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1

Scientific drilling and the evolution of the earth system: climate, biota, biogeochemistry and extreme systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A US National Science Foundation-funded workshop occurred 17-19 May 2013 at the University of Oklahoma to stimulate research using continental scientific drilling to explore earth's sedimentary, paleobiological and biogeochemical record. Participants submitted 3-page "pre-proposals" to highlight projects that envisioned using drill-core studies to address scientific issues in paleobiology, paleoclimatology, stratigraphy and biogeochemistry, and to identify locations where key questions can best be addressed. The workshop was also intended to encourage US scientists to take advantage of the exceptional capacity of unweathered, continuous core records to answer important questions in the history of earth's sedimentary, biogeochemical and paleobiologic systems. Introductory talks on drilling and coring methods, plus best practices in core handling and curation, opened the workshop to enable all to understand the opportunities and challenges presented by scientific drilling. Participants worked in thematic breakout sessions to consider questions to be addressed using drill cores related to glacial-interglacial and icehouse-greenhouse transitions, records of evolutionary events and extinctions, records of major biogeochemical events in the oceans, reorganization of earth's atmosphere, Lagerstätte and exceptional fossil biota, records of vegetation-landscape change, and special sampling requirements, contamination, and coring tool concerns for paleobiology, geochemistry, geochronology, and stratigraphy-sedimentology studies. Closing discussions at the workshop focused on the role drilling can play in studying overarching science questions about the evolution of the earth system. The key theme, holding the most impact in terms of societal relevance, is understanding how climate transitions have driven biotic change, and the role of pristine, stratigraphically continuous cores in advancing our understanding of this linkage. Scientific drilling, and particularly drilling applied to continental targets, provides unique opportunities to obtain continuous and unaltered material for increasingly sophisticated analyses, tapping the entire geologic record (extending through the Archean), and probing the full dynamic range of climate change and its impact on biotic history.

Soreghan, G. S.; Cohen, A. S.

2013-11-01

2

Challenges in understanding the sources of bioaccumulated metals in biota inhabiting turbid river systems.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by Macrobrachium prawns was observed to occur in the Strickland River downstream of a gold mine at Porgera, Papua New Guinea. This was despite the total metal concentrations of waters and sediments indicating no difference from reference sites within tributaries. To provide information on potential sources and bioavailability of metals to prawns, an extensive range of analyses were made on waters, suspended solids, deposited sediments and plant materials within the river system. Dissolved metal concentrations were mostly sub-micrograms per liter and no major differences existed in concentrations or speciation between sites within the Strickland River or its tributaries. Similarly, no differences were detected between sites for total or dilute acid-extractable metal concentrations in bed sediments and plant materials, which may be ingested by the prawns. However, the rivers in this region are highly turbid and the dilute acid-extractable cadmium and zinc concentrations in suspended solids were greater at sites in the Strickland River than at sites in tributaries. The results indicated that mine-derived inputs increased the proportion of these forms of metals or metalloids in the Strickland River. These less strongly bound metals and metalloids would be more bioavailable to the prawns via the dietary pathway. The results highlighted many of the difficulties in using routine monitoring data without information on metal speciation to describe metal uptake and predict potential effects when concentrations are low and similar to background. The study indicated that the monitoring of contaminant concentrations in organisms that integrate the exposure from multiple exposure routes and durations may often be more effective for detecting impacts than intermittent monitoring of contaminants in waters and sediments. PMID:24014223

Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Simpson, Stuart L

2014-02-01

3

Biota of North America Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

4

Soil biota and exotic plant invasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote `exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare

Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; Alex Rodriguez; William E. Holben

2004-01-01

5

Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota  

SciTech Connect

The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

Hohreiter, D.W.

1980-05-01

6

Soil biota and exotic plant invasion.  

PubMed

Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote 'exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare species native to North America consistently demonstrate negative feedbacks with soil microbes that promote biological diversity, whereas abundant exotic and native species demonstrate positive feedbacks that reduce biological diversity. Here we report that soil microbes from the home range of the invasive exotic plant Centaurea maculosa L. have stronger inhibitory effects on its growth than soil microbes from where the weed has invaded in North America. Centaurea and soil microbes participate in different plant-soil feedback processes at home compared with outside Centaurea's home range. In native European soils, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly negative effects on the weed's growth, possibly leading to its control. But in soils from North America, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly positive effects on itself, which may contribute to the success of this exotic species in North America. PMID:14973484

Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Rodriguez, Alex; Holben, William E

2004-02-19

7

Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico.  

PubMed Central

The Ediacaran biota is the earliest diverse community of macroscopic animals and protoctists. Body and trace fossils in the Clemente Formation of northwestern Sonora extend downward the geologic range of Ediacaran forms. Taxa present in the Clemente Formation include cf. Cyclomedusa plana, Sekwia sp., an erniettid (bearing an air mattress-like "pneu" body construction), and the trace fossils Lockeia ichnosp. and Palaeophycus tubularis. The trace fossils confirm the presence of sediment-dwelling animals in this shallow marine community. The body fossils are headless, tailless, and appendageless. Some may be body fossils of animals but others may be fossils of large protoctists. These body and trace fossils, recovered from thinly bedded sandstones and siltstones, occur 75 meters lower in the Sonoran stratigraphic section than a distinctive Clemente Formation oolite. The stratigraphic position of the fossils below this oolite permits long-distance correlation between fossiliferous Proterozoic strata of Mexico and the United States. Correlations utilizing both the Clemente Formation oolite and a trace fossil (Vermiforma antiqua) confirm the antiquity (600 million years or more) of this body fossil-rich community of macroscopic eukaryotes. The recently discovered body fossils are the oldest known remains of the Ediacaran biota. Images Fig. 2 PMID:11607679

McMenamin, M A

1996-01-01

8

Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota  

SciTech Connect

At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

Marter, W.L.

2001-03-28

9

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has

D. Pastor; C. Sanpera; J. González-Sol??s; X. Ruiz; J. Albaigés

2004-01-01

10

Extrapolation of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors  

EPA Science Inventory

When assessing risks at sites with contaminated sediments, risk assessors need to estimate residues in fish and other aquatic biota based upon the levels of contaminants in the sediments. Unfortunately, risk assessors are often challenged by data limitations, i.e., i) contaminan...

11

Differential contribution of soil biota groups to plant litter decomposition as mediated by soil use  

PubMed Central

Plant decomposition is dependant on the activity of the soil biota and its interactions with climate, soil properties, and plant residue inputs. This work assessed the roles of different groups of the soil biota on litter decomposition, and the way they are modulated by soil use. Litterbags of different mesh sizes for the selective exclusion of soil fauna by size (macro, meso, and microfauna) were filled with standardized dried leaves and placed on the same soil under different use intensities: naturalized grasslands, recent agriculture, and intensive agriculture fields. During five months, litterbags of each mesh size were collected once a month per system with five replicates. The remaining mass was measured and decomposition rates calculated. Differences were found for the different biota groups, and they were dependant on soil use. Within systems, the results show that in the naturalized grasslands, the macrofauna had the highest contribution to decomposition. In the recent agricultural system it was the combined activity of the macro- and mesofauna, and in the intensive agricultural use it was the mesofauna activity. These results underscore the relative importance and activity of the different groups of the edaphic biota and the effects of different soil uses on soil biota activity. PMID:25780777

Falco, Liliana B.; Sandler, Rosana V.; Coviella, Carlos E.

2015-01-01

12

Bioconcentration of TNT and RDX in Coastal Marine Biota.  

PubMed

The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was measured for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in seven different marine species of varying trophic levels. Time series and concentration gradient treatments were used for water column and tissue concentrations of TNT, RDX, and their environmentally important derivatives 2-amino-4,6-dintrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). BCF values ranged from 0.0031 to 484.5 mL g(-1) for TNT and 0.023 to 54.83 mL g(-1) for RDX. The use of log K ow value as an indicator was evaluated by adding marine data from this study to previously published data. For the munitions in this study, log K ow value was a good indicator in the marine environment. The initial uptake and elimination rates of TNT and RDX for Fucus vesiculosus were 1.79 and 0.24 h(-1) for TNT and 0.50 and 0.0035 h(-1) for RDX respectively. Biotransformation was observed in all biota for both TNT and RDX. Biotransformation of TNT favored 4-ADNT over 2-ADNT at ratios of 2:1 for F. vesiculosus and 3:1 for Mytilus edulis. Although RDX derivatives were measureable, the ratios of RDX derivatives were variable with no detectable trend. Previous approaches for measuring BCF in freshwater systems compare favorably with these experiments with marine biota, yet significant gaps on the ultimate fate of munitions within the biota exist that may be overcome with the use stable isotope-labeled munitions substrates. PMID:25451633

Ballentine, Mark; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Cooper, Christopher

2015-05-01

13

The role of stream biota in watershed processes  

SciTech Connect

The linkage between stream biota and the bank (riparian) vegetation is an essential and tight association in small (orders 1 to 4), running water systems. This critical association can be observed in watersheds covering the full range of thermal and hydrologic patterns. Coarse particulate detritus derived primarily from terrestrial streamside vegetation is processed in the stream channel - that is, converted to fine particulate detritus, respired CO/sub 2/, and living organism biomass. The terrestrial-stream interchange is a two way process associated with seasonal temperature and flow cycles. Thus stream organisms utilizing detritus ultimately of terrestrial origin, change both the size and quality of the particulate organics. This material generally reaches a higher quality condition more rapidly than that confined to the soil litter. In addition to the two-way interaction that is processing terrestrially-derived litter and yielding qualitatively changed material to the flood plain at high flows, the stream biota play a significant role in the entrainment and retention of dissolved and particulate organics within a given stream reach.

Cummins, K.W.

1986-06-01

14

Redistribution of soil biota by rainfall erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is central to the provision of multiple ecosystem services that sustain life through a myriad of chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is erosion, a natural process accelerated by human activities. Elevated erosion rates are common in agro-ecosystems causing both direct physical impacts (e.g. soil loss), and indirect biogeochemical consequences, which ultimately leads to impaired ecosystem functioning. The consequences of erosion on soil biota have hitherto been ignored, yet biota have fundamental roles in the provision of soil ecosystem services. To our knowledge few studies have addressed the gap between erosion and impacts on soil biota. Here we use soil nematodes as a model organism for assessing erosion impacts on soil (micro) fauna in temperate agro-ecosystems. Soil nematodes are ubiquitous, abundant, are represented at all levels in soil food webs and can be categorised into a range of trophic or functional groups. To quantify transport of nematodes and gain a better understanding of erosive mechanisms responsible, we measured their export from small erosion plots (0.0625m2) under a fixed-intensity design rainstorm (6mm min-1 duration: 3 min) over six slope angles (4° - 24°) and three soil texture classes (sandy silt, silty sand, silt). Runoff and eroded sediment were collected for each plot (four replicate runs), and a suite of biological and physico-chemical parameters measured. Results confirmed that, similar to soil particles, nematodes were exported at rates influenced by slope angle and soil texture. These experiments, linked with field and catchment-scale equivalents, are designed to elucidate the links between soil erosion and provision of ecosystem services and to inform biodiversity-sensitive soil and water conservation practices.

Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John; McKenzie, Blair; Neilson, Roy

2013-04-01

15

A Silurian soft-bodied biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new Silurian (Llandoverian) biota from Wisconsin with a significant soft-bodied and lightly sclerotized component is dominated by arthropods and worms. The fauna includes the earliest well-preserved xiphosure, a possible marine uniramian, three new arthropods of uncertain affinity, and possibly the first Paleozoic leech. This may be only the second locality to yield a conodont animal. Lack of a normal shelly fauna suggests an unusual environment. The discovery adds significantly to the few such exceptionally preserved faunas known from Lower Paleozoic rocks.

Mikulic, D.G.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Kluessendorf, J.

1985-01-01

16

Impact of nuclear accidents on marine biota.  

PubMed

The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, precipitated by the earthquake and subsequent tsunami that struck the northeastern coast of Japan in March 2011, has raised concerns about the potential impact to marine biota posed by the release of radioactive water and radionuclide particles into the environment. The Fukushima accident is the only major nuclear accident that has resulted in the direct discharge of radioactive materials into a coastal environment. This article briefly summarizes what is currently understood about the effects of radioactive wastewaters and radionuclides to marine life. PMID:21608110

Vives i Batlle, Jordi

2011-07-01

17

Metal contamination in sediments and biota of the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bay of Quinte receives drainage from several large river systems, including the Moira River which carried sediment from mines into the Bay from the 1880s to the 1960s. We are investigating possible metal contamination of submerged weed beds and marsh biota which may contribute to the low diversity and biomass of macrophyte beds and Typha marshes in the Bay.

Adele Crowder; William T. Dushenko; Jean Greig; John S. Poland

1989-01-01

18

ESTIMATION OF BIOTA SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR (BSAF) FROM PAIRED OBSERVATIONS OF CHEMICAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOTA AND SEDIMENT (FINAL REPORT)  

EPA Science Inventory

Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) is a parameter describing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated organic compounds or metals into tissues of ecological receptors. The report provides information on methodologies to estimate BSAF for nonionic organic chemicals. ...

19

Compartmentalisation Strategies for Hydrocarbon-based Biota on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of our study is to determine the nature of compartimentalisation strategies for any organisms inhabiting the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan (the largest moon of Saturn). Since receiving huge amounts of data via the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system astrobiologists have speculated that exotic biota might currently inhabit this environment. The biota have been theorized to consume acetylene and hydrogen whilst excreting methane (1,2) leading to an anomalous hydrogen depletion near the surface; and there has been evidence to suggest this depletion exists (3). Nevertheless, many questions still remain concerning the possible physiological traits of biota in these environments, including whether cell-like structures can form in low temperature, low molecular weight hydrocarbons. The backbone of terrestrial cell membranes are vesicular structures composed primarily of a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic head groups arranged around the periphery and are thought to be akin to the first protocells that terrestrial life utilised (4). It my be possible that reverse vesicles composed of a bilayer with the hydrophilic head groups arranged internally and a nonpolar core may be ideal model cell membranes for hydrocarbon-based organisms inhabiting Titan's hydrocarbon lakes (5). A variety of different surfactants have been used to create reverse vesicles in nonpolar liquids to date including; non-ionic ethers (7) and esters (6, 8); catanionic surfactant mixtures (9); zwitterionic gemini surfactants (10); coblock polymer surfactants (11); and zwitterionic phospholipid surfactants (12). In order to discover whether certain phospholipids can exhibit vesicular behaviour within hydrocarbon liquids, and to analyse their structure, we have carried out experimental studies using environmental conditions that are increasing comparable to those found on the surface of Titan. Experimental methods that have been used to determine the presence of vesicles include the use of microscopy, the presence of the Tyndall scattering effect, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) , small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). These studies are currently being anaylzed, however, some results have indcated the presence of reverse vesicles in certain systems. Compounds that are shown to form reverse vesicles in conditions comparable to those of Titan's lakes could be potential 'biomarkers' and searched for in future missions to Titan. References [1] Schulze-Makuch D et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 36, 324 (2006). [2] McKay C P et al. Icarus 178, 274 (2005). [3] Strobel D F. Icarus 208, 878 (2010). [4]. Fiordemondo D et al. Chem. Bio. Chem. 8, 1965 (2007). [5] Norman L H et al. A&G 52, 39 (2011). [6] Mollee H et al. J Pharm Sci 89, 930 (2000). ). [7] Kunieda H et al. Langmuir 15, 3118 (1999). [8] Shrestha L K et al. Langmuir 22, 1449 (2006). [9] Li H G et al. Chem. Lett 36, 702 (2007). [10] Peresypkin A et al. Mendeleev Commun. 17, 82 (2007). [11] Rangelov S et al. J. Phys. Chem B 108, 7542 (2004). [12] Tung S H et al. J. Am. Chem. 130, 8813 (2008).

Norman, L.; Fortes, A. D.; Skipper, N.; Crawford, I.

2013-05-01

20

Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. PMID:21924530

Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

2012-06-01

21

Fuzzy logic modeling of bioaccumulation pattern of metals in coastal biota of Ondo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

The accumulation patterns of ten metals in tissues of plant, Eichornia crassipes, and fishes, Hydrocynus forskahlii and Oreochromis mossambicus, were modeled with simple fuzzy classification (SFC) to assess toxic effects of anthropogenic activities on the coastal biota. The plant sample was separated into root, stem, and leaves and the fishes into bones, internal tissues, and muscles. They were analyzed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Fe, Mn, and Zn after wet oxidation of their dried samples. The results were converted into membership functions of five accumulation classes and aggregated with SFC. The classification results showed that there was no metal accumulation in the plant parts while the fishes were classified into low accumulation category. The internal tissues of the fishes had higher metal accumulation than the other parts. Generally, Fe and Mn had highest concentrations in the biota but are natural to the area and may not constitute significant risk. Cr had the highest transfer and accumulation from the coastal water into the aquatic lives and may be indicative of risk prone system being a toxic metal. Metal contaminations in the zone had not significantly accumulated in the biota making them less prone to risk associated with metal accumulation. PMID:21374045

Agunbiade, Foluso O; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O

2012-01-01

22

Assessing Exposure of Marine Biota and Habitats to Petroleum Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, reprinted from Analytical Chemistry News & Features (March 1, 1998; pp. 186 A-192) describes methods that "accurately and rapidly measure aromatic components of oil spills in marine biota and habitats." In addition to full-text, the report includes color photographs, tables, chromatograms, and references.

23

Direct Extrapolation of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs)  

EPA Science Inventory

Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for fish and shellfish were extrapolated directly from one location and species to other species, to other locations within a site, to other sites, and their combinations. The median errors in the extrapolations across species at a loc...

24

Direct Application of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors  

EPA Science Inventory

Biota-sediment bioaccumulation factors (BSAFs) relate chemical residues in fish to chemical concentrations in contaminated sediments. BSAFs used by EPAs Office of Water in developing water quality criteria and by EPAs Superfund program in performing risk assessments for sites wi...

25

Comparing Laboratory and Field Measured Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of studies where biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were measured in the field, and the same sediment samples were tested in the laboratory using sediment bioaccumulation testing protocols. The focus of this review was to document the extent...

26

Radiation exposure to marine biota around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.  

PubMed

The dose rates for six marine organisms, pelagic fish, benthic fish, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and polychaete worms, representative in marine ecosystems, have been predicted by the equilibrium model with the measured seawater activity concentrations at three locations around the Fukushima Daiich nuclear power plant after the accident on March 11, 2011. Model prediction showed that total dose rates for the biota in the costal sea reached 4.8E4 ?Gy/d for pelagic fish, 3.6E6 ?Gy/d for crustaceans, 3.8E6 ?Gy/d for benthic fish, 5.2E6 ?Gy/d for macroalgae, 6.6E6 ?Gy/d for mollusks, and 8.0E6 ?Gy/d for polychaete worms. The predicted total dose rates remained above the UNSCEAR's (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation) benchmark level (1.0E4 ?Gy/d for an individual aquatic organism), for only the initial short period, which seems to be insufficiently long to bring about any detrimental effect on the marine biota at the population level. Furthermore, the total dose rates for benthic fish and crustaceans approximated using the measured activity concentration of the biota and bottom sediment was well below the benchmark level. From these results, it may be concluded that the impact of the ionizing radiation on the marine biota around the Fukushima NPP as a consequence of the accident would be insignificant. PMID:24374805

Keum, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

2014-05-01

27

Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg,

M. J. Hsu; K. Selvaraj; G. Agoramoorthy

2006-01-01

28

Soil Quality Information Sheet Rangeland Soil Quality--Soil Biota  

E-print Network

organisms interact with one another, with plant roots, and with their environment, forming the soil food web are exchanged through the food web and are made available to plants. Each soil organism plays a role powerhouse of soil, include an incredible diversity of organisms. Tons of soil biota, including micro-organisms

29

Becoming New Zealanders: Immigration and the Formation of the Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants and animals have been flying, drifting, swimming and floating to the New Zealand archipelago over the millions of years in which it has been in existence. The continuing interaction of invader and resident has had a powerful influence on the formation of the biota. The current fauna and flora therefore represent the cumulative outcome of many cycles of invasion,

M. S. McGlone

30

Effects of soil biota from different ranges on Robinia invasion: acquiring mutualists and escaping pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The net effects of soil biota from invaded ranges are often less inhibitory to exotic invasive plants than soil biota from native ranges. However, the net effects of soil biota on exotics are highly variable, in part because net effects are the products of complex effects of suites of interacting s...

31

Estimation of Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) from Paired Observations of Chemical Concentrations in Biota and Sediment (External Review Draft)  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was written in response to a March 2004 request from EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) for information about estimating Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs). BSAF is a parameter describing bioaccumulation of sediment-associated organic compounds or...

32

What are the toxicological effects of mercury in Arctic biota?  

PubMed

This review critically evaluates the available mercury (Hg) data in Arctic marine biota and the Inuit population against toxicity threshold values. In particular marine top predators exhibit concentrations of mercury in their tissues and organs that are believed to exceed thresholds for biological effects. Species whose concentrations exceed threshold values include the polar bears (Ursus maritimus), beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), pilot whale (Globicephala melas), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), a few seabird species, and landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Toothed whales appear to be one of the most vulnerable groups, with high concentrations of mercury recorded in brain tissue with associated signs of neurochemical effects. Evidence of increasing concentrations in mercury in some biota in Arctic Canada and Greenland is therefore a concern with respect to ecosystem health. PMID:23231888

Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Basu, Niladri; Braune, Birgit; O'Hara, Todd; Letcher, Robert J; Scheuhammer, Tony; Andersen, Magnus; Andreasen, Claus; Andriashek, Dennis; Asmund, Gert; Aubail, Aurore; Baagøe, Hans; Born, Erik W; Chan, Hing M; Derocher, Andrew E; Grandjean, Philippe; Knott, Katrina; Kirkegaard, Maja; Krey, Anke; Lunn, Nick; Messier, Francoise; Obbard, Marty; Olsen, Morten T; Ostertag, Sonja; Peacock, Elizabeth; Renzoni, Aristeo; Rigét, Frank F; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Stern, Gary; Stirling, Ian; Taylor, Mitch; Wiig, Øystein; Wilson, Simon; Aars, Jon

2013-01-15

33

Analytical Methods for Measuring Mercury in Water, Sediment and Biota  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) exists in a large number of physical and chemical forms with a wide range of properties. Conversion between these different forms provides the basis for mercury's complex distribution pattern in local and global cycles and for its biological enrichment and effects. Since the 1960’s, the growing awareness of environmental mercury pollution has stimulated the development of more accurate, precise and efficient methods of determining mercury and its compounds in a wide variety of matrices. During recent years new analytical techniques have become available that have contributed significantly to the understanding of mercury chemistry in natural systems. In particular, these include ultra sensitive and specific analytical equipment and contamination-free methodologies. These improvements allow for the determination of total mercury as well as major species of mercury to be made in water, sediments and soils, and biota. Analytical methods are selected depending on the nature of the sample, the concentration levels of mercury, and what species or fraction is to be quantified. The terms “speciation” and “fractionation” in analytical chemistry were addressed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) which published guidelines (Templeton et al., 2000) or recommendations for the definition of speciation analysis. "Speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. The chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure. The speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system. In case that it is not possible to determine the concentration of the different individual chemical species that sum up the total concentration of an element in a given matrix, meaning it is impossible to determine the speciation, it is a useful practice to do fractionation instead. Fractionation is the process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a certain sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties."

Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Gill, Gary A.; Horvat, Milena

2012-06-07

34

Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colonic biota is a complex microbial ecosystem that serves as a host defense. Unlike most microbial ecosystems, its composition has been studied extensively by relatively efficient culture methods. We have compared an established culture-based method with direct amplification and partial sequencing of cloned 16S rRNAgenesfromahumanfecalspecimen.NinecyclesofPCRwerealsocomparedwith35cycles.Coloniesand clonedampliconswereclassifiedbycomparingtheirribosomalDNA(rDNA;DNAcodingforrRNA)sequences with rDNA sequences of known phylogeny. Quantitative culture recovered 58% of the microscopic

KENNETH H. WILSON; R. B. Blitchington

1996-01-01

35

Soil Biota Reduce Allelopathic Effects of the Invasive Eupatorium adenophorum  

PubMed Central

Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play a role in exotic plant invasions, and study of this process can improve our understanding of how direct and indirect plant interactions influence plant community organization and ecosystem functioning. However, allelopathic effects can be highly conditional. For example allelopathic effects demonstrated in vivo can be difficult to demonstrate in field soils. Here we tested phytotoxicity of Eupatorium adenophorum (croftonweed), one of the most destructive exotic species in China, to a native plant species Brassica rapa both in sand and in native soil. Our results suggested that natural soils from different invaded habitats alleviated or eliminated the efficacy of potential allelochemicals relative to sand cultures. When that soil is sterilized, the allelopathic effects returned; suggesting that soil biota were responsible for the reduced phytotoxicity in natural soils. Neither of the two allelopathic compounds (9-Oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone and 9b-Hydroxyageraphorone) of E. adenophorum could be found in natural soils infested by the invader, and when those compounds were added to the soils as leachates, they showed substantial degradation after 24 hours in natural soils but not in sand. Our findings emphasize that soil biota can reduce the allelopathic effects of invaders on other plants, and therefore can reduce community invasibility. These results also suggest that soil biota may have stronger or weaker effects on allelopathic interactions depending on how allelochemicals are delivered. PMID:21980442

Zhu, Xunzhi; Zhang, Jintun; Ma, Keping

2011-01-01

36

Soil Biota Reduce Allelopathic Effects of the Invasive Eupatorium adenophorum  

E-print Network

Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play a role in exotic plant invasions, and study of this process can improve our understanding of how direct and indirect plant interactions influence plant community organization and ecosystem functioning. However, allelopathic effects can be highly conditional. For example allelopathic effects demonstrated in vivo can be difficult to demonstrate in field soils. Here we tested phytotoxicity of Eupatorium adenophorum (croftonweed), one of the most destructive exotic species in China, to a native plant species Brassica rapa both in sand and in native soil. Our results suggested that natural soils from different invaded habitats alleviated or eliminated the efficacy of potential allelochemicals relative to sand cultures. When that soil is sterilized, the allelopathic effects returned; suggesting that soil biota were responsible for the reduced phytotoxicity in natural soils. Neither of the two allelopathic compounds (9-Oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone and 9b-Hydroxyageraphorone) of E. adenophorum could be found in natural soils infested by the invader, and when those compounds were added to the soils as leachates, they showed substantial degradation after 24 hours in natural soils but not in sand. Our findings emphasize that soil biota can reduce the allelopathic effects of invaders on other plants, and therefore can reduce community invasibility. These results also suggest that soil biota may have

Xunzhi Zhu; Jintun Zhang; Keping Ma

2011-01-01

37

Sod cutting and soil biota effects on seedling performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sod cutting (i.e. top soil removal) is a restoration management option for enhancing seedling establishment and for lowering the nutrient concentration in eutrophicated soils of nutrient-poor species-rich grasslands. Removal of the upper soil changes not only abiotic soil properties but may also affect the resident soil community. We investigated the effects of sod cutting on the establishment and performance of two endangered plant species ( Cirsium dissectum and Succisa pratensis) while simultaneously manipulating the interaction between seedlings and soil biota. In intact grassland and sod-cut areas at two localities, seedlings were grown in plastic tubes. Half of the tubes had a filter that excluded roots but allowed entry of fungal hyphae and soil microorganisms. The other tubes were closed (i.e. no contact with the surrounding soil). In a greenhouse experiment we studied the effect of soil solutions (with or without fungal tissue) from three grasslands and three sod-cut areas on seedling growth. Sod cutting had a positive net effect on seedling growth for S. pratensis. Access to (mycorrhizal) fungi and other soil biota resulted in a negative impact on seedling growth of both plant species, both in grassland and sod-cut areas. The greenhouse experiment confirmed that the soil biota in these meadows reduced seedling growth. Although sod cutting did not mitigate negative plant-soil feedback, it enhanced seedling growth, presumably by decreasing competition for light. Sod cutting is therefore very useful when seedling establishment needs to be stimulated.

Weijtmans, Kim; Jongejans, Eelke; van Ruijven, Jasper

2009-09-01

38

Conversion ratios for the foodstuffs and biota environmental surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The foodstuffs and biota monitoring programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) comprises two of the five Environmental Surveillance Programs mandated by Department of Energy Orders, and LANL has conducted these studies since the early 1970s (ESR 1997). Because foodstuffs and biota commonly contain very small amounts of radionuclides in the edible portions of the tissue, samples are commonly ashed to concentrate the radioisotope(s) in order to adequately detect the element; therefore, results are usually reported in units per gram of ash. To compensate for the differing water contents in various matrices (gram of ash are usually two to four orders of magnitude higher than live weights), units in gram of ash are converted to units of gram of dry material--the standard representation of data. Further, results in units per gram dry weight are converted to units of wet weight in order to estimate radiation doses to the public from the ingestion of these products. This paper reports the mean ash to dry and dry to wet weight moisture conversion ratios for a variety of foodstuffs and biota that have been collected as part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at LANL from 1990 to present.

Fresquez, P.R.; Ferenbaugh, J.K.

1998-09-01

39

Behaviour of the constitutive biota of two types of Spanish dry-sausages ripened in a pilot-scale chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of the constitutive biota in eighty four samples belonging to two different types of Spanish dry-cured sausages during the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber was investigated. Samples were analyzed in three stages during production: fresh product, first drying stage and finished product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) were identified by the API system. In

Carmen López; L. M. Medina; R. Priego; R. Jordano

2006-01-01

40

The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rinne, J.N., 1990. The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas. For. Ecol. Manage., 33\\/34: 363-383. Investigations since 1960 on the effects of land-management practices on riparian-stream systems often have produced contradictory results. Inconsistencies have occurred, in part, because of efforts that have not been totally comprehensive and, in part, because

John N. Rinne

1990-01-01

41

Climate-change impacts on sandy-beach biota: crossing a line in the sand.  

PubMed

Sandy ocean beaches are iconic assets that provide irreplaceable ecosystem services to society. Despite their great socioeconomic importance, beaches as ecosystems are severely under-represented in the literature on climate-change ecology. Here, we redress this imbalance by examining whether beach biota have been observed to respond to recent climate change in ways that are consistent with expectations under climate change. We base our assessments on evidence coming from case studies on beach invertebrates in South America and on sea turtles globally. Surprisingly, we find that observational evidence for climate-change responses in beach biota is more convincing for invertebrates than for highly charismatic turtles. This asymmetry is paradoxical given the better theoretical understanding of the mechanisms by which turtles are likely to respond to changes in climate. Regardless of this disparity, knowledge of the unique attributes of beach systems can complement our detection of climate-change impacts on sandy-shore invertebrates to add rigor to studies of climate-change ecology for sandy beaches. To this end, we combine theory from beach ecology and climate-change ecology to put forward a suite of predictive hypotheses regarding climate impacts on beaches and to suggest ways that these can be tested. Addressing these hypotheses could significantly advance both beach and climate-change ecology, thereby progressing understanding of how future climate change will impact coastal ecosystems more generally. PMID:25121188

Schoeman, David S; Schlacher, Thomas A; Defeo, Omar

2014-08-01

42

Factors affecting the organochlorine pollutant load in biota of a rice field ecosystem (Ebro Delta, NE Spain).  

PubMed

The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, HCB and OCS were determined in sediments and associated biota, both invertebrates (Physella acuta, Hirudo medicinalis, chironomid larvae, Hydrous pistaceus, Helochares lividus) and vertebrates (Rana perezi), in a temporary aquatic system, a rice field in the Ebro Delta (NE Spain). The qualitative and quantitative distribution of organochlorine compounds in sediments and aquatic biota has been explained by two mechanisms: equilibrium partitioning and/or biomagnification through the trophic web. Nevertheless, bioaccumulation processes are by far more complex, since several biotic and abiotic factors contribute to the observed pollutant loads in the organisms. In this respect, the biological characteristics of the organisms considered (e.g. species, age, lipid contents, feeding habits, etc.), as well as ecological factors (e.g. the habitat of the species and vertical distribution), have been shown to account for the organochlorine levels observed. PMID:15006509

Pastor, D; Sanpera, C; González-Solís, J; Ruiz, X; Albaigés, J

2004-04-01

43

Behaviour of the constitutive biota of two types of Spanish dry-sausages ripened in a pilot-scale chamber.  

PubMed

The behaviour of the constitutive biota in eighty four samples belonging to two different types of Spanish dry-cured sausages during the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber was investigated. Samples were analyzed in three stages during production: fresh product, first drying stage and finished product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) were identified by the API system. In general, evolution of LAB and CNC during the ripening process of Spanish dry-cured sausages increased during the first days after which numbers of these organisms remained stable. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus, were the dominant species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus Staphylococcus simulans and Kocuria varians were also present. The results obtained show that the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes to a more homogeneous behaviour of the constitutive biota, in comparison with commercial production standards. PMID:22062067

López, Carmen; Medina, L M; Priego, R; Jordano, R

2006-05-01

44

Mercury Contamination of Biota from Acadia National Park, Maine: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reviewed literature reporting both total and methylmercury from biota from Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Our review\\u000a of existing data indicates that 1) mercury contamination is widespread throughout the Park’s various aquatic ecosystems; 2)\\u000a mercury pollution likely represents a moderate to high risk to biota inhabiting the Park; and 3) biota at all trophic levels\\u000a possess elevated concentrations of

Michael S. Bank; John R. Burgess; David C. Evers; Cynthia S. Loftin

2007-01-01

45

Impact of Drainage Channel Improvement Works on Fish Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of concrete lining of channel bed with eco-friendly works, i.e. fish pools and fish habitat blocks on fish biota in Ooe drainage channel is discussed based on the ecological, hydraulic and water quality investigations from 2003 through 2007. The effectiveness of these eco-friendly technologies is also evaluated. As a result, the followings become apparent; 1) Several species which are suitable for improved channels, especially in their spawning, e.g. Pseudorasbora parva, Gambusia affinis affinis, Squalidus chankaensis sp. and Rhinogobius sp. tend to increase relatively and the species e.g. Oryzias latipes and Channa argus decrease oppositely. 2) Fish biota settles down to a certain level after 3 or 4 years after improvement of channel. 3) Fish show their preference to eco-friendly technologies like fish habitat block and fish pool and also utilize them as their habitat during non irrigation period, and 4) the total number of fish tends to somewhat decrease at large, but the number of species tends to increase contrarily in the channel through improvement with eco-friendly works.

Hiramatsu, Ken; Nishimura, Shinichi; Shimizu, Hideyoshi; Nakane, Yoshinobu; Ichion, Eiji

46

Status and health of biota at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal  

SciTech Connect

Field studies have been conducted on the populations and communities of the biota at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) since the late 1950`s. While earlier studies were primarily documentation of mortality events, a diverse program of studies conducted since 1982 has assessed a number of relevant endpoints. Studies of sedentary species (e.g. plants, earthworm, grasshoppers) focused on contaminated areas within RMA to identify potential contaminant effects. Studies on more mobile species (e.g. deer, great horned owls, kestrels) were conducted throughout RMA to evaluate effects on their RMA-wide populations. Both on- and off-post reference sites were used in some of the studies. Ecological endpoints were selected that were focused upon the population-level effects that could have a causal relationship to the RMA contaminants, such as population abundance and reproductive success, biomarkers, and community organization. Current EPA guidance on conducting ecological risk assessment encourages the use of observational field studies. Although many of these studies were conducted prior to the issuance of this guidance, they are consistent with its scope and intent. Investigators on the effects of contamination at RMA during the past decade indicate that while some effects may still be present in biota at RMA, the wildlife communities and populations are viable and appear healthy.

Macrander, A.M.; Mackey, C.V.; Reagen, D.P.; Tate, D.J.

1994-12-31

47

Carbon-14 Specific Activity Model Validation for Biota in Wetland Environments  

SciTech Connect

In many cases, contaminants, such as radionuclides, can show highly localized spatial distributions in natural systems. Therefore, a key question for environmental assessment and monitoring becomes, how can these localized distributions of contaminants in the environment lead to organism exposure, and ultimately, the potential for effects to receptor biota? To address this question, an important first step is to conduct field surveys at sites of interest to map out the spatial distribution and extent of contaminants in areas that are being occupied and utilized by resident receptor biota. Work can then be conducted to establish predictive relationships between contaminant concentrations in biota tissues and those in environmental media with which biota interact, to gain an understanding of how representative ambient contaminant concentrations are of biota exposure. The objectives of this study were: - To conduct a field survey in a wetland ecosystem to characterize the spatial distribution of carbon- 14 ({sup 14}C), a radionuclide with dynamics in natural systems that can be described using a specific activity model; and - To determine whether {sup 14}C concentrations in environmental media reflect those measured in tissues of resident flora and fauna. A detailed field campaign was carried out in summer 2001 to characterize the spatial distribution and areal coverage of {sup 14}C in Duke Swamp, a wetland ecosystem on Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site that receives {sup 14}C through releases from an up-gradient Waste Management Area (WMA), primarily through groundwater influx. Sampling of surface vegetation (dominantly comprised of Sphagnum moss) was conducted at a total of 69 locations, with complementary sampling of air, soil, fungi, aerial insects, ground-dwelling insects, amphibians, small mammals and snakes being carried out at a subset of five locations with varying {sup 14}C concentrations. Concentrations of {sup 14}C in resident Duke Swamp biota were compared to levels measured in environmental media (including moss, soil and air) to determine whether concentrations in such media reflect animal exposure, for application in routine environmental monitoring programs on the CRL site. In general, for most types of receptor animals, {sup 14}C specific activities were found to be similar to or less than those measured in air, soil and surface vegetation at all locations sampled, suggesting that in most cases, estimates of {sup 14}C levels in animals could either be realistically or conservatively predicted based on the values measured in environmental media. In the case of fungi, receptor-to-media {sup 14}C specific activity ratios fell between 0.04 and 0.23 relative to air, between 0.03 and 0.70 relative to soil, and between 0.078 and 0.31 relative to moss. Small mammal specific activities also generally fell well below those that would be predicted based on specific activities measured in environmental media, with ratios ranging from 0.11 to 0.36 relative to air, from 0.17 to 0.85 relative to soil and from 0.21 to 0.58 relative to moss. Similar ratios were also established for snakes; however, a notable exception occurred for amphibians, a type of animal that tends to spend relatively more time in aquatic environments than the other species tested. In the case of Duke Swamp amphibians, animal-to-air {sup 14}C specific activity ratios ranged from 0.40 to 2.3, animal-to-soil ratios ranged from 0.81 to 3.4 and animal-to-moss ratios ranged from 1.5 to 2.4. These higher {sup 14}C levels in amphibians relative to the environmental media may be due to increased {sup 14}C exposure of aquatic or amphibious animals that occupy systems receiving inputs via groundwater. In such systems, {sup 14}C is incorporated in aquatic plants and animals, and later transferred to higher predatory species, such as amphibians, that consume them. Therefore, with the exception of amphibians and other aquatic receptor species, it is reasonable to estimate concentrations of {sup 14}C in receptor biota in w

Yankovich, T.L.; Sharp, K.J.; Benz, M.L.; Carr, J.; Killey, R.W.D. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1P0 (Canada)

2008-01-15

48

Zinc in the sediments, water and biota of Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra  

E-print Network

HI 235 Zinc in the sediments, water and biota of Lake Burley Griffin, Canberra W.A. Maher, RResearchCentre. Universityo/Canberra. P.O. Box /. BelconnenACT 26/6. Australia ABSTRAcr Zinc concentrations and total amounts in the sediment, water and biota of Lake Burley Griffin were measured to identify where zinc originating from

Canberra, University of

49

Mercury Species and Other Selected Constituent Concentrations in Water, Sediment, and Biota of  

E-print Network

Mercury Species and Other Selected Constituent Concentrations in Water, Sediment, and Biota Data Series 658 #12;#12;Mercury Species and Other Selected Constituent Concentrations in Water.J., 2012, Mercury species and other selected constituent concentrations in water, sediment, and biota

50

Soil biota community structure and abundance under agricultural intensification and extensification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the impacts of agricultural intensification and extensification on soil biota communities is useful in order to preserve and restore biological diversity in agricultural soils and enhance the role of soil biota in agroecosystem functioning. Over four consecutive years, we investigated the effects of agricultural intensification and extensification (including conversion of grassland to arable land and vice versa, increased and

Maria B. Postma-Blaauw; Goede de R. G. M; Jaap Bloem; Jack H. Faber; Lijbert Brussaard

2010-01-01

51

A New Exceptionally Preserved Biota from the Lower Silurian of Wisconsin, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new biota including lightly sclerotized and soft-bodied organisms occurs in finely laminated argillaceous dolomites of late Llandoverian age in Waukesha County, Wisconsin. This discovery fills a gap between well known Cambrian and Devonian Konservat Lagerstatten. The biota is dominated by arthropods. A dalmanitid is the most numerous of 13 genera of trilobites; the crustaceans include phyllocarids and ostracods; the

D. G. Mikulic; D. E. G. Briggs; Joanne Kluessendorf

1985-01-01

52

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF SOIL BIOTA IN ARID ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of soil biota in maintaining ecosystem integrity is examined by a review of studies of soil processes and soil biota in arid ecosystems. In decomposition and mineralization processes, there is a temporal succession of microarthropod and nematode species. Tydeid mit...

53

Group report: Physiological and ecological effects of acidification on aquatic biota (Chapter 19). Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Acidification affects all components of biological communities in lakes and streams: microbes, algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish amphibians, and other vertebrates that rely on aquatic ecosystems for habitat or food. Mechanisms of effect are both direct (toxic responses to changes in chemistry) and indirect (e.g., expressed through the food chain or caused by changes in habitat), and the responses may be immediate or delayed. In turn, many biological processes, especially microbial processes, can influence surface water acid-base chemistry. Thus, chemical and biological changes are intricately linked and complex, with extensive feedbacks. Research on the effects of acid deposition and acidification on aquatic biota has been ongoing in Europe and North America for over the last 15 years, and many comprehensive reviews have been published. These gaps often have occurred because funding has focused on chemical mechanisms and modeling response of systems rather than in making resource inventories or resolving uncertainties in biological responses to acidification.

Baker, J.P.; Boehmer, J.; Hartmann, A.; Havas, M.; Jenkins, A.

1994-01-01

54

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms  

PubMed Central

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m?3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

2014-01-01

55

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

2014-03-01

56

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms.  

PubMed

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m(-3). The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota. PMID:24681661

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K; Fileman, Elaine S; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S

2014-01-01

57

Comparison of biota-sediment accumulation factors across ecosystems.  

PubMed

Sets of biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for fish were compared across ecosystems for nonionic organic chemicals. The sets of BSAFs, when plotted against each other, in log-log space, formed linear relationships and demonstrated that the relative scaling or ranking of the individual BSAFs within a set are consistent, if not the same, across ecosystems. This behavior holds for chemicals that either are, or are not, metabolized by fish. These results demonstrate that sets of BSAF values can differ but with parallel shifts in magnitude between ecosystems (for example, all of the BSAFs in the set are uniformly larger in one ecosystem, while in another they all are uniformly smaller) in response to underlying differences in ecosystem conditions and parameters such as trophic level, diet of the organisms, and distribution of the chemical between the sediment and water column. PMID:16124307

Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

2005-08-01

58

Prevailing Negative Soil Biota Effect and No Evidence for Local Adaptation in a Widespread Eurasian Grass  

PubMed Central

Background Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10–80 km) and between (ca. 3300 km) regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their ‘home soil’ was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant - soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified. PMID:21479262

Wagner, Viktoria; Antunes, Pedro M.; Ristow, Michael; Lechner, Ute; Hensen, Isabell

2011-01-01

59

Fukushima nuclear accident: preliminary assessment of the risks to non-human biota.  

PubMed

This study assesses the 'radio-ecological' impacts of Fukushima nuclear accident on non-human biota using the ERICA Tool, which adopts an internationally verified methodology. The paper estimates the impacts of the accident on terrestrial and marine biota based on the environmental data reported in literature for Japan, China, South Korea and the USA. Discernible impacts have been detected in the marine biota around Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This study confirms that the Fukushima accident had caused heavier damage to marine bionts compared with terrestrial flora and fauna, in Japan. PMID:24827576

Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Gabdo, Hamman Tukur; Liman, Muhammad Sanusi

2015-02-01

60

ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

61

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

62

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

63

Mercury contamination of biota from Acadia National Park, Maine: a review.  

