these include ultra sensitive and specific analytical equipment and contamination-free methodologies. These improvements allow for the determination of total mercury as well as major species of mercury to be made in water, sediments and soils, and biota. Analytical methods are selected depending on the nature of the sample, the concentration levels of mercury, and what species or fraction is to be quantified. The terms “speciation” and “fractionation” in analytical chemistry were addressed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) which published guidelines (Templeton et al., 2000) or recommendations for the definition of speciation analysis. "Speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. The chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure. The speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system. In case that it is not possible to determine the concentration of the different individual chemical species that sum up the total concentration of an element in a given matrix, meaning it is impossible to determine the speciation, it is a useful practice to do fractionation instead. Fractionation is the process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a certain sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties."

Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Gill, Gary A.; Horvat, Milena

2012-06-07

28

Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colonic biota is a complex microbial ecosystem that serves as a host defense. Unlike most microbial ecosystems, its composition has been studied extensively by relatively efficient culture methods. We have compared an established culture-based method with direct amplification and partial sequencing of cloned 16S rRNAgenesfromahumanfecalspecimen.NinecyclesofPCRwerealsocomparedwith35cycles.Coloniesand clonedampliconswereclassifiedbycomparingtheirribosomalDNA(rDNA;DNAcodingforrRNA)sequences with rDNA sequences of known phylogeny. Quantitative culture recovered 58% of the microscopic

KENNETH H. WILSON; R. B. Blitchington

1996-01-01

29

Conversion ratios for the foodstuffs and biota environmental surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The foodstuffs and biota monitoring programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) comprises two of the five Environmental Surveillance Programs mandated by Department of Energy Orders, and LANL has conducted these studies since the early 1970s (ESR 1997). Because foodstuffs and biota commonly contain very small amounts of radionuclides in the edible portions of the tissue, samples are commonly ashed to concentrate the radioisotope(s) in order to adequately detect the element; therefore, results are usually reported in units per gram of ash. To compensate for the differing water contents in various matrices (gram of ash are usually two to four orders of magnitude higher than live weights), units in gram of ash are converted to units of gram of dry material--the standard representation of data. Further, results in units per gram dry weight are converted to units of wet weight in order to estimate radiation doses to the public from the ingestion of these products. This paper reports the mean ash to dry and dry to wet weight moisture conversion ratios for a variety of foodstuffs and biota that have been collected as part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at LANL from 1990 to present.

Fresquez, P.R.; Ferenbaugh, J.K.

1998-09-01

30

Ecological considerations for possible Martian biota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current climatic and geological evidence suggests that, like early Earth, conditions on ancient Mars may also have been favorable for the origin and evolution of life. The primordial atmospheres of the two planets were quite similar, composed primarily of CO2, N2, and water vapor at a total atmospheric pressure of approximately 1 bar. Each of these gases are important for the evolution of biological systems. With the exception of nitrogen, there seems to have been a sufficient supply of the biogenic elements C, H, O, P, and S (CHOPS) on early Mars for life to have evolved. It was postulated that primordial Mars contained only 18 mb of nitrogen in the form of N2 given that only fixed nitrogen is utilized by living systems. Laboratory tests performed at a total pressure of 1 bar and various partial pressures of dinitrogen (pN2 1-780 mb) show that nitrogen fixing organisms grow at pN2's of 18 mb or less, although the biomass and growth rates are decreased. The calcualted in vivo Km's ranged from 46 mb to 130 mb. If organisms adapted on Earth to a pH2 of 780 mb are capable of growing at these low partial pressures, it is conceivable that nitrogen was not the limiting factor in the evolution of life on early Mars.

Klingler, June M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; White, Melisa R.

1989-01-01

31

Mercury Contamination of Biota from Acadia National Park, Maine: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed literature reporting both total and methylmercury from biota from Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Our review\\u000a of existing data indicates that 1) mercury contamination is widespread throughout the Park’s various aquatic ecosystems; 2)\\u000a mercury pollution likely represents a moderate to high risk to biota inhabiting the Park; and 3) biota at all trophic levels\\u000a possess elevated concentrations of

Michael S. Bank; John R. Burgess; David C. Evers; Cynthia S. Loftin

2007-01-01

32

Status and health of biota at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

Field studies have been conducted on the populations and communities of the biota at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) since the late 1950`s. While earlier studies were primarily documentation of mortality events, a diverse program of studies conducted since 1982 has assessed a number of relevant endpoints. Studies of sedentary species (e.g. plants, earthworm, grasshoppers) focused on contaminated areas within RMA to identify potential contaminant effects. Studies on more mobile species (e.g. deer, great horned owls, kestrels) were conducted throughout RMA to evaluate effects on their RMA-wide populations. Both on- and off-post reference sites were used in some of the studies. Ecological endpoints were selected that were focused upon the population-level effects that could have a causal relationship to the RMA contaminants, such as population abundance and reproductive success, biomarkers, and community organization. Current EPA guidance on conducting ecological risk assessment encourages the use of observational field studies. Although many of these studies were conducted prior to the issuance of this guidance, they are consistent with its scope and intent. Investigators on the effects of contamination at RMA during the past decade indicate that while some effects may still be present in biota at RMA, the wildlife communities and populations are viable and appear healthy.

Macrander, A.M.; Mackey, C.V.; Reagen, D.P.; Tate, D.J.

1994-12-31

33

An Effective Solid State Sensor for In-situ Measurement of the Chemical and Thermal Environment Near Vent Biota - Preliminary Results from the Galapagos Expedition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal activity and associated biota 25 years ago in the Galapagos Rift Zone, numerous efforts have been devoted to study the chemistry of the venting fluids and its impact on vent animals. However, owing to limited progress in development of in-situ sensing technology under this extreme condition, our knowledge of this systems has largely been

K. Ding; W. E. Seyfried; Z. Zhang

2002-01-01

34

High-precision 40Ar\\/ 39Ar age for the Jehol Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant fossils of the terrestrial Jehol Biota, including plants, insects, dinosaurs, birds, mammals and freshwater invertebrates, were discovered from the Yixian Formation and the overlying Jiufotang Formation in Inner Mongolia, Hebei Province and Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Because of the exceptional preservation of fossils, the Jehol Biota is one of the most important Mesozoic lagerstätten and is referred to as

Su-chin Chang; Haichun Zhang; Paul R Renne; Yan Fang

2009-01-01

35

Empirical Estimation of Biota Exposure Range for Calculation of Bioaccumulation Parameters  

E-print Network

of a chemical by an organism because of uptake from all environmental sources, is frequently modeled using are the ratio of biota to sediment contam- ination concentration (Eqn. 1). BAF ¼ Ct Cs ð1� Biota of contamination to the species being modeled. For the selected fish species, contamination is assumed

36

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms.  

PubMed

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m(-3). The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K; Fileman, Elaine S; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

2014-01-01

37

Prevailing Negative Soil Biota Effect and No Evidence for Local Adaptation in a Widespread Eurasian Grass  

PubMed Central

Background Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10–80 km) and between (ca. 3300 km) regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their ‘home soil’ was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant - soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified. PMID:21479262

Wagner, Viktoria; Antunes, Pedro M.; Ristow, Michael; Lechner, Ute; Hensen, Isabell

2011-01-01

38

Contaminants in fine sediments and their consequences for biota of the Severn Estuary.  

PubMed

When the first MPB special issue was published 25 years ago it was suggested that high body burdens of metals and selected organic pollutants in the Severn Estuary were the result of anthropogenic loadings from a variety of sources. The objective of this synopsis is to illustrate recent trends for contaminants (metals, PAHs, PCBs) in sediments and benthic biota and to consider the evidence for improved environmental quality over the last quarter of a century. Contaminants in sediments and sediment-dwelling fauna such as Hediste(=Nereis)diversicolor are, generally, evenly distributed over the estuary - which is the consequence of extensive re-suspension and redistribution of fine sediment by strong tidal currents. Such dispersal tends to mask the influences of individual discharges and physical characteristics are considered to be the major drivers affecting biodiversity in the Severn Estuary, often overshadowing contaminant concerns. Following the closure of major industries and the introduction of stricter pollution control, many inputs have ceased or been reduced and there are indications that environmental concentrations are now lower. Bioaccumulation of most contaminants has declined accordingly (with the possible exception of Cr). Intuitively, better environmental quality should be linked to ecological improvements. However, due to the dynamic nature of the system (and a lack of biological-effects data) it is difficult to establish direct relationships between inputs, body burdens and biological/ecological consequence. Uniquely, the long-term integrated monitoring program of AstraZeneca (Avonmouth) indicates that recovery of faunal diversity and abundance has occurred in mid-sections of the estuary in recent years implying that contaminants have indeed been a forcing feature for Severn biota. In this context, we highlight contaminant issues and biogeochemical changes which may need to be addressed in connection with the development of proposals for tidal energy schemes. PMID:20106492

Langston, W J; Pope, N D; Jonas, P J C; Nikitic, C; Field, M D R; Dowell, B; Shillabeer, N; Swarbrick, R H; Brown, A R

2010-01-01

39

The BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories in Africa--a standardized framework for large-scale environmental monitoring.  

PubMed

The international, interdisciplinary biodiversity research project BIOTA AFRICA initiated a standardized biodiversity monitoring network along climatic gradients across the African continent. Due to an identified lack of adequate monitoring designs, BIOTA AFRICA developed and implemented the standardized BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories, that meet the following criteria (a) enable long-term monitoring of biodiversity, potential driving factors, and relevant indicators with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, (b) facilitate comparability of data generated within different ecosystems, (c) allow integration of many disciplines, (d) allow spatial up-scaling, and (e) be applicable within a network approach. A BIOTA Observatory encompasses an area of 1 km(2) and is subdivided into 100 1-ha plots. For meeting the needs of sampling of different organism groups, the hectare plot is again subdivided into standardized subplots, whose sizes follow a geometric series. To allow for different sampling intensities but at the same time to characterize the whole square kilometer, the number of hectare plots to be sampled depends on the requirements of the respective discipline. A hierarchical ranking of the hectare plots ensures that all disciplines monitor as many hectare plots jointly as possible. The BIOTA Observatory design assures repeated, multidisciplinary standardized inventories of biodiversity and its environmental drivers, including options for spatial up- and downscaling and different sampling intensities. BIOTA Observatories have been installed along climatic and landscape gradients in Morocco, West Africa, and southern Africa. In regions with varying land use, several BIOTA Observatories are situated close to each other to analyze management effects. PMID:21448628

Jürgens, Norbert; Schmiedel, Ute; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Dengler, Jürgen; Finckh, Manfred; Goetze, Dethardt; Gröngröft, Alexander; Hahn, Karen; Koulibaly, Annick; Luther-Mosebach, Jona; Muche, Gerhard; Oldeland, Jens; Petersen, Andreas; Porembski, Stefan; Rutherford, Michael C; Schmidt, Marco; Sinsin, Brice; Strohbach, Ben J; Thiombiano, Adjima; Wittig, Rüdiger; Zizka, Georg

2012-01-01

40

Amino Acid Racemization on Mars: Implications for the Preservation of Biomolecules from an Extinct Martian Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using kinetic data, we have estimated the racemization half-lives and times for total racemization of amino acids under conditions relevant to the surface of Mars. Amino acids from an extinct martian biota maintained in a dry, cold (

Jeffrey L. Bada; Gene D. McDonald

1995-01-01

41

Influence of Fatty Alcohols and Acids on the Clarity and Biota of Impounded Reservoirs  

E-print Network

TR-18 1969 Influence of Fatty Alcohols and Acids on the Clarity and Biota of Impounded Reservoirs W.B. Davis T.D. Reynolds Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...TR-18 1969 Influence of Fatty Alcohols and Acids on the Clarity and Biota of Impounded Reservoirs W.B. Davis T.D. Reynolds Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University ...

Davis, W. B.; Reynolds, T. D.

42

Effects of soil biota from different ranges on Robinia invasion: acquiring mutualists and escaping pathogens.  

PubMed

The net effects of soil biota on exotic invaders can be variable, in part, because net effects are produced by many interacting mutualists and antagonists. Here we compared mutualistic and antagonistic biota in soils collected in the native, expanded, and invasive range of the black locust tree, Robinia pseudoacacia. Robinia formed nodules in all soils with a broad phylogenetic range of N-fixing bacteria, and leaf N did not differ among the different sources of soil. This suggests that the global expansion of Robinia was not limited by the lack of appropriate mutualistic N-fixers. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from the native range stimulated stronger positive feedbacks than AMF from the expanded or invasive ranges, a biogeographic difference not described previously for invasive plants. Pythium taxa collected from soil in the native range were not more pathogenic than those from other ranges; however, feedbacks produced by the total soil biota were more negative from soils from the native range than from the other ranges, overriding the effects of AMF. This suggests that escape from other pathogens in the soil or the net negative effects of the whole soil community may contribute to superior performance in invaded regions. Our results suggest that important regional evolutionary relationships may occur among plants and soil biota, and that net effects of soil biota may affect invasion, but in ways that are not easily explained by studying isolated components of the soil biota. PMID:21661564

Callaway, Ragan M; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Reinhart, Kurt O; Silvan, Cinta Gómez; Klironomos, John

2011-05-01

43

Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota.  

PubMed

The integration of phylogenetics, phylogeography and palaeoenvironmental studies is providing major insights into the historical forces that have shaped the Earth's biomes. Yet our present view is biased towards arctic and temperate/tropical forest regions, with very little focus on the extensive arid regions of the planet. The Australian arid zone is one of the largest desert landform systems in the world, with a unique, diverse and relatively well-studied biota. With foci on palaeoenvironmental and molecular data, we here review what is known about the assembly and maintenance of this biome in the context of its physical history, and in comparison with other mesic biomes. Aridification of Australia began in the Mid-Miocene, around 15 million years, but fully arid landforms in central Australia appeared much later, around 1-4 million years. Dated molecular phylogenies of diverse taxa show the deepest divergences of arid-adapted taxa from the Mid-Miocene, consistent with the onset of desiccation. There is evidence of arid-adapted taxa evolving from mesic-adapted ancestors, and also of speciation within the arid zone. There is no evidence for an increase in speciation rate during the Pleistocene, and most arid-zone species lineages date to the Pliocene or earlier. The last 0.8 million years have seen major fluctuations of the arid zone, with large areas covered by mobile sand dunes during glacial maxima. Some large, vagile taxa show patterns of recent expansion and migration throughout the arid zone, in parallel with the ice sheet-imposed range shifts in Northern Hemisphere taxa. Yet other taxa show high lineage diversity and strong phylogeographical structure, indicating persistence in multiple localised refugia over several glacial maxima. Similar to the Northern Hemisphere, Pleistocene range shifts have produced suture zones, creating the opportunity for diversification and speciation through hybridisation, polyploidy and parthenogenesis. This review highlights the opportunities that development of arid conditions provides for rapid and diverse evolutionary radiations, and re-enforces the emerging view that Pleistocene environmental change can have diverse impacts on genetic structure and diversity in different biomes. There is a clear need for more detailed and targeted phylogeographical studies of Australia's arid biota and we suggest a framework and a set of a priori hypotheses by which to proceed. PMID:18761619

Byrne, M; Yeates, D K; Joseph, L; Kearney, M; Bowler, J; Williams, M A J; Cooper, S; Donnellan, S C; Keogh, J S; Leys, R; Melville, J; Murphy, D J; Porch, N; Wyrwoll, K-H

2008-10-01

44

Improvements and application of a modified gas chromatography atomic fluorescence spectroscopy method for routine determination of methylmercury in biota samples.  

PubMed

Improvements to the application of a combined solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to pyrolysis and atomic fluorescence spectrometry method (SPME-GC-AFS) for methylmercury (MeHg) determination in biota samples are presented. Our new method includes improvements in the methodology of determination and the quantification technique. A shaker instead of a stirrer was used, in order to reduce the possibility of sample contamination and to simplify cleaning procedures. Then, optimal rotation frequency and shaking time were settled at 800 rpm and 10 min, respectively. Moreover, the GC-AFS system was equipped with a valve and an argon heater to eliminate the effect of the decrease in analytical signal caused by the moisture released from SPME fiber. For its determination, MeHg was first extracted from biota samples with a 25% KOH solution (3h) and then it was quantified by two methods, a conventional double standard addition method (AC) and a modified matrix-matched calibration (MQ) which is two times faster than the AC method. Both procedures were successfully tested with certified reference materials, and applied for the first time to the determination of MeHg in muscle samples of goosander (Mergus merganser) and liver samples of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) with values ranging from 1.19 to 3.84 mg/kg dry weight (dw), and from 0.69 to 6.23 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively. PMID:24054647

Gorecki, Jerzy; Díez, Sergi; Macherzynski, Mariusz; Kalisinska, El?bieta; Golas, Janusz

2013-10-15

45

Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: method validation.  

PubMed

Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified Reference Material. The major contributions to the expanded uncertainty, i.e. 86.1%, arose from the uncertainty associated with recovery, followed by the contribution from fluorescence signal. Additional validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison with the values reported for MeHg in the IAEA-452 inter-laboratory comparison exercise. PMID:24720970

Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

2014-05-01

46

Selenium, selected inorganic elements, and organochlorine pesticides in bottom material and biota from the Colorado River delta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in bottom material ranged from 0·6 to 5·0 lg g~1, and from 0·5 to 18·3 l gg ~1 in biota; 23% of samples exceeded the toxic threshold. Concentrations of DDE in biota exceeded the toxic threshold in 30% of the samples. Greater concentrations of selenium in biota were found at sites with strongly reducing conditions, no

Jaqueline GarcmH; Kirke A. King; Anthony L. Velasco; Evgueni Shumilin; Miguel A. MoraA; Edward P. Glenn

2001-01-01

47

A geochemical investigation of hydrologically derived threats to rare biota: the Drummond Nature Reserve, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Drummond Nature Reserve (DNR), a high-value conservation area 100 km northeast of Perth, Western Australia, contains two rare freshwater claypans and a diverse range of rare and threatened vascular plants. Groundwater/surface-water interactions were investigated via isotopic (?18O and ?D) and major ion analysis. The groundwater chemical and isotope analyses combined with nutrient data allowed for the assessment of potential hydrologically derived threats to the claypans and their associated conservation values. Groundwater composition is typically Na-Cl to Na-Mg-Cl; whereas the claypan's ephemeral fresh surface water is Na-Cl-HCO3. Distinct ?18O and ?D isotopic signatures for the claypan surface waters and adjoining groundwaters indicate that there currently is minimal connection between these two hydrological systems. Hence the current threat to the freshwater claypans and associated biota from rising saline and acidic groundwater is minimal. Elevated nutrient (N) levels identified in groundwaters along the reserve's western boundary may be linked to fertiliser regimes employed in adjoining agricultural lands. The ecosystem associated with the southwest claypan is particularly vulnerable to N and P inputs via surface-water flows, which could cause algal blooms, vegetation degradation and weed infestation.

Forbes, Matthew; Vogwill, Ryan

2012-02-01

48

Arsenic undergoes significant speciation changes upon incubation of contaminated rice with human colon micro biota.  

PubMed

Cellular and animal studies involving MMA(III) (monomethyl arsonous acid) and DMA(III) (dimethyl arsinous acid) have indicated that their toxicities meet or exceed that of iAs. Thiolated arsenic metabolites were observed in urine after oral exposure of inorganic arsenic in some studies. For these species, the toxicological profile was not yet fully characterized in human cells. Some studies revealed that trivalent organoarsenic species are well absorbed in the intestine compared to iAs. However, other studies also indicated that a significant amount of rice-bound As reaches the colon, which may be attributed to the fibre-rich nature of the rice. Studies have revealed that microorganisms from the gut environment are important contributors to arsenic speciation changes. We aimed to study how the gut microbial metabolism affects As in different rice matrices. This was done in vitro using colon suspension from the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME system). Significant amounts of MMA(III), DMA(III) and MMMTA(V) were formed due to microbial metabolic processes like methylation and thiolation. These results suggested that presystemic metabolism by human gut micro biota should not be neglected in risk assessment studies. In this context, also toxicity and absorption of thiolated species by mammalian cells should be further investigated. PMID:22652323

Alava, Pradeep; Tack, Filip; Laing, Gijs Du; Van de Wiele, Tom

2013-11-15

49

The Challenge of Understanding Nutrient-Biota Interactions in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a study of nutrient-biota interactions in five agricultural areas across the United States. The large-scale study component focused on nutrients, benthic assemblages, stream metabolism, and habitat. Median total nitrogen ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 mg/L and total phosphorus ranged from 0.04 to 0.46 mg/L, with highest concentrations associated with open-channel streams with minimal riparian habitat. Chlorophyll a concentrations on hard substrates (rock or wood) were not correlated with nitrogen or phosphorus, whereas chlorophyll a concentrations on fine-grained substrates and in seston were correlated with phosphorus. These relationships are influenced further by habitat variables such as suspended sediment and canopy. Preliminary analysis indicates that benthic algal assemblages, based on taxa biovolumes, were influenced by habitat and nutrients in some streams, but by only habitat in others. Nutrient mass-balance calculations along a subset of stream reaches provide information on the dominant pathways and processes affecting nutrient transport. However, agriculturally-impacted streams often have variable nutrient fluxes and concentrations, making mass balance calculations in these systems more difficult. Streams in agriculturally dominated landscapes provide unique opportunities and challenges that must be adequately addressed to more accurately establish nutrient criteria.

Munn, M. D.

2005-05-01

50

[Fungal biota in manned space environment and impact on human health].  

PubMed

It is important to promote microbiological research essential for long-term manned space activities under microgravity and in a completely closed environment in space craft in relation to long-duration space expeditions on the International Space Station (ISS) or to the moon and Mars in the future. Environmental monitoring data from the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have already shown that microorganisms isolated from air and on inner surfaces of space craft were generally carried by crew members. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) "KIBO" was attached to the ISS and started its operation from 2008. It is an invaluable opportunity to begin the survey of the transition of microbiota, particularly fungal biota, in JEM from "brand-new" to "well-used" condition at various periods. Therefore, we are preparing the on-board analyzing systems for microbiota in air and on inner surfaces of ISS/JEM and normal microbiota of the astronauts themselves. In this paper, we introduce the current status and future plans on fungal research on ISS/JEM to protect flight crew members and flight hardware from potentially hazardous microorganisms from the environmental and biomedical aspects of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). PMID:21358138

Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi

2011-01-01

51

Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B., II; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

1988-01-01

52

Empirical estimation of biota exposure range for calculation of bioaccumulation parameters.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are frequently used to predict contaminant bioaccumulation in risk assessments. Development of these parameters is often hindered by uncertainty regarding the spatial scale of contaminant transfer from sediments to biota. We present a simple statistical method for optimizing bioaccumulation parameters (BAF and BSAF) in aquatic species, such as fish, whose exposure history may occur over broad spatial scales. For 6 finfish species sampled in San Francisco Bay, San Diego Bay, or the Southern California Bight, California, USA, the spatial scale of correlation was optimized using regression analysis. The ranges identified for pairing biota and sediment observations generally corresponded to the known life histories of the species and with laboratory tests comparing relationships observed for 28-d Macoma spp. This procedure may be useful for identifying appropriate species and spatial scales to predict bioaccumulation and for developing data sets of corresponding sediment and tissue residues. PMID:19431298

Melwani, Aroon R; Greenfield, Ben K; Byron, Earl R

2009-01-01

53

Biota-sediment accumulation and trophic transfer factors for extremely hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, invertebrates, and sediment from a contaminated tidal creek system in coastal Georgia (USA) were traced to Aroclor 1268, a mixture of hepta through decachlorinated homologs used at a former chlor/alkali plant adjacent to the study site. The base 10 logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) for the 15 most abundant Aroclor 1268 components in these samples ranged from 6.7 to >9. The composite mean biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for these congeners was 3.1, 0.81, and 0.28 for yearling striped mullet, spotted sea trout, and grass shrimp, respectively, species representing three trophic levels of the local food web. Individual congener BSAFs were negatively correlated with log K{sub ow} for all three species. The composite mean trophic transfer factor (TTF{sub lip}), defined as the ratio of lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in fish to grass shrimp, was higher for mullet (12) than for sea trout (2.9). Individual TTF{sub lip} values were two to three times higher for Cl{sub 7} and Cl{sub 8} homologs that were substituted at all four ortho positions, suggesting a difference in PCB retention based on chlorine substitution patterns. The relative magnitude of BSAFs and TTF{sub lip} values indicated that sediment-ingesting forage species like mullet efficiently accumulate PCBs and are an important link in the food web transfer of sediment-ingesting forage in this system. The negative linear relationships between BSAF and log K{sub ow} established in this study are among the first to be reported in the field for extremely hydrophobic PCBs.

Maruya, K.A.; Lee, R.F. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)

1998-12-01

54

ENANTIOMERIC OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL ORGANOCHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. RIVER SEDIMENT AND BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

River sediment and biota (fish, bivalves) from throughout the continental U.S. were analyzed for chiral organochlorine compounds (o,p'-DDT and DDD, some chlordane compounds, PCB atropisomers) to assess spatial trends in environmental chirality. Chiral PCB enantiomers were racemic...

55

Degradation of Laurentian Great Lakes Biota--Causes and Effects Through 1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollutants from direct and indirect human activities have resulted in alterations of Great Lakes biota, and many of these alterations have had negative economic impacts. Lake Erie, with the least volume of water, and with the largest human population on surrounding land, suffered the most dramatic changes, particularly as a consequence of phosphorus and mercury pollution. Accelerated eutrophication altered the

ROBERT A SWEENEY

1982-01-01

56

New fossil Priacmini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Archostemata: Cupedidae) from the Jehol Biota of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new species and one new genus of fossil cupedids assigned to the family Cupedidae, Priacmopsis subtilis sp. nov. and Furcicupes raucus gen. et sp. nov., are described and illustrated from the Jehol Biota of western Liaoning, China. Priacmopsis subtilis sp. nov. is not only the first Chinese example but also probably the earliest known species of this genus. Compared

Jingjing Tan; Dong Ren

2006-01-01

57

New fossil Vitimotauliidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Jehol Biota of Liaoning Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus Sinomodus gen. nov. with three new species of Vitimotauliidae are described and illustrated from Jehol Biota, the Yixian Formation in western Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Based on these well-preserved specimens, diagnosis of this family is revised, key to genera of Vitimotauliidae and key to species of Sinomodus gen. nov. are given. The age of Sinomodus gen. nov.

Meixia Wang; Junhui Liang; Dong Ren; ChungKun Shih

2009-01-01

58

EVALUATION OF THE USE OF LANDSCAPE CLASSIFICATIONS FOR THE PREDICTION OF FRESHWATER BIOTA: SYNTHESIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper summarizes and synthesizes the collective results that emerged from the series of papers published in this issue of J-NABS, and places these results in the context of previously published literature describing variation in aquatic biota at landscape spatial scales. Cla...

59

A meta-analysis of responses of soil biota to global change.  

PubMed

Global environmental changes are expected to impact the abundance of plants and animals aboveground, but comparably little is known about the responses of belowground organisms. Using meta-analysis, we synthesized results from over 75 manipulative experiments in order to test for patterns in the effects of elevated CO(2), warming, and altered precipitation on the abundance of soil biota related to taxonomy, body size, feeding habits, ecosystem type, local climate, treatment magnitude and duration, and greenhouse CO(2) enrichment. We found that the positive effect size of elevated CO(2) on the abundance of soil biota diminished with time, whereas the negative effect size of warming and positive effect size of precipitation intensified with time. Trophic group, body size, and experimental approaches best explained the responses of soil biota to elevated CO(2), whereas local climate and ecosystem type best explained responses to warming and altered precipitation. The abundance of microflora and microfauna, and particularly detritivores, increased with elevated CO(2), indicative of microbial C limitation under ambient CO(2). However, the effects of CO(2) were smaller in field studies than in greenhouse studies and were not significant for higher trophic levels. Effects of warming did not depend on taxon or body size, but reduced abundances were more likely to occur at the colder and drier sites. Precipitation limited all taxa and trophic groups, particularly in forest ecosystems. Our meta-analysis suggests that the responses of soil biota to global change are predictable and unique for each global change factor. PMID:21274573

Blankinship, Joseph C; Niklaus, Pascal A; Hungate, Bruce A

2011-03-01

60

Variations of heavy metals in water, sediments, and biota from the delta of ebro river, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were measured in water, sediments, and biota [algae (Ulva lactuca) and molluscs (Cerastoderma edule and Tellinella pulchella)] of the two bays from the Delta of Ebro river (in southeastern Catalonia, Spain), to determine if concentrations were elevated due to pollution by a variety of agricultural and industrial activities. The effect of temperature (seasonal variation)

M. Schuhmacher; J. L. Domingo; J. M. Llobet; J. Corbella

1995-01-01

61

The impact of agricultural practices on soil biota: a regional study1 Jean-Franois Pongea,  

E-print Network

;soil quality index; earthworms; macrofauna; microarthropods;20 Corresponding author. Tel.: +33 (0) 678930133, France hal-00869859,version1-4Oct2013 Author manuscript, published in "Soil Biology and Biochemistry 67 covering a regular grid of 109 sites spread over the whole area of French Brittany. Soil biota6 (earthworms

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Global analysis of response and recovery of benthic biota to fishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Towed bottom-fishing gears are thought to constitute one of the largest global anthropogenic sources of disturbance to the seabed and its biota. The current drive towards an ecosystem approach in fish- eries management requires a consideration of the im- plications of habitat deterioration and an understand- ing of the potential for restoration. We undertook a meta-analysis of 101 different fishing

M. J. Kaiser; K. R. Clarke; H. Hinz; M. C. V. Austen; P. J. Somerfield; I. Karakassis

2006-01-01

63

LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To test the ruggedness of a newly developed analytical method for synthetic musks, a 1-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota was conducted for Lake Mead (near Las Vegas, Nevada) as well as for combined sewage-dedicated effluent streams feeding Lake ...

64

SOME BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN LAKE TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene were calculated using the tissue data of Zabik et al. for Salvelinus namaycush siscovet with 20.5% lipid content, th...

65

A polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) in the water, sediment, and biota of escambia bay, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have detected a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254, in the biota, sediment, and water of estuarine areas near Pensacola, Florida~ 0nly one source of the chemical, an industrial plant on the Escambia River, has been located~ However, the chemical occurs in tissues of pelagic and sessile organisms that are widely distributed within the estuary. This distribution of Aroclor 1254

T. W. Duke; J. I. Lowe; A. J. Wilson

1970-01-01

66

Effects of land use on water quality and aquatic biota of three North Carolina Piedmont streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three streams in the Piedmont ecoregion of North Carolina were studied to evaluate the effect of land use (forested, agricultural, urban) on water quality and aquatic biota. In comparison with the forested stream, there were few changes in water quality at the agricultural and urban streams. Suspended-sediment yield was greatest for the urban catchment and least at the forested catchment.

David R. Lenat; J. Kent Crawford

1994-01-01

67

Effects of Pollution on Biota of the Pigeon River, North Carolina and Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wastes from the Champion Paper Company and the city of Canton, North Carolina, polluted the Pigeon River and adversely affected the biota of the river in the states of North Carolina and Tennessee. This pollution: Reduced the growth of both the desirable ...

L. E. Keup, R. K. Stewart

1966-01-01

68

Local Adaptation of Aboveground Herbivores towards Plant Phenotypes Induced by Soil Biota  

PubMed Central

Background Soil biota may trigger strong physiological responses in plants and consequently induce distinct phenotypes. Plant phenotype, in turn, has a strong impact on herbivore performance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that aboveground herbivores are able to adapt to plant phenotypes induced by soil biota. Methodology and Principal Findings We bred spider mites for 15 generations on snap beans with three different belowground biotic interactions: (i) no biota (to serve as control), (ii) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (ii) root-feeding nematodes. Subsequently, we conducted a reciprocal selection experiment using these spider mites, which had been kept on the differently treated plants. Belowground treatments induced changes in plant biomass, nutrient composition and water content. No direct chemical defence through cyanogenesis was detected in any of the plant groups. Growth rates of spider mites were higher on the ecotypes on which they were bred for 15 generations, although the statistical significance disappeared for mites from the nematode treatment when corrected for all multiple comparisons. Conclusion/Significance These results demonstrate that belowground biota may indeed impose selection on the aboveground insect herbivores mediated by the host plant. The observed adaptation was driven by variable quantitative changes of the different separately studied life history traits (i.e. fecundity, longevity, sex-ratio, time to maturity). PMID:20567507

Bonte, Dries; De Roissart, Annelies; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L.; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; de la Peña, Eduardo

2010-01-01

69

Assessment of doses and risk due to natural radionuclides in edible biota of Domiasiat, Meghalaya.  

PubMed

A radiation dose assessment exercise was carried out for the edible biota Solanum nigrum, Carica papaya, Raphnus sativum and Phaseolus domesticus due to naturally available radionuclides (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th in the Domiasiat area in Meghalaya, India. The concentration of radionuclides in biota and corresponding soil was measured by the NaI(Tl) detector having a minimum detection limit (efficiency, 32.4%) and machine counting time of 3000 s. The obtained transfer factor for (40)K was 0.3061, 0.7163, 0.1988 and 0.1279, for (232)Th 0.0003, 2.22E-05, 2.71E-05 and 3.45E-05 and for (238)U 1.46E-05, 9.73E-05, 1.46E-05 and 3.11E-05 (ratio) in each biota, respectively. The detailed physiological and morphological study of the biota was carried out. The point source dose distribution (source?target) hypothesis was applied for the radiation absorbed fraction. The generated data were modelled using FASSET and obtained un-weighted total dose was 1.78E-04, 6.84E-03, 8.46E-03 and 1.73E-04 ?Gy h(-1), respectively, finally compared with the IAEA and UNSCEAR data set for screening level dose risk assessment. PMID:22155750

Kumar, N; Chaturvedi, S S; Jha, S K

2012-07-01

70

Interspecific variation in heavy metal body concentrations in biota of Sunderban mangrove wetland, northeast India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal environment of West Bengal, recognized as the most diversified and productive ecosystem among all the maritime states of India, faces organic pollution from domestic sewage and urban and industrial effluents leading serious impacts on biota. The present paper aims at providing information on concentration level of heavy metals among the tissues of benthic polychaetes, bivalve molluscs and finfishes

M. Saha; S. K. Sarkar; B. Bhattacharya

2006-01-01

71

Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota.  

PubMed

Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing differently in different regions. This article reviews current and expected changes in ASO physical habitats in response to climate change. It then reviews how these changes may impact the autecology of marine biota of this polar region: microbes, zooplankton, salps, Antarctic krill, fish, cephalopods, marine mammals, seabirds, and benthos. The general prognosis for ASO marine habitats is for an overall warming and freshening, strengthening of westerly winds, with a potential pole-ward movement of those winds and the frontal systems, and an increase in ocean eddy activity. Many habitat parameters will have regionally specific changes, particularly relating to sea ice characteristics and seasonal dynamics. Lower trophic levels are expected to move south as the ocean conditions in which they are currently found move pole-ward. For Antarctic krill and finfish, the latitudinal breadth of their range will depend on their tolerance of warming oceans and changes to productivity. Ocean acidification is a concern not only for calcifying organisms but also for crustaceans such as Antarctic krill; it is also likely to be the most important change in benthic habitats over the coming century. For marine mammals and birds, the expected changes primarily relate to their flexibility in moving to alternative locations for food and the energetic cost of longer or more complex foraging trips for those that are bound to breeding colonies. Few species are sufficiently well studied to make comprehensive species-specific vulnerability assessments possible. Priorities for future work are discussed. PMID:24802817

Constable, Andrew J; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Corney, Stuart P; Arrigo, Kevin R; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnes, David K A; Bindoff, Nathaniel L; Boyd, Philip W; Brandt, Angelika; Costa, Daniel P; Davidson, Andrew T; Ducklow, Hugh W; Emmerson, Louise; Fukuchi, Mitsuo; Gutt, Julian; Hindell, Mark A; Hofmann, Eileen E; Hosie, Graham W; Iida, Takahiro; Jacob, Sarah; Johnston, Nadine M; Kawaguchi, So; Kokubun, Nobuo; Koubbi, Philippe; Lea, Mary-Anne; Makhado, Azwianewi; Massom, Rob A; Meiners, Klaus; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Nicol, Stephen; Reid, Keith; Richerson, Kate; Riddle, Martin J; Rintoul, Stephen R; Smith, Walker O; Southwell, Colin; Stark, Jonathon S; Sumner, Michael; Swadling, Kerrie M; Takahashi, Kunio T; Trathan, Phil N; Welsford, Dirk C; Weimerskirch, Henri; Westwood, Karen J; Wienecke, Barbara C; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Wright, Simon W; Xavier, Jose C; Ziegler, Philippe

2014-10-01

72

Acidification in the Adirondacks: defining the biota in trophic levels of 30 chemically diverse acid-impacted lakes.  

PubMed

The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on species diversity, from bacteria through fish, essential for understanding the full impact of acidification on biota. Baseline midsummer chemistry and community composition are presented for a group of chemically diverse Adirondack lakes. Species richness of all trophic levels except bacteria is significantly correlated with lake acid-base chemistry. The loss of taxa observed per unit pH was similar: bacterial genera (2.50), bacterial classes (1.43), phytoplankton (3.97), rotifers (3.56), crustaceans (1.75), macrophytes (3.96), and fish (3.72). Specific pH criteria were applied to the communities to define and identify acid-tolerant (pH<5.0), acid-resistant (pH 5.0-5.6), and acid-sensitive (pH>5.6) species which could serve as indicators. Acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive categories are at end-points along the pH scale, significantly different at P<0.05; the acid-resistant category is the range of pH between these end-points, where community changes continually occur as the ecosystem moves in one direction or another. The biota acid tolerance classification (batc) system described herein provides a clear distinction between the taxonomic groups identified in these subcategories and can be used to evaluate the impact of acid deposition on different trophic levels of biological communities. PMID:20614900

Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Boylen, Charles W; Eichler, Lawrence W; Harrison, James P; Sutherland, James W; Shaw, William; Daniels, Robert A; Charles, Donald F; Acker, Frank W; Sullivan, Timothy J; Momen, Bahram; Bukaveckas, Paul

2010-08-01

73

Methodology for Estimating Radiation Dose Rates to Freshwater Biota Exposed to Radionuclides in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} (1 rad d{sup -1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). The literature identifies the developing eggs and young of some species of teleost fish as the most radiosensitive organisms. DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0.1 mGy h{sup -1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted. Dose rates have been calculated for biota in aquatic ecosystems associated with three national laboratories and one uranium mining and milling facility (NCRP 1991). At all sites, the dose rates were two orders of magnitude less than the value recommended by DOE for the protection of populations of aquatic biota. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that aquatic organisms will encounter dose rates in aquatic ecosystems that will be detrimental at the population level other than in man-made bodies of water associated with waste management activities or from accidental releases of radionuclides.

Blaylock, B.G.

1993-01-01

74

New evidence suggests pyroclastic flows are responsible for the remarkable preservation of the Jehol biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower Cretaceous Yixian and Jiufotang formations contain numerous exceptionally well-preserved invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils that comprise the Jehol Biota. Freshwater and terrestrial fossils of the biota usually occur together within some horizons and have been interpreted as deposits of mass mortality events. The nature of the events and the mechanisms behind the exceptional preservation of the fossils, however, are poorly understood. Here, after examining and analysing sediments and residual fossils from several key horizons, we postulate that the causal events were mainly phreatomagmatic eruptions. Pyroclastic density currents were probably responsible for the major causalities and for transporting the bulk of the terrestrial vertebrates from different habitats, such as lizards, birds, non-avian dinosaurs and mammals, into lacustrine environments for burial. Terrestrial vertebrate carcasses transported by and sealed within the pyroclastic flows were clearly preserved as exceptional fossils through this process.