PubMed

We reviewed literature reporting both total and methylmercury from biota from Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Our review of existing data indicates that 1) mercury contamination is widespread throughout the Park's various aquatic ecosystems; 2) mercury pollution likely represents a moderate to high risk to biota inhabiting the Park; and 3) biota at all trophic levels possess elevated concentrations of both total and methylmercury. Watershed fire history and the resulting post-fire forest succession patterns are an important landscape attribute governing mercury cycling at Acadia National Park. Therefore, park service personnel should consider these factors when planning and implementing Hg biomonitoring efforts. Additional baseline funding from the National Park Service for Hg research and biomonitoring will likely be required in order to further evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of mercury contamination in the park's biota. PMID:17057987

Bank, Michael S; Burgess, John R; Evers, David C; Loftin, Cynthia S

2007-03-01

64

Vertebrate diversity of the Jehol Biota as compared with other lagerstätten  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last twenty years, the extraordinary discoveries of vertebrate fossils from the Jehol Biota not only have important\\u000a implications for studying the evolution of major Mesozoic vertebrate groups, their paleobiostratigraphy and paleoenvironmentology,\\u000a but also provide critical evidence for understanding the biodiversity changes of the Early Cretaceous ecosystem. Currently,\\u000a the Jehol Biota in a narrow sense (i.e., distribution limited to

ZhongHe Zhou; Yuan Wang

2010-01-01

65

Bacterial biota in reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus  

PubMed Central

AIM To identify the bacterial flora in conditions such as Barrett’s esophagus and reflux esophagitis to determine if they are similar to normal esophageal flora. METHODS Using broad-range 16S rDNA PCR, esophageal biopsies were examined from 24 patients [9 with normal esophageal mucosa, 12 with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and 3 with Barrett’s esophagus]. Two separate broad-range PCR reactions were performed for each patient, and the resulting products were cloned. In one patient with Barrett’s esophagus, 99 PCR clones were analyzed. RESULTS Two separate clones were recovered from each patient (total = 48), representing 24 different species, with 14 species homologous to known bacteria, 5 homologous to unidentified bacteria, and 5 were not homologous (<97% identity) to any known bacterial 16S rDNA sequences. Seventeen species were found in the reflux esophagitis patients, 5 in the Barrett’s esophagus patients, and 10 in normal esophagus patients. Further analysis concentrating on a single biopsy from an individual with Barrett’s esophagus revealed the presence of 21 distinct bacterial species. Members of four phyla were represented, including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Microscopic examination of each biopsy demonstrated bacteria in intimate association with the distal esophageal epithelium, suggesting that the presence of these bacteria is not transitory. CONCLUSION These findings provide evidence for a complex, residential bacterial population in esophageal reflux-related disorders. While much of this biota is present in the normal esophagus, more detailed comparisons may help identify potential disease associations. PMID:16437628

Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying; Peek, Richard M; Levine, Steven M; Pride, David T; Blaser, Martin J

2010-01-01

66

Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH

D. S. Cerry; R. K. Guthrie; E. M. Davis; R. S. Harvey

1984-01-01

67

Occurrence of phthalates in sediment and biota: relationship to aquatic factors and the biota-sediment accumulation factor.  

PubMed

Phthalate compounds in sediments and fishes were investigated in 17 Taiwan's rivers to determine the relationships between phthalate levels in sediment and aquatic factors, and biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for phthalates. Mean concentrations (range) of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in sediment at low-flow season were 4.1 (<0.05-46.5), 0.22 (<0.05-3.1) and 0.14 (<0.05-1.3)mgkg(-1)dw; those at high-flow season were 1.2 (<0.05-13.1), 0.13 (<0.05-0.27) and 0.09 (<0.05-0.22)mgkg(-1)dw, respectively. Trace levels of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in sediment were found in both seasons. Concentrations of DEHP in sediments were significantly affected by temperature, suspended solids, ammonia-nitrogen, and chemical oxygen demand. The highest concentration of DEHP in fish samples were found in Liza subviridis (253.9mgkg(-1)dw) and Oreochromis miloticus niloticus (129.5mgkg(-1)dw). BSAF of DEHP in L. subviridis (13.8-40.9) and O. miloticus niloticus (2.4-28.5) were higher than those in other fish species, indicating that the living habits of fish and physical-chemical properties of phthalates, like logKow, may influence the bioavailability of phthalates in fish. Our data suggested that DEHP level in river sediments were influenced by water quality parameters due to their effects on the biodegradation processes, and that the DEHP level in fish was affected by fish habitat and physiochemical properties of polluted contaminants. PMID:18687453

Huang, Po-Chin; Tien, Chien-Jung; Sun, Yih-Min; Hsieh, Cha-Yi; Lee, Ching-Chang

2008-09-01

68

Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota.  

PubMed

The integration of phylogenetics, phylogeography and palaeoenvironmental studies is providing major insights into the historical forces that have shaped the Earth's biomes. Yet our present view is biased towards arctic and temperate/tropical forest regions, with very little focus on the extensive arid regions of the planet. The Australian arid zone is one of the largest desert landform systems in the world, with a unique, diverse and relatively well-studied biota. With foci on palaeoenvironmental and molecular data, we here review what is known about the assembly and maintenance of this biome in the context of its physical history, and in comparison with other mesic biomes. Aridification of Australia began in the Mid-Miocene, around 15 million years, but fully arid landforms in central Australia appeared much later, around 1-4 million years. Dated molecular phylogenies of diverse taxa show the deepest divergences of arid-adapted taxa from the Mid-Miocene, consistent with the onset of desiccation. There is evidence of arid-adapted taxa evolving from mesic-adapted ancestors, and also of speciation within the arid zone. There is no evidence for an increase in speciation rate during the Pleistocene, and most arid-zone species lineages date to the Pliocene or earlier. The last 0.8 million years have seen major fluctuations of the arid zone, with large areas covered by mobile sand dunes during glacial maxima. Some large, vagile taxa show patterns of recent expansion and migration throughout the arid zone, in parallel with the ice sheet-imposed range shifts in Northern Hemisphere taxa. Yet other taxa show high lineage diversity and strong phylogeographical structure, indicating persistence in multiple localised refugia over several glacial maxima. Similar to the Northern Hemisphere, Pleistocene range shifts have produced suture zones, creating the opportunity for diversification and speciation through hybridisation, polyploidy and parthenogenesis. This review highlights the opportunities that development of arid conditions provides for rapid and diverse evolutionary radiations, and re-enforces the emerging view that Pleistocene environmental change can have diverse impacts on genetic structure and diversity in different biomes. There is a clear need for more detailed and targeted phylogeographical studies of Australia's arid biota and we suggest a framework and a set of a priori hypotheses by which to proceed. PMID:18761619

Byrne, M; Yeates, D K; Joseph, L; Kearney, M; Bowler, J; Williams, M A J; Cooper, S; Donnellan, S C; Keogh, J S; Leys, R; Melville, J; Murphy, D J; Porch, N; Wyrwoll, K-H

2008-10-01

69

Improvements and application of a modified gas chromatography atomic fluorescence spectroscopy method for routine determination of methylmercury in biota samples.  

PubMed

Improvements to the application of a combined solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to pyrolysis and atomic fluorescence spectrometry method (SPME-GC-AFS) for methylmercury (MeHg) determination in biota samples are presented. Our new method includes improvements in the methodology of determination and the quantification technique. A shaker instead of a stirrer was used, in order to reduce the possibility of sample contamination and to simplify cleaning procedures. Then, optimal rotation frequency and shaking time were settled at 800 rpm and 10 min, respectively. Moreover, the GC-AFS system was equipped with a valve and an argon heater to eliminate the effect of the decrease in analytical signal caused by the moisture released from SPME fiber. For its determination, MeHg was first extracted from biota samples with a 25% KOH solution (3h) and then it was quantified by two methods, a conventional double standard addition method (AC) and a modified matrix-matched calibration (MQ) which is two times faster than the AC method. Both procedures were successfully tested with certified reference materials, and applied for the first time to the determination of MeHg in muscle samples of goosander (Mergus merganser) and liver samples of white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) with values ranging from 1.19 to 3.84 mg/kg dry weight (dw), and from 0.69 to 6.23 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively. PMID:24054647

Gorecki, Jerzy; Díez, Sergi; Macherzynski, Mariusz; Kalisinska, El?bieta; Golas, Janusz

2013-10-15

70

Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: method validation.  

PubMed

Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified Reference Material. The major contributions to the expanded uncertainty, i.e. 86.1%, arose from the uncertainty associated with recovery, followed by the contribution from fluorescence signal. Additional validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison with the values reported for MeHg in the IAEA-452 inter-laboratory comparison exercise. PMID:24720970

Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

2014-05-01

71

Mass extinction of the marine biota at the Ordovician-Silurian transition due to environmental changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terminal Ordovician was marked by one of five great mass extinction events of the Phanerozoic (445.6-443.0 Ma ago), when up to 86% of the marine species became extinct. The rapid onset of the continental glaciation on Gondwana determined by its position in the South Pole area; the cooling; the hydrodynamic changes through the entire water column in the World Ocean; and the corresponding sea level fall, which was responsible for the reduction of shelf areas and shallow-water basins, i.e., the main ecological niche of the Ordovician marine biota, were main prerequisites of the stress conditions. Similar to other mass extinction events, these processes were accompanied by volcanism, impact events, a corresponding reduction of the photosynthesis and bioproductivity, the destruction of food chains, and anoxia. The appearance and development of terrestrial plants and microphytoplankton, which consumed atmospheric carbon dioxide, thus, diminishing the greenhouse effect and promoting the transition of the climatic system to the glacial mode, played a unique role in that period.

Barash, M. S.

2014-11-01

72

Geological sampling data and benthic biota classification: Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sea-floor sample collection is an important component of a statewide cooperative mapping effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM). Sediment grab samples, bottom photographs, and video transects were collected within Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay in 2010 aboard the research vesselConnecticut. This report contains sample data and related information, including analyses of surficial-sediment grab samples, locations and images of sea-floor photography, survey lines along which sea-floor video was collected, and a classification of benthic biota observed in sea-floor photographs and based on the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). These sample data and analyses information are used to verify interpretations of geophysical data and are an essential part of geologic maps of the sea floor. These data also provide a valuable inventory of benthic habitat and resources. Geographic information system (GIS) data, maps, and interpretations, produced through the USGS and CZM mapping cooperative, are intended to aid efforts to manage coastal and marine resources and to provide baseline information for research focused on coastal evolution and environmental change.

Ackerman, Seth D.; Pappal, Adrienne L.; Huntley, Emily C.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Schwab, William C.

2015-01-01

73

[Fungal biota in manned space environment and impact on human health].  

PubMed

It is important to promote microbiological research essential for long-term manned space activities under microgravity and in a completely closed environment in space craft in relation to long-duration space expeditions on the International Space Station (ISS) or to the moon and Mars in the future. Environmental monitoring data from the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have already shown that microorganisms isolated from air and on inner surfaces of space craft were generally carried by crew members. The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) "KIBO" was attached to the ISS and started its operation from 2008. It is an invaluable opportunity to begin the survey of the transition of microbiota, particularly fungal biota, in JEM from "brand-new" to "well-used" condition at various periods. Therefore, we are preparing the on-board analyzing systems for microbiota in air and on inner surfaces of ISS/JEM and normal microbiota of the astronauts themselves. In this paper, we introduce the current status and future plans on fungal research on ISS/JEM to protect flight crew members and flight hardware from potentially hazardous microorganisms from the environmental and biomedical aspects of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). PMID:21358138

Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Sugita, Takashi; Yamazaki, Takashi

2011-01-01

74

Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Chiou, C.T.; Brinton, T.I.; Barber, L.B., II; Demcheck, D.K.; Demas, C.R.

1988-01-01

75

Empirical estimation of biota exposure range for calculation of bioaccumulation parameters.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) are frequently used to predict contaminant bioaccumulation in risk assessments. Development of these parameters is often hindered by uncertainty regarding the spatial scale of contaminant transfer from sediments to biota. We present a simple statistical method for optimizing bioaccumulation parameters (BAF and BSAF) in aquatic species, such as fish, whose exposure history may occur over broad spatial scales. For 6 finfish species sampled in San Francisco Bay, San Diego Bay, or the Southern California Bight, California, USA, the spatial scale of correlation was optimized using regression analysis. The ranges identified for pairing biota and sediment observations generally corresponded to the known life histories of the species and with laboratory tests comparing relationships observed for 28-d Macoma spp. This procedure may be useful for identifying appropriate species and spatial scales to predict bioaccumulation and for developing data sets of corresponding sediment and tissue residues. PMID:19431298

Melwani, Aroon R; Greenfield, Ben K; Byron, Earl R

2009-01-01

76

Overview of the Late Cretaceous Biota of the western São Paulo State, Brazil, Bauru Group  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Turonian-Maastrichtian beds of the Bauru Group, western São Paulo State (Brazil), have yielded a diverse biota. The nine species of mesoecrocodilians are all mesosuchians. There is a single frog, a Neubatrachia. The vertebrates include, four types of fishes, a neobatrachian frog, an anilioid snake, two lizard, six species of podocnemid turtles, nine species of mesosuchian mesoecrocodilians three theropods, two birds, five titanosaurid sauropods, and one mammalian. The invertebrates include one cyclo, one cyclophoroid and eight pulmonates. Plants are represented by only two carophyte species. The biota from western São Paulo State is one the most diverse of the Late Cretaceous in Brazil. The biota from this area confirms that Bauru Group was connected to Patagonia and other Gondwanan areas during the Late Cretaceous.

Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Rich, Thomas

2010-03-01

77

Dynamics of soil biota at different depths under two contrasting tillage practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aim of conservation tillage is to preserve soil biological properties. This study was conducted to examine the effects of two contrasting tillage treatments on soil biota at different depths. We investigated the population dynamics and vertical distributions of microbes and several soil faunal groups for 2 years in field Andosols in northeastern Japan. The experimental plots were under no

F. Miura; T. Nakamoto; S. Kaneda; S. Okano; M. Nakajima; T. Murakami

2008-01-01

78

Marine biota response to clastic sediment influx: A quantitative approach Stephen W. Lokier a,  

E-print Network

Marine biota response to clastic sediment influx: A quantitative approach Stephen W. Lokier a anthropogenically related) to marine carbonate environments over longer time periods. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction There is a long-standing hypothesis that either constant or punctuated

Ali, Mohammed

79

LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSK COMPOUNDS IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER FOR ESTIMATING BIOTA EXPOSURE IN RECEIVING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To test the ruggedness of a newly developed analytical method for synthetic musks, a 1-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota was conducted for Lake Mead (near Las Vegas, Nevada) as well as for combined sewage-dedicated effluent streams feeding Lake ...

80

Development of ice biota in a temperate sea area (Gulf of Bothnia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of sea ice biota was carried out in the Gulf of Bothnia (northern Baltic Sea) during the winter of 1989–1990. Samples (ice cores) were taken at a coastal station at regular time intervals during the ice season. Chlorophyll a concentration, algal species distribution, bacterial numbers, and primary and bacterial production were measured. Colonization of the ice began in

Bo Norrman; Agneta Andersson

1994-01-01

81

Soil Biology & Biochemistry 39 (2007) 21382149 Heterogeneity of soil nutrients and subsurface biota  

E-print Network

ecology concerns itself with the flow of energy and materials through organisms and their environment, the soil biota was only infrequently correlated with organic matter. Lack of plant-driven heterogeneity; Soil food webs 1. Introduction Ecologists have long considered how the distribution of abiotic

Neher, Deborah A.

82

Derivation of a screening methodology for evaluating radiation dose to aquatic and terrestrial biota.  

PubMed

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose standard for the protection of aquatic animals, and is considering additional dose standards for terrestrial biota. These standards are: 10 mGy/d for aquatic animals, 10 mGy/d for terrestrial plants, and, 1 mGy/d for terrestrial animals. Guidance on suitable approaches to the implementation of these standards is needed. A screening methodology, developed through DOE's Biota Dose Assessment Committee (BDAC), serves as the principal element of DOE's graded approach for evaluating radiation doses to aquatic and terrestrial biota. Limiting concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil, and sediment were derived for 23 radionuclides. Four organism types (aquatic animals; riparian animals; terrestrial animals; and terrestrial plants) were selected as the basis for development of the screening method. Internal doses for each organism type were calculated as the product of contaminant concentration, bioaccumulation factor(s) and dose conversion factors. External doses were calculated based on the assumption of immersion of the organism in soil, sediment, or water. The assumptions and default parameters used provide for conservative screening values. The screening methodology within DOE's graded approach should prove useful in demonstrating compliance with biota dose limits and for conducting screening assessments of radioecological impact. It provides a needed evaluation tool that can be employed within a framework for protection of the environment. PMID:12590069

Higley, Kathryn A; Domotor, Stephen L; Antonio, Ernest J; Kocher, David C

2003-01-01

83

Atmospheric transport of persistent pollutants governs uptake by holarctic terrestrial biota  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric deposition of PCBs, DDT, and lindane, governed uptake in terrestrial biota in the Scandinavian peninsula. Mammalian herbivores and predators as well as predatory insects contained higher levels of pollutants at locations where the fallout load was high than at stations where atmospheric deposition was lower, and the two variables were significantly correlated.

Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Woin, Per (Limnology, Lund (Sweden))

1990-10-01

84

Concordant Biogeographic Patterns among Multiple Taxonomic Groups in the Mexican Freshwater Biota  

PubMed Central

In this paper we analyse the degree of concordance in species richness and taxonomic distinctness (diversity) patterns among different freshwater taxonomic groups in order to test three long held patterns described in Mexican freshwater biogeography: 1. The aquatic biota of Mexico includes two distinct faunas, a rich Neotropical component in the south and a south-eastern region and a less rich Nearctic component towards central and northern latitudes of the country. 2. A hotspot of species richness and diversity has been recorded in the Usumacinta, including the Yucatan Peninsula. 3. The presence of two distinct biotas in Mexico, an eastern one distributed along the Gulf of Mexico slope, and a western one associated to the Pacific versant. We use species richness and taxonomic distinctness to explore patterns of diversity and how these patterns change between zoogeographical regions. This paper points out a clear separation between Neotropical and Nearctic drainage basins but also between eastern (Gulf of Mexico) and western (Pacific) drainage basins. Present data gives additional empirical support from freshwater biota for three long held beliefs regarding distributional patterns of the Mexican biota. The neotropical basins of Mexico are generally host to a richest and more diversified fauna, that includes more families, genera and species, compared to the less rich and less diverse fauna in the nearctic basins. PMID:25136979

Quiroz-Martínez, Benjamín; Álvarez, Fernando; Espinosa, Héctor; Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

2014-01-01

85

Climate change and Southern Ocean ecosystems I: how changes in physical habitats directly affect marine biota.  

PubMed

Antarctic and Southern Ocean (ASO) marine ecosystems have been changing for at least the last 30 years, including in response to increasing ocean temperatures and changes in the extent and seasonality of sea ice; the magnitude and direction of these changes differ between regions around Antarctica that could see populations of the same species changing differently in different regions. This article reviews current and expected changes in ASO physical habitats in response to climate change. It then reviews how these changes may impact the autecology of marine biota of this polar region: microbes, zooplankton, salps, Antarctic krill, fish, cephalopods, marine mammals, seabirds, and benthos. The general prognosis for ASO marine habitats is for an overall warming and freshening, strengthening of westerly winds, with a potential pole-ward movement of those winds and the frontal systems, and an increase in ocean eddy activity. Many habitat parameters will have regionally specific changes, particularly relating to sea ice characteristics and seasonal dynamics. Lower trophic levels are expected to move south as the ocean conditions in which they are currently found move pole-ward. For Antarctic krill and finfish, the latitudinal breadth of their range will depend on their tolerance of warming oceans and changes to productivity. Ocean acidification is a concern not only for calcifying organisms but also for crustaceans such as Antarctic krill; it is also likely to be the most important change in benthic habitats over the coming century. For marine mammals and birds, the expected changes primarily relate to their flexibility in moving to alternative locations for food and the energetic cost of longer or more complex foraging trips for those that are bound to breeding colonies. Few species are sufficiently well studied to make comprehensive species-specific vulnerability assessments possible. Priorities for future work are discussed. PMID:24802817

Constable, Andrew J; Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Corney, Stuart P; Arrigo, Kevin R; Barbraud, Christophe; Barnes, David K A; Bindoff, Nathaniel L; Boyd, Philip W; Brandt, Angelika; Costa, Daniel P; Davidson, Andrew T; Ducklow, Hugh W; Emmerson, Louise; Fukuchi, Mitsuo; Gutt, Julian; Hindell, Mark A; Hofmann, Eileen E; Hosie, Graham W; Iida, Takahiro; Jacob, Sarah; Johnston, Nadine M; Kawaguchi, So; Kokubun, Nobuo; Koubbi, Philippe; Lea, Mary-Anne; Makhado, Azwianewi; Massom, Rob A; Meiners, Klaus; Meredith, Michael P; Murphy, Eugene J; Nicol, Stephen; Reid, Keith; Richerson, Kate; Riddle, Martin J; Rintoul, Stephen R; Smith, Walker O; Southwell, Colin; Stark, Jonathon S; Sumner, Michael; Swadling, Kerrie M; Takahashi, Kunio T; Trathan, Phil N; Welsford, Dirk C; Weimerskirch, Henri; Westwood, Karen J; Wienecke, Barbara C; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Wright, Simon W; Xavier, Jose C; Ziegler, Philippe

2014-10-01

86

A method to assess longitudinal riverine connectivity in tropical streams dominated by migratory biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. One way in which dams affect ecosystem function is by altering the distribution and abundance of aquatic species. 2. Previous studies indicate that migratory shrimps have significant effects on ecosystem processes in Puerto Rican streams, but are vulnerable to impediments to upstream or downstream passage, such as dams and associated water intakes where stream water is withdrawn for human water supplies. Ecological effects of dams and water withdrawals from streams depend on spatial context and temporal variability of flow in relation to the amount of water withdrawn. 3. This paper presents a conceptual model for estimating the probability that an individual shrimp is able to migrate from a stream's headwaters to the estuary as a larva, and then return to the headwaters as a juvenile, given a set of dams and water withdrawals in the stream network. The model is applied to flow and withdrawal data for a set of dams and water withdrawals in the Caribbean National Forest (CNF) in Puerto Rico. 4. The index of longitudinal riverine connectivity (ILRC), is used to classify 17 water intakes in streams draining the CNF as having low, moderate, or high connectivity in terms of shrimp migration in both directions. An in-depth comparison of two streams showed that the stream characterized by higher water withdrawal had low connectivity, even during wet periods. Severity of effects is illustrated by a drought year, where the most downstream intake caused 100% larval shrimp mortality 78% of the year. 5. The ranking system provided by the index can be used as a tool for conservation ecologists and water resource managers to evaluate the relative vulnerability of migratory biota in streams, across different scales (reach-network), to seasonally low flows and extended drought. This information can be used to help evaluate the environmental tradeoffs of future water withdrawals. ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Crook, K.E.; Pringle, C.M.; Freeman, Mary C.

2009-01-01

87

Acidification in the Adirondacks: defining the biota in trophic levels of 30 chemically diverse acid-impacted lakes.  

PubMed

The Adirondack Mountains in New York State have a varied surficial geology and chemically diverse surface waters that are among the most impacted by acid deposition in the U.S. No single Adirondack investigation has been comprehensive in defining the effects of acidification on species diversity, from bacteria through fish, essential for understanding the full impact of acidification on biota. Baseline midsummer chemistry and community composition are presented for a group of chemically diverse Adirondack lakes. Species richness of all trophic levels except bacteria is significantly correlated with lake acid-base chemistry. The loss of taxa observed per unit pH was similar: bacterial genera (2.50), bacterial classes (1.43), phytoplankton (3.97), rotifers (3.56), crustaceans (1.75), macrophytes (3.96), and fish (3.72). Specific pH criteria were applied to the communities to define and identify acid-tolerant (pH<5.0), acid-resistant (pH 5.0-5.6), and acid-sensitive (pH>5.6) species which could serve as indicators. Acid-tolerant and acid-sensitive categories are at end-points along the pH scale, significantly different at P<0.05; the acid-resistant category is the range of pH between these end-points, where community changes continually occur as the ecosystem moves in one direction or another. The biota acid tolerance classification (batc) system described herein provides a clear distinction between the taxonomic groups identified in these subcategories and can be used to evaluate the impact of acid deposition on different trophic levels of biological communities. PMID:20614900

Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A; Boylen, Charles W; Eichler, Lawrence W; Harrison, James P; Sutherland, James W; Shaw, William; Daniels, Robert A; Charles, Donald F; Acker, Frank W; Sullivan, Timothy J; Momen, Bahram; Bukaveckas, Paul

2010-08-01

88

High-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Jehol Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundant fossils of the terrestrial Jehol Biota, including plants, insects, dinosaurs, birds, mammals and freshwater invertebrates, were discovered from the Yixian Formation and the overlying Jiufotang Formation in Inner Mongolia, Hebei Province and Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Because of the exceptional preservation of fossils, the Jehol Biota is one of the most important Mesozoic fossil outcrops and referred to as a "Mesozoic Pompeii". The Jehol Biota has provided a rare opportunity to address questions about the origin of birds, the evolution of feathers and flight, the early diversification of angiosperms and the timing of the radiation of placental mammals. The Tuchengzi Formation, which lies unconformably just below the Yixian Formation and consists mainly of variegated sandstones, is less fossiliferous than the two overlying formations. However, dinosaur tracks, silicified wood and compressed plants are found in this formation. A systematic 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Yixian and the Jiufotang formations was undertaken to provide a framework for understanding the timing and duration of the Jehol Biota and evolutionary events represented within it. Furthermore, determining the absolute age of the Tuchengzi Formation provides information to interpret abundant dinosaur tracks within and provide better age constrains for the beginning of the Jehol Biota. Here we present robust high-precision 40Ar/39Ar data for six tuff samples and two basalt samples collected from the Tuchengzi, the Yixian and the Jiufotang formations near the classic outcrops in western Liaoning, NE China. We obtain an age of 139.5 ± 1.0 Ma for the uppermost Tuchengzi Formation, an age of 129.7 ± 0.5 Ma for a basaltic lava from the bottom of the Yixian Formation and an age of 122.1 ± 0.3 Ma for a tuff from the base of the overlying Jiufotang Formation. Our data indicate that the Yixian Formation was deposited during the Early Cretaceous, the Barremian to early Aptian, within a time span of 7 Ma. Because of the systematic sampling and the high quality of our data, these results contribute the most accurate age calibration yet of the Jehol Biota within the Yixian Formation and the overlying Jiufotang Formation, providing significant calibration for the evolution of early angiosperms, primitive birds and feathered dinosaurs.

Chang, S.; Zhang, H.; Renne, P. R.; Fang, Y.

2008-12-01

89

Total petroleum hydrocarbons in edible marine biota from Northern Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 ?g/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province. PMID:25819925

Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam

2015-04-01

90

A Kinetic-Allometric Approach to Predicting Tissue Radionuclide Concentrations for Biota  

SciTech Connect

Allometry, or the biology of scaling, is the study of size and its consequences. It has become a useful tool for comparative phsiology. There are several allometric equations that relate body size to many parameters, including ingestion rate, lifespan, inhalation rate, home range and more. While these equations were originally derived from empirical observations, there is a growing body of evidence that these relationships have their origins in the dynamics of energy transport mechanisms. As part of an ongoing effort to assist the Department of Energy in developing generic methods for evaluating radiation dose to biota, we have examined the utility of applyig allometric techniques to predicting radionuclide tissue concentration across a large range of terrestrial and riparian species of animals. This particular study examined twenty-three elements. Initial investigations suggest that the allometric approach can provide a useful tool to derive limiting values of uptake and elimination factors for biota.

Higley, Kathryn A. (OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY); Domotor, S L. (DOE); Antonio, Ernest J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-06-06

91

New evidence suggests pyroclastic flows are responsible for the remarkable preservation of the Jehol biota.  

PubMed

The lower Cretaceous Yixian and Jiufotang formations contain numerous exceptionally well-preserved invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils that comprise the Jehol Biota. Freshwater and terrestrial fossils of the biota usually occur together within some horizons and have been interpreted as deposits of mass mortality events. The nature of the events and the mechanisms behind the exceptional preservation of the fossils, however, are poorly understood. Here, after examining and analysing sediments and residual fossils from several key horizons, we postulate that the causal events were mainly phreatomagmatic eruptions. Pyroclastic density currents were probably responsible for the major causalities and for transporting the bulk of the terrestrial vertebrates from different habitats, such as lizards, birds, non-avian dinosaurs and mammals, into lacustrine environments for burial. Terrestrial vertebrate carcasses transported by and sealed within the pyroclastic flows were clearly preserved as exceptional fossils through this process. PMID:24495913

Jiang, Baoyu; Harlow, George E; Wohletz, Kenneth; Zhou, Zhonghe; Meng, Jin

2014-01-01

92

Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota.  

PubMed

Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version. PMID:18329144

Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G; Gómez-Ros, J M

2008-09-01

93

Application of the ERICA Assessment Tool to freshwater biota in Finland.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been growing international interest in the assessment of doses and risks from ionising contaminants to biota. In this study the ERICA Tool, developed within the EC 6th Framework Programme, was applied to estimate incremental dose rates to biota in freshwater ecosystems in Finland mainly resulting from exposure to the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides (137)Cs, (134)Cs and (90)Sr. Data sets consisting of measured activity concentrations in fish, aquatic plants, lake water and sediment for three selected lakes located in a region with high (137)Cs deposition were applied in the assessment. The dose rates to most species studied were clearly below the screening level of 10 microGy h(-1), indicating no significant impact of the Chernobyl fallout on these species. However, the possibility of higher dose rates to certain species living on or in the bottom sediment cannot be excluded based on this assessment. PMID:19828217

Vetikko, Virve; Saxén, Ritva

2010-01-01

94

New evidence suggests pyroclastic flows are responsible for the remarkable preservation of the Jehol biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower Cretaceous Yixian and Jiufotang formations contain numerous exceptionally well-preserved invertebrate, vertebrate and plant fossils that comprise the Jehol Biota. Freshwater and terrestrial fossils of the biota usually occur together within some horizons and have been interpreted as deposits of mass mortality events. The nature of the events and the mechanisms behind the exceptional preservation of the fossils, however, are poorly understood. Here, after examining and analysing sediments and residual fossils from several key horizons, we postulate that the causal events were mainly phreatomagmatic eruptions. Pyroclastic density currents were probably responsible for the major causalities and for transporting the bulk of the terrestrial vertebrates from different habitats, such as lizards, birds, non-avian dinosaurs and mammals, into lacustrine environments for burial. Terrestrial vertebrate carcasses transported by and sealed within the pyroclastic flows were clearly preserved as exceptional fossils through this process.

Jiang, Baoyu; Harlow, George E.; Wohletz, Kenneth; Zhou, Zhonghe; Meng, Jin

2014-02-01

95

Technical report series: Concentrations of PCBs, DDTr, and selected metals in biota from Guntersville Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to determine if there was potential for human health risks from consumption of reservoir fish or if selected toxic substances might be impacting reservoir biota. Fillets from catfish (channel and blue) and largemouth bass were analyzed for the first purpose and whole gizzard shad, catfish livers, and turtle livers and fat were analyzed for the second. Results indicate largemouth bass should be safe for consumption based on low levels of tested contaminants. However, three of sixteen catfish samples contained PCB levels above the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tolerance of 2.0 ..mu..g/g, and seven others contained levels sufficiently close to that value to warrant concern. DDT and its metabolites and selected metals were low in catfish except for chromium, nickel, and mercury in selected cases. Analyses on all sample types (those referenced above plus catfish livers and turtle fat and livers) indicated levels of metals were generally low and probably not individually impacting reservoir biota.

Dycus, D.L.; Lowery, D.R.

1986-10-01

96

Methodology for estimating radiation dose rates to freshwater biota exposed to radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} (1 rad d{sup {minus}1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup {minus}1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE`s recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0. 1 mGy h{sup {minus}1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted.

Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; O`Neal, B.R.

1993-08-01

97

Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the relation of trace element concentrations in soil to those in house mice (Mus musculus), common reed (Phragmites australis) and ladybugs (Coccinella septempunctata) at five disposal facilities for dredged material. The sites had a wide range of soil trace element concentrations, acid soils and a depauperate fauna. They were very poor wildlife habitat because they were dominated by the common reed. Bioassay earthworms exposed to surface soils from three of the five sites died, whereas those exposed to four of five soils collected a meter deep survived, presumably because the deeper, unoxidized soil, was not as acid. Concentrations of Ni and Cr in the biota from each of the sites did not seem to be related to the concentrations of the same elements in soil. Although Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in biota were correlated with those in soil, the range of concentrations in the biota was quite small compared to that in soil. The concentrations of Pb detected in mice were about as high as the concentrations previously reported in control mice from other studies. Mice from the most contaminated site (530 ppm Pb in soil) contained only slightly more Pb (8 ppm dry wt) than did mice (2-6 ppm dry wt) from sites containing much less Pb (22-92 ppm in soil). Despite the acid soil conditions, very little Cd was incorporated into food chains. Rather, Cd was leaching from the surface soil. We concluded that even the relatively high concentrations of trace elements in the acid dredged material studied did not cause high, concentrations of trace elements in the biota.

Beyer, W.N.; Miller, G.; Simmers, J.W.

1990-01-01

98

Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle.

Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

1994-06-01

99

Organochlorine pesticide residues in marine sediment and biota from the northern Florida reef tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a two-phased study, sediment and biota were collected from Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park and Key Largo National Marine Sanctuary and analysed for organochlorine pesticide residues. Phase 1 consisted of an inter-laboratory comparison using replicates of unspiked field samples. The five participating contract-laboratories differed in methodology, detection limits and their ability to detect pesticides. The highest concentration

P. W. Glynn; D. G. Rumbold; S. C. Snedaker

1995-01-01

100

Effects of livestock grazing intensity on soil biota in a semiarid steppe of Inner Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive livestock is known to significantly affect soil physical and chemical parameters in steppe ecosystems. However,\\u000a the effects on soil biological parameters still remain unknown. We hypothesized that intensive grazing would significantly\\u000a decrease the size and diversity of soil biota due to deterioration of the soil environment and reduction in vegetation cover,\\u000a while the adapted grazing intensity would improve the

Sha Qi; Haixia Zheng; Qimei Lin; Guitong Li; Zhenhua Xi; Xiaorong Zhao

2011-01-01

101

Accelerated extraction for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine biota.  

PubMed

A rapid and simple method is proposed for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in complex matrices such as marine biota. The method uses sonication, by means of an ultrasonic probe, as a new tool for assisted extraction, coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) with fluorescence detection (FL) for determination of 16 US EPA priority PAH. Separation and detection of the 16 PAH were complete in 45 min by RP-LC with a C18 column and acetonitrile-water gradient elution. Multivariate optimisation of the variables affecting extraction (ultrasound radiation amplitude, sonication time, and temperature of the water-bath in which the extraction cell was placed) was conducted. The accuracy of the method was determined by analysis of a certified reference material and comparison of the results obtained with those from another method (microwave-assisted extraction and GC-MS). The new technique avoids the main problems encountered in the determination of PAH in complex matrices such as marine biota, and no clean-up step is necessary. The method was applied to determination of PAH in estuarine biota samples from the Urdaibai estuary (Biscay, Spain). PMID:16501958

Sanz-Landaluze, J; Bartolome, L; Zuloaga, O; González, L; Dietz, C; Cámara, C

2006-03-01

102

The Empire Knight: Patterns of mercury contamination in sediment and biota at a marine site  

SciTech Connect

The Empire Knight, a merchant ship carrying approximately 7.3 metric tons of elemental mercury in its cargo, sank in a storm off the Maine coast in 1 944. Unique attributes of the site include the deep water marine conditions (80 m) and mercury originally in elemental form. Recent evaluations of the site were undertaken to determine environmental risk of the remaining mercury and possible remedial actions. Data collected in 1993 for this risk evaluation included sediment core samples, and a variety of biota samples. Biota were analyzed for total and methylmercury, and the following patterns examined: percent methylmercury, variability between species groups, and spatial patterns related to sediment contamination. Sediment contamination was largely confined to the immediate area near the wreck, with levels decreasing to background within 60 m. Invertebrates within this area had elevated levels of mercury in tissue. Most contamination was in an inorganic form, with percentages of methyl to total mercury below 20%, except for crab and lobster. Most of the residual mercury appears to be largely unavailable to biota, with local invertebrates comprising the main biological receptors. Evidence of bioaccumulation of mercury in higher trophic level organisms was not found, thus mercury did not appear to be a source of contamination beyond the immediate area the wreck.

Hoff, R.Z. [NOAA Hazmat, Seattle, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

103

Enantiomeric composition of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in aquatic and riparian biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic enantiomeric fractions (EFs) were observed for PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 for aquatic and riparian biota from Lake Hartwell, SC, a reservoir heavily contaminated with PCBs, and for these congeners and PCBs 132, 174, 176, and 183 in river fish and bivalves nationwide. Fish and bivalves showed marked differences in EFs as compared to sediment found at the same sampling sites, thus suggesting that PCBs are bioprocessed in biota in a different manner from those found in sediment (e.g., reductive dechlorination). Species-dependent patterns in PCB EFs were observed, which suggest differences in the ability of different species to bioprocess PCBs enantioselectively, most likely by metabolism. The presence of nonracemic PCBs in fish and bivalves suggests greater metabolic degradation of PCBs in these organisms than indicated from previous achiral studies and underscores the powerful potential of chiral analysis as a tracer of environmental bioprocesses.

Wong, C.S.; Garrison, A.W.; Smith, P.D.; Foreman, W.T.

2001-01-01

104

The Soil Biota Composition along a Progressive Succession of Secondary Vegetation in a Karst Area  

PubMed Central

Karst ecosystems are fragile and are in many regions degraded by anthropogenic activities. Current management of degraded karst areas focuses on aboveground vegetation succession or recovery and aims at establishing a forest ecosystem. Whether progressive succession of vegetation in karst areas is accompanied by establishment of soil biota is poorly understood. In the present study, soil microbial and nematode communities, as well as soil physico-chemical properties were studied along a progressive succession of secondary vegetation (from grassland to shrubland to forest) in a karst area in southwest China. Microbial biomass, nematode density, ratio of fungal to bacterial biomass, nematode structure index, and nematode enrichment index decreased with the secondary succession in the plant community. Overall, the results indicated a pattern of declines in soil biota abundance and food web complexity that was associated with a decrease in soil pH and a decrease in soil organic carbon content with the progressive secondary succession of the plant community. Our findings suggest that soil biota amendment is necessary during karst ecosystem restoration and establishment and management of grasslands may be feasible in karst areas. PMID:25379741

He, Xunyang; Liu, Lu; Wang, Kelin

2014-01-01

105

Selenium, selected inorganic elements, and organochlorine pesticides in bottom material and biota from the Colorado River delta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in bottom material ranged from 0.6 to 5.0 ??g g-1, and from 0.5 to 18.3 ??g g-1 in biota; 23% of samples exceeded the toxic threshold. Concentrations of DDE in biota exceeded the toxic threshold in 30% of the samples. Greater concentrations of selenium in biota were found at sites with strongly reducing conditions, no output, alternating periods of drying and flooding or dredging activities, and at sites that received water directly from the Colorado River. The smallest Se concentrations in biota were found at sites where an outflow and exposure or physical disturbance of the bottom material were uncommon. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

Garcia-Hernandez, J.; King, K.A.; Velasco, A.L.; Shumilin, E.; Mora, M.A.; Glenn, E.P.

2001-01-01

106

Phanerozoic submarine cold vent biota and its exobiological potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern and fossil chemosynthetic communities based on the consumption of gases (carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulfide, and others) are widespread on the Earth surface, where they have produced geologic bodies distributed over a wide time slice. These communities are entirely sustained by gas-bearing cold fluids, coming to the surface from the upper crust, around which they grow. This kind of outgassing is not linked to volcanic activity and there is not hydrothermal influence. Cold outgassing is probably present on Mars, it has been observed on Ganymede, Europa, and other icy satellites (ice volcanism), and is theoretically considered to be present on Titan. This possible extensive occurrence of outgassing sites on the planetary surface suggests that chemosynthesis may be an important player in the biology of the Solar System.

Barbieri, Roberto; Ori, Gian Grabriele; Taviani, Marco

2001-08-01

107

Climate Warming and Disease Risks for Terrestrial and Marine Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño-Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact.

Harvell, C. Drew; Mitchell, Charles E.; Ward, Jessica R.; Altizer, Sonia; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Samuel, Michael D.

2002-06-01

108

Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño–Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact.

Harvell, C.D.; Mitchell, C.E.; Ward, J.R.; Altizer, S.; Dobson, A.P.; Ostfeld, R.S.; Samuel, M.D.

2002-01-01

109

BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL MATS AND THEIR BIOTA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time. their biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self- sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a dial (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a host of other elements.

DesMarais, David; Discipulo, M.; Turk, K.; Londry, K. L.

2005-01-01

110

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aquatic biota from the lower reach of the Yangtze River, East China.  

PubMed

Sixteen species of aquatic biota from the lower reach of the Yangtze River including fishes, crabs and shrimps were collected and analyzed for 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congeners. All the PBDEs congeners except BDE-17 were detectable in the samples indicating that the aquatic biota from the lower reach of the Yangtze River are widely exposed to these pollutants. The Sigma(12)PBDEs ranged from 3.52 to 603.69 ng/g lipid (0.032-62.69 ng/g wet wt), with a mean of 44.04 ng/g lipid (2.69 ng/g wet wt). The PBDEs levels in the Yangtze River aquatic biota were low to average compared to PBDEs levels in aquatic biota around the world. The predominant congeners were BDE-47, BDE-28, BDE-154, BDE-100 and BDE-153. The proportion of BDE-28 seemed to be relatively high which was different from the result in other studies around the world but consistent with the results in China. The congener pattern of the sample was similar to the pattern in the sediment from the Yangtze River which implies that sediment may be an important PBDEs source for aquatic biota in the lower reach of the Yangtze River. Although the PBDEs levels in aquatic biota this area is comparable to or even lower than that in other areas in China, such as the Pearl River Delta and the Laizhou Bay, the increasing textiles, chemical and electronic industry may bring more and more PBDEs contamination to the Yangtze River Delta. The fact that PBDEs were detectable in all the biota samples from the lower reach of the Yangtze River should be an alarm for increasing risk in the Yangtze River Delta, East China. PMID:19261320

Gao, Zishen; Xu, Jie; Xian, Qiming; Feng, Jianfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Yu, Hongxia

2009-05-01

111

Soil Biota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In teams of two, students collect samples from one or two different environments -- agricultural fields, sports turf areas, lawns, forest floor, wetland/pond margin, greenhouse, etc. They construct a Berlese funnel apparatus, process their two samples, identify and photograph (under a microscope) the organisms they isolate. The class aggregates their data from all the different environments, calculates a Simpson's diversity index for each environment, and uses this value to compare the diversity of the different environments.

Katherine McCarville

112

Heterogeneity of soil nutrients and subsurface biota in a dryland ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dryland ecosystems have long been considered to have a highly heterogeneous distribution of nutrients and soil biota, with greater concentrations of both in soils under plants relative to interspace soils. We examined the distribution of soil resources in two plant communities (dominated by either the shrub Coleogyne ramosissima or the grass Stipa hymenoides) at two locations. Interspace soils were covered either by early successional biological soil crusts (BSCs) or by later successional BSCs (dominated by nitrogen (N)-fixing cyanobacteria and lichens). For each of the 8 plant type??crust type??locations, we sampled the stem, dripline, and 3 interspace distances around each of 3 plants. Soil analyses revealed that only available potassium (Kav) and ammonium concentrations were consistently greater under plants (7 of 8 sites and 6 of 8 sites, respectively). Nitrate and iron (Fe) were greater under plants at 4 sites, while all other nutrients were greater under plants at less than 50% of the sites. In contrast, calcium, copper, clay, phosphorus (P), and zinc were often greater in the interspace than under the plants. Soil microbial biomass was always greater under the plant compared to the interspace. The community composition of N-fixing bacteria was highly variable, with no distinguishable patterns among microsites. Bacterivorous nematodes and rotifers were consistently more abundant under plants (8 and 7 sites, respectively), and fungivorous and omnivorous nematodes were greater under plants at 5 of the 8 sites. Abundance of other soil biota was greater under plants at less than 50% of the sites, but highly correlated with the availability of N, P, Kav, and Fe. Unlike other ecosystems, the soil biota was only infrequently correlated with organic matter. Lack of plant-driven heterogeneity in soils of this ecosystem is likely due to (1) interspace soils covered with BSCs, (2) little incorporation of above-ground plant litter into soils, and/or (3) root deployment patterns. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Housman, D.C.; Yeager, C.M.; Darby, B.J.; Sanford, R.L., Jr.; Kuske, C.R.; Neher, D.A.; Belnap, J.

2007-01-01

113

The climate change for Jehol Biota and its revolution in early Cretaceous in Western Liaoning, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jehol Biota is known by us as the biological assemblage of eosestheria, Ephemeropsis trisetalis and Lycoptera at the beginning. And then we found more fossils at near time such as Sinosauropteryx, Confuciusornis, Cathayornis, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Archaefructaceae and other fossils in Western Liaoning, China. With the finding of those fossils, we become to think about what is the environment of this area in that time, what led to the development of such livings? In early Cretaceous, there are a lot of basins in North of Liaoning which were with plain layer in side, a lot of Lakes and volcano campaign frequently. We built up a section located in Sihetun of Liaoning with the layer is volcano-lake face. Date of the bottom is Aptian period. From TEX86 dates, we can know that the Paleatemperature is from? (the samples from the bottom is on testing and will be known soon, ), 17°C (Lake surface temperature, in the middle layer), and then 22°C(Lake surface temperature, on the top of the layer). The climate was changed from the seasonal arid or semi-arid into a warm and humid climate. With his kind of changing of the environment, the lives of Jehol Biota can survive, evolve and multiple in those basins. The movement of the volcano took the nutrients from the earth which made a flourishing many plants and plankton. This is the power of the evolution of plants. The early angiosperm came out in this time in this area which is called as Archaefructaceae. In the same time, the direction-sense, mass death of the birds and the macrofaunas showed that the exploration of the volcanoes made a lot of animals die and then be covered very quickly. In such an area where death and living was fast, there must be a quickly evolution. And it led to the formation and preservation of a large number of fossils. we found the same fossils out of the basin but later on date which showed the climate transferred to hot and dry later, and the livings in the basin were strong enough so that they could moved out of the basin at the last time. Section Map of Jehol Biota in North of Lliaoning, China LST by TEX86 in Jehol Biota layer Lake surface temperature using calibration of Powers et al., 2010, Organic Geochemistry

Wang, M.; Weijers, J.; Wang, C.; 973 Project; Igcp555

2010-12-01

114

Amino acid racemization on Mars: implications for the preservation of biomolecules from an extinct martian biota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using kinetic data, we have estimated the racemization half-lives and times for total racemization of amino acids under conditions relevant to the surface of Mars. Amino acids from an extinct martian biota maintained in a dry, cold (<250 K) environment would not have racemized significantly over the lifetime of the planet. Racemization would have taken place in environments where liquid water was present even for time periods of only a few million years following biotic extinction. The best preservation of both amino acid homochirality and nucleic acid genetic information associated with extinct martian life would be in the polar regions.

Bada, J. L.; McDonald, G. D.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

115

Spatial patterns of mercury in biota of Adirondack, New York lakes.  

PubMed

We studied the spatial distribution patterns of mercury (Hg) in lake water, littoral sediments, zooplankton, crayfish, fish, and common loons in 44 lakes of the Adirondacks of New York State, USA, a region that has been characterized as a "biological Hg hotspot". Our study confirmed this pattern, finding that a substantial fraction of the lakes studied had fish and loon samples exceeding established criteria for human and wildlife health. Factors accounting for the spatial variability of Hg in lake water and biota were lake chemistry (pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), percent carbon in sediments), biology (taxa presence, trophic status) and landscape characteristics (land cover class, lake elevation). Hg concentrations in zooplankton, fish and common loons were negatively associated with the lake water acid-base status (pH, ANC). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for methyl Hg (MeHg) increased from crayfish (mean log(10) BAF = 5.7), to zooplankton (5.9), to prey fish (6.2), to larger fish (6.3), to common loons (7.2). MeHg BAF values in zooplankton, crayfish, and fish (yellow perch equivalent) all increased with increasing lake elevation. Our findings support the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of MeHg at the base of the food chain is an important controller of Hg concentrations in taxa at higher trophic levels. The characteristics of Adirondack lake-watersheds (sensitivity to acidic deposition; significant forest and wetland land cover; and low nutrient inputs) contribute to elevated Hg concentrations in aquatic biota. PMID:21691858

Yu, Xue; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario; Evers, David; Duron, Melissa; Williams, Kate; Schoch, Nina; Kamman, Neil C

2011-10-01

116

Heavy metals in seawater, sediments, and biota from the coastal area of Yancheng City, China.  

PubMed

A systematic investigation was carried out to analyze the concentration levels of heavy metals in sample seawater, sediments, and biota collected from the coastal area of Yancheng City in Jiangsu Province, China. The authors assessed the impact of these heavy metals in different environmental samples in terms of potential risks to ecology and also to the human population exposed to this area. In addition, a further investigation was carried out to test the toxicity to early-life-stage zebrafish (Danio rerio) of selected samples that were considered to pose higher levels of potential risks to ecology or human health. Chemical analysis showed relatively higher concentrations of heavy metals in the seawater and biota samples collected from Xiangshui County and Binhai County, China. The heavy metal concentrations in different samples collected from the close vicinity of Dafeng Port, China, were also considerable. In all seawater and sediment samples, heavy metals showed a relatively moderate level of risk to ecological species; for consumption of marine organisms, heavy metals had adverse impacts on human health. Toxicity assessment indicated that the selected environmental samples or their extracts had significant toxicity to zebrafish early-life stages, including lethality, teratogenicity, and hatching delay (or advance). Thus the present study provides highly useful and important information on heavy metal pollution in Jiangsu Province. PMID:24619970

Fu, Jie; Wang, Hui; Billah, Shah M Reduwan; Yu, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaowei

2014-08-01

117

The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ?2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life. PMID:24963687

El Albani, Abderrazak; Bengtson, Stefan; Canfield, Donald E.; Riboulleau, Armelle; Rollion Bard, Claire; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma; Meunier, Alain; Moubiya Mouele, Idalina; Benzerara, Karim; Bernard, Sylvain; Boulvais, Philippe; Chaussidon, Marc; Cesari, Christian; Fontaine, Claude; Chi-Fru, Ernest; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine; Rouxel, Olivier; Trentesaux, Alain; Vecoli, Marco; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; White, Lee; Whitehouse, Martin; Bekker, Andrey

2014-01-01

118

The 2.1 Ga old Francevillian biota: biogenicity, taphonomy and biodiversity.  

PubMed

The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ?2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life. PMID:24963687

El Albani, Abderrazak; Bengtson, Stefan; Canfield, Donald E; Riboulleau, Armelle; Rollion Bard, Claire; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma; Meunier, Alain; Moubiya Mouele, Idalina; Benzerara, Karim; Bernard, Sylvain; Boulvais, Philippe; Chaussidon, Marc; Cesari, Christian; Fontaine, Claude; Chi-Fru, Ernest; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine; Rouxel, Olivier; Trentesaux, Alain; Vecoli, Marco; Versteegh, Gerard J M; White, Lee; Whitehouse, Martin; Bekker, Andrey

2014-01-01

119

Spatial relationships among soil biota in a contaminated grassland ecosystem at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Spatial relationships among soil nematodes and soil microorganisms were investigated in a grassland ecosystem contaminated with heavy metals in the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground. The study quantified fungal and bacterial biomass, the abundance of soil protozoa, and nematodes. Geostatistical techniques were used to determine spatial distributions of these parameters and to evaluate various cross-correlations. The cross-correlations among soil biota numbers were analyzed using two methods: a cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram showed a negative correlation between the abundance of fungivore nematodes and fungal biomass, the abundance of bacterivore nematodes and bacterial biomass, the abundance of omnivore/predator nematodes and numbers of protozoa, and between numbers of protozoa and both fungal and bacterial biomass. The negative cross-correlation between soil biota and metal concentrations showed that soil fungi were particularly sensitive to heavy metal concentrations and can be used for quantitative ecological risk assessment of metal-contaminated soils. This study found that geostatistics are a useful tool for describing and analyzing spatial relationships among components of food webs in the soil community.

Kuperman, R. [Army ERDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Williams, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parmelee, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

120

Persistence of spilled oil on shores and its effects on biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over two million tonnes of oil are estimated to enter the world's oceans every year. A small percentage, but still a large volume, of this oil strands onshore, where its persistence is governed primarily by the action of physical forces. In some cases, biota influence the persistence of stranded oil or the rate of its weathering. Oil's deleterious effects on biota are frequently related to the persistence and degree of weathering of the oil, with long-lasting effects in low-energy environments such as salt marshes and coastal mangroves, or in higher-energy environments where oil is sequestered. However, an oil spill can have disproportionately large biological effects when it affects key species or processes (e.g., structurally important species, predators, prey, recruitment, or succession). In these cases, the continuing presence of oil is not always a prerequisite for continuing biological effects. There are relatively few long-term studies of the effects of oil spills; data from these suggest that oil can persist for decades in some environments or situations, and that biological effects can be equally persistent. Broad-based, integrated studies have been the most revealing in terms of the importance of direct and indirect effects, spillover effects between different parts of the environment, and continuing linkages between residual oil and biologic effects. Clean-up and treatment techniques applied to spilled or stranded oil can also have significant, long-lasting effects and need to be carefully evaluated prior to use.

Irvine, G.V.

2000-01-01

121

Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp  

SciTech Connect

Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions, and perhaps overall by elemental concentrations and bioaccumulation. Heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH excursions after the addition of fly ash to the original settling basin system, had the most profound effect on biota. Dipterans (chironomids) and some odonates (Plathemis lydia and Libellula spp.) were resistant to heavy ash siltation, while mosquitofish, which showed no discernible responses to ash siltation, were absent at acidic pH along with the few previously surviving invertebrate populations. Elemental concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, selenium, and zinc did not appear to limit aquatic flora and fauna on a short-term, acute basis. Long-chronic elemental exposures may have been instrumental in retarding the recovery of all forms of aquatic life in the receiving system. Elemental concentrations (except for arsenic and selenium) in the receiving system were generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than the Water Quality Criteria set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1980) for protection of aquatic life for the minimum and 24-hour mean values. By 1978, when the new settling basin systems were operating effectively, invertebrate populations were largely recovered, and mosquito-fish populations recovered within one year afterward.

Cerry, D.S.; Guthrie, R.K.; Davis, E.M.; Harvey, R.S.

1984-08-01

122

Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

Nimick, D.A.; Lambing, J.H.; Palawski, D.U.; Malloy, J.C.

1996-01-01

123

Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 5, Surface-based subject areas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Biota subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data collected from samples of plants and animals. This includes both samples taken from the plant or animal or samples related to the plant or animal. Related samples include animal feces and animal habitat. Data stored in the Biota subject area include data about the biota samples taken, analysis results counts from population studies, and species distribution maps.

Not Available

1994-01-14

124

An international comparison of models and approaches for the estimation of the radiological exposure of non-human biota.  

SciTech Connect

Over the last decade a number of models and approaches have been developed for the estimation of the exposure of non-human biota to ionizing radiations. In some countries these are now being used in regulatory assessments. However, to date there has been no attempt to compare the outputs of the different models used. This paper presents the work of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS Biota Working Group which compares the predictions of a number of such models in model-model and model-data inter-comparisons.

Beresford, N. A.; Balonov, M.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Brown, J.; Copperstone, D.; Hingston, J. L.; Horyna, J.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Nedveckaite, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Sazykina, T.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Yankovich , T. L.; Yu, C.; Environmental Science Division; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Inter. Atomic Energy Agency; Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire; Norwegian Radiatioin Protection Authority; England & Wales Environment Agency; SUJB; Inst. of Physics; SCK CEN; SPA-Typhoon; Westlakes Scientific Consulting Limited; Atomic Energy Canada Limited

2008-01-01

125

Identification of Martian biota using their radioresistance ability and specific isotopic composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of a thin atmosphere and weak magnetic field, Martian surface is a subject to high levels of ionizing radiation. On the other hand, variations in Martian obliquity produce the global climate oscillations (with the main period ~120000 years) of the great magnitude. Martian biota would accumulate large radiation dosage during the periods of cold climate, when it would be in the dormant state and would rebuild its population during the periods of warm climate. Therefore, all types of hypothetical Martian microorganisms living in subsurface layers of soil have to posses very high radiation tolerance. In our experiments, we find that "ordinary" bacteria (Escherichia coli and two species of Bacillus ) can develop radioresistance ability after a number of cycles of exposure to the high (almost lethal) radiation dosages, followed by recovery of the bacterial population. We show that natural cycles of this kind could take place only on Mars. On the other hand, high radiation tolerance is hardly necessary for the survival in any natural environment on Earth. A few number of terrestrial microorganisms (radioresistant bacteria) posses this peculiar ability (Deinococus radiodurance , Rubrobacter radiotolerance, Rubrobacter xylanophilus ). The radiation background on Earth, including vicinity of natural nuclear reactor Oklo is many orders of magnitude lower than the lethal dose for these microorganisms. We show that such radioresistance can be "trained" only in the Martian conditions. Therefore, we propose that Earth has been infected several times by the Martian biota on Martian meteorites. We propose that high radioresistance could be a strong sign of the Martian origin for potential microorganisms acquired in the sample return missions. Another way to identify "Martian" microorganisms and exclude contamination in returned samples involves analysis of the radionuclides abundance (being produced by the high energy cosmic rays in the Martian soil). We show that these radionuclides (3H, 14C, 32Si,41Ca) should have higher concentration in the hypothetical Martian microorganisms comparing to any terrestrial analogues. We propose a set of measurements of such "isotopic imprints" with accelerator mass spectrometry. We also show that unusually high ratios of stable isotopes 15N/14N and D/H in the Martian atmosphere can be used for identification of Martian microorganisms because those ratios would be incorporated into the Martian biota.

Pavlov, A. K.; Kalinin, V.; Konstantinov, A.; Shelegedin, V.; Pavlov, A. A.

2003-04-01

126

Environmental assessment of water, sediment, and biota collected from the Bear Creek watershed, Colusa County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cache Creek watershed lies within California's North Coast Range, an area with abundant geologic sources of mercury (Hg) and a long history of Hg contamination (Rytuba, 2000). Bear Creek, Cache Creek, and the North Fork of Cache Creek are the major streams of the Cache Creek watershed, encompassing 2978 km2. The Cache Creek watershed contains soils naturally enriched in Hg as well as natural springs (both hot and cold) with varying levels of aqueous Hg (Domagalski and others, 2004, Suchanek and others, 2004, Holloway and others 2009). All three tributaries are known to be significant sources of anthropogenically derived Hg from historic mines, both Hg and gold (Au), and associated ore storage/processing sites and facilities (Slotton and others, 1995, 2004; CVRWQCB, 2003; Schwarzbach and others, 2001; Gassel and others, 2005; Suchanek and others., 2004, 2008a, 2009). Historically, two of the primary sources of mercury contamination in the upper part of Bear Creek have been the Rathburn and Petray Hg Mines. The Rathburn Hg mine was discovered and initially mined in the early 1890s. The Rathburn and the more recently developed Petray open pit mines are localized along fault zones in serpentinite that has been altered and cut by quartz and chalcedony veins. Cold saline-carbonate springs are located perepheral to the Hg deposits and effluent from the springs locally has high concentrations of Hg (Slowey and Rytuba, 2008). Several ephemeral tributaries to Bear Creek drain the mine area which is located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota to establish baseline information prior to remediation of the Rathburn and Petray mines. Samples sites were established in Bear Creek upstream and downstream from the mine area. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the possible removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from Bear Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of water, sediment, and biota in Bear Creek, above input from the mine area and downstream from the Rathburn-Petray mine area to the confluence with Cache Creek. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in Bear Creek and its uptake by biota and provide baseline information for comparison to conditions after mine remediation is completed.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel; May, Jason

2015-01-01

127

Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land-use patterns on Oahu reflected increases in population and decreases in large-scale agricultural operations over time. The last two remaining sugarcane plantations on Oahu closed in the mid-1990's, and much of the land that once was used for sugarcane now is urbanized or used for diversified agriculture. Although two large pineapple plantations continue to operate in central Oahu, some of the land previously used for pineapple cultivation has been urbanized. Natural and human-related factors control surface- and ground-water quality and the distribution and abundance of aquatic biota on Oahu. Natural factors that may affect water quality include geology, soils, vegetation, rainfall, ocean-water quality, and air quality. Human-related factors associated with urban and agricultural land uses also may affect water quality. Ground-water withdrawals may cause saltwater intrusion. Pesticides and fertilizers that were used in agricultural or urban areas have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. In addition, other organic compounds associated with urban uses of chemicals have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. The effects of urbanization and agricultural practices on instream and riparian areas in conjunction with a proliferation of nonnative fish and crustaceans have resulted in a paucity of native freshwater macrofauna on Oahu. A variety of pesticides, nutrients, and metals are associated with urban and agricultural land uses, and these constituents can affect the fish and invertebrates that live in the streams.

Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M.D.

2003-01-01

128

Cryptic vicariance in the historical assembly of a Baja California Peninsular Desert biota  

PubMed Central

We use analyses of phylogeographic population structure across a suite of 12 mammalian, avian, amphibian, and reptilian species and species-groups to assess the role of Late Miocene to Pleistocene geological history in the evolution of a distinct Baja California Peninsular Desert biota. Comparative examination of phylogroup distributions provides support for previously hypothesized vicariant events produced by: a middle Pleistocene midpeninsular seaway, a late Pliocene northward transgression of the Sea of Cortéz, and a Pliocene seaway across the southern peninsular Isthmus of La Paz. Most of this phylogeographic architecture is cryptically embedded within widespread taxonomic species and species-groups, such that the unique evolutionary history of the Peninsular Desert has been obscured and ignored. The Peninsular Desert can no longer be considered a subset of the Sonoran Desert—it is a separate regional desert with its own unique evolutionary history, ecological arena, and conservation value. PMID:11095731

Riddle, Brett R.; Hafner, David J.; Alexander, Lois F.; Jaeger, Jef R.

2000-01-01

129

Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?  

PubMed

The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. PMID:19931101

Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

2010-03-01

130

Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would scientifically be valid for radionuclides emitting short-range radiation, as with Pu-239, where the energy is deposited locally. Two MCNPX models have been created and evaluated against ERICA Tool's aquatic model. One MCNPX model replicates ERICA Tool's intrinsic assumptions while the other uses a more realistic animal model adopted by ICRP Publication 108 and ERICA Tool for the organs "infinite" surrounding universe. In addition, the role of model geometry will be analyzed by focusing on four geometry sets for the same organ, including a spherical geometry. ERICA Tool will be compared to MCNPX results within and between each organ geometry set. In addition, the organ absorbed dose rate will be calculated for six rabbits located on the Maralinga nuclear test site as a preliminary test for further investigation. Data in all cases will be compared using percent differences and Student's t-test with respect to ERICA Tool's results and the overall average organ mean absorbed dose rate.

Kaspar, Matthew Jason

131

Paleoclimatic modeling and phylogeography of least killifish, Heterandria formosa: insights into Pleistocene expansion-contraction dynamics and evolutionary history of North American Coastal Plain freshwater biota  

PubMed Central

Background Climatic and sea-level fluctuations throughout the last Pleistocene glacial cycle (~130-0 ka) profoundly influenced present-day distributions and genetic diversity of Northern Hemisphere biotas by forcing range contractions in many species during the glacial advance and allowing expansion following glacial retreat ('expansion-contraction’ model). Evidence for such range dynamics and refugia in the unglaciated Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain stems largely from terrestrial species, and aquatic species Pleistocene responses remain relatively uninvestigated. Heterandria formosa, a wide-ranging regional endemic, presents an ideal system to test the expansion-contraction model within this biota. By integrating ecological niche modeling and phylogeography, we infer the Pleistocene history of this livebearing fish (Poeciliidae) and test for several predicted distributional and genetic effects of the last glaciation. Results Paleoclimatic models predicted range contraction to a single southwest Florida peninsula refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by northward expansion. We inferred spatial-population subdivision into four groups that reflect genetic barriers outside this refuge. Several other features of the genetic data were consistent with predictions derived from an expansion-contraction model: limited intraspecific divergence (e.g. mean mtDNA p-distance?=?0.66%); a pattern of mtDNA diversity (mean Hd?=?0.934; mean ??=?0.007) consistent with rapid, recent population expansion; a lack of mtDNA isolation-by-distance; and clinal variation in allozyme diversity with higher diversity at lower latitudes near the predicted refugium. Statistical tests of mismatch distributions and coalescent simulations of the gene tree lent greater support to a scenario of post-glacial expansion and diversification from a single refugium than to any other model examined (e.g. multiple-refugia scenarios). Conclusions Congruent results from diverse data indicate H. formosa fits the classic Pleistocene expansion-contraction model, even as the genetic data suggest additional ecological influences on population structure. While evidence for Plio-Pleistocene Gulf Coast vicariance is well described for many freshwater species presently codistributed with H. formosa, this species demography and diversification departs notably from this pattern. Species-specific expansion-contraction dynamics may therefore have figured more prominently in shaping Coastal Plain evolutionary history than previously thought. Our findings bolster growing appreciation for the complexity of phylogeographical structuring within North America’s southern refugia, including responses of Coastal Plain freshwater biota to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. PMID:24107245

2013-01-01

132

Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale environmental changes on the aquatic biota will be compared and discussed.

Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

2013-04-01

133

Native congeners provide biotic resistance to invasive Potentilla through soil biota.  

PubMed

Soil biota can facilitate exotic plant invasions and these effects can be influenced by specific phylogenetic relationships among plant taxa. We measured the effects of sterilizing soils from different native plant monocultures on the growth of Potentilla recta, an exotic invasive forb in North America, and conducted plant-soil feedback experiments with P. recta, two native congeners, a close confamilial, and Festuca idahoensis, a native grass species. We also reanalyzed data comparing the ability of P. recta to invade experimentally constructed congeneric monocultures vs. monocultures of a broad suite of non-congeners. We found that monocultures as a group, other than those of the native P. arguta, were highly invasible by P. recta. In contrast, this was not the case for monocultures of P. arguta. In our first experiment, the biomass of P. recta was 50% greater when grown in soil from F. idahoensis monocultures compared to when it was grown in soils from P. arguta or P. recta monocultures. Sterilizing soil from F. idahoensis rhizospheres had no effect on the biomass of P. recta, but sterilizing soil from P. arguta and P. recta rhizospheres increased the biomass of P. recta by 108% and 90%, respectively. In a second experiment, soil trained by F. idahoensis resulted in a positive feedback for P. recta. In contrast, soils trained independently by each of the two native Potentilla species, or the closely related Dasiphora (formerly Potentilla) resulted in decreases in the total biomass of the invasive P. recta indicating strong negative feedbacks. Soil trained by P. recta also resulted in intraspecific negative feedbacks. Our results demonstrate substantial negative feedbacks for an invader in its nonnative range under certain conditions, and that native congeners can mount strong biotic resistance to an invader through the accumulation of deleterious soil biota. PMID:23923481

Callaway, Ragan M; Montesinos, Daniel; Williams, Kimberlyn; Maron, John L

2013-06-01

134

Ediacaran acritarch biota from the Giles 1 drillhole, Officer Basin, Australia, and its potential for biostratigraphic correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remarkable diversification of single-celled photosynthesising biota of algal and other as yet unknown affinities (acritarchs), followed by the diversification of metazoans, occurred during the Ediacaran Period, which is marked by extreme climatic and environmental changes. Here we describe a taxonomically diverse acritarch association from the Ediacaran part of the Giles 1 drillcore in the Officer Basin, South Australia, which

Sebastian Willman; Ma?gorzata Moczyd?owska

2008-01-01

135

Interactions with soil biota shift from negative to positive when a tree species is moved outside its native range.  

PubMed

Studies evaluating plant-soil biota interactions in both native and introduced plant ranges are rare, and thus far have lacked robust experimental designs to account for several potential confounding factors. Here, we investigated the effects of soil biota on growth of Pinus contorta, which has been introduced from Canada to Sweden. Using Swedish and Canadian soils, we conducted two glasshouse experiments. The first experiment utilized unsterilized soil from each country, with a full-factorial cross of soil origin, tree provenance, and fertilizer addition. The second experiment utilized gamma-irradiated sterile soil from each country, with a full-factorial cross of soil origin, soil biota inoculation treatments, tree provenance, and fertilizer addition. The first experiment showed higher seedling growth on Swedish soil relative to Canadian soil. The second experiment showed this effect was due to differences in soil biotic communities between the two countries, and occurred independently of all other experimental factors. Our results provide strong evidence that plant interactions with soil biota can shift from negative to positive following introduction to a new region, and are relevant for understanding the success of some exotic forest plantations, and invasive and range-expanding native species. PMID:24444123

Gundale, Michael J; Kardol, Paul; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Nilsson, Urban; Lucas, Richard W; Wardle, David A

2014-04-01

136

Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, sediment and biota from Midway Atoll (North Pacific Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase our understanding of critical pathways of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transfer from abiotic media into marine organisms, this study quantified 20 PCB congeners in surface water, sediment and tissues of marine biota (macrophytes, snails, urchins, bivalves, sea cucumbers, fishes) taken from Midway Atoll. PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180 and 187 were the most abundant congeners in all samples analysed.

Bruce Hope; Susan Scatolini; Eric Titus; Jeff Cotter

1997-01-01

137

DETERMINATION OF ALKYLPHENOL AND ALKYLPHENOLETHOXYLATES IN BIOTA BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH DETECTION BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and the corresponding ethoxylates (1 to 5) in biota. Extraction methods were developed for egg and fish matrices based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by a solid-phase extractio...

138

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5):17  

E-print Network

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5):1­7 Advances in Serpentine Geoecology: A Retrospective Nishanta Rajakaruna1,* and Robert S. Boyd2 Serpentine- karuna et al 2009). Serpentine loosely refers to a broad group of minerals associated with the weathering

Rajakaruna, Nishanta

139

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5):111120  

E-print Network

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5 Serpentine Endemics from Eastern North America Tanner Harris1 and Nishanta Rajakaruna2,3,* Abstract - Serpentine outcrops around the world are known to harbor disproportion- ately high rates of plant endemism

Rajakaruna, Nishanta

140

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5):93110  

E-print Network

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5):93­110 Elemental Concentrations of Eleven New Caledonian Plant Species from Serpentine Soils: Elemental plant species from serpentine soils of New Caledonia. Species were classified into four catego- ries

Boyd, Robert S.

141

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5):2138  

E-print Network

Soil and Biota of Serpentine: A World View 2009 Northeastern Naturalist 16(Special Issue 5@auburn.edu. #12;Northeastern Naturalist Vol. 16, Special Issue 522 Introduction Serpentine soils are relatively challenging substrates for plant growth (Brooks 1987). In California, serpentine soils form ecological islands

Boyd, Robert S.

142

May 2003 / Vol. 53 No. 5 BioScience 481 The globalization of Earth's biota is transforming  

E-print Network

, it is widely reported that introduced species are threatening many resident species with extinction (Elton 1958). For example, more than 4000 plant species introduced into North Amer- ica north of Mexico during the past 400 from an introduced plant species (John T. Kartesz, Biota of North America Program, University of North

Davis, Mark A.

143

Effects of global climate change on freshwater biota: A review with special emphasis on the Italian situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much evidence that climate is rapidly changing at a global scale, especially regarding mean annual temperatures, precipitations and evaporation. The consequences of this rapid environmental change on freshwater biota are still not clear, but undoubtedly they could be severe. Among the main effects of climate change, we can individuate the enhancement of water temperatures, particularly important for poikilothermic

S. Fenoglio; T. Bo; M. Cucco; L. Mercalli; G. Malacarne

2010-01-01

144

MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SEDIMENT, WATER AND BIOTA COLLECTED FROM NEAR-COASTAL AREAS IMPACTED BY COMMON ESTUARINE STRESSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury concentrations in non-commercial organisms indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico are not well characterized particularly when compared to potential sources. In response to this need, mercury levels were determined in sediment, water and various biota in reference and non-refer...

145

Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L-1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g-1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g-1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg ?L-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg ?L-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target compounds, 13 were identified in water samples (PFBA, PFDA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFHxDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS and L-PFOS), and their concentrations ranged between 0. 1 ng L-1 (PFNA) and 2709 ng L-1 (L-PFOS). Similarly, PFBA, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS, L-PFOS and PFOSA were identified in sediments samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.147 ng g-1 dw (L-PFOS) to 13 ng g-1 dw (PFBA). In biota similar PFC were detected, with values between 0.03 and 1738.06 ng g-1. According to this study, PFCs were detected in different compartments of the ecosystem where they are bio-accumulating and, potentially, would produce adverse effects on humans. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the projects Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02. We also thank the persons of IDAEA for taking the samples. References Llorca, M., Farre, M., Pico, Y., Muller, J., Knepper, T. P., Barcelo, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 431, 139-150. Llorca, M., Pérez, F., Farre, M., Agramunt, S., Kogevinas, M., Barceló, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Sci. Total Environ. 433, 151-160. Pico, Y., Blasco, C., Farre, M., Barcelo, D., 2012. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res. 19, 946-957. Sundstrom, M., Ehresman, D. J., Bignert, A., Butenhoff, J. L., Olsen, G. W., Chang, S. C., Bergman, A., 2011. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ. Inter. 37, 178-183.

Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

2014-05-01

146

Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Data collected by the NIWQP studies indicated that, in surface water, filtered and unfiltered samples had nearly the same concentrations of arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium for concentrations greater than about 10 micrograms per liter. Therefore, in this concentration range, filtered concentrations can be directly compared to biological-effect levels developed for unfiltered samples. In the range of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter there may be a tendency for unfiltered arsenic concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. For selenium, however, the data suggest differences from equality in that range result from analytical imprecision and not a general tendency for unfiltered concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. This relation may not be true in lentic, nutrient-rich waters because in such settings algae can bioaccumulate large amounts of selenium and other trace elements. Selenium was the trace element in surface water that most commonly exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life; more than 40 percent of the selenium concentrations in surface-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). In 12 of the 26 areas at least 25 percent of the surface water-samples had selenium concentrations that either equaled or exceeded the chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). More than 28 percent of boron concentrations and almost 17 percent of the molybdenum concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criteria established by the State of California (550 and 19 micrograms per liter, respectively). In ground water, more than 22 percent of the arsenic concentrations and more than 35 percent of the selenium concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively). Few samples of uranium in surface water exceeded a criterion for the protection of aquatic life (300 micrograms per liter), but 44 percent

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

2003-01-01

147

Magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns of self-organized processes between geomorphology and biota that drive salt marsh evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex systems show non-equilibrium fluctuations, often determining the spontaneous evolution towards a critical state. In this context salt marshes are known to be characterized by complex patterns in both geomorphological and ecological features, which often appear to be strongly correlated. One of the main drivers on low-order channel network geometry is the hydrodynamic forcing entering the system in the form of an intermittent stress: the occurrence of infrequent rainfall events determines saturation-excess overland flow, which results in higher stream energy to be dissipated through an increase in cross section and meandering of the tidal channels in the marsh. This external driver determines a second, important effect on the intertidal zone: together with the emergence of a higher number of minor draining channels, salt marshes are provided with pulses of sediment input, causing a vertical build-up that allows pioneer species to colonize new areas of mudflat and channels. This eventually leads to salt marsh development through the higher frequency of occurrence and horizontal spread of marsh pioneer patterns, coupled with the displacement of the limit between the salt marsh and mudflat. As opposed to infrequent events, a much more frequent source of variation and uncertainty affecting the system is the difference between the observed and astronomical tide, which is referred to as surge. Since it would be difficult to simultaneously monitor these parameters through field surveys, and even harder to analyze them over medium to large time scales, we propose a remote sensing approach to monitor the temporal dynamics of both biotic and abiotic factors in salt marshes. We characterized the complex interactions between morphology and biota in two salt marshes in the densely populated Scheldt estuary through the implementation of different algorithms on multispectral endmember fraction maps from optical space-borne remote sensing. Multitemporal fractional abundance maps spanning from 1986 to 2011 were used to identify the interaction between vegetation pattern dynamics and channel drainage density, and integrated with field sampling and in situ spectroradiometry. The objectives were to: a) analyze and validate the processing procedure used to define the patterns of macrophyte vegetation cover; b) obtain field data on microphytobenthos biomass in two intertidal mudflat areas differing in the degree of sediment cohesiveness; c) integrate spectroradiometric measurements with simultaneous sampling; d) build a spectral library of salt marsh vegetation composition and zonation of Northern Europe estuarine areas. The latter can then be compared with vegetation field sampling data already available on the Plymouth estuary, Po Delta and Venice lagoon, in order to support the classification of the different surface cover types for the development of new methods of monitoring salt marsh-mudflat systems.

Cornacchia, L.; Taramelli, A.; Valentini, E.; Monbaliu, J. A.; Sabbe, K.

2012-12-01

148

RESPONSES OF AIRBORNE BIOTA TO MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION FROM SATELLITE POWER SYSTEM (SPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this program is to determine whether microwave irradiation adversely alters a wide-range of complex avian behavior modes that are essential to their survival. Effects of microwaves (2.45 GHz) have been studied extensively in mammalian species, e.g., rats, mice, rabbit...

149

Screening for planar chlorobiphenyl congeners in marine biota by HPLC/PDA  

SciTech Connect

A rapid method has been developed to screen for the dioxin-like planar chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners, as well as certain other CBs and DDTs, in tissue samples from marine biota. Following extraction, the analytes were separated from interfering compounds on a gravity-flow column packed with acidic, basic and neutral silica gel. Subsequently, the planar CB congeners were resolved from the DDTs and other CBs by HPLC on Cosmosil PYE analytical columns cooled to 9 C and were measured by an ultraviolet (UV) photodiode array (PDA) detector. Individual analytes were identified by comparing their UV spectra and retention to those of reference standards and analyte purity was established by comparing spectra within a peak to the apex spectrum. The HPLC/PDA method was tested with tissue samples from fish, shellfish and marine mammals. Concentrations of the planar CB congeners, as well as certain other CBs and DDTs, in samples determined by screening compared favorably with those in the same samples analyzed by a comprehensive method. The screening method required about 20% of the time needed for the comprehensive analyses. The authors demonstrated the utility of the HPLC/PDA method by determining CBs and DDTs in edible tissue from a variety of seafood species; preliminary results from this survey will be presented.

Krahn, M.M.; Ylitalo, G.M.; Buzitis, J.; Sloan, C.A.; Boyd, D.T.; Chan, S.L.; Varanasi, U. [NOAA/NMFS, Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-12-31

150

Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.  

PubMed

Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. PMID:23830520

Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

2013-09-15

151

A new middle eocene whale (Mammalia: Cetacea: Archaeoceti) and associated biota from Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A shallow-marine fossil biota was recovered from the Blue Bluff unit (formerly part of the McBean Formation) in the Upper Coastal Plain of eastern Georgia. Biochronologically significant mollusks (e.g., Turritella nasuta, Cubitostrea sellaeformis, Pteropsella lapidosa) and calcareous nannoplankton (e.g., Chiasmolithus solitus, Reticulofenestra umbilica, Cribocentrum reticulatum) indicate a latest Lutetian-earliest Bartonian age, or about 40 to 41 Ma. Georgiacetus vogtlensis new genus and species is described from a well-preserved, partial skeleton. Georgiacetus is the oldest known whale with a true pterygoid sinus fossa in its basicranium and a pelvis that did not articulate directly with the sacral vertebrae, two features whose acquisitions were important steps toward adaptation to a fully marine existence. The posterior four cheek teeth of G. vogtlensis form a series of carnassial-like shearing blades. These teeth also bear small, blunt accessory cusps, which are regarded as being homologous with the larger, sharper accessory cusps of basilosaurid cheek teeth.

Hulbert, R.C., Jr.; Petkewich, R.M.; Bishop, G.A.; Bukry, D.; Aleshire, D.P.

1998-01-01

152

The estimation of absorbed dose rates for non-human biota : an extended inter-comparison.  

SciTech Connect

An exercise to compare 10 approaches for the calculation of unweighted whole-body absorbed dose rates was conducted for 74 radionuclides and five of the ICRP's Reference Animals and Plants, or RAPs (duck, frog, flatfish egg, rat and elongated earthworm), selected for this exercise to cover a range of body sizes, dimensions and exposure scenarios. Results were analysed using a non-parametric method requiring no specific hypotheses about the statistical distribution of data. The obtained unweighted absorbed dose rates for internal exposure compare well between the different approaches, with 70% of the results falling within a range of variation of {+-}20%. The variation is greater for external exposure, although 90% of the estimates are within an order of magnitude of one another. There are some discernible patterns where specific models over- or under-predicted. These are explained based on the methodological differences including number of daughter products included in the calculation of dose rate for a parent nuclide; source-target geometry; databases for discrete energy and yield of radionuclides; rounding errors in integration algorithms; and intrinsic differences in calculation methods. For certain radionuclides, these factors combine to generate systematic variations between approaches. Overall, the technique chosen to interpret the data enabled methodological differences in dosimetry calculations to be quantified and compared, allowing the identification of common issues between different approaches and providing greater assurance on the fundamental dose conversion coefficient approaches used in available models for assessing radiological effects to biota.

Batlle, J. V. I.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Beresford, N. A.; Copplestone, D.; Horyna, J.; Hosseini, A.; Johansen, M.; Kamboj, S.; Keum, D.-K.; Kurosawa, N.; Newsome, L.; Olyslaegers, G.; Vandenhove, H.; Ryufuku, S.; Lynch, S. V.; Wood, M. D.; Yu, C. (Environmental Science Division); (Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd.); (Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire); (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology); (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority); (State Office for Nuclear Safety); (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute); (Visible Information Centre Inc.); (Belgian Nuclear Research Centre); (University of Liverpool)

2011-05-01

153

Evidence of debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in biota from a wastewater receiving stream.  

PubMed

Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) is a high production volume flame retardant. To date, regulation and control of its environmental release have been minimal. Once in the environment, BDE-209 may encounter conditions favoring debromination, potentially forming congeners with greater toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and persistence. However, (photolytic and in vivo) debromination has only been demonstrated under laboratory scenarios. To examine whether debromination was likely in the field, PBDE congener profiles were tracked from a wastewater treatment plant (sludge) to receiving stream sediments and associated aquatic biota. BDE-209 and 23 additional PBDEs were detected. Sludge congener profiles resembled the commercial penta- and deca- formulations, suggesting minimal -209 debromination during wastewater treatment. Similar profiles were observed in surficial sediments at the outfall and downstream. However, sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus), and crayfish (Cambarus puncticambarus sp. c) collected near the outfall contained tri- through deca-PBDEs, including congeners not detected in the commercial deca-mixture, sludges or sediments (BDE-179, -184, -188, -201, and -202). A previous in vivo laboratory study identified these as -209 debromination products. This supports the hypothesis that metabolic debromination of -209 does occur in the aquatic environment under realistic conditions. Hence assessments that assume no BDE-209 debromination may underestimate associated bioaccumulation and toxicity attributable to the less brominated congeners produced. PMID:17969678

La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C; Harvey, Ellen

2007-10-01

154

Screening level dose assessment of aquatic biota downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in southern France  

SciTech Connect

Aquatic biota in the Rhone River downstream of the Marcoule nuclear complex in France are exposed to natural sources of radiation and to radioactivity released from the Marcoule complex. A simple conservative screening level model was used to estimate the range of concentrations in aquatic media of both artificial and natural radionuclides and the consequent absorbed dose rates for aquatic organisms. Five categories of aquatic organisms were studied, namely, submerged aquatic plants (phanerogam), non-bottom-feeding fish, bottom-feeding fish, mollusca, and fish-eating birds. The analysis was based on the radionuclide concentrations reported in four consecutive annual radioecological monitoring reports published by French agencies with nuclear regulatory responsibilities. The results of this assessment were used to determine, qualitatively, the magnitude of any potential health impacts on each of the five categories of aquatic organisms studied. The range of dose rate estimates ranged over three orders of magnitude, with maximum dose rates estimated to be in the order of 1 to 10 {micro}Gy h{sup {minus}1}. These maximum dose rates are a factor 40 or more below the international guideline intended to ensure the protection of aquatic populations, and a factor ten or more below the level which may trigger the need for a more detailed evaluation of potential ecological consequences to the exposed populations.

St-Pierre, S.; Chambers, D.B.; Lowe, L.M.; Bontoux, J.G.

1999-09-01

155

Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota  

PubMed Central

Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by ?15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by ?13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans. PMID:24019976

Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

156

Evolutionary lag times and recent origin of the biota of an ancient desert (Atacama-Sechura).  

PubMed

The assembly of regional biotas and organismal responses to anthropogenic climate change both depend on the capacity of organisms to adapt to novel ecological conditions. Here we demonstrate the concept of evolutionary lag time, the time between when a climatic regime or habitat develops in a region and when it is colonized by a given clade. We analyzed the time of colonization of four clades (three plant genera and one lizard genus) into the Atacama-Sechura Desert of South America, one of Earth's driest and oldest deserts. We reconstructed time-calibrated phylogenies for each clade and analyzed the timing of shifts in climatic distributions and biogeography and compared these estimates to independent geological estimates of the time of origin of these deserts. Chaetanthera and Malesherbia (plants) and Liolaemus (animal) invaded arid regions of the Atacama-Sechura Desert in the last 10 million years, some 20 million years after the initial onset of aridity in the region. There are also major lag times between when these clades colonized the region and when they invaded arid habitats within the region (typically 4-14 million years). Similarly, hyperarid climates developed ?8 million years ago, but the most diverse plant clade in these habitats (Nolana) only colonized them ?2 million years ago. Similar evolutionary lag times may occur in other organisms and habitats, but these results are important in suggesting that many lineages may require very long time scales to adapt to modern desertification and climatic change. PMID:23798420

Guerrero, Pablo C; Rosas, Marcelo; Arroyo, Mary T K; Wiens, John J

2013-07-01

157

Effects of acidification on metal availability to aquatic biota, with special reference to filamentous algae.  

PubMed Central

A survey of 34 shield lakes in Ontario and Quebec, pH 4.4 to 7.1, was made to evaluate which metals should be considered of concern as a risk to aquatic biota or consumers when lakes are acid stressed. A set of predictions, concerning the mobilization by man, the mobility, the chemical speciation, and the toxicity or bioaccumulation of metals in acid-stressed waters, were used as a basis for designing the study and organizing the results. Attached algae were used as biomonitors to assess metal bioavailability. The study concluded that zinc, lead, aluminum, and mercury were of concern in acid-stressed lakes, while the situation for manganese was unresolved, and cadmium was not studied. Nickel and copper were of concern only when a point source was involved. The study also concluded that the attached algal community had some value as a biomonitor, for metals in acid-stressed as well as metal-polluted surface waters. PMID:4076097

Stokes, P M; Bailey, R C; Groulx, G R

1985-01-01

158

Simultaneous determination of organochlorine pesticides and bisphenol A in edible marine biota by GC-MS.  

PubMed

A study to assess the level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and bisphenol A (BPA) in edible marine biota collected from coastal waters of Malaysia was conducted using GC-MS and SPE extraction. An analytical method was developed and validated to measure the level of 15 OCPs and BPA simultaneously from five selected marine species. It was observed that some samples had low levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and p,p'- DDD ranging from 0.50 ng g(-1) to 22.49 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w) but significantly elevated level of endosulfan I was detected in a stingray sample at 2880 ng g(-1) d.w. BPA was detected in 31 out of 57 samples with concentration ranging from below quantification level (LOQ: 3 ng g(-1)) to 729 ng g(-1) d.w. The presence of OCPs is most likely from past use although there is also indication of illegal use in recent times. The study also reveals that BPA is more widely distributed in coastal species caught off the coast of the most developed state. The potential health risk from dietary intakes of OCPs and BPA from the analysed fish species was negligible. PMID:22197311

Santhi, V A; Hairin, T; Mustafa, A M

2012-03-01

159

Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America.  

PubMed

Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period, during which intensified global climatic changes took place. Moreover, strong phylogenetic affinities between the flora of eastern North America and eastern Asia clearly demonstrate formerly contiguous connections, but disparity among shared genera (eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunction) implies significant periods of separation since at least the Miocene epoch. Lacustrine sediments deposited within a former sinkhole in the southern Appalachian Mountains provide a rare example of a late Miocene to early Pliocene terrestrial biota from a forested ecosystem. Here we show that the vertebrate remains contained within this deposit represent a unique combination of North American and Eurasian taxa. A new genus and species of the red (lesser) panda (Pristinailurus bristoli), the earliest and most primitive so far known, was recovered. Also among the fauna are a new species of Eurasian badger (Arctomeles dimolodontus) and the largest concentration of fossil tapirs ever recorded. Cladistical analyses of the two new carnivores strongly suggest immigration events that were earlier than and distinct from previous records, and that the close faunal affinities between eastern North America and eastern Asia in the late Tertiary period are consistent with the contemporaneous botanical record. PMID:15457257

Wallace, Steven C; Wang, Xiaoming

2004-09-30

160

Technical report series: North Alabama water quality assessment: Volume 7, Contaminants in biota  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results and recommendations from a two-part study conducted to determine concentrations of various contaminants in biota from Wilson and upper Pickwick Reservoirs in north Alabama. One part of the study was a ''screening'' effort where fish, clams, and turtles were analyzed as composites for contaminants on the Environmental Protection Agency's list of priority pollutants. The other part was specific to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) because there was a known source of PCBs. Analysis of biological samples for priority pollutants identified few contaminants present in detectable quantities. Of those detected, some were sufficiently low to be of no concern. Presence of cadmium in turtle livers and clam flesh indicates a need for further evaluation because this metal is highly toxic to aquatic life. Phthalate esters in turtles from one location were quite high, but were low in fish and clam samples. Results of PCB analyses indicated largemouth bass and crappie contamination levels were well below the FDSA limit of 2.0 ..mu..g/g. Data for buffalo were not as conclusive. Highest PCB concentrations occurred in catifsh from Wilson Reservoir. Twenty-two of 45 individuals from Wilson Reservoir exceeded the FDA limit and the overall average was 2.6 ..mu..g/g.