Jiang, Baoyu; Harlow, George E.; Wohletz, Kenneth; Zhou, Zhonghe; Meng, Jin

2014-02-01

75

Dechlorane Plus and related compounds in aquatic and terrestrial biota: a review.  

PubMed

Dechlorane Plus, dechlorane 602, dechlorane 603 and dechlorane 604 are flame retardants that have been used for a long time as a substitute for mirex, but they have not been noticed as environmental contaminants until recently (2006). Regardless of their large molecular size and very high lipophilicity (log K(OW)?> 9), Dechlorane Plus and related compounds have been detected in different aquatic and terrestrial species, supporting their bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Moreover, some studies showed different behaviour of the syn-Dechlorane Plus and anti-Dechlorane Plus isomers in the environment and different biomagnification factors in biota. This review describes the different analytical approaches applied to the determination of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds. Moreover, a summary of their levels in aquatic and terrestrial biota, as well as in humans, is presented, showing also current research results on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification potential. Finally, isomer-specific bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus is also discussed. PMID:22695503

Feo, M L; Barón, E; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D

2012-11-01

76

New evidence suggests pyroclastic flows are responsible for the remarkable preservation of the Jehol biota.  

PubMed

The lower Cretaceous Yixian and Jiufotang formations contain numerous exceptionally well-preserved invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils that comprise the Jehol Biota. Freshwater and terrestrial fossils of the biota usually occur together within some horizons and have been interpreted as deposits of mass mortality events. The nature of the events and the mechanisms behind the exceptional preservation of the fossils, however, are poorly understood. Here, after examining and analysing sediments and residual fossils from several key horizons, we postulate that the causal events were mainly phreatomagmatic eruptions. Pyroclastic density currents were probably responsible for the major causalities and for transporting the bulk of the terrestrial vertebrates from different habitats, such as lizards, birds, non-avian dinosaurs and mammals, into lacustrine environments for burial. Terrestrial vertebrate carcasses transported by and sealed within the pyroclastic flows were clearly preserved as exceptional fossils through this process. PMID:24495913

Jiang, Baoyu; Harlow, George E; Wohletz, Kenneth; Zhou, Zhonghe; Meng, Jin

2014-01-01

77

Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

1990-01-01

78

THE NEOGENE MARINE BIOTA OF TROPICAL AMERICA (“NMITA”) DATABASE: ACCOUNTING FOR BIODIVERSITY IN PALEONTOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—The reliability of any survey of biodiversity through geologic time depends on the rigor and consistency by which taxa are recognized and samples are identified. The main goal of the Neogene Marine Biota of Tropical America (‘NMITA’) project is to create an online biotic database (http:\\/\\/nmita.geology.uiowa.edu) containing images and synoptic taxonomic information that are essential to collecting and disseminating high-quality

ANN F. BUDD; CHARLES T. FOSTER Jr.; JOHN P. DAWSON; KENNETH G. JOHNSON

2001-01-01

79

Effects of livestock grazing intensity on soil biota in a semiarid steppe of Inner Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive livestock is known to significantly affect soil physical and chemical parameters in steppe ecosystems. However,\\u000a the effects on soil biological parameters still remain unknown. We hypothesized that intensive grazing would significantly\\u000a decrease the size and diversity of soil biota due to deterioration of the soil environment and reduction in vegetation cover,\\u000a while the adapted grazing intensity would improve the

Sha Qi; Haixia Zheng; Qimei Lin; Guitong Li; Zhenhua Xi; Xiaorong Zhao

2011-01-01

80

Effect of soil biota on growth and allocation by Eucalyptus microcarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined growth of Eucalyptus microcarpa seedlings in soil collected from four sites in southeastern Australia, in which retired pasture land has been revegetated\\u000a with mixed plantings of Eucalyptus and Acacia species. Revegetation of farm land in southeastern Australia is an area of major investment. The focus of the study was to\\u000a examine the influence of soil biota on seedling

Mark Bourne; Adrienne B. Nicotra; Matthew J. Colloff; Saul A. Cunningham

2008-01-01

81

Distribution of Trace Elements in Sediments and Biota of Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Fe, Mn, and Al were determined in sediments and biota of Songkhla Lake,\\u000a a shallow coastal lagoon located in southern Thailand. In June 2006, surface sediments were sampled in 44 stations in the\\u000a three sections of the lake (inner-, middle-, and outer sections). Sediment cores were also sampled in 13

Siriporn Pradit; Gullaya Wattayakorn; Saowapa Angsupanich; Willy Baeyens; Martine Leermakers

2010-01-01

82

Biota of a Pennsylvanian muddy coast: habitat within the Mazonian delta complex, northeast Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The Mazon Creek biota (Westphalian D) is composed of plants and animals from terrestrial fresh water and marginal marine habitats. Fossil animals, including jellyfish, worms, crustaceans, holothurians, insects, chordates, and problematica occur in sideritic concretions on spoilpiles of more than 100 abandoned coal mines in a five county region (Mazon Creek area) of northeast Illinois. These fossils record rapid burial and early diagenesis in a muddy, delta-influenced coastal setting submerged during marine transgression.

Baird, G.C.

1985-03-01

83

Silver108m in Biota and Sediments at Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE occurrence1 of the long lived silver radionuclide 108mAg (T½>100 yr) in biota from the Pacific Ocean has been held to suggest that the silver radionuclide ratio 110mAg\\/108mAg may be useful as a tracer of environmental processes. It also appears1 that large amounts of 110mAg and 108mAg were not produced during the 1958 test series or earlier, and that the

T. M. Beasley; E. E. Held

1971-01-01

84

Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} (1 rad d{sup {minus}1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE`s recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h{sup {minus}1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O`Neal, B.R.

1993-08-01

85

The Challenge of Understanding Nutrient-Biota Interactions in Agriculturally Dominated Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a study of nutrient-biota interactions in five agricultural areas across the United States. The large-scale study component focused on nutrients, benthic assemblages, stream metabolism, and habitat. Median total nitrogen ranged from 1.1 to 2.1 mg\\/L and total phosphorus ranged from 0.04 to 0.46 mg\\/L, with highest concentrations associated

M. D. Munn

2005-01-01

86

Metal pollution from old lead?zinc mine works: Biota and sediment from oiartzun valle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of river sediment, moss (Brachythecium rivulare), vascular plants (rush, Juncus effusus, and cattail, Typha latifolia) and fishes (brown trout, Salmo trutta fario, and eel, Anguilla anguilla) near an old lead?zinc mine have been analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn by A.A.S. (flame and graphite furnace). Sediment and biota in the mining area have

Julian Sanchez; M. Carmen Vaquero; Iñigo Legorburu

1994-01-01

87

The Soil Biota Composition along a Progressive Succession of Secondary Vegetation in a Karst Area  

PubMed Central

Karst ecosystems are fragile and are in many regions degraded by anthropogenic activities. Current management of degraded karst areas focuses on aboveground vegetation succession or recovery and aims at establishing a forest ecosystem. Whether progressive succession of vegetation in karst areas is accompanied by establishment of soil biota is poorly understood. In the present study, soil microbial and nematode communities, as well as soil physico-chemical properties were studied along a progressive succession of secondary vegetation (from grassland to shrubland to forest) in a karst area in southwest China. Microbial biomass, nematode density, ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, nematode structure index, and nematode enrichment index decreased with the secondary succession in the plant community. Overall, the results indicated a pattern of declines in soil biota abundance and food web complexity that was associated with a decrease in soil pH and a decrease in soil organic carbon content with the progressive secondary succession of the plant community. Our findings suggest that soil biota amendment is necessary during karst ecosystem restoration and establishment and management of grasslands may be feasible in karst areas. PMID:25379741

He, Xunyang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Kelin

2014-01-01

88

Occurrence of 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in the environment and effect on exposed biota: a review.  

PubMed

17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone, estradiol (E2). EE2 is an orally bio-active estrogen, and is one of the most commonly used medications for humans as well as livestock and aquaculture activity. EE2 has become a widespread problem in the environment due to its high resistance to the process of degradation and its tendency to (i) absorb organic matter, (ii) accumulate in sediment and (iii) concentrate in biota. Numerous studies have reported the ability of EE2 to alter sex determination, delay sexual maturity, and decrease the secondary sexual characteristics of exposed organisms even at a low concentration (ng/L) by mimicking its natural analogue, 17?-estradiol (E2). Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species. The challenges in respect of EE2 include the extension of the limited database on the EE2 pollution profile in the environment, its fate and transport mechanism, as well as the exposure level of EE2 for better prediction and definition revision of EE2 toxicity end points, notably for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. PMID:24825791

Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Shamsuddin, Aida Soraya; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

2014-08-01

89

The Soil Biota Composition along a Progressive Succession of Secondary Vegetation in a Karst Area.  

PubMed

Karst ecosystems are fragile and are in many regions degraded by anthropogenic activities. Current management of degraded karst areas focuses on aboveground vegetation succession or recovery and aims at establishing a forest ecosystem. Whether progressive succession of vegetation in karst areas is accompanied by establishment of soil biota is poorly understood. In the present study, soil microbial and nematode communities, as well as soil physico-chemical properties were studied along a progressive succession of secondary vegetation (from grassland to shrubland to forest) in a karst area in southwest China. Microbial biomass, nematode density, ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, nematode structure index, and nematode enrichment index decreased with the secondary succession in the plant community. Overall, the results indicated a pattern of declines in soil biota abundance and food web complexity that was associated with a decrease in soil pH and a decrease in soil organic carbon content with the progressive secondary succession of the plant community. Our findings suggest that soil biota amendment is necessary during karst ecosystem restoration and establishment and management of grasslands may be feasible in karst areas. PMID:25379741

Zhao, Jie; Li, Shengping; He, Xunyang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Kelin

2014-01-01

90

On the Origin of Pantepui montane biotas: A Perspective Based on the Phylogeny of Aulacorhynchus toucanets  

PubMed Central

To understand the origin of Pantepui montane biotas, we studied the biogeography of toucanets in the genus Aulacorhynchus. These birds are ideal for analyzing historical relationships among Neotropical montane regions, given their geographic distribution from Mexico south to Bolivia, including northern Venezuela (Cordillera de la Costa), and the Pantepui. Analyses were based on molecular phylogenies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Topology tests were applied to compare alternative hypotheses that may explain the current distribution of Aulacorhynchus toucanets, in the context of previous hypotheses of the origin of Pantepui montane biotas. Biogeographic reconstructions in RASP and Lagrange were used to estimate the ancestral area of the genus, and an analysis in BEAST was used to estimate a time framework for its diversification. A sister relationship between the Pantepui and Andes+Cordillera de la Costa was significantly more likely than topologies indicating other hypothesis for the origin of Pantepui populations. The Andes was inferred as the ancestral area for Aulacorhynchus, and the group has diversified since the late Miocene. The biogeographic patterns found herein, in which the Andes are the source for biotas of other regions, are consistent with those found for flowerpiercers and tanagers, and do not support the hypothesis of the geologically old Pantepui as a source of Neotropical montain diversity. Based on the high potential for cryptic speciation and isolation of Pantepui populations, we consider that phylogenetic studies of additional taxa are important from a conservation perspective. PMID:23840663

Bonaccorso, Elisa; Guayasamin, Juan M.

2013-01-01

91

BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL MATS AND THEIR BIOTA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time. their biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self- sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a dial (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a host of other elements.

DesMarais, David; Discipulo, M.; Turk, K.; Londry, K. L.

2005-01-01

92

Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño-Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact. PMID:12077394

Harvell, C Drew; Mitchell, Charles E; Ward, Jessica R; Altizer, Sonia; Dobson, Andrew P; Ostfeld, Richard S; Samuel, Michael D

2002-06-21

93

Asphalt mounds and associated biota on the Angolan margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Release of hydrocarbons from sediments is important in increasing habitat heterogeneity on deep ocean margins. Heterogeneity arises from variation in abiotic and biotic conditions, including changes in substratum, geochemistry, fluid flow, biological communities and ecological interactions. The seepage of heavy hydrocarbons to the seafloor is less well studied than most other cold seep systems and may lead to the formation of asphalt mounds. These have been described from several regions, particularly the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we describe the structure, potential formation and biology of a large asphalt mound province in Block 31SE Angola. A total of 2254 distinct mound features was identified by side-scan sonar, covering a total area of 3.7 km2 of seafloor. The asphalt mounds took a number of forms from small (<0.5 m diameter; 13% observations) mounds to large extensive (<50 m diameter) structures. Some of the observed mounds were associated with authigenic carbonate and active seepage (living chemosynthetic fauna present in addition to the asphalt). The asphalt mounds are seabed accumulations of heavy hydrocarbons formed from subsurface migration and fractionation of reservoir hydrocarbons primarily through a network of faults. In Angola these processes are controlled by subsurface movement of salt structures. The asphalt mounds were typically densely covered with epifauna (74.5% of mounds imaged had visible epifauna) although individual mounds varied considerably in epifaunal coverage. Of the 49 non-chemosynthetic megafaunal taxa observed, 19 taxa were only found on hard substrata (including asphalt mounds), 2 fish species inhabited the asphalt mounds preferentially and 27 taxa were apparently normal soft-sediment fauna. Antipatharians (3.6±2.3% s.e.) and poriferans (2.6±1.9% s.e.) accounted for the highest mean percentage of the observed cover, with actinarians (0.9±0.4% s.e.) and alcyonaceans (0.4±0.2% s.e.) covering smaller proportions of the area. Asphalt mounds represent a common and important habitat on several margin systems globally and should be recognised in future environmental assessment and management of these areas.

Jones, Daniel O. B.; Walls, Anne; Clare, Michael; Fiske, Mike S.; Weiland, Richard J.; O'Brien, Robert; Touzel, Daniel F.

2014-12-01

94

Persistence of spilled oil on shores and its effects on biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over two million tonnes of oil are estimated to enter the world's oceans every year. A small percentage, but still a large volume, of this oil strands onshore, where its persistence is governed primarily by the action of physical forces. In some cases, biota influence the persistence of stranded oil or the rate of its weathering. Oil's deleterious effects on biota are frequently related to the persistence and degree of weathering of the oil, with long-lasting effects in low-energy environments such as salt marshes and coastal mangroves, or in higher-energy environments where oil is sequestered. However, an oil spill can have disproportionately large biological effects when it affects key species or processes (e.g., structurally important species, predators, prey, recruitment, or succession). In these cases, the continuing presence of oil is not always a prerequisite for continuing biological effects. There are relatively few long-term studies of the effects of oil spills; data from these suggest that oil can persist for decades in some environments or situations, and that biological effects can be equally persistent. Broad-based, integrated studies have been the most revealing in terms of the importance of direct and indirect effects, spillover effects between different parts of the environment, and continuing linkages between residual oil and biologic effects. Clean-up and treatment techniques applied to spilled or stranded oil can also have significant, long-lasting effects and need to be carefully evaluated prior to use.

Irvine, G.V.

2000-01-01

95

Spatial patterns of mercury in biota of Adirondack, New York lakes.  

PubMed

We studied the spatial distribution patterns of mercury (Hg) in lake water, littoral sediments, zooplankton, crayfish, fish, and common loons in 44 lakes of the Adirondacks of New York State, USA, a region that has been characterized as a "biological Hg hotspot". Our study confirmed this pattern, finding that a substantial fraction of the lakes studied had fish and loon samples exceeding established criteria for human and wildlife health. Factors accounting for the spatial variability of Hg in lake water and biota were lake chemistry (pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), percent carbon in sediments), biology (taxa presence, trophic status) and landscape characteristics (land cover class, lake elevation). Hg concentrations in zooplankton, fish and common loons were negatively associated with the lake water acid-base status (pH, ANC). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for methyl Hg (MeHg) increased from crayfish (mean log(10) BAF = 5.7), to zooplankton (5.9), to prey fish (6.2), to larger fish (6.3), to common loons (7.2). MeHg BAF values in zooplankton, crayfish, and fish (yellow perch equivalent) all increased with increasing lake elevation. Our findings support the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of MeHg at the base of the food chain is an important controller of Hg concentrations in taxa at higher trophic levels. The characteristics of Adirondack lake-watersheds (sensitivity to acidic deposition; significant forest and wetland land cover; and low nutrient inputs) contribute to elevated Hg concentrations in aquatic biota. PMID:21691858

Yu, Xue; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Evers, David; Duron, Melissa; Williams, Kate; Schoch, Nina; Kamman, Neil C

2011-10-01

96

Modeling transport and dilution of produced water and the resulting uptake and biomagnification in marine biota  

SciTech Connect

The paper explains the numerical modelling efforts undertaken in order to study possible marine biological impacts caused by releases of produced water from the Haltenbanken area outside the western coast of Norway. Acute effects on marine life from releases of produced water appear to be relatively small and confined to areas rather lose to the release site. Biomagnification may however be experienced for relatively low concentrations at larger distances from the release point. Such effects can he modeled by performing a step-wise approach which includes: The use of 3-D hydrodynamic models to determine the ocean current fields; The use of 3-D multi-source numerical models to determine the concentration fields from the produced water releases, given the current field; and The use of biologic models to simulate the behavior of and larvae (passive marine biota) and fish (active marine biota) and their interaction with the concentration field. The paper explains the experiences gained by using this approach for the calculation of possible influences on marine life below the EC{sub 50} or LC{sub 50} concentration levels. The models are used for simulating concentration fields from 5 simultaneous sources at the Haltenbank area and simulation of magnification in some marine species from 2 simultaneous sources in the same area. Naphthalenes and phenols, which are both present in the produced water, were used as the chemical substances in the simulations.

Rye, H.; Reed, M.; Slagstad, D. [and others

1996-12-31

97

Heavy metals in seawater, sediments, and biota from the coastal area of Yancheng City, China.  

PubMed

A systematic investigation was carried out to analyze the concentration levels of heavy metals in sample seawater, sediments, and biota collected from the coastal area of Yancheng City in Jiangsu Province, China. The authors assessed the impact of these heavy metals in different environmental samples in terms of potential risks to ecology and also to the human population exposed to this area. In addition, a further investigation was carried out to test the toxicity to early-life-stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) of selected samples that were considered to pose higher levels of potential risks to ecology or human health. Chemical analysis showed relatively higher concentrations of heavy metals in the seawater and biota samples collected from Xiangshui County and Binhai County, China. The heavy metal concentrations in different samples collected from the close vicinity of Dafeng Port, China, were also considerable. In all seawater and sediment samples, heavy metals showed a relatively moderate level of risk to ecological species; for consumption of marine organisms, heavy metals had adverse impacts on human health. Toxicity assessment indicated that the selected environmental samples or their extracts had significant toxicity to zebrafish early-life stages, including lethality, teratogenicity, and hatching delay (or advance). Thus the present study provides highly useful and important information on heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. PMID:24619970

Fu, Jie; Wang, Hui; Billah, Shah M Reduwan; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

2014-08-01

98

The 2.1 Ga old Francevillian biota: biogenicity, taphonomy and biodiversity.  

PubMed

The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ?2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life. PMID:24963687

El Albani, Abderrazak; Bengtson, Stefan; Canfield, Donald E; Riboulleau, Armelle; Rollion Bard, Claire; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma; Meunier, Alain; Moubiya Mouele, Idalina; Benzerara, Karim; Bernard, Sylvain; Boulvais, Philippe; Chaussidon, Marc; Cesari, Christian; Fontaine, Claude; Chi-Fru, Ernest; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine; Rouxel, Olivier; Trentesaux, Alain; Vecoli, Marco; Versteegh, Gerard J M; White, Lee; Whitehouse, Martin; Bekker, Andrey

2014-01-01

99

The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ?2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life. PMID:24963687

El Albani, Abderrazak; Bengtson, Stefan; Canfield, Donald E.; Riboulleau, Armelle; Rollion Bard, Claire; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma; Meunier, Alain; Moubiya Mouele, Idalina; Benzerara, Karim; Bernard, Sylvain; Boulvais, Philippe; Chaussidon, Marc; Cesari, Christian; Fontaine, Claude; Chi-Fru, Ernest; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine; Rouxel, Olivier; Trentesaux, Alain; Vecoli, Marco; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; White, Lee; Whitehouse, Martin; Bekker, Andrey

2014-01-01

100

Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp  

SciTech Connect

Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions, and perhaps overall by elemental concentrations and bioaccumulation. Heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions after the addition of fly ash to the original settling basin system, had the most profound effect on biota. Dipterans (chironomids) and some odonates (Plathemis lydia and Libellula spp.) were resistant to heavy ash siltation, while mosquitofish, which showed no discernible responses to ash siltation, were absent at acidic pH along with the few previously surviving invertebrate populations. Elemental concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc did not appear to limit aquatic flora and fauna on a short-term, acute basis. Long-chronic elemental exposures may have been instrumental in retarding the recovery of all forms of aquatic life in the receiving system. Elemental concentrations (except for arsenic and selenium) in the receiving system were generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than the Water Quality Criteria set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1980) for protection of aquatic life for the minimum and 24-hour mean values. By 1978, when the new settling basin systems were operating effectively, invertebrate populations were largely recovered, and mosquito-fish populations recovered within one year afterward.

Cerry, D.S.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Harvey, R.S.

1984-08-01

101

Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

Nimick, D. A.; Lambing, J. H.; Palawski, D. U.; Malloy, J. C.

1996-01-01

102

Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 5, Surface-based subject areas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Biota subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data collected from samples of plants and animals. This includes both samples taken from the plant or animal or samples related to the plant or animal. Related samples include animal feces and animal habitat. Data stored in the Biota subject area include data about the biota samples taken, analysis results counts from population studies, and species distribution maps.

Not Available

1994-01-14

103

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trace metal contamination of coastal sediment and biota from Togo.  

PubMed

The state of contamination of tropical environments, particularly in Africa, remains a relatively under explored subject. Here, we determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and trace metal concentrations in coastal sediment and biota samples (fish and mussels) from Togo (West Africa). In the sediments, the ?21 PAH concentrations ranged from <4 ng g(-1) to 257 ng g(-1), averaging 92 ng g(-1). Concentration ratios of low molecular weight PAHs (2-3 rings) versus high molecular weight PAHs (?4 rings) were always lower than 1 (ranging from 0.08 to 0.46) indicating that high molecular weight PAHs were dominant in all sediment samples, and that PAHs originated mainly from anthropogenic combustion activities. The sediments were also analyzed for major elements and a total of 15 trace metals, which were found in elevated concentrations. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) values relative to the Earth's crust show that the contamination is extremely severe for Cd (EF = 191), severe for Cr (EF = 18) and U (EF = 17.8), moderately severe for Zr (EF = 8.8), for Ni (EF = 6.8), Sr (EF = 5.9) and Ba (EF = 5.4), and moderate for V (EF = 3.6) and Zn (EF = 3.4). Sediments sampled in areas affected by the dumping of phosphorite mine tailings showed particularly high concentrations of trace metals. Overall, concentrations of both PAHs and trace metals in sediment tend to increase from the coastline to the open sea (2 km offshore). This is attributable to the increasingly finer texture of coastal sediment found offshore, which has a terrigenous origin and appears loaded with various contaminants through adsorption processes. Such high loads of trace metals were also found in the biota (fish and mussels). The ratio of measured trace metal concentrations in biota to threshold limits set by the World Health Organization herein defined as relative health factor (RHF) was high. Average RHF values in fish were highest for Se (470), As (250), Ag (97), Ni (78), Mn (63), Fe (53), Pb (36), Cd (10), and Cr (7) while lowest for Cu (0.08) and Zn (0.03). Cd and Al did not bioaccumulate in the analyzed fish species. In mussels, the RHF values were highest for Fe (9,108), As (295), Pb (276), Se (273), Mn (186), Ni (71), Ag (70), Cd (14), and Cu (4). PMID:21655572

Gnandi, Kissao; Musa Bandowe, Benjamin A; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Porrachia, Magali; Kersten, Michael; Wilcke, Wolfgang

2011-07-01

104

An Integrated Case Study for Evaluating the Impacts of an Oil Refinery Effluent on Aquatic Biota in the Delaware River: Advanced Chemical Fingerprinting of PAHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than one thousand samples were collected and analyzed to evaluate the potential impact of Motiva's oil refinery effluent on the receiving water, sediment, and biota of the Delaware River. The data collected from these samples were used with advanced chemical fingerprinting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Motiva's oil refinery effluent to differentiate Motiva-related PAHs in sediment and biota

Allen D. Uhler; Stephen Emsbo-Mattingly; Bo Liu; Lenwood W. Hall Jr; Dennis T. Burton

2005-01-01

105

Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land-use patterns on Oahu reflected increases in population and decreases in large-scale agricultural operations over time. The last two remaining sugarcane plantations on Oahu closed in the mid-1990's, and much of the land that once was used for sugarcane now is urbanized or used for diversified agriculture. Although two large pineapple plantations continue to operate in central Oahu, some of the land previously used for pineapple cultivation has been urbanized. Natural and human-related factors control surface- and ground-water quality and the distribution and abundance of aquatic biota on Oahu. Natural factors that may affect water quality include geology, soils, vegetation, rainfall, ocean-water quality, and air quality. Human-related factors associated with urban and agricultural land uses also may affect water quality. Ground-water withdrawals may cause saltwater intrusion. Pesticides and fertilizers that were used in agricultural or urban areas have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. In addition, other organic compounds associated with urban uses of chemicals have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. The effects of urbanization and agricultural practices on instream and riparian areas in conjunction with a proliferation of nonnative fish and crustaceans have resulted in a paucity of native freshwater macrofauna on Oahu. A variety of pesticides, nutrients, and metals are associated with urban and agricultural land uses, and these constituents can affect the fish and invertebrates that live in the streams.

Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

2003-01-01

106

Some bioaccumulation factors and biota-sediment accumulation factors for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Lake Trout  

SciTech Connect

Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene were calculated using the tissue data of Zabik et al. for Salvelinus namaycush siscowet with a 20.5% lipid content, the water data of Baker and Eisenreich, and the sediment data of Baker and Eisenreich for the Lake Superior ecosystem. Log BAFs, both lipid normalized and based on the freely dissolved concentration of the chemical in the water, of 1.95, 3.22, 4.72, 4.73, and 3.61 were calculated for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene, respectively. The BSAFs for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/tripenylene were 0.00011, 0.00016, 0.0071, 0.0054, and 0.00033, respectively.

Burkhard, L.P.; Lukasewycz, M.T.

2000-05-01

107

[A new approach to modeling the diversity dynamics of Phanerozoic marine biota].  

PubMed

Modeling of fossil diversity dynamics is usually done with the help of the models borrowed from the population dynamics theory. However there are principal differences between organisms and taxa, reproduction and divergence, mortality and extinction that make this approach doubtful. Another model is presented here, in which absolute origination rate does not depend on diversity, the ability of new genera to sustain unpredictable environmental changes increases three times abruptly at Cambrian/Ordovician, Permian/Triassic and Cretaceous/Tertiary boundaries. In this model the diversity increases due to accumulation of long-lived genera. The computer simulation showed that the model agrees with empirical data by 15 major criteria. The laws of community evolution apparently can explain the general pattern of punctuated equilibrium in the evolution of marine biota. PMID:11871265

Markov, A V

2001-01-01

108

Transfer of hexabromocyclododecane from industrial effluents to sediments and biota: Case study in Cinca river (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThis work is part of the research included in the European project AQUATERRA, focused on the study of different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in different risk zones along the Ebro River basin. Within monitoring programmes, a high contaminated area was detected, located along the Cinca River, a tributary of Ebro River, downstream a heavily industrialized town (Monzón). Data showed a high hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) contamination in this area. Our work included the analysis of sediments and biota, with special attention on aspects such as temporal trends, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of these contaminants. Moreover, an attempt of identification of source contamination was carried out, with the analysis of industrial effluents. The industry responsible of the contamination was identified.

Guerra, Paula; Cal, Agustina De La; Marsh, Göran; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

2009-05-01

109

Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would scientifically be valid for radionuclides emitting short-range radiation, as with Pu-239, where the energy is deposited locally. Two MCNPX models have been created and evaluated against ERICA Tool's aquatic model. One MCNPX model replicates ERICA Tool's intrinsic assumptions while the other uses a more realistic animal model adopted by ICRP Publication 108 and ERICA Tool for the organs "infinite" surrounding universe. In addition, the role of model geometry will be analyzed by focusing on four geometry sets for the same organ, including a spherical geometry. ERICA Tool will be compared to MCNPX results within and between each organ geometry set. In addition, the organ absorbed dose rate will be calculated for six rabbits located on the Maralinga nuclear test site as a preliminary test for further investigation. Data in all cases will be compared using percent differences and Student's t-test with respect to ERICA Tool's results and the overall average organ mean absorbed dose rate.

Kaspar, Matthew Jason

110

A well-preserved aneuretopsychid from the Jehol Biota of China (Insecta, Mecoptera, Aneuretopsychidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Aneuretopsychidae is an unspeciose and enigmatic family of long-proboscid insects that presently consist of one known genus and three species from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous of north-central Asia. In this paper, a new genus and species of fossil aneuretopsychid is described and illustrated, Jeholopsyche liaoningensis gen. et sp. n. Fossils representing this new taxon were collected from mid Early Cretaceous strata of the well known Jehol Biota in Liaoning Province, China. This finding documents the first formal record of fossil Aneuretopsychidae in China. In addition, this well-preserved and new material reveals previously unknown and detailed morphological structure of the mouthparts, antennae, head, thorax, legs and abdomen of this distinctive insect lineage. PMID:21998553

Ren, Dong; Shih, ChungKun; Labandeira, Conrad C.

2011-01-01

111

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

112

Distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and biota from the Zha Long Wetland, China.  

PubMed

In this paper, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in biota (reed, grass, mussel, fish, and red-crowned crane) and sediments collected from seven locations in the Zha Long Wetland. PAHs were recovered from the sediments and biota by ultrasonic extraction and then analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations were 244-713 ng/g dw in sediments, 82.8-415 ng/g dw in plants and 207-4,780 ng/g dw in animals. The total sediment PAH concentrations were categorized as lower to moderate contamination compared with other regions of China and the world. In the plant samples, the accumulation abilities of reed roots and stems for PAHs were higher than those of grass roots. In addition, the concentration of individual PAHs in mussel muscles was the highest in all of the animal samples, followed by fish, feeding crane fetuses, and wild crane fetuses. Compositional analysis suggests that the PAHs in the sediments from the Zha Long Wetland were derived from incomplete biomass combustion. Risk assessment shows that the levels of PAHs in sediments are mostly lower than the effects range mean value (effects range mean), whereas only naphthalene in all sample sites was higher than the effects range low value. It is worthwhile to note that benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were detected in crane fetal, which have potential carcinogenicity for organisms from the Zha Long Wetland. PMID:22821325

Li, Jinchunzi; Liu, Guangmin; Yin, Lili; Xue, Jianliang; Qi, Hong; Li, Yifan

2013-04-01

113

Native congeners provide biotic resistance to invasive Potentilla through soil biota.  

PubMed

Soil biota can facilitate exotic plant invasions and these effects can be influenced by specific phylogenetic relationships among plant taxa. We measured the effects of sterilizing soils from different native plant monocultures on the growth of Potentilla recta, an exotic invasive forb in North America, and conducted plant-soil feedback experiments with P. recta, two native congeners, a close confamilial, and Festuca idahoensis, a native grass species. We also reanalyzed data comparing the ability of P. recta to invade experimentally constructed congeneric monocultures vs. monocultures of a broad suite of non-congeners. We found that monocultures as a group, other than those of the native P. arguta, were highly invasible by P. recta. In contrast, this was not the case for monocultures of P. arguta. In our first experiment, the biomass of P. recta was 50% greater when grown in soil from F. idahoensis monocultures compared to when it was grown in soils from P. arguta or P. recta monocultures. Sterilizing soil from F. idahoensis rhizospheres had no effect on the biomass of P. recta, but sterilizing soil from P. arguta and P. recta rhizospheres increased the biomass of P. recta by 108% and 90%, respectively. In a second experiment, soil trained by F. idahoensis resulted in a positive feedback for P. recta. In contrast, soils trained independently by each of the two native Potentilla species, or the closely related Dasiphora (formerly Potentilla) resulted in decreases in the total biomass of the invasive P. recta indicating strong negative feedbacks. Soil trained by P. recta also resulted in intraspecific negative feedbacks. Our results demonstrate substantial negative feedbacks for an invader in its nonnative range under certain conditions, and that native congeners can mount strong biotic resistance to an invader through the accumulation of deleterious soil biota. PMID:23923481

Callaway, Ragan M; Montesinos, Daniel; Williams, Kimberlyn; Maron, John L

2013-06-01

114

May 2003 / Vol. 53 No. 5 BioScience 481 The globalization of Earth's biota is transforming  

E-print Network

, it is widely reported that introduced species are threatening many resident species with extinction (Elton 1958). For example, more than 4000 plant species introduced into North Amer- ica north of Mexico during the past 400 from an introduced plant species (John T. Kartesz, Biota of North America Program, University of North

Davis, Mark A.

115

Trace elements in water, sediments, porewater, and biota polluted by tailings from an abandoned gold mine in British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of major and trace elements in different environmental compartments (e.g., water, suspended and bottom sediments, sediment porewater, and biota) of Jack of Clubs Lake (JCL), Wells, British Columbia (Canada), were determined to assess the biogeochemical effects of abandoned gold mine tailings on the aquatic ecosystem of JCL in the Fraser River drainage basin. Arsenic and Pb were transported

J. M. Azcue; A. Mudroch; F. Rosa; G. E. M. Hall; T. A. Jackson; T. Reynoldson

1995-01-01

116

Effects of global climate change on freshwater biota: A review with special emphasis on the Italian situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much evidence that climate is rapidly changing at a global scale, especially regarding mean annual temperatures, precipitations and evaporation. The consequences of this rapid environmental change on freshwater biota are still not clear, but undoubtedly they could be severe. Among the main effects of climate change, we can individuate the enhancement of water temperatures, particularly important for poikilothermic

S. Fenoglio; T. Bo; M. Cucco; L. Mercalli; G. Malacarne

2010-01-01

117

MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SEDIMENT, WATER AND BIOTA COLLECTED FROM NEAR-COASTAL AREAS IMPACTED BY COMMON ESTUARINE STRESSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury concentrations in non-commercial organisms indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico are not well characterized particularly when compared to potential sources. In response to this need, mercury levels were determined in sediment, water and various biota in reference and non-refer...

118

As reciprocal influences between humans and the cli-mate, biota, and ecological functions of the world  

E-print Network

As reciprocal influences between humans and the cli- mate, biota, and ecological functions processes in human-dominated ecosystems (McDonnell and Pickett 1993; Collins et al. 2000; Grimm et al. 2000; Alberti et al. 2003). In some ecosystems, structure and function are now determined primarily by human

Cook, William M.

119

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5):17  

E-print Network

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5 floristic associations are also found in serpentine areas of the Mediterranean, Africa, Australasia-5407. * Corresponding author - nishanta.rajakaruna@sjsu.edu. #12;Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 16, Special Issue 52 South

Rajakaruna, Nishanta

120

Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) – ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human

S. V. Fesenko; R. M. Alexakhin; S. A. Geras'kin; N. I. Sanzharova; Ye. V. Spirin; S. I. Spiridonov; I. A. Gontarenko; P. Strand

2005-01-01

121

Baseline levels and trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from the Congo River Basin (DR Congo).  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: (PCBs, PBDEs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB) in sediments and biota from the middle Congo River Basin (CRB) and to investigate their trophic transfer through the aquatic food web using nitrogen stable isotope ratios. To our knowledge, no data on levels of POPs in sediment and biota from the CRB are present in the literature, and studies on trophic transfer and biomagnification profiles of POPs using ?(15)N are scarce in tropical regions. POP levels in the sediment and biota were low, with exception of total PCB levels found in fish from the Itimbiri River (1.4 to 44ng/g ww). Compared to concentrations found in fish from pristine to relatively industrial developed areas, the ?PCB levels in fish from the Itimbiri were high, indicating the presence of a local PCB contamination source in this catchment. Based on minimum risk level criteria formulated by ATSDR, the consumption of PCB contaminated fish from the Itimbiri river poses a potential risk for humans. The POP levels in biota were not significantly related to the POP levels in sediments, and the BSAF concept (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor) was found to be a poor predictor of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in the present study. With increasing trophic levels, a significant increase in PCB 95, 101, 110, 138, 146, 149, 153, 174, 180 & 187 and p,p'-DDT in Itimbiri and BDE 47 & 99 in Itimbiri, Aruwimi & Lomami river basins was observed. Trophic magnification factors were higher than 1, indicating that biomagnification occurs through the tropical food web. PMID:23872388

Verhaert, Vera; Covaci, Adrian; Bouillon, Steven; Abrantes, Katya; Musibono, Dieudonné; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

2013-09-01

122

An integrated approach to monitoring the effect of sediment and turbidity on aquatic biota and water quality in the New York City water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New York City water supply system provides drinking water to more than 9 million people. About 90 percent of New York City's water is supplied by six surface-water reservoirs in the Catskill Mountains in southeastern New York State. The Ashokan Reservoir is a focus of concern because high turbidity and suspended sediment concentration can affect the drinking water supply and the integrity of aquatic biota in the reservoir and its tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection are collaborating to identify suspended sediment and turbidity source areas and evaluate the effectiveness of stream stabilization projects to improve water quality in the 497 square kilometer Upper Esopus Creek watershed, the primary source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir. This research combines point measurements of stream habitat, macroinvertebrate, periphyton, and fish population sampling, and water quality sampling with continuous turbidity measurements and watershed modeling to integrate point measurements temporally and spatially throughout the watershed. Preliminary results suggest that although stream stabilization projects appear to have reduced sediment and turbidity concentrations and improved aquatic habitat, interpreting results has been confounded by a series of large storms during the last several years. Indeed, storms large enough to reshape channel morphology can have long-lasting effects on sediment and turbidity concentrations and aquatic biota. This framework for integrating temporal and spatial point measurements using high frequency monitoring and watershed modeling appears to hold great promise to inform policy concerning the water supply of one of the world's largest cities.

McHale, M. R.; Baldigo, B. P.; Smith, A. J.; Mukundan, R.; Siemion, J.; Mulvihill, C.

2011-12-01

123

Magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns of self-organized processes between geomorphology and biota that drive salt marsh evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex systems show non-equilibrium fluctuations, often determining the spontaneous evolution towards a critical state. In this context salt marshes are known to be characterized by complex patterns in both geomorphological and ecological features, which often appear to be strongly correlated. One of the main drivers on low-order channel network geometry is the hydrodynamic forcing entering the system in the form of an intermittent stress: the occurrence of infrequent rainfall events determines saturation-excess overland flow, which results in higher stream energy to be dissipated through an increase in cross section and meandering of the tidal channels in the marsh. This external driver determines a second, important effect on the intertidal zone: together with the emergence of a higher number of minor draining channels, salt marshes are provided with pulses of sediment input, causing a vertical build-up that allows pioneer species to colonize new areas of mudflat and channels. This eventually leads to salt marsh development through the higher frequency of occurrence and horizontal spread of marsh pioneer patterns, coupled with the displacement of the limit between the salt marsh and mudflat. As opposed to infrequent events, a much more frequent source of variation and uncertainty affecting the system is the difference between the observed and astronomical tide, which is referred to as surge. Since it would be difficult to simultaneously monitor these parameters through field surveys, and even harder to analyze them over medium to large time scales, we propose a remote sensing approach to monitor the temporal dynamics of both biotic and abiotic factors in salt marshes. We characterized the complex interactions between morphology and biota in two salt marshes in the densely populated Scheldt estuary through the implementation of different algorithms on multispectral endmember fraction maps from optical space-borne remote sensing. Multitemporal fractional abundance maps spanning from 1986 to 2011 were used to identify the interaction between vegetation pattern dynamics and channel drainage density, and integrated with field sampling and in situ spectroradiometry. The objectives were to: a) analyze and validate the processing procedure used to define the patterns of macrophyte vegetation cover; b) obtain field data on microphytobenthos biomass in two intertidal mudflat areas differing in the degree of sediment cohesiveness; c) integrate spectroradiometric measurements with simultaneous sampling; d) build a spectral library of salt marsh vegetation composition and zonation of Northern Europe estuarine areas. The latter can then be compared with vegetation field sampling data already available on the Plymouth estuary, Po Delta and Venice lagoon, in order to support the classification of the different surface cover types for the development of new methods of monitoring salt marsh-mudflat systems.