Dycus, D.L.

1986-04-01

161

Derivation of transfer parameters for use within the ERICA Tool and the default concentration ratios for terrestrial biota.  

PubMed

An ability to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in biota is a requirement of any method assessing the exposure of biota to ionising radiation. Within the ERICA Tool fresh weight whole-body activity concentrations in organisms are estimated using concentration ratios (the ratio of the activity concentration in the organism to the activity concentration in an environmental media). This paper describes the methodology used to derive the default terrestrial ecosystem concentration ratio database available within the ERICA Tool and provides details of the provenance of each value for terrestrial reference organisms. As the ERICA Tool considers 13 terrestrial reference organisms and the radioisotopes of 31 elements, a total of 403 concentration ratios were required for terrestrial reference organisms. Of these, 129 could be derived from literature review. The approaches taken for selecting the remaining values are described. These included, for example, assuming values for similar reference organisms and/or biogeochemically similar elements, and various simple modelling approaches. PMID:18406022

Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J; Scott, W A; Brown, J E; Copplestone, D

2008-09-01

162

Eramosa Lagerstätte—Exceptionally preserved soft-bodied biotas with shallow-marine shelly and bioturbating organisms (Silurian, Ontario, Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle Silurian Eramosa Lagerstätte of Ontario, Canada, preserves taxonomically and taphonomically diverse biotas including articulated conodont skeletons and heterostracan fish, annelids and arthropods with soft body parts, and a diverse marine flora. Soft tissues are preserved as calcium phosphate and carbon films, the latter possibly stabilized by early diagenetic sulfurization. It is significant that the biotas also include a decalcified, autochthonous shelly marine fauna, and trace fossils. This association of exceptionally preserved and more typical fossils distinguishes the Eramosa from other Silurian shallow-marine Lagerstätten, such as the Waukesha Lagerstätte, and suggests that the Eramosa is not the product of exceptional preservation in an atypical environment, a bias claimed for many post-Cambrian Lagerstätten. The Eramosa Lagerstätte may provide a more reliable, balanced measure of what has been lost from the Silurian fossil record.

von Bitter, Peter H.; Purnell, Mark A.; Tetreault, Denis K.; Stott, Christopher A.

2007-10-01

163

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1999–2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 ?g\\/g, the

Marlene S. Evans; Derek Muir; W. Lyle Lockhart; Gary Stern; M. Ryan; Pat Roach

2005-01-01

164

Changes in Nutrient Loading in an Agricultural Watershed and Its Effects on Water Quality and Stream Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-point-sources of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are recognized as major causes of eutrophication of surface waters. Adoption\\u000a of policies to reduce pollution in the former German Democratic Republic following re-unification of Germany in 1990 provided\\u000a an opportunity to examine how taking agricultural land out of production affected nutrient loads and aquatic biota in a small\\u000a rural watershed. Between 1994

P. A. Chambers; R. Meissner; F. J. Wrona; H. Rupp; H. Guhr; J. Seeger; J. M. Culp; R. B. Brua

2006-01-01

165

A Review of the Effects of Agricultural and Industrial Contamination on the Ebro Delta Biota and Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ebro delta (NE Spain) is a 320 km2 wetland area ofinternational importance for conservation. The area is devotedto rice farming and receives large amounts of pesticides.Industrial pollutants are also carried to the delta by the river.The information accumulated during the last 25 year on the effectof such pollution on the biota is reviewed in order to identifythe existing gaps

Santi Mañosa; Rafael Mateo; Raimon Guitart

2001-01-01

166

Distribution, abundance, and habitat use of introduced Boa constrictor threatening the native biota of Cozumel Island, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species introductions are among the most pervasive types of disturbance, seriously affecting island biota and ecosystem dynamics.\\u000a The management of introduced generalist species, which may live in a wide range of environmental conditions, can be particularly\\u000a difficult and is a major challenge for the conservation of native insular species. Boa constrictor was introduced onto Cozumel Island, Mexico, in 1971. The

Irene Romero-Nájera; Alfredo D. Cuarón; Cristopher González-Baca

2007-01-01

167

The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction  

PubMed Central

The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle–late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:21183583

Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lü, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J.

2011-01-01

168

The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction.  

PubMed

The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle-late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:21183583

Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lü, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J

2011-08-01

169

Recruitment of marine biota onto hard and soft artificially created subtidal habitats in Sabah Al-Ahmad Sea City, Kuwait.  

PubMed

Remediation of coastal habitats from impacts such as dredging and excavation in Gulf coastal waters is hampered by a lack of information on natural recolonisation rates and recruitment patterns of subtidal biota. For soft substrate habitats recovery information is only available for severely polluted sites where recovery takes many years (Jones et al., 2008). Construction of the Sabah Al-Ahmad Sea City provides a unique opportunity to follow benthic recruitment and community development on a range of artificially created benthic habitats over time. The three phases completed were each flooded by the sea separately and annual ecological surveys allow comparison of colonisation patterns and community development rates over time. Species diversity similar to that seen in comparable natural open sea habitats is reached within 2-5 years for mixed sand/rock biota, but longer (2-6 years) for sand biota. Biotic abundance exceeds open sea levels within 1-2 years due to settlement of opportunistic species. Coral recruitment occurred within 3 years. Present data provides a reference point for recovery rates into none polluted benthic habitats for the Gulf. PMID:23199731

Jones, David A; Nithyanandan, Manickam

2013-07-30

170

Review of research on impacts to biota of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides in produced water to the marine environment.  

PubMed

Produced water has been described as the largest volume waste stream in the exploration and production process of oil and gas. It is accompanied by discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides raising concerns over the potential radiological impacts of produced water on marine biota. In the Northern European marine environment, radioactivity in produced water has received substantial attention owing to the OSPAR Radioactive Substances Strategy which aims at achieving 'concentrations in the environment near background values for naturally occurring radioactive substances'. This review provides an overview of published research on the impacts to biota from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water by the offshore oil and gas industry. In addition to summarising studies and data that deal directly with the issue of dose and effect, the review also considers studies related to the impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. The review clearly illustrates that only a limited number of studies have investigated possible impacts on biota from naturally occurring radionuclides present in produced water. Hence, although these studies indicate that the risk to the environment from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water is negligible, the substantial uncertainties involved in the assessments of impact make it difficult to be conclusive. With regard to the complexity involved in the problem under consideration there is a pressing need to supplement existing data and acquire new knowledge. Finally, the present work identifies some knowledge gaps to indicate future research requirements. PMID:23022586

Hosseini, Ali; Brown, Justin E; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark

2012-11-01

171

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.  

PubMed

The composition and spatial distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in biota and coastal sediments from four countries surrounding the Gulf (Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman). The levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), aliphatic unresolved mixture and PAHs in sediments and biota were relatively low compared to world-wide locations reported to be chronically contaminated by oil. Only in the case of the sediments collected near the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, having concentrations of 779 microg g(-1) total petroleum hydrocarbon equivalents and 6.6 microg g(-1) Sigma PAHs, can they be categorized as chronically contaminated. Some evidence of oil contamination was also apparent in sediments and bivalves around Akkah Head and Abu Dhabi in the UAE, and near Mirbat in Oman. Contaminant patterns in sediments and biota indicated that the PAHs were mainly from fossil sources, with the exception of the high PAH concentrations in sediments near the BAPCO refinery that contained substantial concentrations of carcinogenic PAH combustion products. PMID:16038948

Tolosa, Imma; de Mora, Stephen J; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Bartocci, Jean; Cattini, Chantal

2005-12-01

172

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to drawdown naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature.

Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

2011-10-01

173

Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

2011-10-01

174

Water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; major and trace elements in water, sediment, and biota, 1978-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of 22 major and trace elements was examined in water, sediment, and biota in the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin as part of a pilot National Water-Quality Assessment project done by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1987 through 1990. The 22 elements are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority pollutants among the 22 elements were elevated in the Chicago area in all three aquatic components (water, sediment, and biota). Further, some of the priority pollutants also were found at elevated concentrations in biota in agricultural areas in the basin. Cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc concentrations in water exceeded USEPA acute or chronic water-quality criteria at several sites in the Chicago area. Correlations among concentra- tions of elements in water, sediment, and biota were found, but the correlation analysis was hindered by the large proportion of observations less than the minimum reporting level in water. Those sites where water-quality criteria were sometimes exceeded were not always the same sites where concentrations in biota were the largest. This relation indicates that accumulation of these pollutants in biota is confounded by complex geochemical and biological processes that differ throughout the upper Illinois River Basin.

Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Scudder, B.C.; Crawford, J.K.; Schmidt, A.R.; Sieverling, J.B.

1995-01-01

175

Systematics of the lizard family pygopodidae with implications for the diversification of Australian temperate biotas.  

PubMed

We conducted a phylogenetic study of pygopodid lizards, a group of 38 species endemic to Australia and New Guinea, with two major goals: to reconstruct a taxonomically complete and robustly supported phylogeny for the group and to use this information to gain insights into the tempo, mode, and timing of the pygopodid radiation. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nuclear DNA (nDNA), and previously published morphological data using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods on the independent and combined three data sets yielded trees with similar and largely stable ingroup topologies. However, relationships among the six most inclusive and unambiguously supported clades (Aprasia, Delma, Lialis, Ophidiocephalus, Pletholax, and Pygopus) varied depending on data set analyzed. We used parametric bootstrapping to help us understand which of the three-branch schemes linking these six taxa was most plausible given our data. We conclude based on our results that the arrangement ((((Delma, Lialis)Pygopus)Pletholax)(Aprasia, Ophidiocephalus)) represents the best hypothesis of intergeneric relationships. A second major problem to arise in our study concerned the inability of our two outgroup taxa (Diplodactylus) to root trees properly; three different rooting locations were suggested depending upon analysis. This long-branch attraction problem was so severe that the outgroup branch also interfered with estimation of ingroup relationships. We therefore used the molecular clock method to root the pygopodid tree. Results of two independent molecular clock analyses (mtDNA and nDNA) converged upon the same root location (branch leading to Delma). We are confident that we have found the correct root because the possibility of our clock estimates agreeing by chance alone is remote given that there are 65 possible root locations (branches) on the pygopodid tree (approximately 1 in 65 odds). Our analysis also indicated that Delma fraseri is not monophyletic, a result supported by a parametric bootstrapping test. We elevated the Western Australian race, Delma f. petersoni, to species status (i.e., Delma petersoni) because hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting could be ruled out as potential causes of this paraphyletic gene tree and because D. grayii is broadly sympatric with its sister species D. fraseri. Climate changes over the past 23 million years, which transformed Australia from a wet, green continent to one that is largely dry and brown, have been suspected as playing a major role in the diversification of Australia's temperate biotas. Our phylogenetic analyses of pygopodid speciation and biogeography revealed four important findings consistent with this climate change diversification model: (1) our fossil-calibrated phylogeny shows that although some extant pygopodid lineages predate the onset of aridification, 28 of 33 pygopodid species included in our study seem to have originated in the last 23 million years; (2) relative cladogenesis tests suggest that several major clades underwent higher than expected rates of speciation; (3) our findings support earlier studies showing that speciation of mesic-adapted biotas in the southeastern and southwestern corners of Australia largely occurred within each of these regions between 12 and 23 million years ago as opposed to repeated dispersal between these regions; and (4) we have identified for the first time the existence of several pairs of sympatric sister species of lizards living in arid and semiarid ecosystems. These sympatric sister species seem to be younger than allopatric or parapatric sister-species pairs, which is not consistent with previous beliefs. PMID:14668116

Jennings, W Bryan; Pianka, Eric R; Donnellan, Stephen

2003-12-01

176

Impacts of new highways and subsequent landscape urbanization on stream habitat and biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated by conceptualizing highway development in three stages: initial highway construction, highway presence, and eventual landscape urbanization. Highway construction is characterized by localized physical disturbances, which generally subside through time. In contrast, highway presence and landscape urbanization are characterized by physical and chemical impacts that are temporally persistent. Although the impacts of highway presence and landscape urbanization are of similar natures, the impacts are of a greater magnitude and more widespread in the urbanization phase. Our review reveals that the landscape urbanization stage is clearly the greatest threat to stream habitat and biota, as stream ecosystems are sensitive to even low levels (<10%) of watershed urban development. Although highway construction is ongoing, pervasive, and has severe biological consequences, we found few published investigations of its impacts on streams. Researchers know little about the occurrence, loading rates, and biotic responses to specific contaminants in highway runoff. Also needed is a detailed understanding of how highway crossings, especially culverts, affect fish populations via constraints on movement and how highway networks alter natural regimes (e.g., streamflow, temperature). Urbanization research topics that may yield especially useful results include a) the relative importance and biological effects of specific components of urban development - e.g., commercial or residential; b) the scenarios under which impacts are reversible; and c) the efficacy of mitigation measures - e.g., stormwater retention or treatment and forested buffers. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

Wheeler, A.P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Rosenberger, A.E.

2005-01-01

177

Stratified distribution of nutrients and extremophile biota within freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal.  

PubMed

Biological entities and gradients of selected chemicals within the seemingly barren ice layers covering Lake Baikal were investigated. Ice cores 40-68 cm long were obtained from in shore and offshore sites of Southern Lake Baikal during the cold period of a year (March-April) in 2007 and 2008. In microscopic observations of the melted ice, both algae and bacteria were found in considerable numbers (>10(3) cells/L and >10(4) cells/ml, respectively). Among all organisms found, diatom was generally the most predominant taxon in the ice. Interestingly, both planktonic and benthic algae were present in considerable numbers (2-4×10(4) cells/L). Dominant phototrophic picoplankton were comprised of small green algae of various taxa and cyanobacteria of Synechococcus and Cyanobium. The bacterial community consisted mostly of short rod and cocci cells, either free-living or aggregated. Large numbers of yeast-like cells and actinomycete mycelium were also observed. Concentrations of silica, phosphorus, and nitrate were low by an order of magnitude where biota was abundant. The profile of the ice could be interpreted as vertical stratification of nutrients and biomass due to biological activities. Therefore, the organisms in the ice were regarded to maintain high activity while thriving under freezing conditions. Based on the results, it was concluded that the freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal is considerably populated by extremophilic microorganisms that actively metabolize and form a detritus food chain in the unique large freshwater ecosystem of Lake Baikal. PMID:22367932

Bondarenko, Nina A; Belykh, Olga I; Golobokova, Ludmila P; Artemyeva, Olga V; Logacheva, Natalia F; Tikhonova, Irina V; Lipko, Irina A; Kostornova, Tatyana Ya; Parfenova, Valentina V; Khodzher, Tamara V; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Zo, Young-Gun

2012-02-01

178

Absorbed dose rate conversion coefficients for reference terrestrial biota for external photon and internal exposures.  

PubMed

The paper describes dosimetric models that allow the estimation of average radiation exposures to terrestrial biota due to environmental sources in the soil as well as internal uniform distributions of radionuclides. Simple three-dimensional phantoms for 13 faunal reference organisms are specified. The calculation of absorbed dose per unit source strength for these targets is based on photon and electron transport simulations using the Monte Carlo method. The presented absorbed dose rate conversion coefficients are derived for terrestrial reference species. This allows the assessment of internal exposure as well as external photon exposure depending on the nuclide, habitat, target size and environmental contamination. To enable the application of specific radiation weighting factors for alpha-, low energy beta- (E0 < 10 keV), beta- and gamma-radiations, their partial contributions to the total absorbed dose are provided separately. The coefficients for external exposure are listed for organisms living above the ground for an infinite plane source 3 mm deep in soil, as well as for a horizontally infinite volume source uniformly distributed to a depth of 10 cm. Furthermore, the coefficients are also presented for organisms living in a contaminated 50 cm thick soil layer. A multi-layer canopy model for plants is also described. The conversion coefficients are given for 3H, 14C, 40K, 36Cl, 59,63Ni, 89,90Sr, 94Nb, 99Tc, 106Ru, 129,131I, 134,135,137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb, 226Ra, 227,228,230,231,232,234Th, 234,235,238U, 238,239,240,241Pu, 241Am, 237Np and 242,243,244Cm, together with their PMID:15700697

Taranenko, V; Pröhl, G; Gómez-Ros, J M

2004-12-01

179

Fluxes and residence times of hydrocarbons in the coastal Mediterranean: How important are the biota?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Settling particles collected in semi-permanent particle interceptor traps (PITs) moored at 100 m depth in a water column of 250 m at a distance of 2 km from the Monaco coast in the north western Mediterranean were analyzed for petroleum and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Time series observations of material collected between 1979 and 1982 showed that vertical mass and organic contaminant fluxes varied seasonally by an order of magnitude and corresponded with general cycles of zooplankton biomass and primary productivity in surface waters. Analyses of surface seawater including surface microlayer, dissolved and particulate phases are reported along with data from zooplankton, fecal material, and sediments collected near the trap station. Settling particles displayed two predominant patterns of petroleum hydrocarbons similar to the patterns of both 'dissolved' and 'particulate' hydrocarbons seen in surface seawater. Residence times of hydrocarbons in surface waters were computed according to recent partitioning models and compared with those calculated from the fluxes of actually settling particles and from sediment data. PCB fluxes calculated from sediment and settling particles averaged 2 to 4 ng cm -2 yr -1 with good agreement between data bases. Petroleum fluxes on settling particles averaged 8 ?g cm -2 yr -1 but fluxes based on sediment concentrations showed that 90% of the petroleum hydrocarbons transported to depth were degraded before incorporation into compacted sediments. By evaluating fluxes and residence times with three independent data bases we conclude that the biota are effective in transporting both particulate and dissolved organic contaminants to ocean sediments. Furthermore, the residence times of these materials in surface waters do not vary as much as would be predicted on the basis of their widely differing solubilities.

Burns, K. A.; Villeneuve, J.-P.; Fowler, S. W.

1985-03-01

180

Comparing laboratory- and field-measured biota-sediment accumulation factors.  

PubMed

Standardized laboratory protocols for measuring the accumulation of chemicals from sediments are used in assessing new and existing chemicals, evaluating navigational dredging materials, and establishing site-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for contaminated sediment sites. The BSAFs resulting from the testing protocols provide insight into the behavior and risks associated with individual chemicals. In addition to laboratory measurement, BSAFs can also be calculated from field data, including samples from studies using in situ exposure chambers and caging studies. The objective of this report is to compare and evaluate paired laboratory and field measurement of BSAFs and to evaluate the extent of their agreement. The peer-reviewed literature was searched for studies that conducted laboratory and field measurements of chemical bioaccumulation using the same or taxonomically related organisms. In addition, numerous Superfund and contaminated sediment site study reports were examined for relevant data. A limited number of studies were identified with paired laboratory and field measurements of BSAFs. BSAF comparisons were made between field-collected oligochaetes and the laboratory test organism Lumbriculus variegatus and field-collected bivalves and the laboratory test organisms Macoma nasuta and Corbicula fluminea. Our analysis suggests that laboratory BSAFs for the oligochaete L. variegatus are typically within a factor of 2 of the BSAFs for field-collected oligochaetes. Bivalve study results also suggest that laboratory BSAFs can provide reasonable estimates of field BSAF values if certain precautions are taken, such as ensuring that steady-state values are compared and that extrapolation among bivalve species is conducted with caution. PMID:21538837

Burkhard, Lawrence P; Arnot, Jon A; Embry, Michelle R; Farley, Kevin J; Hoke, Robert A; Kitano, Masaru; Leslie, Heather A; Lotufo, Guilherme R; Parkerton, Thomas F; Sappington, Keith G; Tomy, Gregg T; Woodburn, Kent B

2012-01-01

181

Enhancement of tritium concentrations on uptake by marine biota: experience from UK coastal waters.  

PubMed

Concentrations of tritium in sea water and marine biota as reported over the last approximately 10 years from monitoring programmes carried out by this laboratory under contract to the UK Food Standards Agency are reviewed from three areas: near Cardiff; Sellafield; and Hartlepool. Near Cardiff, enhancement of concentration factors (CFs) above an a priori value of approximately 1 have already been studied, and attributed to compounds containing organically bound tritium in local radioactive waste discharges. Further data for Cardiff up to 2006 are reported in this note. Up to 2001, CFs increased to values of more than approximately 7000 in flounders and approximately 4000 in mussels, but have subsequently reduced; this variability could be due to changes in the organic constitution of compounds discharged. Near Sellafield and Hartlepool, enhancements to the tritium concentration factor are observed but they are relatively small compared with those near Cardiff. Near Sellafield, plaice and mussels appear to have a CF for tritium of approximately 10; in some cases concentrations of tritium in winkles are below detection limits and positively measured values indicate a CF of approximately 3. The variation could be due to mechanisms of uptake by the different organisms. Near Hartlepool there were only a few cases where tritium was positively measured. These data give a value of approximately 5 for the CF in plaice (on the basis of two samples); approximately 15 in winkles (eight samples); and > 45 in mussels (two samples). Any differences between the behaviours at Sellafield and Hartlepool would need to be confirmed by improved measurements. Possible causes are the organic composition of the effluent and differences in environmental behaviour and uptake by organisms near the two sites. These potential causes need further investigation. It is emphasised that results from tritium analyses are heavily method dependent; thus comparison with results from other programmes needs to take this into account. Further, the results for enhancement of CF will also depend on the definition of CF itself. PMID:20220210

Hunt, G J; Bailey, T A; Jenkinson, S B; Leonard, K S

2010-03-01

182

Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean and biota off Japan.  

PubMed

The T?hoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, resulted in unprecedented radioactivity releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Results are presented here from an international study of radionuclide contaminants in surface and subsurface waters, as well as in zooplankton and fish, off Japan in June 2011. A major finding is detection of Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs throughout waters 30-600 km offshore, with the highest activities associated with near-shore eddies and the Kuroshio Current acting as a southern boundary for transport. Fukushima-derived Cs isotopes were also detected in zooplankton and mesopelagic fish, and unique to this study we also find (110 m)Ag in zooplankton. Vertical profiles are used to calculate a total inventory of ~2 PBq (137)Cs in an ocean area of 150,000 km(2). Our results can only be understood in the context of our drifter data and an oceanographic model that shows rapid advection of contaminants further out in the Pacific. Importantly, our data are consistent with higher estimates of the magnitude of Fukushima fallout and direct releases [Stohl et al. (2011) Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 11:28319-28394; Bailly du Bois et al. (2011) J Environ Radioact, 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.015]. We address risks to public health and marine biota by showing that though Cs isotopes are elevated 10-1,000× over prior levels in waters off Japan, radiation risks due to these radionuclides are below those generally considered harmful to marine animals and human consumers, and even below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. PMID:22474387

Buesseler, Ken O; Jayne, Steven R; Fisher, Nicholas S; Rypina, Irina I; Baumann, Hannes; Baumann, Zofia; Breier, Crystaline F; Douglass, Elizabeth M; George, Jennifer; Macdonald, Alison M; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Nishikawa, Jun; Pike, Steven M; Yoshida, Sashiko

2012-04-17

183

Chemical analysis and genotoxicity of high molecular mass PAH in sediment samples and biota  

SciTech Connect

A normal phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) method was used to fractionate the organic extracts of prepared from coal tar-contaminated sediments from hamilton Harbor in Ontario and from Sydney Harbor in Nova Scotia into molecular mass classes. Each PAH fraction up to 302 amu was analyzed by GC-MS and fractions containing PAH with molecular masses greater than 302 amu were analyzed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC-MS.Each fraction was also subjected to Ames bioassays using a TA100-like strain of Salmonella typhimurium (YG1025 + S9). The 300/302 amu, 326/328 and 350/352 amu PAH fractions accounted for 25% of the total genotoxic response of the extract; these PAH constitute a substantial genotoxic burden. A number of 300, 302, 326, 350, 374 and 400 amu PAH were identified using APCI LC-MS and comparison with authentic standards. The non-polar aromatic extracts of bottom sediments, suspended sediments and zebra mussels from Hamilton Harbor were also examined by GC-MS, APCI LC-MS and genotoxicity bioassays. The profiles of the priority and high mass PAH in these samples were identical showing that all PAH up to and exceeding 400 amu were readily bioavailable to biota such as Zebra mussels. In addition, the pseudo faeces of the Zebra mussels and amphipod detritivores which fed on the pseudo faeces had chemical profiles identical to the Zebra mussels. Since many sport fish prize amphipods as food, this observation demonstrates a pathway for organic contaminants adsorbed to suspended sediments to enter the food chain of non-bottom-feeding fish in areas infested by Zebra mussels.

McCarry, B.E.; Marvin, C.H.; Smith, R.W.; Bryant, D.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

184

Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean and biota off Japan  

PubMed Central

The T?hoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011, resulted in unprecedented radioactivity releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Results are presented here from an international study of radionuclide contaminants in surface and subsurface waters, as well as in zooplankton and fish, off Japan in June 2011. A major finding is detection of Fukushima-derived 134Cs and 137Cs throughout waters 30–600 km offshore, with the highest activities associated with near-shore eddies and the Kuroshio Current acting as a southern boundary for transport. Fukushima-derived Cs isotopes were also detected in zooplankton and mesopelagic fish, and unique to this study we also find 110mAg in zooplankton. Vertical profiles are used to calculate a total inventory of ?2 PBq 137Cs in an ocean area of 150,000 km2. Our results can only be understood in the context of our drifter data and an oceanographic model that shows rapid advection of contaminants further out in the Pacific. Importantly, our data are consistent with higher estimates of the magnitude of Fukushima fallout and direct releases [Stohl et al. (2011) Atmos Chem Phys Discuss 11:28319–28394; Bailly du Bois et al. (2011) J Environ Radioact, 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2011.11.015]. We address risks to public health and marine biota by showing that though Cs isotopes are elevated 10–1,000× over prior levels in waters off Japan, radiation risks due to these radionuclides are below those generally considered harmful to marine animals and human consumers, and even below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. PMID:22474387

Buesseler, Ken O.; Jayne, Steven R.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Rypina, Irina I.; Baumann, Hannes; Baumann, Zofia; Breier, Crystaline F.; Douglass, Elizabeth M.; George, Jennifer; Macdonald, Alison M.; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Nishikawa, Jun; Pike, Steven M.; Yoshida, Sashiko

2012-01-01

185

Interactions of Grazing History, Cattle Removal and Time since Rain Drive Divergent Short-Term Responses by Desert Biota  

PubMed Central

Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the short-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of time of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of time, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and timing for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota respond to grazing. PMID:23874635

Frank, Anke S. K.; Dickman, Chris R.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Greenville, Aaron C.

2013-01-01

186

Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

2008-10-09

187

Biomonitoring study of heavy metals in biota and sediments in the South Eastern coast of Mediterranean sea, Egypt.  

PubMed

Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe were determined in biota and sediment samples collected from the Eastern Harbour and El-Mex Bay in the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt. The levels of Cu, Co, Zn, Mn and Fe in the macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha compressa (green algae) and Jania rubens (red algae), recorded high concentrations except for Cd. Moreover, Fe was the most predominant metal in the seaweed. The two species of bivalves, Donax trunculus and Paphia textile, showed different amounts of metals in their tissue. The abundance of heavy metal concentrations in the mussel samples was found in the order Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Co> Cd and Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co, respectively for the two species. The metals concentrations were generally higher compared with the previous studies in mussels from the same area. The levels of metals accumulated in the investigated fish samples, Saurida undosquamis, Siganus rivulatus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Sphyraena sphyraena, were higher than those of Marmara Sea (Turkey), for Co and Cd and lower for Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe. El-Mex Bay having the highest metals concentration in sediments as their order of abundance were Fe> Zn> Mn> Cu> Cd> Co. Nevertheless, a high variability in the metal levels occurs among the studied algae and biota and also between the investigated Harbour. A significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found for each of Zn and Fe in P. textile and of Co in D. trunculus relative to their concentrations in surficial sediments. PMID:18074236

Abdallah, Maha A M; Abdallah, Aly M A

2008-11-01

188

Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

1988-01-01

189

Enantioselectivity of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in sediment and biota from the Turtle/Brunswick River estuary, Georgia, USA.  

PubMed

To investigate the potential for enantioselective transformation and accumulation, the enantiomer distributions of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were measured in the sediment and biota from a sub-tropical estuary heavily contaminated with Aroclor 1268, a technical mixture of highly chlorinated PCB congeners. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of PCBs 91, 95, 136, 149, 174, 176, and 183 in marsh sediment, invertebrate, forage and predatory fish species, and bottlenose dolphins were determined. Non-racemic EFs greater than 0.75 were found in sediments for PCBs 136 and 174, likely the result of microbial dechlorination. Although enantiomer fractions in grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) mirrored those of sediment, fish species had EFs that differed significantly from sediment or grass shrimp. Similarly, bottlenose dolphins were also found to contain non-racemic quantities of PCBs 91, 136, 174, 176, and 183. Non-racemic EFs in these biota were likely a result of both uptake of non-racemic proportions of PCBs from the diet and enantioselective biotransformation. PMID:21392808

Ross, Matthew S; Pulster, Erin L; Ejsmont, Malgorzata B; Chow, Elaine A; Hessel, Colin M; Maruya, Keith A; Wong, Charles S

2011-01-01

190

LEAD (Pb) IN BIOTA AND PERCEPTIONS OF Pb EXPOSURE AT A RECENTLY DESIGNATED SUPERFUND BEACH SITE IN NEW JERSEY  

PubMed Central

The Raritan Bay Slag Site (New Jersey) was designated a Superfund site in 2009 because the seawall, jetties, and sediment contained lead (Pb). Our objective was to compare Pb and mercury (Hg) levels in biota and public perceptions of exposure at the Superfund and reference sites. Samples (algae, invertebrates, fish) were collected from the Raritan Bay Slag Site and reference sites and analyzed for Pb and Hg. Waterfront users were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Levels of Pb in aquatic organisms were compared to ecological and human health safety standards. Lead levels were related to location, trophic level, and mobility. Lead levels in biota were highest at the western side of the West Jetty. Mean Pb levels were highest for algae (Fucus = 53,600 ± 6990 ng/g = ppb [wet weight], Ulva = 23,900 ± 2430 ppb), intermediate for grass shrimp (7270 ± 1300 ppb, 11,600 ± 3340 ppb), and lowest for fish (Atlantic silversides 218 ± 44 ppb). Within species, Pb levels varied significantly across the sampling sites. Lead levels in algae, sometimes ingested by individuals, were sufficiently high to exceed human safety levels. Mercury levels did not differ between the Superfund and reference sites. Despite the fence and warnings, people (1) used the Superfund and reference sites similarly, (2) had similar fish consumption rates, and (3) were not concerned about Pb, although most individuals knew the metal was present. The fish sampled posed no apparent risk for human consumers, but the algae did. PMID:22409490

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

2014-01-01

191

Assessing radiation impact at a protected coastal sand dune site: an intercomparison of models for estimating the radiological exposure of non-human biota.  

PubMed

This paper presents the application of three publicly available biota dose assessment models (the ERICA Tool, R&D128/SP1a and RESRAD-BIOTA) to an assessment of the Drigg coastal sand dunes. Using measured (90)Sr, (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am activity concentrations in sand dune soil, activity concentration and dose rate predictions are made for a range of organisms including amphibians, birds, invertebrates, mammals, reptiles, plants and fungi. Predicted biota activity concentrations are compared to measured data where available. The main source of variability in the model predictions is the transfer parameters used and it is concluded that developing the available transfer databases should be a focus of future research effort. The value of taking an informed user approach to investigate the way in which models may be expected to be applied in practice is highlighted and a strategy for the future development of intercomparison exercises is presented. PMID:19447531

Wood, Michael D; Beresford, Nicholas A; Barnett, Catherine L; Copplestone, David; Leah, Richard T

2009-12-01

192

Mercury in Sediment, Water, and Biota of Sinclair Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington, 1989-2007  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical records of mercury contamination in dated sediment cores from Sinclair Inlet are coincidental with activities at the U.S. Navy Puget Sound Naval Shipyard; peak total mercury concentrations occurred around World War II. After World War II, better metallurgical management practices and environmental regulations reduced mercury contamination, but total mercury concentrations in surface sediment of Sinclair Inlet have decreased slowly because of the low rate of sedimentation relative to the vertical mixing within sediment. The slopes of linear regressions between the total mercury and total organic carbon concentrations of sediment offshore of Puget Sound urban areas was the best indicator of general mercury contamination above pre-industrial levels. Prior to the 2000-01 remediation, this indicator placed Sinclair Inlet in the tier of estuaries with the highest level of mercury contamination, along with Bellingham Bay in northern Puget Sound and Elliott Bay near Seattle. This indicator also suggests that the 2000/2001 remediation dredging had significant positive effect on Sinclair Inlet as a whole. In 2007, about 80 percent of the area of the Bremerton naval complex had sediment total mercury concentrations within about 0.5 milligrams per kilogram of the Sinclair Inlet regression. Three areas adjacent to the waterfront of the Bremerton naval complex have total mercury concentrations above this range and indicate a possible terrestrial source from waterfront areas of Bremerton naval complex. Total mercury concentrations in unfiltered Sinclair Inlet marine waters are about three times higher than those of central Puget Sound, but the small numbers of samples and complex physical and geochemical processes make it difficult to interpret the geographical distribution of mercury in marine waters from Sinclair Inlet. Total mercury concentrations in various biota species were compared among geographical locations and included data of composite samples, individual specimens, and caged mussels. Total mercury concentrations in muscle and liver of English sole from Sinclair Inlet ranked in the upper quarter and third, respectively, of Puget Sound locations. For other species, concentrations from Sinclair Inlet were within the mid-range of locations (for example, Chinook salmon). Total mercury concentrations of the long-lived and higher trophic rockfish in composites and individual specimens from Sinclair Inlet tended to be the highest in Puget Sound. For a given size, sand sole, graceful crab, staghorn sculpin, surf perch, and sea cucumber individuals collected from Sinclair Inlet had higher total mercury concentrations than individuals collected from non-urban estuaries. Total mercury concentrations in individual English sole and ratfish were not significantly different than in individuals of various sizes collected from either urban or non-urban estuaries in Puget Sound. Total mercury concentrations in English sole collected from Sinclair Inlet after the 2000-2001 dredging appear to have lower total mercury concentrations than those collected before (1996) the dredging project. The highest total mercury concentrations of mussels caged in 2002 were not within the Bremerton naval complex, but within the Port Orchard Marina and inner Sinclair Inlet.

Paulson, Anthony J.; Keys, Morgan E.; Scholting, Kelly L.

2010-01-01

193

Distribution of PCB congeners in seven lake systems: Interactions between sediment and food-web transport  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to examine the role of two processes, partitioning of PCBs between sediment and biota and food-web transport, in determining the concentration of PCB congeners in the biota of seven lakes. Biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-sediment PCB concentration (organic carbon), or BSF, ratios were calculated as markers of the partitioning of PCBs between biota and sediment, and biota PCB concentration (lipid)-to-zooplankton PCB concentration (lipid), or BAS, ratios were calculated as markers of the transport of PCBs through food webs. The lakes ranged from a shallow, well-mixed lake with a historic input of Aroclor technical mixtures to deeper, oligotrophic systems in which atmospheric deposition was the only known source. BSF ratios ranged from approximately one in cyprinids and zooplankton in all lakes to 30 in yellow perch in one lake. A significant correlation between lake maximum depth and combined BSF ratios for all biota indicated that PCBs were generally more available for accumulation in the shallower lakes, regardless of the PCB source. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the biota in the shallower lakes had higher ratios of higher chlorinated congeners, suggesting that predictions of equal concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants on a lipid basis in sediment and lower trophic levels may significantly underestimate the accumulation of very hydrophobic compounds in the organisms of some lake systems. BAF ratios ranged from approximately one in the lower trophic levels to approximately 10 in lake trout.

MacDonald, C.R.; Metcalfe, C.D.; Balch, G.C.; Metcalfe, T.L. (Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies)

1993-11-01

194

Non-effect of water hardness on the accumulation and toxicity of copper in a freshwater macrophyte ( Ceratophyllum demersum): How useful are hardness-modified copper guidelines for protecting freshwater biota?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several nations have adopted hardness-modified copper (Cu) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. However, there is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Cu to freshwater biota, particularly macrophytes. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (35, 90 and

Scott J. Markich; Angus R. King; Scott P. Wilson

2006-01-01

195

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

Brandt, Charles A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Becker, James M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Porta, Augusto C. (BATTELLE GENEVA RESEARCH)

2001-12-01

196

Evaluation of PCB and hexachlorobenzene biota-sediment accumulation factors based on ingested sediment in a deposit-feeding clam  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediment exposure experiments were conducted using a marine deposit-feeding clam (Macoma nasuta) to determine biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) based on ingested sediment and fecal organic carbon. Internal, or gut, BSAFs were determined for hexachlorobenzene and 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and were compared to those found with the standard method of calculating BSAFs, which uses the organic carbon and contaminant concentration of the whole or external sediment. The results of these experiments indicated that gut BSAFs were consistently smaller and less variable across sediment types than the corresponding standard BSAFs. Although these results indicate that using ingested sediment concentrations and fecal total organic carbon to calculate gut BSAFs might improve the predictive ability of the standard BSAF model, the benefit is small when compared to the difficulty in measuring the contaminant concentration on ingested sediment and the organic carbon content of feces.

Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Specht, D.T.; Randall, R. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Newport, OR (United States); Pelletier, J. [Dyncorp, Newport, OR (United States)

1996-09-01

197

Identifying sources and biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in biota from mountain streams of southwestern British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

We assessed whether biota occupying mountain streams accumulate and biomagnify remotely derived organic pollutants originating from atmospheric inputs to snowpack and glacial runoff and from marine sources introduced by migrating anadromous salmon. Several persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and trans-nonachlor were commonly detected in benthic invertebrates, salmon fry (Oncorhynchus spp.), and eggs of an aquatic passerine, the American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus) from the Chilliwack River watershed, British Columbia, Canada. Total PCBs and several organochlorines (OCs) biomagnified from benthic invertebrate composites to salmon fry to dipper eggs. Invertebrate samples generally did not differ significantly in contaminant burdens between the river main stem where salmon are more abundant and higher-elevation tributaries where the salmon density is lower. Concentrations of total OCs and total PCBs in dipper eggs were positively related to drainage basin area and collection year but not to elevation. No differences in PCB congener patterns existed between dipper egg samples from the Chilliwack watershed and other watersheds in southwestern British Columbia. However, principal component analysis revealed significant spatial differences in egg PCB congener patterns between the main Chilliwack River and the higher-elevation tributaries. This difference was primarily due to a greater occurrence of lower chlorinated PCB congeners (66 and 105) in dipper eggs collected from the tributaries and higher loadings of the more stable and persistent congeners (153, 138, 130, and 128) in eggs from the river main stem. The results suggest that atmospheric sources are the main contributor of contaminants detected in biota from the region and that biomagnification is a common pathway for accumulation in lotic predators such as the American dipper. PMID:16295880

Morrissey, Christy A; Bendell-Young, Leah I; Elliott, John E

2005-10-15

198

Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood.  

PubMed

Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in a worldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter (210)Po and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below (210)Po-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 µGy?h(-1)). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 µSv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people. PMID:23733934

Fisher, Nicholas S; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas G; Baumann, Zofia; Madigan, Daniel J; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

2013-06-25

199

The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on marine biota: retrospective assessment of the first year and perspectives.  

PubMed

An international study under the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was performed to assess radiological impact of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) on the marine environment. This work constitutes the first international assessment of this type, drawing upon methodologies that incorporate the most up-to-date radioecological models and knowledge. To quantify the radiological impact on marine wildlife, a suite of state-of-the-art approaches to assess exposures to Fukushima derived radionuclides of marine biota, including predictive dynamic transfer modelling, was applied to a comprehensive dataset consisting of over 500 sediment, 6000 seawater and 5000 biota data points representative of the geographically relevant area during the first year after the accident. The dataset covers the period from May 2011 to August 2012. The method used to evaluate the ecological impact consists of comparing dose (rates) to which living species of interest are exposed during a defined period to critical effects values arising from the literature. The assessed doses follow a highly variable pattern and generally do not seem to indicate the potential for effects. A possible exception of a transient nature is the relatively contaminated area in the vicinity of the discharge point, where effects on sensitive endpoints in individual plants and animals might have occurred in the weeks directly following the accident. However, impacts on population integrity would have been unlikely due to the short duration and the limited space area of the initially high exposures. Our understanding of the biological impact of radiation on chronically exposed plants and animals continues to evolve, and still needs to be improved through future studies in the FDNPS marine environment. PMID:24784739

Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Aono, Tatsuo; Brown, Justin E; Hosseini, Ali; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Sazykina, Tatiana; Steenhuisen, Frits; Strand, Per

2014-07-15

200

Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood  

PubMed Central

Radioactive isotopes originating from the damaged Fukushima nuclear reactor in Japan following the earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 were found in resident marine animals and in migratory Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT). Publication of this information resulted in a worldwide response that caused public anxiety and concern, although PBFT captured off California in August 2011 contained activity concentrations below those from naturally occurring radionuclides. To link the radioactivity to possible health impairments, we calculated doses, attributable to the Fukushima-derived and the naturally occurring radionuclides, to both the marine biota and human fish consumers. We showed that doses in all cases were dominated by the naturally occurring alpha-emitter 210Po and that Fukushima-derived doses were three to four orders of magnitude below 210Po-derived doses. Doses to marine biota were about two orders of magnitude below the lowest benchmark protection level proposed for ecosystems (10 µGy?h?1). The additional dose from Fukushima radionuclides to humans consuming tainted PBFT in the United States was calculated to be 0.9 and 4.7 µSv for average consumers and subsistence fishermen, respectively. Such doses are comparable to, or less than, the dose all humans routinely obtain from naturally occurring radionuclides in many food items, medical treatments, air travel, or other background sources. Although uncertainties remain regarding the assessment of cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation to humans, the dose received from PBFT consumption by subsistence fishermen can be estimated to result in two additional fatal cancer cases per 10,000,000 similarly exposed people. PMID:23733934

Fisher, Nicholas S.; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Hinton, Thomas G.; Baumann, Zofia; Madigan, Daniel J.; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

201

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

1990-01-01

202

Modeled and monitored variation in space and time of PCB-153 concentrations in air, sediment, soil and aquatic biota on a European scale.  

PubMed

We evaluated various modeling options for estimating concentrations of PCB-153 in the environment and in biota across Europe, using a nested multimedia fate model coupled with a bioaccumulation model. The most detailed model set up estimates concentrations in air, soil, fresh water sediment and fresh water biota with spatially explicit environmental characteristics and spatially explicit emissions to air and water in the period 1930-2005. Model performance was evaluated with the root mean square error (RMSE(log)), based on the difference between estimated and measured concentrations. The RMSE(log) was 5.4 for air, 5.6-6.3 for sediment and biota, and 5.5 for soil in the most detailed model scenario. Generally, model estimations tended to underestimate observed values for all compartments, except air. The decline in observed concentrations was also slightly underestimated by the model for the period where measurements were available (1989-2002). Applying a generic model setup with averaged emissions and averaged environmental characteristics, the RMSE(log) increased to 21 for air and 49 for sediment. For soil the RMSE(log) decreased to 3.5. We found that including spatial variation in emissions was most relevant for all compartments, except soil, while including spatial variation in environmental characteristics was less influential. For improving predictions of concentrations in sediment and aquatic biota, including emissions to water was found to be relevant as well. PMID:20035969

Hauck, Mara; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Hendriks, A Jan; van de Meent, Dik

2010-08-15

203

Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

Wentz, D.A.; Waite, I.R.; Rinella, F.A.

1998-01-01

204

BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS, DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND DIBENZOFURANS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chroma tography/high-resolution ma...

205

A dynamic model to estimate the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as consequences of a nuclear accident.  