Cornacchia, L.; Taramelli, A.; Valentini, E.; Monbaliu, J. A.; Sabbe, K.

2012-12-01

124

RESPONSES OF AIRBORNE BIOTA TO MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION FROM SATELLITE POWER SYSTEM (SPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this program is to determine whether microwave irradiation adversely alters a wide-range of complex avian behavior modes that are essential to their survival. Effects of microwaves (2.45 GHz) have been studied extensively in mammalian species, e.g., rats, mice, rabbit...

125

Metal contamination in water, sediment and biota from a semi-enclosed coastal area.  

PubMed

This study identifies and quantifies the spatial variations of metal contamination in water, sediment and biota: the common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and the Mermaid's glove sponge (Haliclona oculata), within a heavily anthropogenically impacted semi-enclosed estuarine-coastal area with a low ability to disperse and flush contaminants (Poole Harbour, UK). The results showed that metal contamination was detected in all environmental compartments. Water was polluted with As, and Hg sediment metals were mostly within "the possible effect range" in which adverse effects occasionally occurs. Cockles had considerable concentrations of Ni, Ag and Hg in areas close to pollution sources, and sponges accumulate Cu and Zn with very high magnitude. A systematic monitoring approach that includes biological monitoring techniques, which covers all embayments, is needed, and an integrated management of the semi-enclosed coastal zones should be based on the overall hydrological characteristics of these sensitive areas and their ability to self-restore which is different than open coastal zones. PMID:23014922

Aly, Walid; Williams, Ian D; Hudson, Malcolm D

2013-05-01

126

A new middle eocene whale (Mammalia: Cetacea: Archaeoceti) and associated biota from Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A shallow-marine fossil biota was recovered from the Blue Bluff unit (formerly part of the McBean Formation) in the Upper Coastal Plain of eastern Georgia. Biochronologically significant mollusks (e.g., Turritella nasuta, Cubitostrea sellaeformis, Pteropsella lapidosa) and calcareous nannoplankton (e.g., Chiasmolithus solitus, Reticulofenestra umbilica, Cribocentrum reticulatum) indicate a latest Lutetian-earliest Bartonian age, or about 40 to 41 Ma. Georgiacetus vogtlensis new genus and species is described from a well-preserved, partial skeleton. Georgiacetus is the oldest known whale with a true pterygoid sinus fossa in its basicranium and a pelvis that did not articulate directly with the sacral vertebrae, two features whose acquisitions were important steps toward adaptation to a fully marine existence. The posterior four cheek teeth of G. vogtlensis form a series of carnassial-like shearing blades. These teeth also bear small, blunt accessory cusps, which are regarded as being homologous with the larger, sharper accessory cusps of basilosaurid cheek teeth.

Hulbert, R.C., Jr.; Petkewich, R.M.; Bishop, G.A.; Bukry, D.; Aleshire, D.P.

1998-01-01

127

Comparison and unification of carbon stable isotope ratios in specific aquatic biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope analysis has become a convenient tool for aquatic food web research in recent years. However, one controversial point on using stable isotope analysis for food web is whether to extract lipids or not before stable isotope analysis due to strong discrimination against 13C and more negative 13C in lipid-rich tissues independent of diet that can be induced by the key step of endogenous lipid synthesis. Lipid extraction may result in the loss of non-lipid compounds that alters ?15N, which urged the development of arithmetic correction techniques for ?13C, although the techniques as well as their underlying assumptions were seldom systematically verified. A novel lipid normalizing model for different aquatic biota was therefore established and applied to the East China Sea (ECS). According to the experimentally measured ?13C values of dorsal muscle of 11 common fish species, organs and whole-body of Japanese Anchovy (Engraulis japonicas), the proposed model is verified to be appropriate to the food web research on the East China Sea.

Wang, N.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, J.

2009-05-01

128

The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota : an extended inter-comparison.  

SciTech Connect

An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of {+-}20%. The variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota.

Batlle, J. V. I.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Beresford, N. A.; Copplestone, D.; Horyna, J.; Hosseini, A.; Johansen, M.; Kamboj, S.; Keum, D.-K.; Kurosawa, N.; Newsome, L.; Olyslaegers, G.; Vandenhove, H.; Ryufuku, S.; Lynch, S. V.; Wood, M. D.; Yu, C. (Environmental Science Division); (Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd.); (Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire); (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology); (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority); (State Office for Nuclear Safety); (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute); (Visible Information Centre Inc.); (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre); (University of Liverpool)

2011-05-01

129

Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota  

PubMed Central

Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by ?15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by ?13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

130

Toxicological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on freshwater biota  

SciTech Connect

An important early step in the assessment of ecological risks at contaminated sites is the screening of chemicals detected on the site to identify those that constitute a potential risk. Part of this screening process is the comparison of measured ambient concentrations to concentrations that are believed to be nonhazardous, termed benchmarks. This article discusses 13 methods by which benchmarks may be derived for aquatic biota and presents benchmarks for 105 chemicals. It then compares them with respect to their sensitivity, availability, magnitude relative to background concentrations, and conceptual bases. This compilation is limited to chemicals that have been detected on the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to benchmarks derived from studies of toxic effects on freshwater organisms. The list of chemicals includes 45 metals and 56 industrial organic chemicals but only four pesticides. Although some individual values can be shown to be too high to be protective and others are too low to be useful for screening, none of the approaches to benchmark derivation can be rejected without further definition of what constitutes adequate protection. The most appropriate screening strategy is to use multiple benchmark values along with background concentrations, knowledge of waste composition, and physicochemical properties to identify contaminants of potential concern.

Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1996-07-01

131

The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota: an extended intercomparison.  

PubMed

An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of ±20%. The variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota. PMID:21113609

Vives i Batlle, J; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Beresford, N A; Copplestone, D; Horyna, J; Hosseini, A; Johansen, M; Kamboj, S; Keum, D-K; Kurosawa, N; Newsome, L; Olyslaegers, G; Vandenhove, H; Ryufuku, S; Vives Lynch, S; Wood, M D; Yu, C

2011-05-01

132

Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America.  

PubMed

Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period, during which intensified global climatic changes took place. Moreover, strong phylogenetic affinities between the flora of eastern North America and eastern Asia clearly demonstrate formerly contiguous connections, but disparity among shared genera (eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunction) implies significant periods of separation since at least the Miocene epoch. Lacustrine sediments deposited within a former sinkhole in the southern Appalachian Mountains provide a rare example of a late Miocene to early Pliocene terrestrial biota from a forested ecosystem. Here we show that the vertebrate remains contained within this deposit represent a unique combination of North American and Eurasian taxa. A new genus and species of the red (lesser) panda (Pristinailurus bristoli), the earliest and most primitive so far known, was recovered. Also among the fauna are a new species of Eurasian badger (Arctomeles dimolodontus) and the largest concentration of fossil tapirs ever recorded. Cladistical analyses of the two new carnivores strongly suggest immigration events that were earlier than and distinct from previous records, and that the close faunal affinities between eastern North America and eastern Asia in the late Tertiary period are consistent with the contemporaneous botanical record. PMID:15457257

Wallace, Steven C; Wang, Xiaoming

2004-09-30

133

Determining the response of African biota to climate change: using the past to model the future.  

PubMed

Prediction of biotic responses to future climate change in tropical Africa tends to be based on two modelling approaches: bioclimatic species envelope models and dynamic vegetation models. Another complementary but underused approach is to examine biotic responses to similar climatic changes in the past as evidenced in fossil and historical records. This paper reviews these records and highlights the information that they provide in terms of understanding the local- and regional-scale responses of African vegetation to future climate change. A key point that emerges is that a move to warmer and wetter conditions in the past resulted in a large increase in biomass and a range distribution of woody plants up to 400-500 km north of its present location, the so-called greening of the Sahara. By contrast, a transition to warmer and drier conditions resulted in a reduction in woody vegetation in many regions and an increase in grass/savanna-dominated landscapes. The rapid rate of climate warming coming into the current interglacial resulted in a dramatic increase in community turnover, but there is little evidence for widespread extinctions. However, huge variation in biotic response in both space and time is apparent with, in some cases, totally different responses to the same climatic driver. This highlights the importance of local features such as soils, topography and also internal biotic factors in determining responses and resilience of the African biota to climate change, information that is difficult to obtain from modelling but is abundant in palaeoecological records. PMID:23878343

Willis, K J; Bennett, K D; Burrough, S L; Macias-Fauria, M; Tovar, C

2013-01-01

134

New basal eutherian mammal from the Early Cretaceous Jehol biota, Liaoning, China  

PubMed Central

A new genus and species of eutherian mammal, Acristatherium yanensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Early Cretaceous Jehol biota, China. The new taxon is based on a partial skull that is preserved in three dimensions from the Lujiatun bed of the Yixian Formation and dated 123.2±1.0?Ma. Its right upper and lower dentitions are nearly complete and it has a dental formula 4.1.5.3/3.1.5.3. The new mammal reveals several craniodental characteristics of Early Cretaceous eutherians previously unknown in fossil records of therians, such as a possible vestige of the septomaxilla. The craniodental features of the new taxon are compared with those of relevant Early Cretaceous eutherians and therians. Phylogenetic analyses based on a data matrix containing 70 taxa and 408 characters place A. yanensis as the most basal eutherian in the selected group. The morphological differences between Acristatherium and Eomaia indicate that eutherians already had a significant degree of generic diversification ca 125?Ma. PMID:19419990

Hu, Yaoming; Meng, Jin; Li, Chuankui; Wang, Yuanqing

2010-01-01

135

Evolutionary lag times and recent origin of the biota of an ancient desert (Atacama-Sechura)  

PubMed Central

The assembly of regional biotas and organismal responses to anthropogenic climate change both depend on the capacity of organisms to adapt to novel ecological conditions. Here we demonstrate the concept of evolutionary lag time, the time between when a climatic regime or habitat develops in a region and when it is colonized by a given clade. We analyzed the time of colonization of four clades (three plant genera and one lizard genus) into the Atacama–Sechura Desert of South America, one of Earth’s driest and oldest deserts. We reconstructed time-calibrated phylogenies for each clade and analyzed the timing of shifts in climatic distributions and biogeography and compared these estimates to independent geological estimates of the time of origin of these deserts. Chaetanthera and Malesherbia (plants) and Liolaemus (animal) invaded arid regions of the Atacama–Sechura Desert in the last 10 million years, some 20 million years after the initial onset of aridity in the region. There are also major lag times between when these clades colonized the region and when they invaded arid habitats within the region (typically 4–14 million years). Similarly, hyperarid climates developed ?8 million years ago, but the most diverse plant clade in these habitats (Nolana) only colonized them ?2 million years ago. Similar evolutionary lag times may occur in other organisms and habitats, but these results are important in suggesting that many lineages may require very long time scales to adapt to modern desertification and climatic change. PMID:23798420

Guerrero, Pablo C.; Rosas, Marcelo; Arroyo, Mary T. K.; Wiens, John J.

2013-01-01

136

Evidence of debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in biota from a wastewater receiving stream.  

PubMed

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a high production volume flame retardant. To date, regulation and control of its environmental release have been minimal. Once in the environment, BDE-209 may encounter conditions favoring debromination, potentially forming congeners with greater toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and persistence. However, (photolytic and in vivo) debromination has only been demonstrated under laboratory scenarios. To examine whether debromination was likely in the field, PBDE congener profiles were tracked from a wastewater treatment plant (sludge) to receiving stream sediments and associated aquatic biota. BDE-209 and 23 additional PBDEs were detected. Sludge congener profiles resembled the commercial penta- and deca- formulations, suggesting minimal -209 debromination during wastewater treatment. Similar profiles were observed in surficial sediments at the outfall and downstream. However, sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and crayfish (Cambarus puncticambarus sp. c) collected near the outfall contained tri- through deca-PBDEs, including congeners not detected in the commercial deca-mixture, sludges or sediments (BDE-179, -184, -188, -201, and -202). A previous in vivo laboratory study identified these as -209 debromination products. This supports the hypothesis that metabolic debromination of -209 does occur in the aquatic environment under realistic conditions. Hence assessments that assume no BDE-209 debromination may underestimate associated bioaccumulation and toxicity attributable to the less brominated congeners produced. PMID:17969678

La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C; Harvey, Ellen

2007-10-01

137

Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.  

PubMed

Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. PMID:23830520

Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

2013-09-15

138

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.  

PubMed

This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in biota, including the marine food species that northern peoples traditionally consume. Compared to other circumpolar countries, concentrations of many organochlorines (OCs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota are generally lower than in the European Arctic and eastern Greenland but are higher than in Alaska, whereas Hg concentrations are substantially higher in Canada than elsewhere. Spatial coverage of OCs in ringed seals, beluga and seabirds remains a strength of the Arctic contaminant data set for Canada. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals and seabirds remain fairly consistent across the Canadian Arctic although subtle differences from west to east and south to north are found in the proportions of various chemicals. The most significant development since 1997 is improvement in the temporal trend data sets, thanks to the use of archived tissue samples from the 1970s and 1980s, long-term studies using archeological material, as well as the continuation of sampling. These data cover a range of species and chemicals and also include retrospective studies on new chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. There is solid evidence in a few species (beluga, polar bear, blue mussels) that Hg at some locations has significantly increased from pre-industrial times to the present; however, the temporal trends of Hg over the past 20-30 years are inconsistent. Some animal populations exhibited significant increases in Hg whereas others did not. Therefore, it is currently not possible to determine if anthropogenic Hg is generally increasing in Canadian Arctic biota. It is also not yet possible to evaluate whether the recent Hg increases observed in some biota may be due solely to increased anthropogenic inputs or are in part the product of environmental change, e.g., climate warming. Concentrations of most "legacy" OCs (PCBs, DDT, etc.) significantly declined in Canadian Arctic biota from the 1970s to the late 1990s, and today are generally less than half the levels of the 1970s, particularly in seabirds and ringed seals. Chlorobenzenes and endosulfan were among the few OCs to show increases during this period while summation operatorHCH remained relatively constant in most species. A suite of new-use chemicals previously unreported in Arctic biota (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs)) has recently been found, but there is insufficient information to assess species differences, spatial patterns or food web dynamics for these compounds. Concentrations of these new chemicals are generally lower than legacy OCs, but there is concern because some are rapidly increasing in concentration (e.g., PBDEs), while others such as PFOS have unique toxicological properties, and some were not expected to be found in the Arctic because of their supposedly low potential for long-range transport. Continuing temporal monitoring of POPs and Hg in a variety of marine biota must be a priority. PMID:16109439

Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

2005-12-01

139

Organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments and biota from the coastal area of Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment and biota samples were collected from Msimbazi and Kizinga rivers and from the coastal marine environment of Dar es Salaam during both dry and wet seasons. The samples were analyzed for various organochlorine pesticide residues using GC-ECD and GC-MS. Dieldrin, p,p?-DDT, p,p?-DDE, p,p?-DDD, o,p?-DDT and ?-HCH were detected at significantly greater concentrations above the method detection limits. Recoveries of

Haji Mwevura; Othman C Othman; George L Mhehe

2002-01-01

140

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1999–2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 ?g\\/g, the

Marlene S. Evans; Derek Muir; W. Lyle Lockhart; Gary Stern; M. Ryan; Pat Roach

2005-01-01

141

Changes in Nutrient Loading in an Agricultural Watershed and Its Effects on Water Quality and Stream Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-point-sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are recognized as major causes of eutrophication of surface waters. Adoption\\u000a of policies to reduce pollution in the former German Democratic Republic following re-unification of Germany in 1990 provided\\u000a an opportunity to examine how taking agricultural land out of production affected nutrient loads and aquatic biota in a small\\u000a rural watershed. Between 1994

P. A. Chambers; R. Meissner; F. J. Wrona; H. Rupp; H. Guhr; J. Seeger; J. M. Culp; R. B. Brua

2006-01-01

142

Lunar fortnightly modulation of tidal mixing near Kashevarov Bank, Sea of Okhotsk, and its impacts on biota and sea ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we examine the consequences of strong tidal mixing on spatial and temporal distributions of biota and sea ice above Kashevarov Bank, Sea of Okhotsk, using data from field surveys (hydrography, pressure gauge and current meter moorings, and bio-acoustic soundings) and remote sensing (NOAA AVHRR). Fortnightly variations in the amplitude of diurnal tidal currents, primarily resulting from the K1–O1 interaction,

Konstantin A Rogachev; Eddy C. Carmack; Alexander S Salomatin; Marina G Alexanina

2001-01-01

143

Metal Pollution by Old Lead-Zinc Mines in Urumea River Valley (Basque Country, Spain). Soil, Biota and Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil, aquatic biota (moss: Brachythecium rivulare; aquatic macrophytes: Juncus effusus, Potamogeton crispus; fish: Salmo trutta fario, Anguilla anguilla, Phoxinus phoxinus, Chelon labrosus) and sediment samples from the Urumea river valley were analysed for metals by acid digestion and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The sediments show the presence of metal pollution (Cd: 2.5–24 mg kg-1; Pb: 125–1,150 mg kg-1; Zn: 125–2,500 mg

J. Sánchez; N. Marino; M. C. Vaquero; J. Ansorena; I. Legórburu

1998-01-01

144

Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10(5)) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well. PMID:15653184

Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Geras'kin, S A; Sanzharova, N I; Spirin, Ye V; Spiridonov, S I; Gontarenko, I A; Strand, P

2005-01-01

145

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

146

Using macroinvertebrates to identify biota-land cover optima at multiple scales in the Pacific Northwest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated at 45 stream sites throughout the Puget Sound Basin, Washington, USA. Environmental variables were measured at 3 spatial scales: reach, local, and whole watershed. Macroinvertebrate distributions were related to environmental variables using canonical correspondence analysis to determine which variables and spatial scales best explained the observed community composition and to identify biota-land cover optima. The calculation of a biota-land cover optimum was a 2-step process. First, an individual taxon's optimum was estimated for a particular land cover by weighting the mean value for that land cover by the abundance of that taxon at all sites. Second, the biota-land cover optimum was determined as the point at which the greatest numbers of taxa, at their calculated optima, appeared for a particular land cover. Sampling reaches were located on streams in watersheds with varying levels of forest, agriculture, and urban/suburban land cover that represented the full range of physical conditions typically found in Puget Sound streams. At the reach scale, taxa composition was correlated with conductivity and mean velocity. At the local and whole-watershed scales, taxa composition was correlated with % forest and agricultural land cover and % forest and bedrock land cover, respectively. For all of the scales, the dominant environmental variables represented an anthropogenic gradient. There was little difference in the amount of variability explained by each spatial scale. At the local-watershed scale, a biota-land cover optimum of ???80 to 90% forest land cover was identified. The total number of taxa at their optima declined rapidly as forest land cover within the local scale declined below 80 to 90%. At the whole-watershed scale, a biota-land cover optimum of 70 to 80% forest land cover was identified. The total number of taxa at their optima declined rapidly as forest land cover within the whole watershed declined below 70 to 80%. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrates can be used both as quantitative indicators of environmental conditions at multiple scales and indicators of land cover optima. Further examination of these optima could be used to establish priorities for conservation and restoration efforts.

Black, R. W.; Munn, M. D.; Plotnikoff, R. W.

2004-01-01

147

Chemical analysis and genotoxicity of high molecular mass PAH in sediment samples and biota  

SciTech Connect

A normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) method was used to fractionate the organic extracts of prepared from coal tar-contaminated sediments from hamilton Harbor in Ontario and from Sydney Harbor in Nova Scotia into molecular mass classes. Each PAH fraction up to 302 amu was analyzed by GC-MS and fractions containing PAH with molecular masses greater than 302 amu were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS.Each fraction was also subjected to Ames bioassays using a TA100-like strain of Salmonella typhimurium (YG1025 + S9). The 300/302 amu, 326/328 and 350/352 amu PAH fractions accounted for 25% of the total genotoxic response of the extract; these PAH constitute a substantial genotoxic burden. A number of 300, 302, 326, 350, 374 and 400 amu PAH were identified using APCI LC-MS and comparison with authentic standards. The non-polar aromatic extracts of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and zebra mussels from Hamilton Harbor were also examined by GC-MS, APCI LC-MS and genotoxicity bioassays. The profiles of the priority and high mass PAH in these samples were identical showing that all PAH up to and exceeding 400 amu were readily bioavailable to biota such as Zebra mussels. In addition, the pseudo faeces of the Zebra mussels and amphipod detritivores which fed on the pseudo faeces had chemical profiles identical to the Zebra mussels. Since many sport fish prize amphipods as food, this observation demonstrates a pathway for organic contaminants adsorbed to suspended sediments to enter the food chain of non-bottom-feeding fish in areas infested by Zebra mussels.

McCarry, B.E.; Marvin, C.H.; Smith, R.W.; Bryant, D.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

148

Stratified distribution of nutrients and extremophile biota within freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal.  

PubMed

Biological entities and gradients of selected chemicals within the seemingly barren ice layers covering Lake Baikal were investigated. Ice cores 40-68 cm long were obtained from in shore and offshore sites of Southern Lake Baikal during the cold period of a year (March-April) in 2007 and 2008. In microscopic observations of the melted ice, both algae and bacteria were found in considerable numbers (>10(3) cells/L and >10(4) cells/ml, respectively). Among all organisms found, diatom was generally the most predominant taxon in the ice. Interestingly, both planktonic and benthic algae were present in considerable numbers (2-4×10(4) cells/L). Dominant phototrophic picoplankton were comprised of small green algae of various taxa and cyanobacteria of Synechococcus and Cyanobium. The bacterial community consisted mostly of short rod and cocci cells, either free-living or aggregated. Large numbers of yeast-like cells and actinomycete mycelium were also observed. Concentrations of silica, phosphorus, and nitrate were low by an order of magnitude where biota was abundant. The profile of the ice could be interpreted as vertical stratification of nutrients and biomass due to biological activities. Therefore, the organisms in the ice were regarded to maintain high activity while thriving under freezing conditions. Based on the results, it was concluded that the freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal is considerably populated by extremophilic microorganisms that actively metabolize and form a detritus food chain in the unique large freshwater ecosystem of Lake Baikal. PMID:22367932

Bondarenko, Nina A; Belykh, Olga I; Golobokova, Ludmila P; Artemyeva, Olga V; Logacheva, Natalia F; Tikhonova, Irina V; Lipko, Irina A; Kostornova, Tatyana Ya; Parfenova, Valentina V; Khodzher, Tamara V; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Zo, Young-Gun

2012-02-01

149

Comparing laboratory- and field-measured biota-sediment accumulation factors.  

PubMed

Standardized laboratory protocols for measuring the accumulation of chemicals from sediments are used in assessing new and existing chemicals, evaluating navigational dredging materials, and establishing site-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for contaminated sediment sites. The BSAFs resulting from the testing protocols provide insight into the behavior and risks associated with individual chemicals. In addition to laboratory measurement, BSAFs can also be calculated from field data, including samples from studies using in situ exposure chambers and caging studies. The objective of this report is to compare and evaluate paired laboratory and field measurement of BSAFs and to evaluate the extent of their agreement. The peer-reviewed literature was searched for studies that conducted laboratory and field measurements of chemical bioaccumulation using the same or taxonomically related organisms. In addition, numerous Superfund and contaminated sediment site study reports were examined for relevant data. A limited number of studies were identified with paired laboratory and field measurements of BSAFs. BSAF comparisons were made between field-collected oligochaetes and the laboratory test organism Lumbriculus variegatus and field-collected bivalves and the laboratory test organisms Macoma nasuta and Corbicula fluminea. Our analysis suggests that laboratory BSAFs for the oligochaete L. variegatus are typically within a factor of 2 of the BSAFs for field-collected oligochaetes. Bivalve study results also suggest that laboratory BSAFs can provide reasonable estimates of field BSAF values if certain precautions are taken, such as ensuring that steady-state values are compared and that extrapolation among bivalve species is conducted with caution. PMID:21538837

Burkhard, Lawrence P; Arnot, Jon A; Embry, Michelle R; Farley, Kevin J; Hoke, Robert A; Kitano, Masaru; Leslie, Heather A; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Parkerton, Thomas F; Sappington, Keith G; Tomy, Gregg T; Woodburn, Kent B

2012-01-01

150

Absorbed dose rate conversion coefficients for reference terrestrial biota for external photon and internal exposures.  

PubMed

The paper describes dosimetric models that allow the estimation of average radiation exposures to terrestrial biota due to environmental sources in the soil as well as internal uniform distributions of radionuclides. Simple three-dimensional phantoms for 13 faunal reference organisms are specified. The calculation of absorbed dose per unit source strength for these targets is based on photon and electron transport simulations using the Monte Carlo method. The presented absorbed dose rate conversion coefficients are derived for terrestrial reference species. This allows the assessment of internal exposure as well as external photon exposure depending on the nuclide, habitat, target size and environmental contamination. To enable the application of specific radiation weighting factors for alpha-, low energy beta- (E0 < 10 keV), beta- and gamma-radiations, their partial contributions to the total absorbed dose are provided separately. The coefficients for external exposure are listed for organisms living above the ground for an infinite plane source 3 mm deep in soil, as well as for a horizontally infinite volume source uniformly distributed to a depth of 10 cm. Furthermore, the coefficients are also presented for organisms living in a contaminated 50 cm thick soil layer. A multi-layer canopy model for plants is also described. The conversion coefficients are given for 3H, 14C, 40K, 36Cl, 59,63Ni, 89,90Sr, 94Nb, 99Tc, 106Ru, 129,131I, 134,135,137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb, 226Ra, 227,228,230,231,232,234Th, 234,235,238U, 238,239,240,241Pu, 241Am, 237Np and 242,243,244Cm, together with their PMID:15700697

Taranenko, V; Pröhl, G; Gómez-Ros, J M

2004-12-01

151

Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean and biota off Japan  

PubMed Central

The T?hoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, resulted in unprecedented radioactivity releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Results are presented here from an international study of radionuclide contaminants in surface and subsurface waters, as well as in zooplankton and fish, off Japan in June 2011. A major finding is detection of Fukushima-derived 134Cs and 137Cs throughout waters 30–600 km offshore, with the highest activities associated with near-shore eddies and the Kuroshio Current acting as a southern boundary for transport. Fukushima-derived Cs isotopes were also detected in zooplankton and mesopelagic fish, and unique to this study we also find 110mAg in zooplankton. Vertical profiles are used to calculate a total inventory of ?2 PBq 137Cs in an ocean area of 150,000 km2. Our results can only be understood in the context of our drifter data and an oceanographic model that shows rapid advection of contaminants further out in the Pacific. Importantly, our data are consistent with higher estimates of the magnitude of Fukushima fallout and direct releases [Stohl et al. (2011) Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 11:28319–28394; Bailly du Bois et al. (2011) J Environ Radioact, 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.015]. We address risks to public health and marine biota by showing that though Cs isotopes are elevated 10–1,000× over prior levels in waters off Japan, radiation risks due to these radionuclides are below those generally considered harmful to marine animals and human consumers, and even below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. PMID:22474387

Buesseler, Ken O.; Jayne, Steven R.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Rypina, Irina I.; Baumann, Hannes; Baumann, Zofia; Breier, Crystaline F.; Douglass, Elizabeth M.; George, Jennifer; Macdonald, Alison M.; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Nishikawa, Jun; Pike, Steven M.; Yoshida, Sashiko

2012-01-01

152

MARINE AND ESTUARINE MULTI-SPECIES TEST SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental fate and effects studies of chemical contaminants conducted in marine and estuarine microcosm and mesocosm test systems are reviewed. ontaminant fate, persistence, and transport are discussed and related to exposure regimes that result in effects on marine biota. he...

153

Where and When did High Andean Relief Emerge?: Insights From Molecular Phylogenies of Andean Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergence of mountains along the Andean margin created new ecosystems and thus triggered a variety of adaptive biotic radiations, to the point that the Andes are to-day one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots. The rising Andes came to serve as a rain barrier: cloud forests developed along their eastern side due to orographic concentration of the westward-moving Amazonian moisture, and environments became drier in the west, with highland steppes extending above ~2-3 km. Relevant biologic data concerning Andean taxa adapted to these environments might therefore shed some light on the issue of Andean orogeny and surface uplift. Phylogeography (the analysis of phylogenetic trees in terms of biogeographic distributions) and phylochronology (the use of phylogenetic trees as molecular clocks) can be employed to reconstruct syn- orogenic radiations and estimate their timing, respectively. We use published molecular phylogenies that inform on the evolution of a variety of Andean animal and plant taxa, and therefore provide indirect means to assess and approximately date the acquisition of altitude. Phylogeographic analyses of 6 phylogenetic trees concerning unrelated Andean biota coincide in having their basal clades established in areas within the Central Andean Orocline (CAO), 5 of them clearly pointing to southern Peru and/or western Bolivia as the region of origin of the corresponding high-Andean taxa. A histogram of 9 phylochronologic estimates, based on trees concerning unrelated taxa (independently constructed and calibrated), suggests that the 2.0-2.5 km critical altitude was acquired during the 23-17 Ma or 26-16 Ma intervals (depending on the threshold used), confirming some geomorphic and geologic estimates (but conflicting with others). Although more data are needed, these results suggest that it was within the CAO and approximately during the early Miocene that the Andes acquired altitudes sufficient to trigger radiations of cold-adapted taxa, i.e. >~2 km elevations. Identification of the CAO as the earliest segment of the Andes to have attained high altitudes is in agreement with the fact that it currently presents by far the largest orogenic volume in the entire Cordillera.

Sempere, T.; Picard, D.; Plantard, O.

2006-05-01

154

Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in terrestrial biota from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twelve years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper summarizes results from that program from 1998 to 2003 with respect to terrestrial animals in the Canadian Arctic. The arctic terrestrial environment has few significant contaminant issues, particularly when compared with freshwater and marine environments. Both current and historical industrial activities in the north may have a continuing effect on biota in the immediate area, but effects tend to be localized. An investigation of arctic ground squirrels at a site in the Northwest Territories that had historically received applications of DDT concluded that DDT in arctic ground squirrels livers was the result of contamination and that this is an indication of the continuing effect of a local point source of DDT. Arsenic concentrations were higher in berries collected from areas around gold mines in the Northwest Territories than from control sites, suggesting that gold mining may significantly affect arsenic levels in berries in the Yellowknives Dene traditional territory. Although moose and caribou from the Canadian Arctic generally carry relatively low contaminant burdens, Yukon moose had high renal selenium concentrations, and moose and some woodland caribou from the same area had high renal cadmium levels, which may put some animals at risk of toxicological effects. Low hepatic copper levels in some caribou herds may indicate a shortage of copper for metabolic demands, particularly for females. Similarities in patterns of temporal fluctuations in renal element concentrations for moose and caribou suggest that environmental factors may be a major cause of fluctuations in renal concentrations of some elements. Concentrations of persistent organochlorines and metals in beaver and muskrat from the Northwest Territories, and carnivores from across the Canadian Arctic were very low and considered normal for terrestrial wildlife. Two new classes of persistent fluorinated contaminants, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were found in arctic carnivores and were most abundant in arctic fox and least abundant in mink. Although trace element concentrations in king and common eider ducks were low and not of toxicological concern, the number of nematode parasites in common eiders was positively correlated with total and organic mercury concentrations. Future research should focus on cadmium in moose and caribou, mercury in caribou, and emerging contaminants, with an effort to sample moose and caribou annually where possible to explore the role of naturally occurring cycles in apparent temporal trends. PMID:16109438

Gamberg, Mary; Braune, Birgit; Davey, Eric; Elkin, Brett; Hoekstra, Paul F; Kennedy, David; Macdonald, Colin; Muir, Derek; Nirwal, Amar; Wayland, Mark; Zeeb, Barbara

2005-12-01

155

Biota: sediment partitioning of aluminium smelter related PAHs and pulp mill related diterpenes by intertidal clams at Kitimat, British Columbia.  

PubMed

The question of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability and its relationship to specific PAH sources with different PAH binding characteristics is an important one, because bioavailability drives PAH accumulation in biota and ultimately the biochemical responses to the PAH contaminants. The industrial harbour at Kitimat (British Columbia, Canada) provides an ideal location to study the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment hydrocarbons to low trophic level biota. Samples of soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) and intertidal sediment collected from multiple sites over six years at various distances from an aluminium smelter and a pulp and paper mill were analysed for 106 PAHs, plant diterpenes and other aromatic fraction hydrocarbons. Interpretation using PAH source ratios and multivariate data analysis reveals six principal hydrocarbon sources: PAHs in coke, pitch and emissions from anode combustion from the aluminium smelter, vascular plant terpenes and aromatised terpenes from the pulp and paper mill, petroleum PAHs from shipping and other anthropogenic activities and PAHs from natural plant detritus. Harbour sediments predominantly contain either pitch or pyrogenic PAHs from the smelter, while clams predominantly contain plant derived PAHs and diterpenes from the adjacent pulp mill. PAHs from the smelter have low bioavailability to clams (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors; BSAFs <1 for pitch and coke; <10 for anode combustion, decreasing to ?0.1 for the mass 300 and 302 PAHs), possibly due to binding to pitch or soot carbon matrices. Decreases in PAH isomer ratios between sediments and clams likely reflect a combination of variation in uptake kinetics of petroleum PAHs and compound specific metabolism, with the importance of petroleum PAHs decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Plant derived compounds exhibit little natural bioaccumulation at reference sites, but unsaturated and aromatised diterpenes released from resins by industrial pulping processes are readily accumulated by the clams (BSAFs >500). Thus while most of the smelter associated PAHs in sediments may not be bioavailable to benthic organisms, the plant terpenes (including retene, totarol, ferruginol, manool, dehydroabietane and other plant terpenes that form the chemical defence mechanism of conifers) released by pulp mills are bioavailable and possess demonstrated toxic properties. The large scale release of plant terpenes by some of the many pulp mills located in British Columbia and elsewhere represents a largely undocumented risk to aquatic biota. PMID:21788067

Yunker, Mark B; Lachmuth, Cara L; Cretney, Walter J; Fowler, Brian R; Dangerfield, Neil; White, Linda; Ross, Peter S

2011-09-01

156

Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

2008-10-09

157

Enantioselectivity of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in sediment and biota from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary, Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

To investigate the potential for enantioselective transformation and accumulation, the enantiomer distributions of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were measured in the sediment and biota from a sub-tropical estuary heavily contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a technical mixture of highly chlorinated PCB congeners. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183 in marsh sediment, invertebrate, forage and predatory fish species, and bottlenose dolphins were determined. Non-racemic EFs greater than 0.75 were found in sediments for PCBs 136 and 174, likely the result of microbial dechlorination. Although enantiomer fractions in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) mirrored those of sediment, fish species had EFs that differed significantly from sediment or grass shrimp. Similarly, bottlenose dolphins were also found to contain non-racemic quantities of PCBs 91, 136, 174, 176, and 183. Non-racemic EFs in these biota were likely a result of both uptake of non-racemic proportions of PCBs from the diet and enantioselective biotransformation. PMID:21392808

Ross, Matthew S; Pulster, Erin L; Ejsmont, Malgorzata B; Chow, Elaine A; Hessel, Colin M; Maruya, Keith A; Wong, Charles S

2011-01-01

158

Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

1988-01-01

159

LEAD (Pb) IN BIOTA AND PERCEPTIONS OF Pb EXPOSURE AT A RECENTLY DESIGNATED SUPERFUND BEACH SITE IN NEW JERSEY  

PubMed Central

The Raritan Bay Slag Site (New Jersey) was designated a Superfund site in 2009 because the seawall, jetties, and sediment contained lead (Pb). Our objective was to compare Pb and mercury (Hg) levels in biota and public perceptions of exposure at the Superfund and reference sites. Samples (algae, invertebrates, fish) were collected from the Raritan Bay Slag Site and reference sites and analyzed for Pb and Hg. Waterfront users were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Levels of Pb in aquatic organisms were compared to ecological and human health safety standards. Lead levels were related to location, trophic level, and mobility. Lead levels in biota were highest at the western side of the West Jetty. Mean Pb levels were highest for algae (Fucus = 53,600 ± 6990 ng/g = ppb [wet weight], Ulva = 23,900 ± 2430 ppb), intermediate for grass shrimp (7270 ± 1300 ppb, 11,600 ± 3340 ppb), and lowest for fish (Atlantic silversides 218 ± 44 ppb). Within species, Pb levels varied significantly across the sampling sites. Lead levels in algae, sometimes ingested by individuals, were sufficiently high to exceed human safety levels. Mercury levels did not differ between the Superfund and reference sites. Despite the fence and warnings, people (1) used the Superfund and reference sites similarly, (2) had similar fish consumption rates, and (3) were not concerned about Pb, although most individuals knew the metal was present. The fish sampled posed no apparent risk for human consumers, but the algae did. PMID:22409490

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

2014-01-01

160

An integrated approach for bioaccumulation assessment in mussels: towards the development of Environmental Quality Standards for biota.  

PubMed

The possible use of chemical concentrations measured in mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) for compliance checking against Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) established for biota is analyzed with the help of an integrated model. The model consists of a 3D planktonic module that provides biomasses in the different compartments, i.e., phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria; a 3D fate module that provides the concentrations of contaminants in the water column and in the sediments; and a 3D bioaccumulation module that calculates internal concentrations in relevant biotic compartments. These modules feed a 0D growth and bioaccumulation module for mussels, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) approach. The integrated model has been applied to study the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Thau lagoon (France). The model correctly predicts the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in mussels as a function of the concentrations in the water column and in phytoplankton. It also sheds light on the origin of the complexity associated with the use of EQS for biota and their conversion to water column concentrations. The integrated model is potentially useful for regulatory purposes, for example in the context of the European Water Framework (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directives (MSFD). PMID:21040971

Zaldívar, J M; Marinov, D; Dueri, S; Castro-Jiménez, J; Micheletti, C; Worth, A P

2011-03-01

161

Lead (Pb) in biota and perceptions of Pb exposure at a recently designated Superfund beach site in New Jersey.  

PubMed

The Raritan Bay Slag Site (New Jersey) was designated a Superfund site in 2009 because the seawall, jetties, and sediment contained lead (Pb). Our objective was to compare Pb and mercury (Hg) levels in biota and public perceptions of exposure at the Superfund and reference sites. Samples (algae, invertebrates, fish) were collected from the Raritan Bay Slag Site and reference sites and analyzed for Pb and Hg. Waterfront users were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Levels of Pb in aquatic organisms were compared to ecological and human health safety standards. Lead levels were related to location, trophic level, and mobility. Lead levels in biota were highest at the western side of the West Jetty. Mean Pb levels were highest for algae (Fucus?=?53,600 ± 6990 ng/g = ppb [wet weight], Ulva?=?23,900 ± 2430 ppb), intermediate for grass shrimp (7270 ± 1300 ppb, 11,600 ± 3340 ppb), and lowest for fish (Atlantic silversides 218 ± 44 ppb). Within species, Pb levels varied significantly across the sampling sites. Lead levels in algae, sometimes ingested by individuals, were sufficiently high to exceed human safety levels. Mercury levels did not differ between the Superfund and reference sites. Despite the fence and warnings, people (1) used the Superfund and reference sites similarly, (2) had similar fish consumption rates, and (3) were not concerned about Pb, although most individuals knew the metal was present. The fish sampled posed no apparent risk for human consumers, but the algae did. PMID:22409490

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

2012-01-01

162

Occurrence and biomagnification of polychlorinated naphthalenes and non- and mono-ortho PCBs in Lake Ontario sediment and biota.  

PubMed

Biota and surface sediments collected from Lake Ontario were analyzed for polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (n/ m-o-PCBs) to compare bioaccumulation behavior of these classes of dioxin-like chemicals in a food web from the Great Lakes. Mean sigmaPCN concentrations (tri-octaCN) ranged from 14 +/- 9 pg/g in plankton to 3500 +/- 3200 pg/g (wet weight) in lake trout while sediments contained from 21 to 38 ng/g (dry weight). Principal components analysis of PCN congener patterns indicated that chlorine substitution determined which congeners favored accumulation (e.g., CN-42, -52, -60, -66, -67, and -73), while others may be subject to metabolism. The bioaccumulative congeners exhibited similar trophic magnification factors (TMFs; 1.23-1.42) and biomagnification factors (BMFs; 5.5-8.6) to the n/m-o-PCBs for the trout/weighted diet relation, although BMFs for a benthic feeding relationship (slimy sculpin/Diporeia) indicated that the n/m-o-PCBs were more bioavailablethroughthe benthic pathway. PCNs contribute significantly to the burden of dioxin-like compounds in Lake Ontario biota, contributing between 12 and 22% of total PCN + PCB TEQ in lake trout and up to 69% in benthic organisms. PMID:18351067

Helm, Paul A; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Whittle, D Michael; Marvin, Chris H; Fisk, Aaron T; Tomy, Gregg T

2008-02-15

163

Assessing radiation impact at a protected coastal sand dune site: an intercomparison of models for estimating the radiological exposure of non-human biota.  

PubMed

This paper presents the application of three publicly available biota dose assessment models (the ERICA Tool, R&D128/SP1a and RESRAD-BIOTA) to an assessment of the Drigg coastal sand dunes. Using measured (90)Sr, (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am activity concentrations in sand dune soil, activity concentration and dose rate predictions are made for a range of organisms including amphibians, birds, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, plants and fungi. Predicted biota activity concentrations are compared to measured data where available. The main source of variability in the model predictions is the transfer parameters used and it is concluded that developing the available transfer databases should be a focus of future research effort. The value of taking an informed user approach to investigate the way in which models may be expected to be applied in practice is highlighted and a strategy for the future development of intercomparison exercises is presented. PMID:19447531

Wood, Michael D; Beresford, Nicholas A; Barnett, Catherine L; Copplestone, David; Leah, Richard T

2009-12-01

164

Distribution of PCB congeners in seven lake systems: Interactions between sediment and food-web transport  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to examine the role of two processes, partitioning of PCBs between sediment and biota and food-web transport, in determining the concentration of PCB congeners in the biota of seven lakes. Biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-sediment PCB concentration (organic carbon), or BSF, ratios were calculated as markers of the partitioning of PCBs between biota and sediment, and biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-zooplankton PCB concentration (lipid), or BAS, ratios were calculated as markers of the transport of PCBs through food webs. The lakes ranged from a shallow, well-mixed lake with a historic input of Aroclor technical mixtures to deeper, oligotrophic systems in which atmospheric deposition was the only known source. BSF ratios ranged from approximately one in cyprinids and zooplankton in all lakes to 30 in yellow perch in one lake. A significant correlation between lake maximum depth and combined BSF ratios for all biota indicated that PCBs were generally more available for accumulation in the shallower lakes, regardless of the PCB source. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the biota in the shallower lakes had higher ratios of higher chlorinated congeners, suggesting that predictions of equal concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants on a lipid basis in sediment and lower trophic levels may significantly underestimate the accumulation of very hydrophobic compounds in the organisms of some lake systems. BAF ratios ranged from approximately one in the lower trophic levels to approximately 10 in lake trout.

MacDonald, C.R.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Balch, G.C.; Metcalfe, T.L. (Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies)

1993-11-01

165

Non-effect of water hardness on the accumulation and toxicity of copper in a freshwater macrophyte ( Ceratophyllum demersum): How useful are hardness-modified copper guidelines for protecting freshwater biota?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several nations have adopted hardness-modified copper (Cu) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. However, there is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Cu to freshwater biota, particularly macrophytes. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (35, 90 and

Scott J. Markich; Angus R. King; Scott P. Wilson

2006-01-01

166

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.  

PubMed

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

2010-12-01

167

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

Brandt, Charles A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Becker, James M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Porta, Augusto C. (BATTELLE GENEVA RESEARCH)

2001-12-01

168

Evaluation of PCB and hexachlorobenzene biota-sediment accumulation factors based on ingested sediment in a deposit-feeding clam  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediment exposure experiments were conducted using a marine deposit-feeding clam (Macoma nasuta) to determine biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) based on ingested sediment and fecal organic carbon. Internal, or gut, BSAFs were determined for hexachlorobenzene and 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and were compared to those found with the standard method of calculating BSAFs, which uses the organic carbon and contaminant concentration of the whole or external sediment. The results of these experiments indicated that gut BSAFs were consistently smaller and less variable across sediment types than the corresponding standard BSAFs. Although these results indicate that using ingested sediment concentrations and fecal total organic carbon to calculate gut BSAFs might improve the predictive ability of the standard BSAF model, the benefit is small when compared to the difficulty in measuring the contaminant concentration on ingested sediment and the organic carbon content of feces.

Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Specht, D.T.; Randall, R. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Newport, OR (United States); Pelletier, J. [Dyncorp, Newport, OR (United States)

1996-09-01

169

Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood.  

PubMed

Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in a worldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter (210)Po and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below (210)Po-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 µGy?h(-1)). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 µSv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people. PMID:23733934

Fisher, Nicholas S; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas G; Baumann, Zofia; Madigan, Daniel J; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

2013-06-25

170

Simulation of radioactive cesium transfer in the southern Fukushima coastal biota using a dynamic food chain transfer model.  

PubMed

The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident occurred on 11 March 2011. The accident introduced (137)Cs into the coastal waters which was subsequently transferred to the local coastal biota thereby elevating the concentration of this radionuclide in coastal organisms. In this study, the radioactive cesium levels in coastal biota from the southern Fukushima area were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. The simulation derived the possible maximum radioactive cesium levels in organisms, indicating that the maximum (137)Cs concentrations in invertebrates, benthic fish and predator fish occurred during late April, late May and late July, respectively in the studied area where the source was mainly the direct leakage of (137)Cs effluent from the 1F NPP. The delay of a (137)Cs increase in fish was explained by the gradual food chain transfer of (137)Cs introduced to the ecosystem from the initial contamination of the seawater. The model also provided the degree of radionuclide depuration in organisms, and it demonstrated the latest start of the decontamination phase in benthic fish. The ecological half-lives, derived both from model simulation and observation, were 1-4 months in invertebrates, and 2-9 months in plankton feeding fish and coastal predator fish from the studied area. In contrast, it was not possible to similarly calculate these parameters in benthic fish because of an unidentified additional radionuclide source which was deduced from the biological compartment model. To adequately reconstruct the in-situ depuration of radiocesium in benthic fish in the natural ecosystem, a contamination source associated with the bottom sediments is necessary. PMID:23639689

Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki

2013-10-01

171

Identifying sources and biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in biota from mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

We assessed whether biota occupying mountain streams accumulate and biomagnify remotely derived organic pollutants originating from atmospheric inputs to snowpack and glacial runoff and from marine sources introduced by migrating anadromous salmon. Several persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and trans-nonachlor were commonly detected in benthic invertebrates, salmon fry (Oncorhynchus spp.), and eggs of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) from the Chilliwack River watershed, British Columbia, Canada. Total PCBs and several organochlorines (OCs) biomagnified from benthic invertebrate composites to salmon fry to dipper eggs. Invertebrate samples generally did not differ significantly in contaminant burdens between the river main stem where salmon are more abundant and higher-elevation tributaries where the salmon density is lower. Concentrations of total OCs and total PCBs in dipper eggs were positively related to drainage basin area and collection year but not to elevation. No differences in PCB congener patterns existed between dipper egg samples from the Chilliwack watershed and other watersheds in southwestern British Columbia. However, principal component analysis revealed significant spatial differences in egg PCB congener patterns between the main Chilliwack River and the higher-elevation tributaries. This difference was primarily due to a greater occurrence of lower chlorinated PCB congeners (66 and 105) in dipper eggs collected from the tributaries and higher loadings of the more stable and persistent congeners (153, 138, 130, and 128) in eggs from the river main stem. The results suggest that atmospheric sources are the main contributor of contaminants detected in biota from the region and that biomagnification is a common pathway for accumulation in lotic predators such as the American dipper. PMID:16295880

Morrissey, Christy A; Bendell-Young, Leah I; Elliott, John E

2005-10-15

172

Medium-term effects of corn biochar addition on soil biota activities and functions in a temperate soil cropped to corn  

E-print Network

Medium-term effects of corn biochar addition on soil biota activities and functions in a temperate the medium-term impact of biochar addition on microbial and faunal activities in a temperate soil cropped Biochar is a carbon(C) -rich product obtained by thermal decomposition of biomass at relatively low

Lehmann, Johannes

173

Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and biota from the Danube Delta, Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and analogues, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), were measured in sediments and biota (invertebrates, 11 fish species and cormorant tissues) collected in 2001 from the Danube Delta, the biggest European wetland. DDTs were the predominant pollutants in all samples. A high variability in

Adrian Covaci; Adriana Gheorghe; Orieta Hulea; Paul Schepens

2006-01-01

174

Mercury Pollution from a Chloralkali Source in a Tropical Lake and Its Biomagnification in Aquatic Biota: Link between Chemical Pollution, Biomarkers, and Human Health Concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal that can cause adverse ecological and toxicological impacts through the mechanism of biomagnification. Hg accumulation in aquatic biota may thus also pose a serious threat to humans and other fish-eating animals. The present work observed the transfer of Hg from abiotic (water and sediments) to biotic (algae, aquatic macrophytes, and fish) components, belonging

Prabhat Kumar Rai

2008-01-01

175

Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

Wentz, D. A.; Waite, I. R.; Rinella, F. A.

1998-01-01

176

Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota for the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond: model testing using Chernobyl data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Cooling Pond’ scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond, which was heavily contaminated in 1986 as a result of the reactor accident. The calculation tasks include (a) reconstruction of the dynamics of radionuclide transfer and bioaccumulation in aquatic media and biota following the

I. I. Kryshev; T. G. Sazykina; F. O. Hoffman; K. M. Thiessen; B. G. Blaylock; Y. Feng; D. Galeriu; R. Heling; A. I. Kryshev; A. L. Kononovich; B. Watkins

1998-01-01

177

Validation of a screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances in biota.  

PubMed

A screening method for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in biota samples has been developed and validated using liver samples from polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). The method was based on extraction of target compounds from homogenised samples into the solvent mixture used as mobile phase in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), i.e. methanol/water (50:50; 2 mM ammonium acetate). The extract was filtered and directly injected into a HPLC/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system. Quantification was performed using 7H-perfluoroheptanoic acid as internal standard and a calibration standard solution dissolved in sample extract for each matrix type (matrix-matched calibration standard). The method is very time and cost efficient. Except for long-chain compounds and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (which cannot be covered by this method), recoveries were between 60% and 115% and method detection limits were in the range 0.04-1.3 ng/g wet weight. Blank values could be neglected with the exception of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). One of the major challenges in PFAS analysis is ionisation disturbance by co-eluting matrix in the ion source of the mass spectrometer. Both matrix and analyte specific signal enhancement and suppression was observed and quantified. Repeated extractions (n = 3) gave relative standard deviations (RSD) <35% for all PFAS. Accuracy was examined by comparing the screening method to the generally applied ion pair extraction (IPE) method. PFAS concentration values of a glaucous gull liver sample deviated by less than 30% for the two methods, provided that matrix-matched calibration standards were employed in both methods. PMID:16038211

Berger, Urs; Haukås, Marianne

2005-07-22

178

Polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Chukchi Sea biota and sediments and their toxicological response in the Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area-Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) project, we determined the distribution and concentrations of aliphatic n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments (0-1 cm) among 52 sites across the Chukchi Sea and in muscle tissues of the benthic Northern whelk, Neptunea heros, collected opportunistically. In addition, downcore profiles of contaminants were determined at three targeted sites to establish historic patterns. Baseline responses of PAH exposure and its potential toxicological effects were examined in the common Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida, through measures of cytochrome P4501A/ ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (CYP1A/EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissue. The total concentration of PAHs in surface sediments throughout the study area, including parent and alkyl-homologs, were very low (<1600 ng g-1 dry wt) except for a single station, where values were 2-20-fold greater than at other baseline sites (2956 ng g-1 dry wt). Alkyl-substituted PAHs were the dominant form in all surface (54-93%) and subsurface sediments (50-81% of the total), with a general decrease in total PAH concentrations observed downcore. In biota, larger Neptunea showed lower total concentrations of PAHs in foot muscles (4.5-10.7 ng g-1 wet wt) compared to smaller animals; yet aliphatic n-alkane (C19-C33) concentrations (0.655-5.20 ?g g-1 wet wt) increased in larger organisms with distributions dominated by long-chain (C23-C33) hydrocarbons. In B. saida, CYP1A1, GST, and SOD enzyme levels were comparable to baseline levels previously reported in other pristine systems. Of the three assays, only SOD had a significant correlation between gene expression and enzyme activity.

Harvey, H. Rodger; Taylor, Karen A.; Pie, Hannah V.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.

2014-04-01

179

Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain 27 data fields that include variables such as taxonomic identification, values for salinity and pH, wetland classification, location of study, and source of data. The databases are not exhaustive of the literature and are biased toward wetland habitats located in the glaciated North-Central United States; however, the databases do encompass a diversity of biota commonly found in brackish and freshwater inland wetland habitats.

Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

2009-01-01

180

Dual-age-class population model to assess radiation dose effects on non-human biota populations.  

PubMed

In the present paper, a two-age-class group, logistic growth model for generic populations of non-human biota is described in order to assess non-stochastic effects of low linear energy-transfer radiation using three endpoints: repairable radiation damage, impairment of reproductive ability and, at higher radiation dose rates, mortality. This model represents mathematically the exchange between two life stages considering fecundity, growth and mortality. Radiation effects are modeled with a built-in self-recovery pool whereupon individuals can repair themselves. In acute effects mode, the repairing pool becomes depleted due to radiation and the model tends to lethality mode. A base calibration of the model's two free parameters is possible assuming that in acute mode 50% of the individuals die on 30 days when a radiation dose equal to the LD(50/30) is applied during that period. The model, which requires 10 species-dependent life-history parameters, was applied to fish and mammals. Its use in the derivation of dose-rate screening values for the protection of non-human biota from the effects of ionizing radiation is demonstrated through several applications. First, results of model testing with radiation effects data for fish populations from the EPIC project show the predictive capability of the model in a practical case. Secondly, the model was further verified with FREDERICA radiation effects data for mice and voles. Then, consolidated predictions for mouse, rabbit, dog and deer were generated for use in a population model comparison made within the IAEA EMRAS II project. Taken together, model predictions suggest that radiation effects are more harmful for larger organisms that generate lower numbers of offspring. For small mammal and fish populations, dose rates that are below 0.02 Gy day(-1) are not fatal; in contrast, for large mammals, chronic exposure at this level is predicted to be harmful. At low exposure rates similar to the ERICA screening dose rate of 2.4 × 10(-4) Gy day(-1), long-term effects on the survivability of populations are negligible, supporting the appropriateness of this value for radiological assessments to wildlife. PMID:22544082

Vives i Batlle, J

2012-08-01

181

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt biota in relation to reservoir operations. 1991 Annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of t...

J. R. Griffith, A. C. McDowell, A. T. Scholz

1991-01-01

182

Responses of freshwater biota to rising salinity levels and implications for saline water management: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

All of the plants and animals that make up freshwater aquatic communities are affected by salinity. Many taxa possess morphological, physiological and life-history characteristics that provide some capacity for tolerance, acclimatisation or avoidance. These characteristics impart a level of resilience to freshwater communities. To maintain biodiversity in aquatic systems it is important to manage the rate, timing, pattern, frequency and

Kimberley R. JamesA; Tom RyanB

183

Atlantic Origin of the Arctic Biota? Evidence from Phylogenetic and Biogeographical Analysis of the Cheilostome Bryozoan Genus Pseudoflustra  

PubMed Central

The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available. PMID:23536863

Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D.; Denisenko, Nina V.; Berning, Bjorn

2013-01-01

184

Atlantic origin of the arctic biota? Evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographical analysis of the cheilostome bryozoan genus pseudoflustra.  

PubMed

The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available. PMID:23536863

Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D; Denisenko, Nina V; Berning, Björn

2013-01-01

185

Increasing synchrony of high temperature and low flow in western North American streams: double trouble for coldwater biota?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Flow and temperature are strongly linked environmental factors driving ecosystem processes in streams. Stream temperature maxima (Tmax_w) and stream flow minima (Qmin) can create periods of stress for aquatic organisms. In mountainous areas, such as western North America, recent shifts toward an earlier spring peak flow and decreases in low flow during summer/fall have been reported. We hypothesized that an earlier peak flow could be shifting the timing of low flow and leading to a decrease in the interval between Tmax_w and Qmin. We also examined if years with extreme low Qmin were associated with years of extreme high Tmax_w. We tested these hypotheses using long32 term data from 22 minimally human-influenced streams for the period 1950-2010. We found trends toward a shorter time lag between Tmax_w and Qmin over time and a strong negative association between their magnitudes. Our findings show that aquatic biota may be increasingly experiencing narrower time windows to recover or adapt between these extreme events of low flow and high temperature. This study highlights the importance of evaluating multiple environmental drivers to better gauge the effects of the recent climate variability in freshwaters.

Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy

2013-01-01

186

Late cretaceous pelagic sediments, volcanic ASH and biotas from near the Louisville hotspot, Pacific Plate, paleolatitude ???42??S  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dredging on the deep inner slope of the Tonga Trench, immediately north of the intersection between the Louisville Ridge hotspot chain and the trench, recovered some Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) slightly tuffaceous pelagic sediments. They are inferred to have been scraped off a recently subducted Late Cretaceous guyot of the Louisville chain. In the vicinity of the Louisville hotspot (present location 50??26???S, 139??09???W; Late Cretaceous location ???42??S, longitude unknown) Late Cretaceous rich diatom, radiolarian, silicoflagellate, foraminiferal and coccolith biotas, accumulated on the flanks of the guyot and are described in this paper. Rich sponge faunas are not described. ?Inoceramus prisms are present. Volcanic ash is of within-plate alkalic character. Isotope ratios in bulk carbonate ??18O - 2.63 to + 0.85, ??13C + 2.98 to 3.83) are normal for Pacific Maestrichtian sediments. The local CCD may have been shallower than the regional CCD, because of high organic productivity. In some samples Late Cretaceous materials have been mixed with Neogene materials. Mixing may have taken place on the flanks of the guyot during transit across the western Pacific, or on the trench slope during or after subduction and offscraping about 0.5 Ma. ?? 1989.

Ballance, P. F.; Barron, J. A.; Blome, C. D.; Bukry, D.; Cawood, P. A.; Chaproniere, G. C. H.; Frisch, R.; Herzer, R. H.; Nelson, C. S.; Quinterno, P.; Ryan, H.; Scholl, D. W.; Stevenson, A. J.; Tappin, D. G.; Vallier, T. L.

1989-01-01

187

An Assessment of Perfluorinated Organic Compounds and the Potentail Impacts to Water Quality and Biota in Coastal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanized estuaries are well-documented to have elevated contaminant levels in sediments, water and associated biota. Most previous research efforts examining the effects of anthropogenic contamination in urbanized estuaries has focused on persistent priority pollutants, such as trace metals, pesticides, PCBs and PAHs. Recently, concerns have been raised about the occurrence, transport and distribution and effects of emerging contaminants being released into coastal watersheds through upland runoff from both urban and agricultural lands, sewage discharges, industrial releases, and aquaculture. Apalachicola Bay a major estuarine, commercial and recreational seafood resource is the endpoint of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. Today the river basin encapsulates a vast and evolving expanse of agricultural, urban, industrial, silvaculture, and natural landscapes and activities. The purpose of this study is to monitor the occurrence of an emerging class of compounds (perfluorinated organic compounds) in the Apalachicola Bay watershed. Given the dynamic growth and development up river from the Bay organic substances (lipophillic and water soluble compounds) inputs may be increasing and impacting the ecology of the Bay which compared to other bay areas is at this time relatively pristine. This issue can be investigated utilizing in-situ permeable membrane sampling devices specific for lipophillic and water-soluble compounds in concert with sediment samples. The results may serve as a baseline for the hypothesized increase in inputs coinciding with upstream and coastal development.

Erhunse, A.; Gragg, R.

2006-12-01

188

Direct and indirect effects of metal contamination on soil biota in a Zn-Pb post-mining and smelting area (S Poland).  

PubMed

Effects of metal contamination on soil biota activity were investigated at 43 sites in 5 different habitats (defined by substratum and vegetation type) in a post-mining area. Sites were characterised in terms of soil pH and texture, nutrient status, total and exchangeable metal concentrations, as well as plant species richness and cover, abundances of enchytraeids, nematodes and tardigrades, and microbial respiration and biomass. The concentrations of total trace metals were highest in soils developed on mining waste (metal-rich dolomite), but these habitats were more attractive than sandy sites for plants and soil biota because of their higher content of organic matter, clay and nutrients. Soil mesofauna and microbes were strongly dependent on natural habitat properties. Pollution (exchangeable Zn and Cd) negatively affected only enchytraeid density; due to a positive relationship between enchytraeids and microbes it indirectly reduced microbial activity. PMID:21477907

Kapusta, Pawe?; Szarek-?ukaszewska, Gra?yna; Stefanowicz, Anna M

2011-06-01

189

Validation of a screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances in biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method for analysis of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in biota samples has been developed and validated using liver samples from polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). The method was based on extraction of target compounds from homogenised samples into the solvent mixture used as mobile phase in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), i.e. methanol\\/water (50:50; 2mM ammonium

Urs Berger; Marianne Haukås

2005-01-01

190

Geological dates and molecular rates: rapid divergence of rivers and their biotas.  

PubMed

We highlight a novel molecular clock calibration system based on geologically dated river reversal and river capture events. Changes in drainage pattern may effect vicariant isolation of freshwater taxa, and thus provide a predictive framework for associated phylogeographic study. As a case in point, New Zealand's Pelorus and Kaituna rivers became geologically isolated from the larger Wairau River system 70 to 130 kyr BP. We conducted mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic analyses of two unrelated freshwater-limited fish taxa native to these river systems (Gobiomorphus breviceps, n = 63; Galaxias divergens, n = 95). Phylogenetic analysis of combined control region and cytochrome b sequences yielded reciprocally monophyletic clades of Pelorus-Kaituna and Wairau haplotypes for each species. Calibrated rates of molecular change based on this freshwater vicariant event are substantially faster than traditionally accepted rates for fishes but consistent with other recent inferences based on geologically young calibration points. A survey of freshwater phylogeographic literature reveals numerous examples in which the ages of recent evolutionary events may have been substantially overestimated through the use of "accepted" calibrations. We recommend that--wherever possible--biologists should start to reassess the conclusions of such studies by using more appropriate molecular calibrations derived from recent geological events. PMID:17464882

Waters, Jonathan M; Rowe, Diane L; Apte, Smita; King, Tania M; Wallis, Graham P; Anderson, Leigh; Norris, Richard J; Craw, Dave; Burridge, Christopher P

2007-04-01

191

Influence of environmental gradients on C and N stable isotope ratios in coral reef biota of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea features a natural environmental gradient characterized by increasing water temperature, nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations from North to South. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between ecohydrography, particulate organic matter (POM) and coral reef biota that are poorly understood by means of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) stable isotopes. Herbivorous, planktivorous and carnivorous fishes, zooplankton, soft corals (Alcyonidae), and bivalves (Tridacna squamosa) were a priori defined as biota guilds. Environmental samples (nutrients, chlorophyll a), oceanographic data (salinity, temperature), POM and biota were collected at eight coral reefs between 28°31? N and 16°31? N. Isotopic niches of guilds separated in ?13C and ?15N isotopic niche spaces and were significantly correlated with environmental factors at latitudinal scale. Dietary end member contributions were estimated using the Bayesian isotope mixing model SIAR. POM and zooplankton 15N enrichment suggested influences by urban run-off in the industrialized central region of the Red Sea. Both ?15N and their relative trophic positions (RTPs) tend to increase southwards, but urban runoff offsets the natural environmental gradient in the central region of the Red Sea toward higher ?15N and RTPs. The present study reveals that consumer ?13C and ?15N in Red Sea coral reefs are influenced primarily by the latitudinal environmental gradient and localized urban runoff. This study illustrates the importance of ecohydrography when interpreting trophic relationships from stable isotopes in Red Sea coral reefs.

Kürten, Benjamin; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Struck, Ulrich; Khomayis, Hisham Sulaiman; Gharbawi, Waleed Yousef; Sommer, Ulrich

2014-01-01

192

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research project is to collect data to model resident fish requirements for Lake Roosevelt as part of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Bureau of Reclamation (BoR), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineer`s (ACE) System Operation Review. The System Operation Review (SOR) is a tri-agency team functioning to review the use and partitioning of Columbia Basin waters. User groups of the Columbia have been defined as power, irrigation, flood control, anadromous fish, resident fish, wildlife, recreation, water quality, navigation, and cultural resources. Once completed the model will predict biological responses to different reservoir operation strategies. The model being developed for resident fish is based on Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks model for resident fish requirements within Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs. While the Montana model predicts fish growth based on the impacts of reservoir operation and flow conditions on primary and secondary production levels, the Lake Roosevelt model will also factor in the affects of water retention time on zooplankton production levels and fish entrainment. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include: (1) quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; (2) quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; (3) determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and (4) quantification of entrainment levels of fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report contains the results of the resident fish system operation review program for Lake Roosevelt from January through December 1992.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.

1996-01-01

193

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations : Final Report 1993.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that will predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. This study worked in conjunction with Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project which investigated the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries. This report summarized the data collected from Lake Roosevelt from 1993 and includes limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, experimental trawling, and net-pen rainbow trout tagging data. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times.

Voeller, Amy C.

1993-01-01

194

Temporal and spatial trends in total PCB and PCB congeners in biota in a river-reservoir system  

SciTech Connect

Since 1984, biennial studies of PCBs have been conducted in fishes, crayfish and insects in the Housatonic River, CT., and additional data are available from earlier studies. PCB data quantitated from presumptive Aroclor concentrations overestimated total PCB concentrations ([TPCB]) by about 13%, although the estimates by the 2 methods were very highly correlated. Ages of all fish specimens were determined. Spatial and temporal trends in [TPCB] were analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for relationships between [TPCB] and age, lipid content, location and sex. Adjusted [TPCB] consistently decreased in the downstream direction. [TPCB] decreased within the years after cessation of direct inputs (around 1978). However, in the 1984--1992 period [TPCB] trends were weak and variable. Concentrations in 1994 were lower than previous years (statistical comparisons showing 1994 to be the lowest year or among a group of years with the lowest concentrations). Between year differences were probably related to temperature, storm flows and other factors affecting availability and accumulation. These variations were greater in riverine sites than in reservoirs. In brown trout, [TPCB] increased rapidly within 1--2 months after stocking. Over longer periods, [TPCB] were more closely related to seasonal cycles in lipid content rather than to time in river. Increases in [TPCB] with age were most evident for long-lived species in reservoirs. Several congeners which are abundant in Aroclors 1254 and 1260 predominated the samples. However, spatial and temporal differences in accumulation of different congeners were evident. Spatial differences in the concentration of some marker congeners reflected enrichment of these congeners from original Aroclor 1254 and 1260 sources, as well as supplemental inputs of Aroclor 1242.

Horwitz, R.J.; McNair, J.N.; Hermanson, M.H. [Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, PA (United States). Environmental Research Division

1995-12-31

195

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations Appendices; 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of appendices A-F containing the biological data which were collected from Lake Roosevelt, Washington. The data are to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses of reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the model included: Quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

1995-08-01

196

A new approach for assessing the state of environment using isometric log-ratio transformation and outlier detection for computation of mean PCDD/F patterns in biota.  

PubMed

To assess the state of the environment, various compartments are examined as part of monitoring programs. Within monitoring, a special focus is on chemical pollution. One of the most toxic substances ever synthesized is the well-known dioxin 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetra-chlor-dibenzo-dioxin). Other PCDD/F (polychlorinated-dibenzo-dioxin and furan) can act toxic too. They are ubiquitary and persistent in various environmental compartments. Assessing the state of environment requires knowledge of typical local patterns of PCDD/F for as many compartments as possible. For various species of wild animals and plants (so called biota), I present the mean local congenere profiles of ubiquitary PCDD/F contamination reflecting typical patterns and levels of environmental burden for various years. Trends in time series of means can indicate success or failure of a measure of PCDD/F reduction. For short time series of mean patterns, it can be hard to detect trends. A new approach regarding proportions of outliers in the corresponding annual cross-sectional data sets in parallel can help detect decreasing or increasing environmental burden and support analysis of time series. Further, in this article, the true structure of PCDD/F data in biota is revealed, that is, the compositional data structure. It prevents direct application of statistical standard procedures to the data rendering results of statistical analysis meaningless. Results indicate that the compositional data structure of PCDD/F in biota is of great interest and should be taken into account in future studies. Isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformation is used, providing data statistical standard procedures that can be applied too. Focusing on the identification of typical PCDD/F patterns in biota, outliers are removed from annual data since they represent an extraordinary situation in the environment. Identification of outliers yields two advantages. First, typical (mean) profiles and levels of PCDD/F contamination can be identified. Second, decreasing (increasing) proportions of outliers could indicate decreasing (increasing) numbers of extraordinary environmental burden rendering the success of PCDD/F reduction strategies for biota. Therefore, probabilities and proportions of outlier contamination are estimated too. To reveal the enormous influence of the method of outlier detection, the applied two well-known procedures are compared, that is, robust Mahalanobis distance and a projection pursuit-based approach. PMID:25427827

Lehmann, René

2015-01-01

197

Spatial and temporal trends of mercury in water, sediments and biota in a mainstream Canadian reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) concentrations within several environmental matrices were examined, during high and low water periods of a 1,778.7 kM{sup 2} northern Canada drawdown reservoir, as part of an Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program. Mercury, and 20 other metals, were analyzed in liver tissues of two benthic foraging fish species, Largescale Sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Previous work on the reservoir demonstrated a positive correlation between mercury in muscle tissue and Lake Whitefish weight, Results from the current investigation were compared to historical data from the reservoir and several mercuriferous lakes in the region. Research dating from 1970 indicated elevated Hg concentrations in reservoir water (0.026 to 0.09 ppb) and in Lake Whitefish, with no significant decline noted to date. Hg levels in Whitefish muscle tissue averaged 0.20 ppm and were comparable to post-impoundment concentrations observed in Alberta reservoirs. Sediment and water samples and in situ water profiles were examined at 34 stations throughout the system. Sediments and water underwent a variety of organic and inorganic analyses, including mercury. Spatial and temporal analytical concentration profiles were determined for a variety of specific environmental matrices.

Thomas, G.P.; Munteanu, N. [G3 Consulting Ltd., Richmond, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

198

Development of a method for assessing the toxicity of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) to soil biota  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed to assess the toxicity of VOCs to plants and earthworms (survival of Eisenia foetida). The procedures followed were based on Greene et al. Gas samples for head space analyses were removed, at test initiation a termination, through a bulkhead fitting in the lid equipped with septa. Treatment levels were prepared, at low temperature to minimize volatilization, by spiking a soil sample with the compound of interest and then serially diluting it with clean soil. Root elongation tests were conducted on filter paper supported by 70 mesh silica sand spiked with the volatile of interest. Soils were then inundated with water, shaken with heating, and the headspace reanalyzed for the total contaminant concentration in the test system (total equals headspace plus adsorbed). Enclosing the seeds and worms in containers did not appear to have detrimental effects. VOCs tested included benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,2-trichloroethylene. Each test was repeated three times with different batches of soil, seed lots and worms from different colonies. Endpoints derived based on nominal and measured concentrations included: NOEC, LOEC, LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 25} for earthworm mortality and EC{sub 50} and EC{sub 25} for emergence and root elongation.

Cureton, P.M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch; Lintott, D.; Balch, G.; Goudey, S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31

199

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

1995-08-01

200

Hydrothermal vent fields and chemosynthetic biota on the world's deepest seafloor spreading centre.  

PubMed

The Mid-Cayman spreading centre is an ultraslow-spreading ridge in the Caribbean Sea. Its extreme depth and geographic isolation from other mid-ocean ridges offer insights into the effects of pressure on hydrothermal venting, and the biogeography of vent fauna. Here we report the discovery of two hydrothermal vent fields on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre. The Von Damm Vent Field is located on the upper slopes of an oceanic core complex at a depth of 2,300?m. High-temperature venting in this off-axis setting suggests that the global incidence of vent fields may be underestimated. At a depth of 4,960?m on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre axis, the Beebe Vent Field emits copper-enriched fluids and a buoyant plume that rises 1,100?m, consistent with >400?°C venting from the world's deepest known hydrothermal system. At both sites, a new morphospecies of alvinocaridid shrimp dominates faunal assemblages, which exhibit similarities to those of Mid-Atlantic vents. PMID:22233630

Connelly, Douglas P; Copley, Jonathan T; Murton, Bramley J; Stansfield, Kate; Tyler, Paul A; German, Christopher R; Van Dover, Cindy L; Amon, Diva; Furlong, Maaten; Grindlay, Nancy; Hayman, Nicholas; Hühnerbach, Veit; Judge, Maria; Le Bas, Tim; McPhail, Stephen; Meier, Alexandra; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Nye, Verity; Pebody, Miles; Pedersen, Rolf B; Plouviez, Sophie; Sands, Carla; Searle, Roger C; Stevenson, Peter; Taws, Sarah; Wilcox, Sally

2012-01-01

201

Hydrothermal vent fields and chemosynthetic biota on the world's deepest seafloor spreading centre  

PubMed Central

The Mid-Cayman spreading centre is an ultraslow-spreading ridge in the Caribbean Sea. Its extreme depth and geographic isolation from other mid-ocean ridges offer insights into the effects of pressure on hydrothermal venting, and the biogeography of vent fauna. Here we report the discovery of two hydrothermal vent fields on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre. The Von Damm Vent Field is located on the upper slopes of an oceanic core complex at a depth of 2,300?m. High-temperature venting in this off-axis setting suggests that the global incidence of vent fields may be underestimated. At a depth of 4,960?m on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre axis, the Beebe Vent Field emits copper-enriched fluids and a buoyant plume that rises 1,100?m, consistent with >400?°C venting from the world's deepest known hydrothermal system. At both sites, a new morphospecies of alvinocaridid shrimp dominates faunal assemblages, which exhibit similarities to those of Mid-Atlantic vents. PMID:22233630

Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jonathan T.; Murton, Bramley J.; Stansfield, Kate; Tyler, Paul A.; German, Christopher R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Amon, Diva; Furlong, Maaten; Grindlay, Nancy; Hayman, Nicholas; Huhnerbach, Veit; Judge, Maria; Le Bas, Tim; McPhail, Stephen; Meier, Alexandra; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Nye, Verity; Pebody, Miles; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Plouviez, Sophie; Sands, Carla; Searle, Roger C.; Stevenson, Peter; Taws, Sarah; Wilcox, Sally

2012-01-01

202

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: an overview.  

PubMed

Over 1999-2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 mug/g, the consumption guideline for frequent consumers of fish, and 0.5 microg/g, the guideline for the commercial use of fish. Numerous consumption advisories were issued for lakes along the Mackenzie River. Relatively high mercury levels appear to be due to a combination of relatively old fish populations (because of light fishing pressures) and tend to be more prevalent in smaller lakes where warmer summer water temperatures and watershed influences result in greater mercury and methyl mercury inputs. Mercury levels were substantially lower in char than in lake trout, possibly due to a combination of a less fish-rich diet, a colder environment, and smaller MeHg watershed inputs. Less research has been conducted on other metals but some, such as rubidium, show pronounced variations in concentration that may be related to geological influences. Temporal trend monitoring has revealed little evidence of declining mercury levels in fish that can be attributed to declining atmospheric inputs. Because mercury follows complex pathways in the environment, other factors may operate to counteract reductions in atmospheric mercury sources, e.g., climatic variability, changes in the commercial fishery, and interactions between fish species. Most organochlorine (OC) investigations were based on long term trend monitoring and focused on char (Cornwallis Island), burbot (Great Slave Lake, Yukon lakes, Slave River at Fort Smith, Mackenzie River at Fort Good Hope) and lake trout (Yukon lakes, Great Slave Lake). There was strong evidence of declining OC concentrations in char, particularly SigmaHCH and Sigmachlordane, which may reflect a response to declining atmospheric inputs. Endosulfan concentrations increased, as in the atmosphere. There also was evidence of declining OC concentrations in burbot in the Slave and Mackenzie rivers but not in Great Slave Lake and Yukon lakes. OC concentrations decreased in lake trout in Yukon lakes in the 2000s, most probably because of changes in the fish themselves (i.e., reduced lipid content, condition factor) and possibly climatic variability. Similarly, OCs declined in Great Slave Lake trout. New research on PDBEs and perfluorinated compounds determined that these contaminants are widespread in freshwater fish and concentrations may be increasing. Global warming is a major issue of concern for Arctic and Subarctic waters and may have adverse impacts on contaminant levels in fish and other biota. There is a need for contaminant studies in the north to be broadened to investigate climatic effects. In addition, monitoring studies should be broadened to consider factors affecting other aspects of fish biology. Foremost among these is integrating contaminant monitoring studies on lakes such as Lake Laberge and Great Slave Lake with stock assessment studies. Ecosystem based studies should be conducted on Great Slave Lake and Lake Laberge to more effectively understand contaminant trends and should consider inputs (atmospheric, river inflow, resupension), losses (sedimentation, volatilization), and biological pathways. PMID:16225909

Evans, Marlene S; Muir, Derek; Lockhart, W Lyle; Stern, Gary; Ryan, M; Roach, Pat

2005-12-01

203

Are the toxic sediments deposited at Flix reservoir affecting the Ebro river biota? Purple heron eggs and nestlings as indicators.  