PubMed

This paper describes a dynamic compartment model (K-BIOTA-DYN-M) to assess the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as a result of a nuclear accident. The model considers the transport of radioactivity between the marine biota through the food chain, and applies the first order kinetic model for the sedimentation of radionuclides from seawater onto sediment. A set of ordinary differential equations representing the model are simultaneously solved to calculate the activity concentration of the biota and the sediment, and subsequently the dose rates, given the seawater activity concentration. The model was applied to investigate the long-term effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the marine biota using (131)I, (134)Cs, and, (137)Cs activity concentrations of seawater measured for up to about 2.5 years after the accident at two locations in the port of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) which was the most highly contaminated area. The predicted results showed that the accumulated dose for 3 months after the accident was about 4-4.5Gy, indicating the possibility of occurrence of an acute radiation effect in the early phase after the Fukushima accident; however, the total dose rate for most organisms studied was usually below the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation)'s bench mark level for chronic exposure except for the initial phase of the accident, suggesting a very limited radiological effect on the marine biota at the population level. The predicted Cs sediment activity by the first-order kinetic model for the sedimentation was in a good agreement with the measured activity concentration. By varying the ecological parameter values, the present model was able to predict the very scattered (137)Cs activity concentrations of fishes measured in the port of FDNPS. Conclusively, the present dynamic model can be usefully applied to estimate the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of the marine biota as the consequence of a nuclear accident. PMID:25461520

Keum, Dong-Kwon; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

2015-02-01

206

Polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Chukchi Sea biota and sediments and their toxicological response in the Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area-Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) project, we determined the distribution and concentrations of aliphatic n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments (0-1 cm) among 52 sites across the Chukchi Sea and in muscle tissues of the benthic Northern whelk, Neptunea heros, collected opportunistically. In addition, downcore profiles of contaminants were determined at three targeted sites to establish historic patterns. Baseline responses of PAH exposure and its potential toxicological effects were examined in the common Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida, through measures of cytochrome P4501A/ ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (CYP1A/EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissue. The total concentration of PAHs in surface sediments throughout the study area, including parent and alkyl-homologs, were very low (<1600 ng g-1 dry wt) except for a single station, where values were 2-20-fold greater than at other baseline sites (2956 ng g-1 dry wt). Alkyl-substituted PAHs were the dominant form in all surface (54-93%) and subsurface sediments (50-81% of the total), with a general decrease in total PAH concentrations observed downcore. In biota, larger Neptunea showed lower total concentrations of PAHs in foot muscles (4.5-10.7 ng g-1 wet wt) compared to smaller animals; yet aliphatic n-alkane (C19-C33) concentrations (0.655-5.20 ?g g-1 wet wt) increased in larger organisms with distributions dominated by long-chain (C23-C33) hydrocarbons. In B. saida, CYP1A1, GST, and SOD enzyme levels were comparable to baseline levels previously reported in other pristine systems. Of the three assays, only SOD had a significant correlation between gene expression and enzyme activity.

Harvey, H. Rodger; Taylor, Karen A.; Pie, Hannah V.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.

2014-04-01

207

GROUP REPORT: INTERACTIONS AMONG ACIDIFICATION, PHOSPHOROUS, CONTAMINANTS, AND BIOTA IN FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientific investigations over the last two decades have examined the processes and effects of acidic deposition on surface waters and their catchments. hese studies have been performed on various scales: laboratory benchtop, mesocosm/plot studies, whole system manipulations, and...

208

Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain 27 data fields that include variables such as taxonomic identification, values for salinity and pH, wetland classification, location of study, and source of data. The databases are not exhaustive of the literature and are biased toward wetland habitats located in the glaciated North-Central United States; however, the databases do encompass a diversity of biota commonly found in brackish and freshwater inland wetland habitats.

Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

2009-01-01

209

Determination of alkylphenol and alkylphenolethoxylates in biota by liquid chromatography with detection by tandem mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and the corresponding ethoxylates (1 to 5) in biota is presented. Extraction methods were developed for egg and fish matrices based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction cleanup, using octadecylsilica or aminopropyl cartridges. Identification and quantitation were accomplished by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and compared to the traditional liquid chromatography with fluorescence spectroscopy detection. LC-MS-MS provides high sensitivity and specificity required for these complex matrices and an accurate quantitation with the use of 13C-labeled internal standards. Quantitation limits by LC-MS-MS ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g in eggs, and from 6 to 22 ng/g in fish samples. These methods were successfully applied to osprey eggs from the Chesapeake Bay and fish from the Great Lakes area. Total levels found in osprey egg samples were up to 18 ng/g wet mass and as high as 8.2 ug/g wet mass in the fish samples.

Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Loyo-Rosales, J.E.; de la Paz Aviles, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Rice, C.P.

2003-01-01

210

Determination of alkylphenol and alkylphenolethoxylates in biota by liquid chromatography with detection by tandem mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and the corresponding ethoxylates (1 to 5) in biota is presented. Extraction methods were developed for egg and fish matrices based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction cleanup, using octadecylsilica or aminopropyl cartridges. Identification and quantitation were accomplished by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and compared to the traditional liquid chromatography with fluorescence spectroscopy detection. LC-MS-MS provides high sensitivity and specificity required for these complex matrices and an accurate quantitation with the use of 13C-labeled internal standards. Quantitation limits by LC-MS-MS ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g in eggs, and from 6 to 22 ng/g in fish samples. These methods were successfully applied to osprey eggs from the Chesapeake Bay and fish from the Great Lakes area. Total levels found in osprey egg samples were up to 18 ng/g wet mass and as high as 8.2 ??g/g wet mass in the fish samples. ?? Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; de la Paz Aviles, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Rice, C.P.

2003-01-01

211

Biota-sediment accumulation factors for Dechlorane Plus in bottom fish from an electronic waste recycling site, South China.  

PubMed

Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for Dechlorane Plus (DP), a highly chlorinated flame retardant, were determined in three bottom fish species, i.e., crucian carp, mud carp, and northern snakehead from an electronic waste recycling site in South China. The average BSAFs are 0.007, 0.01, and 0.06 for syn-DP, and 0.003, 0.025, and 0.001 for anti-DP in crucian carp, mud carp, and northern snakehead, respectively, suggesting low bioaccumulation potential of DP isomers in these fish. However, the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) determined previously in the same sample set indicated that both DP isomers were highly bioaccumulative (BAFs>5000) in most of the samples. This implies that BSAF values may be inherently inconsistent affecting their reliability as a bioaccumulation indicator. The BSAFs for DP isomers are two orders of magnitude lower than those (average of 0.43-2.28) for extremely hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls (CBs 199, 203, 207 and 208), but are comparable to those (average of 0.0001-0.009) for decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) determined in the same sample set. Despite of the different chemical structures of the three compound classes, significantly negative correlations between logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficients (log K(OW)s) and BSAFs of these chemicals were found, indicating that hydrophobicity is one of the key factors influencing the bioaccumulation of these compounds. PMID:21705082

Zhang, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Mo, Ling; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

2011-11-01

212

Influence of water quality parameters on occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ether in sediment and sediment to biota accumulation.  

PubMed

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in sediment and fish from 12 principal rivers in Taiwan were investigated to determine their association with water quality parameters as well as the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) in fish with different living patterns. The highest PBDE concentration in sediment was found in the Bajhang River (261 ng g(-1) dryweight (d.w.)) and the lowest in the Beinan River and the Da-an River (0.17 ng g(-1) d.w.). The PBDE concentrations in fish samples ranged from 1.28 ng g(-1) d.w. (Oreochromis niloticus niloticus) in the Yanshuei River to 33.7 ng g(-1) d.w. (Varico rhinos barbatulus) in the Da-an River. We conclude that PBDEs contamination in sediment was significantly affected by NH(3)-N, pH, and DO. The BSAF results showed a parabolic trend from low- to high-brominated BDEs. Fish easily accumulated the congeners BDE-47, -100, -119, -126, and -154 from sediment. The BSAF decreased in the following order: PeBDE>HxBDE>TeBDE>other BDEs. Principle component analysis showed that demersal fish have different PBDE sources than do pelagic fish. We conclude that living and feeding habits are critical factors affecting PBDE accumulation in fish. PMID:23218414

Chen, Chung-Yu; Tien, Chien-Jung; Sun, Yih-Min; Hsieh, Chia-Yi; Lee, Ching-Chang

2013-03-01

213

Atlantic Origin of the Arctic Biota? Evidence from Phylogenetic and Biogeographical Analysis of the Cheilostome Bryozoan Genus Pseudoflustra  

PubMed Central

The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available. PMID:23536863

Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D.; Denisenko, Nina V.; Berning, Björn

2013-01-01

214

Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians  

PubMed Central

The Ediacaran Doushantuo biota has yielded fossils that include the oldest widely accepted record of the animal evolutionary lineage, as well as specimens with alleged bilaterian affinity. However, these systematic interpretations are contingent on the presence of key biological structures that have been reinterpreted by some workers as artefacts of diagenetic mineralization. On the basis of chemistry and crystallographic fabric, we characterize and discriminate phases of mineralization that reflect: (i) replication of original biological structure, and (ii) void-filling diagenetic mineralization. The results indicate that all fossils from the Doushantuo assemblage preserve a complex mélange of mineral phases, even where subcellular anatomy appears to be preserved. The findings allow these phases to be distinguished in more controversial fossils, facilitating a critical re-evaluation of the Doushantuo fossil assemblage and its implications as an archive of Ediacaran animal diversity. We find that putative subcellular structures exhibit fabrics consistent with preservation of original morphology. Cells in later developmental stages are not in original configuration and are therefore uninformative concerning gastrulation. Key structures used to identify Doushantuo bilaterians can be dismissed as late diagenetic artefacts. Therefore, when diagenetic mineralization is considered, there is no convincing evidence for bilaterians in the Doushantuo assemblage. PMID:22319125

Cunningham, John A.; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Bengtson, Stefan; Kearns, Stuart L.; Xiao, Shuhai; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C. J.

2012-01-01

215

Atlantic origin of the arctic biota? Evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographical analysis of the cheilostome bryozoan genus pseudoflustra.  

PubMed

The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available. PMID:23536863

Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D; Denisenko, Nina V; Berning, Björn

2013-01-01

216

The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities  

PubMed Central

The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community. PMID:25047077

Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; Røstad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Arístegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernández-León, Santiago

2014-01-01

217

Direct and indirect effects of metal contamination on soil biota in a Zn-Pb post-mining and smelting area (S Poland).  

PubMed

Effects of metal contamination on soil biota activity were investigated at 43 sites in 5 different habitats (defined by substratum and vegetation type) in a post-mining area. Sites were characterised in terms of soil pH and texture, nutrient status, total and exchangeable metal concentrations, as well as plant species richness and cover, abundances of enchytraeids, nematodes and tardigrades, and microbial respiration and biomass. The concentrations of total trace metals were highest in soils developed on mining waste (metal-rich dolomite), but these habitats were more attractive than sandy sites for plants and soil biota because of their higher content of organic matter, clay and nutrients. Soil mesofauna and microbes were strongly dependent on natural habitat properties. Pollution (exchangeable Zn and Cd) negatively affected only enchytraeid density; due to a positive relationship between enchytraeids and microbes it indirectly reduced microbial activity. PMID:21477907

Kapusta, Pawe?; Szarek-?ukaszewska, Gra?yna; Stefanowicz, Anna M

2011-06-01

218

Persistence and transfer of ³⁶Cl-DDT in the soil and biota of an old-field ecosystem: a six-year balance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of a 1 kg\\/ha application of granular chlorine-36-labeled DDT made by helicopter on 10 June 1969 to a 4-ha old-field study area near Urbana, Ohio was traced and quantified in soil and biota through November 1974. Between 1970 and 1974, residues of DDT (DDTR, includes DDT plus metabolites) declined from 22.0 to 3.8 mg\\/kg tissue in earthworms (Lumbricus

D. J. Forsyth; T. J. Peterle; L. W. Bandy

1983-01-01

219

An Integrated Case Study for Evaluating the Impacts of an Oil Refinery Effluent on Aquatic Biota in the Delaware River: Sediment Quality Triad Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triad studies consisting of chemical characterizations in sediment, sediment toxicity testing, and benthic community assessments were used to determine the impacts of Motiva Enterprises oil refinery effluent [primarily polynuclear aromatic hydorcarbons (PAHs)] on aquatic biota in the Delaware River. Triad studies were conducted at 15 near-field, mid-field, and far-field sites near the Refinery in the Delaware River during the spring

Lenwood W. Hall Jr; Daniel M. Dauer; Raymond W. Alden III; Allen D. Uhler; Joseph DiLorenzo; Dennis T. Burton; Ronald D. Anderson

2005-01-01

220

Influence of environmental gradients on C and N stable isotope ratios in coral reef biota of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Sea features a natural environmental gradient characterized by increasing water temperature, nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations from North to South. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between ecohydrography, particulate organic matter (POM) and coral reef biota that are poorly understood by means of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) stable isotopes. Herbivorous, planktivorous and carnivorous fishes, zooplankton, soft corals (Alcyonidae), and bivalves (Tridacna squamosa) were a priori defined as biota guilds. Environmental samples (nutrients, chlorophyll a), oceanographic data (salinity, temperature), POM and biota were collected at eight coral reefs between 28°31? N and 16°31? N. Isotopic niches of guilds separated in ?13C and ?15N isotopic niche spaces and were significantly correlated with environmental factors at latitudinal scale. Dietary end member contributions were estimated using the Bayesian isotope mixing model SIAR. POM and zooplankton 15N enrichment suggested influences by urban run-off in the industrialized central region of the Red Sea. Both ?15N and their relative trophic positions (RTPs) tend to increase southwards, but urban runoff offsets the natural environmental gradient in the central region of the Red Sea toward higher ?15N and RTPs. The present study reveals that consumer ?13C and ?15N in Red Sea coral reefs are influenced primarily by the latitudinal environmental gradient and localized urban runoff. This study illustrates the importance of ecohydrography when interpreting trophic relationships from stable isotopes in Red Sea coral reefs.

Kürten, Benjamin; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Struck, Ulrich; Khomayis, Hisham Sulaiman; Gharbawi, Waleed Yousef; Sommer, Ulrich

2014-01-01

221

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

1993-01-01

222

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87  

SciTech Connect

An investigation was initiated to determine whether irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health or fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert and were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements, including selenium. Other analyses included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediments and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, concentrations of the following constituents commonly were found to exceed baseline concentrations or federal and state criteria for the protection of aquatic life or the propagation of wildlife: in water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appear to be biomagnified whereas arsenic is bioaccumulated. Some radioactive substances were substantially higher at the downstream sites compared with upstream background sites, but the significance of this to wildlife is unknown at present. 88 refs., 32 figs., 19 tabs.

Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.

1990-01-01

223

Do site-specific radiocarbon measurements reflect localized distributions of 14C in biota inhabiting a wetland with point contamination sources?  

PubMed

Duke Swamp is a wetland ecosystem that receives (14)C via a groundwater pathway originating from a waste management area on Atomic Energy Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories site. This groundwater reaches the surface of the swamp, resulting in relatively high (14)C levels over an area of 146 m(2). The objective of this study was to quantify (14)C concentrations in flora and fauna inhabiting areas of Duke Swamp over the gradient of (14)C activity concentrations in moss to determine whether (14)C specific activities in receptor biota reflect the localized nature of the groundwater source in the swamp. Representative receptor plants and animals, and corresponding air and soil samples were collected at six sites in Duke Swamp with (14)C specific activities in air that ranged from 1140 to 45,900 Bq/kg C. In general, it was found that specific activities of (14)C in biota tissues reflected those measured in environmental media collected from the same sampling site. The findings demonstrate that mosses could be used in monitoring programs to ensure protection of biota in areas with elevated (14)C, negating the need to capture and euthanize higher organisms. PMID:23712022

Yankovich, T; King-Sharp, K J; Benz, M L; Carr, J; Killey, R W D; Beresford, N A; Wood, M D

2013-12-01

224

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1992 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research project is to collect data to model resident fish requirements for Lake Roosevelt as part of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Bureau of Reclamation (BoR), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineer`s (ACE) System Operation Review. The System Operation Review (SOR) is a tri-agency team functioning to review the use and partitioning of Columbia Basin waters. User groups of the Columbia have been defined as power, irrigation, flood control, anadromous fish, resident fish, wildlife, recreation, water quality, navigation, and cultural resources. Once completed the model will predict biological responses to different reservoir operation strategies. The model being developed for resident fish is based on Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks model for resident fish requirements within Hungry Horse and Libby Reservoirs. While the Montana model predicts fish growth based on the impacts of reservoir operation and flow conditions on primary and secondary production levels, the Lake Roosevelt model will also factor in the affects of water retention time on zooplankton production levels and fish entrainment. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include: (1) quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; (2) quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; (3) determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and (4) quantification of entrainment levels of fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report contains the results of the resident fish system operation review program for Lake Roosevelt from January through December 1992.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.

1996-01-01

225

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations : Final Report 1993.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that will predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review Program. This study worked in conjunction with Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Project which investigated the effectiveness of two kokanee salmon hatcheries. This report summarized the data collected from Lake Roosevelt from 1993 and includes limnological, reservoir operation, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, experimental trawling, and net-pen rainbow trout tagging data. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model include quantification of impacts to zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times.

Voeller, Amy C.

1993-01-01

226

Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

2010-12-01

227

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations Appendices; 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of appendices A-F containing the biological data which were collected from Lake Roosevelt, Washington. The data are to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses of reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the model included: Quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

1995-08-01

228

Temporal and spatial trends in total PCB and PCB congeners in biota in a river-reservoir system  

SciTech Connect

Since 1984, biennial studies of PCBs have been conducted in fishes, crayfish and insects in the Housatonic River, CT., and additional data are available from earlier studies. PCB data quantitated from presumptive Aroclor concentrations overestimated total PCB concentrations ([TPCB]) by about 13%, although the estimates by the 2 methods were very highly correlated. Ages of all fish specimens were determined. Spatial and temporal trends in [TPCB] were analyzed using ANCOVA to adjust for relationships between [TPCB] and age, lipid content, location and sex. Adjusted [TPCB] consistently decreased in the downstream direction. [TPCB] decreased within the years after cessation of direct inputs (around 1978). However, in the 1984--1992 period [TPCB] trends were weak and variable. Concentrations in 1994 were lower than previous years (statistical comparisons showing 1994 to be the lowest year or among a group of years with the lowest concentrations). Between year differences were probably related to temperature, storm flows and other factors affecting availability and accumulation. These variations were greater in riverine sites than in reservoirs. In brown trout, [TPCB] increased rapidly within 1--2 months after stocking. Over longer periods, [TPCB] were more closely related to seasonal cycles in lipid content rather than to time in river. Increases in [TPCB] with age were most evident for long-lived species in reservoirs. Several congeners which are abundant in Aroclors 1254 and 1260 predominated the samples. However, spatial and temporal differences in accumulation of different congeners were evident. Spatial differences in the concentration of some marker congeners reflected enrichment of these congeners from original Aroclor 1254 and 1260 sources, as well as supplemental inputs of Aroclor 1242.

Horwitz, R.J.; McNair, J.N.; Hermanson, M.H. [Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, PA (United States). Environmental Research Division

1995-12-31

229

A new approach for assessing the state of environment using isometric log-ratio transformation and outlier detection for computation of mean PCDD/F patterns in biota.  

PubMed

To assess the state of the environment, various compartments are examined as part of monitoring programs. Within monitoring, a special focus is on chemical pollution. One of the most toxic substances ever synthesized is the well-known dioxin 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetra-chlor-dibenzo-dioxin). Other PCDD/F (polychlorinated-dibenzo-dioxin and furan) can act toxic too. They are ubiquitary and persistent in various environmental compartments. Assessing the state of environment requires knowledge of typical local patterns of PCDD/F for as many compartments as possible. For various species of wild animals and plants (so called biota), I present the mean local congenere profiles of ubiquitary PCDD/F contamination reflecting typical patterns and levels of environmental burden for various years. Trends in time series of means can indicate success or failure of a measure of PCDD/F reduction. For short time series of mean patterns, it can be hard to detect trends. A new approach regarding proportions of outliers in the corresponding annual cross-sectional data sets in parallel can help detect decreasing or increasing environmental burden and support analysis of time series. Further, in this article, the true structure of PCDD/F data in biota is revealed, that is, the compositional data structure. It prevents direct application of statistical standard procedures to the data rendering results of statistical analysis meaningless. Results indicate that the compositional data structure of PCDD/F in biota is of great interest and should be taken into account in future studies. Isometric log-ratio (ilr) transformation is used, providing data statistical standard procedures that can be applied too. Focusing on the identification of typical PCDD/F patterns in biota, outliers are removed from annual data since they represent an extraordinary situation in the environment. Identification of outliers yields two advantages. First, typical (mean) profiles and levels of PCDD/F contamination can be identified. Second, decreasing (increasing) proportions of outliers could indicate decreasing (increasing) numbers of extraordinary environmental burden rendering the success of PCDD/F reduction strategies for biota. Therefore, probabilities and proportions of outlier contamination are estimated too. To reveal the enormous influence of the method of outlier detection, the applied two well-known procedures are compared, that is, robust Mahalanobis distance and a projection pursuit-based approach. PMID:25427827

Lehmann, René

2015-01-01

230

Spatial and temporal trends of mercury in water, sediments and biota in a mainstream Canadian reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) concentrations within several environmental matrices were examined, during high and low water periods of a 1,778.7 kM{sup 2} northern Canada drawdown reservoir, as part of an Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program. Mercury, and 20 other metals, were analyzed in liver tissues of two benthic foraging fish species, Largescale Sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Previous work on the reservoir demonstrated a positive correlation between mercury in muscle tissue and Lake Whitefish weight, Results from the current investigation were compared to historical data from the reservoir and several mercuriferous lakes in the region. Research dating from 1970 indicated elevated Hg concentrations in reservoir water (0.026 to 0.09 ppb) and in Lake Whitefish, with no significant decline noted to date. Hg levels in Whitefish muscle tissue averaged 0.20 ppm and were comparable to post-impoundment concentrations observed in Alberta reservoirs. Sediment and water samples and in situ water profiles were examined at 34 stations throughout the system. Sediments and water underwent a variety of organic and inorganic analyses, including mercury. Spatial and temporal analytical concentration profiles were determined for a variety of specific environmental matrices.

Thomas, G.P.; Munteanu, N. [G3 Consulting Ltd., Richmond, British Columbia (Canada)

1995-12-31

231

Hydrothermal vent fields and chemosynthetic biota on the world's deepest seafloor spreading centre  

PubMed Central

The Mid-Cayman spreading centre is an ultraslow-spreading ridge in the Caribbean Sea. Its extreme depth and geographic isolation from other mid-ocean ridges offer insights into the effects of pressure on hydrothermal venting, and the biogeography of vent fauna. Here we report the discovery of two hydrothermal vent fields on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre. The Von Damm Vent Field is located on the upper slopes of an oceanic core complex at a depth of 2,300?m. High-temperature venting in this off-axis setting suggests that the global incidence of vent fields may be underestimated. At a depth of 4,960?m on the Mid-Cayman spreading centre axis, the Beebe Vent Field emits copper-enriched fluids and a buoyant plume that rises 1,100?m, consistent with >400?°C venting from the world's deepest known hydrothermal system. At both sites, a new morphospecies of alvinocaridid shrimp dominates faunal assemblages, which exhibit similarities to those of Mid-Atlantic vents. PMID:22233630

Connelly, Douglas P.; Copley, Jonathan T.; Murton, Bramley J.; Stansfield, Kate; Tyler, Paul A.; German, Christopher R.; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Amon, Diva; Furlong, Maaten; Grindlay, Nancy; Hayman, Nicholas; Hühnerbach, Veit; Judge, Maria; Le Bas, Tim; McPhail, Stephen; Meier, Alexandra; Nakamura, Ko-ichi; Nye, Verity; Pebody, Miles; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Plouviez, Sophie; Sands, Carla; Searle, Roger C.; Stevenson, Peter; Taws, Sarah; Wilcox, Sally

2012-01-01

232

Development of a method for assessing the toxicity of volatile organic contaminants (VOCs) to soil biota  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed to assess the toxicity of VOCs to plants and earthworms (survival of Eisenia foetida). The procedures followed were based on Greene et al. Gas samples for head space analyses were removed, at test initiation a termination, through a bulkhead fitting in the lid equipped with septa. Treatment levels were prepared, at low temperature to minimize volatilization, by spiking a soil sample with the compound of interest and then serially diluting it with clean soil. Root elongation tests were conducted on filter paper supported by 70 mesh silica sand spiked with the volatile of interest. Soils were then inundated with water, shaken with heating, and the headspace reanalyzed for the total contaminant concentration in the test system (total equals headspace plus adsorbed). Enclosing the seeds and worms in containers did not appear to have detrimental effects. VOCs tested included benzene, xylene, toluene, ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,2-trichloroethylene. Each test was repeated three times with different batches of soil, seed lots and worms from different colonies. Endpoints derived based on nominal and measured concentrations included: NOEC, LOEC, LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 25} for earthworm mortality and EC{sub 50} and EC{sub 25} for emergence and root elongation.

Cureton, P.M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Evaluation and Interpretation Branch; Lintott, D.; Balch, G.; Goudey, S. [HydroQual Labs. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31

233

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Biota from the Brisbane River Estuary, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six species of aquatic organisms from the Brisbane River estuarine system were sampled and their tissues analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These were the sea mullet, Mugil cephalus, bony bream, Nematolosa come, blue catfish, Arius graffei, mud crab, Scylla serrata, pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus, and silver gull, Larus novaehollandiae. PAHs in the muscle (fish and birds) and soft (crab) tissue samples were isolated by first hydrolysing these samples and then solvent extraction followed by column chromatography. The compounds were then identified and quantified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The samples contained low levels of PAHs that ranged in molecular weight from 128 (naphthalene) to 252 (benzo[k]fluoranthene). The highest total PAH level of 195 ng g -1, wet weight, was recorded in mullet samples whereas the blue catfish samples yielded the lowest level of 43 ng g -1. Relative ratios of low molecular weight (?3-rings) compounds to those with high molecular weights (?4-rings) suggested a petroleum related origin for the PAHs detected in the organisms. Results indicated that significant biomagnification of PAHs in the estuarine ecosystem sampled is highly unlikely. Characteristics such as the trophic level and size/age were not significant factors in determining the corresponding tissue PAH levels in the fish and crab species. Tissue lipid content, however, was found to be a primary factor in determining the PAH concentrations in fish species. PAH levels recorded in the samples are comparable to those levels reported from similarly urbanized areas in other geographical locations.

Kayal, S.; Connell, D. W.

1995-05-01

234

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

1995-08-01

235

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: an overview.  

PubMed

Over 1999-2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 mug/g, the consumption guideline for frequent consumers of fish, and 0.5 microg/g, the guideline for the commercial use of fish. Numerous consumption advisories were issued for lakes along the Mackenzie River. Relatively high mercury levels appear to be due to a combination of relatively old fish populations (because of light fishing pressures) and tend to be more prevalent in smaller lakes where warmer summer water temperatures and watershed influences result in greater mercury and methyl mercury inputs. Mercury levels were substantially lower in char than in lake trout, possibly due to a combination of a less fish-rich diet, a colder environment, and smaller MeHg watershed inputs. Less research has been conducted on other metals but some, such as rubidium, show pronounced variations in concentration that may be related to geological influences. Temporal trend monitoring has revealed little evidence of declining mercury levels in fish that can be attributed to declining atmospheric inputs. Because mercury follows complex pathways in the environment, other factors may operate to counteract reductions in atmospheric mercury sources, e.g., climatic variability, changes in the commercial fishery, and interactions between fish species. Most organochlorine (OC) investigations were based on long term trend monitoring and focused on char (Cornwallis Island), burbot (Great Slave Lake, Yukon lakes, Slave River at Fort Smith, Mackenzie River at Fort Good Hope) and lake trout (Yukon lakes, Great Slave Lake). There was strong evidence of declining OC concentrations in char, particularly SigmaHCH and Sigmachlordane, which may reflect a response to declining atmospheric inputs. Endosulfan concentrations increased, as in the atmosphere. There also was evidence of declining OC concentrations in burbot in the Slave and Mackenzie rivers but not in Great Slave Lake and Yukon lakes. OC concentrations decreased in lake trout in Yukon lakes in the 2000s, most probably because of changes in the fish themselves (i.e., reduced lipid content, condition factor) and possibly climatic variability. Similarly, OCs declined in Great Slave Lake trout. New research on PDBEs and perfluorinated compounds determined that these contaminants are widespread in freshwater fish and concentrations may be increasing. Global warming is a major issue of concern for Arctic and Subarctic waters and may have adverse impacts on contaminant levels in fish and other biota. There is a need for contaminant studies in the north to be broadened to investigate climatic effects. In addition, monitoring studies should be broadened to consider factors affecting other aspects of fish biology. Foremost among these is integrating contaminant monitoring studies on lakes such as Lake Laberge and Great Slave Lake with stock assessment studies. Ecosystem based studies should be conducted on Great Slave Lake and Lake Laberge to more effectively understand contaminant trends and should consider inputs (atmospheric, river inflow, resupension), losses (sedimentation, volatilization), and biological pathways. PMID:16225909

Evans, Marlene S; Muir, Derek; Lockhart, W Lyle; Stern, Gary; Ryan, M; Roach, Pat

2005-12-01

236

Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of concerns expressed by the U.S. Congress and the environmental community, the Department of the Interior began a program in late 1985 to identify the nature and extent of water-quality problems induced by irrigation that might exist in the western States. Surface water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from March through September 1995 along the lower Colorado River and in agricultural drains at nine sites in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, and analyzed for selected inorganic and organic constituents. Analyses of water, bottom sediment, and biota were completed to determine if irrigation return flow has caused, or has the potential to cause, harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife in the study area. Concentrations of dissolved solids in surface-water samples collected in March generally did not vary substantially from surface-water samples collected in June. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 712 to 3,000 milligrams per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Concentrations of chloride in 9 of 18 water samples and concentrations of sulfate in 16 of 18 water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Calcium and sodium were the dominant cations, and chloride and sulfate were the dominant anions. The maximum selenium concentration of 8 micrograms per liter exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic-life chronic criterion of 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of lead in 7 of 18 water samples and concentrations of mercury in 4 of 18 water samples exceeded the aquatic-life cronic criteria of 3.2 and 0.012 micrograms per liter, respectively. Concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, and silver in the water samples were below analytical reporting limits. Arsenic was detected in 3 of 9 bottom-sediment samples, and concentrations ranged from 11 to 16 micrograms per gram. Concentrations ofaluminum, beryllium, boron, copper, lead, and zinc were highest in samples from Main Drain at southerly international boundary near San Luis, Arizona. Selenium was detected in all bottom-sediment samples, and concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of cadmium, europium, homium, mercury, molybdenum, silver, tantalum, tin, and uranium were below analytical reporting limits in the bottom-sediment samples. Concentrations of trace elements in bottom-sediment samples were within the ranges found in a study of soils of the western United States and did not indicate a significant accumulation of these constituents. p,p'Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (commonly referred to as p,-p'-DDE) was detected in one bottom-sediment sample at a concentration of 1.4 micrograms per gram. No other organochlorine compounds were detected in the bottom-sediment samples. DDE was present in all fish and bird samples. Almost one-half of the fish samples contained DDE residues that were two times higher than the mean calculated for a national study in 1984-85. Twenty-tree percent of the fish contained more than three times the national mean. Fish from downstream parts of the Main Drain had the highest concentrations of DDE. Although concentrations of DDE in fish and in bird carcasses and eggs were above background levels, residues generally were below thresholds associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems in figh and wildlife. Concentrations of 18 trace elements were detected in cattail (Typha sp.) roots, freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), fish, and bird samples. Selenium in most fish and in livers of red-winged (Agelaius phoeniceus) and yellow-headed (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) blackbirds was above background concentrations but below toxic concentrations. In contrast, selenium was present in a killdeer (Charadrium vociferus) liver sample at potentially toxic con

Tadayon, Saeid; King, K.A.; Andrews, Brenda; Roberts, William

1997-01-01

237

Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 ?g l(-1)) and Mn (12 ?g l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results. PMID:23014923

Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

2013-05-01

238

Concentrations of chlorinated organic compounds in biota and bed sediment in streams of the lower San Joaquin River drainage, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of resident biota and bed sediments were collected in 1992 from 18 sites on or near the floor of the San Joaquin Valley, California, for analysis of 33 organochlorine compounds. The sites were divided into five groups on the basis of physiographic region and land use. Ten compounds were detected in tissue, and 16 compounds were detected in bed sediment. The most frequently detected compound in both media was p,p'-DDE. Concentrations of total DDT (sum of o,p'- and p,p'-forms of DDD, DDE, and DDT) were statistically different among groups of sites for tissue and sediment (Kruskal-Wallis, P < 0.05). Concentrations in both media were highest in streams draining the west side of the valley. Concentrations of total DDT in tissue were significantly correlated with specific conductance, pH, and total alkalinity (P < 0.05), which are indicators of the proportion of irrigation-return flows in stream discharge. Concentrations in sediment on a dry-weight basis were not correlated with these water-quality parameters, but total-organic- carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations were significantly correlated with specific conductance and pH (P < 0.05). Regressions of the concentration of total DDT in tissue as a function of total DDT in bed sediment were significant and explained as much as 76 percent of the variance in the data. The concentration of total DDT in sediment may be related to mechanisms of soil transport to surface water with bioavailability of compounds related to the concentration of TOC in sediment.

Brown, Larry R.

1998-01-01

239

Did southern Western Ghats of peninsular India serve as refugia for its endemic biota during the Cretaceous volcanism?  

PubMed Central

The Western Ghats (WG) of south India, a global biodiversity hotspot, has experienced complex geological history being part of Gondwana landmass and encountered extensive volcanic activity at the end of Cretaceous epoch. It also has a climatically and topographically heterogeneous landscape. Thus, the WG offer a unique setting to explore the influence of ecological and geological processes on the current diversity and distribution of its biota. To this end, three explicit biogeographical scenarios were hypothesized to evaluate the distribution and diversification of wet evergreen species of the WG – (1) southern WG was a refuge for the wet evergreen species during the Cretaceous volcanism, (2) phylogenetic breaks in the species phylogeny would correspond to geographic breaks (i.e., the Palghat gap) in the WG, and (3) species from each of the biogeographic subdivisions within the WG would form distinct clades. These hypotheses were tested on the centipede genus Digitipes from the WG which is known to be an ancient, endemic, and monophyletic group. The Digitipes molecular phylogeny was subjected to divergence date estimation using Bayesian approach, and ancestral areas were reconstructed using parsimony approach for each node in the phylogeny. Ancestral-area reconstruction suggested 13 independent dispersal events to explain the current distribution of the Digitipes species in the WG. Among these 13 dispersals, two dispersal events were at higher level in the Digitipes phylogeny and were from the southern WG to the central and northern WG independently in the Early Paleocene, after the Cretaceous Volcanism. The remaining 11 dispersal events explained the species’ range expansions of which nine dispersals were from the southern WG to other biogeographic subdivisions in the Eocene-Miocene in the post-volcanic periods where species-level diversifications occurred. Taken together, these results suggest that southern WG might have served as a refuge for Digitipes species during Cretaceous volcanism. PMID:24223267

Joshi, Jahnavi; Karanth, Praveen

2013-01-01

240

Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and expected life detection targets. We have characterized the mineralogy, organic chemistry and microbiology of ten selected sample sites from the Utah desert in close vicinity to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign (organized by International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), NASA Ames and ESA ESTEC). Compared with extremely arid deserts (such as the Atacama), organic and biological materials can be identified in a larger number of samples and subsequently be used to perform correlation studies. Among the important findings of this field research campaign are the diversity in the mineralogical composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles, mainly Bacteria and also Archaea and Eukarya was observed. The dominant factor in measurable bacterial abundance seems to be soil porosity and lower small (clay-sized) particle content. However, correlations between many measured parameters are difficult to establish. Field research conducted during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign shows that the geological history and depositional environment of the region, as well as the mineralogy influence the ability to detect compounds such as amino acids and DNA. Clays are known to strongly absorb and bind organic molecules often preventing extraction by even sophisticated laboratory methods. Our results indicate the need for further development and optimization of extraction procedures that release biological compounds from host matrices to enable the effective detection of biomarkers during future sampling campaigns on Earth and Mars.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W. F. M.; Thiel, C. S.; Quinn, R.; Sephton, M. A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, J. M.; Direito, S. O. L.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; van Sluis, C. A.; Foing, B. H.

2011-07-01

241

Predicting toxic effects of copper on aquatic biota in mineralized areas by using the Biotic Ligand Model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The chemical speciation of metals influences their biological effects. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) is a computational approach to predict chemical speciation and acute toxicological effects of metals on aquatic biota. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency incorporated the BLM into their regulatory water-quality criteria for copper. Results from three different laboratory copper toxicity tests were compared with BLM predictions for simulated test-waters. This was done to evaluate the ability of the BLM to accurately predict the effects of hardness and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron on aquatic toxicity. In addition, we evaluated whether the BLM and the three toxicity tests provide consistent results. Comparison of BLM predictions with two types of Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests shows that there is fairly good agreement between predicted LC50 values computed by the BLM and LC50 values determined from the two toxicity tests. Specifically, the effect of increasing calcium concentration (and hardness) on copper toxicity appears to be minimal. Also, there is fairly good agreement between the BLM and the two toxicity tests for test solutions containing elevated DOC, for which the LC50 is 3-to-5 times greater (less toxic) than the LC50 for the lower-DOC test water. This illustrates the protective effects of DOC on copper toxicity and demonstrates the ability of the BLM to predict these protective effects. In contrast, for test solutions with added iron there is a decrease in LC50 values (increase in toxicity) in results from the two C. dubia toxicity tests, and the agreement between BLM LC50 predictions and results from these toxicity tests is poor. The inability of the BLM to account for competitive iron binding to DOC or DOC fractionation may be a significant shortcoming of the BLM for predicting site- specific water-quality criteria in streams affected by iron-rich acidic drainage in mined and mineralized areas.

Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Adams, M.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Church, Stanley E.; Fey, David L.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.

2006-01-01

242

Application of Johnson et al.'s speciation threshold model to apparent colonization times of island biotas.  

PubMed

Understanding patterns of diversity can be furthered by analysis of the dynamics of colonization, speciation, and extinction on islands using historical information provided by molecular phylogeography. The land birds of the Lesser Antilles are one of the most thoroughly described regional faunas in this context. In an analysis of colonization times, Ricklefs and Bermingham (2001) found that the cumulative distribution of lineages with respect to increasing time since colonization exhibits a striking change in slope at a genetic distance of about 2% mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence (about one million years). They further showed how this heterogeneity could be explained by either an abrupt increase in colonization rates or a mass extinction event. Cherry et al. (2002), referring to a model developed by Johnson et al. (2000), argued instead that the pattern resulted from a speciation threshold for reproductive isolation of island populations from their continental source populations. Prior to this threshold, genetic divergence is slowed by migration from the source, and species of varying age accumulate at a low genetic distance. After the threshold is reached, source and island populations diverge more rapidly, creating heterogeneity in the distribution of apparent ages of island taxa. We simulated of Johnson et al.'s speciation-threshold model, incorporating genetic divergence at rate k and fixation at rate M of genes that have migrated between the source and the island population. Fixation resets the divergence clock to zero. The speciation-threshold model fits the distribution of divergence times of Lesser Antillean birds well with biologically plausible parameter estimates. Application of the model to the Hawaiian avifauna, which does not exhibit marked heterogeneity of genetic divergence, and the West Indian herpetofauna, which does, required unreasonably high migration-fixation rates, several orders of magnitude greater than the colonization rate. However, the plausibility of the speciation-divergence model for Lesser Antillean birds emphasizes the importance of further investigation of historical biogeography on a regional scale for whole biotas, as well as the migration of genes between populations on long time scales and the achievement of reproductive isolation. PMID:15446421

Ricklefs, Robert E; Bermingham, Eldredge

2004-08-01

243

Persistence and transfer of /sup 36/Cl-DDT in the soil and biota of an old-field ecosystem: a six-year balance study  

SciTech Connect

The fate of a 1 kg/ha application of granular chlorine-36-labeled DDT made by helicopter on 10 June 1969 to a 4-ha old-field study area near Urbana, Ohio was traced and quantified in soil and biota through November 1974. Between 1970 and 1974, residues of DDT (DDTR, includes DDT plus metabolites) declined from 22.0 to 3.8 mg/kg tissue in earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and from 9.3 to 2.1 mg/kg in slugs (Deroceras laeve). Levels of DDTR in foliage of grasses and forbs increased from 2-3 mg/kg in 1970 to 7.6 mg/kg in 1974, but remained relatively constant at 1.6 mg/kg in roots. Amounts of residues in samples of air collected at the surface of the soil were positively correlated with amounts in soil and with air temperature. The total quantity of DDTR in the top 12 cm of soil was estimated to be 1779 g in October 1974, or 38% of the amount applied in 1969. Earthworms, which comprised the largest component of animal biomass, contained 5% of the total DDTR in the ecosystem in 1969, compared to 3% in the plants and other biota. As residues declined in earthworms and increased in plants over time, the total DDTR bound in the biota increased until it accounted for 22% of the total DDTR in the ecosystem in 1974. Losses of DDTR from the ecosystem each year were attributed primarily to volatilization from soil, because losses in runoff and emigrating insects and small mammals were negligible. 12 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

Forsyth, D.J.; Peterle, T.J.; Bandy, L.W.

1983-12-01

244

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Tulare Lake bed area, southern San Joaquin Valley, California, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of numerous toxic trace elements and pesticides were measured during 1986 in water, sediment, and biota from three areas near the Tulare Lake Bed, southern San Joaquin Valley, California: Kern National Wildlife Refuge, Pixley National Wildlife Refuge, and Westfarmers evaporation ponds about 5 mi west of Kern National Wildlife Refuge, to determine whether toxic constituents in agricultural-irrigation drainage pose a threat to beneficial uses of water, especially to uses by wildlife. Pesticide residues were found to be low at all three areas. Trace element concentrations were found to be comparatively low at the Kern and Pixley National Wildlife Refuge areas and high at the Westfarmers evaporation ponds. Dissolved selenium concentrations were < 1 micrograms/L (ug/L) in areas on and adjacent to the refuges, but ranged from 110 to 360 ug/L in the saline drainwater impounded in the evaporation ponds. The ratio of mean selenium concentrations in biota from Westfarmers ponds compared to biota from Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge (where adverse effects have been documented) is 5 for waterboatman, 2 for avocet liver, 1 for avocet eggs, and < 1 for widgeongrass. The low concentrations measured at Kern and Pixley National Wildlife Refuges suggest that trace elements and pesticides pose little threat to wildlife there; however, impounded subsurface drainage from agricultural irrigation does pose a threat to wildlife at the nearby Westfarmers ponds. Preliminary results of surveys conducted in 1987 indicated that there are adverse biological effects on shorebirds nesting at the ponds, although interpretation of the magnitude of the effects is premature, pending completion of ongoing studies by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (Author 's abstract)

Schroeder, R.A.; Palawski, D.U.; Skorupa, J.P.

1988-01-01

245

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

246

Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

2009-01-01

247

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea Area, California, 1986-87. Water-Resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled during 1986-87 in the Salton Sea area to determine concentrations of trace elements and pesticides as part of the Department of Interior Irrigation Drainage Program. The sampling sites (12 water, 15 bottom sediment, and 5 biota) were located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The focus of sampling was to determine if contaminants in irrigation drainage from Department of the Interior-sponsored irrigation projects have caused or have the potential to cause substantial harmful effects to humans, fish, or wildlife, or to reduce the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Results indicate that selenium is the major element of concern. Elevated concentrations of selenium in water were restricted to tile-drain effluent. The maximum selenium concentration of 300 micrograms per liter was detected in tile drain 6, and the minimum concentration of 1 microgram per liter was detected in a composite sample of Salton Sea water. The median selenium concentration was 19 micrograms per liter. In contrast to the water, the highest bottom-sediment selenium concentration of 3.3 milligrams per kilogram was in a composite sample from the Salton Sea. Concentrations of boron, chromium, nickel, zinc, and organochlorine pesticide residues were detected.

Setmire, J.G.; Wolfe, J.C.; Stroud, R.K.

1990-01-01

248

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Columbia Basin Project, Washington, 1991-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reconnaissance investigation results indicated that irrigation drainage generally has not adversely affected biota in the Columbia Basin Project. Hazards to biota from large concentrations of certain trace elements in water and bottom sediment, and caused by high evaporation rates in irrigated arid lands, are reduced by imported, dilute Columbia River water. However, boron concentrations in aquatic plants might affect waterfowl feeding on these plants and arsenic concentrations in juvenile coots were similar to those in mallard ducklings who exhibited abnormalities after being fed an arsenic-supplemented diet. During irrigation season, concentrations of boron, nitrate, and dissolved solids in water were increased in the southern wasteways because of water reuse. During non-irrigation season, constituent concentrations were large when stream flows are sustained by return water from tile drains and ground water. However, concentrations of dissolved constituents typically did not exceed standards or criteria for humans, freshwater life, or beneficial uses of the water. In water, the herbicide 2,4-D was detected more than any other pesticide and in concentrations from 0.01 to 1.0 microgram per liter. In bottom sediment, organochlorine insecticides were detected in samples from 19 of 21 sites. In fish collected from some wasteways, chlordane, DDT, and dieldrin concentrations occasionally exceeded freshwater protection criteria.

Embrey, S.S.; Block, E.K.

1995-01-01

249

Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds.  

PubMed

Samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp were collected from the Ramsar site at Mai Po marshes, Hong Kong (south China), and samples of pond sediment, fish, and shrimp, as well as eggs of water birds (Chinese Pond Herons (Ardeola bacchus) and Little Egrets (Egretta garzetta)), were collected from two smaller wetland sites at Jiangsu Province (mid-China), between 2004 and 2007. Accumulation levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the biota were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF). For fish and shrimp, BSAFs of OCPs (3.8-56) were greater than those of PAHs (0.12-6.3). BSAFs and BAFs of 11-79 and 4-34, respectively, were registered for OCPs in eggs of the birds and were greater than those for PAHs (0.11-1.5 and 0.02-1.3, respectively). Assuming that fish were the main prey of the birds, greater bioaccumulation of OCPs was detected for both bird species (BAFs?=4.5-34), while accumulation of PAHs was only detected in Little Egret (BAF=1.3). A significant linear relationship (p<0.01) was observed between concentrations of OCPs in bird eggs and in the prey fish. The present study provides a new possibility of using OCP levels detected in prey fish to predict the extent of OCPs contamination in eggs of waterbirds including the endangered species, as a noninvasive method. PMID:23702571

Kwok, C K; Liang, Y; Leung, S Y; Wang, H; Dong, Y H; Young, L; Giesy, J P; Wong, M H

2013-12-01

250

Field screening of water, soil, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project and the Macos River basin, southwestern Colorado, 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance investigation for the National Irrigation Water Quality Program in 1990 indicated elevated selenium concentrations in some water and biota samples collected in the Dolores Project in southwestern Colorado. High selenium concentrations also were indicated in bird samples collected in the Mancos Project in 1989. In 1994, field screenings were done in parts of the Dolores Project and Mancos River Basin to collect additional selenium data associated with irrigation inthose areas. Selenium is mobilized from soils in newly irrigated areas of the Dolores Project called the Dove Creek area, which includes newly (since 1987) irrigated land north of Cortez and south of Dove Creek.Selenium was detected in 18 of 20stream samples, and the maximum concentration was 12micrograms per liter. The Dove Creek area is unique compared to other study areas of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program becauseselenium concentrations probably are indicative of initial leaching conditions in a newly irrigated area.Selenium concentrations in nine shallow soil samples from the Dove Creek area ranged from 0.13 to 0.20 micrograms per gram. Selenium concentrations in bottom sediment from six ponds were less than the level of concern for fish and wildlife of 4 micrograms per gram. Many biota samples collected in the Dove Creek area had elevated selenium concentrations when compared to various guidelines and effect levels,although selenium concentrations in water, soil, and bottom sediment were relatively low. Selenium concentrations in 12 of 14 aquatic-invertebratesamples from ponds exceeded 3 micrograms per gram dry weight, a dietary guideline for protection of fish and wildlife. The mean seleniumconcentration of 10.3 micrograms per gram dry weight in aquatic bird eggs exceeded the guideline for reduced hatchability of 8 micrograms per gramdry weight. Two ponds in the Dove Creek area had a high selenium hazard rating based on a new protocol for assessing selenium hazard in theenvironment; however, waterfowl were reproducing at the two ponds. Three tributary streams of Mc Elmo Creek that drain irrigated areas of the Montezuma Valley south of the creek were sampled in 1994. Mud Creek probably is the largest source of selenium to Mc Elmo Creek. Most biota samples from Mud Creek had elevated selenium concentrations when compared to guidelines for dietary items and freshwater fish. Selenium concentrations in water samples collected in the Mancos River Basin upstream from Navajo Wash, which includes the Mancos Project, ranged from less than 1 to 10 micrograms per liter. Mud Creek contributed about 74 percent of the selenium load to the upper Mancos River in March 1994.Selenium concentrations were much higher in Navajo Wash; a sample collected in March had 97 micrograms per liter of selenium. Bottom-sediment samples from two ponds in the Mancos Projectexceeded the concentration of concern of 4 micrograms per gram. The highest selenium concentrations in biota samples from streams in the Mancos River Basin were for samples from Navajo Wash. Mostconcentrations in biota in the upper Mancos River Basin were less than guidelines. Mean selenium concentrations in eggs from aquatic birds collected at three ponds in the Mancos Project slightly exceed the guideline associated with reduced hatchability.Five bird livers had a mean selenium concentration of 32.6 micrograms per gram dry weight, whichslightly exceeded the mean concentration of 30 micrograms per gram dry weight that is associated with reproductive impairment. Two of the pondshad a high selenium hazard rating; however, mallard reproduction was observed in 1994 at one of the ponds that had a high selenium-hazard rating.

Butler, D.L.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.

1997-01-01

251

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first appearance of its namesake herbivorous condylarth, Meniscotherium, but Wa-M seemingly lacks APP taxa. Overlying Wa-M is the better known 'Wa-0' fauna in a zone spanning 30 meters of strata and about 120 thousand years of geological time. This has dwarfed mammals and APP taxa, and is overlain in turn by strata with a standard Wa-1 early Eocene fauna. Documentation is still in progress, but it appears that the change from a Cf-3 to a Wa-M fauna lagged behind the onset of the CIE, the Wa-M fauna coincided with maximum excursion of the CIE, and the Wa-0 fauna lagged behind this maximum excursion and filled the recovery phase of the CIE. It is possible that other short-lived faunas will be found in addition to those already known because the events of interest are so short in duration that they may not be preserved in every stratigraphic section. Biotic effects (e.g., dwarfing and other adaptive change, biotic extinction, and biotic origination) are compelling reasons to study global warming, and the PETM provides an opportunity to study warming and sustainability in an event free from human influence.;

Gingerich, P. D.

2012-12-01

252

Competing risks and the development of adaptive management plans for water resources: Field reconnaissance investigation of risks to fishes and other aquatic biota exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (edcs) in lake mead, Nevada USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The analysis and characterization of competing risks for water resources rely on a wide spectrum of tools to evaluate hazards and risks associated with their management. For example, waters of the lower Colorado River stored in reservoirs such as Lake Mead present a wide range of competing risks related to water quantity and water quality. These risks are often interdependent and complicated by competing uses of source waters for sustaining biological resources and for supporting a range of agricultural, municipal, recreational, and industrial uses. USGS is currently conducting a series of interdisciplinary case-studies on water quality of Lake Mead and its source waters. In this case-study we examine selected constituents potentially entering the Lake Mead system, particularly endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Worldwide, a number of environmental EDCs have been identified that affect reproduction, development, and adaptive behaviors in a wide range of organisms. Many EDCs are minimally affected by current treatment technologies and occur in treated sewage effluents. Several EDCs have been detected in Lake Mead, and several substances have been identified that are of concern because of potential impacts to the aquatic biota, including the sport fishery of Lake Mead and endangered razorback suckers (Xyrauchen texanus) that occur in the Colorado River system. For example, altered biomarkers relevant to reproduction and thyroid function in fishes have been observed and may be predictive of impaired metabolism and development. Few studies, however, have addressed whether such EDC-induced responses observed in the field have an ecologically significant effect on the reproductive success of fishes. To identify potential linkages between EDCs and species of management concern, the risk analysis and characterization in this reconnaissance study focused on effects (and attendant uncertainties) that might be expressed by exposed populations. In addition, risk reduction measures that may be of interest to resource managers are considered relative to emerging contaminants in treated effluents, interdependencies among biological resources at risk, and uses of reservoir waters derived from multiple inflows of widely varying qualities. ??2009 ASCE.

Linder, G.; Little, E.E.

2009-01-01

253

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area, southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water, bottom-sediment, and biota samples were collected in 1990-91 to identify water-quality problems associated with irrigation drainage in the Dolores Project area. Concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and selenium in some water samples exceeded aquatic-life criteria. Selenium was associated with irrigaton drainage from the Dolores Project, but other trace elements may be transported into the area in the irrigation water supply. Selenium concentrations exceeded the chronic aquatic-life criterion in water samples from lower McElmo Creek and Navajo Wash, which drain the Montezuma Valley, from newly irrigated areas, and from the Mancos River. The maximum selenium con- centration in water was 88 micrograms per liter from Navajo Wash. Concentrations of herbicides in water were less than concentrations harmful to aquatic life. Selenium concentrations in four bottom-sediment samples exceeded the baseline concentrations for soils in the Western United States. The largest selenium concentrations in biota were in samples from Navajo Wash, from newly irrigated areas north of the Montezuma Valley, and from the Mancos River basin. Selenium concentrations in aquatic-invertebrate samples from the newly irrigated areas exceeded a guideline for food items consumed by fish and wildlife. Selenium concen- trations in whole-body suckers were larger in the San Juan River downstream from the Dolores Project than upstream from the project at Four Corners. Selenium concentrations in fathead minnow samples from two sites were at adverse-effect levels. Mercury concentrations in warm-water game fish in reservoirs in the study area may be of concern to human health. Some concentrations of other trace elements exceeded background concentrations, but the concentrations were not toxicologically significant or the toxicologic significance is not known.

Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Jensen, E.G.

1995-01-01

254

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled during 1986 and 1987 in the Salton Sea area to determine concentrations of trace elements and pesticides as part of the Department of Interior Irrigation Drainage Program. The sampling sites (12 water, 15 bottom sediment, and 5 biota) were located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The focus of sampling was to determine the current or potential threat to the wildlife of the Salton National Wildlife Refuge from irrigation projects sponsored or operated by the Department of the Interior. Results of the investigation indicate that selenium is the major element of concern. Elevated concentrations of selenium in water were restricted to tile-drain effluent. The maximum selenium concentration of 300 microg/L was detected in a tile-drain sample, and the minimum concentration of 1 microg/L was detected in a composite sample of Salton Sea water. The median selenium concentration was 19 microg/L. In contrast to the water, the highest bottom-sediment selenium concentration of 3.3 mg/kg was in a composite sample from the Salton Sea. The selenium detected in samples of waterfowl and fish also are of concern, but, to date, no studies have been done in the Salton Sea area to determine if selenium has caused adverse biological effects. Concentrations of boron and manganese were elevated in tile-drain samples throughout the Imperial Valley. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl were at levels that could cause reproduction impairment. Elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel, and zinc were detected in the Whitewater River , but they were not associated with irrigation drainage. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in bottom sediment throughout the study area at levels approaching those measured more than 10 years ago. More detailed studies would be needed to determine if these residues are affecting the waterfowl. (USGS)

Setmire, J.G.; Wolfe, J.C.; Stroud, R.K.

1990-01-01

255

New 40Ar/ 39Ar dating results from the Shanwang Basin, eastern China: Constraints on the age of the Shanwang Formation and associated biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluvio-lacustrine sequence of the Shanwang Basin, eastern China, preserves a rich and important terrestrial fossil fauna and flora; the exceptional preservation of these fossils reveals the dynamics of ancient mammalian ecosystems and plant biology. However, the timing of this sedimentary sequence has been the subject of debate for decades. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting the detailed results of 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis of the basalts above, below, and within the Shanwang Formation. These dates place stringent constraints on the age of Shanwang Formation and associated biota. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages obtained from basalts of the Niushan and Yaoshan Formations, which underlie and overlie the Shanwang Formation, are 21.0 ± 2.5 Ma (2?, full external error) and 17.3 ± 1.5 Ma (2?, full external error), respectively. The 40Ar/ 39Ar age of the basalt in the Shanwang Formation is 17-18 Ma. Given the age constraints of the basalts of the Yaoshan and Shanwang Formations, the age of the Shanwang biota is estimated to be ca. 17 Ma, late Burdigalian of the Early Miocene, indicating that the deposition of this fauna coincided with the onset of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. The results provide new age constraints on the Shanwang mammal fauna, and independently support interpretations that this fauna can be assigned to chronozone MN4, and correlated with middle Orleanian of the European Land Mammal Age, and to late Hemingfordian of the North American Land Mammal Age. Biological diversity of the Shanwang Formation could reflect the global-scale mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum.

He, Huaiyu; Deng, Chenglong; Pan, Yongxin; Deng, Tao; Luo, Zhaohua; Sun, Jimin; Zhu, Rixiang

2011-07-01

256

Relationships Between sea bed Morphology, Chemosynthetic Biota and Fluid Flow in the Source area of the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sissano or Aitape tsunami that struck the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG) in the evening of July 17th 1998 left more than 2,000 people dead and 12,000 homeless as three villages were completely destroyed and four more badly damaged. The source of the local tsunami remains controversial and has been postulated as due to seabed dislocation either by thrust or sediment slump, although there is increasing recognition that the latter alternative is most likely. The alternative source mechanisms of the tsunami were addressed during 1999 to 2001 by offshore studies including the acquisition of multibeam bathymetry, sub-bottom profiling, sediment sampling, seabed observation from the JAMSTEC Dolphin 3K Remotely Operated Vehicle and Shinkai 2000 Manned Submersible and seismic profiling. One of the most intriguing discoveries during the offshore surveys was of extant chemosynthetic biological communities, comprising bacterial mats, mussels, and tubeworms. These were found in the amphitheatre region where the source of the tsunami was located. Their presence indicates the active expulsion of sulphide- and methane-rich pore fluids from the sediment. The spatial variation and style of the faunas provides evidence on the mechanisms controlling fluid expulsion, the chemical composition of the fluid, and the levels of fluid flow. There is also undoubtedly a close association between the chemosynthetic faunas, levels of fluid flow and the generation of sediment slumping. We present evidence that shows that the variations in the type and concentration of biota together with variation in the location of active venting and sulphide rich sediments allows discrimination between areas of recently active and less active seabed deformation. We surmise that variations in extant mussel shell size may enable the relative timing of deformation to be elucidated. In conclusion, we propose that detailed mapping of the features and biotas described above supports a slump origin for the 1998 PNG event and may also provide important evidence in identifying seabed areas elsewhere that may be or become unstable.

Tappin, D. R.; McMurtry, G. M.; Matsumoto, T.

2001-12-01

257

Changes in the properties of soils and soil biota in the impact zone of the aerotechnogenic emissions from the Kandalaksha aluminum smelter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparative analysis of the changes in the properties of the soils and soil biota in the past ten years along the gradient of pollution with aerotechnogenic emission from the Kandalaksha aluminum smelter in response to a decrease in the emission volume has been performed. The concentrations of fluorine compounds (the priority pollutant) in the emissions and in the organic soil horizons in the impact zone significantly decreased in 2011 relative to 2001. The concentrations of Al decreased only in close vicinity to the smelter (up to 2 km). The concentrations of F, Ca, and Mg in the liquid phase were higher than those in the solid phase, and these elements migrated to greater distances from the source of the contamination (up to 15-20 km). The elements Si, Al, Fe, and P were contained mostly in the solid phase and were mainly deposited within the 5-km zone. The acidity of the litter near the smelter decreased by almost by two pH units in the nearest zone (<2 km). The decrease in the amount of contaminants in the emissions resulted in the narrowing of the zone of the maximum soil contamination from 2.5 to 1.5 km from the emission source; the zones of strong and moderate contamination narrowed by 5 km. The regularities of the changes in the numbers and biomasses of the main groups of microorganisms in the soils of the permanent sampling plots did not change during the past ten years. The emissions inhibited the development of the fungal biota. The prokaryotic part of the soil microbiota and, particularly, the actinomycetes proved to be tolerant to the emitted contaminants. It was suggested that the changes in the structure of the fungal and actinomycetal communities should be used to monitor the state of the soil ecosystems affected by the emissions from the aluminum smelter.

Evdokimova, G. A.; Korneikova, M. V.; Mozgova, N. P.

2013-10-01

258

Ten-year assessment of agricultural management and land-use practices on pesticide loads and risk to aquatic biota of an oxbow lake in the Mississippi Delta, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current chapter examined the combined influence of changing row crop production, implementation of agricultural Best Management Practices (BMPs), and enrollment of 112 ha into Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on pesticide contamination and potential risk to lake aquatic biota in a 914-ha Beasl...

259

Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for transport to streams and irrigation drains that are tributary to the Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Colorado Rivers. Selenium concentrations in about 64\\x11percent of water samples collected from the lower Gunnison River and about 50 percent of samples from the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line exceeded the U.S.\\x11Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 5\\x11micrograms per liter for protection of aquatic life. Almost all selenium concentrations in samples collected during the nonirrigation season from Mancos Shale areas exceeded the aquatic-life criterion. The maximum selenium concentrations in surface-water samples were 600\\x11micrograms per liter in the Uncompahgre Project area and 380\\x11micrograms per liter in the Grand Valley. Irrigation drainage from the Uncompahgre Project and the Grand Valley might account for as much as 75 percent of the selenium load in the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line. The primary source areas of selenium were the eastern side of the Uncompahgre Project and the western one-half of the Grand Valley, where there is extensive irrigation on soils derived from Mancos Shale. The largest mean selenium loads from tributary drainages were 14.0 pounds per day from Loutsenhizer Arroyo in the Uncompahgre Project and 12.8 pounds per day from Reed Wash in the Grand Valley. Positive correlations between selenium loads and dissolved-solids loads could indicate that salinity-control projects designed to decrease dissolved-solids loads also could decrease selenium loads from the irrigated areas. Selenium concentrations in irrigation drainage in the Grand Valley were much higher than concentrations predicted by simple evaporative concentration of irrigation source water. Selenium probably is removed from pond water by chemical and biological processes and incorporated into bottom sediment. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 47 micrograms per gram from a pond on the eastern side of the

Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

1996-01-01

260

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Summary of 1983 progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term program for studying possible effects from operation of the Navy's ELF Communication System is being conducted on biota and ecosystems components in northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Sixteen general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the ELF System are being examined. Formulation of an ELF Ecological Monitoring Program was completed in early 1982

J. Zapotosky; M. M. Abromovage; J. O. Enk

1984-01-01

261

CONSOLIDATION OF BASELINE INFORMATION, DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY, AND INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL IMPACTS ON FRESHWATER SHELLFISH, INSECTS, AND OTHER BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

A computerized information system was developed for storing, retrieving, and analyzing data collected during limnological surveys. To facilitate storage of information, a series of hierarchial codes was developed. These codes not only reduced storage requirements, but also helped...

262

Ethoprophos fate on soil-water interface and effects on non-target terrestrial and aquatic biota under Mediterranean crop-based scenarios.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the environmental fate of the insecticide and nematicide ethoprophos in the soil-water interface following the pesticide application in simulated maize and potato crops under Mediterranean agricultural conditions, particularly of irrigation. Focus was given to the soil-water transfer pathways (leaching and runoff), to the pesticide transport in soil between pesticide application (crop row) and non-application areas (between crop rows), as well as to toxic effects of the various matrices on terrestrial and aquatic biota. A semi-field methodology mimicking a "worst-case" ethoprophos application (twice the recommended dosage for maize and potato crops: 100% concentration v/v) in agricultural field situations was used, in order to mimic a possible misuse by the farmer under realistic conditions. A rainfall was simulated under a slope of 20° for both crop-based scenarios. Soil and water samples were collected for the analysis of pesticide residues. Ecotoxicity of soil and aquatic samples was assessed by performing lethal and sublethal bioassays with organisms from different trophic levels: the collembolan Folsomia candida, the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Although the majority of ethoprophos sorbed to the soil application area, pesticide concentrations were detected in all water matrices illustrating pesticide transfer pathways of water contamination between environmental compartments. Leaching to groundwater proved to be an important transfer pathway of ethoprophos under both crop-based scenarios, as it resulted in high pesticide concentration in leachates from Maize (130µgL(-1)) and Potato (630µgL(-1)) crop scenarios, respectively. Ethoprophos application at the Potato crop scenario caused more toxic effects on terrestrial and aquatic biota than at the Maize scenario at the recommended dosage and lower concentrations. In both crop-based scenarios, ethoprophos moved with the irrigation water flow to the soil between the crop rows where no pesticide was applied, causing toxic effects on terrestrial organisms. The two simulated agricultural crop-based scenarios had the merit to illustrate the importance of transfer pathways of pesticides from soil to groundwater through leaching and from crop rows to the surrounding soil areas in a soil-water interface environment, which is representative for irrigated agricultural crops under Mediterranean conditions. PMID:24562181

Leitão, Sara; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Van den Brink, Paul J; Ribeiro, Rui; José Cerejeira, M; Sousa, José Paulo

2014-05-01

263

Soil pollution associated to the El Borracho Pb-Ag mine (Badajoz Province, Spain). Metal transfer to biota: oak-tree and moss.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Borracho mine was active since Roman times, but with its higher production period on 19th Century. Mine closure occured without restoration works and nowadays the mining area is dedicated to deer hunting activities. In order to evaluate heavy metals distribution on mining tailings and surrounding soils of the studied area, 40 samples of dumps, soils and sediments were taken. Samples from the mine tailings were collected with an Eijkelkamp soil core sampler for undisturbed samples, with a vertical constant spacing of 25 cm. With this procedure, a total of 21 samples were taken in two points at main dump. Samples of Oak-tree leaves and moss were taken to evaluate metal transfer to biota. Analytical determinations have included soil parameters (pH, conductivity, organic matter content), and total metal contents in geological and biological samples by EDXRF. Analytical determinations shows higher metal contents in dumps, especially in surficial samples, 17,700 mg kg-1 and 470 mg kg-1 in average of Pb and Zn respectively, and lower contents in soils, 5,200 mg kg-1 and 300 mg kg-1, and sediments, 3,500 mg kg-1 and 120 mg kg-1. Metal contents in tailings profiles shows higher levels of Pb, Zn and Cu at 3.5 meters depth, a zone with lower grainsize and higher moisture. Differences in efficiency of extraction techniques and metal remobilization inside the dump can be an explanation for this enrichment level. Metal contents in agricultural soils exceeded maximum allowed levels by European Community (300 mg kg-1 for Pb and Zn and 140 mg kg-1 for Cu). Metal contents in biota evidence that Oak-tree bioaccumulates some metals, especially those with higher mobility in acidic conditions like Zn and Sb, with averages Bioaccumulation factor (BAF = plant concentration/soil concentration) of 0.48 and 0.85 respectively. Moss reaches high concentrations of Pb and Zn (3,000 mg kg-1 and 175 mg kg-1 in average respectively). Uptake pattern of Pb and Zn by plants leaves and mosses seems to be similar and can be characterized by logistic curves, with higher affinity of mosses to uptake metals from soils.

López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Naharro, Elena; García-Noguero, Eva Maria; Higueras, Pablo

2014-05-01

264

Urban stormwater inputs to an adapted coastal wetland: role in water treatment and impacts on wetland biota.  

PubMed

The Lake Pertobe wetland system is a semi-natural wetland that has been modified primarily for recreational use. However, this lake system receives stormwater from much of the central business district of Warrnambool City (Victoria, Australia) and serves as a buffer zone between the stormwater system and the Merri River and Merri Marine Sanctuary. This work considers the impact of stormwater inputs on Lake Pertobe and the effectiveness of the lake in protecting the associated marine sanctuary. Sediment contaminants (including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) and water quality parameters within the lake, groundwater and stormwater system were measured. Water quality parameters were highly variable between stormwater drains and rain events. Suspended solids rapidly settled along open drains and shortly after entering the lake. Groundwater inputs increased both salinity and dissolved nitrogen in some stormwater drains. Some evidence of bioaccumulation of metals in the food chain was identified and sediment concentrations of several PAHs were very high. The lake acted as a sink for PAHs and some metals and reductions in Escherichia coli, biological oxygen demand and total phosphorus were observed, affording some protection to the associated marine sanctuary. Nutrient retention was inadequate overall and it was identified that managing the lake primarily as a recreational facility impacted on the effectiveness of stormwater treatment in the system. PMID:24747245

Howitt, Julia A; Mondon, Julie; Mitchell, Bradley D; Kidd, Toby; Eshelman, Bruce

2014-07-01

265

Transfer of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems--default concentration ratios for aquatic biota in the Erica Tool.  

PubMed

The process of assessing risk to the environment following a given release of radioactivity requires the quantification of activity concentrations in environmental media and reference organisms. The methodology adopted by the ERICA Integrated Approach involves the application of concentration ratios (CR values) and distribution coefficients (K(d) values) for aquatic systems. Within this paper the methodologies applied to derive default transfer parameters, collated within the ERICA Tool databases, are described to provide transparency and traceability in the documentation process. Detailed information is provided for the CR values used for marine and freshwater systems. Of the total 372 CR values derived for the marine ecosystem, 195 were identified by literature review. For the freshwater system, the number of values based on review was less, but still constituted 129 from a total of 372 values. In both types of aquatic systems, 70-80% of the data gaps have been filled by employing "preferable" approaches such as those based on substituting values from taxonomically similar organisms or biogeochemically similar elements. PMID:18343543

Hosseini, A; Thørring, H; Brown, J E; Saxén, R; Ilus, E

2008-09-01

266

Radiological benchmarks for screening contaminants of potential concern for effects on aquatic biota at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

A hazardous waste site may contain hundreds of contaminants; therefore, it is important to screen contaminants of potential concern for the ecological risk assessment. Often this screening is done as part of a screening assessment, the purpose of which is to evaluate the available data, identify data gaps, and screen contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by using a set of toxicological benchmarks. These benchmarks are helpful in determining whether contaminants warrant further assessment or are at a level that requires no further attention. Unlike exposures to chemicals, which are expressed as the concentration in water or sediment, exposures to radionuclides are expressed as the dose rate received by the organism. The recommended acceptable dose rate to natural populations of aquatic biota is 1 rad d{sup {minus}1}. Blaylock, Frank, and O`Neal provide formulas and exposure factors for estimating the dose rates to representative aquatic organisms. Those formulas were used herein to calculate the water and sediment concentrations that result in a total dose rate of 1 rad d{sup {minus}1} to fish for selected radionuclides. These radiological benchmarks are intended for use at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation and at the Portsmouth and Paducah gaseous diffusion plants as screening values only to show the nature and extent of contamination and identify the need for additional site-specific investigation.

NONE

1998-07-01

267

Predicting low biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs by using infinite-sink and equilibrium extraction methods as well as BC-inclusive modeling.  

PubMed

Sequestration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) results in the slow release of PAHs from sediment to the aqueous environment, thus limiting bioavailability. Three methods to account for the limited bioavailability of native PAHs to the gastropod Hinia reticulata were therefore investigated: (i) infinite-sink extractions that measure desorption; (ii) equilibrium extractions that measure freely dissolved pore water concentrations and (iii) black carbon-inclusive modeling. The rapidly desorbing fraction was estimated based on the amount desorbed by Tenax. Relatively small amounts of PAHs (<9%) were present in F(rapid) and the observed solid-water distribution ratios (K(d,obs)) were approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than literature K(oc) values. Biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) measured in the gastropod H. reticulata ranged from 0.02 to 0.07, 10-140 times lower than the theoretical value of approximately 1-2. The BSAFs calculated using the rapidly desorbing fraction or freely dissolved aqueous concentrations were also much lower than the theoretical value, and median values differed from the measured BSAFs by only a factor of 1.5-9. Furthermore, the result of using a BC-inclusive BSAF model could explain the deviation from the theoretical BSAF value and account for the low bioavailability of these native PAHs to H. reticulata. Risk assessment strategies of in situ contamination should therefore include a combination of chemical methods accounting for bioavailability, as well as bioaccumulation studies. PMID:16434080

Oen, Amy M P; Schaanning, Morten; Ruus, Anders; Cornelissen, Gerard; Källqvist, Torsten; Breedveld, Gijs D

2006-08-01

268

Black carbon and ecological factors affect in situ biota to sediment accumulation factors for hydrophobic organic compounds in flood plain lakes.  

PubMed

Ecological factors may play an important role in the bioaccumulation of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Geochemical and bioaccumulation behavior of these chemicals also appears to be related to the presence of black carbon (BC) in sediment. In situ PCB and PAH biota to sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) for benthic invertebrates, as well as 6h Tenax-extractable (fast-desorbing) concentrations and lake characteristics (including BC in sediment), were determined for different seasons in chemically similar but ecologically different lakes (fish-dominated turbid, algae-dominated turbid, and macrophyte-dominated). BSAFs could be explained with a model including a term for Freundlich sorption to BC and a term for uptake from fast-desorbing concentrations in ingested sediments. Freundlich coefficients for in situ sorption to BC (KF) were calculated from slow desorbing fractions and BC contents and agreed well with literature values for KF. Furthermore, in contrast to BSAFs based on total extracted concentrations, Tenax-based BSAF showed a strong positive correlation with log Kow. We therefore argue that BC caused slow desorption and limited BSAFs in these lakes. Seasonal and lake effects on BSAFs were detected, while the differences between oligochaetes and other invertebrates were small for PCBs and within a factor of 10 for PAHs. BSAFs for pyrogenic PAHs were much lower than for PCBs, which was explained by stronger sorption to BC and lesser uptake from ingested sediment. PMID:15926558

Moermond, Caroline T A; Zwolsman, John J G; Koelmans, Albert A

2005-05-01

269

A hybrid empirical-mechanistic modeling approach for extrapolating biota-sediment accumulation factors and bioaccumulation factors across species, time, and/or ecosystems.  

PubMed

An approach is presented for extrapolating field-measured biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) across species, time, and/or ecosystems. This approach, called the hybrid bioaccumulation modeling approach, uses mechanistic bioaccumulation models to extrapolate field-measured bioaccumulation data (i.e., BSAFs and BAFs) to new sets of ecological conditions. The hybrid approach predicts relative differences in bioaccumulation using food web models with two sets of ecological conditions and parameters: One set for the ecosystem where the BSAFs and/or BAFs were measured, and the other set for the ecological conditions and parameters for which the extrapolated BSAFs and/or BAFs are desired. The field-measured BSAF (or BAF) is extrapolated by adjusting the measured BSAF (or BAF) by the predicted relative difference, which is derived from two separate solutions of the food web model. Extrapolations of polychlorinated biphenyl BSAFs and BAFs for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan to Green Bay of Lake Michigan (Green Bay, WI, USA) walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), as well as Hudson River largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), resulted in generally better agreement between measured and predicted BSAFs and BAFs with the hybrid approach. PMID:16833159

Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

2006-07-01

270

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Sun River area, west-central Montana, 1986-87  

SciTech Connect

The area of study included the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freeze-out Lake Game Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled at selected sites and analyzed for inorganic and organic constituents that could be toxic at large concentrations. Although selenium was of primary concern, other trace elements and selected pesticides were also analyzed. Some water quality problems have been prevalent for many years in the Sun River Irrigation Projects, including the Sun River and Muddy Creek. However, during this study, most sampling sites were free of concentrations of toxic constituents that are in excess of established criteria and standards. There was little change in arsenic, boron, mercury, and selenium concentrations in fish and invertebrates at Sun river sampling sites upstream and downstream from the irrigation project. Presently, the most serious threat within the irrigation project appears to be from nitrate in groundwater. Water from some wells contains nitrate concentration in excess of drinking water standards established for the State of Montana. The largest selenium concentrations in water and bottom sediment were from seeps that surround Benton Lake, with maximum concentrations of 580 mg/L in water and biological samples. Several eared-grebe livers from Freezeout Lake and several coot livers and eggs from Benton Lake had selenium concentrations indicative of contamination. 58 refs., 12 figs., 21 tabs.

Knapton, J.R.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

1988-01-01

271

Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effects on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington : Annual Report 3/15/00-3/14/01.  

SciTech Connect

The University of Washington, College of Forest Resources and the Center for Streamside Studies in Seattle, Washington, is being funded by the Bonneville Power Administration to conduct a three-year research project to measure the watershed scale response of stream habitat to abandoned mine waste, the dispersion of metals, and their effects on biota in the Methow River basin. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are processes and pathways that result in the dispersion of metals from their source at abandoned mines to biological receptors in the Methow River. The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Assess ecological risk due to metal contamination from mines near the Methow; (2) Measure impact of metals from mines on groundwater and sediments in Methow River; (3) Measure response of organisms in the Methow River to excess metals in the sediments of the Methow River; (4) Recommend restoration guidelines and biological goals that target identified pathways and processes of metal pollution affecting salmon habitat in the Methow basin; and (5) Submit peer review journal publications. When concluded, this study will contribute to the advancement of current best management practices by describing the processes responsible for the release of metals from small abandoned mine sites in an arid environment, their dispersal pathways, and their chemical and biological impacts on the Methow River. Based on these processes and pathways, specific remediation recommendations will be proposed.

Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

2001-06-01

272

Microbe-I: fungal biota analyses of the Japanese experimental module KIBO of the International Space Station before launch and after being in orbit for about 460 days.  

PubMed

In addition to the crew, microbes also find their way aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, microbial monitoring is necessary for the health and safety of the crew and for general maintenance of the facilities of this station. Samples were collected from three sites in the Japanese experimental module KIBO on the ISS (air diffuser, handrail, and surfaces) for analysis of fungal biota approximately 1 year after this module had docked with the ISS. Samples taken from KIBO before launch and from our laboratory were used as controls. In the case of KIBO, both microbe detection sheet (MDS) and swab culture tests of orbital samples were negative. The MDS were also examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy; no microbial structures were detected. However, fungal DNAs were detected by real-time PCR and analyzed by the clone library method; Alternaria sp. and Malassezia spp. were the dominant species before launch and in space, respectively. The dominant species found in specimens from the air conditioner diffuser, lab bench, door push panel, and facility surfaces on our laboratory (ground controls) were Inonotus sp., Cladosporium sp., Malassezia spp., and Pezicula sp., respectively. The fungi in the KIBO were probably derived from contamination due to humans, while those in our laboratory came from the environment (e.g., the soil). In conclusion, the cleanliness in KIBO was equivalent to that in a clean room environment on the ground. PMID:21950271

Satoh, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Sugita, Takashi; Tsukii, Yuuji; Takatori, Kosuke; Benno, Yoshimi; Makimura, Koichi

2011-12-01

273

A simple tool for the assessment of water quality in polluted lagoon systems: A case study for Küçükçekmece Lagoon, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lagoon systems have particular ecological, morphological and hydrodynamic characteristics and act like transitional zones between inland and open waters. The aim of this study is to develop a Lagoon Water Quality Index (L-WQI) for environmental control of polluted lagoon systems by focusing on primary problems such as increasing stress on aquatic biota, eutrophication and organic pollution. The indicators used in

Mehmet Ümit Taner; Beyza Üstün; Ay?en Erdinçler

2011-01-01

274

Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2013-01-01

275

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: Plan and summary of 1982 progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Ecological Monitoring Program is to study ecological and\\/or biological characteristics of selected biota in an environment that includes natural stresses and low-level ELF electromagnetic fields. Sixteen general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the System area are being examined. Study sites were selected in 1982, and will be examined further in 1983. Statistical methods

J. E. Zapotosky; M. M. Abromavage

1983-01-01

276

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program summary of 1990 progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long term ecological monitoring program is being conducted to monitor for possible electromagnetic effects that operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System might have to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer reviewed and a competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and work on most studies began in late summer of that year.

M. M. Abromavage; J. E. Zapotosky

1991-01-01

277

Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability. PMID:15797030

Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

2005-03-29

278

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Sun River area, west-central Montana, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sun River area was selected for a reconnaissance investigation of irrigation drainage because sufficient information existed to indicate that potential problems of a toxic nature might exist. The area of study included the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freeze-out Lake Game Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Water, bottom sediment , and biota were sampled at selected sites and analyzed for inorganic and organic constituents that could be toxic at large concentrations. Although selenium was of primary concern, other trace elements and selected pesticides were also analyzed. Some water quality problems have been prevalent for many years in the Sun River Irrigation Projects, including the Sun River and Muddy Creek. However, during this study, most sampling sites were free of concentrations of toxic constituents that are in excess of established criteria and standards. There was little change in arsenic, boron, mercury, and selenium concentrations in fish and invertebrates at Sun River sampling sites upstream and downstream from the irrigation project. Presently, the most serious threat within the irrigation project appears to be from nitrate in groundwater. Water from some wells contains nitrate concentration in excess of drinking water standards (10 mg/L) established for the State of Montana. The largest selenium concentrations in water and bottom sediment were from seeps that surround Benton Lake, with maximum concentrations of 580 mg/L in water and biological samples. Several eared-grebe livers from Freezeout Lake and several coot livers and eggs from Benton Lake had selenium concentrations indicative of contamination. (See also W89-07064) (Author 's abstract)

Knapton, J.R.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

1988-01-01

279

How much is enough? Minimal responses of water quality and stream biota to partial retrofit stormwater management in a suburban neighborhood.  

PubMed

Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens) that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km(2) Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). In 2007-2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment) subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year) physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment) and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments), we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions). Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and parking lots). Further research is needed to define the minimum effect threshold and restoration trajectories for retrofitting catchments to improve the health of stream ecosystems. PMID:24465468

Roy, Allison H; Rhea, Lee K; Mayer, Audrey L; Shuster, William D; Beaulieu, Jake J; Hopton, Matthew E; Morrison, Matthew A; St Amand, Ann

2014-01-01

280

Analysis of perfluorinated compounds in biota by microextraction with tetrahydrofuran and liquid chromatography/ion isolation-based ion-trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An analytical method combining both a simple, fast and efficient solvent microextraction and a sensitive and selective monitoring mode, based on ion isolation ion-trap mass spectrometry (MS), was developed for analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in biota. The method involved the vortex-shaking of 0.2g of tissue sample and 800microL of tetrahydrofuran (THF):water (75:25, v/v) for 7min, subsequent centrifugation for 13min and direct quantitation of PFCs in the extract against solvent-based calibration curves. Selection of solvent composition was based on Hildebrand solubility parameters and their components (i.e. dispersion, dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding forces). Recoveries in samples for PFCs with hydrocarbon chain lengths between C(4) and C(14) ranged from 85 to 111%, with relative standard deviations between 1 and 11%. The ion isolation monitoring mode, proposed for the first time for ion-trap-MS quantitation, proved to be effective in avoiding space-charge effects caused by co-eluting matrix components while keeping the sensitivity of full scan MS operation. Detection limits of the method were in the range 0.8-6ngg(-1) for perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFACs) and 0.4-0.8ngg(-1) for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs) in wet weight samples. The method was validated using a reference material made up of flounder muscle and by comparison with triple quadrupole MS measurements and it was applied to the determination of PFCs in liver and muscle samples from sea birds and fishes. Only PFASs were found in samples at quantifiable levels (2.9 and 13.1ngg(-1)) while PFACs were below the respective quantitation limits. This method allows quick and simple microextraction of PFCs with minimal solvent consumption, while delivering accurate and precise data. PMID:20444464

Luque, Noelia; Ballesteros-Gómez, Ana; van Leeuwen, Stefan; Rubio, Soledad

2010-06-11

281

Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in 1992-93 from irrigation drainage areas and wetlands of the Wind River Federal Irrigation Project, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. Most samples collected had concentrations of chemical constituents less than the established levels of concern for water, bottom sediment, and biota. In the Little Wind Unit irrigation area, however, selenium and mercury concentrations in water exceeded criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Six water samples analyzed from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 had selenium concentrations that equaled or exceeded 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of mercury in water were 0.1 micrograms per liter or less, except at four sites: one sample collected in 1993 from Sharp Nose Draw (4.9 micrograms per liter) and three samples collected in 1992 from Little Wind Unit and Johnstown Unit (0.2 micrograms per liter). Mercury concentrations in all bottom-sediment samples were less than 0.02 micrograms per liter, except at Sharp Nose Pond where a concentration of 0.02 micrograms per liter was measured. Selenium concentrations in some aquatic vegetation, inverte- brates, fish, bird eggs, and bird livers collected from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 exceeded established levels of concern. At Goose Pond and Sharp Nose Pond, selenium in the livers of five bird samples collected exceeded the 10 micrograms per gram level associated with reproductive failure in aquatic birds. Mercury concentrations in the livers of birds sampled at Sharp Nose Pond also were greater than suggested levels in dietary items for the protection of sensitive species of mammals and birds that regularly consume aquatic organisms.

Grasso, Dennis N.; Jennings, Mary E.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.

1995-01-01

282

Are standard tests sensitive enough to evaluate effects of human pharmaceuticals in aquatic biota? Facing changes in research approaches when performing risk assessment of drugs.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the presence of pharmaceutical products in aquatic environments is not only common, but is also of significant concern regarding the adverse effect they may produce to aquatic biota. In order to determine the adverse effects of caffeine (CAF), ibuprofen (IBU), carbamazepine (CBZ) and novobiocin (NOV), at environmental occurring concentrations, standardized endpoints applied in current guidelines were evaluated in four organisms including bioluminescence response in Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition in Isochrysis galbana (marine water) and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (fresh water) and fertilization and embryo-larval development in Paracentrotus lividus. To reach this aim bioassays were implemented by exposing organisms to water spiked with drugs dissolved in DMSO (0.001% v/v). Risk characterization was performed, calculating the environmental impact of drugs by calculating environmental concentration and predicted no effect concentration ratio (MEC/PNEC). Results indicate that acute toxicity was found above environmental concentrations in the order of mg L(-1) for bacteria bioluminescence, microalgae growth inhibition and sea urchin fertilization. However, teratogenicity was observed on sea urchin after exposure to environmental concentrations of drugs at 0.00001 mg L(-1); at this concentration CBZ and IBU were found to reduce significantly the embryo-larval development compared to controls (p<0.01). The risk calculated for selected drugs suggested they are harmless for aquatic environment except when applying the embryo-larval development endpoint. Endpoints applied in this study showed the necessity of using more sensitive responses, when assessing risk of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments, since endpoints applied in current guidelines may not be suitable. PMID:25000509

Aguirre-Martínez, G V; Owuor, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Salamanca, M J; Del Valls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

2015-02-01

283

How Much Is Enough? Minimal Responses of Water Quality and Stream Biota to Partial Retrofit Stormwater Management in a Suburban Neighborhood  

PubMed Central

Decentralized stormwater management approaches (e.g., biofiltration swales, pervious pavement, green roofs, rain gardens) that capture, detain, infiltrate, and filter runoff are now commonly used to minimize the impacts of stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of retrofit, parcel-scale stormwater management practices for improving downstream aquatic ecosystem health. A reverse auction was used to encourage homeowners to mitigate stormwater on their property within the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA). In 2007–2008, 165 rain barrels and 81 rain gardens were installed on 30% of the properties in four experimental (treatment) subcatchments, and two additional subcatchments were maintained as controls. At the base of the subcatchments, we sampled monthly baseflow water quality, and seasonal (5×/year) physical habitat, periphyton assemblages, and macroinvertebrate assemblages in the streams for the three years before and after treatment implementation. Given the minor reductions in directly connected impervious area from the rain barrel installations (11.6% to 10.4% in the most impaired subcatchment) and high total impervious levels (13.1% to 19.9% in experimental subcatchments), we expected minor or no responses of water quality and biota to stormwater management. There were trends of increased conductivity, iron, and sulfate for control sites, but no such contemporaneous trends for experimental sites. The minor effects of treatment on streamflow volume and water quality did not translate into changes in biotic health, and the few periphyton and macroinvertebrate responses could be explained by factors not associated with the treatment (e.g., vegetation clearing, drought conditions). Improvement of overall stream health is unlikely without additional treatment of major impervious surfaces (including roads, apartment buildings, and parking lots). Further research is needed to define the minimum effect threshold and restoration trajectories for retrofitting catchments to improve the health of stream ecosystems. PMID:24465468

Roy, Allison H.; Rhea, Lee K.; Mayer, Audrey L.; Shuster, William D.; Beaulieu, Jake J.; Hopton, Matthew E.; Morrison, Matthew A.; St. Amand, Ann

2014-01-01

284

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace-element concentrations in water were near analytical reporting limits; none exceeded State or Federal water-quality standards or criteria. Trace elements that were present at all sites in analytically detectable concentrations (in micrograms per liter) included arsenic (2 to 7), boron (40 to 130), uranium (0.7 to 3.5), vanadium (1 to 6) and zinc (less than 3 to 42). The ranges of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury concentrations in water analyzed during previous investigations. Selenium concentrations ranged from less than 1 (the reporting limit) to 6 micrograms per liter and did not exceed State of Federal water-quality standards or criteria. Concentrations of most trace elements in bottom sediment were similar to geometric mean concentrations in study area soils and were within the expected 95-percent range of concentrations in soils in the Western United States. Mercury concentrations in 9 of the 18 bottom-sediment samples exceeded the 95th-percentile concentration for mercury in area soils. Selenium concentration for selenium in area soils and, in 1 sample, exceeded the upper limit of the expected 95-percent range for selenium in Western United States soils. Most organochlorine compunds in bottom sediment were lower than analytical reporting limits. Only DDE (0.2 micrograms per kilogram) and DDT (0.3 micrograms per kilogram) were detected in bottom sediment from the Portneuf River. Except for mercury and selenium, concentrations of most trace elements in biota were not considered high enough to be harmful to humans or wildlife. Some mercury concentrations in fish exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th-percentile concentration and were at levels that might not be safe for human consumption, especially for pregnant women. Elevated mercury concentrations in fish-eating waterbirds, such as double-crested cormorants, indicates biomagnification in the food chain. Selenium concentrations generally were low except in mallard livers (6.6 to 41.8 micrograms per gram, dry weight). This range is within the range of selen

Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.