PubMed

The Flix reservoir, in the low course of the Ebro River, contains thousands of tons of polluted sediments, accumulated from the activities of a chemical factory. An ongoing project is working toward removing these pollutants. Piscivore birds like the purple heron (Ardea purpurea) may be useful bioindicators, so eggs and nestling feathers were sampled during the 2006-2008 breeding seasons at three localities: a reference site situated upstream and two potentially affected by the toxic muds; one at the focal area and one at a distal area, the Ebro Delta. The samples were analyzed for isotopic signatures of ¹?N and ¹³C and concentrations of heavy metals and selenium. Baseline nitrogen signatures were higher in riverine sites than in the delta. Nitrogen together with carbon signatures adequately discriminated riverine and deltaic ecosystems. Mercury levels are highly influenced by the polluted sediments at Flix and pose potential risks for the birds, as they are among the highest ever recorded in heron species. Selenium and copper concentrations probably derive from other sources. Except for mercury, heavy metals and selenium levels were below toxic levels. Purple heron eggs and nestling feathers have demonstrated their usefulness as bioindicators for pollution in the river biota; feathers in particular show pollutant impacts on a strict local basis. A long series of study years is necessary in dynamic ecosystems such as this, so continued monitoring of the heron population at Flix is advisable to trace the effects of the toxic muds, particularly during their removal, because of the high levels of mercury detected. PMID:22526922

Cotín, Javier; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina

2012-07-01

204

Did southern Western Ghats of peninsular India serve as refugia for its endemic biota during the Cretaceous volcanism?  

PubMed Central

The Western Ghats (WG) of south India, a global biodiversity hotspot, has experienced complex geological history being part of Gondwana landmass and encountered extensive volcanic activity at the end of Cretaceous epoch. It also has a climatically and topographically heterogeneous landscape. Thus, the WG offer a unique setting to explore the influence of ecological and geological processes on the current diversity and distribution of its biota. To this end, three explicit biogeographical scenarios were hypothesized to evaluate the distribution and diversification of wet evergreen species of the WG – (1) southern WG was a refuge for the wet evergreen species during the Cretaceous volcanism, (2) phylogenetic breaks in the species phylogeny would correspond to geographic breaks (i.e., the Palghat gap) in the WG, and (3) species from each of the biogeographic subdivisions within the WG would form distinct clades. These hypotheses were tested on the centipede genus Digitipes from the WG which is known to be an ancient, endemic, and monophyletic group. The Digitipes molecular phylogeny was subjected to divergence date estimation using Bayesian approach, and ancestral areas were reconstructed using parsimony approach for each node in the phylogeny. Ancestral-area reconstruction suggested 13 independent dispersal events to explain the current distribution of the Digitipes species in the WG. Among these 13 dispersals, two dispersal events were at higher level in the Digitipes phylogeny and were from the southern WG to the central and northern WG independently in the Early Paleocene, after the Cretaceous Volcanism. The remaining 11 dispersal events explained the species’ range expansions of which nine dispersals were from the southern WG to other biogeographic subdivisions in the Eocene-Miocene in the post-volcanic periods where species-level diversifications occurred. Taken together, these results suggest that southern WG might have served as a refuge for Digitipes species during Cretaceous volcanism. PMID:24223267

Joshi, Jahnavi; Karanth, Praveen

2013-01-01

205

Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and expected life detection targets. We have characterized the mineralogy, organic chemistry and microbiology of ten selected sample sites from the Utah desert in close vicinity to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign (organized by International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), NASA Ames and ESA ESTEC). Compared with extremely arid deserts (such as the Atacama), organic and biological materials can be identified in a larger number of samples and subsequently be used to perform correlation studies. Among the important findings of this field research campaign are the diversity in the mineralogical composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles, mainly Bacteria and also Archaea and Eukarya was observed. The dominant factor in measurable bacterial abundance seems to be soil porosity and lower small (clay-sized) particle content. However, correlations between many measured parameters are difficult to establish. Field research conducted during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign shows that the geological history and depositional environment of the region, as well as the mineralogy influence the ability to detect compounds such as amino acids and DNA. Clays are known to strongly absorb and bind organic molecules often preventing extraction by even sophisticated laboratory methods. Our results indicate the need for further development and optimization of extraction procedures that release biological compounds from host matrices to enable the effective detection of biomarkers during future sampling campaigns on Earth and Mars.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W. F. M.; Thiel, C. S.; Quinn, R.; Sephton, M. A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, J. M.; Direito, S. O. L.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; van Sluis, C. A.; Foing, B. H.

2011-07-01

206

Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 ?g l(-1)) and Mn (12 ?g l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results. PMID:23014923

Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

2013-05-01

207

Simplified sample preparation method for triclosan and methyltriclosan determination in biota and foodstuff samples.  

PubMed

An improved method for the determination of triclosan (TCS) and methyltriclosan (MTCS) in fish and foodstuff samples is presented. Analytes were simultaneously extracted and purified using the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, and then selectively determined by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Several combinations of dispersants, clean-up co-sorbents and extraction solvents were tested in order to obtain lipid-free extracts and quantitative recoveries for TCS and MTCS. Under optimised conditions, 0.5 g samples were dispersed using 1.5 g of neutral silica in a mortar with a pestle, and transferred to a polypropylene cartridge containing 3 g of silica impregnated with 10% of sulphuric acid (SiO2-H2SO4, 10%, w/w). Analytes were recovered with 10 mL of dichloromethane whereas lipids were oxidized in the layer of acidic silica. The extract was concentrated to dryness and re-constituted with 1 mL of ethyl acetate. Then, a fraction of 0.5 mL was mixed with 50 microL of N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and injected in the GC-MS/MS system. The developed method provided absolute recoveries between 77 and 120% for different samples spiked at the low ng g(-1) level, quantification limits in the range of 1-2 ng g(-1) and a considerable simplicity in comparison with previously developed sample preparation approaches. Experiments carried out placing sliced food samples in direct contact with TCS-treated kitchenware surfaces showed the capability of the biocide to migrate into foodstuffs. PMID:18329035

Canosa, P; Rodríguez, I; Rubí, E; Ramil, M; Cela, R

2008-04-25

208

Heavy metals in Lake Balaton: water column, suspended matter, sediment and biota.  

PubMed

During the period 1999-2002, five sampling cruises have been carried out on Lake Balaton to assess trace metal distribution in the lake and to identify major sources. Eighteen elements, including Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb (trace metals) and Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr (major metals), were determined in one or more of the lake's compartments. Lower trace metal concentrations in rainwater were observed in June and February 2000, while much higher levels were present in September 2001 (during a storm event) and in snow (February 2000). In the Northern and Western parts of the lake, especially at the inflow of river Zala and the locations of the yacht harbours, metal concentrations were higher in almost all compartments. Because the lake is very shallow, storm conditions also change significantly the metal distributions in the dissolved and particulate phases. The Kis-Balaton protection system located on Zala river functions very efficiently for retaining suspended particulate matter (SPM; 72% retention) and associated metals. Metal concentrations in surface sediments of the lake showed a high variability. After normalisation for the fine sediment fraction, only a few stations including Zala mouth appeared to be enriched in trace metals. In zooplankton, Zn seemed to be much more elevated compared to the other trace metals. Based on the molar ratios of the trace metals in the various compartments and input flows of the lake, several trends could be deduced. For example, molar ratios of the trace metals in the dissolved and solid (suspended particulate matter and sediments) phases in the lake are fairly similar to those in Zala River. PMID:15752503

Nguyen, H L; Leermakers, M; Osán, J; Török, S; Baeyens, W

2005-03-20

209

The use of biota sampling for environmental contaminant analysis for characterization of benthic communities in the Aleutians.  

PubMed

It is increasingly clear that the public, native tribes, and governmental agencies are interested in assessing the well-being of natural resources and ecosystems. This may take the form of understanding species presence, monitoring population status and trends, measuring behavior, or quantifying physiology, biological stresses, or chemical/radiological exposure through biomarkers. Often there is a separation between understanding the biological aspects of species well-being and assessing exposure to contaminants. In this paper we examine the applicability of using scuba sampling aimed primarily at specimen collection for radionuclide analysis to assess species presence/absence and to compare among sampling sites and depths. We were especially interested in whether dive transects could provide information on species presence and potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In June/July 2004 we sampled at 49 depth stations along 19 transects at Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the western Aleutian Islands in the Northern Pacific/Bering Sea region. Amchitka Island, a former World War II U.S. Navy base, was the site of three underground nuclear test shots from 1965 to 1971. Four to six transects were established at three Amchitka sites and two Kiska Sites, and 2 to 4 stations were sampled on each transect. Bottom conditions, weather and currents prevented a complete sampling of all stations. There were interspecific differences in the percent of stations where biota were found and collected, in their occurrence near the three test shots on Amchitka, and in the depth where they were found. There were no significant differences between Amchitka and Kiska Island in the percent of stations where species were found. These data suggest that information gathered incidentally to the collection of specimens for chemical/radiological analysis can prove useful for understanding the presence of benthic organisms along particular transects, at given depths, and at different geographical locations. This information also provides a baseline for the range of organisms that could be exposed to future physical or chemical/radiological stressors. The data are useful for developing future biomonitoring plans to assess biological well-being and chemical/radiological exposure only if they are published and available to the public, public policy makers, and managers. Just as it is critical to select endpoints and bioindicators that are of interest for assessing both human and ecological health, specimens should be collected using a protocol that is useful for both chemical/radiological analysis and biological information. PMID:16828148

Burger, Joanna; Jewett, Stephen; Gochfeld, Michael; Hoberg, Max; Harper, Shawn; Chenelot, Heloise; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean

2006-10-01

210

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

211

Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

2009-01-01

212

Impact assessment of ionizing radiation on human and non-human biota from the vicinity of a near-surface radioactive waste repository.  

PubMed

This work describes the radiological assessment of the near-surface Maisiagala radioactive waste repository (Lithuania) over the period 2005-2012, with focus on water pathways and special emphasis on tritium. The study includes an assessment of the effect of post-closure upgrading, the durability of which is greater than 30 years. Both human and terrestrial non-human biota are considered, with local low-intensity forestry and small farms being the area of concern. The radiological exposure was evaluated using the RESRAD-OFFSITE, RESRAD-BIOTA and ERICA codes in combination with long-term data from a dedicated environmental monitoring programme. All measurements were performed at the Lithuanian Institute of Physics as part of this project. It is determined that, after repository upgrading, radiological exposure to humans are significantly lower than the human dose constraint of 0.2 mSv/year valid in the Republic of Lithuania. Likewise, for non-human biota, dose rates are below the ERICA/PROTECT screening levels. The potential annual effective inhalation dose that could be incurred by the highest-exposed human individual (which is due to tritiated water vapour airborne release over the most exposed area) does not exceed 0.1 ?Sv. Tritium-labelled drinking water appears to be the main pathway for human impact, representing about 83 % of the exposure. Annual committed effective dose (CED) values for members of the public consuming birch sap as medical practice are calculated to be several orders of magnitude below the CEDs for the same location associated with drinking of well water. The data presented here indicate that upper soil-layer samples may not provide a good indication of potential exposure to terrestrial deep-rooted trees, as demonstrated by an investigation of stratified (3)H in soil moisture, expressed on a wet soil mass basis, in an area with subsurface contamination. PMID:23377320

Nedveckaite, T; Gudelis, A; Vives i Batlle, J

2013-05-01

213

An Effective Solid State Sensor for In-situ Measurement of the Chemical and Thermal Environment Near Vent Biota - Preliminary Results from the Galapagos Expedition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal activity and associated biota 25 years ago in the Galapagos Rift Zone, numerous efforts have been devoted to study the chemistry of the venting fluids and its impact on vent animals. However, owing to limited progress in development of in-situ sensing technology under this extreme condition, our knowledge of this systems has largely been derived from indirect methods. Based on our recent success in development of chemical sensors for application in seafloor hot spring fluids, a new in-situ sensor unit was constructed with capabilities optimized for application with DSV Alvin in relatively low temperature conditions of diffuse flow regime. The sensor consists of Ir-IrO2 and Ti-TiO2 electrodes as parallel pH sensing elements, together with Ag-AgCl as a reference. These sensors are used in combination with Pt as a dissolved H2 sensing element, and Ag-Ag2S as a dissolved H2S sensor. A Ti-sheathed E-type thermocouple is also included inside the electrode package for temperature control. All sensing elements are enclosed in a Ti compartment with O.D. of 1.75 cm. The horizontal distances between all of the sensing electrodes and thermocouples are less than 0.5 cm. Moreover, the response region of the sensor is limited to 0.5 cm from the tip, which allows precise control of chemical measurement in specific thermal regimes. Measurements are recorded at the rate of 3-5 seconds per-reading through an inductively coupled link (ICL) between the sensor unit and the receiving computer inside the sub. The entire sensor, including supporting electronics, is directly mounted on the starboard side manipulator of Alvin, thus utilizing the submersible's hydraulic system for mechanical movement. Measurements were successfully conducted during six dives at depths of 2501 to 1666 meters, while vent fluid temperatures were up to 22.9°C. The highest temperature was recorded at the base of a colony of Riftia pachyptila during Alvin dive 3790 to the Mark F area. A relatively stable chemical environment characterizes the 22.9°C-warm fluids. In general, pH is significantly lower than ambient, while dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations are higher. In reference to the ambient seawater values, these differences can be up to 0.48 pH units, and 1.58 and 1.43 log units for dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations respectively. Sensor measurements in the vicinity of the tubeworm plume reveal fluctuations in both temperature (~6°C) and pH conditions. Dissolved H2S concentrations, however, are still at the level of approximately one log unit higher than the ambient seawater. From the tubeworm plume to the base, a well defined negative linear correlation was observed between fluid temperature and pH, which likely reflects mixing dynamics between the seawater and vent fluid. Measurements were also performed around living mussels at venting sites. At the top of the mussel beds, fluid temperatures are only 1~2°C higher than seawater, while deep into the beds, relatively large temperature, pH and dissolved H2 anomalies were detected. Clearly, the ability to measure in-situ chemistry in real time offers great promise for future discovery of the complex interaction between biological communities and hydrothermal fluid at the vent sites. The success to date notwithstanding, additional lab-based efforts are needed to enhance sensor performance and operational characteristics.

Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.

2002-12-01

214

Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.  

PubMed

Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs?=4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method. PMID:23702571

Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

2013-12-01

215

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea Area, California, 1986-87. Water-Resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled during 1986-87 in the Salton Sea area to determine concentrations of trace elements and pesticides as part of the Department of Interior Irrigation Drainage Program. The sampling sites (12 water, 15 bottom sediment, and 5 biota) were located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The focus of sampling was to determine if contaminants in irrigation drainage from Department of the Interior-sponsored irrigation projects have caused or have the potential to cause substantial harmful effects to humans, fish, or wildlife, or to reduce the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Results indicate that selenium is the major element of concern. Elevated concentrations of selenium in water were restricted to tile-drain effluent. The maximum selenium concentration of 300 micrograms per liter was detected in tile drain 6, and the minimum concentration of 1 microgram per liter was detected in a composite sample of Salton Sea water. The median selenium concentration was 19 micrograms per liter. In contrast to the water, the highest bottom-sediment selenium concentration of 3.3 milligrams per kilogram was in a composite sample from the Salton Sea. Concentrations of boron, chromium, nickel, zinc, and organochlorine pesticide residues were detected.

Setmire, J.G.; Wolfe, J.C.; Stroud, R.K.

1990-01-01

216

Explaining the Spatial Variability in Stream Acid Buffering Chemistry and Aquatic Biota in the Neversink River Watershed, Catskill Mountains, New York State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neversink River Watershed (NRW) originates at the highest point in the Catskill Mountains and is sensitive to changing patterns in acidic deposition, precipitation, and air temperature. Despite reductions in fossil fuel emission since the Clean Air Act, past acidic deposition has accelerated the leaching of cations from the soil and reduced the stores of base cations necessary for buffering stream acidity. The goal of this study was to investigate connections between different watershed ‘features’ and the apparently complex spatial patterns of stream buffering chemistry (specifically, acid neutralizing capacity ANC and Ca concentrations) and aquatic biota (macroinvertebrate and fish populations). The ten nested NRW watersheds (2.0 km^2 to 176.0 km^2) have relatively homogeneous bedrock geology, forested cover, and soil series; therefore, we hypothesized that differing distributions of hydrological flowpaths between the watersheds control the variability in stream buffering chemistry and aquatic biota. However because the flowpath distributions are not directly measurable, this study used step-wise linear regression to develop relationships between watershed ‘features’ and buffering chemistry. The regression results showed that the mean ratio of precipitation to stream runoff (or runoff ratio) from twenty non-winter storm events explained more than 81% of the variability in mean summer ANC and Ca concentrations. The results also suggested that steeper (higher mean slope) more channelized watersheds (larger drainage density) are more susceptible to stream acidity and negative impacts on biota. A simple linear relationship (using no discharge or water chemistry measurements) was able to explain buffering chemistry and aquatic biota populations in 17 additional NRW watersheds (0.3 km^2 to 160.0 km^2), including 60-80% of the variability in macroinvertebrate populations (EPT richness and BAP) and 50-60% of the variability in fish density and species richness. These results have several important implications for understanding the effects of climate change on buffering chemistry and aquatic biota in this well-studied watershed. First, the results demonstrate that geomorphological and hydrogeological ‘features’ control the spatial variability of stream buffering chemistry, suggesting that acidification ‘hot-spots’ could be predicted a priori. Second, the connection between event-scale processes (runoff ratio) and average stream chemistry imply that changing precipitation patterns in the Catskills may have uneven effects on long-term buffering chemistry between ‘flashy’ and ‘damped’ watersheds. Specifically, an increasing trend in precipitation in the last 25 years in the Catskill Mountains makes it difficult to compare base cation recovery across NRW streams, even if the concentrations are normalized by discharge. The results of this study could improve the modeling of base cation recovery in surface waters in other mountainous Northeastern U.S. watersheds with future reductions in acidic deposition and differing climate scenarios.

Harpold, A. A.; Walter, M. T.

2009-12-01

217

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first appearance of its namesake herbivorous condylarth, Meniscotherium, but Wa-M seemingly lacks APP taxa. Overlying Wa-M is the better known 'Wa-0' fauna in a zone spanning 30 meters of strata and about 120 thousand years of geological time. This has dwarfed mammals and APP taxa, and is overlain in turn by strata with a standard Wa-1 early Eocene fauna. Documentation is still in progress, but it appears that the change from a Cf-3 to a Wa-M fauna lagged behind the onset of the CIE, the Wa-M fauna coincided with maximum excursion of the CIE, and the Wa-0 fauna lagged behind this maximum excursion and filled the recovery phase of the CIE. It is possible that other short-lived faunas will be found in addition to those already known because the events of interest are so short in duration that they may not be preserved in every stratigraphic section. Biotic effects (e.g., dwarfing and other adaptive change, biotic extinction, and biotic origination) are compelling reasons to study global warming, and the PETM provides an opportunity to study warming and sustainability in an event free from human influence.;

Gingerich, P. D.

2012-12-01

218

Determination of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in water, sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid using large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Several methods were developed to detect the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in water, sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid samples. Analytical techniques employed to optimize measurement of this compound class in various matrices included membrane-assisted solvent extraction in water, liquid-solid extraction for sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid samples. A subsequent analysis of the extract was conducted by large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). These methods employed no evaporative techniques to avoid potential losses and contamination of the volatile siloxanes. To compensate for the inability to improve detection limits by concentrating final sample extract volumes we used a LVI-GC-MS. Contamination during analysis was minimized by using a septumless GC configuration to avoid cVMS's associated with septum bleed. These methods performed well achieving good linearity, low limits of detection, good precision, recovery, and a wide dynamic range. In addition, stability of cVMS in water and sediment was assessed under various storage conditions. D4 and D5 in Type-I (Milli-Q) water stored at 4°C were stable within 29d; however, significant depletion of D6 (60-70%) occurred only after 3d. Whereas cVMS in sewage influent and effluent were stable at 4°C within 21d. cVMS in sediment sealed in amber glass jars at -20°C and in pentane extracts in vials at -15°C were stable during 1month under both storage conditions. PMID:23211330

Wang, De-Gao; Alaee, Mehran; Steer, Helena; Tait, Tara; Williams, Zackery; Brimble, Samantha; Svoboda, Lewina; Barresi, Enzo; Dejong, Maryl; Schachtschneider, Joanne; Kaminski, Ed; Norwood, Warren; Sverko, Ed

2013-10-01

219

The Relationship between Genus Richness and Geographic Area in Late Cretaceous Marine Biotas: Epicontinental Sea versus Open-Ocean-Facing Settings  

PubMed Central

For present-day biotas, close relationships have been documented between the number of species in a given region and the area of the region. To date, however, there have been only limited studies of these relationships in the geologic record, particularly for ancient marine biotas. The recent development of large-scale marine paleontological databases, in conjunction with enhanced geographical mapping tools, now allow for their investigation. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in comparing the environmental and paleobiological properties of two broad-scale marine settings: epicontinental seas, broad expanses of shallow water covering continental areas, and open-ocean-facing settings, shallow shelves and coastlines that rim ocean basins. Recent studies indicate that spatial distributions of taxa and the kinetics of taxon origination and extinction may have differed in these two settings. Against this backdrop, we analyze regional Genus-Area Relationships (GARs) of Late Cretaceous marine invertebrates in epicontinental sea and open-ocean settings using data from the Paleobiology Database. We present a new method for assessing GARs that is particularly appropriate for fossil data when the geographic distribution of these data is patchy and uneven. Results demonstrate clear relationships between genus richness and area for regions worldwide, but indicate that as area increases, genus richness increases more per unit area in epicontinental seas than in open-ocean settings. This difference implies a greater degree of compositional heterogeneity as a function of geographic area in epicontinental sea settings, a finding that is consistent with the emerging understanding of physical differences in the nature of water masses between the two marine settings. PMID:22870199

Lagomarcino, Anne J.; Miller, Arnold I.

2012-01-01

220

New 40Ar/ 39Ar dating results from the Shanwang Basin, eastern China: Constraints on the age of the Shanwang Formation and associated biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluvio-lacustrine sequence of the Shanwang Basin, eastern China, preserves a rich and important terrestrial fossil fauna and flora; the exceptional preservation of these fossils reveals the dynamics of ancient mammalian ecosystems and plant biology. However, the timing of this sedimentary sequence has been the subject of debate for decades. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting the detailed results of 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis of the basalts above, below, and within the Shanwang Formation. These dates place stringent constraints on the age of Shanwang Formation and associated biota. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages obtained from basalts of the Niushan and Yaoshan Formations, which underlie and overlie the Shanwang Formation, are 21.0 ± 2.5 Ma (2?, full external error) and 17.3 ± 1.5 Ma (2?, full external error), respectively. The 40Ar/ 39Ar age of the basalt in the Shanwang Formation is 17-18 Ma. Given the age constraints of the basalts of the Yaoshan and Shanwang Formations, the age of the Shanwang biota is estimated to be ca. 17 Ma, late Burdigalian of the Early Miocene, indicating that the deposition of this fauna coincided with the onset of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. The results provide new age constraints on the Shanwang mammal fauna, and independently support interpretations that this fauna can be assigned to chronozone MN4, and correlated with middle Orleanian of the European Land Mammal Age, and to late Hemingfordian of the North American Land Mammal Age. Biological diversity of the Shanwang Formation could reflect the global-scale mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum.

He, Huaiyu; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Deng, Tao; Luo, Zhaohua; Sun, Jimin; Zhu, Rixiang

2011-07-01

221

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled during 1986 and 1987 in the Salton Sea area to determine concentrations of trace elements and pesticides as part of the Department of Interior Irrigation Drainage Program. The sampling sites (12 water, 15 bottom sediment, and 5 biota) were located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The focus of sampling was to determine the current or potential threat to the wildlife of the Salton National Wildlife Refuge from irrigation projects sponsored or operated by the Department of the Interior. Results of the investigation indicate that selenium is the major element of concern. Elevated concentrations of selenium in water were restricted to tile-drain effluent. The maximum selenium concentration of 300 microg/L was detected in a tile-drain sample, and the minimum concentration of 1 microg/L was detected in a composite sample of Salton Sea water. The median selenium concentration was 19 microg/L. In contrast to the water, the highest bottom-sediment selenium concentration of 3.3 mg/kg was in a composite sample from the Salton Sea. The selenium detected in samples of waterfowl and fish also are of concern, but, to date, no studies have been done in the Salton Sea area to determine if selenium has caused adverse biological effects. Concentrations of boron and manganese were elevated in tile-drain samples throughout the Imperial Valley. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl were at levels that could cause reproduction impairment. Elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel, and zinc were detected in the Whitewater River , but they were not associated with irrigation drainage. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in bottom sediment throughout the study area at levels approaching those measured more than 10 years ago. More detailed studies would be needed to determine if these residues are affecting the waterfowl. (USGS)

Setmire, J.G.; Wolfe, J.C.; Stroud, R.K.

1990-01-01

222

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water, bottom-sediment, and biota samples were collected in 1990-91 to identify water-quality problems associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in some water samples exceeded aquatic-life criteria. Selenium was associated with irrigaton drainage from the Dolores Project, but other trace elements may be transported into the area in the irrigation water supply. Selenium concentrations exceeded the chronic aquatic-life criterion in water samples from lower McElmo Creek and Navajo Wash, which drain the Montezuma Valley, from newly irrigated areas, and from the Mancos River. The maximum selenium con- centration in water was 88 micrograms per liter from Navajo Wash. Concentrations of herbicides in water were less than concentrations harmful to aquatic life. Selenium concentrations in four bottom-sediment samples exceeded the baseline concentrations for soils in the Western United States. The largest selenium concentrations in biota were in samples from Navajo Wash, from newly irrigated areas north of the Montezuma Valley, and from the Mancos River basin. Selenium concentrations in aquatic-invertebrate samples from the newly irrigated areas exceeded a guideline for food items consumed by fish and wildlife. Selenium concen- trations in whole-body suckers were larger in the San Juan River downstream from the Dolores Project than upstream from the project at Four Corners. Selenium concentrations in fathead minnow samples from two sites were at adverse-effect levels. Mercury concentrations in warm-water game fish in reservoirs in the study area may be of concern to human health. Some concentrations of other trace elements exceeded background concentrations, but the concentrations were not toxicologically significant or the toxicologic significance is not known.

Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Jensen, E.G.

1995-01-01

223

Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for transport to streams and irrigation drains that are tributary to the Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Colorado Rivers. Selenium concentrations in about 64\\x11percent of water samples collected from the lower Gunnison River and about 50 percent of samples from the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line exceeded the U.S.\\x11Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 5\\x11micrograms per liter for protection of aquatic life. Almost all selenium concentrations in samples collected during the nonirrigation season from Mancos Shale areas exceeded the aquatic-life criterion. The maximum selenium concentrations in surface-water samples were 600\\x11micrograms per liter in the Uncompahgre Project area and 380\\x11micrograms per liter in the Grand Valley. Irrigation drainage from the Uncompahgre Project and the Grand Valley might account for as much as 75 percent of the selenium load in the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line. The primary source areas of selenium were the eastern side of the Uncompahgre Project and the western one-half of the Grand Valley, where there is extensive irrigation on soils derived from Mancos Shale. The largest mean selenium loads from tributary drainages were 14.0 pounds per day from Loutsenhizer Arroyo in the Uncompahgre Project and 12.8 pounds per day from Reed Wash in the Grand Valley. Positive correlations between selenium loads and dissolved-solids loads could indicate that salinity-control projects designed to decrease dissolved-solids loads also could decrease selenium loads from the irrigated areas. Selenium concentrations in irrigation drainage in the Grand Valley were much higher than concentrations predicted by simple evaporative concentration of irrigation source water. Selenium probably is removed from pond water by chemical and biological processes and incorporated into bottom sediment. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 47 micrograms per gram from a pond on the eastern side of the

Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

1996-01-01

224

Soil pollution associated to the El Borracho Pb-Ag mine (Badajoz Province, Spain). Metal transfer to biota: oak-tree and moss.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Borracho mine was active since Roman times, but with its higher production period on 19th Century. Mine closure occured without restoration works and nowadays the mining area is dedicated to deer hunting activities. In order to evaluate heavy metals distribution on mining tailings and surrounding soils of the studied area, 40 samples of dumps, soils and sediments were taken. Samples from the mine tailings were collected with an Eijkelkamp soil core sampler for undisturbed samples, with a vertical constant spacing of 25 cm. With this procedure, a total of 21 samples were taken in two points at main dump. Samples of Oak-tree leaves and moss were taken to evaluate metal transfer to biota. Analytical determinations have included soil parameters (pH, conductivity, organic matter content), and total metal contents in geological and biological samples by EDXRF. Analytical determinations shows higher metal contents in dumps, especially in surficial samples, 17,700 mg kg-1 and 470 mg kg-1 in average of Pb and Zn respectively, and lower contents in soils, 5,200 mg kg-1 and 300 mg kg-1, and sediments, 3,500 mg kg-1 and 120 mg kg-1. Metal contents in tailings profiles shows higher levels of Pb, Zn and Cu at 3.5 meters depth, a zone with lower grainsize and higher moisture. Differences in efficiency of extraction techniques and metal remobilization inside the dump can be an explanation for this enrichment level. Metal contents in agricultural soils exceeded maximum allowed levels by European Community (300 mg kg-1 for Pb and Zn and 140 mg kg-1 for Cu). Metal contents in biota evidence that Oak-tree bioaccumulates some metals, especially those with higher mobility in acidic conditions like Zn and Sb, with averages Bioaccumulation factor (BAF = plant concentration/soil concentration) of 0.48 and 0.85 respectively. Moss reaches high concentrations of Pb and Zn (3,000 mg kg-1 and 175 mg kg-1 in average respectively). Uptake pattern of Pb and Zn by plants leaves and mosses seems to be similar and can be characterized by logistic curves, with higher affinity of mosses to uptake metals from soils.

López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Naharro, Elena; García-Noguero, Eva Maria; Higueras, Pablo

2014-05-01

225

Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the soil between the crop rows where no pesticide was applied, causing toxic effects on terrestrial organisms. The two simulated agricultural crop-based scenarios had the merit to illustrate the importance of transfer pathways of pesticides from soil to groundwater through leaching and from crop rows to the surrounding soil areas in a soil-water interface environment, which is representative for irrigated agricultural crops under Mediterranean conditions. PMID:24562181

Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, Rui; José Cerejeira, M; Sousa, José Paulo

2014-05-01

226

Synthesis of thirty years of surface water quality and aquatic biota data in Shenandoah National Park: collaboration between the US Geological Survey and the National Park Service  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The eastern United States has been the recipient of acidic atmospheric deposition (hereinafter, “acid rain”) for many decades. Deleterious effects of acid rain on natural resources have been well documented for surface water (e.g., Likens et al. 1996; Stoddard et al. 2001), soils (Bailey et al. 2005), forest health (Long et al. 2009), and habitat suitability for stream biota (Baker et al. 1993). Shenandoah National Park (SNP) is located in northern and central Virginia and consists of a long, narrow strip of land straddling the Blue Ridge Mountains (Figure 1). The park’s elevated topography and location downwind of the Ohio River valley, where many acidic emissions to the atmosphere are generated (NSTC 2005), have made it a target for acid rain. Characterizing the link between air quality and water quality as related to acid rain, contaminants, soil conditions, and forest health is a high priority for research and monitoring in SNP. The US Geological Survey (USGS) and SNP have had a long history of collaboration on documenting acid rain effects on the park’s natural resources, starting in 1985 and continuing to the present (Lynch and Dise 1985; Rice et al. 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007; Deviney et al. 2006, 2012; Jastram et al. 2013).

Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.; Wofford, John E.B.; Schaberl, James P.

2014-01-01

227

A hybrid empirical-mechanistic modeling approach for extrapolating biota-sediment accumulation factors and bioaccumulation factors across species, time, and/or ecosystems.  

PubMed

An approach is presented for extrapolating field-measured biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) across species, time, and/or ecosystems. This approach, called the hybrid bioaccumulation modeling approach, uses mechanistic bioaccumulation models to extrapolate field-measured bioaccumulation data (i.e., BSAFs and BAFs) to new sets of ecological conditions. The hybrid approach predicts relative differences in bioaccumulation using food web models with two sets of ecological conditions and parameters: One set for the ecosystem where the BSAFs and/or BAFs were measured, and the other set for the ecological conditions and parameters for which the extrapolated BSAFs and/or BAFs are desired. The field-measured BSAF (or BAF) is extrapolated by adjusting the measured BSAF (or BAF) by the predicted relative difference, which is derived from two separate solutions of the food web model. Extrapolations of polychlorinated biphenyl BSAFs and BAFs for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan to Green Bay of Lake Michigan (Green Bay, WI, USA) walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), as well as Hudson River largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), resulted in generally better agreement between measured and predicted BSAFs and BAFs with the hybrid approach. PMID:16833159

Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

2006-07-01

228

Dose assessment for marine biota and humans from discharge of (131)I to the marine environment and uptake by algae in Sydney, Australia.  

PubMed

Iodine-131 reaches the marine environment through its excretion to the sewer by nuclear medicine patients followed by discharge through coastal and deepwater out falls. 131I has been detected in macroalgae,which bio-accumulate iodine, growing near the coastal out fall of Cronulla sewage treatment plant (STP) since 1995. During this study, (131)I levels in liquid effluent and sludge from three Sydney STP's as well as in macroalgae (Ulva sp. and Ecklonia radiata) growing near their shoreline out falls were measured. Concentration factors of 176 for Ulva sp. and 526 for E. radiata were derived. Radiation dose rates to marine biota from (131)I discharged to coastal waters calculated using the ERICA dose assessment tool were below the ERICA screening level of 10 ?Gy/hr. Radiation dose rates to humans from immersion in seawater or consumption of Ulva sp. containing (131)I were three and two orders of magnitude below the IAEA screening level of 10 ?Sv/year, respectively. PMID:22180886

Carolan, Jessica Veliscek; Hughes, Catherine E; Hoffmann, Emmy L

2011-10-01

229

Establishment of sentinel sampling sites to monitor changes in water and sediment quality and biota related to visitor use at Lake Powell, Arizona and Utah, 2004-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty sentinel sampling sites were established and sampled during 2004–06 at Lake Powell, Arizona and Utah, by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service—Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The sentinel sampling sites provide sampling locations on Lake Powell, the Nation’s second largest reservoir that can be visited and sampled repeatedly over time to monitor changes in water and sediment quality and also biota. The sites were established in response to an Environmental Impact Statement that addressed the use of personal watercraft on Lake Powell. The use of personal watercraft can potentially introduce hydrocarbons and other contaminants and are of concern to the health of visitors and aquatic habitats of these environments. Data from this initial sampling period (2004–06) include (1) discrete measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and water clarity; (2) major ions, nutrients, and organic carbon; (3) trace elements including rare earths; (4) organic compounds including oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds; (5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lakebed sediments; and (6) continuous depth profile measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Also, the National Park Service-Glen Canyon National Recreation Area collected bacteria samples during this initial sampling period.

Hart, Robert J.; Taylor, Howard E.; Anderson, G. M.

2012-01-01

230

Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2013-01-01

231

Deposit and mobility of cadmium in a marsh-cove ecosystem and the relation to cadmium concentration in biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposit and mobility of cadmium in Foundry Cove, near Cold Spring, N.Y., was studied. The marsh cove had been heavily contaminated by cadmium from the waste discharges of a nickel-cadmium battery plant during the 1960's. Major cadmium deposits were dredged in 1972 and the system appeared to return to its original state by 1973. Analyses of cadmium concentrations in

T. J. Kneip; R. E. Hazen

1979-01-01

232

Carbonate systems along nutrient and temperature gradients: some sedimentological and geochemical constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research over the past several decades has clearly demonstrated that changes in the ocean environment have had major impacts on carbonate systems. Changes in climate, ocean circulation and seafloor spreading rates have influenced temperature and seawater chemistry, including carbonate saturation state and nutrient availability, and thereby have determined boundary conditions for the biota that form carbonate platforms. In turn, the

Maria Mutti; Pamela Hallock

2003-01-01

233

Simulation of CO? leakages during injection and storage in sub-seabed geological formations: metal mobilization and biota effects.  

PubMed

To assess the potential effects on metal mobilization due to leakages of CO2 during its injection and storage in marine systems, an experimental set-up was devised and operated, using the polychaete Hediste diversicolor as the model organism. The objective was to study the effects of such leakage in the expected scenarios of pH values between 8.0 and 6.0. Polychaetes were exposed for 10 days to seawater with sediment samples collected in two different coastal areas, one with relatively uncontaminated sediment as reference (RSP) and the other with known contaminated sediment (ML), under pre-determined pH conditions. Survival and metal accumulation (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As and Hg) in the whole body of H. diversicolor were employed as endpoints. Mortality was significant at the lowest pH level in the sediment with highest metal concentrations. In general, metal concentrations in tissues of individuals exposed to the contaminated sediment were influenced by pH. These results indicate that ocean acidification due to CO2 leakages would provoke increased metal mobilization, causing adverse side effects in sediment toxicity. PMID:24721118

Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada; Blasco, Julián

2014-07-01

234

Potential effects of climate change on inland glacial lakes and implications for lake-dependent biota in Wisconsin: final report April 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

F statewide, and an increase in precipitation of 1”–2”. However, summer precipitation in the northern part of the state is expected to be less and winter precipitation will be greater. By the end of the 21st century, the magnitude of changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to intensify. Such climatic changes have altered, and would further alter hydrological, chemical, and physical properties of inland lakes. Lake-dependent wildlife sensitive to changes in water quality, are particularly susceptible to lake quality-associated habitat changes and are likely to suffer restrictions to current breeding distributions under some climate change scenarios. We have selected the common loon (Gavia immer) to serve as a sentinel lake-dependent piscivorous species to be used in the development of a template for linking primary lake-dependent biota endpoints (e.g., decline in productivity and/or breeding range contraction) to important lake quality indicators. In the current project, we evaluate how changes in freshwater habitat quality (specifically lake clarity) may impact common loon lake occupancy in Wisconsin under detailed climate-change scenarios. In addition, we employ simple land-use/land cover and habitat scenarios to illustrate the potential interaction of climate and land-use/land cover effects. The methods employed here provide a template for studies where integration of physical and biotic models is used to project future conditions under various climate and land use change scenarios. Findings presented here project the future conditions of lakes and loons within an important watershed in northern Wisconsin – of importance to water resource managers and state citizens alike.

Meyer, Michael W.; Walker, John F.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Rasmussen, Paul W.; Garrison, Paul J.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hunt, Randall J.

2013-01-01

235

Biota--sediment accumulation factors for polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in southern Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).  

PubMed

A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, by use of the 13C isotopic dilution technique, in lake trout and surficial (0-2 cm) sediment samples from southern Lake Michigan. BSAFs ranged from <0.1 to 18 for PCBs and from <0.001 to 0.32 for PCDDs and PCDFs detected in the fish. PCBs with zero or one chlorine in an ortho position had smaller BSAFs than other PCBs. PCDDs and PCDFs with chlorines at the 2,3,7,8-positions had larger BSAFs than most other PCDDs and PCDFs. The fidelity of the relative bioaccumulation potential data between independent lake trout samples, within and among age classes, suggests that differences in slight rates of net metabolism in the food chain are important and contribute to the apparent differences in BSAFs, not only for PCDDs and PCDFs but also possibly for some PCBs. A complicating factor for non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs is the uncertain contribution of enhanced affinity for black carbon (and possibly volatility) acting in concert with metabolism to reduce measured BSAFs for lake trout. On the basis of the association between chemicals with apparent slight rates of metabolism and measured dioxin-like toxicity, several PCDFs with similar measured BSAFs but unknown toxicity may be candidates for toxicity testing. PMID:15543729

Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

2004-10-15

236

A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China and the phylogeny of Cretaceous basal eucryptodiran turtles  

PubMed Central

Background Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is an emblematic turtle from the Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China, a geological rock unit that is famous for yielding perfectly preserved skeletons of fossil vertebrates, including that of feathered dinosaurs. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis was one of the first vertebrates described from this fauna, also known as the Jehol Biota. The holotype was lost during World War II and only one additional specimen has been described since. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is a critical taxon for unraveling the phylogenetic relationships of Cretaceous pancryptodires from Asia, a group that is considered to be of key importance for the origin of crown-group hidden-neck turtles (Cryptodira). Results A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is described here from the Jiufotang Formation of Qilinshan, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China. This is the third specimen described and expands the range of this taxon from the Yixian Formation of the Fuxin-Yixian Basin in Liaoning to the Jiufotang Formation of the Chifeng-Yuanbaoshan Basin. A possible temporal extension of the range is less certain. The new finding adds to our understanding of the morphology of this taxon and invites a thorough revision of the phylogeny of Macrobaenidae, Sinemydidae, and closely allied forms. Conclusions Our comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Cretaceous Asian pancryptodires yielded two main competing hypotheses: in the first these taxa form a paraphyletic grade, whereas in the second they form a monophyletic clade. The inclusion of problematic tree changing taxa, such as Panpleurodires (stem?+?crown side-neck turtles) has a major influence on the phylogenetic relationships of Sinemydidae and closely allied forms. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis nests within Sinemydidae together with Sinemys spp. and Dracochelys bicuspis in the majority of our analyses. PMID:24707892

2014-01-01

237

Areas Susceptible to Irrigation-Induced Selenium Contamination of Water and Biota in the Western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of land irrigated for agriculture, has been identified as being susceptible. Biological data were used to evaluate the reliability of the map. In 12 of DOl's 26 study areas, concentrations of selenium measured in bird eggs were elevated sufficiently to significantly reduce hatchability of the eggs. The GIS map identifies 9 of those 12 areas. Deformed bird embryos having classic symptoms of selenium toxicosis were found in four of the study areas, and the map identifies all four as susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination.

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Peltz, Lorri A.

1999-01-01

238

What's in the Biota Bag? Examining Australian Fossil Biota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a classroom activity in which candy is used to represent some Australian fossils with students asked to examine specimens and locate on a map of Australia where it might have been discovered. (Author/MM)

Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

2002-01-01

239

The ‘Design’ of Mediterranean Landscapes: A Millennial Story of Humans and Ecological Systems during the Historic Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

What makes the structure and dynamics of coupled natural and human systems difficult to interpret in the Mediterranean is the extreme diversity in space and time of both environments and human societies. The succession of civilizations that waxed and waned in the Mediterranean Basin over several millennia has had great impacts on biota and ecosystems everywhere in the basin. A

Jacques Blondel

2006-01-01

240

Alien Marine Biota of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition that marine species in European coastal waters originate from other parts of the world has lagged, in some\\u000a cases centuries, behind their postulated arrival. The NW Atlantic soft shell clam Mya arenaria is considered one of the earliest introductions: it was proposed that it had been brought in the 16th century intentionally\\u000a as bait or food, unintentionally with

Bella S. Galil; Stephan Gollasch; Dan Minchin; Sergej Olenin

241

Lichen biota of Zonguldak, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is presented. A total of 222 lichen taxa, of which 2 are subspecies and 5 are varieties, and one lichenicolous fungus, are determined from 80 different localities in Zonguldak. Arthonia pinastri, Aspicilia inornata, Cladonia humilis var. bourgeanica, Opegrapha culmigena, Psorula rufonigra and Strigula ziziphi are new to Turkey and 205 lichen species

KENAN YAZICI; ANDRÉ APTROOT; ALI ASLAN

242

Use of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors to Assess Similarity of Nonionic Organic Chemical Exposure to Benthically-Coupled Organisms of Differing Trophic Mode  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is in the process of developing Sediment Quality Criteria (SQC) to specify the acceptable degree of risk from sediment-mediated chemical exposure for the protection of benthically-coupled organisms. In this study, potential differences in chemical exposure for benthic organisms of differing habitats or feeding types were evaluated through the use of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs). It was hypothesized that If species of different habitats have similar exposures, then the BSAF values should not be different. The BSAFs are calculated using the concentrations of chemicals in an organism (&mgr;g/g lipid) divided by the concentrations of the same chemicals in sediment (&mgr;g/gOC). Data from both freshwater and saltwater studies that met specified criteria for data quality were obtained from published papers or reports. These included three laboratory and five field studies containing 27 species and 4054 BSAF values. The BSAFs were intercompared for similarity of central tendency as grouped by chemical class (PCBs, PAHs, pesticides), individual species, and species grouped by habitat (infaunal deposit feeder, scavenger, filter feeder, and benthically-coupled fish). Plots of BSAFs grouped by class and KOW revealed that the BSAFs for the PAHs were uniformly lower (mean 0.34) than the PCB (1.03) or pesticide (1.36) classes. For the PCBs, the BSAFs for all species exhibited a KOW dependency with decreased bioaccumulation evident above and below the range of 5.99-7.27 log10 KOW. In order to optimize the detection of species/habitat differences in the BSAFs, further analyses were segregated by chemical class and excluded PCB data outside the above KOW range. These analyses revealed similar BSAF values for various species both within and among habitat groups, and indicated that the sum total of exposures from all routes is similar across species. This similarity of chemical exposure across benthic species, and the similarity of sensitivities between benthic species and species used to derive WQC FCVs supports the applicability of SQC for all benthic organisms as a group. PMID:8661522

Tracey; Hansen

1996-05-01

243

Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

2013-01-01

244

Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part B, Effect on biota in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and other nearby wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality reconnaissance study during 1986-87 found high concentrations of several potentially toxic elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). This study prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior to initiate a more detailed study to determine the hydrogeochemical processes that control water quality in the Stillwater WMA, and other nearby wetlands, and the resulting effects on biota, especially migratory birds. Present wetland size is about 10% of historical size; the dissolved- solids load in the water in these now-isolated wetlands has increased only moderately, but the dissolved-solids concentration has increased more than seven-fold. Wetland vegetation has diminished and species composition in flow water has shifted to predominant salt-tolerant species in many areas. Decreased vegetative cover for nesting is implicated in declining waterfowl production. Decreases in numbers or virtual absence of several wildlife species are attributed to degraded water quality. Results of toxicity tests indicate that water in some drains and wetland areas is acutely toxic to some fish and invertebrates. Toxicity is attributed to the combined presence of arsenic, boron, lithium, and molybdenum. Biological pathways are involved in the transport of mercury and selenium from agricultural drains to wetlands. Hatch success of both artificially incubated and field-reared duck eggs was greater than/= 90 percent; no teratogenesis was observed. Mercury in muscle tissue of waterfowl harvested from Carson Lake in October 1987 exceeded the human health criterion six-fold.

edited by Hallock, Robert J.; Hallock, Linda L.

1993-01-01

245

Chapter 1. Determination of elements in natural-water, biota, sediment, and soil samples using collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new analytical method for the determination of elements in filtered aqueous matrices using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory that uses collision/reaction cell technology to reduce molecular ion interferences. The updated method can be used to determine elements in filtered natural-water and other filtered aqueous matrices, including whole-water, biota, sediment, and soil digestates. Helium or hydrogen is used as the collision or reaction gas, respectively, to eliminate or substantially reduce interferences commonly resulting from sample-matrix composition. Helium is used for molecular ion interferences associated with the determination of As, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na, Ni, V, W and Zn, whereas hydrogen is used for Ca, Fe, Se, and Si. Other elements that are not affected by molecular ion interference also can be determined simply by not introducing a collision/reaction gas into the cell. Analysis time is increased by about a factor of 2 over the previous method because of the additional data acquisition time in the hydrogen and helium modes. Method detection limits for As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Se, Si (as SiO2), V, W, and Zn, all of which use a collision/reaction gas, are 0.06 microgram per liter (?g/L) As, 0.04 milligram per liter (mg/L) Ca, 0.02 ?g/L Co, 0.02 ?g/L Cr, 0.04 ?g/L Cu, 1 ?g/L Fe, 0.007 mg/L K, 0.009 mg/L Mg, 0.09 mg/L Na, 0.05 ?g/L Ni, 0.04 ?g/L Se, 0.03 mg/L SiO2, 0.05 ?g/L V, 0.03 ?g/L W, and 0.04 ?g/L Zn. Most method detection limits are lower or relatively unchanged compared to earlier methods except for Co, K, Mg, Ni, SiO2, and Tl, which are less than a factor of 2 higher. Percentage bias for samples spiked at about one-third and two-thirds of the concentration of the highest calibration standard ranged from -8.1 to 7.9 percent for reagent water, -14 to 21 percent for surface water, and -16 to 16 percent for ground water. The percentage bias for reagent water spiked at trace-element concentrations of 0.5 to 3 ?g/L averaged 4.4 percent with a range of -6 to 16 percent, whereas the average percentage bias for Ca, K, Mg, Na, and SiO2 was 1.4 percent with a range of -4 to 10 percent for spikes of 0.5 to 3 mg/L. Elemental results for aqueous standard reference materials compared closely to the certified concentrations; all elements were within 1.5 F-pseudosigma of the most probable concentration. In addition, results from 25 filtered natural-water samples and 25 unfiltered natural-water digestates were compared with results from previously used methods using linear regression analysis. Slopes from the regression analyses averaged 0.98 and ranged from 0.87 to 1.29 for filtered natural-water samples; for unfiltered natural-water digestates, the average slope was 1.0 and ranged from 0.83 to 1.22. Tests showed that accurate measurements can be made for samples having specific conductance less than 7,500 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) without dilution; earlier ICP-MS methods required dilution for samples with specific conductance greater than 2,500 ?S/cm.

Garbarino, John R.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Cree, Mark E.

2006-01-01

246

Distribution of PCB congeners in seven lake systems: Interactions between sediment and food-web transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the role of two processes, partitioning of PCBs between sediment and biota and food-web transport, in determining the concentration of PCB congeners in the biota of seven lakes. Biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-sediment PCB concentration (organic carbon), or BSF, ratios were calculated as markers of the partitioning of PCBs between biota and sediment, and biota

Colin R. Macdonald; Chris D. Metcalfe; Gordon C. Balch; Tracy L. Metcalfe

1993-01-01

247

Digital Mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic information systems (GIS), once used predominantly by experts in cartography and computer programming, have become pervasive in everyday business and consumer use. This unit explores GIS in general as a technology about which much more can be learned, and it also explores applications of that technology. Students experience GIS technology through the use of Google Earth on the environmental topic of plastics in the ocean in an area known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The use of this topic in GIS makes the unit multidisciplinary, incorporating the physics of ocean currents, the chemistry associated with pollutant degradation and chemical sorption to organic-rich plastics, and ecological impact to aquatic biota.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

248

Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.  

PubMed

Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

2013-08-27

249

Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part C, Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a summary of the detailed scientific study of Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and other nearby wetlands in west-central Nevada during 1987-90. The work was funded by the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior with the overall objectives of determining (1) the extent, magnitude, and effects of selected water-quality constituents associated with irrigation drainage on fish, wildlife, and human health, and (2) the sources and exposure pathways that cause contamination where adverse effects are documented. Much of the information in this report was summarized from two previously published interpretive reports that were completed to fulfill study objectives. Where applicable, data for the study area from other published sources also were utilized. The results of these studies indicate that the aquatic biota in natural wetlands of the Carson Desert are adversely affected by hydrological and geochemical sources and processes in the Newlands Irrigation Project area. Reactions between water and naturally occurring minerals in the shallow alluvial aquifer increase concentrations of potentially toxic constituents in ground water that eventually enters the wetlands. Once in the wetlands, these constituents are furhter concentrated by evaporation and transpiration. Water from some agricultural drains that enter Stillwater WMA was acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. The drains in the agricultural areas, which eventually discharge to the wetlands, were also implicated as sites of uptake of selenium and mercury by aquatic organisms.

Hoffman, Ray J.

1993-01-01

250

Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy is conducting a long-term program to monitor for possible effects from the operation of its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. This report documents progress of the following studies: soil amoeba; soil and litter arthropoda and earthworm studies; biological studies on pollinating insects: megachilid bees; and small vertebrates: small mammals and nesting birds.

1987-07-01

251

The contribution of flocculated material to shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) nutrition in a high-intensity, zero-exchange system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds contain a high density of flocculated particles, rich in bacteria and phytoplankton, compared with flow-through systems. The flocculated particles provide a potential food source for shrimp. Short-term tank experiments were conducted to determine the retention of nitrogen (N) from natural biota, dominated by flocculated particles, in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp farm

Michele A Burford; Peter J Thompson; Robins P McIntosh; Robert H Bauman; Doug C Pearson

2004-01-01

252

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Owyhee and Vale Projects, Oregon and Idaho, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance investigation was conducted during 1990--91 in the Owyhee and Vale projects in eastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, as well as at a number of sites in the Snake River and tributaries to the Snake River in the area of study. The objective of the study was to determine if agricultural drainwater entering the study area was causing, or had the potential to cause, significant harmful effects to human health, fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Approximately 153,000 acres of land are irrigated annually within the areas of the Owyhee and Vale projects. Large quantities of water are required because of the semiarid climate and relatively high evaporation rates. Several reservoirs in the area are filled annually during the wet, nonirrigation season to sustain irrigation during the dry summer months. During the irrigation season, this impounded water, along with direct diversions from the Malheur, Owyhee, and Snake Rivers, is transported to the irrigated areas through a series of diversion tunnels, siphons, canals, aqueducts, ditches, and drains. Major crops grown in the area include sugar beets, alfalfa hay and other hay crops, onions, and winter wheat. Minor crops include corn, potatoes, mint, various seed crops, and fruit. In 1987, it was estimated that the following amounts of pesticides were used in the project areas: 2,4-D (21,000 lbs [pounds]), chlorpyrifos (1,000 lbs), dacthal (40,000 lbs), dicamba (320 lbs), endosulfan (2,500 lbs), ethion (11,000 lbs), malathion (24,000 lbs), parathion (5,000 lbs), and phorate (11,000 lbs). Median concentrations and values for total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness in the Vale project area were greater than 1.5 times those values observed in the Owyhee project area or at other Snake River locations. During irrigation (August 1990), total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness values increased in a downstream manner. Constituent values at drainwater sites generally were comparable to concentrations below the irrigated ureas in the Owyhee and Vale project areas. The trace elements arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, and zinc were detected in most water samples; cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium were detected in some samples at concentrations generally near the analytical reporting limit; mercury was not detected in any samples. In some water samples, concentrations of arsenic, boron, cadmium, copper, and lead exceeded State or Federal water-quality standards or criteria. Most trace elements in bottom sediment were detected at concentrations within the expected 95-percent baseline range for soils from the Western United States. Concentrations that exceeded the 95-percent baseline range for study area soils were: (1) arsenic and lead in one sample from a site in the Vale project area; (2) mercury, lead, and tin in one sample from a site in the Snake River system; (3) manganese in two samples from two sites in the Snake River system; and (4) manganese from one sample from a site in the Vale project area. Fifteen pesticides and metabolites were detected in whole-water samples collected from sites in the study area. DDT, plus its metabolites (DDE and DDD), dieldrin, endrin, 2,4-D, dicamba, and dacthal were detected in samples collected from seven or more sites. Other pesticides detected included chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, ethion, malathion, parathion, phorate, and lindane. Most of the detected pesticide concentrations generally were largest in drainwater and at the most downstream sampling locations in the Owyhee and Vale project areas. Concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria established for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in 86 percent of the whole-water samples analyzed for DDT plus its metabolites, 71 percent of the dieldrin samples, 14 percent of the endrin samples, and 10 percent of the parathion samples. Eight pesticides and

Rinella, F. A.; Mullins, W. H.; Schuler, C. A.

1994-01-01

253

Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal concentration of 0.66 mg/L). Dissolved- oxygen concentrations also were lower, and Daphnia survivability measured during in situ bioassays was correspondingly lower in the leaseland drains than in water delivery canals. In static laboratory bioassays, water samples collected at the primary monitoring sites caused toxicity in up to 78 percent of Lemna minor tests, in up to 49 percent of Xenopus laevis tests, in 17 percent and 8 percent of Hyalella azteca and Pimephales promelas tests, respectively, and 0 percent in Daphnia magna tests. In situ exposure at the sites caused mortality in more than 83 percent of Pimephales tests and in more than 41 percent of Daphnia and Hyalella tests. Much of the observed toxicity appears to have been caused by low dissolved oxygen, high pH, and ammonia. Although water in the study area was toxic to a variety of organisms, no statistically significant differences in the degree of toxicity between sites were observed above or below irrigated agricultural land in any of the bioassays. Pesticides were frequently detected in water samples collected at the monitoring sites during the 1991 and 1992 irrigation seasons. Among the most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, EPTC, and metolachlor and the insecticide terbufos. All the insecticides detected were at concentrations substantially below acute toxicity values reported for aquatic organisms. The herbicide acrolein has been used extensively in the basin to manage aquatic plant growth in irrigation canals and drains. The concentration of acrolein was monitored in a canal near Tule Lake after an application in order to evaluate the potential for the pesticide to be transported to refuge waters. Although acrolein concentrations were toxic to fish in the channels adjacent to Tule Lake, very little of the canal water entered the refuge during the monitoring period. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in 25 surficial sediment samples collected in 1990 were below bas

Dileanis, P. D.; Schwarzbach, S. E.; Bennett, Jewel

1996-01-01

254

Biological indicators for monitoring water quality of MTF canals system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological models, diversity indexes, were developed to predict environmental effects of NASA's Mississippi test facility (MTF) chemical operations on canal systems in the area. To predict the effects on local streams, a physical model of unpolluted streams was established. The model is fed by artesian well water free of background levels of pollutants. The species diversity and biota composition of unpolluted MTF stream was determined; resulting information will be used to form baseline data for future comparisons. Biological modeling was accomplished by adding controlled quantities or kinds of chemical pollutants and evaluating the effects of these chemicals on the biological life of the stream.

Sethi, S. L.

1975-01-01

255

Threatened biotas: "hot spots" in tropical forests.  

PubMed

The mass-extinction episode underway is largely centered on tropical forests, insofar as they contain at least half of all Earth's species and they are being depleted faster than any other biome. But species distributions and depletion patterns are anything but uniform throughout the biome. This paper identifies 10 areas that a) are characterized by exceptional concentrations of species with high levels of endemism and b) are experiencing unusually rapid rates of depletion. While these "hotspot" areas comprise less than 3.5% of remaining primary forests, they harbor over 34,000 endemic plant species (27% of all plant species in tropical forests and 13% of all plant species worldwide). They also feature 700,000 endemic animal species and possibly several times more. Unfortunately, they appear likely to lose 90% of their forest cover as soon as the end of the century or shortly thereafter, causing the extinction of almost 7% of Earth's plant species and at least a similar proportion of animal species, this occurring in only 0.2% of Earth's land surface. By concentrating on such areas where needs are greatest and where the pay-off from safeguard measures would also be greatest, conservationists can engage in a more systematized response to the challenge of large-scale extinctions impending in tropical forests. PMID:12322582

Myers, N

1988-01-01

256

Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or in quantitation protocols. These finding imply that Lake Superior is not receiving a unique atmospheric burden, but, because I have not explored terrestrial inputs, I cannot fully nullify hypothesis c.

Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

1998-11-01

257

Assessing Estuarine Biota in Southern California1  

E-print Network

, or sporadic access to the open ocean and in which ocean water is at least occasionally diluted by freshwater and discharge, and shoreline protection; and, (4) water quality functions including water supply, waste

Standiford, Richard B.

258

Biota and biological parameters as environmental indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

Greeson, Phillip E., (Edited By)

1981-01-01

259

Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological-monitoring program. Volume 2. Tabs D-G. Annual progress report, January-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Navy is conducting a long-term program to monitor for possible effects from the operation of its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. This report documents progress of the following studies: Soil Amoeba; Soil and Litter Arthropoda and Earthworm Studies; Biological Studies on Pollinating insects: Megachilid Bees; and Small Vertebrates: Small Mammals and Nesting Birds.

Not Available

1987-07-01

260

systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical observations often indicate that complexity enhances stability, while most theoretical studies, such as May's (1972) classic paper, point to the opposite. Despite the wide generality of these latter theoretical analyses, our examination of the well-known competitive Lotka-Volterra system reveals that increasing complexity (measured in terms of connectance) can enhance species coexistence and persistence in model communities (measured in terms

Ian D. Rozdilsky; Lewi Stone

261

Detailed study of selenium and selected constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior began the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) to investigate these concerns at irrigation projects sponsored by the Department. The San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Study teams composed of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at 61 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Supplemental data collection conducted during 1991-95 by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its contractor extended the time period and sampling sites available for analysis. Analytical chemistry performed on samples indicated that most potentially toxic elements other than selenium generally were not high enough to be of concern to fish, wildlife, and human health. Element concentrations in some water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples exceeded applicable standards and criteria suggested by researchers in current literature. Selenium concentrations in water samples from 28 sites in the study area exceeded the 2-microgram-per-liter wildlife-habitat standard. Vanadium concentrations in water exceeded the 100-microgram-per-liter standard for livestock-drinking water at one site. In biota, selenium and aluminum concentrations regularly equaled or exceeded avian dietary threshold concentrations. In bottom sediment and soil, element concentrations above the upper limit of the baseline range for western soils were: selenium, 24 exceedances; lead, 2 exceedances; molybdenum, 2 exceedances; strontium, 4 exceedances; and zinc, 4 exceedances. Concentrations of total selenium in bottom-sediment and soil samples were significantly greater for Cretaceous than for non-Cretaceous soil types in the study area and were generally similar for habitats within and outside irrigation-affected areas. Mean and median total-selenium concentrations in samples from areas with Cretaceous soil types were 4.6 and 2.2 micrograms per gram, respectively. Mean and median total-selenium concentrations in samples from areas with non-Cretaceous soil types were 0.6 and 0.15 microgram per gram, respectively. Samples from the study area had low concentrations of organic constituents. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in a few biological samples at low concentrations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were not detected in whole-water samples collected using conventional water-sampling techniques. In tests involving the use of semipermeable-membrane devices to supplement conventional water assays for PAH's, low concentrations of PAH's were found at several locations in the Hammond Irrigation Supply Canal, but were not detected in the Hammond ponds at the downstream reach of the Hammond irrigation service area. PAH compounds do not appear to reach the San Juan River through the Hammond Canal. Data indicate that water samples from irrigation-drainage-affected habitats had increased mean selenium concentrations compared with samples from irrigation-delivery habitat. The mean selenium concentration in water was greatest at seeps and tributaries draining irrigated land (17 micrograms per liter); less in irrigation drains and in ponds on irrigated land (6 micrograms per liter); and least in backwater, the San Juan River, and irrigation-supply water (0.5 - 0.6 microgram per liter). Statistical tests imply that irrigation significantly increases selenium concentrations in water samples when a Department of the Interior irrigation project is developed on selenium-rich sediments. Water samples from sites with Cretaceous soils had signi

Thomas, Carole L.; Wilson, R.M.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Shineman, A.R.

1998-01-01

262

System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the anionic structures of the molten CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system. The results show that the average first nearest-neighbor distances for Si-O and P-O pairs are 1.61 and 1.53 Å, respectively. As expected, above 98 pct P and 95 pct Si show fourfold coordination and form tetrahedral structures. Due to the high basicity, nonbridging oxygen occupies a predominant position in Si and P tetrahedron. Based on the oxygen number of different types, the structures of both Si and P tetrahedron were classified as Q 0, Q 1, Q 2, Q 3, and Q 4, where the superscript referred to the number of bridging oxygen atoms. With the substitution of P2O5 for SiO2, Q 0 decreased and other type of Q i units increased. For Si tetrahedron, Q 2 and Q 3 show most notable change, for P tetrahedron, Q 1and Q 2 show the most notable change. The change of Q i units for Si tetrahedron is larger than that for P tetrahedron. The concentration of free oxygen decreases remarkably with the increase of P2O5 content. The Si-O-P linkage is energetically more favorable than Si-O-Si and P-O-P linkages. P ion has a tendency to promote the polymerization of phosphosilicate melts.

Diao, Jiang; Fan, Guozheng; Liu, Xuan; Xie, Bing

2014-10-01

263

Integrated Taxonomic Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six US federal agencies have worked together to develop an efficient system for naming and classifying all of nature's living organisms. As the basic currency of scientific research, management, and education, ITIS is "a database of the current names and classifications of all biota." The website is organized into three main sections: About ITIS (general overview), Data Access (how to query the ITIS database), and TRED (the taxonomic experts behind the ITIS database). The core of the site is the Data Access section, which describes how to locate, access, and download scientific names and other information for a taxon. The ITIS database may be queried by full or partial Scientific Name, Vernacular (Common) Name, or TSN (Taxonomic Serial Number). Typical returns are Scientific Name, Vernacular (Common) Name, TSN, Author, Taxonomic Rank, and Synonym Name or TSN; note that the review process is still underway, and information is constantly added. In addition to the database, users are instructed on how to submit data to the ITIS database or match a list of taxa to the ITIS Database. A final, useful feature is the Taxonomic Workbench (free for downloading), "a windows-based software tool for entry of taxonomic information into ITIS' relational database format." Information on how to participate in this extraordinary and ambitious effort is provided at the site.

1998-01-01

264

Bioavailability of heavy metals in terrestrial and aquatic systems: A quantitative approach  

SciTech Connect

Speciation and bioavailability are the keywords in the relation between the total metal content of the system and the resulting effects for biota. The metal ion binding to the biotic surface is pH dependent, as is metal ion binding to soils. The binding of metal ion to the biotic surface of an organism when present in soil can decrease with increasing pH, whereas the binding behavior of the biotic surface as such will always increase with increasing pH. The metal toxicity for plants often increases with increasing pH for water culture experiments, in which the opposite effect is observed for plants growing in soils. These seemingly contradictive observations can be explained by considering the interaction between an organism and metal ions present in soil to be the result of competition for that metal ion by all components (including the organism) present in the system. This concept is illustrated on the basis of model calculations concerning cadmium binding to a bacterium present in a clay and a sandy soil as influenced by pH and calcium concentration. In addition, the concept is applied for calculating the impact of algal bloom on the copper speciation in an aquatic system. The concept might be a valuable tool in predicting quantitatively the metal ion sorption to biota present in a complex system and to predict the relative change in availability due to environmental changes.

Plette, A.C.C.; Nederlof, M.M.; Temminmghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsduk, W.H. van

1999-09-01

265

The role of marine biota in the evolution of terrestrial biota: Gases and genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is greater biodiversity (in the senseof genetic distance among higher taxa) ofextant marine than of terrestrialO2-evolvers. In addition tocontributing the genes from one group ofalgae (Class Charophyceae, DivisionChlorophyta) to produce by evolution thedominant terrestrial plants (Embryophyta),the early marine O2-evolvers greatlymodified the atmosphere and hence the landsurface when the early terrestrialO2-evolvers grew. The earliestterrestrial phototrophs (from geochemicalevidence) occurred 1.2 Ga

JOHN A. RAVEN

1997-01-01

266

Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Fort Edward, New York, water system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been determined in the water, in the soils and sediments, and in the biota of a small upstate New York public water supply system, which is near the heavily polluted section of the Hudson River and a disposal site for PCB-containing waste. The impounded water exhibits a significant and relatively uniform level of Aroclor 1016, whereas the ground and surface waters supplying the reservoir do not. Rainfall, which exhibits a high level of Aroclor 1016, constitutes a small but significant source of PCB input. Soil and sediment samples exhibit significant median levels of both Aroclor 1016 and Aroclor 1254, but the local concentrations vary widely. The biota exhibit much higher PCB levels than the water or sediments, and show a strong preference for Aroclor 1254. The PCB levels in the macroinvertebrates are particularly high, suggesting that these organisms may provide a useful indicator for monitoring PCB contamination in aquatic systems. Risk assessment indicates that the lifetime incremental risk of cancer associated with the drinking water is below 10-6. Management of such low levels of PCB contamination is best achieved by reducing the input of PCBs.

Brinkman, M.; Fogelman, K.; Hoeflein, J.; Lindh, T.; Pastel, M.; Trench, W. C.; Aikens, D. A.

1980-11-01

267

Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

1980-08-01

268

Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.  

PubMed Central

Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

Meybeck, Michel

2003-01-01

269

Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

Clancy, Patrick

1986-05-01

270

Managing soil microbial communities in grain production systems through cropping practices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cropping practices can significantly influence the composition and activity of soil microbial communities with consequences to plant growth and production. Plant type can affect functional capacity of different groups of biota in the soil surrounding their roots, rhizosphere, influencing plant nutrition, beneficial symbioses, pests and diseases and overall plant health and crop production. The interaction between different players in the rhizosphere is due to the plethora of carbon and nutritional compounds, root-specific chemical signals and growth regulators that originate from the plant and are modulated by the physico-chemical properties of soils. A number of plant and environmental factors and management practices can influence the quantity and quality of rhizodeposition and in turn affect the composition of rhizosphere biota communities, microbe-fauna interactions and biological processes. Some of the examples of rhizosphere interactions that are currently considered important are: proliferation of plant and variety specific genera or groups of microbiota, induction of genes involved in symbiosis and virulence, promoter activity in biocontrol agents and genes correlated with root adhesion and border cell quality and quantity. The observation of variety-based differences in rhizodeposition and associated changes in rhizosphere microbial diversity and function suggests the possibility for the development of varieties with specific root-microbe interactions targeted for soil type and environment i.e. designer rhizospheres. Spatial location of microorganisms in the heterogeneous field soil matrix can have significant impacts on biological processes. Therefore, for rhizosphere research to be effective in variable seasonal climate and soil conditions, it must be evaluated in the field and within a farming systems context. With the current focus on security of food to feed the growing global populations through sustainable agricultural production systems there is a need to develop innovative cropping systems that are both economically and environmentally sustainable.

Gupta, Vadakattu

2013-04-01

271

A bioindicator system for water quality on inshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef.  

PubMed

Responses of bioindicator candidates for water quality were quantified in two studies on inshore coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). In Study 1, 33 of the 38 investigated candidate indicators (including coral physiology, benthos composition, coral recruitment, macrobioeroder densities and FORAM index) showed significant relationships with a composite index of 13 water quality variables. These relationships were confirmed in Study 2 along four other water quality gradients (turbidity and chlorophyll). Changes in water quality led to multi-faceted shifts from phototrophic to heterotrophic benthic communities, and from diverse coral dominated communities to low-diversity communities dominated by macroalgae. Turbidity was the best predictor of biota; hence turbidity measurements remain essential to directly monitor water quality on the GBR, potentially complemented by our final calibrated 12 bioindicators. In combination, this bioindicator system may be used to assess changes in water quality, especially where direct water quality data are unavailable. PMID:21978685

Fabricius, Katharina E; Cooper, Timothy F; Humphrey, Craig; Uthicke, Sven; De'ath, Glenn; Davidson, Johnston; LeGrand, Hélène; Thompson, Angus; Schaffelke, Britta

2012-01-01

272

PROTECTION OF CAVE SPRINGS CAVE BIOTA AND GROUNDWATER BASIN  

E-print Network

the ecosystem dynamics and pollution effects elucidated in these studies of CSC to three other priority caves, including sample collection and analyses, bioinventory, and georeferencing of potential pollution sources condition. There are now many projects focusing upon the documentation of subterranean biodiversity and its

Soerens, Thomas

273

Chronic toxicity of tributyltin to Chesapeake bay biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic tributyltin toxicity experiments were conducted with the following Chesapeake Bay organisms: amphipod, Gammarus sp.; juvenile Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus and larval inland silverside, Menidia beryllina. TBT concentrations ranging from 29 to 579 ng L-1 did not significantly affect survival of the benthic amphipod, Gammarus sp. after 24-d exposures. The weight of Gammarus exposed to control conditions was 2.8 times

Lenwood W. Hall; Steven J. Bushong; Michael C. Ziegenfuss; W. Edward Johnson; Roger L. Herman; David A. Wright

1988-01-01

274

Heavy metal concentrations in Louisiana waterways, sediments, and biota  

SciTech Connect

In this investigation polarographic methods (along with GFAAS and ICP) have been used to study the distribution of lead and chromium in Bayou Trepagnier and Devil`s Swamp. Both laboratory and field research have been conducted. Separation and extraction methodology appropriate for analysis of the contaminants at these sites have been developed. Particular attention has been paid to extraction methods for chromium which do not lead to valence state conversion. The availability of such techniques is essential to take full advantage of polarography, a method capable of performing speciation analysis. The results indicate that there is a very inhomogeneous distribution of heavy metals in these environments. In Devil`s Swamp, for example, separation and analysis of aqueous and variously sized particulate moieties in the water and sediment compartments were conducted to determine the partition of lead between them. The results showed that the average lead content was 14.7 ppb and 19.8 ppm, respectively, in these compartments. Apparently bull frogs in Devil`s Swamp can bioaccumulate lead (compared to the measured water level), since the muscle concentration was found to be about 0.6 ppm. This phenomenon is being investigated in a Xenopus frog laboratory model of heavy metal uptake. The basic methodology validated in this study should be fairly generally applicable to assays of other heavy metals.

Bundy, K.J.; Berzins, D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Biomedical Engineering Dept.

1994-12-31

275

The Evolution of Volcanic Ocean Islands and Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species or taxon abundances on ocean island archipelagoes consistently show a power law dependency on island area. Nearly 50 years ago, MacArthur and Wilson proposed a theory to explain this dependency, focusing on the equilibrium species number that arises from the balance of immigration and extinction. Subsequent studies have strongly supported this revolutionary theory, applying it to ecological islands ranging in scale from cobbles to sub-continents. The MacArthur and Wilson theory assumes speciation on islands was unimportant, yet studies of remote ocean islands, where endemics dominate many taxa, suggest that simultaneous evolution of organisms and their islands is a first order process influencing species richness. Molecular clock studies now allow tracking of species radiation events across islands, in many cases showing evidence of progression from older to younger islands. Recently efforts have been made to add speciation to the MacArthur and Wilson model (most notably by Whittaker et al., 2008, J.Biogeogr), specifically tying it to the time and physical evolution of ocean islands. This challenges evolutionary scientists, ecologists, and geoscientists to develop mutually useful understanding of how island evolution drives speciation. Volcanic ocean islands over mantle plumes (e.g. Hawaii, Society, Galapagos, Marquesas, and Samoa island chains) present the possibility of a well-defined age succession, observable physical changes, and abundant endemics. These island chains present some appealing constraints: active island construction typically is about 1 million years and in most cases the oldest island is about 5 million years. Once the islands are sufficiently tall and wide they can increase precipitation by over 3 times relative to the open ocean. But this precipitation is commonly non uniform, with windward sides much wetter, and, if islands attain sufficient height, maximum precipitation occurring below the island peak. Coarsely, islands build, subside, erode, and disappear. Their topography can be characterized by a power-law relation of a cone with a mean slope of about 6 degrees throughout their evolutionary history. But local geologic history (e.g. subsidence, uplift, climate and erosion) differ significantly and is not easily inferred from island topography alone. The wet, extensively dissected Hawaiian islands and relatively dry, minimally dissected Galapagos islands offer sharp contrasts in island evolution, and, correspondingly, in species abundance and radiation histories. We see the biggest challenge in explicitly coupling island and biotic evolution the linking of speciation to specific quantitative attributes of landscapes. Would islands themselves evolve differently in the absence of life? We propose that in the absence of life soil mantles would be thin to absent, chemical weathering rates may be slower, eroded sediment would be coarser, and shallow landsliding may be less frequent on bedrock dominated slopes. These are small differences, however, that would not seem to alter volcanic ocean island evolution significantly.

Dietrich, W. E.; Power, M. E.; Perron, T.

2011-12-01

276

ROLE OF BIOTA IN MINERAL TRANSFORMATIONS AND TRANSPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms are likely to have played a significant role in the formation of the Australian regolith and in the transport and transformation of minerals within regolith materials. Single celled bacteria were the only forms of life on the planet for approximately 50% of earths history, first appearing about 4000 x 106 years before present (BP). More complex eukaryotic organisms such

Steve Rogers

2004-01-01

277

LINKING STORMFLOW HYDROLOGY AND BIOTA IN SUBURBAN STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Suburban land development has been found to alter the hydrology of landscapes, changing streamflow transient behavior, which may contribute to the typical negative impacts of development on aquatic ecosystems. The linkages between residential development, hydrologic response, and...

278

Towards a biogeographic regionalization of the European biota  

E-print Network

, 2006; Heikinheimo et al., 2007; Patten & Smith-Patten, 2008). Delineation of biogeo- graphic regions as a predictor of animal clusters in order to test the `habitat templet' concept as an explanation of animal single predictor of the animal cluster patterns. Main conclusions Despite a long history of human

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

279

The Caspian Lake: History, biota, structure, and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elongate, endorheic Caspian Lake has a north-south orientation and its main freshwater inflow, the Volga River, enters at the shallow north end. Two deep basins occupy its central and southern regions. These facts lead to horizontal differences in temperature, salinity, and ecology. Nutrient levels and primary production are low. Historically, lake level has fluctuated by -6 m, but on

H. J. Dumont

1998-01-01

280

SUSPENDED AND DISSOLVED SOLIDS EFFECTS ON FRESHWATER BIOTA: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

It is widely recognized that suspended and dissolved solids in lakes, rivers, streams, and reservoirs affect water quality. In this report the research needs appropriate to setting freshwater quality criteria or standards for suspended solids (not including bedload) and dissolved...

281

Solar-driven chemical energy source for a Martian biota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microorganisms deep in the Martian soil could derive energy indirectly from the sun via chemical reactions involving atmospheric photolysis products of the solar ultraviolet flux. The Viking discovery of a chemically uniform regolith which, though poor in organics, is rich in sulfur-containing compounds suggests reaction sequences in which sulfur is recycled through reduced and oxidized states by biologically catalyzed reactions with photochemically-produced atmospheric constituents. One candidate reaction, reduction of soil sulfate minerals by molecular hydrogen, is already exploited on earth by bacteria of the ubiquitous and tenacious Desulfovibrio genus.

Clark, B. C.

1979-01-01

282

Selenium in sediments and biota from estuaries of southwest England.  

PubMed

Selenium concentrations have been measured in sediment, fucoid macroalgae and macroinvertebrates from four estuaries of SW England (Yealm, Plym, Looe, Fal). Sediment concentrations ranged from about 0.4 ?g g(-1) in the Yealm to 1.49 ?g g(-1) at one site in the Plym. Concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus (0.05-0.31 ?g g(-1)) and F. ceranoides (0.05-0.51 ?g g(-1)) were significantly lower than corresponding concentrations in sediment but there was no correlation between algal and sediment concentrations. Selenium concentrations in Littorina littorea (~4 ?g g(-1)), Hediste diversicolor (2.82-12.68 ?g g(-1)), Arenicola marina (~17 ?g g(-1)) and Scrobicularia plana (1.18-6.85 ?g g(-1)) were considerably higher than concentrations in macroalga or sediment, suggesting that Se is effectively accumulated from the diet. Although Se concentrations in some invertebrates exceed toxicity thresholds for the diet of predacious birds and fish, no specific evidence for Se toxicity exists in these estuaries. PMID:23773950

Turner, Andrew

2013-08-15

283

Evolution of centralized nervous systems: Two schools of evolutionary thought  

PubMed Central

Understanding the evolution of centralized nervous systems requires an understanding of metazoan phylogenetic interrelationships, their fossil record, the variation in their cephalic neural characters, and the development of these characters. Each of these topics involves comparative approaches, and both cladistic and phenetic methodologies have been applied. Our understanding of metazoan phylogeny has increased greatly with the cladistic analysis of molecular data, and relaxed molecular clocks generally date the origin of bilaterians at 600–700 Mya (during the Ediacaran). Although the taxonomic affinities of the Ediacaran biota remain uncertain, a conservative interpretation suggests that a number of these taxa form clades that are closely related, if not stem clades of bilaterian crown clades. Analysis of brain–body complexity among extant bilaterians indicates that diffuse nerve nets and possibly, ganglionated cephalic neural systems existed in Ediacaran organisms. An outgroup analysis of cephalic neural characters among extant metazoans also indicates that the last common bilaterian ancestor possessed a diffuse nerve plexus and that brains evolved independently at least four times. In contrast, the hypothesis of a tripartite brain, based primarily on phenetic analysis of developmental genetic data, indicates that the brain arose in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Hopefully, this debate will be resolved by cladistic analysis of the genomes of additional taxa and an increased understanding of character identity genetic networks. PMID:22723354

Northcutt, R. Glenn

2012-01-01

284

Absorption Capacities as a Basis of Stability for Closed Ecological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing plants in highly closed ecological systems (CES) will ultimately require conservation and recycling of plant essential elements to reduce system costs. One method for rapid recycling of elements would be incineration of residual, inedible biomass. The paper attempts to analyze the impact of biomass incineration for mineral recycling in a CES. Depending on system constraints, each CES will have its own range of steady-state operation, and this range becomes narrower as recycling rates increase. The paper presents a metric for CES stability, with the numerical estimates linked to carbon cycling rates. Along w th retrieving somei plant-essential elements, incineration of waste biomass would also release carbon dioxide, water, and other volatile compounds, depending on flue gas handling. Toxic products such as SO2 could damage or disrupt CES stability at high recycling rates. If such toxic species are not neutralized, the system tolerance would then be proportional to CES buffering or absorption capacity, and would be a non-linear function of the tolerance of the biota. We developed formulas to evaluate absorption capacities required for a stable CES by assessing different rates of material turnover. Numerical estimates of system stabilities in relation to carbon cycling rates were calculated for several examples of CES, including the Earth's Biosphere, the BIOS-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, and the Biosphere-2 project in Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Rygalov, V.; Pechurkin, N.; Wheeler, R.; Fowler, P.

285

Increased Use of No-till Cropping Systems Improves Stream Ecosystem Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Release of sediments to streams from tilled lands has been a significant stressor to streams in agro-ecosystems for decades and has been shown to impact aquatic biota in a variety of ways. To limit soil erosion from cultivated lands, conservation tillage techniques, including the use of no-till systems, have been developed and widely adopted throughout the region. However, there haves been no tests of the effects of no-till systems on stream quality at a watershed scale. We measured habitat and water quality and sampled the benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) and fish communities in 32 small (100-1400 ha) subwatersheds along a gradient of the proportion of land under no-till cropping systems to determine relationships between the use of no-till and stream quality. Our results demonstrate that with increasing proportions of no-till, habitat scores improve, the quantities of sediment and sediment associated stressors in the water decline, the BMI community exhibits reduced dominance by Oligocheata and Sphaeriidae, as well as improved Family Biotic Index (FBI) scores, and fish species richness increases. We concluded that increased use of no-till cropping systems by farmers does contribute to improved quality of streams in agro-ecosystems.

Yates, A. G.; Bailey, R. C.; Schwindt, J. A.

2005-05-01

286

Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

Crist, P. J.; Kohley, T. W.; Oakleaf, J.

2000-01-01

287

Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?  

SciTech Connect

Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

White, G.J.

1996-08-01

288

Soil moisture's underestimated role in climate change impact modelling in low-energy systems.  

PubMed

Shifts in precipitation regimes are an inherent component of climate change, but in low-energy systems are often assumed to be less important than changes in temperature. Because soil moisture is the hydrological variable most proximally linked to plant performance during the growing season in arctic-alpine habitats, it may offer the most useful perspective on the influence of changes in precipitation on vegetation. Here we quantify the influence of soil moisture for multiple vegetation properties at fine spatial scales, to determine the potential importance of soil moisture under changing climatic conditions. A fine-scale data set, comprising vascular species cover and field-quantified ecologically relevant environmental parameters, was analysed to determine the influence of soil moisture relative to other key abiotic predictors. Soil moisture was strongly related to community composition, species richness and the occurrence patterns of individual species, having a similar or greater influence than soil temperature, pH and solar radiation. Soil moisture varied considerably over short distances, and this fine-scale heterogeneity may contribute to offsetting the ecological impacts of changes in precipitation for species not limited to extreme soil moisture conditions. In conclusion, soil moisture is a key driver of vegetation properties, both at the species and community level, even in this low-energy system. Soil moisture conditions represent an important mechanism through which changing climatic conditions impact vegetation, and advancing our predictive capability will therefore require a better understanding of how soil moisture mediates the effects of climate change on biota. PMID:23749628

le Roux, Peter Christiaan; Aalto, Juha; Luoto, Miska

2013-10-01

289

Self-organization and the Emergence of Complexity in Ecological Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from Bioscience is about distribution and abundance of species. What explains the remarkable regularities in distribution and abundance of species, in size distributions of organisms, or in patterns of nutrient use? How does the biosphere maintain exactly the right conditions necessary for life as we know it? Gaia theory postulates that the biota regulates conditions at levels it needs for survival, but evolutionary biologists reject this explanation because it lacks a mechanistic basis. Similarly, the notion of self-organized criticality fails to recognize the importance of the heterogeneity and modularity of ecological systems. Ecosystems and the biosphere are complex adaptive systems, in which pattern emerges from, and feeds back to affect, the actions of adaptive individual agents, and in which cooperation and multicellularity can develop and provide the regulation of local environments, and indeed impose regularity at higher levels. The history of the biosphere is a history of coevolution between organisms and their environments, across multiple scales of space, time, and complexity.

SIMON A. LEVIN (;)

2005-12-01

290

Effects of placer mining on hydrologic systems in Alaska; status of knowledge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The report briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding placer mining in Alaska. A review of literature indicates that nearly all of the significant information on the effects of placer mining on the hydrologic system in Alaska is referenced in available reports. The addition of sediment, as well as other indirect changes this generates, appears to be the primary impact of placer mining on Alaskan streams. Other potential water-quality effects that should be considered are: increases in organic loading in the stream system; increases in minor element content; potential for acid drainage; and impacts on fish and other aquatic biota. Existing information is adequate to define parameters that may be affected by placer mining but inadequate to quantify changes resulting from an individual mining operation or to allow the prediction of the magnitude or duration of the impact. Additional studies that would improve the knowledge of the effects of placer mining include: short-term assessments, using available photographic information and existing hydrologic records, to document historical changes and active placer mining features; short-term studies using emperical sediment-transport formulas to estimate the effects of placer mine activities; and river quality assessments of selected basins affected by placer mining. (USGS)

Madison, R.J.

1981-01-01

291

Quantitative assessments of ecological impact/recovery in freshwater systems  

SciTech Connect

Long-term studies were undertaken to evaluate the fidelity of multi-metric scoring systems, and other means of quantifying effects of chemical stresses on aquatic biota. Integrity of macroinvertebrate communities was assessed using the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol III; trophic group analysis, diversity indices and various individual parameters, including species richness, abundance and indicator species. In addition, chemical and toxicological monitoring data and periphyton studies were used in the evaluations. Surveys were performed at monitoring stations selected for comparable conditions, and included upstream reference and downstream recovery areas. In two streams, ecological impact varied from severe to extreme near point-source outfalls and decreased progressively with distance downstream. Station to station scoring with Protocol III and diversity indices correlated well with independent chemical and toxicological evaluations. However, in metal-stressed streams affected by slight to moderate impact, or which were in early recovery, Protocol III scoring and other family-level metrics did not consistently reflect losses in species richness and mean abundance up to 32% and 75%, respectively. Observations on morphological deformities (e.g., eyespots, gills), selected subfamily and species-level metrics, including ratios of metal sensitive to metal tolerant chironomids, gave greater accuracy in characterizing low to moderate perturbations. However, in conclusion, it appeared that marginal losses in biodiversity over time may not be detectable with current procedures. Major factors affecting precision included the normal range of seasonal and annual fluctuations in ecological parameters within and among stream systems, inadequate historical data, as well as drought and high water events.

Birge, W.J.; Keogh, D.P.; Zuiderveen, J.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); [Columbus College, GA (United States)

1995-12-31

292

Climate-hydrology-ecology interactions in glacierized river systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High climatic sensitivity and low anthropogenic influence make glacierized river basins important environments for examining hydrological and ecological response to global change. This presentation is based on previous and ongoing research in glacierized river basins (located in the French Pyrenees, New Zealand and Swedish Lapland), which adopts an interdisciplinary approach to investigate the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade. Data are used to advance hypotheses concerning impacts of climate change/ variability on glacier river system hydrology and ecology. Aquatic ecosystems in high latitude and altitude environments are influenced strongly by cryospheric and hydrological processes due to links between atmospheric forcing, snowpack/ glacier mass-balance, river runoff, physico-chemistry and biota. In the current phase of global warming, many glaciers are retreating. Shrinking snow and ice-masses may alter spatial and temporal dynamics in bulk basin runoff with significant changes in the relative contributions of snowmelt, glacier-melt and groundwater to stream flow. The timing of peak snow- and ice-melt may shift; and proportion of stream flow sourced from rainfall-runoff and groundwater may increase. In this presentation, the influence of changing water source contributions on physico-chemical habitat and, in turn, benthic communities is assessed using an alternative alpine stream classification. In the future, this model predicts more rapid downstream change in benthic communities as meltwater contributions decline; and, at the basin-scale, biodiversity may be reduced due to less spatio-temporal heterogeneity in water sources contributions and, thus, physico-chemical habitat. Integrated, long-term research into the climate-hydrology-ecology cascade in other glacierized river basins is vital because interdisciplinary science is fundamental: to predicting stream hydrology and ecology under scenarios of future climate/ variability, to assessing the utility of alpine river systems as indicators of global change, and to developing conservation strategies for these fragile ecosystems. Future research imperatives and directions are outlined.

Hannah, David; Brown, Lee; Milner, Alexander

2010-05-01

293

Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining the Legionella profile of these waters. Simple predictive relationships were not found. At incubation temperatures of 32/sup 0/ and 37/sup 0/C, waters from a power plant where infectious Legionella were not observed stimulated the growth of stock Legionella cultures more than did waters from plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent. This observation is consistent with Phase I results, which showed that densities of Legionella were frequently reduced in closed-cycle cooling systems despite the often higher infectivity of Legionella in closed-cycle waters. In contrast, water from power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent supported the growth of indigenous Legionella pneumophila at 42/sup 0/C, while water from a power plant where infectious Legionella were absent did not support growth of indigenous Legionella. Some Legionella are able to withstand a water temperature of 85/sup 0/C for several hours, thus proving more tolerant than was previously realized. Finally, the observation that water from two power plants where infectious Legionella were prevalent usually supported the growth of Group A Legionella at 45/sup 0/C indicates the presence, of soluble Legionella growth promoters in these waters. This test system could allow for future identification and control of these growth promoters and, hence, of Legionella. 25 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

Tyndall, R.L.; Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.

1985-04-01

294

Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of natural and human history to stop further degradation of Earth?s ecosystems and extinction of its biota? The fate of the biosphere, including humanity, depends on a reaffirmation by all humans of all cultures and religions of the global importance of a planet-wide conservation of the Earth?s biotic heritage. For the world?s religions it means elevation of stewardship of the Earth to a moral imperative and a goal of complete preservation of the Earth?s biotic inheritance, one which is based on a Do No Harm ethic.

Williams, Richard S., Jr.

2002-01-01

295

Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David

296

HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF METALS AND METAL COMPOUNDS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Metal accumulation in soil can result in adverse effects on soil biota, and may concentrate metals in food chains to levels detrimental to humans and wildlife. A SETAC Pellston Workshop entitled " Hazard Identification Approach For Metals And Inorganic Metal Substances" examined...

297

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

298

SYSTEMS BIOM BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS,  

E-print Network

exercise studies under normal and diseased conditions. Cellular metabolic changes are quantitatively of heart disease. Therapeutic strategies are developed related to biomechanical, vascular, muscular control systems, human locomotion, and exercise to reduce loss of musculoskeletal function

Rollins, Andrew M.

299

Systems autonomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

Lum, Henry, Jr.

1988-01-01

300

Assessing waterbird habitat use in coastal evaporative systems using stable isotopes (? 13C, ? 15N and ?D) as environmental tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic patterns of biota across salinity gradients in man-made evaporative systems could assist in determining the use of these habitats by animals. Here we report ? 13C, ? 15N and ?D measurements of a euryhaline fish, the Mediterranean toothcarp ( Aphanius fasciatus), inhabiting a range of salinities in the Thyna saltworks near Sfax (Tunisia). The contribution of these salinity niches to egg formation of two typically piscivorous bird species breeding in the area and feeding within saltworks, Little Tern ( Sternula albifrons) and Little Egret ( Egretta garzetta), was inferred trough a triple-isotope (? 13C, ? 15N and ?D) Bayesian mixing model. Isotopic trends for fish ? 15N and ?D across the salinity gradient followed the equations: ? 15N = e (1.1 + 47.68/Salinity) and ?D = -175.74 + Salinity + Salinity 2; whereas fish ? 13C increased as salinity rose (? 13C = -10.83 + 0.02·Salinity), after a sudden drop in fish isotopic values for salinities >60 (Practical Salinity Scale) (average fish ? 13C for salinities <60 = -5.92‰). Both bird species fed largely on low hypersalinity ponds (salinity = 43; average contribution = 37% and 22% for Little Egrets and Little Terns, respectively), although the use of intermediate hypersalinities (salinities 63 and 70) by Little Terns also occurred (16% and 21%, respectively). Isotopic patterns across salinity gradients allow the use of isotopic measurements to inform studies of habitat occupancy within evaporative systems and provide further insights into how wildlife communities interact with them.

Ramírez, Francisco; Abdennadher, Aida; Sanpera, Carola; Jover, Lluís; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.

2011-04-01

301

Application of a cave inventory system to stimulate development of management strategies: the case of west-central Florida, USA.  

PubMed

The active management of air-filled cave systems is virtually non-existent within the karst landscape of west-central Florida. As in every karst landscape, caves are important because they contain a wide variety of resources (e.g., biota, speleothems) and can act as direct connections between surface and subsurface hydrological processes, potentially exacerbating the pollution of groundwater. Before sound management policies can be drafted, implemented, and enforced, stakeholders must first have knowledge of the management requirements of each cave. However, there is an informational disconnect between researchers, stakeholders, and the recreational caving community. Here, we present a cave inventory system that simplifies the dissemination of resource knowledge to stakeholders so that cave management and protection policies can be drafted and implemented at the state and local level. We inventoried 36 caves in west-central Florida, located on both public and private land, and analyzed cave resource data to provide insights on cave sensitivity and disturbance using two standardized indices. The data revealed that both public and private caves exhibit a wide range of sensitivity and disturbance, and before management strategies can be drafted, the ownership of each cave must be considered. Our inventory geodatabase serves as a link between researchers, landowners, and the public. To ensure the conservation and protection of caves, support from county or state government, combined with cave inventory data, is crucial in developing sound management policy. PMID:21665353

Harley, Grant L; Polk, Jason S; North, Leslie A; Reeder, Philip P

2011-10-01

302

Systems Analysis Systems Integration  

E-print Network

to H2 not straightforward Exploratory research is essential Extensive R&D needed Issues: Economic any previously undertaken by DOE in civilian energy Systems Analysis essential guidance / perspective include coal liquids, shale oil & biomass. #12;7 OPTIONS FOR FUTURE U.S. ENERGY - MY VIEW Coal

303

Operating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

1984-01-01

304

Mechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

Davis, Robert E.

2002-01-01

305

Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system  

SciTech Connect

Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

1992-06-01

306

Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ``hot-spot,`` areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

1992-06-01

307

Selenium distribution in a lake system receiving effluent from a metal mining and milling operation in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

The release of selenium (Se) at relatively low concentrations into aquatic ecosystems over time can result in the accumulation and, if thresholds are exceeded, subsequent adverse effects in sensitive species, including higher trophic levels (such as fish). A milling operation in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, releases treated effluent into a small stream system, and Se has accumulated in sediments and aquatic biota over time. The present study evaluated four small lakes downstream of the effluent discharge point, and one lake upstream, in order to describe and understand the distribution of Se in abiotic environmental compartments and the transfer of Se into benthic macroinvertebrates. The concentrations of Se in sampled sediments were highly variable but exceeded proposed thresholds for the protection of fish and aquatic birds in all study lakes downstream of the effluent discharge point. Selenium concentrations in surface water, whole-sediment, and sediment pore water revealed that whole-body Se concentrations in benthic invertebrates (chironomids) are best correlated with Se in pore water. It is proposed that Se accumulates in sediments through an association with the total organic carbon content of sediment and that Se is fixed from the surface water by micro-organisms and primary producers. The relationship between Se in pore water and Se in whole sediments appears to be influenced by the organic carbon content of each medium, and Se bioavailability in sediment and transfer to higher trophic levels via benthic macroinvertebrates is likely speciation dependent. PMID:20821485

Wiramanaden, Cheryl I E; Forster, Erin K; Liber, Karsten

2010-03-01

308

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Ferner, Clayton

2003-04-21

309

Options for Managing Hypoxic Blackwater in River Systems: Case Studies and Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

Whitworth, Kerry L.; Kerr, Janice L.; Mosley, Luke M.; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S.

2013-10-01

310

Options for managing hypoxic blackwater in river systems: case studies and framework.  

PubMed

Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events. PMID:23912322

Whitworth, Kerry L; Kerr, Janice L; Mosley, Luke M; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S

2013-10-01

311

Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

Baird, R. S.

1990-01-01

312

Cardiovascular system  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

The cardiovascular system is composed of the heart and the network of arteries, veins, and capillaries that transport blood throughout the ... carries waste products from the tissues to the systems of the body through which they are eliminated. ...

313

Biological Effects of Gamma-Ray Bursts: distances for severe damage on the biota  

E-print Network

We present in this work a unified, quantitative synthesis of analytical and numerical calculations of the effects that could be caused on Earth by a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB), considering atmospheric and biological implications. The main effects of the illumination by a GRB are classified in four distinct ones and analyzed separately, namely: direct gamma Flash, UV Flash, Ozone Layer Depletion and Cosmic Rays. The effectiveness of each of these effects is compared and distances for significant biological damage are given for each one. We find that the first three effects have potential to cause global environmental changes and biospheric damages, even if the source is located at Galactic distances or even farther (up to 150 kpc, about five times the Galactic diameter of 30 kpc). Instead, cosmic rays would only be a serious threat for close sources (on the order of a few pc). As a concrete application from a well-recorded event, the effects on the biosphere of an event identical to the giant flare of SGR1806-20 on Dec 27, 2004 have been calculated. In spite of not beeing a classical GRB, most of the parameters of this recent flare are quite well-known and have been used as a calibration for our study. We find that a giant flare impinging on Earth is not a threat for life in all practical situations, mainly because it is not as energetic, in spite of being much more frequent than GRBs, unless the source happens to be extremely close.

Douglas Galante; Jorge Ernesto Horvath

2005-12-01

314

Selenium sediment toxicity thresholds and derivation of water quality criteria for freshwater biota of western streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterborne and sediment selenium (Se) data, in conjunction with selected physicochemical parameters, were collected from streams of the middle Arkansas River basin, Colorado, USA, to examine the factors affecting sediment Se accumulation in a lotic environment. An empirical model of dissolved-to-sediment Se transfer in western streams, as an interactive function of sediment organic carbon content, was developed and validated. Sediment

William D. Van Derveer; Steven P. Canton

1997-01-01

315

Distribution of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment, biota and floating plants in Baiyangdian Lake, China.  

PubMed

The distribution of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Baiyangdian Lake, China, was determined in this study. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant PFC in lake water (1.70-73.5 ng L(-1), median 9.72 ng L(-1)), while perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in sediments (0.06-0.64 ng g(-1) dry wt, median 0.19 ng g(-1) dry wt) and in aquatic animals (0.57-13.7 ng g(-1) wet wt, median 2.56 ng g(-1) wet wt). Significant differences in PFC levels were observed among various aquatic animals. We also determined, for the first time, the PFC levels in floating plants, including Ceratophyllum demersum L., Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer and Salvinia natans (L.), and we found that PFOA and PFNA were the dominant PFCs in these plants. Furthermore, floating plants were observed to have different composition profiles compared to aquatic animals. Geographical differences in PFC levels were also observed, with higher PFC levels in samples from the north part of Baiyangdian Lake than those in the south. The differences in human and industrial activities in different parts of the lake and the discharged wastewater from the Fuhe River may be the major contributors for these geographical differences. PMID:22200049

Shi, Yali; Pan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jieming; Cai, Yaqi

2012-02-01

316

Coelacanths from the Middle Triassic Luoping Biota, Yunnan, South China, with the earliest evidence of  

E-print Network

Rhabdoderma and Undina, and the extant genus Latimeria. Our new find extends the evidence for ovoviviparity, with the earliest evidence of ovoviviparity. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 58 (1): 175­193. The fossil record of coelacanths is patchy, with very few taxa known from the Triassic of Asia. We report here two new genera

Benton, Michael

317

Heavy metals in Lake Balaton: water column, suspended matter, sediment and biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1999–2002, five sampling cruises have been carried out on Lake Balaton to assess trace metal distribution in the lake and to identify major sources. Eighteen elements, including Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb (trace metals) and Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr (major metals), were determined in one or more of

H. L. Nguyen; M. Leermakers; J. Osán; S. Török

2005-01-01

318

LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATION OF BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

To be presented is an overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the statistical evaluation of concentrations obtained from the analysis of a suite of compounds (e.g., Galaxolide®, musk xylene, and amino musk xylene) in an aquatic ecological site. ...

319

MUSKEGON, MICHIGAN INDUSTRIAL-MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER STORAGE LAGOONS: BIOTA AND ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A limnological investigation was carried out on two 344 hectare (850 acre) industrial-municipal wastewater storage lagoons from August 1973 until August 1975. Besides monitoring physical and chemical parameters during the period of the initial filling, the biological community wa...

320

Effect of soil biota on growth and allocation by Eucalyptus microcarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined growth of Eucalyptus micro- carpa seedlings in soil collected from four sites in southeastern Australia, in which retired pasture land has been revegetated with mixed plantings of Euca- lyptus and Acacia species. Revegetation of farm land in southeastern Australia is an area of major invest- ment. The focus of the study was to examine the influence of soil

Mark Bourne; Adrienne B. Nicotra; Matthew J. Colloff; Saul A. Cunningham

2007-01-01

321

Holarctic Collared Lemmings: Traces of Their Spread as Related to the History of the Arctic Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among recent lemmings (D. torquatus from the Yamal Peninsula and D. groenlandicus from Somerset, Bathurst, Melville, and Devon islands), there are populations with archaic sets of morphotypes characteristic of the end of the Late Pleistocene. In some parts of the species range, lemming morphotypes follow the pattern characteristic of the Holocene stage of their evolution. Lemmings with the best developed

N. G. Smirnov; V. B. Fedorov

2003-01-01

322

The plutonium isotopic composition of marine biota on Enewetak Atoll: a preliminary assessment.  

PubMed

We have determined the level and distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides, plutonium activity concentrations, and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in tissue samples of giant clam (Tridacna gigas and Hippopus hippopus), a top snail (Trochus nilaticas) and sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) collected from different locations around Enewetak Atoll. The plutonium isotopic measurements were performed using ultra-high sensitivity accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Elevated levels of plutonium were observed in the stomachs (includes the stomach lining) of Tridacna clam (0.62 to 2.98 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.), in the soft parts (edible portion) of top snails (0.25 to 1.7 Bq kg(-1)), wet wt.) and, to a lesser extent, in sea cucumber (0.015 to 0.22 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) relative to muscle tissue concentrations in clam (0.006 to 0.021 Bq kg(-1), wet wt.) and in comparison with previous measurements of plutonium in fish. These data and information provide a basis for re-evaluating the relative significance of dietary intakes of plutonium from marine foods on Enewetak Atoll and, perhaps most importantly, demonstrate that discrete 240Pu239Pu isotope signatures might well provide a useful investigative tool to monitor source-term attribution and consequences on Enewetak Atoll. One potential application of immediate interest is to monitor and assess the health and ecological impacts of leakage of plutonium (as well as other radionuclides) from a low-level radioactive waste repository on Runit Island relative to background levels of fallout contamination in Enewetak Atoll lagoon. PMID:18843389

Hamilton, Terry F; Martinelli, Roger E; Kehl, Steven R; McAninch, Jeffrey E

2008-10-01

323

Selenium Levels in Biota from Irrigation Drainwater Impoundments in the San Joaquin Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterfowl, fish, invertebrates, and plants were collected from impoundments used for evaporating subsurface irrigation drainwater in Kings and Kern counties, California. Specimens were analyzed for trace elements with emphasis on selenium. Dry weight concentrations of total selenium ranged from 2.5 to 17 ?g\\/g in wigeongrass, Ruppia maritima; 7.6 to 30 ?g\\/g in water boatmen, Corixidae; 12 to 40 ?\\/g in

Douglas A. Barnum; David S. Gilmer

1988-01-01

324

The Jehol Biota (Lower Cretaceous, China): new discoveries and future prospects.  

PubMed

Continuing work on the paleontology and sedimentology of the Jehol Group (Lower Cretaceous, China) is yielding numerous new insights into the evolution of many Mesozoic plant and animal clades. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered regarding Jehol paleoenvironments, paleobiology and paleobiogeography. All of this information will be crucial in providing a detailed reconstruction of this extinct ecosystem. PMID:21395985

Barrett, Paul M; Hilton, Jason M

2006-03-01

325

Using Bayesian networks to assess the vulnerability of Hawaiian terrestrial biota to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the effects of climate change on individual species become increasingly apparent, there is a clear need for effective adaptation planning to prevent an increase in species extinctions worldwide. Given the limited understanding of species responses to climate change, vulnerability assessments and species distribution models (SDMs) have been two common tools used to jump-start climate change adaptation efforts. However, although these two approaches generally serve the same purpose of understanding species future responses to climate change, they have rarely mixed. In collaboration with research and management partners from federal, state and non-profit organizations, we are conducting a climate change vulnerability assessment for hundreds of plant and forest bird species of the Main Hawaiian Islands. This assessment is the first to comprehensively consider the potential threats of climate change to a significant portion of Hawaii's fauna and flora (over one thousand species considered) and thus fills a critical gap defined by natural resource scientists and managers in the region. We have devised a flexible approach that effectively integrates species distribution models into a vulnerability assessment framework that can be easily updated with improved models and data. This tailors our assessment approach to the Pacific Island reality of often limited and fragmented information on species and large future climate uncertainties, This vulnerability assessment is based on a Bayesian network-based approach that integrates multiple landscape (e.g., topographic diversity, dispersal barriers), species trait (e.g., generation length, fecundity) and expert-knowledge based information (e.g., capacity to colonize restored habitat) relevant to long-term persistence of species under climate change. Our presentation will highlight some of the results from our assessment but will mainly focus on the utility of the flexible approach we have developed and its potential application in other settings.

Fortini, L.; Jacobi, J.; Price, J.; Vorsino, A.; Paxton, E.; Amidon, F.; 'Ohukani'ohi'a Gon, S., III; Koob, G.; Brink, K.; Burgett, J.; Miller, S.

2012-12-01

326

Changes in atmospheric CO2 - Influence of the marine biota at high latitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately half of the nitrogen and phosphorus entering deep waters of the contemporary ocean are transported from the surface in inorganic form as preformed nutrients. A simple model for ocean chemistry is presented and shown to account for the present level of atmospheric CO2. Fluctuations in preformed nutrients, modulated by changes in insolation and circulation at high latitudes, can result

Fanny Knox; M. B. McElroy

1984-01-01

327

Technical report of biota, FEL Site 2, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is considering expansion of laser test facilities adjacent to its existing LLNL Site 300 test location. Construction of a free-electron laser, known as the FEL Project, is being considered on approximately 9600 hectares (24,000 acres) of land immediately southeast of Site 300. This report quantitatively describes the variation of vegetation on FEL Site 2, and relates the vegetation to potential environmental impacts associated with present operation and possible expansion of site facilities. The presence and status of any endangered, threatened, fully protected, or otherwise sensitive species of wildlife on FEL Site 2 that might be affected by site operations and developments was also determined. We directed our studies mainly toward the federally endangered San Joaquin kit for (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but also toward another 14 special status species that potentially occur on site, including the state threatened Alameda striped racer (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus).

Taylor, D.W.; Davilla, W.; Orloff, S.

1986-09-26

328

Technical report of biota, FEL Site 1, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Final report  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is considering an expansion of laser test facilities adjacent to its existing LLNL Site 300 test location. Construction of a free-electron laser, known as the FEL Project, is being considered on approximately 3900 hectates (10,500 acres) of land. We will refer to this proposed site as FEL Site 1. Knowledge of the flora and vegetation resources of the proposed FEL Site 1 is necessary in order to plan for construction, operation, and possible future expansion of the FEL facility. The purpose of botanical sections of this report is to quantitatively describe the variation of vegetation on FEL Site 1, and to relate the vegetation to potential environmental impacts associated with present operation and possible expansion of site facilities. The primary purpose of the wildlife studies was to determine the presence and status of any endangered, threatened, fully protected, or otherwise sensitive species on FEL Site 1 that might be affected by the proposed FEL project. We directed our studies mainly toward the federally endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but also toward another 14 special status species that potentially occur on site, including the state threatened Alameda striped racer (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus).

Taylor, D.W.; Davilla, W.; Orloff, S.

1986-09-26

329

Impacts of New Highways and Subsequent Landscape Urbanization on Stream Habitat and Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated

Andrew P. Wheeler; Paul L. Angermeier; Amanda E. Rosenberger

2005-01-01

330

Freshwater biota are exposed to a range of natural disturbances varying in strength,frequency,predictability,  

E-print Network

terrestrial ecosys- tems. Fresh waters are intimately connected to the terrestrial realm through groundwaters, the water column, and aquatic sediments December 2000 / Vol. 50 No. 12 · BioScience 1099 Articles P. S. (Sam on the sediments and on the water over these sediments, and because of the transmission of impacts from adjacent

Palmer, Margaret A.

331

Biogeochemistry of the Stable Isotopes of Hydrogen and Carbon in Salt Marsh Biota 1  

PubMed Central

Deuterium to hydrogen ratios of 14 plant species from a salt marsh and lagoon were 55‰ depleted in deuterium relative to the environmental water. Carbon tetrachloride-extractable material from these plants was another 92‰ depleted in deuterium. This gave a fractionation factor from water to CCl4 extract of 1.147. This over-all fractionation was remarkably constant for all species analyzed. Plants also discriminate against 13C, particularly in the lipid fraction. Data suggest that different mechanisms for carbon fixation result in different fractionations of the carbon isotopes. Herbivore tissues reflected the isotopic ratios of plants ingested. Apparently different metabolic processes are responsible for the different degrees of fractionation observed for hydrogen and carbon isotopes. PMID:16657539

Smith, Bruce N.; Epstein, Samuel

1970-01-01

332

The biota as ancient and modern modulator of the earth's atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The composition of the terrestrial atmosphere is thought to have been markedly modified by surface microbiota and modulated around quantities of gases optimized for growth of these microbiota. Three diagrams illustrating these suppositions are presented. The first shows a probable order of appearance of major metabolic pathways in microbes that interact with sediment and atmosphere. It is based on evolutionary considerations and is devised independently of the fossil record. The second diagram shows the qualitative emissions and removals of atmospheric gases by anaerobic organisms; it approximates those processes thought to have dominated the terrestrial atmosphere in Archean times. The third diagrams gaseous emissions and removals by the major groups of organisms, including oxygen-releasing and -utilizing forms. Biological gas exchange processes thought to have dominated the atmosphere since the Proterozoic are thus represented.

Margulis, L.; Lovelock, J. E.

1978-01-01

333

Mercury Species and Other Selected Constituent Concentrations in Water, Sediment, and Biota of  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................................................................10 Watershed Sources Project Sampling Methods ...........................................................................................................................12 Methylation and Bioaccumulation Project Sampling Methods

334

Distribution of Trace Elements in Sediments and Biota of Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theconcentrations of Co,Ni,Cu,Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Fe, Mn, and Al were determined in sediments and biotaofSongkhla Lake, ashallowcoastal lagoonlocated in southern Thailand. In June 2006, surface sediments were sampled in 44 stations in the three sections of the lake(inner-,middle-,andoutersections).Sedimentcores were also sampled in 13 stations in three cross-sections of the lake. In surface sediments, trace and major elements, organic matter,

Siriporn Pradit; Gullaya Wattayakorn; Saowapa Angsupanich; Willy Baeyens; Martine Leermakers

2009-01-01

335

A new type of Precambrian megascopic fossils: the Jinxian biota from northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precambrian fossils are crucial for our understanding of the evolution of early organisms. Megascopic body fossils are more\\u000a important because they potentially represent macroorganisms. However, the Precambrian fossil record is sparse and dominated\\u000a by microfossils and microbial structures. Here we show a new type of megascopic fossils recovered from the Xingmincun Formation\\u000a (probably Neoproterozoic age), northeastern China. The specimens are

Xingliang Zhang; Hong Hua; Joachim Reitner

2006-01-01

336

Organosulfur Compounds: Molecular and Isotopic Evolution from Biota to Oil and Gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organosulfur compounds (OSCs) play important roles in the formation, preservation, and thermal degradation of sedimentary organic matter and the associated petroleum generation. Improved analytical techniques for S isotope analysis have recently enhanced our understanding of the mechanisms for OSC formation and maturation and their associated S isotope distributions. The close interaction of OSCs with inorganic S species throughout their formation and maturation affects their 34S/32S isotopic ratio (δ34S), forming specific signatures for distinct sources and processes. Ultimately, thermal maturation homogenizes the δ34S values of different fractions and individual compounds. Reservoir processes such as thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) introduce exogenous and isotopically distinct S into hydrocarbons and can significantly change the δ34S of petroleum or kerogen. Specific OSCs react at different rates and thus can be used to evaluate the extent of processes such as TSR. This article reviews factors that affect the 34S/32S isotopic distribution of OSCs along pathways of formation, diagenesis, and thermal alteration.

Amrani, Alon

2014-05-01

337

Analysis of Engineered Nanomaterials in Complex Matricies (Environment and Biota): General Considerations and Conceptual Case Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Advances in the study of the environmental fate, transport, and ecotoxicological effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been hampered by a lack of adequate techniques for the detection and quantification of ENMs at environmentally relevant concentrations in complex media...

338

Concentrations of selenium in biota, sediments, and water at Cibola National Wildlife Refuge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium contamination was studied at Cibola National Wildlife Refuge (Cibola NWR) in the lower Colorado River Valley, California and Arizona, USA. The objective was to determine whether local irrigation practices resulted in exposure of fish to toxic concentrations of selenium.

D. Welsh; O. E. Maughan

1994-01-01

339

SURVEY, ECOLOGY, AND SYSTEMATICS OF THE UPPER POTOMAC ESTUARY BIOTA: AUFWUCHS MICROFAUNA PHASE III  

E-print Network

. The Corps of Engineers has attempted this for the entire Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac River, yet PHASE III Interaction of Zooplankters and Blue-green Algal Blooms Under Organic and Thermal Pollution

District of Columbia, University of the

340

Land cover and Urbanization links with stream Biota in the mid-Atlantic USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of roads, parking lots, buildings and other developed land within a watershed, its impervious surface area (ISA), has long been known to impact the biotic health of streams and waterways. Vegetation in riparian zones can reduce the negative impacts of ISA by buffering runoff, filtering pollution, and reducing flow velocities that incise stream channels and transport pollutants. ISA has traditionally been mapped by assigning coefficients to land use categories, a type of 'classify and multiply' approach. This can be substantially improved using digital imagery capable of discriminating fine scale information of the land surface, including built areas and tree cover in riparian buffer zones. We used a combination of Landsat (30m) and IKONOS (4m) satellite imagery to develop accurate maps of subpixel ISA and tree cover across the Chesapeake Bay watershed, an area of highly altered land cover and rapid land use change. We report on analyses of the links between these maps and stream biotic measurements for a wide range of small watersheds across Maryland for which extensive in-stream monitoring has been established as part of the Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS). A regression tree statistical approach was used to determine the relationship between land cover and indices calculated by the MBSS, focusing on benthic indices of biologic integrity (IBI). We also explored the influence of landscape configuration and distance weighting of land cover relative to stream channels and sampling points. Thresholds of impervious and tree cover within the watersheds and riparian buffer zones established using the IKONOS imagery were found to vary more substantially across the diverse range of watersheds within the state, as assessed using the Landsat subpixel maps. Nonetheless, ISA was found to be the primary predictor of stream health, followed by tree cover in riparian buffers and within the watersheds. This work advances the estimation of stream health characteristics in areas where MBSS measurements do not exist, and aids the development of guidelines for management and restoration. We are now expanding the work to include our model projections of future urbanization trends, and will report on preliminary results from this analysis.

Goetz, S. J.; Fiske, G.

2005-12-01

341

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38 (2006) 30033018 Diversity and distribution of Victoria Land biota  

E-print Network

, Orono, ME 04468, USA j British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, The University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand n Institute for Research on Environment of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College at Wye, Ashford, Kent TN25 5AH, UK p Australian Antarctic Division

Wall, Diana

342

Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands  

EPA Science Inventory

Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

343

Dust impact on marine biota and atmospheric CO2 during glacial periods  

E-print Network

Glacial Maximum (LGM) are used as input, our model shows an increase in the relative abundance of diatoms.1029/2002PA000810, 2003. 1. Introduction [2] Air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice reveal that atmospheric PCO2

Kohfeld, Karen

344

Bioinvasion in a Brazilian Bay: Filling Gaps in the Knowledge of Southwestern Atlantic Biota  

PubMed Central

Background Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexico), American Samoa and Pearl Harbor (USA) inventories. Conclusions/Significance This study presents the first published comprehensive list of hard substratum sessile marine invertebrate species in a Brazilian bay. The high percentage of cryptogenic species reveals gaps in both zoological records and information on introduced species for the Brazilian coast. The introduced species successfully colonized different sites in the Ilha Grande Bay, including both natural and artificial substrata. In addition, we find that artificial structures may not be good surrogates for natural rocky shores and may represent an ecological threat. Comparisons with other inventories suggest a history of broad-scale invasion, though more evidence is needed to support this conclusion. PMID:20927375

Ignacio, Barbara L.; Julio, Luciana M.; Junqueira, Andrea O. R.; Ferreira-Silva, Maria A. G.

2010-01-01

345

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 21382149 Heterogeneity of soil nutrients and subsurface biota  

E-print Network

Laboratory, 999-W, Aiken, SC 29808, USA f Department of Plant & Soil Science, University of Vermont, HillsAuthor's personal copy Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 2138­2149 Heterogeneity of soil, USA c Department of Earth, Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W

Neher, Deborah A.

346

DETERMINATION OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER AND ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN THE RECEIVING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high usage and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. The U.S. EPA (Las Vegas) developed surface water monitoring me...

347

LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials and consumed in very large quantities worldwide. Due to their high use and release, they have become ubiquitous in the environment. We analyzed water samples from the confluence of three municipal...

348

Availability of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factor Data Set and PCB Residue Effects Database  

EPA Science Inventory

At contaminated sites, EPA?s Superfund program must decide how best to protect public health and the environment. This research was undertaken to better inform decision making and reduce uncertainties related to risk assessments at Superfund sites. A residue-effects database (PCB...

349

Methylmercury Bioaccumulation in Rice and Wetland Biota: employing integrated indices of processes that drive methylmercury risk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands often are associated with elevated methylmercury (MeHg) production and food web bioaccumulation, making them potentially important sources of Hg to surrounding waters and to wetland-dependent fish and wildlife. However, the cycling of MeHg through wetlands can vary markedly with wetland type. Agricultural wetlands such as rice fields can exhibit particularly pronounced MeHg concentrations and bioaccumulation because their biogeochemical, hydrological, and ecological characteristics facilitate the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg) to MeHg. Rice fields are characterized by a series of seasonal extreme wetting and drying cycles, sulfate-containing fertilizers, and high levels of labile organic carbon, all of which are key processes in the Hg cycle. Rice fields comprise approximately 20% of freshwater habitats and 11% of cultivated land area globally, providing critical wildlife habitat while offering substantial economic, human health, and ecosystem benefits. Thus, there is strong impetus to better understand the drivers of Hg cycling in rice fields and to develop useful management approaches for minimizing Hg risk associated with rice agriculture without compromising rice production. We examined the role of rice wetlands on MeHg bioaccumulation through foodwebs by employing biosentinel caged fish as integrators of MeHg cycling processes. With experimental field studies in California's Central Valley, we placed biosentinel fishes into nine rice wetlands that were subjected to three different harvest strategies, and into nine managed wetlands that encompassed three different hydrological regimes. We simultaneously measured a suite of biogeochemical processes in surface water, sediment, and pore water in order to link the response in fish Hg bioaccumulation with within-field processes that regulate MeHg cycling. Our preliminary results indicate that fish Hg concentrations were 1.6 times higher in rice wetlands than in managed wetlands. Additionally, fish Hg concentrations increased across rice fields from inlets to outlets indicating that in situ processes enhanced MeHg production rice fields, whereas concentrations decreased from inlets to outlets in managed wetlands. Finally, our preliminary results suggest organic carbon associated with rice plants was an important contributor to fish Hg concentrations, whereas plants in managed wetlands were not strongly linked to fish Hg concentrations. Our preliminary findings suggest that there are strong linkages between biogeochemical processes inherent in rice wetlands and MeHg cycling and bioaccumulation, which are further described in a companion presentation by Windham-Myers (this session). These results have important implications for managing MeHg risk in areas with extensive rice agriculture.

Eagles-Smith, C.; Ackerman, J.; Windham-Myers, L.; Fleck, J.

2013-12-01

350

Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediments and Biota from Four US Arctic Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene,\\u000a HCB), and p,p?-DDT were the primary analytes detected (max?=?0.7 ng\\/g dry wt), while individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners\\u000a were always below

S. M. Allen-Gil; C. P. Gubala; R. Wilson; D. H. Landers; T. L. Wade; J. L. Sericano; L. R. Curtis

1997-01-01

351

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and biota from four US Arctic lakes.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including hexachlorobenzene, HCB), and p,p'-DDT were the primary analytes detected (max = 0.7 ng/g dry wt), while individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were always below 0.1 ng/g. A wider range of compounds and higher concentrations were found in lake trout, the top predatory fish species in the same lakes. The concentration ranges for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLORs), DDTs, and PCBs in lake trout and grayling were similar to those reported for other arctic freshwater fish (1-100 ng/g wet wt), but one to two orders of magnitude lower than Great Lakes salmonids. Nitrogen isotope analysis confirmed that differences in OC concentrations between grayling and lake trout are explained partly by differences in food web position. PMID:9419256

Allen-Gil, S M; Gubala, C P; Wilson, R; Landers, D H; Wade, T L; Sericano, J L; Curtis, L R

1997-11-01

352

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA FROM FOUR US ARCTIC LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including...

353

IMPACT OF NEARSTREAM VEGETATION AND STREAM MORPHOLOGY ON WATER QUALITY AND STREAM BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

As man modifies watersheds by removal of natural vegetation and stream channelization, disequilibria in both the terrestrial and aquatic environments result. These disequilibria are the major problem in controlling sediments and nutrients from non-point sources and improving the ...

354

Hydrothermal vent fields and chemosynthetic biota on the world's deepest seafloor spreading centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mid-Cayman spreading centre is an ultraslow-spreading ridge in the Caribbean Sea. Its extreme depth and geographic isolation from other mid-ocean ridges offer insights into the effects of pressure on hydrothermal venting, and the biogeography of vent fauna. Here we report the discovery of two hydrothermal vent fields on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre. The Von Damm Vent Field is located

Bramley J. Murton; Kate Stansfield; Paul A. Tyler; Christopher R. German; Cindy L. Van Dover; Diva Amon; Maaten Furlong; Nancy Grindlay; Nicholas Hayman; Veit Hühnerbach; Maria Judge; Tim Le Bas; Stephen McPhail; Alexandra Meier; Ko-ichi Nakamura; Verity Nye; Miles Pebody; Rolf B. Pedersen; Sophie Plouviez; Carla Sands; Roger C. Searle; Peter Stevenson; Sarah Taws; Sally Wilcox; Douglas P. Connelly; Jonathan T. Copley

2012-01-01

355

Caused by Increased Atmospheric CO2 And the Effects on Marine Biota  

E-print Network

% of the world's oxygen ·Hypercapnia (acidification of body fluids)of sea creatures ·US fishery landings. Edward Arnold, of Hodder and Stoughton. ·Crawley A, Kline DI, Dunn S, Anthony K, Dove S. 2009. "The/Exp05_CO2/Lab/CO2intoOcean.jpg ·cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/cdiac74/chapter2.pdf ·http://i.treehugger.com/images

Toohey, Darin W.

356

Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Sediment-Associated Biota  

SciTech Connect

A hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of chemicals; therefore, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a screening assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. If a chemical concentration or the reported detection limit exceeds a proposed lower benchmark, further analysis is needed to determine the hazards posed by that chemical. If, however, the chemical concentration falls below the lower benchmark value, the chemical may be eliminated from further study. The use of multiple benchmarks is recommended for screening chemicals of concern in sediments. Integrative benchmarks developed for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection are included for inorganic and organic chemicals. Equilibrium partitioning benchmarks are included for screening nonionic organic chemicals. Freshwater sediment effect concentrations developed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment Project are included for inorganic and organic chemicals (EPA 1996). Field survey benchmarks developed for the Ontario Ministry of the Environment are included for inorganic and organic chemicals. In addition, EPA-proposed sediment quality criteria are included along with screening values from EPA Region IV and Ecotox Threshold values from the EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Pore water analysis is recommended for ionic organic compounds; comparisons are then made against water quality benchmarks. This report is an update of three prior reports (Jones et al. 1997; Jones et al. 1996; and Hull and Suter 1994). It contains new benchmarks for freshwater sediments, equilibrium partitioning benchmarks corrected to two significant figures, and all of the freshwater and estuarine benchmarks included in the previous version.

Hull, R.N.

1993-01-01

357

Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Detroit River and Western Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PCBs in zebra mussels were elevated to concentrations greater than 5,000 ng\\/g lipid and 15,000 ng\\/g lipid, respectively, at the Ambassador Bridge in the Detroit River and concentrations gradually declined at downstream locations, which included three stations in the western basin of Lake Erie (Middle Sister Island, East Sister Island, Pelee Island). PCB concentrations in

Chris D. Metcalfel; Tracy L. Metcalfe; Geoffrey Riddle; G. Douglas Haffner

1997-01-01

358

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota: 1996 revision  

SciTech Connect

This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life form contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening for benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. This report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility. Also included is the updates of benchmark values where appropriate, new benchmark values, secondary sources are replaced by primary sources, and a more complete documentation of the sources and derivation of all values are presented.

Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tsao, C.L. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of the Environment] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of the Environment

1996-06-01

359

Benson Beach Demonstration Project: Composition and Abundance of Biota at Three Alternative Sump Sites  

SciTech Connect

The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is investigating plans to provide sediment to nourish beaches north of the Mouth of the Columbia River (MCR). Under the currently designed proposal, sediment dredged from the MCR will be temporarily stored at one of three proposed areas south of the North Jetty before being redredged and moved by a cutterhead pipeline dredge over the jetty to nourish Benson Beach. Resulting potential impacts to resident Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and fishes represent one of the criteria for evaluating each of the alternative locations. To establish the species composition and relative abundance of crabs and fishes associated with each of the three proposed sump areas, researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Division completed nine field sampling trips from July 8, 2003, to November 1, 2003, for a total of 113 successful trawls comprising an area of over 7.4 ha (74,156 m2). This report documents the results of that effort. To understand the relative risk of losses to crab populations associated with dredging impacts at the sump alternative areas, it is recommended that a modified dredge impact model be developed using the data collected in this study. This model should estimate crab adult equivalent loss and associated error rates to gain a population-level perspective on the potential entrainment impacts at each of the three alternative sump areas. As well, a sustained survey of Dungeness crab distribution and movement within the Columbia River estuary would clarify the relative value of the sump areas as a migratory corridor for crab populations, and support management decisions relative to issues associated with dredged material handling and disposal.

Williams, Greg D.; Pearson, Walter H.; Evans, Nathan R.; Anderson, Michael G.

2004-01-15

360

Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina  

PubMed Central

A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22319012

Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Arup, Ulf; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2011-01-01

361

Contribution to the lichen biota of Slovenia XII. Some lichens from Logarska dolina.  

PubMed

A list of 94 species is presented including Bacidia subacerina and Lopadium disciforme as new for Slovenia and Bilimbia accedens, Lecanora leptyrodes, Megalaria grossa, Mycobilimbia epixanthoides, Rinodina efflorescens, and Sclerophora peronella as new for the alpine phytogeographical region of Slovenia. PMID:22319012

Bilovitz, Peter Othmar; Arup, Ulf; Mayrhofer, Helmut

2010-11-01

362

Modeling of PCB concentrations in water and biota ( Mytilus edulis ) in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water column concentration and bioaccumulation of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB052 was modeled in New\\u000a Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, using site-specific hydrodynamics and loading information. Equilibrium partitioning theory\\u000a was used to estimate interstitial water CB052 concentrations from sediment concentrations in New Bedford Harbor and Buzzards\\u000a Bay, Massachusetts. The rate of CB052 vertical flux from the interstitial water to the

Mohamed A. Abdelrhman; Barbara J. Bergen; William G. Nelson

1998-01-01

363

Monterey Bay cold-seep biota: Assemblages, abundance, and ultrastructure of living foraminifera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there is a growing body of evidence indicating benthic foraminifera inhabit hydrocarbon and cold seep environments, biochemical and ultrastructural data on seep foraminiferal communities are not available. Therefore, sediments collected from cold seeps in Monterey Bay, CA (900-1000 m), were examined for the presence of live benthic foraminifera. Results from three independent methods (ATP assay, ultrastructural analysis, rose Bengal staining) indicate that certain species inhabit the Clam Flat and Clam Field seeps. Abundances in our seep samples were lower than in comparable non-seep sites, although not atypical for these bathyal depths. Of 38 species represented at these two seep sites by cytoplasm-containing specimens, only Spiroplectammina biformis was restricted to the seep environment. However, because S. biformis is also known from non-seep sites in other areas, it should not be considered as endemic to seeps. Ultrastructural studies show abundant peroxisomes in seep specimens, which may allow inhabitation of such environments. One specimen of Uvigerina peregrina had prokaryotes nestled in test pores, suggesting that bacteria may play a role in the survival of foraminifera in this seep environment.

Bernhard, Joan M.; Buck, Kurt R.; Barry, James P.

2001-10-01

364

SOIL BIOTA FACILITATE EXOTIC ACER INVASIONS IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary hypothesis for successful exotic plant invasions is that the invaders have escaped the specialist consumers that control them (Enemy Release Hy- pothesis). However, few studies have rigorously tested this assertion with biogeographical experiments or considered the effects of soil organisms. We tested the Enemy Release Hypothesis and the enhanced role of mutualisms by comparing density patterns of the

Kurt O. Reinhart; Ragan M. Callaway

2004-01-01

365

Field Spectroscopy And Spectral Analysis Of Caribbean Scleractinian Reef Corals And Related Benthic Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are highly heterogenic ecosystems with a plethora of photosynthetic organisms forming most of the benthic communities. Usually coral reef benthos is a composite of reef corals, different groups of algae, seagrasses, sandy bottoms, dead rubble, and even mangrove forests living in a relatively small area. The remote characterization of these important tropical ecosystems represents a challenge to scientists, particularly due to the similarity of the spectral signatures among some of these components. As such, we examined the similarities and differences between nine Scleractinian Caribbean shallow-water reef corals' spectral reflectance curves. Samples were also collected from each species for pigment analysis using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Reflectance curves were obtained with the aid of a GER-1500 hand-held field spectroradiometer enclosed in an underwater housing. Our findings showed that even though most of the pigmentation was directly related to the relationship of corals with their symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), the presence of other endolithic photosynthetic organisms can also contribute to the light absorption of corals and, hence, the reflectance spectra of each species. Also, the relative contribution of chlorophylls vs. carotenes or xanthophylls depends on the coral species with some species relying more on Chlorophyll a and other species relying on Chlorophyl c2 and Peridinin with a small Chlorophyll a component. Pigments associated with the xanthophyll cycle of dinoflagellates (Diadinoxanthin and Diatoxanthin) were detected in most species. Pigments typical of endolithic organisms such as Zeaxanthin, Fucoxanthin, Violaxanthin and Siphonaxanthin were also detected in some coral species. The influence of major pigments on the reflectance curve was evidenced with a 2nd derivative analysis. This could be used to discriminate among most species. Further, an analysis of the integration of the area under the reflectance curve in the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700nm) yielded an inverse relationship with the total pigment concentration with an up to 97% confidence level. Corals were distinguished from seagrasses and other benthic components based on their reflectance and differences in curve inflection peaks. Special care needs to be taken when characterizing sandy bottoms as they are influenced by the presence of photosynthetic microbiota as reflected in their reflectance curves. The use of this integration is proposed as a novel non-invasive method to predict pigment changes in reef corals aimed to monitor their health in the present climate change scenario.

Torres-Perez, J. L.; Guild, L. S.; Armstrong, R.; Corredor, J. E.; Polanco, R.; Zuluaga-Montero, A. B.

2013-05-01

366

Potential terrestrial fate and effects on soil biota of a coal liquefaction product spill  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soil samples collected from the site of a coal liquefaction product spill were used to study potential fates and effects of this synthetic fuel. Simulated weathering in the laboratory caused significant changes in residual oil composition. Soil column leachates contained high phenol levels that decreased exponentially over time. Toxicity tests demonstrated that the oil-contaminated soil was phytotoxic and caused embryotoxic and teratogenic effects on eggs of the cricket Acheta domesticus.

Strayer, R.F.; Edwards, N.T.; Walton, B.T.; Charles-Shannon, V.

1983-01-01

367

Biota and biomolecules in extreme environments on Earth: implications for life detection on Mars.  

PubMed

The three main requirements for life as we know it are the presence of organic compounds, liquid water, and free energy. Several groups of organic compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleobases, lipids) occur in all life forms on Earth and are used as diagnostic molecules, i.e., biomarkers, for the characterization of extant or extinct life. Due to their indispensability for life on Earth, these biomarkers are also prime targets in the search for life on Mars. Biomarkers degrade over time; in situ environmental conditions influence the preservation of those molecules. Nonetheless, upon shielding (e.g., by mineral surfaces), particular biomarkers can persist for billions of years, making them of vital importance in answering questions about the origins and limits of life on early Earth and Mars. The search for organic material and biosignatures on Mars is particularly challenging due to the hostile environment and its effect on organic compounds near the surface. In support of life detection on Mars, it is crucial to investigate analogue environments on Earth that resemble best past and present Mars conditions. Terrestrial extreme environments offer a rich source of information allowing us to determine how extreme conditions affect life and molecules associated with it. Extremophilic organisms have adapted to the most stunning conditions on Earth in environments with often unique geological and chemical features. One challenge in detecting biomarkers is to optimize extraction, since organic molecules can be low in abundance and can strongly adsorb to mineral surfaces. Methods and analytical tools in the field of life science are continuously improving. Amplification methods are very useful for the detection of low concentrations of genomic material but most other organic molecules are not prone to amplification methods. Therefore, a great deal depends on the extraction efficiency. The questions "what to look for", "where to look", and "how to look for it" require more of our attention to ensure the success of future life detection missions on Mars. PMID:25370528

Aerts, Joost W; Röling, Wilfred F M; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

2014-01-01

368

Titel DFG: Priority Programme "EarthShape: Earth Surface Shaping by Biota" Ausschreibung  

E-print Network

coastal range) how in addition biologic processes form soil, influence topography, and thereby shape modulation of erosion and sediment routing at the catchment-scale Cluster 4: Depositional legacy of coupled

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

369

The Transport of Chemicals and Biota into Coastal Rivers and Marine Ecosystems  

E-print Network

from the ocean or coastal erosion. In situ degradation ofand sediments from coastal erosion) and degradation of theerosion has left the current estuary shallow with a greatly decreased tidal prism, consisting mainly of sand bars and coastal

Ng, Charlene Marie

2012-01-01

370

Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period,

Steven C. Wallace; Xiaoming Wang

2004-01-01

371

Model of biota-sediment accumulation factor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A model of the BSAF is constructed for PAHs using a steady-state representation of a benthic food web of a small creek. Analyses of the data collected by others on sediment, crayfish and sunfish PAH indicate that for the crayfish, the BSAF (kg org C kg lipid{sup {minus}1}) range over log K{sub ow} is relatively narrow between 0.01 and 0.1. For the sunfish, a marked decline occurs in the station average BSAF with increasing log K{sub ow} to values ranging from 0.00001 to 0.005. A separation also occurs in the behavior of the PAH groups, with the unsubstituted PAHs constituting an approximately lower bound on the entire set of PAHs. Model calibration to crayfish and sunfish BSAF is accomplished through assignment of PAH (K{sub ow}) functions derived from laboratory data. The substituted naphthalenes in contrast to the unsubstituted PAHs are calculated to behave similarly to PCBs but lower by about one order of magnitude. Analyses of the model calibration indicate that (1) relative to the sunfish, the crayfish appear to exhibit reduced metabolism and higher gut assimilation efficiencies resulting in BSAFs different from sunfish BSAFs; (2) for the sunfish, the BSAF for unsubstituted PAHs declines rapidly with increasing K{sub ow} primarily because of low gut assimilation efficiency and increased metabolism and not because of reduced bioavailability of sediment PAH; and (3) the relative contribution of the food route and water route to the BSAF varies with K{sub ow}.

Thomann, R.V. [Manhattan Coll., Riverdale, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Komlos, J. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1999-05-01

372

How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.  

PubMed Central

This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

2002-01-01

373

Transfer of heavy metals to biota after remediation of contaminated soils with calcareous residues.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of horticultural plants (broccoli, lettuce and leek), different parts of which are destined for human and farm animals consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). Five consecutive crops of each vegetable were obtained in greenhouse. In a second stage, experiments were carried out with rabbits fed with such vegetables. The plants were cultivated in four types of soil. The first one was contaminated by heavy metals (S1), the second was a uncontaminated soil (blank soil) (S2), the third was the material obtained by mixing S1 with residues coming from demolition and construction activities (S3); while the fourth was the result of remediating S1 with lime residues coming from quarries (S4). The total metal content (As, Pb, Cd and Zn) of the soil samples, rizosphere, leached water and vegetable samples, were measured, and both the translocation and bioconcentration factors (TF and BCF, respectively) were calculated. In the second stage, the effect caused in rabbits fed with the vegetables was monitorized using both external observation and the analysis of blood, urine, and the levels of metals in muscles, liver and kidney. The statistical analysis of the results obtained showed that there were no significant differences in the heavy metal levels for the vegetables cultivated in S2, S3 and S4. The results for soil sample S1 did not have a normal distribution since the growing of the vegetables were not homogeneous and also strongly dependent on the type of vegetal. As regards the effect caused in rabbits, significant differences were observed for the animals fed with plants cultivated in S1 compared with the others.

Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez-Sánchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Gonzalez, Eva; Perez-Espinosa, Victor; Belen Martínez, Lucia; Hernández, Carmen; García-Fernandez, Antonio Juan; Bech, Jaime

2013-04-01

374

RISK ASSESSMENT OF THYROID HORMONE DISRUPTION AND MIXTURES IN MARINE BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

Varieties of chemicals alter thyroid hormones (THs) in vertabrates. The importance of THs during neurodevelopment, suggest that these chemicals would likely be developmental neurotoxicants. A number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to p...

375

Analysis of nanomaterials in complex matrices (environment and biota): general considerations and conceptual case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evolved from discussions held at a SETAC-endorsed Technical Workshop held at Clemson University in August, 2010. The workshop was sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Arcadis-US, and the Clemson University Institute of Environmental Toxicology.

Kammer von der F; P. L. Ferguson; P. Holden; A. Masion; K. Rogers; S. J. Klaine; A. A. Koelmans; N. Horne; J. Unrine

2012-01-01

376

Spatial patterns of mercury in biota of Adirondack, New York lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the spatial distribution patterns of mercury (Hg) in lake water, littoral sediments, zooplankton, crayfish, fish,\\u000a and common loons in 44 lakes of the Adirondacks of New York State, USA, a region that has been characterized as a “biological\\u000a Hg hotspot”. Our study confirmed this pattern, finding that a substantial fraction of the lakes studied had fish and loon

Xue YuCharles; Charles T. Driscoll; Mario Montesdeoca; David Evers; Melissa Duron; Kate Williams; Nina Schoch; Neil C. Kamman

377

Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California.  

PubMed

Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 ?g/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98-58.0 ?g Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7-50.6 ?g Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2-20.2 ?g Se/g; and mollies, 12.8-30.4 ?g Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish. PMID:21915593

Saiki, Michael K; Martin, Barbara A; May, Thomas W

2012-09-01

378

Seasonality of the soil biota of grazed and ungrazed hill grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial measurements of soil microbial biomass, activity and community structure and nematode abundance were made in grazed and ungrazed Agrostis-Festuca and Nardus dominated hill grasslands, with brown earth and podzolic soils, respectively. Microbial biomass and activity were significantly higher in podzolic soils with Nardus dominated vegetation, than in brown earth soils with Agrostis-Festuca vegetation. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis

R. D. Bardgett; D. K. Leemans; R. Cook; P. J. Hobbs

1997-01-01

379

Coevolution between invasive and native plants driven by chemical competition and soil biota  

PubMed Central

Although reciprocal evolutionary responses between interacting species are a driving force behind the diversity of life, pairwise coevolution between plant competitors has received less attention than other species interactions and has been considered relatively less important in explaining ecological patterns. However, the success of species transported across biogeographic boundaries suggests a stronger role for evolutionary relationships in shaping plant interactions. Alliaria petiolata is a Eurasian species that has invaded North American forest understories, where it competes with native understory species in part by producing compounds that directly and indirectly slow the growth of competing species. Here I show that populations of A. petiolata from areas with a greater density of interspecific competitors invest more in a toxic allelochemical under common conditions. Furthermore, populations of a native competitor from areas with highly toxic invaders are more tolerant to competition from the invader, suggesting coevolutionary dynamics between the species. Field reciprocal transplants confirmed that native populations more tolerant to the invader had higher fitness when the invader was common, but these traits came at a cost when the invader was rare. Exotic species are often detrimentally dominant in their new range due to their evolutionary novelty; however, the development of new coevolutionary relationships may act to integrate exotic species into native communities. PMID:22733785

Lankau, Richard A.

2012-01-01

380

Assessing the impact of multiple stressors on aquatic biota: the receptor's side matters.  

PubMed

Aquatic ecosystems are confronted with multiple stress factors. Current approaches to assess the risk of anthropogenic stressors to aquatic ecosystems are developed for single stressors and determine stressor effects primarily as a function of stressor properties. The cumulative impact of several stressors, however, may differ markedly from the impact of the single stressors and can result in nonlinear effects and ecological surprises. To meet the challenge of diagnosing and predicting multiple stressor impacts, assessment strategies should focus on properties of the biological receptors rather than on stressor properties. This change of paradigm is required because (i) multiple stressors affect multiple biological targets at multiple organizational levels, (ii) biological receptors differ in their sensitivities, vulnerabilities, and response dynamics to the individual stressors, and (iii) biological receptors function as networks, so that actions of stressors at disparate sites within the network can lead via indirect or cascading effects, to unexpected outcomes. PMID:24905720

Segner, H; Schmitt-Jansen, M; Sabater, S

2014-07-15

381

Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

1990-10-01

382

Prediction of the response of pond biota to animal waste fertilization. Technical completion report  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the production and water quality response of non-flowing ponds fertilized with anaerobically digested dairy manure at three fertilization rates: 5,500, 16,400, and 36,900 kg ha -1 yr -1 (wet weight). Primary productivity, the concentration of solids and fish yield (Micropterus salmoides and Notemigonus crysoleucas) were monitored in addition to N and P concentrations and fluxes. Primary productivity was increased by the manure inputs. Microbial biomass supported by the organic substrates in the manure inputs contributed 17% of the total fixed carbon in these experiments. Calculations of N and P flux revealed that P limits production in the unfertilized ponds and in the low-rate ponds but not in the moderate and high rate ponds. The upper limits on pond fertilization rates are determined by water quality degradation from high ammonia concentrations which can be predicted as a function of manure load; thus, the upper limits on permissible manure inputs can be calculated.

Peverly, J.H.; Moran, E.C.

1983-01-01

383

Simplified sample preparation method for triclosan and methyltriclosan determination in biota and foodstuff samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for the determination of triclosan (TCS) and methyltriclosan (MTCS) in fish and foodstuff samples is presented. Analytes were simultaneously extracted and purified using the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique, and then selectively determined by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS\\/MS). Several combinations of dispersants, clean-up co-sorbents and extraction solvents were tested in order to obtain lipid-free

P. Canosa; I. Rodríguez; E. Rubí; M. Ramil; R. Cela

2008-01-01

384

Impact of gold mining associated with mercury contamination in soil, biota sediments and tailings in Kenya.  

PubMed

This work considered the environmental impact of artisanal mining gold activity in the Migori-Transmara area (Kenya). From artisanal gold mining, mercury is released to the environment, thus contributing to degradation of soil and water bodies. High mercury contents have been quantified in soil (140 ?g kg(-1)), sediment (430 ?g kg(-1)) and tailings (8,900 ?g kg(-1)), as expected. The results reveal that the mechanism for transporting mercury to the terrestrial ecosystem is associated with wet and dry depositions. Lichens and mosses, used as bioindicators of pollution, are related to the proximity to mining areas. The further the distance from mining areas, the lower the mercury levels. This study also provides risk maps to evaluate potential negative repercussions. We conclude that the Migori-Transmara region can be considered a strongly polluted area with high mercury contents. The technology used to extract gold throughout amalgamation processes causes a high degree of mercury pollution around this gold mining area. Thus, alternative gold extraction methods should be considered to reduce mercury levels that can be released to the environment. PMID:24943890

Odumo, Benjamin Okang'; Carbonell, Gregoria; Angeyo, Hudson Kalambuka; Patel, Jayanti Purshottam; Torrijos, Manuel; Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio

2014-11-01

385

Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota: 1994 Revision  

SciTech Connect

This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. For the upper screening benchmark, there are the acute National Ambient Water Quality Criteria (NAWQC) and the Secondary Acute Values (SAV). The SAV concentrations are values estimated with 80% confidence not to exceed the unknown acute NAWQC for those chemicals with no NAWQC. The alternative chronic benchmarks are the chronic NAWQC, the Secondary Chronic Value (SCV), the lowest chronic values for fish and daphnids from chronic toxicity tests, the estimated EC20 for a sensitive species, and the concentration estimated to cause a 20% reduction in the recruit abundance of largemouth bass. It is recommended that ambient chemical concentrations be compared to all of these benchmarks. If NAWQC are exceeded, the chemicals must be contaminants of concern because the NAWQC are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). If NAWQC are not exceeded, but other benchmarks are, contaminants should be selected on the basis of the number of benchmarks exceeded and the conservatism of the particular benchmark values, as discussed in the text. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate benchmarks and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility.

Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mabrey, J.B. [University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)] [University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)

1994-07-01

386

Taphonomy of Holocene cryptic biotas from St. Croix, Virgin Islands: Information loss and preservational biases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveys of submarine caves and overhanging ledges from St. Croix, Virgin Islands, provide new insights into the preservational processes active therein and into the taphonomy of ancient counterparts. Comparisons of preservable, skeletonized versus nonpreservable, unskeletonized components of these modern cryptic communities indicate that there is significant information loss in areals coverage, taxonomic richness, and diversity of fossilized examples. Quantitative estimates of such losses have been made. In addition, skeletal differences between early and late stage successional groups suggest biased representation of the former in the geologic record. Nonpreservable later colonizers may further erase the record of skeletonized forms through destructive life processes. Such forms of taphonomic information loss are probable in ancient counterparts and must be considered in accurate reconstruction of cryptic paleocommunities. *Present address: Curriculum in Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 12-5 Venable Hall, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514

Rasmussen, Kenneth A.; Brett, Carlton E.

1985-08-01

387

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations : Appendices 1992.  

SciTech Connect

These appendices include: A RESERVOIR ELEVATION AND WATER RETENTION TIME: Daily reservoir levels and water retention time in 1992, Elevation vs area, Elevation vs gross storage; B ZOOPLANKTON: Zooplankton density, Zooplanktion biomass; C BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE DATA: Benthic sampling record, Benthic sampling depths, Benthic orders identified, Mean weight values obtained for benthics, D WATER COLUMN PROFILE: Monthly water profiles.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.

1996-01-01

388

Paleoenvironmental analysis of a middle Wisconsinan biota site, southwestern Virginia, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ratcliff Site in southwestern Virginia lies in a small second-order stream valley filled with approximately 3.5 m of organic-rich deposits that contain bones of mammoth, mastodon, deer (or antelope), logs, and plant macrofossils. Radiocarbon analyses indicate the age of the organic-rich sediment ranges from >44,000 to 29,100 14C yr BP, a time period with no fossil remains reported in this region

G. Richard Whittecar; Thomas C. Wynn; Charles S. Bartlett

2007-01-01

389

Paleoenvironmental analysis of a middle Wisconsinan biota site, southwestern Virginia, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ratcliff Site in southwestern Virginia lies in a small second-order stream valley filled with approximately 3.5 m of organic-rich deposits that contain bones of mammoth, mastodon, deer (or antelope), logs, and plant macrofossils. Radiocarbon analyses indicate the age of the organic-rich sediment ranges from > 44,000 to 29,100 14C yr BP, a time period with no fossil remains reported in this region of the Appalachians. Analyses of field observations, textural data, organic carbon content, and plant macrofossils indicate that the organic-rich sediments contain interbedded standing-water and debris-flow deposits. Up to 6 m of oxidized debris-flow sediments bury the organic-rich sediments. The presence of Rubus parviflorus (Thimble Berry) throughout the deposit indicates the site had a boreal environment from > 44,000 to 29,100 14C yr BP. Plant macrofossil evidence indicates the uplands had stands of spruce/jack-pine forests while the valley contained ponds and associated wetlands. Three debris flows occurred at the site between approximately 38,000 and 29,000 14C yr BP, suggesting a recurrence interval for major storms of approximately 3000 yr, even though the apparent stability of the boreal environment implies a climate not conducive to catastrophic rainstorms. This conflicting combination of features suggests that during the middle Wisconsinan this area experienced generally cool climates, dominated by polar air masses, but was punctuated by relatively brief warm periods marked by incursions of tropical air masses.

Whittecar, G. Richard; Wynn, Thomas C.; Bartlett, Charles S.

2007-07-01

390

ABILITY OF ECOSAR, TOPKAT, NEURAL NETWORKS, AND ASTER TO PREDICT TOXICITY OF CHEMICALS TO AQUATIC BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) which provides the basis for assessing and managing toxic substances in Canada, is being revised. Several new mandates have been introduced in the Act......

391

Americium and plutonium in water, biota, and sediment from the central Oregon coast  

SciTech Connect

Plutonium-239, 240 and americium-241 were measured in the mussel Mytilus californianus from the region of Coos Bay, OR. The flesh of this species has a plutonium concentration of about 90 fCi/kg, and an Am-241/Pu-239, 240 ratio that is high relative to mixed fallout, ranging between two and three. Transuranic concentrations in sediment, unfiltered water, and filterable particulates were also measured; none of these materials has an Am/Pu ratio as greatly elevated as the mussels, and there is no apparent difference in the Am/Pu ratio of terrestrial runoff and coastal water. Sediment core profiles do not allow accumulation rates or depositional histories to be identified, but it does not appear that material characterized by a high Am/Pu ratio has ever been introduced to this estuary. Other bivalves (Tresus capax and Macoma nasuta) and a polychaete (Abarenicola sp.) do not have an elevated Am/Pu ratio, although the absolute activity of plutonium in the infaunal bivalves is roughly four times that in the mussels.

Nielsen, R. D.

1982-06-01

392

Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function in the tropics: the role of decomposer biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensification of agriculture in the tropics has resulted from a shortage of farmland and insufficient food production to satisfy the needs of an expanding population. Many tropical farmers are challenged by the prospect of intensifying their production while sustaining or improving the fertility and productivity of soils with only locally available natural resources. The waste products of plant and animal

M. H. Beare; M. Vikram Reddy; G. Tian; S. C. Srivastava

1997-01-01

393

Summary of Information on Aquatic Biota and Their Habitats in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, through 1995  

E-print Network

......................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................... 2 Rationale for a Review of Biological Information .............................................................................................. 2 Purpose and Scope .............................................................................................................................................. 4 Sources of Information........................................................................................................................................ 4 Background Studies .................................................................................................................................. 5 Acknowledgments ..............

Oregon Through; Bob Altman; Avifauna Northwest; Colleen M. Henson; Ian; Ian R. Waite; U. S. Geological Survey; U. S. Fish; U. S. Fish; Wildlife Service; Wildlife Service; Bruce Babbitt Secretary; Gordon P. Eaton

394

Photographic monitoring of benthic biota at Stetson Bank, Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

llepora ulcicornis) community with occasional smaller corals (Madracis decactis, Diploria strigosa, Stephanocoenia intercepta, and Agariciajagilis) also present. Stetson's unique characteristics have resulted in use by divers, boaters, commercial... llepora ulcicornis) community with occasional smaller corals (Madracis decactis, Diploria strigosa, Stephanocoenia intercepta, and Agariciajagilis) also present. Stetson's unique characteristics have resulted in use by divers, boaters, commercial...

Bernhardt, Sarah Praeger

2012-06-07

395

Field and Microcosm Studies of Decomposition and Soil Biota in a Cold Desert Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the extreme cold desert soil of the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, we studied the effects of changing moisture and\\u000a temperature on rates of decomposition and the activity and abundance of soil organisms. Our objective was to understand how\\u000a moisture and temperature structure invertebrate communities and control important ecosystem processes and soil biotic activity\\u000a in this extreme environment. First,

Amy M. Treonis; Diana H. Wall; Ross A. Virginia

2002-01-01

396

Estimation of Parameters of Radiocapacity of Biota in Ecosystems; Criteria of Their Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the Chernobyl accidents knows many examples, where the behaviour radionuclides in ecosystems in an obvious\\u000a way reflected the course and laws of ecological phenomena, this is for example this phenomenon of active washout of nuclides\\u000a from the surface of the Dnieper reservoir, in particular, from territories of Chernobyl zone of 30 km, into the territory\\u000a of Ukraine

Yu. Kutlakhmedov; P. Balan

397

Effects of reservoir drawdown and refill on mercury levels in fish and other biota  

SciTech Connect

Mercury bioavailability from contaminated sediments is controlled by methylation, related to bacterial activity and degradable organic material. These variables may be affected by large changes in water level and chemistry in a reservoir. At Par Pond, a 1,200 ha impoundment on the USDOE Savannah River Site, South Carolina, potential failure of an earthen dam prompted lowering the reservoir by 3 meters over a two month period in 1991, decreasing water volume about 70%. The reservoir was refilled over a two month period in 1995. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were sampled at quarterly intervals before, during and after the drawdown. Length and weight were determined, and liver and muscle analyzed for total Hg. Hg was also measured in top level predators (alligators), forage fish, macrophytes and invertebrates. From Fall 1991 Winter 1994--5, Hg ranged from 0.05 to 2.0 ug/g wet mass in bass muscle, and was strongly related to fish size, based on about 400 fish. Condition factor rose soon after drawdown, then declined as forage populations collapsed. Using fish size as covariate, bass muscle Hg was greater in spring 1992 than all other sampling dates. However, after 3 years of drawdown, there was no overall trend in bass Hg. Forage species differed in Hg, with highest concentrations in brook silversides (0.13 {micro}g Hg/g wet mass in 2 g fish). Alligators contained up to 20 {micro}g Hg/g dry mass in liver. Refill caused inundation of terrestrial plants on exposed sediments, and microbial action associated with the decay of these may enhance Hg methylation. Experiments with caged fish are underway to measure uptake rates.

Jagoe, C.H.; Salice, C.; Yabnochko, G.; Grasman, B.T.; Youngblood, T. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1995-12-31

398

Expert systems and fuzzy systems  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the design of the expert computer system and how fuzzy systems can be used to deal with imprecise information. As the author explores the effects of semantic systems on decision support systems, he asserts that the utilization of fuzzy set theory can help an expert system draw from its knowledge base more efficiently and therefore make more accurate and reliable decisions. The book includes realistic status reports in approximate reasoning and knowledge representation that are supported by a ''theory of categories'' mathematical approach. The differences between symbolic and semantic manipulation are outline, and detailed information is given on the actual theory of knowledge-based systems.

Negoita, C.

1985-01-01

399

System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

400

Rapid transfer of photosynthetic carbon through the plant-soil system in differently managed grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-soil interactions are central to short-term carbon (C) cycling through the rapid transfer of recently assimilated C from plant roots to soil biota. In grassland ecosystems, changes in C cycling are likely to be influenced by land use and management that changes vegetation and the associated soil microbial communities. Here we tested whether changes in grassland vegetation composition resulting from

G. B. de Deyn; H. Quirk; S. Oakley; N. J. Ostle; R. D. Bardgett

2011-01-01

401

Effluent impact assessment using microarray-based analysis in common carp: A systems toxicology approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effluents are a main source of direct and continuous input of pollutants to the aquatic environment, and can cause ecotoxicological effects at different levels of biological organization. Since gene expression responses represent the primary interaction site between environmental contaminants and biota, they provide essential clues to understand how chemical exposure can affect organismal health. The aim of the present study

Lotte N. Moens; Roel Smolders; Karlijn van der Ven; Piet van Remortel; Jurgen Del-Favero; Wim M. De Coen

2007-01-01

402

Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems**  

E-print Network

Microfluidic Systems Integrated Microfluidic Systems** Rustem F. Ismagilov* Keywords: analytical methods · enzymes · microfluidics · microreactors · protein structures Microfluidic systems use networks of channels thinner than a human hair to manipulate nanoliter volumes of re- agents. The goal of microfluidics

Ismagilov, Rustem F.

403

Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate change and other drivers of habitat transformations; and (4) anticipation and adaptation to the growing probability of ecosystem regime shifts. PMID:21957451

Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

2011-01-01

404

Genotoxic substances in the St. Lawrence system. 1: Industrial genotoxins sorbed to particulate matter in the St. Lawrence, St. Maurice, and Saguenay rivers, Canada  

SciTech Connect

Previous investigations of organic genotoxins in industrial effluents discharged into the St. Lawrence River system (Quebec, Canada) indicat