1990-01-01

285

Areas Susceptible to Irrigation-Induced Selenium Contamination of Water and Biota in the Western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of land irrigated for agriculture, has been identified as being susceptible. Biological data were used to evaluate the reliability of the map. In 12 of DOl's 26 study areas, concentrations of selenium measured in bird eggs were elevated sufficiently to significantly reduce hatchability of the eggs. The GIS map identifies 9 of those 12 areas. Deformed bird embryos having classic symptoms of selenium toxicosis were found in four of the study areas, and the map identifies all four as susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination.

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Peltz, Lorri A.

1999-01-01

286

What's in the Biota Bag? Examining Australian Fossil Biota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a classroom activity in which candy is used to represent some Australian fossils with students asked to examine specimens and locate on a map of Australia where it might have been discovered. (Author/MM)

Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

2002-01-01

287

Extremely low frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: plan and summary of 1982 progress. Summary report for 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the Ecological Monitoring Program is to study ecological and\\/or biological characteristics of selected biota in an environment that includes natural stresses and low-level ELF electromagnetic fields. Sixteen general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the System area are being examined. Study sites were selected in 1982, and will be examined further in 1983. Statistical methods

J. E. Zapotosky; M. M. Abromavage

1983-01-01

288

Trends in marine biological invasions at local and regional scales: the Northeast Pacific Ocean as a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species are an increasing agent of global change. Biogeographic comparisons of introduced biotas at regional and global scales can clarify trends in source regions, invasion pathways, sink regions, and survey effort. We identify the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP; northern California to British Columbia) as a model system for analyzing patterns of marine invasion success in cool temperate waters. We

Marjorie J. Wonham; James T. Carlton

2005-01-01

289

Ecological Status of the St. Louis River System, as Informed by Spatially Comprehensive Surveys and Comparison to Coastal Wetlands Elsewhere  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive data on biota and the physical/chemical environment were collected across the lower St. Louis River in 2004-2007 as part of multiple studies undertaken by EPA. The 2005-2007 work provides a spatially highly-resolved assessment of conditions across the system, while the ...

290

MODELING MERCURY DYNAMICS IN STREAM SYSTEMS WITH WASP7: CHARACTERIZING PROCESSES CONTROLLING SHORT AND LONG TERM RESPONSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury transport through stream ecosystems is driven by a complicated set of transport and transformation reactions operating on a variety of scales in the atmosphere, landscape, surface water, and biota. Riverine systems typically have short residence times and can experience l...

291

Alien Marine Biota of Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition that marine species in European coastal waters originate from other parts of the world has lagged, in some\\u000a cases centuries, behind their postulated arrival. The NW Atlantic soft shell clam Mya arenaria is considered one of the earliest introductions: it was proposed that it had been brought in the 16th century intentionally\\u000a as bait or food, unintentionally with

Bella S. Galil; Stephan Gollasch; Dan Minchin; Sergej Olenin

292

Use of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors to Assess Similarity of Nonionic Organic Chemical Exposure to Benthically-Coupled Organisms of Differing Trophic Mode  

PubMed

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is in the process of developing Sediment Quality Criteria (SQC) to specify the acceptable degree of risk from sediment-mediated chemical exposure for the protection of benthically-coupled organisms. In this study, potential differences in chemical exposure for benthic organisms of differing habitats or feeding types were evaluated through the use of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs). It was hypothesized that If species of different habitats have similar exposures, then the BSAF values should not be different. The BSAFs are calculated using the concentrations of chemicals in an organism (&mgr;g/g lipid) divided by the concentrations of the same chemicals in sediment (&mgr;g/gOC). Data from both freshwater and saltwater studies that met specified criteria for data quality were obtained from published papers or reports. These included three laboratory and five field studies containing 27 species and 4054 BSAF values. The BSAFs were intercompared for similarity of central tendency as grouped by chemical class (PCBs, PAHs, pesticides), individual species, and species grouped by habitat (infaunal deposit feeder, scavenger, filter feeder, and benthically-coupled fish). Plots of BSAFs grouped by class and KOW revealed that the BSAFs for the PAHs were uniformly lower (mean 0.34) than the PCB (1.03) or pesticide (1.36) classes. For the PCBs, the BSAFs for all species exhibited a KOW dependency with decreased bioaccumulation evident above and below the range of 5.99-7.27 log10 KOW. In order to optimize the detection of species/habitat differences in the BSAFs, further analyses were segregated by chemical class and excluded PCB data outside the above KOW range. These analyses revealed similar BSAF values for various species both within and among habitat groups, and indicated that the sum total of exposures from all routes is similar across species. This similarity of chemical exposure across benthic species, and the similarity of sensitivities between benthic species and species used to derive WQC FCVs supports the applicability of SQC for all benthic organisms as a group. PMID:8661522

Tracey; Hansen

1996-05-01

293

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Pine River Project area, Southern Ute Indian Reservation, southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico, 1988-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1988-89, water, bottom sediment, biota, soil, and plants were sampled for a reconnaissance investigation of the Pine River Project area in southwestern Colorado. Irrigation drainage does not seem to be a major source of dissolved solids in streams. Concentrations of manganese, mercury, and selenium exceeded drinking-water regulations in some streams. The maximum selenium concentration in a stream sample was 94 microg/L in Rock Creek. Irrigation drainage and natural groundwater are sources of some trace elements to streams. Water from a well in a nonirrigated area had 4,800 microg/L of selenium. Selenium concentrations in soil on the Oxford Tract were greater in areas previously or presently irrigated than in areas never irrigated. Some forage plants on the Oxford Tract had large selenium concentrations, including 180 mg/km in alfalfa. Most fish samples had selenium concentrations greater than the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile. Selenium concentrations in aquatic plants, aquatic inverte- brates, and small mammals may be of concern to fish and wildlife because of possible food-chain bioconcentration. Selenium concentrations in bird samples indicate selenium contamination of biota on the Oxford Tract. Mallard breasts had selenium concentrations exceeding a guideline for human consumption. The maximum selenium concentration in biota was 50 microg/g dry weight in a bird liver from the Oxford Tract. In some fish samples, arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc exceeded background concentrations, but concentrations were not toxic. Mercury concentrations in 16 fish samples exceeded the background concentration. Ten mercury concentrations in fish exceeded a guideline for mercury in food for consumption by pregnant women.

Butler, D.L.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.; Thompson, A.L.; Formea, J.J.; Wickman, D.W.

1993-01-01

294

Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin in Washington; spatial and temporal distribution of trace elements in water, sediment, and aquatic biota, 1987-91; with a section on geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The report describes the distribution of trace elements in sediment, water, and aquatic biota in the Yakima River basin, Washington. Trace elements were determined from streambed sediment, suspended sediment, filtered and unfiltered water samples, aquatic insects, clams, fish livers, and fish fillets between 1987 and 1991. The distribution of trace elements in these media was related to local geology and anthropogenic sources. Additionally, annual and instantaneous loads were estimated for trace elements associated with suspended sediment and trace elements in filtered water samples. Trace elements also were screened against U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidelines established for the protection of human health and aquatic life.

Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Cain, Daniel J.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Joseph F.; Crawford, J. Kent; Skach, Kenneth A.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Gannett, Marshall W.

1999-01-01

295

Non-effect of water hardness on the accumulation and toxicity of copper in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum): how useful are hardness-modified copper guidelines for protecting freshwater biota?  

PubMed

Several nations have adopted hardness-modified copper (Cu) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. However, there is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Cu to freshwater biota, particularly macrophytes. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, added as Ca and Mg chloride in a 1:1 mole ratio) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (96 h growth (biomass and stem length) and photosynthetic pigment inhibition) of Cu in the free-floating submerged macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum, in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (16 mg CaCO(3)/l) and pH (7.0). There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in the cell surface binding affinity, accumulation or toxicity of Cu in C. demersum with a 10-fold increase in water hardness from 35 to 335 mg CaCO(3)/l. The mean 96 h EC(50) values (and 95% confidence intervals) for biomass, the most sensitive endpoint, were 8.4 (7.6-9.2), 8.9 (8.0-9.8) and 9.9 (9.1-10.7) microg/l Cu for 35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, respectively. Speciation calculations indicated only very small (1-6%) differences in the percentage distribution (i.e. bioavailability) of Cu over the hardness range. These collective results indicate no apparent competition between Cu and Ca/Mg for binding sites on the cell surface. Given that the mechanism of Cu uptake (via Cu-specific and Na-linked transporters) is fundamentally different to that of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn (via Ca transporters), for which other hardness-dependent algorithms have been developed, it is doubtful whether a hardness-modified Cu guideline value will be sufficiently protective of sensitive freshwater biota, such as C. demersum, particularly in medium-hard fresh surface waters with low levels of dissolved organic carbon. The biotic ligand model offers a more flexible and mechanistic approach for deriving site-specific Cu (metal) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. PMID:16735056

Markich, Scott J; King, Angus R; Wilson, Scott P

2006-12-01

296

Extremely-low-frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: Summary of 1990 progress. Technical report, 1 Jan31 Dec 90  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long term ecological monitoring program is being conducted to monitor for possible electromagnetic effects that operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System might have to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities

M. M. Abromavage; J. E. Zapotosky

1991-01-01

297

Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part B, Effect on biota in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and other nearby wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality reconnaissance study during 1986-87 found high concentrations of several potentially toxic elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). This study prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior to initiate a more detailed study to determine the hydrogeochemical processes that control water quality in the Stillwater WMA, and other nearby wetlands, and the resulting effects on biota, especially migratory birds. Present wetland size is about 10% of historical size; the dissolved- solids load in the water in these now-isolated wetlands has increased only moderately, but the dissolved-solids concentration has increased more than seven-fold. Wetland vegetation has diminished and species composition in flow water has shifted to predominant salt-tolerant species in many areas. Decreased vegetative cover for nesting is implicated in declining waterfowl production. Decreases in numbers or virtual absence of several wildlife species are attributed to degraded water quality. Results of toxicity tests indicate that water in some drains and wetland areas is acutely toxic to some fish and invertebrates. Toxicity is attributed to the combined presence of arsenic, boron, lithium, and molybdenum. Biological pathways are involved in the transport of mercury and selenium from agricultural drains to wetlands. Hatch success of both artificially incubated and field-reared duck eggs was greater than/= 90 percent; no teratogenesis was observed. Mercury in muscle tissue of waterfowl harvested from Carson Lake in October 1987 exceeded the human health criterion six-fold.

Hallock, Robert J., (Edited By); Hallock, Linda L.

1993-01-01

298

Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010-11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment in 2010-11 of physical characteristics and selected aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for three stream reaches in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas for which environmental flows have been prescribed. Mesohabitats are visually distinct units of habitat within the stream with unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Mesohabitats in reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous were evaluated to gain an understanding of how fish communities and mussel populations varied by habitat. Selected water-quality properties were also measured in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of the prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to the prescribed environmental flows.

Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

2013-01-01

299

Chapter 1. Determination of elements in natural-water, biota, sediment, and soil samples using collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new analytical method for the determination of elements in filtered aqueous matrices using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory that uses collision/reaction cell technology to reduce molecular ion interferences. The updated method can be used to determine elements in filtered natural-water and other filtered aqueous matrices, including whole-water, biota, sediment, and soil digestates. Helium or hydrogen is used as the collision or reaction gas, respectively, to eliminate or substantially reduce interferences commonly resulting from sample-matrix composition. Helium is used for molecular ion interferences associated with the determination of As, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na, Ni, V, W and Zn, whereas hydrogen is used for Ca, Fe, Se, and Si. Other elements that are not affected by molecular ion interference also can be determined simply by not introducing a collision/reaction gas into the cell. Analysis time is increased by about a factor of 2 over the previous method because of the additional data acquisition time in the hydrogen and helium modes. Method detection limits for As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Se, Si (as SiO2), V, W, and Zn, all of which use a collision/reaction gas, are 0.06 microgram per liter (?g/L) As, 0.04 milligram per liter (mg/L) Ca, 0.02 ?g/L Co, 0.02 ?g/L Cr, 0.04 ?g/L Cu, 1 ?g/L Fe, 0.007 mg/L K, 0.009 mg/L Mg, 0.09 mg/L Na, 0.05 ?g/L Ni, 0.04 ?g/L Se, 0.03 mg/L SiO2, 0.05 ?g/L V, 0.03 ?g/L W, and 0.04 ?g/L Zn. Most method detection limits are lower or relatively unchanged compared to earlier methods except for Co, K, Mg, Ni, SiO2, and Tl, which are less than a factor of 2 higher. Percentage bias for samples spiked at about one-third and two-thirds of the concentration of the highest calibration standard ranged from -8.1 to 7.9 percent for reagent water, -14 to 21 percent for surface water, and -16 to 16 percent for ground water. The percentage bias for reagent water spiked at trace-element concentrations of 0.5 to 3 ?g/L averaged 4.4 percent with a range of -6 to 16 percent, whereas the average percentage bias for Ca, K, Mg, Na, and SiO2 was 1.4 percent with a range of -4 to 10 percent for spikes of 0.5 to 3 mg/L. Elemental results for aqueous standard reference materials compared closely to the certified concentrations; all elements were within 1.5 F-pseudosigma of the most probable concentration. In addition, results from 25 filtered natural-water samples and 25 unfiltered natural-water digestates were compared with results from previously used methods using linear regression analysis. Slopes from the regression analyses averaged 0.98 and ranged from 0.87 to 1.29 for filtered natural-water samples; for unfiltered natural-water digestates, the average slope was 1.0 and ranged from 0.83 to 1.22. Tests showed that accurate measurements can be made for samples having specific conductance less than 7,500 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) without dilution; earlier ICP-MS methods required dilution for samples with specific conductance greater than 2,500 ?S/cm.

Garbarino, John R.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Cree, Mark E.

2006-01-01

300

Metal biogeochemistry in surface-water systems; A review of principles and concepts  

SciTech Connect

Recent literature on metal behavior and effects in aquatic systems is reviewed. Metals from diverse sources are common constituents in natural waters. Numerous factors, including pH, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, biological activity, and hydraulic energy affect partitioning of metals into various phases in aquatic systems. Reports from different studies of these processes do not show complete agreement on the nature of partitioning or its effect on biota.

Elder, J.F.

1988-01-01

301

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Vermejo Project area and the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on findings of limited studies during 1989-92, a reconnaissance investigation was conducted in 1993 to assess the effects of the Vermejo Irrigation Project on water quality in the area of the project, including the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. This project was part of a U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife and whether irrigation drainage may adversely affect the suitability of water for other beneficial uses. For this study, samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from 16 sites in and around the Vermejo Irrigation Project prior to, during the latter part of, and after the 1993 irrigation season (April, August-September, and November, respectively). No inorganic constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The State of New Mexico standard of 750 micrograms per liter for boron in irrigation water was exceeded at three sites (five samples), though none exceeded the livestock water standard of 5,000 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the State of New Mexico chronic standard of 2 micrograms per liter for wildlife and fisheries water in at least eight samples from five sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements and compared to concentrations of trace elements in soils of the Western United States. Concentrations of three trace elements at eight sites exceeded the upper values of the expected 95-percent ranges for Western U.S. soils. These included molybdenum at one site, selenium at seven sites, and uranium at four sites. Cadmium and copper concentrations exceeded the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile in fish from six sites. Average concentrations of selenium in adult brine flies (33.7 mg/g dry weight) were elevated above concentrations in other invertebrates. Concentrations of other elements were below their respective toxicity levels. Plants, invertebrates, fish, and fish fillets were collected and analyzed. These analyses were compared to diagnostic criteria and to each other to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of trace elements. Plants contained larger dry weight concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, boron, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and vanadium than invertebrates and fish. Adult brine flies, gathered from playas, contained larger geometric mean dry weight concentrations of boron, magnesium, and selenium than other invertebrates. Of all samples collected, the largest mercury concentrations were found in fish fillets, although these concentrations were below levels of concern. Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation was evident in various habitats of the study area. Biological samples from Natural playa, an endemic wetland, and Half playa, a playa that receives additional water through seepage and irrigation delivery canals, generally had elevated concentrations of boron, iron, magnesium, and selenium than samples from reservoir and river sites. Selenium concentrations were lowest in biota from the two reservoir sites, although a wetland immediately downstream from the dam impounding Lake No. 13 (created by seepage from the reservoir) had elevated concentrations of selenium in biota. The geometric mean selenium concentration of whole-fish samples, except those from Lakes No. 13 and No. 14, exceeded the 5-mg/g dry weight selenium concentration that demarcates the approximate lower limit of the threshold range of concentrations that have been associated with adverse effects on piscine reproduction. Biota collected on and in the area around Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge contained concentrations of selenium that are in the low

Bartolino, J.R.; Garrabrant, L.A.; Wilson, Mark; Lusk, J.D.

1996-01-01

302

Activity measurements of a suite of radionuclides (241Am, 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 238U, 234U, 235U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 137Cs, 210Pb, 90Sr and 40K) in biota reference material (Ocean Shellfish): CCRI(II)-S3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005, the CCRI decided that a comparison undertaken from 2002 to 2008 by the NIST (under the auspices of the Inter-America Metrology System [SIM]) in the development of a new biota (Ocean Shellfish) standard reference material (SRM) was sufficiently well constructed that it could be converted into a supplementary comparison under CCRI(II), with comparison identifier CCRI(II)-S3. This would enable the comparison to be used to support calibration and measurement capability (CMC) claims for radionuclide measurements in reference materials (specifically, animal-based organic materials). Previous comparisons of radionuclides have been of single or multiple nuclides in non-complex matrices and results of such could not be extended to support capabilities to measure the same nuclides in reference materials. The results of this comparison have been used to determine the certified reference value of the SRM. The key comparison working group (KCWG) of the CCRI(II) has approved this approach as a mechanism to link all the results to certified 'reference values' in lieu of the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of these specified radionuclides in this type of matrix (shellfish) so as to support CMCs of similar materials submitted by the present participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Nour, S.; Karam, L. R.; Inn, K. G. W.

2012-01-01

303

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program. Summary of 1984 progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982; studies were initiated in late summer of that year. Currently, 16 general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in

J. E. Zapotosky

1985-01-01

304

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: Summary of 1986 progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term Ecological Monitoring Program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982 and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities of the Program

John E. Zapotosky

1987-01-01

305

Web and Grid Technologies in Bioinformatics, Computational and Systems Biology: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of biological data, ranging from molecular characterization and simulations (e.g. protein fold- ing dynamics), to systems biology endeavors (e.g. whole organ simulations) all the way up to ecological observations (e.g. as to ascertain climate change's impact on the biota) is growing at unprecedented speed. The use of computational and networking resources is thus unavoidable. As the datasets become

Natalio Krasnogor; Azhar A. Shah; Daniel Barthel; Piotr Lukasiak; Jacek Blazewicz

2008-01-01

306

Digital Mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic information systems (GIS), once used predominantly by experts in cartography and computer programming, have become pervasive in everyday business and consumer use. This unit explores GIS in general as a technology about which much more can be learned, and it also explores applications of that technology. Students experience GIS technology through the use of Google Earth on the environmental topic of plastics in the ocean in an area known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The use of this topic in GIS makes the unit multidisciplinary, incorporating the physics of ocean currents, the chemistry associated with pollutant degradation and chemical sorption to organic-rich plastics, and ecological impact to aquatic biota.

2014-09-18

307

Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.  

PubMed

Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

2013-08-27

308

Compilation of 1989 annual reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. tabs C-F. Annual progress report, Jan-Dec 89  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications Systems Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1989 near the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility -- Republic, Michigan. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. Soil Amoeba: Arthropoda and Earthworms: Pollinating Insects: Small Mammals and Nesting Birds.

Not Available

1990-08-01

309

Assessing potential risks of wastewater discharges to benthic biota: An integrated approach to biomarker responses in clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) exposed under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

Marine clams Ruditapes philippinarum were exposed under laboratory conditions to sediments sampled at five sites affected by wastewater effluents at the Bay of Cádiz (SW, Spain). Contamination and early biological stress were determined. Metabolism and antioxidant system differed according to seasons. Health status diminished in summer. Metabolism of detoxification, and oxidative effect were related to concentration of metals, PAH, secondary alkane sulfonates (SAS) and antibiotics in winter. Antioxidant system and DNA damage were linked to metals and pharmaceutical products. Phase I and antioxidant system were associated to PAH and SAS in summer. Oxidative stress and effects were related to pharmaceuticals. Phase II was linked to metals and pharmaceuticals. Seasonality of sediment contamination by organic compounds and biological responses was determined. Clams were useful bioindicators, since the set of biomarkers applied was validated as potential tools for sediment quality assessment of wastewater discharges areas. PMID:25641574

Maranho, L A; DelValls, T A; Martín-Díaz, M L

2015-03-15

310

Extremely low frequency (elf) communications system ecological monitoring program. Summary of 1984 progress. Technical report, 1 January31 December 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982; studies were initiated in late summer of that year. Currently, 16 general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in

Zapotosky

1985-01-01

311

Extremely low frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: summary of 1986 progress. Technical report, 1 January31 December 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term Ecological Monitoring Program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive-bidding process in mid-1982 and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities of the Program consisted of

Zapotosky

1987-01-01

312

Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy is conducting a long-term program to monitor for possible effects from the operation of its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. This report documents progress of the following studies: soil amoeba; soil and litter arthropoda and earthworm studies; biological studies on pollinating insects: megachilid bees; and small vertebrates: small mammals and nesting birds.

1987-07-01

313

Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part C, Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a summary of the detailed scientific study of Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and other nearby wetlands in west-central Nevada during 1987-90. The work was funded by the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior with the overall objectives of determining (1) the extent, magnitude, and effects of selected water-quality constituents associated with irrigation drainage on fish, wildlife, and human health, and (2) the sources and exposure pathways that cause contamination where adverse effects are documented. Much of the information in this report was summarized from two previously published interpretive reports that were completed to fulfill study objectives. Where applicable, data for the study area from other published sources also were utilized. The results of these studies indicate that the aquatic biota in natural wetlands of the Carson Desert are adversely affected by hydrological and geochemical sources and processes in the Newlands Irrigation Project area. Reactions between water and naturally occurring minerals in the shallow alluvial aquifer increase concentrations of potentially toxic constituents in ground water that eventually enters the wetlands. Once in the wetlands, these constituents are furhter concentrated by evaporation and transpiration. Water from some agricultural drains that enter Stillwater WMA was acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. The drains in the agricultural areas, which eventually discharge to the wetlands, were also implicated as sites of uptake of selenium and mercury by aquatic organisms.

Hoffman, Ray J.

1993-01-01

314

Evaluation of spatial correlation between nutrient exchange rates and benthic biota in a reef-flat ecosystem by GIS-assisted flow-tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Geographic Information System (GIS)-aided flow-tracking technique was adopted to investigate nutrient exchange rates between\\u000a specific benthic communities and overlying seawater in a fringing reef of Ishigaki Island, subtropical Northwestern Pacific.\\u000a Net exchange rates of NO3\\u000a ?, NO2\\u000a ?, NH4\\u000a +, PO4\\u000a 3?, Total-N and Total-P were estimated from concentration changes along the drogue trajectories, each of which was tracked

Toshihiro Miyajima; Yoshiyuki Tanaka; Isao Koike; Hiroya Yamano; Hajime Kayanne

2007-01-01

315

Selenium source identification and biogeochemical processes controlling selenium in surface water and biota, Kendrick Reclamation Project, Wyoming, U.S.A.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The major tributaries draining the Kendrick Reclamation Project (KRP) account for an average of 52% of the total Se load measured in the North Platte River downstream from Casper, Wyoming. The Casper Creek drainage basin contributed the largest Se load of the five tributary sites to the North Platte River. The 4-d average Se concentration in water samples from one site in the part of the North Platte River that receives irrigation return flows exceeded the 5 ??g/l U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's aquatic life criterion five time during a 50-d monitoring period in 1989. In agreement with the water-quality data, muscle and liver tissue rom rainbow trout collected from the same part of the North Platte River had Se concentrations exceeding levels known to cause reproductive failure and chronic Se poisoning. On the basis of Se: Cl, 18O/16O and D/H ratios in water from Goose and Rasmus Lee Lakes (closed-basin systems), the large Se concentrations in those lakes were derived by natural evaporation of irrigation water without leaching of soluble forms of Se from soil or rocks. Water samples from Thirtythree Mile Reservoir and Illco Pond (flow-through systems) showed considerable enrichment in Se over evaporative concentration, presumably due to leaching and desorption of Se from soil and rock. The Se: Cl ratios of irrigation drain water collected from the KRP indicate that leaching and desorption of soluble forms of Se from soils and rocks are the dominant processes in drain water. Results of a Wilcoxon matched-pairs test for 43 paired drain-water samples collected during June and August 1988, indicated there is a statistically larger concentration of Se (0.01 significance level) during the June sampling period. The larger concentrations of Se and other chemical constitutents during the early part of the irrigation season probably were due to dissolution of seleniferous salts that have accumulated in soils within the KRP since the last irrigation season. The large Se concentrations in water samples from wetland sites in the KRP were reflected in the aquatic-bird food chain. Most waterfowl and shorebirds nesting at the KRP showed Se concentrations in livers and eggs greater than levels suspected of causing adverse reproductive effects. ?? 1993.

Naftz, D.L.; See, R.B.; Ramirez, P.

1993-01-01

316

Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota, 1975-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota in the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin was examined from 1987 through 1990 as part of the pilot National Water-Quality Assesssment Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. Historical data for water and sediment collected from 1975 through 1986 were similar to data collected from 1987 through 1990. Some compounds were detected in concentrations that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Results from pesticide sampling at four stations in 1988 and 1989 identified several agricultural pesticides that were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in urban areas than in agricultural areas. Results from herbicide sampling at 17 stations in the Kankakee and Iroquois River Basins in 1990 indicated that atrazine concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water during runoff periods. Results from sampling for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in water indicate that, with one exception, all stations at which more than one compound was detected were within 2 miles downstream from the nearest point source. Detections at two stations in the Chicago urban area accounted for 37 percent of the total number of detections. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2-dichlorethane from stations in the Des Plaines River Basin exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water in one and two samples from the two stations in the Chicago area. Phenols and pentachlorophenols were detected most frequently in the Des Plaines River Basin where point-source discharges were common. Phenol concentrations were significantly different among the Des Plaines, Kankakee, and Fox River Basins. Phenols and pentachlorophenols never exceeded the general use and secondary contact standards. Results from a 1989 synoptic survey of semivolatile organic compounds in sediment indicate that these compounds were detected most frequently at sites in the Chicago urban area. Of the 17 stations at which 10 or more compounds were detected, 14 were located in the Des Plaines River subbasin, and 1 was on the Illinois River mainstem. As was the case with organic compounds in water, each of these sites was located within 2 miles downstream from point sources. Biota samples were collected and analyzed for organochlorines and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in 1989 and 1990. The most commonly detected compound in both years was p,p'-DDE. National Academy of Science recommendations for chlordane and dieldrin for protection of predators were exceeded in 19 and 10 samples, respectively, when the 1989 and 1990 data were combined. In the nine fish-fillet samples collected in 1989, concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fish-tissue criteria in nine fillets for p,p'-DDE and five fillets for dieldrin.

Sullivan, Daniel J.; Stinson, Troy W.; Crawford, J. Kent; Schmidt, Arthur R.; Colman, John A.

1998-01-01

317

Long-term growth-increment chronologies reveal diverse influences of climate forcing on freshwater and forest biota in the Pacific Northwest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of how organisms are likely to respond to a changing climate have focused largely on the direct effects of warming temperatures, though changes in other variables may also be important, particularly the amount and timing of precipitation. Here, we develop a network of eight growth-increment width chronologies for freshwater mussel species in the Pacific Northwest, United States and integrate them with tree-ring data to evaluate how terrestrial and aquatic indicators respond to hydroclimatic variability, including river discharge and precipitation. Annual discharge averaged across water years (October 1–September 30) was highly synchronous among river systems and imparted a coherent pattern among mussel chronologies. The leading principal component of the five longest mussel chronologies (1982–2003; PC1mussel) accounted for 47% of the dataset variability and negatively correlated with the leading principal component of river discharge (PC1discharge; r = ?0.88; P < 0.0001). PC1mussel and PC1discharge were closely linked to regional wintertime precipitation patterns across the Pacific Northwest, the season in which the vast majority of annual precipitation arrives. Mussel growth was also indirectly related to tree radial growth, though the nature of the relationships varied across the landscape. Negative correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by drought while positive correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by deep or lingering snowpack. Overall, this diverse assemblage of chronologies illustrates the importance of winter precipitation to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and suggests that a complexity of climate responses must be considered when estimating the biological impacts of climate variability and change.

Black, Bryan A.; Dunham, Jason B.; Blundon, Brett W.; Brim-Box, Jayne; Tepley, Alan J.

2015-01-01

318

Long-term growth-increment chronologies reveal diverse influences of climate forcing on freshwater and forest biota in the Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

Analyses of how organisms are likely to respond to a changing climate have focused largely on the direct effects of warming temperatures, though changes in other variables may also be important, particularly the amount and timing of precipitation. Here, we develop a network of eight growth-increment width chronologies for freshwater mussel species in the Pacific Northwest, United States and integrate them with tree-ring data to evaluate how terrestrial and aquatic indicators respond to hydroclimatic variability, including river discharge and precipitation. Annual discharge averaged across water years (October 1-September 30) was highly synchronous among river systems and imparted a coherent pattern among mussel chronologies. The leading principal component of the five longest mussel chronologies (1982-2003; PC1(mussel)) accounted for 47% of the dataset variability and negatively correlated with the leading principal component of river discharge (PC1(discharge); r = -0.88; P < 0.0001). PC1(mussel) and PC1(discharge) were closely linked to regional wintertime precipitation patterns across the Pacific Northwest, the season in which the vast majority of annual precipitation arrives. Mussel growth was also indirectly related to tree radial growth, though the nature of the relationships varied across the landscape. Negative correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by drought while positive correlations occurred in forests where tree growth tends to be limited by deep or lingering snowpack. Overall, this diverse assemblage of chronologies illustrates the importance of winter precipitation to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and suggests that a complexity of climate responses must be considered when estimating the biological impacts of climate variability and change. PMID:25258169

Black, Bryan A; Dunham, Jason B; Blundon, Brett W; Brim-Box, Jayne; Tepley, Alan J

2015-02-01

319

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and adjacent areas of the Milk River basin, northeastern Montana, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of trace elements, radiochemicals, and pesticides in the Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lakes generally were not substantially larger than those in the water supplied from Dodson South Canal or in irrigation drainage. Concentrations of arsenic (47 micrograms/L), uranium (43 microg/L), and vanadium (51 microg/L) in Dry Lake Unit, and boron (1,000 microg/L) in Lake Bowdoin were notably larger than at other sites. Zinc concentrations in an irrigation drain (56 microg/L) and two shallow domestic wells (40 and 47 microg/L) were elevated relative to other sites. Concentrations of gross alpha radiation (64 picocuries/L) and gross beta radiation (71 picocuries/L) were elevated in Dry Lake Unit. Pesticides concentrations at all sites were 0.08 microg/L or less. Water use guidelines concentrations for boron, cadmium, uranium, zinc, and gross alpha radiation were slightly exceeded at several sites. In general, trace-constituent concentrations measured in the water do not indicate any potential toxicity problems in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge; however, highwater conditions in 1986 probably caused dilution of dissolved constituents compared to recent dry years. Trace element concentrations in bottom sediments of the refuge lakes were generally similar to background concentrations in the soils. The only exception was Dry Lake Unit, which had concentrations of chromium (99 micrograms/g), copper (37 microg/g), nickel (37 microg/g), vanadium (160 microg/g), and zinc (120 microg/g) that were about double the mean background concentrations. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 0.6 microg/g. Pesticide concentrations in bottom sediments were less than analytical detection limits at all sites. With few exceptions, concentrations of trace elements and pesticides in biota generally were less than values known to produce harmful effects on growth or reproduction. (Lantz-PTT)

Lambing, J.H.; Jones, W.E.; Sutphin, J.W.

1988-01-01

320

Determination of selenomethionine and seleno-methyl-selenocysteine in biota by ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic digestion and multi-shot stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method based on stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of seleno-methyl-selenocysteine (SeMetSeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) in biota samples. Aliquots of freeze-dried tissue, a mixture of protease XIV-lipase and water were sonicated for 2min. After extraction, the extract was separated by centrifugation and subjected to derivatization and SBSE-TD-GC-MS. The parameters affecting derivatization, absorption and desorption steps were investigated. The optimized conditions consist of a derivatization with 40?L of ethyl chloroformate (ECF) in 400?L of a water:ethanol:pyridine (60:32:8) mixture, followed by dilution to 1.5mL of 70g NaClL(-1) in water at neutral pH and an extraction step using 10mm×1mm PDMS stir bar, stirring at 800rpm for 20min at room temperature (23±1°C). Three stir bars were used for the extraction of three different aliquots of the same sample and then placed in a single glass desorption liner and simultaneously desorbed for GC-MS analysis. The desorption step required the following conditions: 300°C (desorption temperature), 6min (desorption time), 50mLmin(-1) (vent flow) and -5°C (cryotrapping temperature). The method provided precise (8.1%) and accurate results in the mgSekg(-1) range (using the selected-ion monitoring-SIM mode) against certified reference material SELM-1 yeast, with recoveries higher than 80% for spiked algae and clams samples. PMID:23497851

Mellano, F; Bujalance, M; Giráldez, I; Ruiz-Azcona, P; Sánchez-Rodas, D; Morales, E

2013-07-26

321

Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal concentration of 0.66 mg/L). Dissolved- oxygen concentrations also were lower, and Daphnia survivability measured during in situ bioassays was correspondingly lower in the leaseland drains than in water delivery canals. In static laboratory bioassays, water samples collected at the primary monitoring sites caused toxicity in up to 78 percent of Lemna minor tests, in up to 49 percent of Xenopus laevis tests, in 17 percent and 8 percent of Hyalella azteca and Pimephales promelas tests, respectively, and 0 percent in Daphnia magna tests. In situ exposure at the sites caused mortality in more than 83 percent of Pimephales tests and in more than 41 percent of Daphnia and Hyalella tests. Much of the observed toxicity appears to have been caused by low dissolved oxygen, high pH, and ammonia. Although water in the study area was toxic to a variety of organisms, no statistically significant differences in the degree of toxicity between sites were observed above or below irrigated agricultural land in any of the bioassays. Pesticides were frequently detected in water samples collected at the monitoring sites during the 1991 and 1992 irrigation seasons. Among the most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, EPTC, and metolachlor and the insecticide terbufos. All the insecticides detected were at concentrations substantially below acute toxicity values reported for aquatic organisms. The herbicide acrolein has been used extensively in the basin to manage aquatic plant growth in irrigation canals and drains. The concentration of acrolein was monitored in a canal near Tule Lake after an application in order to evaluate the potential for the pesticide to be transported to refuge waters. Although acrolein concentrations were toxic to fish in the channels adjacent to Tule Lake, very little of the canal water entered the refuge during the monitoring period. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in 25 surficial sediment samples collected in 1990 were below bas

Dileanis, P.D.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Bennett, Jewel

1996-01-01

322

Biological indicators for monitoring water quality of MTF canals system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological models, diversity indexes, were developed to predict environmental effects of NASA's Mississippi test facility (MTF) chemical operations on canal systems in the area. To predict the effects on local streams, a physical model of unpolluted streams was established. The model is fed by artesian well water free of background levels of pollutants. The species diversity and biota composition of unpolluted MTF stream was determined; resulting information will be used to form baseline data for future comparisons. Biological modeling was accomplished by adding controlled quantities or kinds of chemical pollutants and evaluating the effects of these chemicals on the biological life of the stream.

Sethi, S. L.

1975-01-01

323

Development of an innovative and "green" stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine biota.  

PubMed

There is a growing awareness of the need to reduce the negative impact of chemical analyses on the environment and to develop new eco-friendly and sustainable analytical methods without compromising performance. In this study, we developed a "green" analytical method enabling the accurate and simultaneous routine analysis of 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reduced quantities (100mg and 1g wet weight (WW)) of marine biota samples (fish muscle, mussel and oyster tissues) using alkaline digestion combined with stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS/MS). The innovative method provides good selectivity and specificity for most compounds. In 1gWW samples, limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1 to 10?g/kgWW in fish muscle and from 0.5 to 10?g/kgWW in mussel tissue. The method enables most analytes to be quantified below the restrictive limits established by the European Commission (2 and 10?g/kgWW in fish muscle and bivalve mollusc, respectively). Higher LOQs were obtained in 100mgWW samples ranging from 1 to 50?g/kgWW. Recovery and linearity were assessed for all analytes. The results were satisfactory for most compounds with recoveries ranging from 94% to 117% in 1gWW mussel samples at spike concentration of 10ng/gWW with standard deviation not exceeding 12%. However, results confirmed that the SBSE efficiency is affected by the complexity of biological matrices, especially for high molecular weight compounds in lipid-rich mussel tissue. Because of the matrix effects, matrix-matched calibrations were carried out. Validation was performed using the standard reference material 1974c with recovery ranging from 71% to 119% except for naphthalene, anthracene and benzo(e)pyrene that were therefore not validated. Overall, the developed method meets analytical validation criteria for most compounds. Thanks to the combination of alkaline digestion and SBSE, which greatly simplifies sample treatment and limits solvent use to ethanol, the developed method followed most green analytical chemistry principles. PMID:24857036

Lacroix, C; Le Cuff, N; Receveur, J; Moraga, D; Auffret, M; Guyomarch, J

2014-07-01

324

Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological-monitoring program. Volume 2. Tabs D-G. Annual progress report, January-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Navy is conducting a long-term program to monitor for possible effects from the operation of its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. This report documents progress of the following studies: Soil Amoeba; Soil and Litter Arthropoda and Earthworm Studies; Biological Studies on Pollinating insects: Megachilid Bees; and Small Vertebrates: Small Mammals and Nesting Birds.

Not Available

1987-07-01

325

Baseline assessment of physical characteristics, aquatic biota, and selected water-quality properties at the reach and mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, northeastern Texas, 2010–11  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and mussels) collected at the mesohabitat scale for reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous in the Big Cypress Basin in northeastern Texas, and measured selected water-quality properties in isolated pools in Black Cypress and Little Cypress. All of the data were collected in the context of prescribed environmental flows. The information acquired during the course of the study will support the long-term monitoring of biota in relation to environmental flow prescriptions for Big Cypress Bayou, Black Cypress Bayou, and Little Cypress Bayou. Data collection and analysis were done at mesohabitat- and reach-specific scales, where a mesohabitat is defined as a discrete area within a stream that exhibits unique depth, velocity, slope, substrate, and cover. Biological and physical characteristic data were collected from two sites on Big Cypress Bayou, and one site on both Black Cypress Bayou and Little Cypress Bayou. The upstream reach of Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346015 Big Cypress Bayou at confluence of French Creek, Jefferson, Texas) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 02 site. The downstream site on Big Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346017 Big Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) is hereinafter referred to as the Big Cypress 01 site and was sampled exclusively for mussels. The sites on Black Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346044 Black Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) and Little Cypress Bayou (USGS station 07346071 Little Cypress Bayou near U.S. Highway 59 near Jefferson, Tex.) are hereinafter referred to as the Black Cypress and Little Cypress sites, respectively. A small range of streamflows was targeted for data collection, including a period of low flow during July and August 2010 and a period of very low flow during July 2011. This scenario accounts for variability in the abundance and distribution of fish and mussels and in the physical characteristics of mesohabitats present during different flow conditions. Mussels were not collected from the Little Cypress site. However, a quantitative survey of freshwater mussels was conducted at Big Cypress 01. Of the three reaches where physical habitat data were measured in 2010, Big Cypress 02 was both the widest and deepest, with a mean width of 62.2 feet (ft) and a mean depth of 5.5 ft in main-channel mesohabitats. Little Cypress was the second widest and deepest, with a mean width of 49.9 ft and a mean depth of 4.5 ft in main-channel mesohabitats. Black Cypress was by far the narrowest of the three reaches, with a mean width of 29.1 ft and a mean depth of 3.3 ft in main-channel mesohabitats but it had the highest mean velocity of 0.42 feet per second (ft/s). Appreciably more fish were collected from Big Cypress 02 (596) in summer 2010 compared to Black Cypress (273) or Little Cypress (359), but the total number of fish species collected among the three reaches was similar. Longear sunfish was the most abundant fish species collected from all three sites. The total number of fish species was largest in slow run mesohabitats at Big Cypress 02, fast runs at Black Cypress, and slow runs at Little Cypress. The catch-per-unit-effort of native minnows was largest in fast runs at Big Cypress 02. More species of native minnows, including the ironcolor and emerald shiner, were collected from Little Cypress relative to all other mesohabitats at all sites. Fifteen species and 182 individuals of freshwater mussels were collected, with 69.8 percent of the individual mussels collected from Big Cypress 02, 23.6 percent collected from Big Cypress 01, and 6.6 percent collected from Black Cypress. Big Cypress 01was the most species rich site with 13 species, and washboards were the most abundant species overall. Mussels were not collected from Little Cypress because th

Braun, Christopher L.; Moring, James B.

2013-01-01

326

Detailed study of selenium and selected constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior began the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) to investigate these concerns at irrigation projects sponsored by the Department. The San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Study teams composed of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at 61 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Supplemental data collection conducted during 1991-95 by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its contractor extended the time period and sampling sites available for analysis. Analytical chemistry performed on samples indicated that most potentially toxic elements other than selenium generally were not high enough to be of concern to fish, wildlife, and human health. Element concentrations in some water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples exceeded applicable standards and criteria suggested by researchers in current literature. Selenium concentrations in water samples from 28 sites in the study area exceeded the 2-microgram-per-liter wildlife-habitat standard. Vanadium concentrations in water exceeded the 100-microgram-per-liter standard for livestock-drinking water at one site. In biota, selenium and aluminum concentrations regularly equaled or exceeded avian dietary threshold concentrations. In bottom sediment and soil, element concentrations above the upper limit of the baseline range for western soils were: selenium, 24 exceedances; lead, 2 exceedances; molybdenum, 2 exceedances; strontium, 4 exceedances; and zinc, 4 exceedances. Concentrations of total selenium in bottom-sediment and soil samples were significantly greater for Cretaceous than for non-Cretaceous soil types in the study area and were generally similar for habitats within and outside irrigation-affected areas. Mean and median total-selenium concentrations in samples from areas with Cretaceous soil types were 4.6 and 2.2 micrograms per gram, respectively. Mean and median total-selenium concentrations in samples from areas with non-Cretaceous soil types were 0.6 and 0.15 microgram per gram, respectively. Samples from the study area had low concentrations of organic constituents. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in a few biological samples at low concentrations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were not detected in whole-water samples collected using conventional water-sampling techniques. In tests involving the use of semipermeable-membrane devices to supplement conventional water assays for PAH's, low concentrations of PAH's were found at several locations in the Hammond Irrigation Supply Canal, but were not detected in the Hammond ponds at the downstream reach of the Hammond irrigation service area. PAH compounds do not appear to reach the San Juan River through the Hammond Canal. Data indicate that water samples from irrigation-drainage-affected habitats had increased mean selenium concentrations compared with samples from irrigation-delivery habitat. The mean selenium concentration in water was greatest at seeps and tributaries draining irrigated land (17 micrograms per liter); less in irrigation drains and in ponds on irrigated land (6 micrograms per liter); and least in backwater, the San Juan River, and irrigation-supply water (0.5 - 0.6 microgram per liter). Statistical tests imply that irrigation significantly increases selenium concentrations in water samples when a Department of the Interior irrigation project is developed on selenium-rich sediments. Water samples from sites with Cretaceous soils had signi

Thomas, Carole L.; Wilson, R.M.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Shineman, A.R.

1998-01-01

327

Bioavailability of heavy metals in terrestrial and aquatic systems: A quantitative approach  

SciTech Connect

Speciation and bioavailability are the keywords in the relation between the total metal content of the system and the resulting effects for biota. The metal ion binding to the biotic surface is pH dependent, as is metal ion binding to soils. The binding of metal ion to the biotic surface of an organism when present in soil can decrease with increasing pH, whereas the binding behavior of the biotic surface as such will always increase with increasing pH. The metal toxicity for plants often increases with increasing pH for water culture experiments, in which the opposite effect is observed for plants growing in soils. These seemingly contradictive observations can be explained by considering the interaction between an organism and metal ions present in soil to be the result of competition for that metal ion by all components (including the organism) present in the system. This concept is illustrated on the basis of model calculations concerning cadmium binding to a bacterium present in a clay and a sandy soil as influenced by pH and calcium concentration. In addition, the concept is applied for calculating the impact of algal bloom on the copper speciation in an aquatic system. The concept might be a valuable tool in predicting quantitatively the metal ion sorption to biota present in a complex system and to predict the relative change in availability due to environmental changes.

Plette, A.C.C.; Nederlof, M.M.; Temminmghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsduk, W.H. van

1999-09-01

328

Integrated Taxonomic Information System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Six US federal agencies have worked together to develop an efficient system for naming and classifying all of nature's living organisms. As the basic currency of scientific research, management, and education, ITIS is "a database of the current names and classifications of all biota." The website is organized into three main sections: About ITIS (general overview), Data Access (how to query the ITIS database), and TRED (the taxonomic experts behind the ITIS database). The core of the site is the Data Access section, which describes how to locate, access, and download scientific names and other information for a taxon. The ITIS database may be queried by full or partial Scientific Name, Vernacular (Common) Name, or TSN (Taxonomic Serial Number). Typical returns are Scientific Name, Vernacular (Common) Name, TSN, Author, Taxonomic Rank, and Synonym Name or TSN; note that the review process is still underway, and information is constantly added. In addition to the database, users are instructed on how to submit data to the ITIS database or match a list of taxa to the ITIS Database. A final, useful feature is the Taxonomic Workbench (free for downloading), "a windows-based software tool for entry of taxonomic information into ITIS' relational database format." Information on how to participate in this extraordinary and ambitious effort is provided at the site.

329

Biogeochemistry of mercury in a river-reservoir system: impact of an inactive chloralkali plant on the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir, Virginia and Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Elevated mercury concentrations in fish species from the North Fork of the Holston River were observed in the early 1970's. The source of the mercury was a chloralkali plant which had ceased operation in 1972. Mercury continues to be released to the river from two large (approx. 40-ha) waste disposal ponds at the plant site. This report presents results of a study of the emission of mercury to the environment from the abandoned waste ponds and of the distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota of the Holston River-Cherokee Reservoir System in Virginia and eastern Tennessee.

Hildebrand, S. G.; Lindberg, S. E.; Turner, R. R.; Huckabee, J. W.; Strand, R. H.; Lund, J. R.; Andren, A. W.

1980-08-01

330

Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.  

PubMed Central

Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system. PMID:14728790

Meybeck, Michel

2003-01-01

331

Effects of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Kokanee Fishery in the Flathead River System, 1979-1985 Final Research Report.  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to assess the effects of the operation of Hungry Horse Dam on the kokanee fishery in the Flathead River system. Studies concerning operation of the dam on the Flathead River aquatic biota began in 1979 and continued to 1982 under Bureau of Reclamation funding. These studies resulted in flow recommendations for the aquatic biota in the main stem Flathead River, below the influence of Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork. Studies concerned specifically with kokanee salmon have continued under Bonneville Power Administration funding since 1982. This completion report covers the entire study period (September 1979 to June 1985). Major results of this study were: (1) development and refinement of methods to assess hydropower impacts on spawning and incubation success of kokanee; (2) development of a model to predict kokanee year class strength from Flathead River flows; and (3) implementation of flows favorable for successful kokanee reproduction. A monitoring program has been developed which will assess the recovery of the kokanee population as it proceeds, and to recommend management strategies to maintain management goals for the kokanee fishery in the river system.

Clancy, Patrick

1986-05-01

332

Disjunct distributions of freshwater snails testify to a central role of the Congo system in shaping biogeographical patterns in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The formation of the East African Rift System has decisively influenced the distribution and evolution of tropical Africa’s biota by altering climate conditions, by creating basins for large long-lived lakes, and by affecting the catchment and drainage directions of river systems. However, it remains unclear how rifting affected the biogeographical patterns of freshwater biota through time on a continental scale, which is further complicated by the scarcity of molecular data from the largest African river system, the Congo. Results We study these biogeographical patterns using a fossil-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny of the gastropod family Viviparidae. This group allows reconstructing drainage patterns exceptionally well because it disperses very poorly in the absence of existing freshwater connections. Our phylogeny covers localities from major drainage basins of tropical Africa and reveals highly disjunct sister-group relationships between (a) the endemic viviparids of Lake Malawi and populations from the Middle Congo as well as between (b) the Victoria region and the Okavango/Upper Zambezi area. Conclusions The current study testifies to repeated disruptions of the distribution of the Viviparidae during the formation of the East African Rift System, and to a central role of the Congo River system for the distribution of the continent’s freshwater fauna during the late Cenozoic. By integrating our results with previous findings on palaeohydrographical connections, we provide a spatially and temporarily explicit model of historical freshwater biogeography in tropical Africa. Finally, we review similarities and differences in patterns of vertebrate and invertebrate dispersal. Amongst others we argue that the closest relatives of present day viviparids in Lake Malawi are living in the Middle Congo River, thus shedding new light on the origin of the endemic fauna of this rift lake. PMID:24597925

2014-01-01

333

Extremely-low-frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: Summary of 1990 progress. Technical report, 1 Jan-31 Dec 90  

SciTech Connect

A long term ecological monitoring program is being conducted to monitor for possible electromagnetic effects that operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System might have to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities of the program consisted of site selection, characterization of critical study aspects, and validation of assumptions made in original proposals. Data collection for studies at the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility (NRTF)-Clam Lake, Wisconsin was completed, as scheduled, during 1990. Data collection for studies at the NRTF-Republic, Michigan is planned to continue through 1992. This report summarizes the progress of the monitoring program during 1990. To date, investigators conclude that on effects have occurred on biota exposed to EM Fields produced by either a fully operational or an intermittently energized ELF transmitting produced by either a fully operational or an intermittently energized ELF transmitting facility.

Abromavage, M.M.; Zapotosky, J.E.

1991-12-01

334

Accumulation of selenium in aquatic systems downstream of a uranium mining operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of selenium in lakes downstream of a uranium mine operation in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Selenium concentrations in sediment and biota were elevated in exposure areas even though water concentrations were low (<5 microg/L). The pattern (from smallest to largest) of selenium accumulation was: periphytonsystems has the potential to bioaccumulate and reach levels that could impair fish reproduction. PMID:18346828

Muscatello, J R; Belknap, A M; Janz, D M

2008-11-01

335

[Prospects of systemic radioecology in solving innovative tasks of nuclear power engineering].  

PubMed

A need of systemic radioecological studies in the strategy developed by the atomic industry in Russia in the XXI century has been justified. The priorities in the radioecology of nuclear power engineering of natural safety associated with the development of the radiation-migration equivalence concept, comparative evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies and forecasting methods of various emergencies have been identified. Also described is an algorithm for the integrated solution of these tasks that includes elaboration of methodological approaches, methods and software allowing dose burdens to humans and biota to be estimated. The rationale of using radioecological risks for the analysis of uncertainties in the environmental contamination impacts,at different stages of the existing and innovative nuclear fuel cycles is shown. PMID:25775830

Spiridonov, S I

2014-01-01

336

The effect on ecological systems of remediation to protect human health.  

PubMed

Environmental remediation of contaminated eco-systems reduces stresses to these ecosystems, including stresses caused by the production, use, and storage of weapons of mass destruction. The effects of these various stressors on humans can be reduced by remediation or by blocking the exposure of humans, but blocking the exposure of resident biota is almost impossible. Remediation may involve trade-offs between reducing a minor risk to public health and increasing risks to workers and ecosystems. Remediation practices such as soil removal disrupt ecosystems, which take decades to recover. Without further human disturbances, and with low levels of exposure to stress-ors, ecosystems can recover from physical disruptions and spills. Remediation to remove negligible risk to humans can destroy delicate ecosystems for very little gain in public health. PMID:17666693

Burger, Joanna

2007-09-01

337

Phanerozoic submarine cold vent biota and its exobiological potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern and fossil chemosynthetic communities based on the consumption of gases (carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulfide, and others) are widespread on the Earth surface, where they have produced geologic bodies distributed over a wide time slice. These communities are entirely sustained by gas-bearing cold fluids, coming to the surface from the upper crust, around which they grow. This kind of

Roberto Barbieri; Gian Grabriele Ori; Marco Taviani

2001-01-01

338

Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticle suspensions to aquatic biota.  

PubMed

Toxicity effects induced by nanosuspensions of CuO (<50?nm; Sigma-Aldrich) on macrophytic algae cells of Nitellopsis obtusa (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]), microphytic algae Chlorella (30-min median inhibitory concentration [IC50]), shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (24-h LC50), and rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (24-h LC50) were investigated. No substantial differences between the effects of nonsonicated and sonicated nCuO suspensions were observed. The particle size distribution analysis accomplished by the laser diffraction technique at suspension concentration from 3 to 100?mg/L revealed rapid (within 5?min) reagglomeration of the particles after the sonication. The observed adverse effects on N. obtusa cells may be attributed to nanoparticles per se, but not to ionic Cu, because neither chemical analysis nor biological testing (algae survival in the supernatants of suspensions) confirmed the presence of cupric ions in toxic amounts. Contrary to ionic Cu form, nCuO delayed the initial phase of N. obtusa cell membrane depolarization. Lethality tests with rewash demonstrated that the least used 5-min exposure in 100?mg/L nCuO sonicated suspension induced 70% mortality in charophyte cells after 8?d, whereas the rewash after a short exposure to a noticeably toxic concentration of Cu(2+) prevented cell mortality. The obtained data suggested the possible influence of a thick charophyte cell wall on the dynamics of nanotoxicity effects. PMID:22020877

Manusadžianas, Levonas; Caillet, Celine; Fachetti, Louis; Gylyt?, Brigita; Grigutyt?, Reda; Jurkonien?, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Thomas, Fabien; Vitkus, Rimantas; Férard, Jean-François

2012-01-01

339

Mercury accumulation in biota of Thunder Creek, Saskatchewan  

SciTech Connect

Collection of biological organisms was undertaken to investigate the bioaccumulation of mercury in the food chain, the results of which are reported. Two sites were selected on Thunder Creek; the control or background site, site number 2, is located approximately 2.5 km upstream, from site number 1. The selection of organisms for analysis was based on the presence and abundance of each at both locations. Only crayfish (Orconcetes virilis) pearl dace (Semotilus margarita) and brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) were found to be sufficiently abundant. The importance of the data obtained is the significant difference in concentration between the upstream and downstream sites on Thunder Creek. This difference shows that more mercury is available to the biological community at site number 1 than at site number 2 confirming that mercury in the contaminated sediments is being methylated and taken up into the food chain.

Munro, D.J.; Gummer, W.D.

1980-12-01

340

Causes and consequences of changes to New Zealand's fungal biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews advances in knowledge of the non-lichenised fungi of New Zealand over the past 25 years. Since 1980, the number of species recorded from New Zealand has doubled, and molecular techniques have revolutionised studies on fungal phylogeny and our understanding of fungal distribution, biology and origins. The origins of New Zealand's fungi are diverse; a few appear

Peter R. Johnston

2010-01-01

341

Nickel63 in Marine and Terrestrial Biota, Soil, and Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously unreported radionuclide, nickel-63 (half-life, 92 years), produced in the testing of nuclear devices, was measured in biological and environmental samples from areas of the Pacific Ocean and the eastern seaboard of the United States. The concentrations of nickel-63 are low (maximum of 163 disintegrations per minute per gram of dry weight), but this radionuclide may be a useful

Thomas M. Beasley; Edward E. Held

1969-01-01

342

Solar-driven chemical energy source for a Martian biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms deep in the Martian soil could derive energy indirectly from the sun via chemical reactions involving atmospheric photolysis products of the solar ultraviolet flux. The Viking discovery of a chemically uniform regolith which, though poor in organics, is rich in sulfur-containing compounds suggests reaction sequences in which sulfur is recycled through reduced and oxidized states by biologically catalyzed reactions

Benton C. Clark

1979-01-01

343

Solar-driven chemical energy source for a Martian biota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microorganisms deep in the Martian soil could derive energy indirectly from the sun via chemical reactions involving atmospheric photolysis products of the solar ultraviolet flux. The Viking discovery of a chemically uniform regolith which, though poor in organics, is rich in sulfur-containing compounds suggests reaction sequences in which sulfur is recycled through reduced and oxidized states by biologically catalyzed reactions with photochemically-produced atmospheric constituents. One candidate reaction, reduction of soil sulfate minerals by molecular hydrogen, is already exploited on earth by bacteria of the ubiquitous and tenacious Desulfovibrio genus.

Clark, B. C.

1979-01-01

344

COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

345

EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS ON MARINE BENTHIC BIOTA AND COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Our understanding of the effects of contaminants on benthic organisms lags well behind that for water column species because of the way in which sediments mediate bioavailability and because test protocols using infaunal organism are still in the developmental stage. lthough quan...

346

Interactions between soil biota and the effects on geomorphological features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of animals with abiotic features of their environment has long been known to cause alterations to geomorphic features, and these interactions may cause feedback loops that further alter geomorphic features and animal communities. This paper samples the literature on selected burrowing animals in western North America, and discusses the interactions of animals with abiotic features of the environment and with each other, and the resulting impacts on geomorphic features and each other. As expected, burrowing characteristics of animals influence geomorphological processes. For example, pocket gophers and certain ground squirrels that burrow horizontal tunnels on sloping grounds seem to have significant impacts on horizontal movement of soils, whereas prairie dogs and harvester ants have more impact on vertical movement of soils. Burrowing animals, in general, increase the patchiness of the environment, which creates localized patch habitat for other plants and animals, thereby increasing biodiversity at the landscape scale. Burrowing animals influence and are influenced by microbes: sylvatic plague wiped out large populations of prairie dogs, earthworms cause major changes in soil microflora, pocket gophers and harvester ants cause changes in mycorrhizal communities, which in turn impact plant communities.

Zaitlin, Beryl; Hayashi, Masaki

2012-07-01

347

Diversification of rocky-shore biotas through geologic time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in biodiversity of rocky-shore ecosystems from the early Precambrian (3,500 Ma) to the last interglacial epoch (125 Ka) are summarized on the basis of the fossil record associated with geological unconformities that reflect coastal paleotopography. This analysis is derived from data reported in 130 published papers culled and updated from previous bibliographic reviews. Minimum total diversity of fossil and

Markes E. Johnson; B. Gudveig Baarli

1999-01-01

348

Cataloguing Indian biota: the electronic catalogue of known Indian fauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

eviews the global and national scenario. We share our experience of developing web -interfaced ECAT of known Indian fauna (IndFauna). Accessible at http:\\/\\/www.ncbi.org.in, this catalogue raises several issues concerned with taxonomy or systematics and information technology in biodiversity information management. Baseline information on more than 93% of the 90,000 known fa unal species in India has been documented in IndFauna,

Vishwas Chavan; A. V. Watve; M. S. Londhe; N. S. Rane; A. T. Pandit; S. Krishnan

349

Distribution of Arsenic in the Sediments and Biota of  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment samples collected from the Waiakea Mill Pond, Wailoa River, and Hilo Bay were analyzed for arsenic. Arsenic was detectable in 10 of II sediment samples, and ranged in concentration from 2 to 715 ppm. Two species of plant and seven species of animal\\

Hilo Bay; LEON E. HALLACHER; ERNEST B. KHO; NANCY D. BERNARD; ANNIE M. ORCUTT; WALTER C. DUDLEY; THOMAS M. HAMMOND

350

Open systems living in a closed biosphere: a new paradox for the Gaia debate.  

PubMed

While energetically open, the biosphere is appreciably closed from the standpoint of matter exchange. Matter cycling and recycling is hence a necessary and emergent property of the global-scale system known as Gaia. But how can an aggregate of open-system life forms have evolved and persisted for billions of years within a planetary system that is largely closed to matter influx and outflow? The puzzling nature of a closed yet persistent biosphere draws our attention to the course of evolution of fundamental metabolic strategies and matter-capture techniques. It suggests a facet of the Gaia hypothesis, framed in terms of persistence. The oceans, atmosphere, soils and biota constitute a complex system which maintains and adjusts matter cycling and recycling within the constraints of planetary closure such that open-system forms of life can persist. This weaker version of the Gaia hypothesis may be useful because it readily lends itself to at least one form of test. What is the solution to the closed biosphere puzzle, and does it indicate that Gaia merits status as a discrete entity? We suggest several disciplines within the field of biology that might provide tools and perspectives toward reaching a solution. These disciplines include artificial closed ecosystems, prokaryote evolution, the nexus of thermodynamics and evolutionary biology, and hierarchy theory in ecosystem modeling and evolution theory. PMID:2322647

Barlow, C; Volk, T

1990-01-01

351

Increased Use of No-till Cropping Systems Improves Stream Ecosystem Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Release of sediments to streams from tilled lands has been a significant stressor to streams in agro-ecosystems for decades and has been shown to impact aquatic biota in a variety of ways. To limit soil erosion from cultivated lands, conservation tillage techniques, including the use of no-till systems, have been developed and widely adopted throughout the region. However, there haves been no tests of the effects of no-till systems on stream quality at a watershed scale. We measured habitat and water quality and sampled the benthic macroinvertebrate (BMI) and fish communities in 32 small (100-1400 ha) subwatersheds along a gradient of the proportion of land under no-till cropping systems to determine relationships between the use of no-till and stream quality. Our results demonstrate that with increasing proportions of no-till, habitat scores improve, the quantities of sediment and sediment associated stressors in the water decline, the BMI community exhibits reduced dominance by Oligocheata and Sphaeriidae, as well as improved Family Biotic Index (FBI) scores, and fish species richness increases. We concluded that increased use of no-till cropping systems by farmers does contribute to improved quality of streams in agro-ecosystems.

Yates, A. G.; Bailey, R. C.; Schwindt, J. A.

2005-05-01

352

Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

Crist, P.J.; Kohley, T.W.; Oakleaf, J.

2000-01-01

353

Environmental impacts of cooling system on Abou Qir Bay.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of cooling water on cooling system of Abou Qir Power Plant and on the receiving Abou Qir Bay. Abou Qir Power Plant is a conventional steam electric power plant located in Alexandria Governorate, Egypt. Water and biota samples were collected monthly from cooling water and Abou Qir Bay over a year. Heavy metals, radionuclide, anions and total hydrocarbons were analyzed in the samples using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Gamma-ray Spectrometry (GS), Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) and Gas Chromatography (GC). The results revealed that the characteristics of inlet cooling water had a tendency to be corrosive to the cooling system. The outlet cooling water complied with Environmental Law 4/1994 in all measured parameters except phosphate, ammonia and total petroleum hydrocarbons. On the other hand, samples from all sites had the lowest annual total count of algae in winter and highest count during summer. There are -ve correlations between algae and heavy metals, hydrocarbons, and radioactivity. Algae correlated highly significantly (p<0.01) with Pb, Cu, Ni, total petroleum hydrocarbons, dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon and uranium. Anabaena Sp. (blue green algae) and Euglina Sp.(flagellate) had highly significant (p<0.01) -ve correlation with heavy metals and natural radioactivity. The accumulation percentage of heavy metals by algae ranged from 22% to 37%, and the highest percent was for uranium and the lowest was for chromium. It is recommended to optimize the addition of polyphosphate inhibitor at inlet cooling water to inhibit corrosion in the cooling system and to avoid increase of Anabaena Sp. in the outlet, and to avoid enhancing algae growth that has a great tendency to accumulate heavy metals, and good housekeeping to avoid oil spills containing hydrocarbons from the power plant to sea water. PMID:17187744

Mohamed, Manal A; Abd-Elaty, Magda M; El-Shall, Wafaa I; Ramadan, Abou Bakr; Tawfik, Mohamed S

2005-01-01

354

Soil moisture's underestimated role in climate change impact modelling in low-energy systems.  

PubMed

Shifts in precipitation regimes are an inherent component of climate change, but in low-energy systems are often assumed to be less important than changes in temperature. Because soil moisture is the hydrological variable most proximally linked to plant performance during the growing season in arctic-alpine habitats, it may offer the most useful perspective on the influence of changes in precipitation on vegetation. Here we quantify the influence of soil moisture for multiple vegetation properties at fine spatial scales, to determine the potential importance of soil moisture under changing climatic conditions. A fine-scale data set, comprising vascular species cover and field-quantified ecologically relevant environmental parameters, was analysed to determine the influence of soil moisture relative to other key abiotic predictors. Soil moisture was strongly related to community composition, species richness and the occurrence patterns of individual species, having a similar or greater influence than soil temperature, pH and solar radiation. Soil moisture varied considerably over short distances, and this fine-scale heterogeneity may contribute to offsetting the ecological impacts of changes in precipitation for species not limited to extreme soil moisture conditions. In conclusion, soil moisture is a key driver of vegetation properties, both at the species and community level, even in this low-energy system. Soil moisture conditions represent an important mechanism through which changing climatic conditions impact vegetation, and advancing our predictive capability will therefore require a better understanding of how soil moisture mediates the effects of climate change on biota. PMID:23749628

le Roux, Peter Christiaan; Aalto, Juha; Luoto, Miska

2013-10-01

355

Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?  

SciTech Connect

Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

White, G.J.

1996-08-01

356

Human impact on the planet: an earth system science perspective and ethical considerations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The modern Earth Narrative, the scientific story of the 4.5 billion-year natural and human history of the Earth, has emerged from the solid foundation of two factual concepts: Deep (or Geologic) Time and Biological Evolution. spread acceptance of the Earth Narrative is critically important as we begin the third millennium, because it provides a clear understanding of the growing impact of human population growth and associated activities on the Earth System, especially the negative impact on Earth?s biosphere. It is important for humans to realize that we are but one of 4,500 species of mammals that exist on Earth and that we are but one species in the estimated 30 to 100 million species that form the complex biosphere. We also need to recognize that all species exist within the physical limits imposed by the geosphere. We are totally dependent on the biosphere for food, oxygen, and other necessities of life. mans are one of the latest results of biological evolution operating over a long period of Geologic Time. We find ourselves on Earth, after 4.5 billion years of Earth history by chance, not by design. Humans have become so successful at modifying their environment that many of the natural limitations on the expansion of populations of our fellow animals have been overcome by technological and cultural innovations. According to Peter Raven, ?Humans, at a current population of 6 billion [expected to nearly double by 2050], are consuming or wasting about 50 percent of the total net biological productivity on land and 50 percent of the available supply of freshwater. The overwhelming and expanding human presence leaves less and less room in the environment for other biota.? st century will be a pivotal time in the fate of Earth?s biosphere. Whereas human modification of the geosphere will slowly recover over time, human changes to the biosphere are a far more consequential matter? extinction of a species is forever! Will humans effectively use our new knowledge of natural and human history to stop further degradation of Earth?s ecosystems and extinction of its biota? The fate of the biosphere, including humanity, depends on a reaffirmation by all humans of all cultures and religions of the global importance of a planet-wide conservation of the Earth?s biotic heritage. For the world?s religions it means elevation of stewardship of the Earth to a moral imperative and a goal of complete preservation of the Earth?s biotic inheritance, one which is based on a Do No Harm ethic.

Williams, Richard S., Jr.

2002-01-01

357

Body Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts and functions of the different systems in the body? Circulatory System Watch the Circulatory System and the Heart video. Complete one of the Circulatory System quizzes. Excretory System Label the parts of the excretory system. Respiratory System Quiz Complete respiratory system quiz to review parts. Skeletal System Label each part of the skeletal system. Vocabulary Review Change the settings to only include body system terms and play Hangman to review new vocabulary. ...

2011-11-02

358

Library System Library System  

E-print Network

Library System #12;Library System 5150 Anthony Wayne Drive David Adamany Undergraduate Library that for the current fiscal year, we've been given an additional $600,000 for our library materials budget. We're very subscriptions. The Wayne State University Libraries are deeply committed to providing our faculty and students

Cinabro, David

359

HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF METALS AND METAL COMPOUNDS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Metal accumulation in soil can result in adverse effects on soil biota, and may concentrate metals in food chains to levels detrimental to humans and wildlife. A SETAC Pellston Workshop entitled " Hazard Identification Approach For Metals And Inorganic Metal Substances" examined...

360

Using long term biological monitoring data to evaluate the recovery of disturbed systems  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring has been conducted in industrially impacted streams near US Department of Energy facilities in Tennessee and Kentucky for almost ten years. A comprehensive Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program, which was developed to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit requirements, includes tasks on (1 ) toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation in aquatic and terrestrial biota; (3) bioindicators of fish health; and (4) fish, macroinvertebrate, and periphyton community surveys. These studies have been used successfully to characterize spatial trends and demonstrate temporal recovery resulting from remedial actions and pollution abatement activities, identify contaminant sources, and provide data for conducting ecological risk assessments. The program uses multiple lines of evidence to evaluate stream recovery and illustrates the importance of using an integrated approach when determining stream health. An overview of data collected from studies on East Fork Poplar Creek since 1985 are presented to illustrate the ability of the program to document recovery at several levels of biological organization, including individuals, populations, and communities. Unique attributes of each task are highlighted to demonstrate the flexibility of both the Program and its components. The development of an integrated database and GIS technology to more comprehensively evaluate the data is presented.

Loar, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31

361

Coniform stromatolites from geothermal systems, North Island, New Zealand  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coniform stromatolites are found in several sites in the Tokaanu and Whakarewarewa geothermal areas of North Island, New Zealand. At Tokaanu, silicification of these stromatolites is taking place in Kirihoro, a shallow hot springfed pool. At Whakarewarewa, subfossil silicified coniform stromatolites are found on the floor of "Waikite Pool" on the discharge apron below Waikite Geyser, and in an old sinter succession at Te Anarata. The microbes in the coniform stromatolites from Tokaanu, Waikite Pool, and Te Anarata have been well preserved through rapid silicification. Nevertheless, subtle differences in the silicification style induced morphological variations that commonly mask or alter morphological features needed for identification of the microbes in terms of extant taxa. The coniform stromatolites in the New Zealand hotspring pools are distinctive because (1) they are formed of upward tapering (i.e., conical) columns, (2) neighboring columns commonly are linked by vertical sheets or bridges, (3) internally, they are formed of alternating high- and low-porosity laminae that have a conical vertical profile, and (4) Phormidium form more than 90% of the biota. As such, they are comparable to modern coniform mats and stromatolites found in the geothermal systems of Yellowstone National Park and ice-covered lakes in Antarctica. Formation of the coniform stromatolites is restricted to pools that are characterized by low current energy and a microflora that is dominated by Phormidium. These delicate and intricate stromatolites could not form in areas characterized by fast flowing water or a diverse microflora. Thus, it appears that the distribution of these distinctive stromatolites is controlled by biological constraints that are superimposed on environmental needs.

Jones, B.; Renaut, R.W.; Rosen, Michael R.; Ansdell, K.M.

2002-01-01

362

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

363

Systems autonomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

Lum, Henry, Jr.

1988-01-01

364

The performance, application and integration of various seabed classification systems suitable for mapping Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows.  

PubMed

In the context of current global environmental changes, mapping and monitoring seagrass meadows have become highly important for management and preservation of coastal zone ecosystems. The purpose of this research was to determine the numerical precision of various cost-effective benthic habitat mapping techniques and their suitability for mapping and monitoring of Posidonia oceanica meadows in the Croatian Adriatic. We selected ultra-high resolution aerial imagery, single-beam echo sounder (SBES) seabed classification system from Quester Tangent Co. (QTC), and surface based underwater videography as affordable, non-destructive and simple to use systems for data acquisition. The ultra-high resolution digital imagery was capable of detecting P. oceanica meadows up to 4m depth with 94% accuracy, from 4m to 12.5m depth the accuracy dropped to app. 76%, and from 12.5 to 20 m the system was only capable of distinguishing seabed biota from substrata, though with 97% accuracy. The results of the QTC system showed over 90% detection accuracy for Cymodocea nodosa covered seabed, excellent separation capabilities (>92%) of different sediment types (slightly gravelly sand, gravelly muddy sand and slightly gravelly muddy sand) and reasonable accuracy for mapping underwater vegetation regardless of the bathymetric span. The system proved incapable of separating P. oceanica from dense macroalgae on the same type of substratum. Surface-based underwater videography demonstrated great potential for estimating P. oceanica cover in a sampled region using either a single human rater or a computer estimate. The consistency between two human scorers in evaluating P. oceanica bottom coverage was near perfect (>98%) and high between digital and human scorers (80%). The results indicate that although the selected systems are suitable for mapping seagrasses, they all display limitations in either detection accuracy or spatial coverage, which leads to a conclusion that suitable system integration is essential for producing high quality seagrass spatial distribution maps. PMID:24157476

Puhr, Kristian; Schultz, Stewart; Pikelj, Kristina; Petricioli, Donat; Bakran-Petricioli, Tatjana

2014-02-01

365

Aerospace Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.

366

Operating Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

1984-01-01

367

Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system  

SciTech Connect

Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

1992-06-01

368

Evaluation of ecologically relevant bioassays for a lotic system impacted by a coal-mine effluent, using Isonychia.  

PubMed

Many studies investigating the ecotoxicological impacts of industrial effluents on fresh-water biota utilize standardized test species such as the daphnids, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Such species may not be the most predictive or ecologically relevant gauges of the responses of instream benthic macroinvertebrates to certain stressors, such as total dissolved solids. An indigenous species approach should be adopted, using a sensitive benthic collector-filterer following development of practical laboratory bioassays. In the Leading Creek Watershed (southeast Ohio), an aggregated approximately 99% reduction in mean mayfly abundance for all impacted sites was observed below a coal-mine effluent with mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) microS cm(-1). The mayfly, Isonychia, was exposed for 7-days to a simulation of this effluent, in lotic microcosms. Based on lowest observable adverse effect concentrations, Isonychia survival was a more sensitive endpoint to SC (1,562 microS cm(-1)) than were 7-day C. dubia survival and fecundity (3,730 microS cm(-1)). Isonychia molting, a potentially more sensitive endpoint, was also examined. Using traditional test species to assess discharges to surface water alone may not adequately protect benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in systems impaired by discharges high in SC. PMID:15195819

Kennedy, A J; Cherry, D S; Currie, R J

2004-07-01

369

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Dr Clayton Ferner

370

Options for managing hypoxic blackwater in river systems: case studies and framework.  

PubMed

Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events. PMID:23912322

Whitworth, Kerry L; Kerr, Janice L; Mosley, Luke M; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S

2013-10-01

371

Paleoenvironmental analysis of a middle Wisconsinan biota site, southwestern Virginia, U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ratcliff Site in southwestern Virginia lies in a small second-order stream valley filled with approximately 3.5 m of organic-rich deposits that contain bones of mammoth, mastodon, deer (or antelope), logs, and plant macrofossils. Radiocarbon analyses indicate the age of the organic-rich sediment ranges from > 44,000 to 29,100 14C yr BP, a time period with no fossil remains reported in this region of the Appalachians. Analyses of field observations, textural data, organic carbon content, and plant macrofossils indicate that the organic-rich sediments contain interbedded standing-water and debris-flow deposits. Up to 6 m of oxidized debris-flow sediments bury the organic-rich sediments. The presence of Rubus parviflorus (Thimble Berry) throughout the deposit indicates the site had a boreal environment from > 44,000 to 29,100 14C yr BP. Plant macrofossil evidence indicates the uplands had stands of spruce/jack-pine forests while the valley contained ponds and associated wetlands. Three debris flows occurred at the site between approximately 38,000 and 29,000 14C yr BP, suggesting a recurrence interval for major storms of approximately 3000 yr, even though the apparent stability of the boreal environment implies a climate not conducive to catastrophic rainstorms. This conflicting combination of features suggests that during the middle Wisconsinan this area experienced generally cool climates, dominated by polar air masses, but was punctuated by relatively brief warm periods marked by incursions of tropical air masses.

Whittecar, G. Richard; Wynn, Thomas C.; Bartlett, Charles S.

2007-07-01

372

Paleoenvironmental analysis of a middle Wisconsinan biota site, southwestern Virginia, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ratcliff Site in southwestern Virginia lies in a small second-order stream valley filled with approximately 3.5 m of organic-rich deposits that contain bones of mammoth, mastodon, deer (or antelope), logs, and plant macrofossils. Radiocarbon analyses indicate the age of the organic-rich sediment ranges from >44,000 to 29,100 14C yr BP, a time period with no fossil remains reported in this region

G. Richard Whittecar; Thomas C. Wynn; Charles S. Bartlett

2007-01-01

373

Availability of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factor Data Set and PCB Residue Effects Database  

EPA Science Inventory

At contaminated sites, EPA?s Superfund program must decide how best to protect public health and the environment. This research was undertaken to better inform decision making and reduce uncertainties related to risk assessments at Superfund sites. A residue-effects database (PCB...

374

Holarctic Collared Lemmings: Traces of Their Spread as Related to the History of the Arctic Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among recent lemmings (D. torquatus from the Yamal Peninsula and D. groenlandicus from Somerset, Bathurst, Melville, and Devon islands), there are populations with archaic sets of morphotypes characteristic of the end of the Late Pleistocene. In some parts of the species range, lemming morphotypes follow the pattern characteristic of the Holocene stage of their evolution. Lemmings with the best developed

N. G. Smirnov; V. B. Fedorov

2003-01-01

375

Prediction of effects of daily flow fluctuations on stream biota. Technical completion report  

SciTech Connect

The short-term effects of regulated daily discharges on benthos communities were examined in a small Michigan trout stream. Flow regulation designs simulated fluctuations produced by storage and release for hydroelectric generation, as well as different constant daily stream diversions. Impacts on the dynamics of micro-distribution, species diversity, and behavior were evaluated on stable artificial substrates. Invertebrate drift rates were measured at different discharges during light and dark periods. The caddisfly G. nigrior became less active and oriented downstream when exposed to high discharge, and underwent movements to protected substrate faces. The mayfly Baetis vagans also changed micro-positioning in response to flow fluctuations, but total density changes generally were more pronounced. There was evidence for increased species diversity during low discharges.

Hooper, F.F.; Ottey, D.R.

1982-12-01

376

Lake Michigan: Man's effects on native fish stocks and other biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exploitation was largely responsible for the changes in Lake Michigan fish stocks before the invasion of the smelt, and probably before the invasion of the sea lamprey. The lamprey and alewife, however, have exerted a greater impact than the fishery on native fish populations in recent decades. Accelerated eutrophication and other pollution, although important, have not equalled the other factors in causing changes in native fish populations.

Wells, LaRue; McLain, Alberton L.

1973-01-01

377

On the eve of animal radiation: phylogeny, ecology and evolution of the Ediacara biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ediacara fossils document an important evolutionary episode just before the Cambrian explosion and hold critical information about the early evolution of macro- scopic and complex multicellular life. They also represent an enduring controversy in paleontology. How are the Ediacara fossils related to living animals? How did they live? Do they share any evolutionary patterns with other life forms? Recent developments

Shuhai Xiao; Marc Laflamme

2008-01-01

378

Invasion of a Habitat-Forming Seaweed: Effects on Associated Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucus evanescens is a brown alga of arctic origin that has invaded European coasts. The epiphytic community of F. evanescens in southern Sweden was compared with that of the native Fucus vesiculosus, to examine to what extent an invading seaweed can modify local biodiversity. F. evanescens was much less fouled than F. vesiculosus, supporting both less biomass and fewer species

Sofia A. Wikström; Lena Kautsky

2004-01-01

379

Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period,

Steven C. Wallace; Xiaoming Wang

2004-01-01

380

An atypical intra-platform environment and biota from the Silurian of Gotland, MIKAEL CALNER1  

E-print Network

H-measured acetic acid and formic acid, the residue was repeatedly boiled in sodium carbonate solution in the interior area of a carbonate platform is unique for any stratum of Gotland and may represent a rarely to the prolific growth of high-energy carbonate platforms. This is clearly shown in the bias of graptolite

Calner, Mikael

381

Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.

2006-01-01

382

Influence of Fatty Alcohols and Acids on the Clarity and Biota of Impounded Reservoirs  

E-print Network

This project presents results on a laboratory and field investigation of some of the biological and physical effects as a result of the use of a 1:1 mixture of hexadecanol and octadecanol. Laboratory investigations were concerned with changes in p...

Davis, W. B.; Reynolds, T. D.

383

Screening of currently used pesticides in water, sediments and biota of the Guadalquivir River Basin (Spain).  

PubMed

The occurrence of 50 currently used pesticides and their transformation products in surface and waste waters, sediment and fish in the Guadalquivir River Basin was determined in 2010 and 2011. After selective sample extraction, pesticides were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The contamination profile in water and sediments is marked by the presence of organophosphorus and triazines. Transformation products were even at higher concentrations than parent pesticides. A wider range of pesticides was present in water than in sediments but none of them were detected in fish. The mean concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 13.0 ng/L in water and from 0.1 to 13.2 ng/g d.w. in sediment. The spatial distribution of most pesticides was consistent with the agricultural activities of the area or their urban applications. The waste water treatment plant effluents that impact the river are minor sources for few pesticides but for most of them run-off would be the most important contribution. The temporal distribution showed differences between both sampling campaigns related to the river flow. The low-flow produced a pesticide concentration effect, generating higher levels in water and accumulation in sediments. This forecasts a hazard in future scenarios if the current situation of the climate change and water scarcity evolves to more critical conditions highlighting the need of these monitoring studies. PMID:24140087

Masiá, Ana; Campo, Julián; Vázquez-Roig, Pablo; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

2013-12-15

384

ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA FROM FOUR US ARCTIC LAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

Organochlorine (OC) concentrations in surface sediment, snails (Lymnea sp.), and two freshwater fish species (grayling, Thymallus arcticus; and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) from four lakes in the US Arctic were determined. In surface sediment, chlorinated benzenes (including...

385

Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples with advanced mercury analyzer: Method validation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a simple, fast and cost-effective method for determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in marine samples. All important parameters influencing the sample preparation process were investigated and optimized. Full validation of the method was performed in accordance to the ISO-17025 (ISO/IEC, 2005) and Eurachem guidelines. Blanks, selectivity, working range (0.09-3.0ng), recovery (92-108%), intermediate precision (1.7-4.5%), traceability, limit of detection (0.009ng), limit of quantification (0.045ng) and expanded uncertainty (15%, k=2) were assessed. Estimation of the uncertainty contribution of each parameter and the demonstration of traceability of measurement results was provided as well. Furthermore, the selectivity of the method was studied by analyzing the same sample extracts by advanced mercury analyzer (AMA) and gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC-AFS). Additional validation of the proposed procedure was effectuated by participation in the IAEA-461 worldwide inter-laboratory comparison exercises. PMID:25624245

Azemard, Sabine; Vassileva, Emilia

2015-06-01

386

IMPACT OF ALIEN PLANTS ON HAWAIfIfS NATIVE BIOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 4,600 species of plants have been introduced into the Hawaiian Islands over the last 200 years. Only 86, less than 2% of the total, have become serious pests of native ecosystems. Of these, the most signi- ficant are Andropogon virginicus. Clidemia hirta, Lan- tana camara, Leucaena leucocephala, Melinis minuti- flora, Myrica faya, Passiflora mollissima, Pennisetum clandestinum, P. setaceum, Psidium

Clifford W. Smith

387

Climate Change, Crowd-Sourcing, and Conserving Aquatic Biotas in the Rocky Mountains This Century  

E-print Network

Research scientists are conducting research and developing applied management tools that harness the power adaptation to move forward at a scale and pace more appropriate to the challenges posed by climate change in the US ranges from $1.5-14 billion annually, while the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates

388

Model of biota-sediment accumulation factor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A model of the BSAF is constructed for PAHs using a steady-state representation of a benthic food web of a small creek. Analyses of the data collected by others on sediment, crayfish and sunfish PAH indicate that for the crayfish, the BSAF (kg org C kg lipid{sup {minus}1}) range over log K{sub ow} is relatively narrow between 0.01 and 0.1. For the sunfish, a marked decline occurs in the station average BSAF with increasing log K{sub ow} to values ranging from 0.00001 to 0.005. A separation also occurs in the behavior of the PAH groups, with the unsubstituted PAHs constituting an approximately lower bound on the entire set of PAHs. Model calibration to crayfish and sunfish BSAF is accomplished through assignment of PAH (K{sub ow}) functions derived from laboratory data. The substituted naphthalenes in contrast to the unsubstituted PAHs are calculated to behave similarly to PCBs but lower by about one order of magnitude. Analyses of the model calibration indicate that (1) relative to the sunfish, the crayfish appear to exhibit reduced metabolism and higher gut assimilation efficiencies resulting in BSAFs different from sunfish BSAFs; (2) for the sunfish, the BSAF for unsubstituted PAHs declines rapidly with increasing K{sub ow} primarily because of low gut assimilation efficiency and increased metabolism and not because of reduced bioavailability of sediment PAH; and (3) the relative contribution of the food route and water route to the BSAF varies with K{sub ow}.

Thomann, R.V. [Manhattan Coll., Riverdale, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Komlos, J. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1999-05-01

389

Influence of Bt-plants on soil biota and pleiotropic effect of ?-endotoxin-encoding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical review of experimental conclusions stating environmental safety of transgenic plants reveals that the methods\\u000a and test materials employed in some studies were inadequate to the goals pursued. A large-scale application of transgenic\\u000a Bt-plants may result in long-lasting negative impact on the environment. First, the cultivation of these plants leads to accumulation\\u000a of Bt-toxins in soil. Second, the decomposition

A. G. Viktorov

2008-01-01

390

Impacts of New Highways and Subsequent Landscape Urbanization on Stream Habitat and Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

New highways are pervasive, pernicious threats to stream ecosystems because of their short- and long-term physical, chemical, and biological impacts. Unfortunately, standard environmental impact statements (EISs) and environmental assessments (EAs) focus narrowly on the initial direct impacts of construction and ignore other long-term indirect impacts. More thorough consideration of highway impacts, and, ultimately, better land use decisions may be facilitated

Andrew P. Wheeler; Paul L. Angermeier; Amanda E. Rosenberger

2005-01-01

391

Coevolution between invasive and native plants driven by chemical competition and soil biota  

PubMed Central

Although reciprocal evolutionary responses between interacting species are a driving force behind the diversity of life, pairwise coevolution between plant competitors has received less attention than other species interactions and has been considered relatively less important in explaining ecological patterns. However, the success of species transported across biogeographic boundaries suggests a stronger role for evolutionary relationships in shaping plant interactions. Alliaria petiolata is a Eurasian species that has invaded North American forest understories, where it competes with native understory species in part by producing compounds that directly and indirectly slow the growth of competing species. Here I show that populations of A. petiolata from areas with a greater density of interspecific competitors invest more in a toxic allelochemical under common conditions. Furthermore, populations of a native competitor from areas with highly toxic invaders are more tolerant to competition from the invader, suggesting coevolutionary dynamics between the species. Field reciprocal transplants confirmed that native populations more tolerant to the invader had higher fitness when the invader was common, but these traits came at a cost when the invader was rare. Exotic species are often detrimentally dominant in their new range due to their evolutionary novelty; however, the development of new coevolutionary relationships may act to integrate exotic species into native communities. PMID:22733785

Lankau, Richard A.

2012-01-01

392

Coelacanths from the Middle Triassic Luoping Biota, Yunnan, South China, with the earliest evidence of  

E-print Network

; Michael J. Benton [mike.benton@bristol.ac.uk], School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS erected the name coelacanth ("hollow spine") on the basis of an incomplete specimen from the Permian

Benton, Michael

393

Biota and biomolecules in extreme environments on Earth: implications for life detection on Mars.  

PubMed

The three main requirements for life as we know it are the presence of organic compounds, liquid water, and free energy. Several groups of organic compounds (e.g., amino acids, nucleobases, lipids) occur in all life forms on Earth and are used as diagnostic molecules, i.e., biomarkers, for the characterization of extant or extinct life. Due to their indispensability for life on Earth, these biomarkers are also prime targets in the search for life on Mars. Biomarkers degrade over time; in situ environmental conditions influence the preservation of those molecules. Nonetheless, upon shielding (e.g., by mineral surfaces), particular biomarkers can persist for billions of years, making them of vital importance in answering questions about the origins and limits of life on early Earth and Mars. The search for organic material and biosignatures on Mars is particularly challenging due to the hostile environment and its effect on organic compounds near the surface. In support of life detection on Mars, it is crucial to investigate analogue environments on Earth that resemble best past and present Mars conditions. Terrestrial extreme environments offer a rich source of information allowing us to determine how extreme conditions affect life and molecules associated with it. Extremophilic organisms have adapted to the most stunning conditions on Earth in environments with often unique geological and chemical features. One challenge in detecting biomarkers is to optimize extraction, since organic molecules can be low in abundance and can strongly adsorb to mineral surfaces. Methods and analytical tools in the field of life science are continuously improving. Amplification methods are very useful for the detection of low concentrations of genomic material but most other organic molecules are not prone to amplification methods. Therefore, a great deal depends on the extraction efficiency. The questions "what to look for", "where to look", and "how to look for it" require more of our attention to ensure the success of future life detection missions on Mars. PMID:25370528

Aerts, Joost W; Röling, Wilfred F M; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

2014-01-01

394

Polybrominated diphenylethers in sediments and biota downstream of potential sources in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pilot survey, samples of sediment and fish tissue have been collected in the vicinity and downstream of suspected sources of brominated flame retardant compounds. These have been analysed for polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC–ECD), with the identity of residues in some samples being confirmed by coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The concentrations

C. R Allchin; R. J Law; S Morris

1999-01-01

395

Bioinvasion in a Brazilian Bay: Filling Gaps in the Knowledge of Southwestern Atlantic Biota  

PubMed Central

Background Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexi