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1

Bacterial community under the hydrothermal system on the Suiyo Seamount: A model for archean and exo-biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial community in hydrothermal area at seafloor has been analyzed by culture-independent methods. Hydrothermal fluid from natural vents and vent chimneys have been analyzed by PCR (1-2). Hyperthermophilic microbes have been isolated from these environments (3-4). Though the analysis of these samples can provide the window to penetrate the microbial community under the seafloor, more direct analysis is desired for better understanding of the sub-seafloor microbial community In the ``Archaean Park Project'' supported by Special Coordination Fund, several holes were drilled and the holes were supported by casing pipes in the crater of the Suiyo seamount on the Izu-Bonin arc, West Pacific Ocean (about 1,400 m depth) in 2001 and 2002. Hydrothermal fluids were sampled from cased holes. The fluids were filtered to collect the microbial cells. The DNA was extracted and used to amplify 16S rDNA fragments by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using a bacteria and an archaea specific primer sets. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. FISH analysis revealed from 6 x103 to 2.5 x 106 bactrerial cells/ml in these hydrothermal fluids. PCR clone-analysis showed significant variation in bacterial sequences found in these samples. The species-patterns suggest that the contamination of ambient seawater to hydrothermal fluid samples is negligible. Difference in the dominant species depending on the location was found, suggesting that the bacterial community at sub-sea floor is not monotonous but has gradual shift from the hydrothermal center to peripheral area. The results suggest that there is chemo-autotrophic microbe-dependent biota under the hydrothermal system. References 1) Takai et al. Genetics 152: 1285-1297 (1999) 2) Takai et al. Appl. Environ. Microbioi. 67: 3618-3629 (2001) 3) Summit et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98: 2158-2163 (2001) 4) Amend, J. P. and Shodk, E. L. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25: 175-243 (2002)

Yamagishi, A.

2

Biota of North America Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

3

Challenges in understanding the sources of bioaccumulated metals in biota inhabiting turbid river systems.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by Macrobrachium prawns was observed to occur in the Strickland River downstream of a gold mine at Porgera, Papua New Guinea. This was despite the total metal concentrations of waters and sediments indicating no difference from reference sites within tributaries. To provide information on potential sources and bioavailability of metals to prawns, an extensive range of analyses were made on waters, suspended solids, deposited sediments and plant materials within the river system. Dissolved metal concentrations were mostly sub-micrograms per liter and no major differences existed in concentrations or speciation between sites within the Strickland River or its tributaries. Similarly, no differences were detected between sites for total or dilute acid-extractable metal concentrations in bed sediments and plant materials, which may be ingested by the prawns. However, the rivers in this region are highly turbid and the dilute acid-extractable cadmium and zinc concentrations in suspended solids were greater at sites in the Strickland River than at sites in tributaries. The results indicated that mine-derived inputs increased the proportion of these forms of metals or metalloids in the Strickland River. These less strongly bound metals and metalloids would be more bioavailable to the prawns via the dietary pathway. The results highlighted many of the difficulties in using routine monitoring data without information on metal speciation to describe metal uptake and predict potential effects when concentrations are low and similar to background. The study indicated that the monitoring of contaminant concentrations in organisms that integrate the exposure from multiple exposure routes and durations may often be more effective for detecting impacts than intermittent monitoring of contaminants in waters and sediments. PMID:24014223

Cresswell, Tom; Smith, Ross E W; Simpson, Stuart L

2014-02-01

4

RESRAD-BIOTA code for application in biota dose evaluation..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The RESRAD-BIOTA code was developed through a partnership among U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. RESRAD-BIOTA provides a full spectrum of analysis capabilities, from cost effe...

C. Yu D. LePoire J. Arnish J. -J. Cheng I. Hlohowskij S. Kamboj T. Klett S. Domotor K. Higley R. Graham P. Newkirk T. Harris

2002-01-01

5

Toxicities of selected substances to freshwater biota  

SciTech Connect

The amount of data available concerning the toxicity of various substances to freshwater biota is so large that it is difficult to use in a practical situation, such as environmental impact assessment. In this document, summary tables are presented showing acute and/or chronic toxicity of selected substances for various groups of aquatic biota. Each entry is referenced to its original source so that details concerning experimental conditions may be consulted. In addition, general information concerning factors modifying toxicity, synergisms, evidence of bioaccumulation, and water quality standards and criteria for the selected substances is given. The final table is a general toxicity table designed to provide an easily accessible and general indication of toxicity of selected substances in aquatic systems.

Hohreiter, D.W.

1980-05-01

6

Parasite Communities as Indicator Systems for Predicting the Effects of Surface Water Management Options on the Biota of Prairie Rivers..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of the parasite community of the plains killifish, Fundulus kansae, in the Platte River system in Nebraska was conducted to determine whether this group of organisms would show population fluctuations associated with streamflow and human altera...

J. Janovy

1983-01-01

7

Mercury distribution and transport in a contaminated river system in Kazakhstan and associated impacts on aquatic biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The River Nura in Central Kazakhstan has been heavily polluted by Hg originating from an acetaldehyde plant. A number of studies were undertaken to investigate the transport, fate and bioavailability of Hg in this river system. The sediments within a 20km section of the river downstream of the effluent outfall canal are highly polluted and are acting as a strong

Susanne M. Ullrich; Mikhail A. Ilyushchenko; Grigory A. Uskov; Trevor W. Tanton

2007-01-01

8

RESRAD-BIOTA: A Tool for Implementing a Graded Approach to Biota Dose Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) Technical Report provides a User's Guide for the RESRAD-BIOTA code. The RESRAD-BIOTA code is a tool for implementing a graded approach to biota dose evaluation. The RESRAD-BIOTA code was ...

2004-01-01

9

The Rhynie hot-spring system: implications for the Devonian timescale, development of Devonian biota, gold mineralization, evolution of the atmosphere and Earth outgassing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rhynie cherts are hot spring sinters that contain world-renowned plant and animal remains and anomalously high quantities of heavy metals, including gold. The biota in several beds is preserved undeformed with plants in life positions thus establishing that they and the indurating hydrothermal fluids were coeval. Despite the international importance of the Rhynie cherts their age has been poorly constrained for three reasons: (1) lack of a precise radio-isotopic age, (2) low resolution of spore biostratigraphic schemes for Devonian terrestrial deposits, with only one to a few zones per stage, and (3) poor resolution of the early Devonian timescale. Wellman (2004) assigned a Pragian-?earliest Emsian age to the Rhynie cherts on the basis of the spore assemblage. An 40Ar/39Ar dating study targeting Rhynie chert yielded an age of 395 ± 12 Ma (1?) (Rice et al., 1995). This contribution discusses a new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age (407.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 2?) for the Devonian hot-spring system at Rhynie (Mark et al., 2011) and demonstrates that a proposed U-Pb age (411.5 ± 1.1 Ma, 2?) for the Rhynie cherts (Parry et al., 2011) is inconsistent with both field evidence and our interpretation of the U-Pb data. The 40Ar/39Ar age provides a robust marker for the polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone within the Pragian-?earliest Emsian. It also constrains the age of a wealth of flora and fauna preserved in life positions as well as dating gold mineralization. Furthermore, we have now determined the Ar isotope composition of pristine samples of the Rhynie chert using an ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer and a low blank laser extraction technique. 40Ar/36Ar are systematically lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006), and are not accompanied by non-atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios. We conclude that the Rhynie chert captured and has preserved Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the 40Ar/36Ar of Devonian atmosphere was at least 3 % lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006). Thus the Earth's atmosphere has accumulated at least 5 ± 0.2 x 1016 moles of 40Ar in the last c. 407 Ma, at an average rate of 1.24 ± 0.06 x 108 mol 40Ar/year. This overlaps the 40Ar accumulation rate determined from ice cores for the last 800,000 years (Bender et al. 2008) and implies that there has been no resolvable temporal change in outgassing rate since the mid-Palaeozoic. The new chronological and Ar isotope data provide a unique tie point and dictate outgassing of the Earth's interior early in Earth history. [1] Bender, M. et al. (2008) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 8232-8237. [2] Wellman, C.H., 2004. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 271, 985-992. [3] Lee, J.Y. et al. (2006) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 4507-4512. [4] Mark, D.F. et al. (2011) Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75, 555-569. [5] Parry, S.F. et al. (2011) Journal of the Geological Society, London, 168, 863-872. [6] Rice, C.M. et al. (1995) Journal of the Geological Society, London, 152, 229-2250.

Mark, D.; Rice, C.; Stuart, F.; Trewin, N.

2011-12-01

10

Ediacaran biota from Sonora, Mexico.  

PubMed Central

The Ediacaran biota is the earliest diverse community of macroscopic animals and protoctists. Body and trace fossils in the Clemente Formation of northwestern Sonora extend downward the geologic range of Ediacaran forms. Taxa present in the Clemente Formation include cf. Cyclomedusa plana, Sekwia sp., an erniettid (bearing an air mattress-like "pneu" body construction), and the trace fossils Lockeia ichnosp. and Palaeophycus tubularis. The trace fossils confirm the presence of sediment-dwelling animals in this shallow marine community. The body fossils are headless, tailless, and appendageless. Some may be body fossils of animals but others may be fossils of large protoctists. These body and trace fossils, recovered from thinly bedded sandstones and siltstones, occur 75 meters lower in the Sonoran stratigraphic section than a distinctive Clemente Formation oolite. The stratigraphic position of the fossils below this oolite permits long-distance correlation between fossiliferous Proterozoic strata of Mexico and the United States. Correlations utilizing both the Clemente Formation oolite and a trace fossil (Vermiforma antiqua) confirm the antiquity (600 million years or more) of this body fossil-rich community of macroscopic eukaryotes. The recently discovered body fossils are the oldest known remains of the Ediacaran biota. Images Fig. 2

McMenamin, M A

1996-01-01

11

Biota and the World carbon budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of the world carbon budget is reviewed with special emphasis on the question of whether the biota is a source or a sink for COâ. The analysis shows through convergent lines of evidence that the biota is not a sink and may be a source of COâ as large or larger than the fossil fuel source. The issue

G. M. Woodwell; R. H. Whittaker; W. A. Reiners; G. E. Likens; C. C. Delwiche; D. B. Botkin

1978-01-01

12

Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Biota of Selected Aquatic Habitats of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes fish and benthic macroinvertebrate composition in five aquatic habitat types within Pool 5, river miles 89-102, of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System. Two dike fields, including the dike structures themselves, two se...

L. G. Sanders J. A. Baker C. L. Bond C. H. Pennington

1985-01-01

13

Determination of currently used pesticides in biota.  

PubMed

Although pesticides enable control of the quantity and quality of farm products and food, and help to limit diseases in humans transmitted by insects and rodents, they are regarded as among the most dangerous environmental contaminants because of their tendency to bioaccumulate, and their mobility and long-term effects on living organisms. In the past decade, more analytical methods for accurate identification and quantitative determination of traces of pesticides in biota have been developed to improve our understanding of their risk to ecosystems and humans. Because sample preparation is often the rate-determining step in analysis of pesticides in biological samples, this review first discusses extraction and clean-up procedures, after a brief introduction to the classes, and the methods used in the analysis of pesticides in biota. The analytical methods, especially chromatographic techniques and immunoassay-based methods, are reviewed in detail, and their corresponding advantages, limitations, applications, and prospects are also discussed. This review mainly covers reports published since 2008 on methods for analysis of currently used pesticides in biota. PMID:22918537

Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

2012-11-01

14

Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

Suseno, Heny

2014-03-01

15

The case for vestiges of early solar system biota in carbonaceous chondrites: petroleum geochemical snapshots and possible future petroleum prospects on Mars expedition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research documents the analysis and interpretation of selected Carbonaceous Chondrites (CC) including Murchison, Allende, NWA 3003, Dhofar 735, Orgueil, Tagish Lake and Vigarano using organic petrology, scanning electron microscopy, and petroleum geochemistry. The kerogen microstructures and bitumen within CCs closely resemble remnant 2.5 Ga terrestrial microbial-like structures and their biodegraded components and solid bitumen. In both instances, organoclasts are associated with framboidal iron sulfides or oxides and clay-like minerals. The organic-rich kerogens within three CCs (especially Murchison) might have served as petroleum source rocks for the early generation of hydrocarbons. The maturity varies between 0.7% (Orgueil) and 1.24% (Murchison), to 5.1 % Ro (Vigarano) with predicted maturation temperatures of 100° to 475°C. Geochemical analysis of selected CCs (Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) reveal the organic richness and the presence of low molecular weight n-alkanes (C 10 to C 20), complex cyclo-and isoalkanes, nonhydrocarbons, elemental sulfur with abundant aromatic compounds, most of them similar to bacterial and algal derived petroleum products. Apart from the concept of panspermia, the data highlights that three CCs sustained a formation temperature (<200°C) capable of supporting bacterial growth in a cooler early Solar System environment. In effect, the information encoded within these extraterrestrial sediments represents a cosmic analogue to terrestrial geopolymers and bitumen that may include some crude oil biomarkers. Therefore, the authors propose a model of a "universal unconventional petroleum system", which implies a prospect of oil and gas within the Martian environment and elsewhere within the Solar System.

Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta K.; Mossman, David J.; Ehrman, James M.

2007-09-01

16

Redistribution of soil biota by rainfall erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil is central to the provision of multiple ecosystem services that sustain life through a myriad of chemical, physical and biological processes. One of the greatest threats to soil is erosion, a natural process accelerated by human activities. Elevated erosion rates are common in agro-ecosystems causing both direct physical impacts (e.g. soil loss), and indirect biogeochemical consequences, which ultimately leads to impaired ecosystem functioning. The consequences of erosion on soil biota have hitherto been ignored, yet biota have fundamental roles in the provision of soil ecosystem services. To our knowledge few studies have addressed the gap between erosion and impacts on soil biota. Here we use soil nematodes as a model organism for assessing erosion impacts on soil (micro) fauna in temperate agro-ecosystems. Soil nematodes are ubiquitous, abundant, are represented at all levels in soil food webs and can be categorised into a range of trophic or functional groups. To quantify transport of nematodes and gain a better understanding of erosive mechanisms responsible, we measured their export from small erosion plots (0.0625m2) under a fixed-intensity design rainstorm (6mm min-1 duration: 3 min) over six slope angles (4° - 24°) and three soil texture classes (sandy silt, silty sand, silt). Runoff and eroded sediment were collected for each plot (four replicate runs), and a suite of biological and physico-chemical parameters measured. Results confirmed that, similar to soil particles, nematodes were exported at rates influenced by slope angle and soil texture. These experiments, linked with field and catchment-scale equivalents, are designed to elucidate the links between soil erosion and provision of ecosystem services and to inform biodiversity-sensitive soil and water conservation practices.

Baxter, Craig; Rowan, John; McKenzie, Blair; Neilson, Roy

2013-04-01

17

Application of Phase Contrast Microscopy to the Study of Marine Micro- Biota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present the observation of the activity of artemia, one of the popular marine micro-biota species, in free space by the application of Fourier optics imaging technique The Fourier optic imaging system is consisted by a collimated laser beam source, a F...

C. T. Lian J. S. Hwang M. C. Shih

2000-01-01

18

THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, \\

Guy M. Narbonne

2005-01-01

19

Testing for evolutionary trends of Europan biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work was stimulated by the possibility of designing an advanced lander mission that may melt through the ice layer above the Europan ocean, in order to deploy a tethered submersible. We devote our attention to the determination of the degree of evolution of the biota, and the determination of the Europan environments that should be probed. As the most likely microorganisms in the Europa ocean are archaebacteria, we argue that evolution should have occurred, as hydrothermal vents are assumed to be present at the bottom of the ocean and such environments are known not to be refuges against evolution. We argue that a factor in interpreting the lack of uniformity in surface brightness and color of the Europan surface may be the presence of microorganisms. This hypothesis can be tested by spectroscopic search for not only the precursors of biomolecules (as has already been confirmed by the Galileo Mission in the case of Ganymede and Callisto), but a spectroscopic search should also be conducted for the biomolecules themselves, such as nucleotides, aminoacids, lipids and polysaccharides. The submersible seems to be the most appropriate means for a program in the search for extraterrestrial eukaryotes (SETE), but we also discuss SETE in the context of another proposal.

Chela-Flores, Julian

1997-07-01

20

Estimation of Biota Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) from Paired Observations of Chemical Concentrations in Biota and Sediment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In March 2004, the Ecological Risk Assessment Forum (ERAF) submitted a request to ORDs Ecological Risk Assessment Center (ERASC) relating to the estimation of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs). BSAF is a parameter describing bioaccumulation of s...

L. Burkhard

2009-01-01

21

Compartmentalisation Strategies for Hydrocarbon-based Biota on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of our study is to determine the nature of compartimentalisation strategies for any organisms inhabiting the hydrocarbon lakes of Titan (the largest moon of Saturn). Since receiving huge amounts of data via the Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system astrobiologists have speculated that exotic biota might currently inhabit this environment. The biota have been theorized to consume acetylene and hydrogen whilst excreting methane (1,2) leading to an anomalous hydrogen depletion near the surface; and there has been evidence to suggest this depletion exists (3). Nevertheless, many questions still remain concerning the possible physiological traits of biota in these environments, including whether cell-like structures can form in low temperature, low molecular weight hydrocarbons. The backbone of terrestrial cell membranes are vesicular structures composed primarily of a phospholipid bilayer with the hydrophilic head groups arranged around the periphery and are thought to be akin to the first protocells that terrestrial life utilised (4). It my be possible that reverse vesicles composed of a bilayer with the hydrophilic head groups arranged internally and a nonpolar core may be ideal model cell membranes for hydrocarbon-based organisms inhabiting Titan's hydrocarbon lakes (5). A variety of different surfactants have been used to create reverse vesicles in nonpolar liquids to date including; non-ionic ethers (7) and esters (6, 8); catanionic surfactant mixtures (9); zwitterionic gemini surfactants (10); coblock polymer surfactants (11); and zwitterionic phospholipid surfactants (12). In order to discover whether certain phospholipids can exhibit vesicular behaviour within hydrocarbon liquids, and to analyse their structure, we have carried out experimental studies using environmental conditions that are increasing comparable to those found on the surface of Titan. Experimental methods that have been used to determine the presence of vesicles include the use of microscopy, the presence of the Tyndall scattering effect, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) , small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). These studies are currently being anaylzed, however, some results have indcated the presence of reverse vesicles in certain systems. Compounds that are shown to form reverse vesicles in conditions comparable to those of Titan's lakes could be potential 'biomarkers' and searched for in future missions to Titan. References [1] Schulze-Makuch D et al. Orig Life Evol Biosph 36, 324 (2006). [2] McKay C P et al. Icarus 178, 274 (2005). [3] Strobel D F. Icarus 208, 878 (2010). [4]. Fiordemondo D et al. Chem. Bio. Chem. 8, 1965 (2007). [5] Norman L H et al. A&G 52, 39 (2011). [6] Mollee H et al. J Pharm Sci 89, 930 (2000). ). [7] Kunieda H et al. Langmuir 15, 3118 (1999). [8] Shrestha L K et al. Langmuir 22, 1449 (2006). [9] Li H G et al. Chem. Lett 36, 702 (2007). [10] Peresypkin A et al. Mendeleev Commun. 17, 82 (2007). [11] Rangelov S et al. J. Phys. Chem B 108, 7542 (2004). [12] Tung S H et al. J. Am. Chem. 130, 8813 (2008).

Norman, L.; Fortes, A. D.; Skipper, N.; Crawford, I.

2013-05-01

22

Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. PMID:21924530

Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

2012-06-01

23

Final Report: Biota Survey for Devils Lake, ND., Conducted July 25-30, 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This biota survey was undertaken to help address recognized data gaps about aquatic biota of concern in Devils Lake, North Dakota. This effort stems from a collaborative process that involved interested jurisdictions that could be affected by the operatio...

B. Arroyo

2005-01-01

24

Growth rate-stoichiometry couplings in diverse biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological stoichiometry provides a mechanistic theory linking cellular and biochemical features of co-evolving biota with constraints imposed by ecosystem energy and nutrient inputs. Thus, understanding variation in biomass carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus (C : N : P) stoichiometry is a major priority for integrative biology. Among various factors affecting organism stoichiometry, differences in C : P and N :

J. J. Elser; K. Acharya; M. Kyle; J. Cotner; W. Makino; T. Markow; T. Watts; S. Hobbie; W. Fagan; J. Schade; J. Hood; R. W. Sterner

2003-01-01

25

Assessing Exposure of Marine Biota and Habitats to Petroleum Compounds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, reprinted from Analytical Chemistry News & Features (March 1, 1998; pp. 186 A-192) describes methods that "accurately and rapidly measure aromatic components of oil spills in marine biota and habitats." In addition to full-text, the report includes color photographs, tables, chromatograms, and references.

26

Declines of biomes and biotas and the future of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although panel discussants disagreed whether the biodiversity crisis constitutes a mass extinction event, all agreed that current extinction rates are 50-500 times background and are increasing and that the consequences for the future evolution of life are serious. In response to the on-going rapid decline of biomes and homogenization of biotas, the panelists predicted changes in species geographic ranges, genetic

David S. Woodruff

2001-01-01

27

Assemblage palaeoecology of the Ediacara biota: The unabridged edition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossils of the Ediacara biota offer our earliest insight into diverse macroscopic life on this planet. In particular, given the diversity and range of exquisite soft-bodied preservation, the potential for unraveling aspects of the paleobiology and paleoecology is great. Clearly, however, there can be a taphonomic overprint that dictates how complete the assemblage is. New diversity data (including richness and

Mary L. Droser; James G. Gehling; Sören R. Jensen

2006-01-01

28

Comparing Laboratory and Field Measured Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors  

EPA Science Inventory

The report presents a review of studies where biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were measured in the field, and the same sediment samples were tested in the laboratory using sediment bioaccumulation testing protocols. The focus of this review was to document the extent...

29

JEHOL BIOTA FROM NORTHEASTERN CHINA AND ITS PA LEOENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jehol Biota preserved in the lacustrine sediments in Liaoning and neighboring areas in northeastern China is well known for its preservation of exceptional fossils such as feath- ered dinosaurs, early birds, mammals, pterosaurs, amphibians, fishes, insects and flowering plants, against a background shaped by both global and local tectonic activities and paleo- climatic changes (Chang et al. 2003; Zhou

Zhonghe Zhou

30

Direct Extrapolation of Biota-sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs)  

EPA Science Inventory

Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for fish and shellfish were extrapolated directly from one location and species to other species, to other locations within a site, to other sites, and their combinations. The median errors in the extrapolations across species at a loc...

31

Exposure of biota in the cooling pond of Ignalina NPP: hydrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiological assessment of non-human biota is now accepted by a number of international bodies. In this connection the scientific basis to assess and evaluate biota internal and external radiation exposure is required. This paper presents the comparison of freshwater biota (hydrophyte species) exposure due to discharged anthropogenic radionuclides with that due to natural background radiation. The radionuclides from Ignalina

T. Nedveckaite; V. Filistovic; D. Marciulioniene; D. Kiponas; V. Remeikis; N. A. Beresford

2007-01-01

32

Human colonic biota studied by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human colonic biota is a complex microbial ecosystem that serves as a host defense. Unlike most microbial ecosystems, its composition has been studied extensively by relatively efficient culture methods. We have compared an established culture-based method with direct amplification and partial sequencing of cloned 16S rRNAgenesfromahumanfecalspecimen.NinecyclesofPCRwerealsocomparedwith35cycles.Coloniesand clonedampliconswereclassifiedbycomparingtheirribosomalDNA(rDNA;DNAcodingforrRNA)sequences with rDNA sequences of known phylogeny. Quantitative culture recovered 58% of the microscopic

KENNETH H. WILSON; R. B. Blitchington

1996-01-01

33

Analytical Methods for Measuring Mercury in Water, Sediment and Biota  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) exists in a large number of physical and chemical forms with a wide range of properties. Conversion between these different forms provides the basis for mercury's complex distribution pattern in local and global cycles and for its biological enrichment and effects. Since the 1960’s, the growing awareness of environmental mercury pollution has stimulated the development of more accurate, precise and efficient methods of determining mercury and its compounds in a wide variety of matrices. During recent years new analytical techniques have become available that have contributed significantly to the understanding of mercury chemistry in natural systems. In particular, these include ultra sensitive and specific analytical equipment and contamination-free methodologies. These improvements allow for the determination of total mercury as well as major species of mercury to be made in water, sediments and soils, and biota. Analytical methods are selected depending on the nature of the sample, the concentration levels of mercury, and what species or fraction is to be quantified. The terms “speciation” and “fractionation” in analytical chemistry were addressed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) which published guidelines (Templeton et al., 2000) or recommendations for the definition of speciation analysis. "Speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. The chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure. The speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system. In case that it is not possible to determine the concentration of the different individual chemical species that sum up the total concentration of an element in a given matrix, meaning it is impossible to determine the speciation, it is a useful practice to do fractionation instead. Fractionation is the process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a certain sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties."

Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Gill, Gary A.; Horvat, Milena

2012-06-07

34

Soil biota reduce allelopathic effects of the invasive Eupatorium adenophorum.  

PubMed

Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play a role in exotic plant invasions, and study of this process can improve our understanding of how direct and indirect plant interactions influence plant community organization and ecosystem functioning. However, allelopathic effects can be highly conditional. For example allelopathic effects demonstrated in vivo can be difficult to demonstrate in field soils. Here we tested phytotoxicity of Eupatorium adenophorum (croftonweed), one of the most destructive exotic species in China, to a native plant species Brassica rapa both in sand and in native soil. Our results suggested that natural soils from different invaded habitats alleviated or eliminated the efficacy of potential allelochemicals relative to sand cultures. When that soil is sterilized, the allelopathic effects returned; suggesting that soil biota were responsible for the reduced phytotoxicity in natural soils. Neither of the two allelopathic compounds (9-Oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone and 9b-Hydroxyageraphorone) of E. adenophorum could be found in natural soils infested by the invader, and when those compounds were added to the soils as leachates, they showed substantial degradation after 24 hours in natural soils but not in sand. Our findings emphasize that soil biota can reduce the allelopathic effects of invaders on other plants, and therefore can reduce community invasibility. These results also suggest that soil biota may have stronger or weaker effects on allelopathic interactions depending on how allelochemicals are delivered. PMID:21980442

Zhu, Xunzhi; Zhang, Jintun; Ma, Keping

2011-01-01

35

Conversion ratios for the foodstuffs and biota environmental surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The foodstuffs and biota monitoring programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) comprises two of the five Environmental Surveillance Programs mandated by Department of Energy Orders, and LANL has conducted these studies since the early 1970s (ESR 1997). Because foodstuffs and biota commonly contain very small amounts of radionuclides in the edible portions of the tissue, samples are commonly ashed to concentrate the radioisotope(s) in order to adequately detect the element; therefore, results are usually reported in units per gram of ash. To compensate for the differing water contents in various matrices (gram of ash are usually two to four orders of magnitude higher than live weights), units in gram of ash are converted to units of gram of dry material--the standard representation of data. Further, results in units per gram dry weight are converted to units of wet weight in order to estimate radiation doses to the public from the ingestion of these products. This paper reports the mean ash to dry and dry to wet weight moisture conversion ratios for a variety of foodstuffs and biota that have been collected as part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at LANL from 1990 to present.

Fresquez, P.R.; Ferenbaugh, J.K.

1998-09-01

36

Soil Biota Reduce Allelopathic Effects of the Invasive Eupatorium adenophorum  

PubMed Central

Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play a role in exotic plant invasions, and study of this process can improve our understanding of how direct and indirect plant interactions influence plant community organization and ecosystem functioning. However, allelopathic effects can be highly conditional. For example allelopathic effects demonstrated in vivo can be difficult to demonstrate in field soils. Here we tested phytotoxicity of Eupatorium adenophorum (croftonweed), one of the most destructive exotic species in China, to a native plant species Brassica rapa both in sand and in native soil. Our results suggested that natural soils from different invaded habitats alleviated or eliminated the efficacy of potential allelochemicals relative to sand cultures. When that soil is sterilized, the allelopathic effects returned; suggesting that soil biota were responsible for the reduced phytotoxicity in natural soils. Neither of the two allelopathic compounds (9-Oxo-10,11-dehydroageraphorone and 9b-Hydroxyageraphorone) of E. adenophorum could be found in natural soils infested by the invader, and when those compounds were added to the soils as leachates, they showed substantial degradation after 24 hours in natural soils but not in sand. Our findings emphasize that soil biota can reduce the allelopathic effects of invaders on other plants, and therefore can reduce community invasibility. These results also suggest that soil biota may have stronger or weaker effects on allelopathic interactions depending on how allelochemicals are delivered.

Zhu, Xunzhi; Zhang, Jintun; Ma, Keping

2011-01-01

37

THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, "failed experiments" in animal evolution, and perhaps representatives of other eukaryotic kingdoms. These soft-bodied organisms were preserved under (or rarely within) event beds of sand or volcanic ash, and four distinct preservational styles (Flinders-, Fermeuse-, Conception-, and Nama-style) profoundly affected the types of organisms and features that could be preserved. Even the earliest Ediacaran communities (575-565 Ma) show vertical and lateral niche subdivision of the sessile, benthic, filter-feeding organisms, which is strikingly like that of Phanerozoic and modern communities. Later biological and ecological innovations include mobility (>555 Ma), calcification (550 Ma), and predation (<549 Ma). The Ediacara biota abruptly disappeared 542 million years ago, probably as a consequence of mass extinction andor biological interactions with the rapidly evolving animals of the Cambrian explosio

Narbonne, Guy M.

2005-01-01

38

The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rinne, J.N., 1990. The utility of stream habitat and biota for identifying potential conflicting forest land uses: Montane riparian areas. For. Ecol. Manage., 33\\/34: 363-383. Investigations since 1960 on the effects of land-management practices on riparian-stream systems often have produced contradictory results. Inconsistencies have occurred, in part, because of efforts that have not been totally comprehensive and, in part, because

John N. Rinne

1990-01-01

39

Ecological considerations for possible Martian biota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current climatic and geological evidence suggests that, like early Earth, conditions on ancient Mars may also have been favorable for the origin and evolution of life. The primordial atmospheres of the two planets were quite similar, composed primarily of CO2, N2, and water vapor at a total atmospheric pressure of approximately 1 bar. Each of these gases are important for the evolution of biological systems. With the exception of nitrogen, there seems to have been a sufficient supply of the biogenic elements C, H, O, P, and S (CHOPS) on early Mars for life to have evolved. It was postulated that primordial Mars contained only 18 mb of nitrogen in the form of N2 given that only fixed nitrogen is utilized by living systems. Laboratory tests performed at a total pressure of 1 bar and various partial pressures of dinitrogen (pN2 1-780 mb) show that nitrogen fixing organisms grow at pN2's of 18 mb or less, although the biomass and growth rates are decreased. The calcualted in vivo Km's ranged from 46 mb to 130 mb. If organisms adapted on Earth to a pH2 of 780 mb are capable of growing at these low partial pressures, it is conceivable that nitrogen was not the limiting factor in the evolution of life on early Mars.

Klingler, June M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; White, Melisa R.

1989-01-01

40

Behaviour of the constitutive biota of two types of Spanish dry-sausages ripened in a pilot-scale chamber.  

PubMed

The behaviour of the constitutive biota in eighty four samples belonging to two different types of Spanish dry-cured sausages during the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber was investigated. Samples were analyzed in three stages during production: fresh product, first drying stage and finished product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Coagulase-negative cocci (CNC) were identified by the API system. In general, evolution of LAB and CNC during the ripening process of Spanish dry-cured sausages increased during the first days after which numbers of these organisms remained stable. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus, were the dominant species. Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus Staphylococcus simulans and Kocuria varians were also present. The results obtained show that the ripening process in a pilot-scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes to a more homogeneous behaviour of the constitutive biota, in comparison with commercial production standards. PMID:22062067

López, Carmen; Medina, L M; Priego, R; Jordano, R

2006-05-01

41

Temporal trends of legacy POPs in Arctic biota, an update.  

PubMed

A statistically robust method was applied to 316 time-series of 'legacy' persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic biota from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems with the purpose of generating a 'meta-analysis' of temporal trend data collected over the past two to three decades for locations from Alaska in the west to northern Scandinavian in the east. Information from recently published temporal trend studies was tabulated and comparisons were also drawn with trends in arctic air. Most of the analysed time-series of legacy POP compounds showed decreasing trends, with only a few time-series showing significantly increasing trends. Compounds such as alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH and SigmaDDT had a relatively high proportion of time-series showing significantly decreasing trends; SigmaCHL had the lowest proportion. beta-HCH was an exception, where long-range transport through the ocean, and not the atmosphere, may explain several increasing trends that were detected in the Canadian Arctic. Moving east from the Canadian Arctic there was a trend towards a greater proportion of significantly decreasing trends. Several time-series for DDE and SigmaDDT showed significantly non-exponential trends, most often with a period of relative stability followed by a decrease. The median 'minimum detectable annual change within a 10-year period' for all of the time-series considered was 12% which did not meet the desirable level of statistical power capable of detecting a 5% annual change with a significance level of 5% within a 10-year period. The trends observed in the biota were consistent with decreasing trends of legacy POPs reported for Arctic air which appear to follow historic decreases in emissions. However, recent decreases in air are also starting to show signs of levelling off which may be an indication that atmospheric concentrations and, consequently those in the biota, are being less driven by primary sources and more by environmental processes and degradation. PMID:19686961

Rigét, Frank; Bignert, Anders; Braune, Birgit; Stow, Jason; Wilson, Simon

2010-07-01

42

Occurrence of phthalates in sediment and biota: Relationship to aquatic factors and the biota-sediment accumulation factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phthalate compounds in sediments and fishes were investigated in 17 Taiwan’s rivers to determine the relationships between phthalate levels in sediment and aquatic factors, and biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) for phthalates. Mean concentrations (range) of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in sediment at low-flow season were 4.1 (<0.05–46.5), 0.22 (<0.05–3.1) and 0.14 (<0.05–1.3)mgkg?1dw; those

Po-Chin Huang; Chien-Jung Tien; Yih-Min Sun; Cha-Yi Hsieh; Ching-Chang Lee

2008-01-01

43

Impact of Drainage Channel Improvement Works on Fish Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of concrete lining of channel bed with eco-friendly works, i.e. fish pools and fish habitat blocks on fish biota in Ooe drainage channel is discussed based on the ecological, hydraulic and water quality investigations from 2003 through 2007. The effectiveness of these eco-friendly technologies is also evaluated. As a result, the followings become apparent; 1) Several species which are suitable for improved channels, especially in their spawning, e.g. Pseudorasbora parva, Gambusia affinis affinis, Squalidus chankaensis sp. and Rhinogobius sp. tend to increase relatively and the species e.g. Oryzias latipes and Channa argus decrease oppositely. 2) Fish biota settles down to a certain level after 3 or 4 years after improvement of channel. 3) Fish show their preference to eco-friendly technologies like fish habitat block and fish pool and also utilize them as their habitat during non irrigation period, and 4) the total number of fish tends to somewhat decrease at large, but the number of species tends to increase contrarily in the channel through improvement with eco-friendly works.

Hiramatsu, Ken; Nishimura, Shinichi; Shimizu, Hideyoshi; Nakane, Yoshinobu; Ichion, Eiji

44

Textured organic surfaces associated with the Ediacara biota in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ediacaran Period takes its name from the fossils of the Ediacara biota, which represent the first appearance of large and diverse assemblages of organisms in the fossil record. Although the global record of these distinctive body fossils is now well known, a previously unrecognized megascopic organic record of textured organic surfaces (TOS) occurs in the Ediacara biota. However, TOS

James G. Gehling; Mary L. Droser

2009-01-01

45

Do interactions between plant and soil biota change with elevation? A study on Fagus sylvatica  

PubMed Central

Theoretical models predict weakening of negative biotic interactions and strengthening of positive interactions with increasing abiotic stress. However, most empirical tests have been restricted to plant–plant interactions. No empirical study has examined theoretical predictions of interactions between plants and below-ground micro-organisms, although soil biota strongly regulates plant community composition and dynamics. We examined variability in soil biota effects on tree regeneration across an abiotic gradient. Our candidate tree species was European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), whose regeneration is extremely responsive to soil biota activity. In a greenhouse experiment, we measured tree survival in sterilized and non-sterilized soils collected across an elevation gradient in the French Alps. Negative effects of soil biota on tree survival decreased with elevation, similar to shifts observed in plant–plant interactions. Hence, soil biota effects must be included in theoretical models of plant biotic interactions to accurately represent and predict the effects of abiotic gradient on plant communities.

Defossez, Emmanuel; Courbaud, Benoit; Marcais, Benoit; Thuiller, Wilfried; Granda, Elena; Kunstler, Georges

2011-01-01

46

Litigation Technical Support and Services, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Biota Remedial Investigation, Version 3.2. Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the biota remedial investigation report is to present the current nature and extent of contamination in biota on RMA. The report integrate known historical information, the results of previous investigations, and results of current programs...

1989-01-01

47

Group report: Physiological and ecological effects of acidification on aquatic biota (Chapter 19). Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

Acidification affects all components of biological communities in lakes and streams: microbes, algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, fish amphibians, and other vertebrates that rely on aquatic ecosystems for habitat or food. Mechanisms of effect are both direct (toxic responses to changes in chemistry) and indirect (e.g., expressed through the food chain or caused by changes in habitat), and the responses may be immediate or delayed. In turn, many biological processes, especially microbial processes, can influence surface water acid-base chemistry. Thus, chemical and biological changes are intricately linked and complex, with extensive feedbacks. Research on the effects of acid deposition and acidification on aquatic biota has been ongoing in Europe and North America for over the last 15 years, and many comprehensive reviews have been published. These gaps often have occurred because funding has focused on chemical mechanisms and modeling response of systems rather than in making resource inventories or resolving uncertainties in biological responses to acidification.

Baker, J.P.; Boehmer, J.; Hartmann, A.; Havas, M.; Jenkins, A.

1994-01-01

48

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms  

PubMed Central

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m?3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

2014-01-01

49

Isolation of microplastics in biota-rich seawater samples and marine organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microplastic litter is a pervasive pollutant present in aquatic systems across the globe. A range of marine organisms have the capacity to ingest microplastics, resulting in adverse health effects. Developing methods to accurately quantify microplastics in productive marine waters, and those internalized by marine organisms, is of growing importance. Here we investigate the efficacy of using acid, alkaline and enzymatic digestion techniques in mineralizing biological material from marine surface trawls to reveal any microplastics present. Our optimized enzymatic protocol can digest >97% (by weight) of the material present in plankton-rich seawater samples without destroying any microplastic debris present. In applying the method to replicate marine samples from the western English Channel, we identified 0.27 microplastics m-3. The protocol was further used to extract microplastics ingested by marine zooplankton under laboratory conditions. Our findings illustrate that enzymatic digestion can aid the detection of microplastic debris within seawater samples and marine biota.

Cole, Matthew; Webb, Hannah; Lindeque, Pennie K.; Fileman, Elaine S.; Halsband, Claudia; Galloway, Tamara S.

2014-03-01

50

The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis  

PubMed Central

The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N.

2008-01-01

51

Effects of drainage on water, sediment and biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior started a program in 1985 to identify effects of irrigation-induced trace constituents in water, bottom sediment and biota. The program was developed in response to concerns that contamination similar to that found in 1983 at Kesterson Reservoir in California might exist elsewhere. Studies are complete or underway for 26 sites in 15 western States. Selenium is the trace constituent most often found at elevated concentrations in all media. Maximum selenium concentrations in fish from 9 of 20 areas exceeded the threshold concentration for adverse reproductive effects. Maximum selenium concentrations in bird livers from 11 areas exceeded the level at which embryonic deformities are likely; deformed birds were observed in 5 areas. Trace constituent problems may be anticipated if geologic sources such as marine shales occur in an irrigation project area. The potential for problems is increased if closed basins or sinks are present.

Engberg, Richard, A.; Sylvester, Marc, A.; Feltz, Herman, R.

1991-01-01

52

The human vaginal bacterial biota and bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed

The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition. PMID:19282975

Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N

2008-01-01

53

Declines of biomes and biotas and the future of evolution  

PubMed Central

Although panel discussants disagreed whether the biodiversity crisis constitutes a mass extinction event, all agreed that current extinction rates are 50–500 times background and are increasing and that the consequences for the future evolution of life are serious. In response to the on-going rapid decline of biomes and homogenization of biotas, the panelists predicted changes in species geographic ranges, genetic risks of extinction, genetic assimilation, natural selection, mutation rates, the shortening of food chains, the increase in nutrient-enriched niches permitting the ascendancy of microbes, and the differential survival of ecological generalists. Rates of evolutionary processes will change in different groups, and speciation in the larger vertebrates is essentially over. Action taken over the next few decades will determine how impoverished the biosphere will be in 1,000 years when many species will suffer reduced evolvability and require interventionist genetic and ecological management. Whether the biota will continue to provide the dependable ecological services humans take for granted is less clear. The discussants offered recommendations, including two of paramount importance (concerning human populations and education), seven identifying specific scientific activities to better equip us for stewardship of the processes of evolution, and one suggesting that such stewardship is now our responsibility. The ultimate test of evolutionary biology as a science is not whether it solves the riddles of the past but rather whether it enables us to manage the future of the biosphere. Our inability to make clearer predictions about the future of evolution has serious consequences for both biodiversity and humanity.

Woodruff, David S.

2001-01-01

54

Molecular analysis of human forearm superficial skin bacterial biota  

PubMed Central

The microbial ecology of human skin is complex, but little is known about its species composition. We examined the diversity of the skin biota from the superficial volar left and right forearms in six healthy subjects using broad-range small subunit rRNA genes (16S rDNA) PCR-based sequencing of randomly selected clones. For the initial 1,221 clones analyzed, 182 species-level operational taxonomic units (SLOTUs) belonging to eight phyla were identified, estimated as 74.0% [95% confidence interval (C.I.), ?64.8–77.9%] of the SLOTUs in this ecosystem; 48.0 ± 12.2 SLOTUs were found in each subject. Three phyla (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) accounted for 94.6% of the clones. Most (85.3%) of the bacterial sequences corresponded to known and cultivated species, but 98 (8.0%) clones, comprising 30 phylotypes, had <97% similarity to prior database sequences. Only 6 (6.6%) of the 91 genera and 4 (2.2%) of the 182 SLOTUs, respectively, were found in all six subjects. Analysis of 817 clones obtained 8–10 months later from four subjects showed additional phyla (numbering 2), genera (numbering 28), and SLOTUs (numbering 65). Only four (3.4%) of the 119 genera (Propionibacteria, Corynebacteria, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were observed in each subject tested twice, but these genera represented 54.4% of all clones. These results show that the bacterial biota in normal superficial skin is highly diverse, with few well conserved and well represented genera, but otherwise low-level interpersonal consensus.

Gao, Zhan; Tseng, Chi-hong; Pei, Zhiheng; Blaser, Martin J.

2007-01-01

55

Substantial Alterations of the Cutaneous Bacterial Biota in Psoriatic Lesions  

PubMed Central

For psoriasis, an idiopathic inflammatory disorder of the skin, the microbial biota has not been defined using cultivation-independent methods. We used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR for archaea and bacteria to examine the microbiota of normal and psoriatic skin. From 6 patients, 19 cutaneous samples (13 from diseased skin and 6 from normal skin) were obtained. Extracted DNA was subjected to the broad range PCR, and 1,925 cloned products were compared with 2,038 products previously reported from healthy persons. Using 98% sequence identity as a species boundary, 1,841 (95.6%) clones were similar to known bacterial 16S rDNA, representing 6 phyla, 86 genera, or 189 species-level operational taxonomic unit (SLOTU); 84 (4.4%) clones with <98% identity probably represented novel species. The most abundant and diverse phylum populating the psoriatic lesions was Firmicutes (46.2%), significantly (P<0.001) overrepresented, compared to the samples from uninvolved skin of the patients (39.0%) and healthy persons (24.4%). In contrast, Actinobacteria, the most prevalent and diverse phylum in normal skin samples from both healthy persons (47.6%) and the patients (47.8%), was significantly (P<0.01) underrepresented in the psoriatic lesion samples (37.3%). Representation of Propionibacterium species were lower in the psoriatic lesions (2.9±5.5%) than from normal persons (21.1±18.2%; P<0.001), whereas normal skin from the psoriatic patients showed intermediate levels (12.3±21.6%). We conclude that psoriasis is associated with substantial alteration in the composition and representation of the cutaneous bacterial biota.

Gao, Zhan; Tseng, Chi-hong; Strober, Bruce E.; Pei, Zhiheng; Blaser, Martin J.

2008-01-01

56

The BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories in Africa--a standardized framework for large-scale environmental monitoring.  

PubMed

The international, interdisciplinary biodiversity research project BIOTA AFRICA initiated a standardized biodiversity monitoring network along climatic gradients across the African continent. Due to an identified lack of adequate monitoring designs, BIOTA AFRICA developed and implemented the standardized BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories, that meet the following criteria (a) enable long-term monitoring of biodiversity, potential driving factors, and relevant indicators with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, (b) facilitate comparability of data generated within different ecosystems, (c) allow integration of many disciplines, (d) allow spatial up-scaling, and (e) be applicable within a network approach. A BIOTA Observatory encompasses an area of 1 km(2) and is subdivided into 100 1-ha plots. For meeting the needs of sampling of different organism groups, the hectare plot is again subdivided into standardized subplots, whose sizes follow a geometric series. To allow for different sampling intensities but at the same time to characterize the whole square kilometer, the number of hectare plots to be sampled depends on the requirements of the respective discipline. A hierarchical ranking of the hectare plots ensures that all disciplines monitor as many hectare plots jointly as possible. The BIOTA Observatory design assures repeated, multidisciplinary standardized inventories of biodiversity and its environmental drivers, including options for spatial up- and downscaling and different sampling intensities. BIOTA Observatories have been installed along climatic and landscape gradients in Morocco, West Africa, and southern Africa. In regions with varying land use, several BIOTA Observatories are situated close to each other to analyze management effects. PMID:21448628

Jürgens, Norbert; Schmiedel, Ute; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Dengler, Jürgen; Finckh, Manfred; Goetze, Dethardt; Gröngröft, Alexander; Hahn, Karen; Koulibaly, Annick; Luther-Mosebach, Jona; Muche, Gerhard; Oldeland, Jens; Petersen, Andreas; Porembski, Stefan; Rutherford, Michael C; Schmidt, Marco; Sinsin, Brice; Strohbach, Ben J; Thiombiano, Adjima; Wittig, Rüdiger; Zizka, Georg

2012-01-01

57

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of modeling simulations were performed to develop an understanding of the underlying factors and principles involved in developing field sampling designs for measuring bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs. These simulations reveal...

58

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DESIGN OF BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTOR FIELD STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

General guidance for designing field studies to measure bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) is not available. To develop such guidance, a series of modeling simulations were performed to evaluate the underlying factors and principles th...

59

ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

60

Local Adaptation of Aboveground Herbivores towards Plant Phenotypes Induced by Soil Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSoil biota may trigger strong physiological responses in plants and consequently induce distinct phenotypes. Plant phenotype, in turn, has a strong impact on herbivore performance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that aboveground herbivores are able to adapt to plant phenotypes induced by soil biota.Methodology and Principal FindingsWe bred spider mites for 15 generations on snap beans with three different belowground

Dries Bonte; Annelies de Roissart; Martijn L. Vandegehuchte; Daniel J. Ballhorn; Thomas van Leeuwen; Eduardo de La Peña; Corrie S. Moreau

2010-01-01

61

THECTARDIS AVALONENSIS: A NEW EDIACARAN FOSSIL FROM THE MISTAKEN POINT BIOTA, NEWFOUNDLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neoproterozoic Ediacara biota at Mistaken Point contains the oldest diverse Ediacaran assemblages and is one of the few known deepwater localities, yet the biota is dominated by endemic forms, nearly all of which remain undescribed. Thectardis avalonensis new genus and species, one of these endemic forms, is a cm-scale triangular fossil with a raised rim and a featureless-to- faintly-segmented

MATTHEW E. CLAPHAM; GUY M. NARBONNE; JAMES G. GEHLING; CAROLYN GREENTREE; MICHAEL M. ANDERSON

2004-01-01

62

Effects of soil biota from different ranges on Robinia invasion: acquiring mutualists and escaping pathogens.  

PubMed

The net effects of soil biota on exotic invaders can be variable, in part, because net effects are produced by many interacting mutualists and antagonists. Here we compared mutualistic and antagonistic biota in soils collected in the native, expanded, and invasive range of the black locust tree, Robinia pseudoacacia. Robinia formed nodules in all soils with a broad phylogenetic range of N-fixing bacteria, and leaf N did not differ among the different sources of soil. This suggests that the global expansion of Robinia was not limited by the lack of appropriate mutualistic N-fixers. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from the native range stimulated stronger positive feedbacks than AMF from the expanded or invasive ranges, a biogeographic difference not described previously for invasive plants. Pythium taxa collected from soil in the native range were not more pathogenic than those from other ranges; however, feedbacks produced by the total soil biota were more negative from soils from the native range than from the other ranges, overriding the effects of AMF. This suggests that escape from other pathogens in the soil or the net negative effects of the whole soil community may contribute to superior performance in invaded regions. Our results suggest that important regional evolutionary relationships may occur among plants and soil biota, and that net effects of soil biota may affect invasion, but in ways that are not easily explained by studying isolated components of the soil biota. PMID:21661564

Callaway, Ragan M; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Reinhart, Kurt O; Silvan, Cinta Gómez; Klironomos, John

2011-05-01

63

Coal ash basin effects (particulates, metals, acidic pH) upon aquatic biota: an eight-year evaluation. [Gambusia affinis; Plathemis lydia; Libellula spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal ash effluent effects including particulates, acidic pH excursions, elemental concentrations and bioconcentration in selected organisms have been studied as changes in water quality and densities of benthic macroinvertebrate and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations in a swanmp drainage system over an eight-year period. Initial density of the aquatic biota was altered severely by heavy ash siltation, followed by acidic pH

D. S. Cerry; R. K. Guthrie; E. M. Davis; R. S. Harvey

1984-01-01

64

Linking stormflow hydrology and biota in suburban streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suburban land development has been found to alter the hydrology of landscapes, changing streamflow transient behavior (i.e., storm "flashiness"), which may contribute to some of the commonly observed and typically negative impacts of development on aquatic ecosystems. The linkages between residential development, hydrologic response, and the structure of biotic assemblages in receiving waters, however, remain poorly characterized. The Shepherd Creek catchment in Cincinnati, Ohio (USA) is approximately 20 km2, half of which lies within an undeveloped city park. The other half of the catchment represents a mix of 1960-1980s era residential parcels in the headwaters, and horse and cattle pastures downstream. We use baseline monitoring data from five subcatchments (drainages with varying coverage in residential land use) where hydrologic, habitat, and biological monitoring is conducted. Flow transient behavior was characterized by deriving rise and fall rates from continuous (5-min.) gage records and macroinvertebrate and periphyton assemblages were assessed using metrics and ordination. Subcatchments exhibited scoured streambeds, high algal cell counts that were dominated by blue-green algae, and generally tolerant macroinvertebrate assemblages. These impairments appear to be related in part to a combination of rapid rise and fall rates for storm events, poor water quality, and a pronounced lack of benthic habitat for some of the sites. Flow transients may offer a mechanistic explanation for the structure of biological assemblages, linking land use to biological condition. We discuss how stormwater infiltration via parcel-level best management practices may restore some aspects of hydrology and biota within these degraded stream ecosystems.

Shuster, W. D.; Roy, A.; Zhang, Y.; Morrison, M.

2005-12-01

65

Birth of a biome: insights into the assembly and maintenance of the Australian arid zone biota.  

PubMed

The integration of phylogenetics, phylogeography and palaeoenvironmental studies is providing major insights into the historical forces that have shaped the Earth's biomes. Yet our present view is biased towards arctic and temperate/tropical forest regions, with very little focus on the extensive arid regions of the planet. The Australian arid zone is one of the largest desert landform systems in the world, with a unique, diverse and relatively well-studied biota. With foci on palaeoenvironmental and molecular data, we here review what is known about the assembly and maintenance of this biome in the context of its physical history, and in comparison with other mesic biomes. Aridification of Australia began in the Mid-Miocene, around 15 million years, but fully arid landforms in central Australia appeared much later, around 1-4 million years. Dated molecular phylogenies of diverse taxa show the deepest divergences of arid-adapted taxa from the Mid-Miocene, consistent with the onset of desiccation. There is evidence of arid-adapted taxa evolving from mesic-adapted ancestors, and also of speciation within the arid zone. There is no evidence for an increase in speciation rate during the Pleistocene, and most arid-zone species lineages date to the Pliocene or earlier. The last 0.8 million years have seen major fluctuations of the arid zone, with large areas covered by mobile sand dunes during glacial maxima. Some large, vagile taxa show patterns of recent expansion and migration throughout the arid zone, in parallel with the ice sheet-imposed range shifts in Northern Hemisphere taxa. Yet other taxa show high lineage diversity and strong phylogeographical structure, indicating persistence in multiple localised refugia over several glacial maxima. Similar to the Northern Hemisphere, Pleistocene range shifts have produced suture zones, creating the opportunity for diversification and speciation through hybridisation, polyploidy and parthenogenesis. This review highlights the opportunities that development of arid conditions provides for rapid and diverse evolutionary radiations, and re-enforces the emerging view that Pleistocene environmental change can have diverse impacts on genetic structure and diversity in different biomes. There is a clear need for more detailed and targeted phylogeographical studies of Australia's arid biota and we suggest a framework and a set of a priori hypotheses by which to proceed. PMID:18761619

Byrne, M; Yeates, D K; Joseph, L; Kearney, M; Bowler, J; Williams, M A J; Cooper, S; Donnellan, S C; Keogh, J S; Leys, R; Melville, J; Murphy, D J; Porch, N; Wyrwoll, K-H

2008-10-01

66

Determination of methylmercury in marine biota samples: Method validation.  

PubMed

Regulatory authorities are expected to measure concentration of contaminants in foodstuffs, but the simple determination of total amount cannot be sufficient for fully judging its impact on the human health. In particular, the methylation of metals generally increases their toxicity; therefore validated analytical methods producing reliable results for the assessment of methylated species are highly needed. Nowadays, there is no legal limit for methylmercury (MeHg) in food matrices. Hence, no standardized method for the determination of MeHg exists within the international jurisdiction. Contemplating the possibility of a future legislative limit, a method for low level determination of MeHg in marine biota matrixes, based on aqueous-phase ethylation followed by purge and trap and gas chromatography (GC) coupled to pyrolysis-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Py-AFS) detection, has been developed and validated. Five different extraction procedures, namely acid and alkaline leaching assisted by microwave and conventional oven heating, as well as enzymatic digestion, were evaluated in terms of their efficiency to extract MeHg from Scallop soft tissue IAEA-452 Certified Reference Material. Alkaline extraction with 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with 5M HCl and enzymatic digestion with protease XIV yielded the highest extraction recoveries. Standard addition or the introduction of a dilution step were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects observed when microwave-assisted extraction using 25% (w/w) KOH in methanol or 25% (w/v) aqueous TMAH were used. ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines were followed to perform the validation of the methodology. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration curve, linearity (0.9995), working range (1-800pg), recovery (97%), precision, traceability, limit of detection (0.45pg), limit of quantification (0.85pg) and expanded uncertainty (15.86%, k=2) were assessed with Fish protein Dorm-3 Certified Reference Material. The major contributions to the expanded uncertainty, i.e. 86.1%, arose from the uncertainty associated with recovery, followed by the contribution from fluorescence signal. Additional validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison with the values reported for MeHg in the IAEA-452 inter-laboratory comparison exercise. PMID:24720970

Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia

2014-05-01

67

Contamination of estuarine water, biota, and sediment by halogenated organic compounds: A field study  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies conducted in the vicinity of an industrial outfall in the Calcasieu River estuary, Louisiana, have shown that water, bottom and suspended sediment, and four different species of biota are contaminated with halogenated organic compounds (HOC) including haloarenes. A "salting-out" effect in the estuary moderately enhanced the partitioning tendency of the contaminants into biota and sediments. Contaminant concentrations in water, suspended sediments, and biota were found to be far below the values predicted on the basis of the assumption of phase equilibria with respect to concentrations in bottom sediment. Relative concentration factors of HOC between biota (catfish) and bottom sediment increased with increasing octanol/estuarine water partition coefficients (Kow*), maximizing at log Kow* of about 5, although these ratios were considerably less than equilibrium values. In contrast, contaminant concentrations in water, biota, and suspended sediments were much closer to equilibrium values. Bioconcentration factors of HOC determined on the basis of lipid content for four different biotic species correlated reasonably well with equilibrium triolein/water partition coefficients (Ktw).

Pereira, W. E.; Rostad, C. E.; Chiou, C. T.; Brinton, T. I.; Barber, II, L. B.; Demcheck, D. K.; Demas, C. R.

1988-01-01

68

Arsenic undergoes significant speciation changes upon incubation of contaminated rice with human colon micro biota.  

PubMed

Cellular and animal studies involving MMA(III) (monomethyl arsonous acid) and DMA(III) (dimethyl arsinous acid) have indicated that their toxicities meet or exceed that of iAs. Thiolated arsenic metabolites were observed in urine after oral exposure of inorganic arsenic in some studies. For these species, the toxicological profile was not yet fully characterized in human cells. Some studies revealed that trivalent organoarsenic species are well absorbed in the intestine compared to iAs. However, other studies also indicated that a significant amount of rice-bound As reaches the colon, which may be attributed to the fibre-rich nature of the rice. Studies have revealed that microorganisms from the gut environment are important contributors to arsenic speciation changes. We aimed to study how the gut microbial metabolism affects As in different rice matrices. This was done in vitro using colon suspension from the Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME system). Significant amounts of MMA(III), DMA(III) and MMMTA(V) were formed due to microbial metabolic processes like methylation and thiolation. These results suggested that presystemic metabolism by human gut micro biota should not be neglected in risk assessment studies. In this context, also toxicity and absorption of thiolated species by mammalian cells should be further investigated. PMID:22652323

Alava, Pradeep; Tack, Filip; Laing, Gijs Du; Van de Wiele, Tom

2013-11-15

69

Same Experimental Dates About The Levels of Chlorinated Pesticides and PCBs in the Biota of Ohrid Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research paper contains some experimental data about the levels of Chlorinated Pesticides and PCBs in the biota of Ohrid Lake. These contaminant compounds are known as persistent organic pollutants (POP-s). Their highly lyophilize properties coupled with human factor, atmospheric depositions and food chain makes the biota a representative of pollution levels in the Lake. Interesting facts are exposed for

D. Topi; P. Troja; K. Koci; E. Marku; A. Nuro

70

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and the Gulf of Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and spatial distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in biota and coastal sediments from four countries surrounding the Gulf (Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman). The levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), aliphatic unresolved mixture and PAHs in sediments and biota were relatively low compared to world-wide locations reported to be chronically contaminated

Imma Tolosa; Stephen J. de Mora; Scott W. Fowler; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Jean Bartocci; Chantal Cattini

2005-01-01

71

Heavy Metal Levels in Biota and Sediments in the Northern Coast of the Marmara Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb and Cu were determinedin biota and sediment samples collected from the Marmara Sea in Turkey. The levels of Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb and Cu in the macroalgae are higher than previous studies in the Marmara Sea. Moreover, Cu and Zn concentrations at the present study are significantly high than Bosphorus

Sayhan Topcuo?lu; Çi?dem Kirba?o?lu; Yusuf Ziya Yilmaz

2004-01-01

72

Response of confined aquatic biota to mine depressurization water in Beaver Creek Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of selected species of aquatic biota to saline mine depressurization water after average dilution in the Beaver Creek Reservoir was investigated. Test organisms included periphyton, native fish species, and native invertebrates. Studies examined both short and long term effects. (ACR)

T. Jantzie; L. R. Noton; N. R. Chymko

1980-01-01

73

Upper Pleistocene Rocky Shores and Intertidal Biotas at Playa La Palmita (Baja California Sur, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four examples of Upper Pleistocene, rocky shores and associated biotas are preserved in ecological detail at Playa La Palmita in Bahia Santa Ines on the Gulf of California (Baja California Sur, Mexico). A 2 m-high sea cliff eroded from Miocene andesite reaches 6.25 m above present sea level and retains 15 species of encrusting organisms. Dominant space occupiers are the

Laura K. Libbey; Markes E. Johnson

1997-01-01

74

Degradation of Laurentian Great Lakes Biota--Causes and Effects Through 1970  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollutants from direct and indirect human activities have resulted in alterations of Great Lakes biota, and many of these alterations have had negative economic impacts. Lake Erie, with the least volume of water, and with the largest human population on surrounding land, suffered the most dramatic changes, particularly as a consequence of phosphorus and mercury pollution. Accelerated eutrophication altered the

ROBERT A SWEENEY

1982-01-01

75

Variations of heavy metals in water, sediments, and biota from the delta of ebro river, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were measured in water, sediments, and biota [algae (Ulva lactuca) and molluscs (Cerastoderma edule and Tellinella pulchella)] of the two bays from the Delta of Ebro river (in southeastern Catalonia, Spain), to determine if concentrations were elevated due to pollution by a variety of agricultural and industrial activities. The effect of temperature (seasonal variation)

M. Schuhmacher; J. L. Domingo; J. M. Llobet; J. Corbella

1995-01-01

76

Textured organic surfaces associated with the Ediacara biota in South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ediacaran Period takes its name from the fossils of the Ediacara biota, which represent the first appearance of large and diverse assemblages of organisms in the fossil record. Although the global record of these distinctive body fossils is now well known, a previously unrecognized megascopic organic record of textured organic surfaces (TOS) occurs in the Ediacara biota. However, TOS is also a feature over a wider range of paleoenvironmental settings, where body fossils are unknown, in Ediacaran siliciclastic successions that have been studied in Australia, Namibia and western North America. Paleoecological analysis of successive bedding planes of strata from the late Ediacaran Rawnsley Quartzite in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia, reveals that TOS represent the most common organic features in bedding-surface assemblages of the Ediacara biota. The TOS consist of preserved, patterned assemblages of textured organic mats, fibers and simple tubular body fossils. Complex Ediacara body fossils while striking for their distinctive body plans, and dominating some of the beds, are relatively minor components of combined overall surface area. Many elements of TOS have previously been miss-diagnosed as trace fossils, which are in practice limited to two or at most three morphotypes that indicate the presence of Bilateria. Although TOS represent a simpler grade of organismic construction than discrete and more complex Ediacara body fossils, they were preserved in a similar manner. Marked variability in all components of the biota between successive surfaces suggests that Ediacara ecologies fluctuated at short intervals despite an apparently consistent sedimentary regime.

Gehling, James G.; Droser, Mary L.

2009-10-01

77

Cryopreservation and Evaluation of Chinese ArborVitae (Biota Orientalis) Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under cryopreservation conditions or at ?196°C, because of extreme reduction of metabolic and physiologic processes, the seed sample or plant organ can survive for a long time. Chinese arbor-vitae (Biota orientalis (L.) Endl.) is one of the endangered forest species in Iran. To preserve B. orientalis seeds under cryogenic conditions, three cryopreservation treatments, including plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2), 30%

M. Naderi Shahab; F. Hatami; M. Tabari; A. A. Jafari

2009-01-01

78

Atmospheric transport of persistent pollutants governs uptake by holarctic terrestrial biota  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric deposition of PCBs, DDT, and lindane, governed uptake in terrestrial biota in the Scandinavian peninsula. Mammalian herbivores and predators as well as predatory insects contained higher levels of pollutants at locations where the fallout load was high than at stations where atmospheric deposition was lower, and the two variables were significantly correlated.

Larsson, P.; Okla, L.; Woin, Per (Limnology, Lund (Sweden))

1990-10-01

79

Effects of forest continuity and tree age on epiphytic lichen biota in coniferous forests in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epiphytic lichen biota on Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris in Estonia was studied. Twenty-one spruce and 21 pine sample plots were located in old forests with long forest continuity, and 12 spruce and 12 pine sample plots in young first-generation forests (<100 years). Altogether 103 lichen species were recorded on the 330 sampled trees. Lichen species richness per plot was

L. Marmor; T. Tõrra; L. Saag; T. Randlane

2011-01-01

80

SOME BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN LAKE TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene/triphenylene were calculated using the tissue data of Zabik et al. for Salvelinus namaycush siscovet with 20.5% lipid content, th...

81

National-scale, field-based evaluation of the biota - Sediment accumulation factor model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The biota - sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) model has been suggested as a simple tool to predict bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs)in fish and other aquatic biota from measured concentrations in sediment based on equilibrium partitioning between the sediment organic carbon and biotic lipid pools. Currently, evaluation of this model as a predictive tool has been limited to laboratory studies and small-scale field studies, using a limited number of biotic species. This study evaluates the model, from field data, for a suite of organochlorine HOCs from paired fluvial sediment and biota (fish and bivalves) samples throughout the United States and over a large range of biotic species. These data represent a real-world, worst-case scenario of the model because environmental variables are not controlled. Median BSAF values for fish (3.3) and bivalves (2.8) were not statistically different but are higher than theoretically predicted values (1-2). BSAF values varied significantly in a few species. Differences in chemical-specific BSAF values were not observed in bivalves but were statistically significant in fish. The HOCs with differing BSAF values were those known to be biotransformed. Sediment organic carbon content and biota lipid content had no effect on BSAF values in fish and only a weak effect in bivalves. This study suggests that the BSAF model could be useful under in situ riverine conditions as a first-level screening tool for predicting bioaccumulation; however, variability in BSAF values may impose limits on its utility.

Wong, C. S.; Capel, P. D.; Nowell, L. H.

2001-01-01

82

Perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment, soil and biota from estuarine and coastal areas of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil, sediment, water, and biota collected from the western coast of Korea were analyzed to determine occurrence and sources of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). PFCs were significantly concentrations of PFCs were measured in some water and biological samples, while concentrations of PFCs in soils and sediments were relatively low. The most widely detected compound was found to be perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), with

Jonathan E. Naile; Jong Seong Khim; Tieyu Wang; Chunli Chen; Wei Luo; Bong-Oh Kwon; Chul-Hwan Koh; Paul D. Jones; Yonglong Lu; John P. Giesy

2010-01-01

83

Project EARTH09-MDB2: ECOLOGY AND TAPHONOMY OF THE EDIACARA BIOTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition from a thoroughly alien Ediacaran world to a fully formed and recognisable modern ecological structure by the Middle Cambrian presents palaeobiologists with a series of major puzzles. Not least of these puzzles is the enigma of the Ediacara biota, which contains the oldest known macroscopic 'animal' fossil remains. The Oxford group has a major project on the evolution

Martin Brasier; Duncan McIlroy

84

BSAFs and Food Web Modeling for Establishing Contaminant Relationships between Biota and Sediment  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation will cover how to measure and evaluate BSAFs (biota-sediment accumulation factors), and how to construct, calibrate, validate, and evaluate food web models. The presentation will also discuss the advantages of the two approaches for establishing contaminant rel...

85

Local Adaptation of Aboveground Herbivores towards Plant Phenotypes Induced by Soil Biota  

PubMed Central

Background Soil biota may trigger strong physiological responses in plants and consequently induce distinct phenotypes. Plant phenotype, in turn, has a strong impact on herbivore performance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that aboveground herbivores are able to adapt to plant phenotypes induced by soil biota. Methodology and Principal Findings We bred spider mites for 15 generations on snap beans with three different belowground biotic interactions: (i) no biota (to serve as control), (ii) arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and (ii) root-feeding nematodes. Subsequently, we conducted a reciprocal selection experiment using these spider mites, which had been kept on the differently treated plants. Belowground treatments induced changes in plant biomass, nutrient composition and water content. No direct chemical defence through cyanogenesis was detected in any of the plant groups. Growth rates of spider mites were higher on the ecotypes on which they were bred for 15 generations, although the statistical significance disappeared for mites from the nematode treatment when corrected for all multiple comparisons. Conclusion/Significance These results demonstrate that belowground biota may indeed impose selection on the aboveground insect herbivores mediated by the host plant. The observed adaptation was driven by variable quantitative changes of the different separately studied life history traits (i.e. fecundity, longevity, sex-ratio, time to maturity).

Bonte, Dries; De Roissart, Annelies; Vandegehuchte, Martijn L.; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; de la Pena, Eduardo

2010-01-01

86

A method to assess longitudinal riverine connectivity in tropical streams dominated by migratory biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. One way in which dams affect ecosystem function is by altering the distribution and abundance of aquatic species. 2. Previous studies indicate that migratory shrimps have significant effects on ecosystem processes in Puerto Rican streams, but are vulnerable to impediments to upstream or downstream passage, such as dams and associated water intakes where stream water is withdrawn for human water supplies. Ecological effects of dams and water withdrawals from streams depend on spatial context and temporal variability of flow in relation to the amount of water withdrawn. 3. This paper presents a conceptual model for estimating the probability that an individual shrimp is able to migrate from a stream's headwaters to the estuary as a larva, and then return to the headwaters as a juvenile, given a set of dams and water withdrawals in the stream network. The model is applied to flow and withdrawal data for a set of dams and water withdrawals in the Caribbean National Forest (CNF) in Puerto Rico. 4. The index of longitudinal riverine connectivity (ILRC), is used to classify 17 water intakes in streams draining the CNF as having low, moderate, or high connectivity in terms of shrimp migration in both directions. An in-depth comparison of two streams showed that the stream characterized by higher water withdrawal had low connectivity, even during wet periods. Severity of effects is illustrated by a drought year, where the most downstream intake caused 100% larval shrimp mortality 78% of the year. 5. The ranking system provided by the index can be used as a tool for conservation ecologists and water resource managers to evaluate the relative vulnerability of migratory biota in streams, across different scales (reach-network), to seasonally low flows and extended drought. This information can be used to help evaluate the environmental tradeoffs of future water withdrawals. ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Crook, K. E.; Pringle, C. M.; Freeman, M. C.

2009-01-01

87

High-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Jehol Biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abundant fossils of the terrestrial Jehol Biota, including plants, insects, dinosaurs, birds, mammals and freshwater invertebrates, were discovered from the Yixian Formation and the overlying Jiufotang Formation in Inner Mongolia, Hebei Province and Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Because of the exceptional preservation of fossils, the Jehol Biota is one of the most important Mesozoic fossil outcrops and referred to as a "Mesozoic Pompeii". The Jehol Biota has provided a rare opportunity to address questions about the origin of birds, the evolution of feathers and flight, the early diversification of angiosperms and the timing of the radiation of placental mammals. The Tuchengzi Formation, which lies unconformably just below the Yixian Formation and consists mainly of variegated sandstones, is less fossiliferous than the two overlying formations. However, dinosaur tracks, silicified wood and compressed plants are found in this formation. A systematic 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Yixian and the Jiufotang formations was undertaken to provide a framework for understanding the timing and duration of the Jehol Biota and evolutionary events represented within it. Furthermore, determining the absolute age of the Tuchengzi Formation provides information to interpret abundant dinosaur tracks within and provide better age constrains for the beginning of the Jehol Biota. Here we present robust high-precision 40Ar/39Ar data for six tuff samples and two basalt samples collected from the Tuchengzi, the Yixian and the Jiufotang formations near the classic outcrops in western Liaoning, NE China. We obtain an age of 139.5 ± 1.0 Ma for the uppermost Tuchengzi Formation, an age of 129.7 ± 0.5 Ma for a basaltic lava from the bottom of the Yixian Formation and an age of 122.1 ± 0.3 Ma for a tuff from the base of the overlying Jiufotang Formation. Our data indicate that the Yixian Formation was deposited during the Early Cretaceous, the Barremian to early Aptian, within a time span of 7 Ma. Because of the systematic sampling and the high quality of our data, these results contribute the most accurate age calibration yet of the Jehol Biota within the Yixian Formation and the overlying Jiufotang Formation, providing significant calibration for the evolution of early angiosperms, primitive birds and feathered dinosaurs.

Chang, S.; Zhang, H.; Renne, P. R.; Fang, Y.

2008-12-01

88

Methodology for Estimating Radiation Dose Rates to Freshwater Biota Exposed to Radionuclides in the Environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present a methodology for evaluating the potential for aquatic biota to incur effects from exposure to chronic low-level radiation in the environment. Aquatic organisms inhabiting an environment contaminated with radioactivity receive external radiation from radionuclides in water, sediment, and from other biota such as vegetation. Aquatic organisms receive internal radiation from radionuclides ingested via food and water and, in some cases, from radionuclides absorbed through the skin and respiratory organs. Dose rate equations, which have been developed previously, are presented for estimating the radiation dose rate to representative aquatic organisms from alpha, beta, and gamma irradiation from external and internal sources. Tables containing parameter values for calculating radiation doses from selected alpha, beta, and gamma emitters are presented in the appendix to facilitate dose rate calculations. The risk of detrimental effects to aquatic biota from radiation exposure is evaluated by comparing the calculated radiation dose rate to biota to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) recommended dose rate limit of 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} (1 rad d{sup -1}). A dose rate no greater than 0.4 mGy h{sup -1} to the most sensitive organisms should ensure the protection of populations of aquatic organisms. DOE's recommended dose rate is based on a number of published reviews on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms that are summarized in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 109 (NCRP 1991). The literature identifies the developing eggs and young of some species of teleost fish as the most radiosensitive organisms. DOE recommends that if the results of radiological models or dosimetric measurements indicate that a radiation dose rate of 0.1 mGy h{sup -1} will be exceeded, then a more detailed evaluation of the potential ecological consequences of radiation exposure to endemic populations should be conducted. Dose rates have been calculated for biota in aquatic ecosystems associated with three national laboratories and one uranium mining and milling facility (NCRP 1991). At all sites, the dose rates were two orders of magnitude less than the value recommended by DOE for the protection of populations of aquatic biota. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that aquatic organisms will encounter dose rates in aquatic ecosystems that will be detrimental at the population level other than in man-made bodies of water associated with waste management activities or from accidental releases of radionuclides.

Blaylock, B.G.

1993-01-01

89

Understanding Human Culture as an Event in the Biota  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of human feelings as well as physiologicalfacts in ecological concerns is considered. New terms are proposed to facilitate thinking about the ecosystem - the entire system of relationships on which life is contingent. (LS)

Hartley, Peter E.

1974-01-01

90

Technical report series: Concentrations of PCBs, DDTr, and selected metals in biota from Guntersville Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The purpose was to determine if there was potential for human health risks from consumption of reservoir fish or if selected toxic substances might be impacting reservoir biota. Fillets from catfish (channel and blue) and largemouth bass were analyzed for the first purpose and whole gizzard shad, catfish livers, and turtle livers and fat were analyzed for the second. Results indicate largemouth bass should be safe for consumption based on low levels of tested contaminants. However, three of sixteen catfish samples contained PCB levels above the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tolerance of 2.0 ..mu..g/g, and seven others contained levels sufficiently close to that value to warrant concern. DDT and its metabolites and selected metals were low in catfish except for chromium, nickel, and mercury in selected cases. Analyses on all sample types (those referenced above plus catfish livers and turtle fat and livers) indicated levels of metals were generally low and probably not individually impacting reservoir biota.

Dycus, D.L.; Lowery, D.R.

1986-10-01

91

Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota.  

PubMed

Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version. PMID:18329144

Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G; Gómez-Ros, J M

2008-09-01

92

Application of the ERICA Assessment Tool to freshwater biota in Finland.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been growing international interest in the assessment of doses and risks from ionising contaminants to biota. In this study the ERICA Tool, developed within the EC 6th Framework Programme, was applied to estimate incremental dose rates to biota in freshwater ecosystems in Finland mainly resulting from exposure to the Chernobyl-derived radionuclides (137)Cs, (134)Cs and (90)Sr. Data sets consisting of measured activity concentrations in fish, aquatic plants, lake water and sediment for three selected lakes located in a region with high (137)Cs deposition were applied in the assessment. The dose rates to most species studied were clearly below the screening level of 10 microGy h(-1), indicating no significant impact of the Chernobyl fallout on these species. However, the possibility of higher dose rates to certain species living on or in the bottom sediment cannot be excluded based on this assessment. PMID:19828217

Vetikko, Virve; Saxén, Ritva

2010-01-01

93

Long-Term Ecological Behaviour of Abandoned Uranium Mill Tailings. 1. Synoptic Survey and Identification of Invading Biota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inactive uranium mill tailings were surveyed in the Province of Ontario to describe their surface characteristics, identify naturally invading biota, and determine essential chemical and physical parameters associated with the tailings. Inactive tailings ...

M. Kalin

1983-01-01

94

Selenium, selected inorganic elements, and organochlorine pesticides in bottom material and biota from the Colorado River delta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of selenium (Se) in bottom material ranged from 0.6 to 5.0 ??g g-1, and from 0.5 to 18.3 ??g g-1 in biota; 23% of samples exceeded the toxic threshold. Concentrations of DDE in biota exceeded the toxic threshold in 30% of the samples. Greater concentrations of selenium in biota were found at sites with strongly reducing conditions, no output, alternating periods of drying and flooding or dredging activities, and at sites that received water directly from the Colorado River. The smallest Se concentrations in biota were found at sites where an outflow and exposure or physical disturbance of the bottom material were uncommon. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

Garcia-Hernandez, J.; King, K. A.; Velasco, A. L.; Shumilin, E.; Mora, M. A.; Glenn, E. P.

2001-01-01

95

Silver108m in Biota and Sediments at Bikini and Eniwetok Atolls  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE occurrence1 of the long lived silver radionuclide 108mAg (T½>100 yr) in biota from the Pacific Ocean has been held to suggest that the silver radionuclide ratio 110mAg\\/108mAg may be useful as a tracer of environmental processes. It also appears1 that large amounts of 110mAg and 108mAg were not produced during the 1958 test series or earlier, and that the

T. M. Beasley; E. E. Held

1971-01-01

96

The biota and environment of fumaroles on Mt Melbourne, northern Victoria Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to provide a general description of the biota and environment of fumarolic ground close to the summit (2733 m) of Mt Melbourne. Heat flow through the ground was examined and analyses made of the physico-chemical properties of the soil. Bryophyte vegetation comprisedCampylopus pyriformis (K.F. Schultz) Brid. andCephaloziella exiliflora (Tayl.) Steph. The former is a

Paul Broady I; David Given; Laurence Greenfield; Keith Thompson

1987-01-01

97

Silica-secreting biota and mass extinctions: survival patterns and processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

High survival and at least regional blooms of siliceous marine groups, with coeval retreat of calcareous organisms, is known from the Frasnian–Famennian (radiolarians, silicisponges) and end-Cretaceous (diatoms, radiolarians) mass extinctions. A strictly actualistic approach to the palaeoecology of silica-secreting biota is of limited significance, especially for silica-enriched and oligotrophic Palaeozoic epeiric seas and, in particular, during biotic turnovers. Adaptation among

Grzegorz Racki

1999-01-01

98

Decomposition and soil biota after reclamation of coal mine spoils in an arid region  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared soil biota and buried wheat straw decomposition on sites subject to topsoiling plus straw mulch reclamation procedures 1–4 years prior to our study and on an unmined site. Rates of straw decomposition were highest on the unmined site. Decomposition rates were higher on the 1- and 2-year-old sites than on the 3- and 4-year-old reclaimed spoil. Microarthropod population

L. W. Parker; N. Z. Elkins; E. R. Aldon; W. G. Whitford

1987-01-01

99

Biota of a Pennsylvanian muddy coast: habitat within the Mazonian delta complex, northeast Illinois  

SciTech Connect

The Mazon Creek biota (Westphalian D) is composed of plants and animals from terrestrial fresh water and marginal marine habitats. Fossil animals, including jellyfish, worms, crustaceans, holothurians, insects, chordates, and problematica occur in sideritic concretions on spoilpiles of more than 100 abandoned coal mines in a five county region (Mazon Creek area) of northeast Illinois. These fossils record rapid burial and early diagenesis in a muddy, delta-influenced coastal setting submerged during marine transgression.

Baird, G.C.

1985-03-01

100

Method for the determination of organophosphate insecticides in water, sediment and biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the determination of 13 organophosphate insecticides (OPs) in water, sediment and biota at low ppb levels is described. Samples were extracted with dichloromethane or acetone\\/hexane and cleaned up with micro-column silica gel chromatography. Measurements were made by dual capillary column gas chromatography using both nitrogen-phosphorus (NPD) and electron capture (ECD) detection. Recoveries from fortified water samples ranged

Hung Tse; Michael Comba; Mehran Alaee

2004-01-01

101

Effect of soil biota on growth and allocation by Eucalyptus microcarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined growth of Eucalyptus microcarpa seedlings in soil collected from four sites in southeastern Australia, in which retired pasture land has been revegetated\\u000a with mixed plantings of Eucalyptus and Acacia species. Revegetation of farm land in southeastern Australia is an area of major investment. The focus of the study was to\\u000a examine the influence of soil biota on seedling

Mark Bourne; Adrienne B. Nicotra; Matthew J. Colloff; Saul A. Cunningham

2008-01-01

102

Derivation of a screening methodology for evaluating radiation dose to aquatic and terrestrial biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose standard for the protection of aquatic animals, and is considering additional dose standards for terrestrial biota. These standards are: 10 mGy\\/d for aquatic animals, 10 mGy\\/d for terrestrial plants, and, 1 mGy\\/d for terrestrial animals. Guidance on suitable approaches to the implementation of these standards is

Kathryn A. Higley; Stephen L. Domotor; Ernest J. Antonio; David C. Kocher

2003-01-01

103

Ediacaran fossil preservation: Taphonomy and diagenesis of a discoid biota from the Amadeus Basin, central Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of the preservation of the enigmatic soft-bodied Ediacara biota in relatively coarse-grained siliciclastic sediments remain unresolved. The taphonomic model proposed by Gehling in 1999 is here validated through examination of previously unpublished discoid fossils from the shallow marine-deltaic Arumbera Sandstone in the Amadeus Basin. Within the Flinders-style preservation, the model predicts stalked-frondose organisms attached by a discoid-holdfast to a

N. B. Mapstone; D. McIlroy

2006-01-01

104

Occurrence of 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) in the environment and effect on exposed biota: a review.  

PubMed

17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a synthetic hormone, which is a derivative of the natural hormone, estradiol (E2). EE2 is an orally bio-active estrogen, and is one of the most commonly used medications for humans as well as livestock and aquaculture activity. EE2 has become a widespread problem in the environment due to its high resistance to the process of degradation and its tendency to (i) absorb organic matter, (ii) accumulate in sediment and (iii) concentrate in biota. Numerous studies have reported the ability of EE2 to alter sex determination, delay sexual maturity, and decrease the secondary sexual characteristics of exposed organisms even at a low concentration (ng/L) by mimicking its natural analogue, 17?-estradiol (E2). Thus, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the science regarding EE2, the concentration levels in the environment (water, sediment and biota) and summarize the effects of this compound on exposed biota at various concentrations, stage life, sex, and species. The challenges in respect of EE2 include the extension of the limited database on the EE2 pollution profile in the environment, its fate and transport mechanism, as well as the exposure level of EE2 for better prediction and definition revision of EE2 toxicity end points, notably for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. PMID:24825791

Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Shamsuddin, Aida Soraya; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

2014-08-01

105

Trace organic contamination in biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary, China: a preliminary risk assessment.  

PubMed

The marine ecosystem of the Pearl River Delta, located on the southern coast of China, has been heavily exploited following the rapid economic growth that has occurred since the 1980s. This investigation aimed to elucidate trace organic contamination in marine biota inhabiting the Pearl River Delta area. Biota samples, including green-lipped mussels (Perna viridis), oysters (Crassostrea rivularis) and shrimp (Penaeus orientalis) were sampled from 16 stations fringing the Estuary. Elevated concentrations (on a dry weight basis) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (27.8-1041.0 ng/g), petroleum hydrocarbons (1.7-2345.4 microg/g), polychlorinated biphenyls (2.1-108.8 ng/g), DDTs (1.9-79.0 ng/g), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (n.d.-38.4 ng/g) were recorded. A human health risk assessment was conducted to estimate the risk to local residents associated with the consumption of biota collected from the Pearl River Estuary. The results indicated that PCBs were at levels that may cause deleterious health effects in populations that consume large amounts of seafood. However, it would be instructive to establish health criteria for trace organic contaminants that are specific to the local populations, in order to derive a more accurate and relevant health risk assessment. PMID:16908034

Wei, S; Lau, R K F; Fung, C N; Zheng, G J; Lam, J C W; Connell, D W; Fang, Z; Richardson, B J; Lam, P K S

2006-12-01

106

Climate Warming and Disease Risks for Terrestrial and Marine Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming,

C. Drew Harvell; Charles E. Mitchell; Jessica R. Ward; Sonia Altizer; Andrew P. Dobson; Richard S. Ostfeld; Michael D. Samuel

2002-01-01

107

The Cretaceous Tetori biota in Japan and its evolutionary significance for terrestrial ecosystems in Asia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cretaceous nonmarine deposits are widely distributed on the Asian continent and include various kinds of zoo- and phyto-assemblages. The Tetori Group is one of the most important Mesozoic terrestrial deposits in East Asia, and for this reason its geology, stratigraphy, and biota have been studied intensively by our group for more than a decade. We present the main results herein. We confirm that formations as lithostratigraphic units are the best geological correlation tools for the Tetori Group and the best tools for a geological mapping of the group. Although subgroups have previously been used for correlation, proper designation and evaluation of subgroups is required if they are to be used effectively, and we show that previous geological correlation of the Tetori Group has been confused by inappropriate definition of these subgroups. We located fossil localities including reported zoo- and phyto-assemblages in the framework of formations correlated by our stratigraphy. The occurrence of zoo-assemblages was probably controlled by environments (i.e., most are in situ), but phyto-assemblages were mostly transported and rapidly buried by high-energy river systems. Although two distinct dinosaur faunas and four floras have been named for the zoo- and phyto-assemblages in the Tetori Group, in reality there is only one Tetori Dinosaur Fauna and one Tetori Flora, as proved by careful correlation. Two types of zoo-assemblages co-occur in the Tetori Group: vertebrate species whose ancestors flourished in the Jurassic (as found in China), and their descendants from the Late Cretaceous. As the latter modern type of assemblage is more abundant than the former, changeable environments at the continental margin probably accelerated evolution of more modern species. We can employ nonmarine molluscan species as geological correlation tools in some cases, i.e., when their taxon ranges are well-confirmed by independent evidence. However, because freshwater molluscan species and terrestrial vertebrate species had many opportunities to move to optimum habitat as environments changed through time on the Cretaceous Asian continent, their correlation potential is uncertain. Many nonmarine molluscan species from the Japanese and Chinese Cretaceous had their stratigraphic occurrences controlled by changing environments. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Matsukawa, M.; Ito, M.; Nishida, N.; Koarai, K.; Lockley, M. G.; Nichols, D. J.

2006-01-01

108

BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL MATS AND THEIR BIOTA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time. their biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self- sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a dial (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a host of other elements.

DesMarais, David; Discipulo, M.; Turk, K.; Londry, K. L.

2005-01-01

109

Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infectious diseases can cause rapid population declines or species extinctions. Many pathogens of terrestrial and marine taxa are sensitive to temperature, rainfall, and humidity, creating synergisms that could affect biodiversity. Climate warming can increase pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, and host susceptibility. Although most host-parasite systems are predicted to experience more frequent or severe disease impacts with warming, a subset of pathogens might decline with warming, releasing hosts from disease. Recently, changes in El Niño–Southern Oscillation events have had a detectable influence on marine and terrestrial pathogens, including coral diseases, oyster pathogens, crop pathogens, Rift Valley fever, and human cholera. To improve our ability to predict epidemics in wild populations, it will be necessary to separate the independent and interactive effects of multiple climate drivers on disease impact.

Harvell, C. D.; Mitchell, C. E.; Ward, J. R.; Altizer, S.; Dobson, A. P.; Ostfeld, R. S.; Samuel, M. D.

2002-01-01

110

Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 5, Surface-based subject areas  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Biota subject area of the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) is to manage the data collected from samples of plants and animals. This includes both samples taken from the plant or animal or samples related to the plant or animal. Related samples include animal feces and animal habitat. Data stored in the Biota subject area include data about the biota samples taken, analysis results counts from population studies, and species distribution maps.

Not Available

1994-01-14

111

Heterogeneity of soil nutrients and subsurface biota in a dryland ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dryland ecosystems have long been considered to have a highly heterogeneous distribution of nutrients and soil biota, with greater concentrations of both in soils under plants relative to interspace soils. We examined the distribution of soil resources in two plant communities (dominated by either the shrub Coleogyne ramosissima or the grass Stipa hymenoides) at two locations. Interspace soils were covered either by early successional biological soil crusts (BSCs) or by later successional BSCs (dominated by nitrogen (N)-fixing cyanobacteria and lichens). For each of the 8 plant type??crust type??locations, we sampled the stem, dripline, and 3 interspace distances around each of 3 plants. Soil analyses revealed that only available potassium (Kav) and ammonium concentrations were consistently greater under plants (7 of 8 sites and 6 of 8 sites, respectively). Nitrate and iron (Fe) were greater under plants at 4 sites, while all other nutrients were greater under plants at less than 50% of the sites. In contrast, calcium, copper, clay, phosphorus (P), and zinc were often greater in the interspace than under the plants. Soil microbial biomass was always greater under the plant compared to the interspace. The community composition of N-fixing bacteria was highly variable, with no distinguishable patterns among microsites. Bacterivorous nematodes and rotifers were consistently more abundant under plants (8 and 7 sites, respectively), and fungivorous and omnivorous nematodes were greater under plants at 5 of the 8 sites. Abundance of other soil biota was greater under plants at less than 50% of the sites, but highly correlated with the availability of N, P, Kav, and Fe. Unlike other ecosystems, the soil biota was only infrequently correlated with organic matter. Lack of plant-driven heterogeneity in soils of this ecosystem is likely due to (1) interspace soils covered with BSCs, (2) little incorporation of above-ground plant litter into soils, and/or (3) root deployment patterns. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Housman, D. C.; Yeager, C. M.; Darby, B. J.; Sanford, Jr. , R. L.; Kuske, C. R.; Neher, D. A.; Belnap, J.

2007-01-01

112

The climate change for Jehol Biota and its revolution in early Cretaceous in Western Liaoning, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jehol Biota is known by us as the biological assemblage of eosestheria, Ephemeropsis trisetalis and Lycoptera at the beginning. And then we found more fossils at near time such as Sinosauropteryx, Confuciusornis, Cathayornis, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Archaefructaceae and other fossils in Western Liaoning, China. With the finding of those fossils, we become to think about what is the environment of this area in that time, what led to the development of such livings? In early Cretaceous, there are a lot of basins in North of Liaoning which were with plain layer in side, a lot of Lakes and volcano campaign frequently. We built up a section located in Sihetun of Liaoning with the layer is volcano-lake face. Date of the bottom is Aptian period. From TEX86 dates, we can know that the Paleatemperature is from? (the samples from the bottom is on testing and will be known soon, ), 17°C (Lake surface temperature, in the middle layer), and then 22°C(Lake surface temperature, on the top of the layer). The climate was changed from the seasonal arid or semi-arid into a warm and humid climate. With his kind of changing of the environment, the lives of Jehol Biota can survive, evolve and multiple in those basins. The movement of the volcano took the nutrients from the earth which made a flourishing many plants and plankton. This is the power of the evolution of plants. The early angiosperm came out in this time in this area which is called as Archaefructaceae. In the same time, the direction-sense, mass death of the birds and the macrofaunas showed that the exploration of the volcanoes made a lot of animals die and then be covered very quickly. In such an area where death and living was fast, there must be a quickly evolution. And it led to the formation and preservation of a large number of fossils. we found the same fossils out of the basin but later on date which showed the climate transferred to hot and dry later, and the livings in the basin were strong enough so that they could moved out of the basin at the last time. Section Map of Jehol Biota in North of Lliaoning, China LST by TEX86 in Jehol Biota layer Lake surface temperature using calibration of Powers et al., 2010, Organic Geochemistry

Wang, M.; Weijers, J.; Wang, C.; 973 Project; Igcp555

2010-12-01

113

Threatened biotas: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mass-extinction episode underway is largely centred on tropical forests, insofar as they contain at least half of all Earth's species and they are being depleted faster than any other biome. But species distributions and depletion patterns are anything but uniform throughout the biome. This paper identifies 10 areas that, a) are characterised by exceptional concentrations of species with high

Norman Myers

1988-01-01

114

Partitioning behavior of perfluorinated compounds between sediment and biota in the Pearl River Delta of South China.  

PubMed

Surface sediment and biota were collected from 12 sampling sites - seven along the Pearl River Delta and five along the Hong Kong coastline. Perfluorinated compound (PFC) concentrations were detected using a high-performance-liquid-chromatogram-tandem-mass-spectrometry system. Analytical results indicated that the total PFC concentrations were in the range of 0.15-3.11ng/g dry weight in sediments, while the total PFC concentrations in oyster and mussel samples were between 0.46-1.96 and 0.66-3.43ng/g wet weight, respectively. The major types of PFCs detected in the sediment samples were perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), with concentrations ranging from low limits of quantification to 0.86±0.12ng/g dry weight and 1.50±0.26ng/g dry weight, respectively. In bivalve samples, PFOS was the dominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.25±0.09 to 0.83±0.12ng/g wet weight in oysters and 0.41±0.14 to 1.47±0.25ng/g wet weight in mussels. An increase in PFC concentration was found to be correlated with increased human population density in the study areas. PMID:24775068

Zhao, Y G; Wan, H T; Wong, M H; Wong, Chris K C

2014-06-15

115

Detailed study of selenium in soil, water, bottom sediment, and biota in the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Selenium and other constituents are adversely affecting water quality and creating a potential hazard to wildlife in several areas of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge in west-central Montana. Selenium derived from Cretaceous shale and Tertiary and Quaternary deposits containing shale detritus is transported in the oxic shallow ground-water systems. At Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, drainage from irrigated glacial deposits is the primary source of selenium; drainage from non-irrigated farmland is a significant source locally. Benton Lake generally receives more selenium from natural runoff from its non-irrigated basin than from the trans-basin diversion of irrigation return flow. Selenium has accumulated in aquatic plants and invertebrates, fish, and water birds, particularly in wetlands that receive the largest selenium loads. Although selenium residues in biological tissue from some wetland units exceeded biological risk levels, water-bird reproduction generally has not been impaired. The highest selenium residues in biota commonly occurred in samples from Priest Butte Lakes, which also had the highest selenium concentration in wetland water. Selenium concentrations in all invertebrate samples from Priest Butte Lakes and the south end of Freezeout Lake exceeded the critical dietary threshold for water birds. Selenium delivered to wetlands accumulates in bottom sediment, predominantly in near-shore areas. Potential impacts to water quality, and presumably biota, may be greatest near the mouths of inflows. Most selenium delivered to wetlands will continue to accumulate in bottom sediment and biota.

Nimick, D. A.; Lambing, J. H.; Palawski, D. U.; Malloy, J. C.

1996-01-01

116

The 2.1 ga old francevillian biota: biogenicity, taphonomy and biodiversity.  

PubMed

The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ?2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life. PMID:24963687

El Albani, Abderrazak; Bengtson, Stefan; Canfield, Donald E; Riboulleau, Armelle; Rollion Bard, Claire; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma; Meunier, Alain; Moubiya Mouele, Idalina; Benzerara, Karim; Bernard, Sylvain; Boulvais, Philippe; Chaussidon, Marc; Cesari, Christian; Fontaine, Claude; Chi-Fru, Ernest; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine; Rouxel, Olivier; Trentesaux, Alain; Vecoli, Marco; Versteegh, Gerard J M; White, Lee; Whitehouse, Martin; Bekker, Andrey

2014-01-01

117

Some aspects of interrelations between fungi and other biota in forest soil.  

PubMed

Interrelations of fungal mycelium with other soil biota are of paramount importance in forestry and soil ecology. Here we present the results of statistical analysis of a comprehensive data set collected in the first (and the only) British fungus sanctuary over a period of four months. The variables studied included a number of soil properties, bacteria, protozoan flagellates, ciliates and amoebae, microbial and plant feeding nematodes, various microarthropods, and two fungal biomarkers--glomalin and ergosterol. One way ANOVA showed that the dynamics of the microbiota studied was influenced by seasonal changes. Superimposed on these changes, however, was variability due to biological interactions and habitat characteristics. Two fungal biomarkers, ergosterol and glomalin, were differently influenced by other biota and abiotic variables. The results indicate that the dynamics of soil fungi is influenced not only by soil microarthropods, but also by those found in forest litter. The overall outcome, therefore, is likely to be very complex and will depend upon specific conditions of any particular ecosystem. PMID:15449599

Krivtsov, Vladimir; Griffiths, Bryan S; Salmond, Ross; Liddell, Keith; Garside, Adam; Bezginova, Tanya; Thompson, Jacqueline A; Staines, Harry J; Watling, Roy; Palfreyman, John W

2004-08-01

118

Persistence of spilled oil on shores and its effects on biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over two million tonnes of oil are estimated to enter the world's oceans every year. A small percentage, but still a large volume, of this oil strands onshore, where its persistence is governed primarily by the action of physical forces. In some cases, biota influence the persistence of stranded oil or the rate of its weathering. Oil's deleterious effects on biota are frequently related to the persistence and degree of weathering of the oil, with long-lasting effects in low-energy environments such as salt marshes and coastal mangroves, or in higher-energy environments where oil is sequestered. However, an oil spill can have disproportionately large biological effects when it affects key species or processes (e.g., structurally important species, predators, prey, recruitment, or succession). In these cases, the continuing presence of oil is not always a prerequisite for continuing biological effects. There are relatively few long-term studies of the effects of oil spills; data from these suggest that oil can persist for decades in some environments or situations, and that biological effects can be equally persistent. Broad-based, integrated studies have been the most revealing in terms of the importance of direct and indirect effects, spillover effects between different parts of the environment, and continuing linkages between residual oil and biologic effects. Clean-up and treatment techniques applied to spilled or stranded oil can also have significant, long-lasting effects and need to be carefully evaluated prior to use.

Irvine, G. V.

2000-01-01

119

The 2.1 Ga Old Francevillian Biota: Biogenicity, Taphonomy and Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

The Paleoproterozoic Era witnessed crucial steps in the evolution of Earth's surface environments following the first appreciable rise of free atmospheric oxygen concentrations ?2.3 to 2.1 Ga ago, and concomitant shallow ocean oxygenation. While most sedimentary successions deposited during this time interval have experienced thermal overprinting from burial diagenesis and metamorphism, the ca. 2.1 Ga black shales of the Francevillian B Formation (FB2) cropping out in southeastern Gabon have not. The Francevillian Formation contains centimeter-sized structures interpreted as organized and spatially discrete populations of colonial organisms living in an oxygenated marine ecosystem. Here, new material from the FB2 black shales is presented and analyzed to further explore its biogenicity and taphonomy. Our extended record comprises variably sized, shaped, and structured pyritized macrofossils of lobate, elongated, and rod-shaped morphologies as well as abundant non-pyritized disk-shaped macrofossils and organic-walled acritarchs. Combined microtomography, geochemistry, and sedimentary analysis suggest a biota fossilized during early diagenesis. The emergence of this biota follows a rise in atmospheric oxygen, which is consistent with the idea that surface oxygenation allowed the evolution and ecological expansion of complex megascopic life.

El Albani, Abderrazak; Bengtson, Stefan; Canfield, Donald E.; Riboulleau, Armelle; Rollion Bard, Claire; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Ngombi Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma; Meunier, Alain; Moubiya Mouele, Idalina; Benzerara, Karim; Bernard, Sylvain; Boulvais, Philippe; Chaussidon, Marc; Cesari, Christian; Fontaine, Claude; Chi-Fru, Ernest; Garcia Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Gauthier-Lafaye, Francois; Mazurier, Arnaud; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne Catherine; Rouxel, Olivier; Trentesaux, Alain; Vecoli, Marco; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; White, Lee; Whitehouse, Martin; Bekker, Andrey

2014-01-01

120

Whole-body to tissue concentration ratios for use in biota dose assessments for animals.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring programs often measure contaminant concentrations in animal tissues consumed by humans (e.g., muscle). By comparison, demonstration of the protection of biota from the potential effects of radionuclides involves a comparison of whole-body doses to radiological dose benchmarks. Consequently, methods for deriving whole-body concentration ratios based on tissue-specific data are required to make best use of the available information. This paper provides a series of look-up tables with whole-body:tissue-specific concentration ratios for non-human biota. Focus was placed on relatively broad animal categories (including molluscs, crustaceans, freshwater fishes, marine fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals) and commonly measured tissues (specifically, bone, muscle, liver and kidney). Depending upon organism, whole-body to tissue concentration ratios were derived for between 12 and 47 elements. The whole-body to tissue concentration ratios can be used to estimate whole-body concentrations from tissue-specific measurements. However, we recommend that any given whole-body to tissue concentration ratio should not be used if the value falls between 0.75 and 1.5. Instead, a value of one should be assumed. PMID:20931337

Yankovich, Tamara L; Beresford, Nicholas A; Wood, Michael D; Aono, Tasuo; Andersson, Pål; Barnett, Catherine L; Bennett, Pamela; Brown, Justin E; Fesenko, Sergey; Fesenko, J; Hosseini, Ali; Howard, Brenda J; Johansen, Mathew P; Phaneuf, Marcel M; Tagami, Keiko; Takata, Hyoe; Twining, John R; Uchida, Shigeo

2010-11-01

121

A review of subtidal benthic habitats and invertebrate biota of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia.  

PubMed

The initial phase of a collaborative ambient monitoring program (AMP) for the Strait of Georgia (SoG) (Marine Environmental Research, in press.) has focused on the benthos, sedimentary regimes, organic and contaminant cycling in subtidal regions of the strait. As part of that project, we review the primarily subtidal benthic invertebrate faunal communities found in the SoG, with particular reference to habitats and sediment conditions. This topic has not been addressed in the primary literature for over 20 years. Benthic biota are the baseline sentinels of the influence of natural and anthropogenic inputs to sediments. They are also a fundamental component of the food chain at the seafloor, and their community ecology must be clearly understood in order to predict how anthropogenic activities and climate change will affect our coastal oceans. The purpose of this review is to provide context on habitats and biota in the SoG, and to highlight topics and geographic areas where our knowledge of the benthos is limited or lacking. PMID:19036427

Burd, B J; Barnes, P A G; Wright, C A; Thomson, R E

2008-12-01

122

Perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment, soil and biota from estuarine and coastal areas of Korea.  

PubMed

Soil, sediment, water, and biota collected from the western coast of Korea were analyzed to determine occurrence and sources of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). PFCs were significantly concentrations of PFCs were measured in some water and biological samples, while concentrations of PFCs in soils and sediments were relatively low. The most widely detected compound was found to be perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), with a maximum concentration in water of 450 ng/L and in fish of 612 ng/g, dw. PFOS concentrations in water and biota were both less than those thought to cause toxicity. However, in both cases concentrations were within a factor of 10 of the toxicity threshold concentration. Concentrations of PFCs were significantly greater downstream than those upstream on the same river, suggesting point sources. Overall, the detection of PFCs at relatively great concentrations in various environmental matrixes from this region of Korea suggests that further studies characterizing PFCs and their potential risk to both humans and wildlife are needed. PMID:20185214

Naile, Jonathan E; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Chen, Chunli; Luo, Wei; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Park, Jinsoon; Koh, Chul-Hwan; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

2010-05-01

123

Plant Diversity Surpasses Plant Functional Groups and Plant Productivity as Driver of Soil Biota in the Long Term  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time. Conclusions/Significance Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning.

Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Bessler, Holger; Brenner, Johanna; Engels, Christof; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Partsch, Stephan; Roscher, Christiane; Schonert, Felix; Temperton, Vicky M.; Thomisch, Karolin; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Scheu, Stefan

2011-01-01

124

Identification of Martian biota using their radioresistance ability and specific isotopic composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of a thin atmosphere and weak magnetic field, Martian surface is a subject to high levels of ionizing radiation. On the other hand, variations in Martian obliquity produce the global climate oscillations (with the main period ~120000 years) of the great magnitude. Martian biota would accumulate large radiation dosage during the periods of cold climate, when it would be in the dormant state and would rebuild its population during the periods of warm climate. Therefore, all types of hypothetical Martian microorganisms living in subsurface layers of soil have to posses very high radiation tolerance. In our experiments, we find that "ordinary" bacteria (Escherichia coli and two species of Bacillus ) can develop radioresistance ability after a number of cycles of exposure to the high (almost lethal) radiation dosages, followed by recovery of the bacterial population. We show that natural cycles of this kind could take place only on Mars. On the other hand, high radiation tolerance is hardly necessary for the survival in any natural environment on Earth. A few number of terrestrial microorganisms (radioresistant bacteria) posses this peculiar ability (Deinococus radiodurance , Rubrobacter radiotolerance, Rubrobacter xylanophilus ). The radiation background on Earth, including vicinity of natural nuclear reactor Oklo is many orders of magnitude lower than the lethal dose for these microorganisms. We show that such radioresistance can be "trained" only in the Martian conditions. Therefore, we propose that Earth has been infected several times by the Martian biota on Martian meteorites. We propose that high radioresistance could be a strong sign of the Martian origin for potential microorganisms acquired in the sample return missions. Another way to identify "Martian" microorganisms and exclude contamination in returned samples involves analysis of the radionuclides abundance (being produced by the high energy cosmic rays in the Martian soil). We show that these radionuclides (3H, 14C, 32Si,41Ca) should have higher concentration in the hypothetical Martian microorganisms comparing to any terrestrial analogues. We propose a set of measurements of such "isotopic imprints" with accelerator mass spectrometry. We also show that unusually high ratios of stable isotopes 15N/14N and D/H in the Martian atmosphere can be used for identification of Martian microorganisms because those ratios would be incorporated into the Martian biota.

Pavlov, A. K.; Kalinin, V.; Konstantinov, A.; Shelegedin, V.; Pavlov, A. A.

2003-04-01

125

Paleoclimatic modeling and phylogeography of least killifish, Heterandria formosa: insights into Pleistocene expansion-contraction dynamics and evolutionary history of North American Coastal Plain freshwater biota  

PubMed Central

Background Climatic and sea-level fluctuations throughout the last Pleistocene glacial cycle (~130-0 ka) profoundly influenced present-day distributions and genetic diversity of Northern Hemisphere biotas by forcing range contractions in many species during the glacial advance and allowing expansion following glacial retreat ('expansion-contraction’ model). Evidence for such range dynamics and refugia in the unglaciated Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain stems largely from terrestrial species, and aquatic species Pleistocene responses remain relatively uninvestigated. Heterandria formosa, a wide-ranging regional endemic, presents an ideal system to test the expansion-contraction model within this biota. By integrating ecological niche modeling and phylogeography, we infer the Pleistocene history of this livebearing fish (Poeciliidae) and test for several predicted distributional and genetic effects of the last glaciation. Results Paleoclimatic models predicted range contraction to a single southwest Florida peninsula refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by northward expansion. We inferred spatial-population subdivision into four groups that reflect genetic barriers outside this refuge. Several other features of the genetic data were consistent with predictions derived from an expansion-contraction model: limited intraspecific divergence (e.g. mean mtDNA p-distance?=?0.66%); a pattern of mtDNA diversity (mean Hd?=?0.934; mean ??=?0.007) consistent with rapid, recent population expansion; a lack of mtDNA isolation-by-distance; and clinal variation in allozyme diversity with higher diversity at lower latitudes near the predicted refugium. Statistical tests of mismatch distributions and coalescent simulations of the gene tree lent greater support to a scenario of post-glacial expansion and diversification from a single refugium than to any other model examined (e.g. multiple-refugia scenarios). Conclusions Congruent results from diverse data indicate H. formosa fits the classic Pleistocene expansion-contraction model, even as the genetic data suggest additional ecological influences on population structure. While evidence for Plio-Pleistocene Gulf Coast vicariance is well described for many freshwater species presently codistributed with H. formosa, this species demography and diversification departs notably from this pattern. Species-specific expansion-contraction dynamics may therefore have figured more prominently in shaping Coastal Plain evolutionary history than previously thought. Our findings bolster growing appreciation for the complexity of phylogeographical structuring within North America’s southern refugia, including responses of Coastal Plain freshwater biota to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations.

2013-01-01

126

Environmental Setting and the Effects of Natural and Human-Related Factors on Water Quality and Aquatic Biota, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The island of Oahu is the third largest island of the State of Hawaii, and is formed by the eroded remnants of the Waianae and Koolau shield volcanoes. The landscape of Oahu ranges from a broad coastal plain to steep interior mountains. Rainfall is greatest in the mountainous interior parts of the island, and lowest near the southwestern coastal areas. The structure and form of the two volcanoes in conjunction with processes that have modified the original surfaces of the volcanoes control the hydrologic setting. The rift zones of the volcanoes contain dikes that tend to impede the flow of ground water, leading to high ground-water levels in the dike-impounded ground-water system. In the windward (northeastern) part of the island, dike-impounded ground-water levels may reach the land surface in stream valleys, resulting in ground-water discharge to streams. Where dikes are not present, the volcanic rocks are highly permeable, and a lens of freshwater overlies a brackish-water transition zone separating the freshwater from saltwater. Ground water discharges to coastal springs and streams where the water table in the freshwater-lens system intersects the land surface. The Waianae and Koolau Ranges have been deeply dissected by numerous streams. Streams originate in the mountainous interior areas and terminate at the coast. Some streams flow perennially throughout their entire course, others flow perennially over parts of their course, and the remaining streams flow during only parts of the year throughout their entire course. Hawaiian streams have relatively few native species compared to continental streams. Widespread diverse orders of insects are absent from the native biota, and there are only five native fish, two native shrimp, and a few native snails. The native fish and crustaceans of Hawaii's freshwater systems are all amphidromous (adult lives are spent in streams, and larval periods as marine or estuarine zooplankton). During the 20th century, land-use patterns on Oahu reflected increases in population and decreases in large-scale agricultural operations over time. The last two remaining sugarcane plantations on Oahu closed in the mid-1990's, and much of the land that once was used for sugarcane now is urbanized or used for diversified agriculture. Although two large pineapple plantations continue to operate in central Oahu, some of the land previously used for pineapple cultivation has been urbanized. Natural and human-related factors control surface- and ground-water quality and the distribution and abundance of aquatic biota on Oahu. Natural factors that may affect water quality include geology, soils, vegetation, rainfall, ocean-water quality, and air quality. Human-related factors associated with urban and agricultural land uses also may affect water quality. Ground-water withdrawals may cause saltwater intrusion. Pesticides and fertilizers that were used in agricultural or urban areas have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. In addition, other organic compounds associated with urban uses of chemicals have been detected in surface and ground water on Oahu. The effects of urbanization and agricultural practices on instream and riparian areas in conjunction with a proliferation of nonnative fish and crustaceans have resulted in a paucity of native freshwater macrofauna on Oahu. A variety of pesticides, nutrients, and metals are associated with urban and agricultural land uses, and these constituents can affect the fish and invertebrates that live in the streams.

Oki, Delwyn S.; Brasher, Anne M. D.

2003-01-01

127

USE OF THE BIOTIC LIGAND MODEL TO PREDICT METAL TOXICITY TO AQUATIC BIOTA IN AREAS OF DIFFERING GEOLOGY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates the use of the biotic ligand model (BLM), an aquatic toxicity model, to predict toxic effects of metals on aquatic biota in areas underlain by different rock types. The chemical composition of water, soil, and sediment is largely derived from the composition of the underlying rock. Geologic source materials control key attributes of water chemistry that affect

Kathleen S. Smith

128

Effects of global climate change on freshwater biota: A review with special emphasis on the Italian situation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is much evidence that climate is rapidly changing at a global scale, especially regarding mean annual temperatures, precipitations and evaporation. The consequences of this rapid environmental change on freshwater biota are still not clear, but undoubtedly they could be severe. Among the main effects of climate change, we can individuate the enhancement of water temperatures, particularly important for poikilothermic

S. Fenoglio; T. Bo; M. Cucco; L. Mercalli; G. Malacarne

2010-01-01

129

Distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water, sediment and biota from Midway Atoll (North Pacific Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase our understanding of critical pathways of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transfer from abiotic media into marine organisms, this study quantified 20 PCB congeners in surface water, sediment and tissues of marine biota (macrophytes, snails, urchins, bivalves, sea cucumbers, fishes) taken from Midway Atoll. PCBs 138, 153, 170, 180 and 187 were the most abundant congeners in all samples analysed.

Bruce Hope; Susan Scatolini; Eric Titus; Jeff Cotter

1997-01-01

130

MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN SEDIMENT, WATER AND BIOTA COLLECTED FROM NEAR-COASTAL AREAS IMPACTED BY COMMON ESTUARINE STRESSORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Mercury concentrations in non-commercial organisms indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico are not well characterized particularly when compared to potential sources. In response to this need, mercury levels were determined in sediment, water and various biota in reference and non-refer...

131

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: An overview of spatial and temporal trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of

B. M. Braune; P. M. Outridge; A. T. Fisk; D. C. G. Muir; P. A. Helm; K. Hobbs; P. F. Hoekstra; Z. A. Kuzyk; M. Kwan; R. J. Letcher; W. L. Lockhart; R. J. Norstrom; G. A. Stern; I. Stirling

2005-01-01

132

Species of Thaumatomastix (Thaumatomastigidae, Protista incertae sedis) from the Arctic sea ice biota (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sea ice biota of polar regions contains numerous heterotrophic flagellates very few of which have been properly identified. The whole mount technique for transmission electron microscopy enables the identification of loricate and scaly forms. A survey of Arctic ice samples (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland) revealed the presence of ca. 12 taxa belonging to the phagotrophic genus Thaumatomastix (Protista

Helge Abildhauge Thomsen; Johanna Ikävalko

1997-01-01

133

Lead (Pb) in Biota and Perceptions of Pb Exposure at a Recently Designated Superfund Beach Site in New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Raritan Bay Slag Site (New Jersey) was designated a Superfund site in 2009 because the seawall, jetties, and sediment contained lead (Pb). Our objective was to compare Pb and mercury (Hg) levels in biota and public perceptions of exposure at the Superfund and reference sites. Samples (algae, invertebrates, fish) were collected from the Raritan Bay Slag Site and reference

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld; Christian Jeitner; Mark Donio; Taryn Pittfield

2012-01-01

134

Responses of Selected Aquatic Biota to Thermal Discharges from Cumberland Steam-Electric Plant: Barkley Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978 and 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extent and degree of exposure of aquatic biota to the thermal plume from Cumberland Steam-Electric Plant (CUF) depends upon several factors, including temperature and volume of water discharged from the plant into the Cumberland River and river flow r...

T. M. Craven D. L. Dycus D. C. Wade

1983-01-01

135

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination

Stephen de Mora; Imma Tolosa; Scott W. Fowler; Jean-Pierre Villeneuve; Roberto Cassi; Chantal Cattini

2010-01-01

136

[The possible contribution of late pleistocene biota to biodiversity in present permafrost zone].  

PubMed

During the last decade a wide range of biological objects, which have preserved their viability for tens and hundreds of thousands of years, was found in the samples of permafrost sediments from North-East Eurasia. Among them are bacteria, fungi, algae, moss spores, seeds of higher plants, protists. Along with physiological mechanisms of cryoconservation and constant low temperature of great importance for long-term preservation of biological objects in permafrost layers are ways of burying the organisms and conditions that prevail before the transition of sediments to the permafrost state. The analysis of viability showed by preserved biological objects gives reasons to suppose that some representatives of Pleistocene biota buried in permafrost thickness may contribute to the biodiversity of present cryolite zone. PMID:12723372

Gubin, S V; Maksimovich, S V; Davydov, S P; Gilichinski?, D A; Shatilovich, A V; Spirina, E V; Iashina, S G

2003-01-01

137

Signature of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in the modern biota.  

PubMed

The long-term effects of mass extinctions on spatial and evolutionary dynamics have been poorly studied. Here we show that the evolutionary consequences of the end-Cretaceous [Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg)] mass extinction persist in present-day biogeography. The geologic ages of genera of living marine bivalves show a significant break from a smooth exponential distribution, corresponding to the K/Pg boundary. The break reflects a permanent increase in origination rates, intermediate between the Mesozoic rate and the post-extinction recovery pulse. This global rate shift is most clearly seen today in tropical bioprovinces and weakens toward the poles. Coupled with the modern geographic distributions of taxa originating before and after the K/Pg boundary, this spatial pattern indicates that tropical origination rates after the K/Pg event have left a permanent mark on the taxonomic and biogeographic structure of the modern biota, despite the complex Cenozoic history of marine environments. PMID:19197060

Krug, Andrew Z; Jablonski, David; Valentine, James W

2009-02-01

138

Pu-239 organ specific dosimetric model applied to non-human biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are few locations throughout the world, like the Maralinga nuclear test site located in south western Australia, where sufficient plutonium contaminate concentration levels exist that they can be utilized for studies of the long-term radionuclide accumulation in non-human biota. The information obtained will be useful for the potential human users of the site while also keeping with international efforts to better understand doses to non-human biota. In particular, this study focuses primarily on a rabbit sample set collected from the population located within the site. Our approach is intended to employ the same dose and dose rate methods selected by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and adapted by the scientific community for similar research questions. These models rely on a series of simplifying assumptions on biota and their geometry; in particular; organisms are treated as spherical and ellipsoidal representations displaying the animal mass and volume. These simplifications assume homogeneity of all animal tissues. In collaborative efforts between Colorado State University and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), we are expanding current knowledge on radionuclide accumulation in specific organs causing organ-specific dose rates, such as Pu-239 accumulating in bone, liver, and lungs. Organ-specific dose models have been developed for humans; however, little has been developed for the dose assessment to biota, in particular rabbits. This study will determine if it is scientifically valid to use standard software, in particular ERICA Tool, as a means to determine organ-specific dosimetry due to Pu-239 accumulation in organs. ERICA Tool is normally applied to whole organisms as a means to determine radiological risk to whole ecosystems. We will focus on the aquatic model within ERICA Tool, as animal organs, like aquatic organisms, can be assumed to lie within an infinite uniform medium. This model would scientifically be valid for radionuclides emitting short-range radiation, as with Pu-239, where the energy is deposited locally. Two MCNPX models have been created and evaluated against ERICA Tool's aquatic model. One MCNPX model replicates ERICA Tool's intrinsic assumptions while the other uses a more realistic animal model adopted by ICRP Publication 108 and ERICA Tool for the organs "infinite" surrounding universe. In addition, the role of model geometry will be analyzed by focusing on four geometry sets for the same organ, including a spherical geometry. ERICA Tool will be compared to MCNPX results within and between each organ geometry set. In addition, the organ absorbed dose rate will be calculated for six rabbits located on the Maralinga nuclear test site as a preliminary test for further investigation. Data in all cases will be compared using percent differences and Student's t-test with respect to ERICA Tool's results and the overall average organ mean absorbed dose rate.

Kaspar, Matthew Jason

139

Distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and biota from the Zha Long Wetland, China.  

PubMed

In this paper, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in biota (reed, grass, mussel, fish, and red-crowned crane) and sediments collected from seven locations in the Zha Long Wetland. PAHs were recovered from the sediments and biota by ultrasonic extraction and then analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total PAH concentrations were 244-713 ng/g dw in sediments, 82.8-415 ng/g dw in plants and 207-4,780 ng/g dw in animals. The total sediment PAH concentrations were categorized as lower to moderate contamination compared with other regions of China and the world. In the plant samples, the accumulation abilities of reed roots and stems for PAHs were higher than those of grass roots. In addition, the concentration of individual PAHs in mussel muscles was the highest in all of the animal samples, followed by fish, feeding crane fetuses, and wild crane fetuses. Compositional analysis suggests that the PAHs in the sediments from the Zha Long Wetland were derived from incomplete biomass combustion. Risk assessment shows that the levels of PAHs in sediments are mostly lower than the effects range mean value (effects range mean), whereas only naphthalene in all sample sites was higher than the effects range low value. It is worthwhile to note that benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(ghi)perylene were detected in crane fetal, which have potential carcinogenicity for organisms from the Zha Long Wetland. PMID:22821325

Li, Jinchunzi; Liu, Guangmin; Yin, Lili; Xue, Jianliang; Qi, Hong; Li, Yifan

2013-04-01

140

Recent changes in aquatic biota in subarctic Fennoscandia - the role of global and local environmental variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic, representing a fifth of the earth's surface, is highly sensitive to the predicted future warming and it has indeed been warming up faster than most other regions. This makes the region critically important and highlights the need to investigate the earliest signals of global warming and its impacts on the arctic and subarctic aquatic ecosystems and their biota. It has been demonstrated that many Arctic freshwater ecosystems have already experienced dramatic and unpreceded regime shifts during the last ca. 150 years, primarily driven by climate warming. However, despite the indisputable impact of climate-related variables on freshwater ecosystems other, especially local-scale catchment related variables (e.g. geology, vegetation, human activities) may override the climate signal and become the primary factor in shaping the structure of aquatic ecosystems. Although many studies have contributed to an improved understanding of limnological and hydrobiological features of Artic and subarctic lakes, much information is still needed especially on the interaction between the biotic and abiotic components, i.e. on factors controlling the food web dynamics in these sensitive aquatic ecosystems. This is of special importance as these lakes are of great value in water storage, flood prevention, and maintenance of biodiversity, in addition to which they are vital resources for settlement patterns, food production, recreation, and tourism. In this study we compare the pre-industrial sediment assemblages of primary producers (diatoms and Pediastrum) and primary consumers (cladoceran and chironomids) with their modern assemblages (a top-bottom approach) from 50 subarctic Fennoscandian lakes. We will evaluate the recent regional pattern of changes in aquatic assemblages, and assess how coherent the lakes' responses are across the subarctic area. Moreover, the impact of global (e.g. climate, precipitation) and local (e.g. lake and its catchment characteristics) scale environmental changes on the aquatic biota will be compared and discussed.

Weckström, Jan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Sorvari, Sanna; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Weckström, Kaarina; Korhola, Atte

2013-04-01

141

Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in marine and fresh water biota and in human milk.  

PubMed

The levels and relative proportions of 11 organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (OPs), some of which are reportedly toxic to aquatic organisms, were investigated in human breast milk and samples of fish and mussels from Swedish lakes and coastal areas in order to assess spatial differences in environmental exposure and spatial and temporal differences in human exposure. Some of the biota samples were collected at locations with known potential sources of OPs, but most were collected in background locations. Tris-2-chloroisopropyl phosphate (TCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dominated in the biota with levels ranging from 170 to 770 ng g(-1) for TCPP in perch and between 21 and 180 ng g(-1) for TPP. In milk samples, TCPP (median 45 ng g(-1)) and tributyl phosphate (median 12 ng g(-1)) were the most frequently occurring OPs. Among samples of fish from background locations, the concentrations and profiles of most OPs were quite similar, indicating that their sources were diffuse. However, in fish from sample locations near known sources, there were marked differences in OP concentrations and profiles. Fish from a stream receiving surface water from Arlanda airport displayed high levels of OPs (10 200 ng g(-1)) that are commonly used in aircraft hydraulic fluids. Fish collected at points 1 or 2 km downstream of sewage treatment plants showed significantly higher levels of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), one of the most typically abundant OP in effluents from such plants. In the milk samples obtained from women in different towns no distinct differences were detected in OP concentrations or profiles. However, the levels of TBEP tended to be higher in milk collected 10 years ago than in milk collected more recently. However, human exposure to OPs through eating fish or to breastfeeding babies seems to be of minor importance in relation to other potential sources, such as indoor dust inhalation and ingestion. PMID:20383376

Sundkvist, Anneli Marklund; Olofsson, Ulrika; Haglund, Peter

2010-04-01

142

Baseline levels and trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from the Congo River Basin (DR Congo).  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: (PCBs, PBDEs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB) in sediments and biota from the middle Congo River Basin (CRB) and to investigate their trophic transfer through the aquatic food web using nitrogen stable isotope ratios. To our knowledge, no data on levels of POPs in sediment and biota from the CRB are present in the literature, and studies on trophic transfer and biomagnification profiles of POPs using ?(15)N are scarce in tropical regions. POP levels in the sediment and biota were low, with exception of total PCB levels found in fish from the Itimbiri River (1.4 to 44ng/g ww). Compared to concentrations found in fish from pristine to relatively industrial developed areas, the ?PCB levels in fish from the Itimbiri were high, indicating the presence of a local PCB contamination source in this catchment. Based on minimum risk level criteria formulated by ATSDR, the consumption of PCB contaminated fish from the Itimbiri river poses a potential risk for humans. The POP levels in biota were not significantly related to the POP levels in sediments, and the BSAF concept (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor) was found to be a poor predictor of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in the present study. With increasing trophic levels, a significant increase in PCB 95, 101, 110, 138, 146, 149, 153, 174, 180 & 187 and p,p'-DDT in Itimbiri and BDE 47 & 99 in Itimbiri, Aruwimi & Lomami river basins was observed. Trophic magnification factors were higher than 1, indicating that biomagnification occurs through the tropical food web. PMID:23872388

Verhaert, Vera; Covaci, Adrian; Bouillon, Steven; Abrantes, Katya; Musibono, Dieudonné; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

2013-09-01

143

General relationships between abiotic soil properties and soil biota across spatial scales and different land-use types.  

PubMed

Very few principles have been unraveled that explain the relationship between soil properties and soil biota across large spatial scales and different land-use types. Here, we seek these general relationships using data from 52 differently managed grassland and forest soils in three study regions spanning a latitudinal gradient in Germany. We hypothesize that, after extraction of variation that is explained by location and land-use type, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in the abundance and diversity of soil biota. If the relationships between predictors and soil organisms were analyzed individually for each predictor group, soil properties explained the highest amount of variation in soil biota abundance and diversity, followed by land-use type and sampling location. After extraction of variation that originated from location or land-use, abiotic soil properties explained significant amounts of variation in fungal, meso- and macrofauna, but not in yeast or bacterial biomass or diversity. Nitrate or nitrogen concentration and fungal biomass were positively related, but nitrate concentration was negatively related to the abundances of Collembola and mites and to the myriapod species richness across a range of forest and grassland soils. The species richness of earthworms was positively correlated with clay content of soils independent of sample location and land-use type. Our study indicates that after accounting for heterogeneity resulting from large scale differences among sampling locations and land-use types, soil properties still explain significant proportions of variation in fungal and soil fauna abundance or diversity. However, soil biota was also related to processes that act at larger spatial scales and bacteria or soil yeasts only showed weak relationships to soil properties. We therefore argue that more general relationships between soil properties and soil biota can only be derived from future studies that consider larger spatial scales and different land-use types. PMID:22937029

Birkhofer, Klaus; Schöning, Ingo; Alt, Fabian; Herold, Nadine; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Marhan, Sven; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wubet, Tesfaye; Yurkov, Andrey; Begerow, Dominik; Berner, Doreen; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Diekötter, Tim; Ehnes, Roswitha B; Erdmann, Georgia; Fischer, Christiane; Foesel, Bärbel; Groh, Janine; Gutknecht, Jessica; Kandeler, Ellen; Lang, Christa; Lohaus, Gertrud; Meyer, Annabel; Nacke, Heiko; Näther, Astrid; Overmann, Jörg; Polle, Andrea; Pollierer, Melanie M; Scheu, Stefan; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Schulze, Waltraud; Weinert, Jan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wolters, Volkmar; Schrumpf, Marion

2012-01-01

144

An integrated approach to monitoring the effect of sediment and turbidity on aquatic biota and water quality in the New York City water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New York City water supply system provides drinking water to more than 9 million people. About 90 percent of New York City's water is supplied by six surface-water reservoirs in the Catskill Mountains in southeastern New York State. The Ashokan Reservoir is a focus of concern because high turbidity and suspended sediment concentration can affect the drinking water supply and the integrity of aquatic biota in the reservoir and its tributaries. The U.S. Geological Survey, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection are collaborating to identify suspended sediment and turbidity source areas and evaluate the effectiveness of stream stabilization projects to improve water quality in the 497 square kilometer Upper Esopus Creek watershed, the primary source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir. This research combines point measurements of stream habitat, macroinvertebrate, periphyton, and fish population sampling, and water quality sampling with continuous turbidity measurements and watershed modeling to integrate point measurements temporally and spatially throughout the watershed. Preliminary results suggest that although stream stabilization projects appear to have reduced sediment and turbidity concentrations and improved aquatic habitat, interpreting results has been confounded by a series of large storms during the last several years. Indeed, storms large enough to reshape channel morphology can have long-lasting effects on sediment and turbidity concentrations and aquatic biota. This framework for integrating temporal and spatial point measurements using high frequency monitoring and watershed modeling appears to hold great promise to inform policy concerning the water supply of one of the world's largest cities.

McHale, M. R.; Baldigo, B. P.; Smith, A. J.; Mukundan, R.; Siemion, J.; Mulvihill, C.

2011-12-01

145

Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Data collected by the NIWQP studies indicated that, in surface water, filtered and unfiltered samples had nearly the same concentrations of arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium for concentrations greater than about 10 micrograms per liter. Therefore, in this concentration range, filtered concentrations can be directly compared to biological-effect levels developed for unfiltered samples. In the range of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter there may be a tendency for unfiltered arsenic concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. For selenium, however, the data suggest differences from equality in that range result from analytical imprecision and not a general tendency for unfiltered concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. This relation may not be true in lentic, nutrient-rich waters because in such settings algae can bioaccumulate large amounts of selenium and other trace elements. Selenium was the trace element in surface water that most commonly exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life; more than 40 percent of the selenium concentrations in surface-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). In 12 of the 26 areas at least 25 percent of the surface water-samples had selenium concentrations that either equaled or exceeded the chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). More than 28 percent of boron concentrations and almost 17 percent of the molybdenum concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criteria established by the State of California (550 and 19 micrograms per liter, respectively). In ground water, more than 22 percent of the arsenic concentrations and more than 35 percent of the selenium concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively). Few samples of uranium in surface water exceeded a criterion for the protection of aquatic life (300 micrograms per liter), but 44 percent

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

2003-01-01

146

Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PFCs present significant thermal and chemical stability being persistent in the environment, where they can bio-accumulate and adversely affect humans and wildlife (Llorca et al., 2012). Human exposure to PFCs is of concern since PFCs tend to be associated with fatty acid binding proteins in the liver or albumin proteins in blood, and have been detected in human serum, urine, saliva, seminal plasma and breast milk (Sundstrom et al., 2011). This study is aimed at the screening of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in environmental samples by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The main objective is to identify target compounds at low levels in water, sediments and biota of the Llobregat River (2010), second longest river in Catalonia and one of Barcelona's major drinking water resources. PFCs were extracted from water samples by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE); from sediment by ultrasonication with acidified methanol followed by an off-line SPE procedure (Picó et al., 2012), and from biota (fish) with alkaline digestion, clean-up by TurboFlow™ on line technology coupled to LC-MS/MS (Llorca et al., 2012). The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) of the method were calculated by analysis of spiked river water, sediment, and biota with minimum concentrations of each individual compound at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and 10, respectively. The LODs and LOQs of the method in river water ranged between 0.004 and 0.8 ng L?1 and between 0.01 and 2 ng L?1, respectively. In sediment LODs were 0.013-2.667 ng g?1 dry weight (dw) and LOQs were 0.04-8 ng g?1 dw, meanwhile in biota these were 0.006-0.7 pg ?L-1 and 0.02-2.26 pg ?L-1, respectively. Recoveries ranged between 65% and 102% for all target compounds. The method was applied to study the spatial distribution of these compounds in the Llobregat River basin. For this, a total of 40 samples were analysed (14 water, 14 sediments, 12 fishes). Of the 21 target compounds, 13 were identified in water samples (PFBA, PFDA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFHxDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS and L-PFOS), and their concentrations ranged between 0. 1 ng L?1 (PFNA) and 2709 ng L?1 (L-PFOS). Similarly, PFBA, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS, L-PFOS and PFOSA were identified in sediments samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.147 ng g?1 dw (L-PFOS) to 13 ng g?1 dw (PFBA). In biota similar PFC were detected, with values between 0.03 and 1738.06 ng g?1. According to this study, PFCs were detected in different compartments of the ecosystem where they are bio-accumulating and, potentially, would produce adverse effects on humans. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the projects Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02. We also thank the persons of IDAEA for taking the samples. References Llorca, M., Farre, M., Pico, Y., Muller, J., Knepper, T. P., Barcelo, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 431, 139-150. Llorca, M., Pérez, F., Farre, M., Agramunt, S., Kogevinas, M., Barceló, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Sci. Total Environ. 433, 151-160. Pico, Y., Blasco, C., Farre, M., Barcelo, D., 2012. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res. 19, 946-957. Sundstrom, M., Ehresman, D. J., Bignert, A., Butenhoff, J. L., Olsen, G. W., Chang, S. C., Bergman, A., 2011. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ. Inter. 37, 178-183.

Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

2014-05-01

147

Magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns of self-organized processes between geomorphology and biota that drive salt marsh evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many complex systems show non-equilibrium fluctuations, often determining the spontaneous evolution towards a critical state. In this context salt marshes are known to be characterized by complex patterns in both geomorphological and ecological features, which often appear to be strongly correlated. One of the main drivers on low-order channel network geometry is the hydrodynamic forcing entering the system in the form of an intermittent stress: the occurrence of infrequent rainfall events determines saturation-excess overland flow, which results in higher stream energy to be dissipated through an increase in cross section and meandering of the tidal channels in the marsh. This external driver determines a second, important effect on the intertidal zone: together with the emergence of a higher number of minor draining channels, salt marshes are provided with pulses of sediment input, causing a vertical build-up that allows pioneer species to colonize new areas of mudflat and channels. This eventually leads to salt marsh development through the higher frequency of occurrence and horizontal spread of marsh pioneer patterns, coupled with the displacement of the limit between the salt marsh and mudflat. As opposed to infrequent events, a much more frequent source of variation and uncertainty affecting the system is the difference between the observed and astronomical tide, which is referred to as surge. Since it would be difficult to simultaneously monitor these parameters through field surveys, and even harder to analyze them over medium to large time scales, we propose a remote sensing approach to monitor the temporal dynamics of both biotic and abiotic factors in salt marshes. We characterized the complex interactions between morphology and biota in two salt marshes in the densely populated Scheldt estuary through the implementation of different algorithms on multispectral endmember fraction maps from optical space-borne remote sensing. Multitemporal fractional abundance maps spanning from 1986 to 2011 were used to identify the interaction between vegetation pattern dynamics and channel drainage density, and integrated with field sampling and in situ spectroradiometry. The objectives were to: a) analyze and validate the processing procedure used to define the patterns of macrophyte vegetation cover; b) obtain field data on microphytobenthos biomass in two intertidal mudflat areas differing in the degree of sediment cohesiveness; c) integrate spectroradiometric measurements with simultaneous sampling; d) build a spectral library of salt marsh vegetation composition and zonation of Northern Europe estuarine areas. The latter can then be compared with vegetation field sampling data already available on the Plymouth estuary, Po Delta and Venice lagoon, in order to support the classification of the different surface cover types for the development of new methods of monitoring salt marsh-mudflat systems.

Cornacchia, L.; Taramelli, A.; Valentini, E.; Monbaliu, J. A.; Sabbe, K.

2012-12-01

148

RESPONSES OF AIRBORNE BIOTA TO MICROWAVE TRANSMISSION FROM SATELLITE POWER SYSTEM (SPS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this program is to determine whether microwave irradiation adversely alters a wide-range of complex avian behavior modes that are essential to their survival. Effects of microwaves (2.45 GHz) have been studied extensively in mammalian species, e.g., rats, mice, rabbit...

149

Eramosa Lagerstätte—Exceptionally preserved soft-bodied biotas with shallow-marine shelly and bioturbating organisms (Silurian, Ontario, Canada)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle Silurian Eramosa Lagerstätte of Ontario, Canada, preserves taxonomically and taphonomically diverse biotas including articulated conodont skeletons and heterostracan fish, annelids and arthropods with soft body parts, and a diverse marine flora. Soft tissues are preserved as calcium phosphate and carbon films, the latter possibly stabilized by early diagenetic sulfurization. It is significant that the biotas also include a decalcified, autochthonous shelly marine fauna, and trace fossils. This association of exceptionally preserved and more typical fossils distinguishes the Eramosa from other Silurian shallow-marine Lagerstätten, such as the Waukesha Lagerstätte, and suggests that the Eramosa is not the product of exceptional preservation in an atypical environment, a bias claimed for many post-Cambrian Lagerstätten. The Eramosa Lagerstätte may provide a more reliable, balanced measure of what has been lost from the Silurian fossil record.

von Bitter, Peter H.; Purnell, Mark A.; Tetreault, Denis K.; Stott, Christopher A.

2007-10-01

150

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in marine biota of the Canadian Arctic: an overview of spatial and temporal trends.  

PubMed

This review summarizes and synthesizes the significant amount of data which was generated on mercury (Hg) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota since the first Canadian Arctic Contaminants Assessment Report (CACAR) was published in 1997. This recent body of work has led to a better understanding of the current levels and spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in biota, including the marine food species that northern peoples traditionally consume. Compared to other circumpolar countries, concentrations of many organochlorines (OCs) in Canadian Arctic marine biota are generally lower than in the European Arctic and eastern Greenland but are higher than in Alaska, whereas Hg concentrations are substantially higher in Canada than elsewhere. Spatial coverage of OCs in ringed seals, beluga and seabirds remains a strength of the Arctic contaminant data set for Canada. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals and seabirds remain fairly consistent across the Canadian Arctic although subtle differences from west to east and south to north are found in the proportions of various chemicals. The most significant development since 1997 is improvement in the temporal trend data sets, thanks to the use of archived tissue samples from the 1970s and 1980s, long-term studies using archeological material, as well as the continuation of sampling. These data cover a range of species and chemicals and also include retrospective studies on new chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers. There is solid evidence in a few species (beluga, polar bear, blue mussels) that Hg at some locations has significantly increased from pre-industrial times to the present; however, the temporal trends of Hg over the past 20-30 years are inconsistent. Some animal populations exhibited significant increases in Hg whereas others did not. Therefore, it is currently not possible to determine if anthropogenic Hg is generally increasing in Canadian Arctic biota. It is also not yet possible to evaluate whether the recent Hg increases observed in some biota may be due solely to increased anthropogenic inputs or are in part the product of environmental change, e.g., climate warming. Concentrations of most "legacy" OCs (PCBs, DDT, etc.) significantly declined in Canadian Arctic biota from the 1970s to the late 1990s, and today are generally less than half the levels of the 1970s, particularly in seabirds and ringed seals. Chlorobenzenes and endosulfan were among the few OCs to show increases during this period while summation operatorHCH remained relatively constant in most species. A suite of new-use chemicals previously unreported in Arctic biota (e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), perfluoro-octane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs)) has recently been found, but there is insufficient information to assess species differences, spatial patterns or food web dynamics for these compounds. Concentrations of these new chemicals are generally lower than legacy OCs, but there is concern because some are rapidly increasing in concentration (e.g., PBDEs), while others such as PFOS have unique toxicological properties, and some were not expected to be found in the Arctic because of their supposedly low potential for long-range transport. Continuing temporal monitoring of POPs and Hg in a variety of marine biota must be a priority. PMID:16109439

Braune, B M; Outridge, P M; Fisk, A T; Muir, D C G; Helm, P A; Hobbs, K; Hoekstra, P F; Kuzyk, Z A; Kwan, M; Letcher, R J; Lockhart, W L; Norstrom, R J; Stern, G A; Stirling, I

2005-12-01

151

Species of Thaumatomastix (Thaumatomastigidae, Protista incertae sedis) from the Arctic sea ice biota (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea ice biota of polar regions contains numerous heterotrophic flagellates very few of which have been properly identified. The whole mount technique for transmission electron microscopy enables the identification of loricate and scaly forms. A survey of Arctic ice samples (North-East Water Polynya, NE Greenland) revealed the presence of ca. 12 taxa belonging to the phagotrophic genus Thaumatomastix (Protista incertae sedis). Species of Thaumatomastix possess siliceous body scales and one naked and one scale-covered flagellum. The presence in both Arctic samples and sea ice material previously examined from the Antarctic indicates that this genus is most likely ubiquitous in polar sea ice and may be an important component in sea ice biota microbial activities.

Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Ikävalko, Johanna

1997-01-01

152

Derivation of transfer parameters for use within the ERICA Tool and the default concentration ratios for terrestrial biota.  

PubMed

An ability to predict radionuclide activity concentrations in biota is a requirement of any method assessing the exposure of biota to ionising radiation. Within the ERICA Tool fresh weight whole-body activity concentrations in organisms are estimated using concentration ratios (the ratio of the activity concentration in the organism to the activity concentration in an environmental media). This paper describes the methodology used to derive the default terrestrial ecosystem concentration ratio database available within the ERICA Tool and provides details of the provenance of each value for terrestrial reference organisms. As the ERICA Tool considers 13 terrestrial reference organisms and the radioisotopes of 31 elements, a total of 403 concentration ratios were required for terrestrial reference organisms. Of these, 129 could be derived from literature review. The approaches taken for selecting the remaining values are described. These included, for example, assuming values for similar reference organisms and/or biogeochemically similar elements, and various simple modelling approaches. PMID:18406022

Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J; Scott, W A; Brown, J E; Copplestone, D

2008-09-01

153

Effect of Increasing CO sub 2 on Ocean Biota. Volume II, Part 5. Environmental and Societal Consequences of a Possible CO sub 2 -Induced Climate Change.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attempts to predict the most important biological effects on the marine biota caused by increased atmospheric CO sub 2 concentrations and concomitant climactic changes are discussed. Particular attention is placed on phytoplankton, benthic plants, microbi...

O. Holm-Hansen

1982-01-01

154

A Review of the Effects of Agricultural and Industrial Contamination on the Ebro Delta Biota and Wildlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ebro delta (NE Spain) is a 320 km2 wetland area ofinternational importance for conservation. The area is devotedto rice farming and receives large amounts of pesticides.Industrial pollutants are also carried to the delta by the river.The information accumulated during the last 25 year on the effectof such pollution on the biota is reviewed in order to identifythe existing gaps

Santi Mañosa; Rafael Mateo; Raimon Guitart

2001-01-01

155

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1999–2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 ?g\\/g, the

Marlene S. Evans; Derek Muir; W. Lyle Lockhart; Gary Stern; M. Ryan; Pat Roach

2005-01-01

156

Contrasting Food Web Factor and Body Size Relationships with Hg and Se Concentrations in Marine Biota  

PubMed Central

Marine fish and shellfish are primary sources of human exposure to mercury, a potentially toxic metal, and selenium, an essential element that may protect against mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity. Yet we lack a thorough understanding of Hg and Se patterns in common marine taxa, particularly those that are commercially important, and how food web and body size factors differ in their influence on Hg and Se patterns. We compared Hg and Se content among marine fish and invertebrate taxa collected from Long Island, NY, and examined associations between Hg, Se, body length, trophic level (measured by ?15N) and degree of pelagic feeding (measured by ?13C). Finfish, particularly shark, had high Hg content whereas bivalves generally had high Se content. Both taxonomic differences and variability were larger for Hg than Se, and Hg content explained most of the variation in Hg:Se molar ratios among taxa. Finally, Hg was more strongly associated with length and trophic level across taxa than Se, consistent with a greater degree of Hg bioaccumulation in the body over time, and biomagnification through the food web, respectively. Overall, our findings indicate distinct taxonomic and ecological Hg and Se patterns in commercially important marine biota, and these patterns have nutritional and toxicological implications for seafood-consuming wildlife and humans.

Karimi, Roxanne; Frisk, Michael; Fisher, Nicholas S.

2013-01-01

157

Radionuclide transfer to marine biota species: review of Russian language studies.  

PubMed

An extensive programme of experiments on transfer of radionuclides to aquatic species was conducted in the former USSR starting from the early 1950s. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of radionuclide behaviour in marine ecosystems. Therefore, an overview of original information on radionuclide transfer to marine biota species available from Russian language literature sources is presented here. The concentration ratio (CR) values for many radionuclides and for marine species such as: (239)Pu, (106)Ru and (95)Zr (crustacean), (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (95)Nb, (106)Ru, (137)Cs (239)Pu, (241)Am and natural U (molluscs), and (54)Mn, (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (144)Ce (fish) are in good agreement with those previously published, whilst for some of them, in particular, for (32)P and (110)Ag (crustaceans), (35)S (molluscs), (32)P, (35)S, (95)Nb, and (106)Ru (macroalgae) and (60)Co and (239,240)Pu (fish) the data presented here suggest that changes in the default CR reference values presented in recent marine reviews may be required. The data presented here are intended to supplement substantially the CR values being collated within the handbook on Wildlife Transfer Coefficients, coordinated under the IAEA EMRAS II programme. PMID:20798950

Fesenko, S; Fesenko, E; Titov, I; Karpenko, E; Sanzharova, N; Fonseca, A Gondin; Brown, J

2010-11-01

158

Technical report series: North Alabama water quality assessment: Volume 7, Contaminants in biota  

SciTech Connect

This report provides results and recommendations from a two-part study conducted to determine concentrations of various contaminants in biota from Wilson and upper Pickwick Reservoirs in north Alabama. One part of the study was a ''screening'' effort where fish, clams, and turtles were analyzed as composites for contaminants on the Environmental Protection Agency's list of priority pollutants. The other part was specific to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) because there was a known source of PCBs. Analysis of biological samples for priority pollutants identified few contaminants present in detectable quantities. Of those detected, some were sufficiently low to be of no concern. Presence of cadmium in turtle livers and clam flesh indicates a need for further evaluation because this metal is highly toxic to aquatic life. Phthalate esters in turtles from one location were quite high, but were low in fish and clam samples. Results of PCB analyses indicated largemouth bass and crappie contamination levels were well below the FDSA limit of 2.0 ..mu..g/g. Data for buffalo were not as conclusive. Highest PCB concentrations occurred in catifsh from Wilson Reservoir. Twenty-two of 45 individuals from Wilson Reservoir exceeded the FDA limit and the overall average was 2.6 ..mu..g/g.

Dycus, D.L.

1986-04-01

159

Determining the response of African biota to climate change: using the past to model the future  

PubMed Central

Prediction of biotic responses to future climate change in tropical Africa tends to be based on two modelling approaches: bioclimatic species envelope models and dynamic vegetation models. Another complementary but underused approach is to examine biotic responses to similar climatic changes in the past as evidenced in fossil and historical records. This paper reviews these records and highlights the information that they provide in terms of understanding the local- and regional-scale responses of African vegetation to future climate change. A key point that emerges is that a move to warmer and wetter conditions in the past resulted in a large increase in biomass and a range distribution of woody plants up to 400–500 km north of its present location, the so-called greening of the Sahara. By contrast, a transition to warmer and drier conditions resulted in a reduction in woody vegetation in many regions and an increase in grass/savanna-dominated landscapes. The rapid rate of climate warming coming into the current interglacial resulted in a dramatic increase in community turnover, but there is little evidence for widespread extinctions. However, huge variation in biotic response in both space and time is apparent with, in some cases, totally different responses to the same climatic driver. This highlights the importance of local features such as soils, topography and also internal biotic factors in determining responses and resilience of the African biota to climate change, information that is difficult to obtain from modelling but is abundant in palaeoecological records.

Willis, K. J.; Bennett, K. D.; Burrough, S. L.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Tovar, C.

2013-01-01

160

Evolutionary lag times and recent origin of the biota of an ancient desert (Atacama-Sechura).  

PubMed

The assembly of regional biotas and organismal responses to anthropogenic climate change both depend on the capacity of organisms to adapt to novel ecological conditions. Here we demonstrate the concept of evolutionary lag time, the time between when a climatic regime or habitat develops in a region and when it is colonized by a given clade. We analyzed the time of colonization of four clades (three plant genera and one lizard genus) into the Atacama-Sechura Desert of South America, one of Earth's driest and oldest deserts. We reconstructed time-calibrated phylogenies for each clade and analyzed the timing of shifts in climatic distributions and biogeography and compared these estimates to independent geological estimates of the time of origin of these deserts. Chaetanthera and Malesherbia (plants) and Liolaemus (animal) invaded arid regions of the Atacama-Sechura Desert in the last 10 million years, some 20 million years after the initial onset of aridity in the region. There are also major lag times between when these clades colonized the region and when they invaded arid habitats within the region (typically 4-14 million years). Similarly, hyperarid climates developed ?8 million years ago, but the most diverse plant clade in these habitats (Nolana) only colonized them ?2 million years ago. Similar evolutionary lag times may occur in other organisms and habitats, but these results are important in suggesting that many lineages may require very long time scales to adapt to modern desertification and climatic change. PMID:23798420

Guerrero, Pablo C; Rosas, Marcelo; Arroyo, Mary T K; Wiens, John J

2013-07-01

161

An overview of UV-absorbing compounds (organic UV filters) in aquatic biota.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to summarize biological monitoring information on UV-absorbing compounds, commonly referred as organic UV filters or sunscreen agents, in aquatic ecosystems. To date a limited range of species (macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds), habitats (lakes, rivers, and sea), and compounds (benzophenones and camphors) have been investigated. As a consequence there is not enough data enabling reliable understanding of the global distribution and effect of UV filters on ecosystems. Both liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry-based methods have been developed and applied to the trace analysis of these pollutants in biota, enabling the required selectivity and sensitivity. As expected, the most lipophilic compounds occur most frequently with concentrations up to 7112 ng g(-1) lipids in mussels and 3100 ng g(-1) lipids (homosalate) in fish. High concentrations have also been reported for 4-methylbenzilidenecamphor (up to 1800 ng g(-1) lipids) and octocrylene (2400 ng g(-1) lipids). Many fewer studies have evaluated the potential bioaccumulation and biomagnification of these compounds in both fresh and marine water and terrestrial food webs. Estimated biomagnification factors suggest biomagnification in predator-prey pairs, for example bird-fish and fish-invertebrates. Ecotoxicological data and preliminary environmental assessment of the risk of UV filters are also included and discussed. PMID:22669305

Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

2012-11-01

162

Comparison and unification of carbon stable isotope ratios in specific aquatic biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotope analysis has become a convenient tool for aquatic food web research in recent years. However, one controversial point on using stable isotope analysis for food web is whether to extract lipids or not before stable isotope analysis due to strong discrimination against 13C and more negative 13C in lipid-rich tissues independent of diet that can be induced by the key step of endogenous lipid synthesis. Lipid extraction may result in the loss of non-lipid compounds that alters ?15N, which urged the development of arithmetic correction techniques for ?13C, although the techniques as well as their underlying assumptions were seldom systematically verified. A novel lipid normalizing model for different aquatic biota was therefore established and applied to the East China Sea (ECS). According to the experimentally measured ?13C values of dorsal muscle of 11 common fish species, organs and whole-body of Japanese Anchovy (Engraulis japonicas), the proposed model is verified to be appropriate to the food web research on the East China Sea.

Wang, N.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, J.

2009-05-01

163

Distribution of arsenic in the sediments and biota of Hilo Bay, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

Sediment samples collected from the Waiakea Mill Pond, Wailoa River, and Hilo Bay were analyzed for arsenic. Arsenic was detectable in 10 of 11 sediment samples, and ranged in concentration from 2 to 715 ppm. Two species of plant and seven species of animal were collected from the Waiakea Mill Pond and analyzed for arsenic. No arsenic was detected in the plants, whereas four of the seven animal species had arsenic concentrations ranging from a trace to 1.3 ppm. Sediments of the Wailoa River estuary have much higher concentrations of arsenic than those of Hilo Bay, indicating that most arsenic is located near the original source of pollution, a factory that once operated on the shores of the Waiakea Mill Pond. Much of the arsenic is found in anaerobic regions of the sediment where it has been relatively undisturbed by biological activity. The low levels of arsenic in the biota of the estuary suggest that there is little remineralization of the region's arsenic and that it is trapped in anaerobic sediment layers.

Hallacher, L.E.; Kho, E.B.; Bernard, N.D.; Orcutt, A.M.; Dudley, W.C. Jr.; Hammond, T.M.

1985-07-01

164

Effects of acidification on metal availability to aquatic biota, with special reference to filamentous algae.  

PubMed Central

A survey of 34 shield lakes in Ontario and Quebec, pH 4.4 to 7.1, was made to evaluate which metals should be considered of concern as a risk to aquatic biota or consumers when lakes are acid stressed. A set of predictions, concerning the mobilization by man, the mobility, the chemical speciation, and the toxicity or bioaccumulation of metals in acid-stressed waters, were used as a basis for designing the study and organizing the results. Attached algae were used as biomonitors to assess metal bioavailability. The study concluded that zinc, lead, aluminum, and mercury were of concern in acid-stressed lakes, while the situation for manganese was unresolved, and cadmium was not studied. Nickel and copper were of concern only when a point source was involved. The study also concluded that the attached algal community had some value as a biomonitor, for metals in acid-stressed as well as metal-polluted surface waters.

Stokes, P M; Bailey, R C; Groulx, G R

1985-01-01

165

Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America.  

PubMed

Late Cenozoic terrestrial fossil records of North America are biased by a predominance of mid-latitude deposits, mostly in the western half of the continent. Consequently, the biological history of eastern North America, including the eastern deciduous forest, remains largely hidden. Unfortunately, vertebrate fossil sites from this vast region are rare, and few pertain to the critically important late Tertiary period, during which intensified global climatic changes took place. Moreover, strong phylogenetic affinities between the flora of eastern North America and eastern Asia clearly demonstrate formerly contiguous connections, but disparity among shared genera (eastern Asia-eastern North America disjunction) implies significant periods of separation since at least the Miocene epoch. Lacustrine sediments deposited within a former sinkhole in the southern Appalachian Mountains provide a rare example of a late Miocene to early Pliocene terrestrial biota from a forested ecosystem. Here we show that the vertebrate remains contained within this deposit represent a unique combination of North American and Eurasian taxa. A new genus and species of the red (lesser) panda (Pristinailurus bristoli), the earliest and most primitive so far known, was recovered. Also among the fauna are a new species of Eurasian badger (Arctomeles dimolodontus) and the largest concentration of fossil tapirs ever recorded. Cladistical analyses of the two new carnivores strongly suggest immigration events that were earlier than and distinct from previous records, and that the close faunal affinities between eastern North America and eastern Asia in the late Tertiary period are consistent with the contemporaneous botanical record. PMID:15457257

Wallace, Steven C; Wang, Xiaoming

2004-09-30

166

Evolutionary lag times and recent origin of the biota of an ancient desert (Atacama-Sechura)  

PubMed Central

The assembly of regional biotas and organismal responses to anthropogenic climate change both depend on the capacity of organisms to adapt to novel ecological conditions. Here we demonstrate the concept of evolutionary lag time, the time between when a climatic regime or habitat develops in a region and when it is colonized by a given clade. We analyzed the time of colonization of four clades (three plant genera and one lizard genus) into the Atacama–Sechura Desert of South America, one of Earth’s driest and oldest deserts. We reconstructed time-calibrated phylogenies for each clade and analyzed the timing of shifts in climatic distributions and biogeography and compared these estimates to independent geological estimates of the time of origin of these deserts. Chaetanthera and Malesherbia (plants) and Liolaemus (animal) invaded arid regions of the Atacama–Sechura Desert in the last 10 million years, some 20 million years after the initial onset of aridity in the region. There are also major lag times between when these clades colonized the region and when they invaded arid habitats within the region (typically 4–14 million years). Similarly, hyperarid climates developed ?8 million years ago, but the most diverse plant clade in these habitats (Nolana) only colonized them ?2 million years ago. Similar evolutionary lag times may occur in other organisms and habitats, but these results are important in suggesting that many lineages may require very long time scales to adapt to modern desertification and climatic change.

Guerrero, Pablo C.; Rosas, Marcelo; Arroyo, Mary T. K.; Wiens, John J.

2013-01-01

167

Steady-state model of biota sediment accumulation factor for metals in two marine bivalves  

SciTech Connect

A model of the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) is developed to relate the ratio of metal concentrations in two marine bivalves (Crassostrea virginica and Mytilus edulis) to sediment metal concentration. A generalized metal BSAF can be approximated by a simple relationship that is a function of sediment to water column partitioning, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), the depuration rate, the metal assimilation efficiency from food, the bivalve feeding rate, and the growth rate. Analyses of Mussel Watch data indicate that the medium BSAF across stations varies by about three orders of magnitude from Zn, Cd, and Cu at the highest levels of BSAF = 1 to 10, while Cr has the lowest BSAF at 0.01. Total Hg is about 1.0 and Ni and Pb are approximately 0.1. Calibration of the model indicates that the food route of metal accumulation is significant for all metals but specially for Zn, Cd, Cu, and Hg where virtually all of the observed BSAF is calculated to be due to ingestion of metal from food in the overlying water. These results indicate a potential significance of the metal-binding protein metallothionein, which results in relatively high binding of metal and resulting low depuration rates.

Thomann, R.V.; Mahony, J.D. [Manhattan Coll., Riverdale, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Mueller, R. [Havens and Emerson, Saddle Brook, NJ (United States)

1995-11-01

168

Comparative radiation impact on biota and man in the area affected by the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.  

PubMed

A methodological approach for a comparative assessment of ionising radiation effects on man and non-human species, based on the use of Radiation Impact Factor (RIF) - ratios of actual exposure doses to biota species and man to critical dose is described. As such doses, radiation safety standards limiting radiation exposure of man and doses at which radiobiological effects in non-human species were not observed after the Chernobyl accident, were employed. For the study area within the 30km ChNPP zone dose burdens to 10 reference biota groups and the population (with and without evacuation) and the corresponding RIFs were calculated. It has been found that in 1986 (early period after the accident) the emergency radiation standards for man do not guarantee adequate protection of the environment, some species of which could be affected more than man. In 1991 RIFs for man were considerably (by factor of 20.0-1.1 x 10(5)) higher compared with those for selected non-human species. Thus, for the long term after the accident radiation safety standards for man are shown to ensure radiation safety for biota as well. PMID:15653184

Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Geras'kin, S A; Sanzharova, N I; Spirin, Ye V; Spiridonov, S I; Gontarenko, I A; Strand, P

2005-01-01

169

Concentrations and trophic magnification of cyclic siloxanes in aquatic biota from the Western Basin of Lake Erie, Canada.  

PubMed

We examine the concentrations and food web biomagnification of three cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) using aquatic biota collected from Lake Erie. Concentrations of cVMS in biota were within the range reported for other studies of cVMS in aquatic biota. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were assessed in various food web configurations to investigate the effects of food web structure. TMF estimates were highly dependent on the inclusion/exclusion of the organisms occupying the highest and lowest trophic levels and were >1 for D4 and D5, indicating biomagnification, in only 1 of the 5 food web configurations investigated and were <1 in the remaining 4 food web configurations. TMF estimates for PCB180 were also dependant on food web configuration, but did not correspond with those obtained for cVMS materials. These differences may be attributed to environmental exposure and/or lipid partitioning differences between PCB180 and cVMS. PMID:24374064

McGoldrick, Daryl J; Chan, Cecilia; Drouillard, Ken G; Keir, Michael J; Clark, Mandi G; Backus, Sean M

2014-03-01

170

Recruitment of marine biota onto hard and soft artificially created subtidal habitats in Sabah Al-Ahmad Sea City, Kuwait.  

PubMed

Remediation of coastal habitats from impacts such as dredging and excavation in Gulf coastal waters is hampered by a lack of information on natural recolonisation rates and recruitment patterns of subtidal biota. For soft substrate habitats recovery information is only available for severely polluted sites where recovery takes many years (Jones et al., 2008). Construction of the Sabah Al-Ahmad Sea City provides a unique opportunity to follow benthic recruitment and community development on a range of artificially created benthic habitats over time. The three phases completed were each flooded by the sea separately and annual ecological surveys allow comparison of colonisation patterns and community development rates over time. Species diversity similar to that seen in comparable natural open sea habitats is reached within 2-5 years for mixed sand/rock biota, but longer (2-6 years) for sand biota. Biotic abundance exceeds open sea levels within 1-2 years due to settlement of opportunistic species. Coral recruitment occurred within 3 years. Present data provides a reference point for recovery rates into none polluted benthic habitats for the Gulf. PMID:23199731

Jones, David A; Nithyanandan, Manickam

2013-07-30

171

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and terrestrial biota after a spill of crude oil in Trecate, Italy.  

PubMed

Ecological and human health exposures from soil-based petroleum-derived contaminants commonly are estimated by using soil-to-biota transfer factors that usually are based on octanol-water partitioning. Few studies of biota have been conducted in relation to spills of crude oils in terrestrial environments. After a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within two years of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. The PAHs with lower octanol-water partition coefficients (K(ow)s) and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-K(ow) and unalkylated forms. The BSAFs for PAHs with higher K(ow)s were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species. PMID:12152763

Brandt, Charles A; Becker, James M; Porta, Augusto

2002-08-01

172

The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction  

PubMed Central

The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle–late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction.

Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lu, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J.

2011-01-01

173

The Luoping biota: exceptional preservation, and new evidence on the Triassic recovery from end-Permian mass extinction.  

PubMed

The timing and nature of biotic recovery from the devastating end-Permian mass extinction (252 Ma) are much debated. New studies in South China suggest that complex marine ecosystems did not become re-established until the middle-late Anisian (Middle Triassic), much later than had been proposed by some. The recently discovered exceptionally preserved Luoping biota from the Anisian Stage of the Middle Triassic, Yunnan Province and southwest China shows this final stage of community assembly on the continental shelf. The fossil assemblage is a mixture of marine animals, including abundant lightly sclerotized arthropods, associated with fishes, marine reptiles, bivalves, gastropods, belemnoids, ammonoids, echinoderms, brachiopods, conodonts and foraminifers, as well as plants and rare arthropods from nearby land. In some ways, the Luoping biota rebuilt the framework of the pre-extinction latest Permian marine ecosystem, but it differed too in profound ways. New trophic levels were introduced, most notably among top predators in the form of the diverse marine reptiles that had no evident analogues in the Late Permian. The Luoping biota is one of the most diverse Triassic marine fossil Lagerstätten in the world, providing a new and early window on recovery and radiation of Triassic marine ecosystems some 10 Myr after the end-Permian mass extinction. PMID:21183583

Hu, Shi-xue; Zhang, Qi-yue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zhou, Chang-yong; Lü, Tao; Xie, Tao; Wen, Wen; Huang, Jin-yuan; Benton, Michael J

2011-08-01

174

Review of research on impacts to biota of discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides in produced water to the marine environment.  

PubMed

Produced water has been described as the largest volume waste stream in the exploration and production process of oil and gas. It is accompanied by discharges of naturally occurring radionuclides raising concerns over the potential radiological impacts of produced water on marine biota. In the Northern European marine environment, radioactivity in produced water has received substantial attention owing to the OSPAR Radioactive Substances Strategy which aims at achieving 'concentrations in the environment near background values for naturally occurring radioactive substances'. This review provides an overview of published research on the impacts to biota from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water by the offshore oil and gas industry. In addition to summarising studies and data that deal directly with the issue of dose and effect, the review also considers studies related to the impact of added chemicals on the fate of discharged radionuclides. The review clearly illustrates that only a limited number of studies have investigated possible impacts on biota from naturally occurring radionuclides present in produced water. Hence, although these studies indicate that the risk to the environment from naturally occurring radionuclides discharged in produced water is negligible, the substantial uncertainties involved in the assessments of impact make it difficult to be conclusive. With regard to the complexity involved in the problem under consideration there is a pressing need to supplement existing data and acquire new knowledge. Finally, the present work identifies some knowledge gaps to indicate future research requirements. PMID:23022586

Hosseini, Ali; Brown, Justin E; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark

2012-11-01

175

Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in marine biota and coastal sediments from the Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.  

PubMed

The composition and spatial distribution of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in biota and coastal sediments from four countries surrounding the Gulf (Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman). The levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), aliphatic unresolved mixture and PAHs in sediments and biota were relatively low compared to world-wide locations reported to be chronically contaminated by oil. Only in the case of the sediments collected near the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, having concentrations of 779 microg g(-1) total petroleum hydrocarbon equivalents and 6.6 microg g(-1) Sigma PAHs, can they be categorized as chronically contaminated. Some evidence of oil contamination was also apparent in sediments and bivalves around Akkah Head and Abu Dhabi in the UAE, and near Mirbat in Oman. Contaminant patterns in sediments and biota indicated that the PAHs were mainly from fossil sources, with the exception of the high PAH concentrations in sediments near the BAPCO refinery that contained substantial concentrations of carcinogenic PAH combustion products. PMID:16038948

Tolosa, Imma; de Mora, Stephen J; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Bartocci, Jean; Cattini, Chantal

2005-12-01

176

Radiation dose assessment for the biota of terrestrial ecosystems in the shoreline zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant cooling pond.  

PubMed

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. This paper addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area. The data were used to calculate doses to biota using the ERICA Tool software. Doses from 90Sr and 137Cs were calculated using the default parameters of the ERICA Tool and were shown to be consistent with biota doses calculated from the field data. However, the ERICA dose calculations for plutonium isotopes were much higher (2-5 times for small mammals and 10-14 times for birds) than the doses calculated using the experimental data. Currently, the total doses for the terrestrial biota do not exceed maximum recommended levels. However, if the Cooling Pond is allowed to draw down naturally and the contaminants of the bottom sediments are exposed and enter the biological cycle, the calculated doses to biota may exceed the maximum recommended values. The study is important in establishing the current exposure conditions such that a baseline exists from which changes can be documented following the lowering of the reservoir water. Additionally, the study provided useful radioecological data on biota concentration ratios for some species that are poorly represented in the literature. PMID:21878760

Oskolkov, Boris Ya; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Hinton, Thomas G; Coughlin, Daniel; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

2011-10-01

177

Using macroinvertebrates to identify biota-land cover optima at multiple scales in the Pacific Northwest, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated at 45 stream sites throughout the Puget Sound Basin, Washington, USA. Environmental variables were measured at 3 spatial scales: reach, local, and whole watershed. Macroinvertebrate distributions were related to environmental variables using canonical correspondence analysis to determine which variables and spatial scales best explained the observed community composition and to identify biota-land cover optima. The calculation of a biota-land cover optimum was a 2-step process. First, an individual taxon's optimum was estimated for a particular land cover by weighting the mean value for that land cover by the abundance of that taxon at all sites. Second, the biota-land cover optimum was determined as the point at which the greatest numbers of taxa, at their calculated optima, appeared for a particular land cover. Sampling reaches were located on streams in watersheds with varying levels of forest, agriculture, and urban/suburban land cover that represented the full range of physical conditions typically found in Puget Sound streams. At the reach scale, taxa composition was correlated with conductivity and mean velocity. At the local and whole-watershed scales, taxa composition was correlated with % forest and agricultural land cover and % forest and bedrock land cover, respectively. For all of the scales, the dominant environmental variables represented an anthropogenic gradient. There was little difference in the amount of variability explained by each spatial scale. At the local-watershed scale, a biota-land cover optimum of ???80 to 90% forest land cover was identified. The total number of taxa at their optima declined rapidly as forest land cover within the local scale declined below 80 to 90%. At the whole-watershed scale, a biota-land cover optimum of 70 to 80% forest land cover was identified. The total number of taxa at their optima declined rapidly as forest land cover within the whole watershed declined below 70 to 80%. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrates can be used both as quantitative indicators of environmental conditions at multiple scales and indicators of land cover optima. Further examination of these optima could be used to establish priorities for conservation and restoration efforts.

Black, R. W.; Munn, M. D.; Plotnikoff, R. W.

2004-01-01

178

Stratified distribution of nutrients and extremophile biota within freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal.  

PubMed

Biological entities and gradients of selected chemicals within the seemingly barren ice layers covering Lake Baikal were investigated. Ice cores 40-68 cm long were obtained from in shore and offshore sites of Southern Lake Baikal during the cold period of a year (March-April) in 2007 and 2008. In microscopic observations of the melted ice, both algae and bacteria were found in considerable numbers (>10(3) cells/L and >10(4) cells/ml, respectively). Among all organisms found, diatom was generally the most predominant taxon in the ice. Interestingly, both planktonic and benthic algae were present in considerable numbers (2-4×10(4) cells/L). Dominant phototrophic picoplankton were comprised of small green algae of various taxa and cyanobacteria of Synechococcus and Cyanobium. The bacterial community consisted mostly of short rod and cocci cells, either free-living or aggregated. Large numbers of yeast-like cells and actinomycete mycelium were also observed. Concentrations of silica, phosphorus, and nitrate were low by an order of magnitude where biota was abundant. The profile of the ice could be interpreted as vertical stratification of nutrients and biomass due to biological activities. Therefore, the organisms in the ice were regarded to maintain high activity while thriving under freezing conditions. Based on the results, it was concluded that the freshwater ice covering the surface of Lake Baikal is considerably populated by extremophilic microorganisms that actively metabolize and form a detritus food chain in the unique large freshwater ecosystem of Lake Baikal. PMID:22367932

Bondarenko, Nina A; Belykh, Olga I; Golobokova, Ludmila P; Artemyeva, Olga V; Logacheva, Natalia F; Tikhonova, Irina V; Lipko, Irina A; Kostornova, Tatyana Ya; Parfenova, Valentina V; Khodzher, Tamara V; Ahn, Tae-Seok; Zo, Young-Gun

2012-02-01

179

Soil biota can change after exotic plant invasion: Does this affect ecosystem processes?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invasion of the exotic annual grass Bromus tectorum into stands of the native perennial grass Hilaria jamesii significantly reduced the abundance of soil biota, especially microarthropods and nematodes. Effects of invasion on active and total bacterial and fungal biomass were variable, although populations generally increased after 50+ years of invasion. The invasion of Bromus also resulted in a decrease in richness and a species shift in plants, microarthropods, fungi, and nematodes. However, despite the depauperate soil fauna at the invaded sites, no effects were seen on cellulose decomposition rates, nitrogen mineralization rates, or vascular plant growth. When Hilaria was planted into soils from not-invaded, recently invaded, and historically invaded sites (all currently or once dominated by Hilaria), germination and survivorship were not affected. In contrast, aboveground Hilaria biomass was significantly greater in recently invaded soils than in the other two soils. We attributed the Hilaria response to differences in soil nutrients present before the invasion, especially soil nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, as these nutrients were elevated in the soils that produced the greatest Hilaria biomass. Our data suggest that it is not soil biotic richness per se that determines soil process rates or plant productivity, but instead that either (1) the presence of a few critical soil food web taxa can keep ecosystem function high, (2) nutrient loss is very slow in this ecosystem, and/or (3) these processes are microbially driven. However, the presence of Bromus may reduce key soil nutrients over time and thus may eventually suppress native plant success. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

Belnap, J.; Phillips, S. L.; Sherrod, S. K.; Moldenke, A.

2005-01-01

180

Properties and structure of peat humic acids depending on humification and precursor biota in bogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic substances form most of the organic component of soil, peat and natural waters, but their structure and properties very much differs depending on their source. The aim of this study is to characterize humic acids from raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the homogeneity of humic acids isolated from the bog bodies and study peat humification impact on properties of humic acids. A major impact on the structure of peat humic acids have raised bog biota (dominantly represented by bryophytes of different origin) void of lignin. For characterization of peat humic acids their elemental (CHNOS), functional (-COOH, phenolic OH) analysis, spectroscopic characterization (UV, fluorescence, FTIR, 1H NMR, CP/MAS 13C NMR, ESR) and degradation studies (Py-GC/MS) were done. Peat humic acids (HA) have an intermediate position between the living organic matter and coal organic matter and their structure is formed in a process in which more labile structures (carbohydrates, amino acids, etc.) are destroyed, but thermodynamically more stable aromatic and polyaromatic structures emerge. Comparatively, the studied peat HAs are at the start of the transformation process of living organic matter. Concentrations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups changes depending on the depth of peat from which HAs have been isolated: and carboxylic acidity is increasing with depth of peat location and the humification degree. The ability to influence the surface tension of peat humic acids isolated from a well-characterized bog profile demonstrates dependence on age and humification degree. With increase of the humification degree and age of humic acids, their molecular complexity and ability to influence surface tension decreases; even so, the impact of the biological precursor (peat-forming bryophytes and plants) can be identified.

Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

2013-04-01

181

Interactions of Grazing History, Cattle Removal and Time since Rain Drive Divergent Short-Term Responses by Desert Biota  

PubMed Central

Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the short-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of time of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of time, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and timing for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota respond to grazing.

Frank, Anke S. K.; Dickman, Chris R.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Greenville, Aaron C.

2013-01-01

182

Paleoecology of an early Holocene faunal and floral assemblage from the Dows Local Biota of north-central Iowa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The faunas and floras from the Dows Local Biota provide an opportunity to compare Holocene taxa without a cultural bias. The Dows Local Biota is located in a large depression on the back side (north) of the Altamont I Moraine complex within the Des Moines Lobe. The Dows Silt Fauna/Flora ( = DSF; ca. 9380 ± 130 yr B.P.), one horizon of the Dows Local Biota, was collected for plant macrofossils, mollusks, and micromammals. DSF terrestrial gastropods are upland mesic forest dwellers although one species, Strobilops affinis, is characteristic of more xeric forests and may represent open woods. The aquatic gastropods reflect both permanent and periodic waters. DSF micromammals prefer an open, mesic, deciduous forest. The micromammal sympatry is restricted to a small area within the tension zone and deciduous forest belt of west-central Wisconsin. DSF plants are characteristic of upland forests, moist meadowlands or disturbed areas, and aquatic habitats. The DSF plant sympatry is large but restricted to the conifer-hardwood and deciduous forests along the Great Lakes-New England regions. Quantitative climatic data for the combined DSF sympatries suggest that Dows (ca. 9380 yr B.P.) was cooler than at present, and is nearly identical to that achieved by pollen analyses at the Cherokee Sewer-Lake West Okoboji sites (ca. 9000 yr B.P.) in northwest Iowa. Based on common habitat interpretations and sympatries, about 9380 yr B.P. north-central Iowa was cooler and moister than at present and was occupied by an open deciduous forest.

Hudak, Curtis M.

1984-05-01

183

Biota: sediment partitioning of aluminium smelter related PAHs and pulp mill related diterpenes by intertidal clams at Kitimat, British Columbia.  

PubMed

The question of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability and its relationship to specific PAH sources with different PAH binding characteristics is an important one, because bioavailability drives PAH accumulation in biota and ultimately the biochemical responses to the PAH contaminants. The industrial harbour at Kitimat (British Columbia, Canada) provides an ideal location to study the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment hydrocarbons to low trophic level biota. Samples of soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) and intertidal sediment collected from multiple sites over six years at various distances from an aluminium smelter and a pulp and paper mill were analysed for 106 PAHs, plant diterpenes and other aromatic fraction hydrocarbons. Interpretation using PAH source ratios and multivariate data analysis reveals six principal hydrocarbon sources: PAHs in coke, pitch and emissions from anode combustion from the aluminium smelter, vascular plant terpenes and aromatised terpenes from the pulp and paper mill, petroleum PAHs from shipping and other anthropogenic activities and PAHs from natural plant detritus. Harbour sediments predominantly contain either pitch or pyrogenic PAHs from the smelter, while clams predominantly contain plant derived PAHs and diterpenes from the adjacent pulp mill. PAHs from the smelter have low bioavailability to clams (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors; BSAFs <1 for pitch and coke; <10 for anode combustion, decreasing to ?0.1 for the mass 300 and 302 PAHs), possibly due to binding to pitch or soot carbon matrices. Decreases in PAH isomer ratios between sediments and clams likely reflect a combination of variation in uptake kinetics of petroleum PAHs and compound specific metabolism, with the importance of petroleum PAHs decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Plant derived compounds exhibit little natural bioaccumulation at reference sites, but unsaturated and aromatised diterpenes released from resins by industrial pulping processes are readily accumulated by the clams (BSAFs >500). Thus while most of the smelter associated PAHs in sediments may not be bioavailable to benthic organisms, the plant terpenes (including retene, totarol, ferruginol, manool, dehydroabietane and other plant terpenes that form the chemical defence mechanism of conifers) released by pulp mills are bioavailable and possess demonstrated toxic properties. The large scale release of plant terpenes by some of the many pulp mills located in British Columbia and elsewhere represents a largely undocumented risk to aquatic biota. PMID:21788067

Yunker, Mark B; Lachmuth, Cara L; Cretney, Walter J; Fowler, Brian R; Dangerfield, Neil; White, Linda; Ross, Peter S

2011-09-01

184

An integrated approach for bioaccumulation assessment in mussels: towards the development of Environmental Quality Standards for biota.  

PubMed

The possible use of chemical concentrations measured in mussels (Mytillus galloprovincialis) for compliance checking against Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) established for biota is analyzed with the help of an integrated model. The model consists of a 3D planktonic module that provides biomasses in the different compartments, i.e., phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacteria; a 3D fate module that provides the concentrations of contaminants in the water column and in the sediments; and a 3D bioaccumulation module that calculates internal concentrations in relevant biotic compartments. These modules feed a 0D growth and bioaccumulation module for mussels, based on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) approach. The integrated model has been applied to study the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Thau lagoon (France). The model correctly predicts the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in mussels as a function of the concentrations in the water column and in phytoplankton. It also sheds light on the origin of the complexity associated with the use of EQS for biota and their conversion to water column concentrations. The integrated model is potentially useful for regulatory purposes, for example in the context of the European Water Framework (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directives (MSFD). PMID:21040971

Zaldívar, J M; Marinov, D; Dueri, S; Castro-Jiménez, J; Micheletti, C; Worth, A P

2011-03-01

185

Acute toxicity of Daphnia pulex to six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. O f the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01 - 0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 01. - 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 - 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (>10 - 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic aklanes.

Smith, Stephen B.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Blouin, Marc A.

1988-01-01

186

Acute toxicity to Daphnia pulex of six classes of chemical compounds potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota  

SciTech Connect

Of the six classes of chemicals potentially hazardous to Great Lakes aquatic biota, derivatives of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were the most acutely toxic (48-h EC 50) to Daphnia pulex. The other classes, listed in order of decreasing toxicity, were alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, silicon-containing compounds. Of the 41 compounds representing the six chemical classes, 6 were extremely toxic (> 0.01-0.1 mg/L), 11 highly toxic (> 0.1 {minus} 1.0 mg/L), 20 moderately toxic (> 1.0 {minus} 10.0 mg/L), and 4 slightly toxic (> 10 {minus} 100 mg/L). The reference compound, p, p'DDT, was super toxic (< 0.01 mg/L). Based on toxicity and relative abundance (hazard ranking) of the 21 compounds that were detected in tissue of Great Lakes fishes, the classes of compounds that present the greatest threat to Great Lakes aquatic biota are PAH derivatives, alkyl halides, and cyclic alkanes.

Smith, S.B.; Savino, J.F.; Blouin, M.A. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1988-01-01

187

Lead (Pb) in biota and perceptions of Pb exposure at a recently designated Superfund beach site in New Jersey.  

PubMed

The Raritan Bay Slag Site (New Jersey) was designated a Superfund site in 2009 because the seawall, jetties, and sediment contained lead (Pb). Our objective was to compare Pb and mercury (Hg) levels in biota and public perceptions of exposure at the Superfund and reference sites. Samples (algae, invertebrates, fish) were collected from the Raritan Bay Slag Site and reference sites and analyzed for Pb and Hg. Waterfront users were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Levels of Pb in aquatic organisms were compared to ecological and human health safety standards. Lead levels were related to location, trophic level, and mobility. Lead levels in biota were highest at the western side of the West Jetty. Mean Pb levels were highest for algae (Fucus?=?53,600 ± 6990 ng/g = ppb [wet weight], Ulva?=?23,900 ± 2430 ppb), intermediate for grass shrimp (7270 ± 1300 ppb, 11,600 ± 3340 ppb), and lowest for fish (Atlantic silversides 218 ± 44 ppb). Within species, Pb levels varied significantly across the sampling sites. Lead levels in algae, sometimes ingested by individuals, were sufficiently high to exceed human safety levels. Mercury levels did not differ between the Superfund and reference sites. Despite the fence and warnings, people (1) used the Superfund and reference sites similarly, (2) had similar fish consumption rates, and (3) were not concerned about Pb, although most individuals knew the metal was present. The fish sampled posed no apparent risk for human consumers, but the algae did. PMID:22409490

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

2012-01-01

188

Biological Sampling and Analysis in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Washington: Chemical Analyses for 2007 Puget Sound Biota Study  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating spatial and temporal trends in contaminant residues in Puget Sound fish and macroinvertebrates are the objectives of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). In a cooperative effort between the ENVironmental inVESTment group (ENVVEST) and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife, additional biota samples were collected during the 2007 PSAMP biota survey and analyzed for chemical residues and stable isotopes of carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N). Approximately three specimens of each species collected from Sinclair Inlet, Georgia Basin, and reference locations in Puget Sound were selected for whole body chemical analysis. The muscle tissue of specimens selected for chemical analyses were also analyzed for ?13C and ?15N to provide information on relative trophic level and food sources. This data report summarizes the chemical residues for the 2007 PSAMP fish and macro-invertebrate samples. In addition, six Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) samples were necropsied to evaluate chemical residue of various parts of the fish (digestive tract, liver, embryo, muscle tissue), as well as, a weight proportional whole body composite (WBWC). Whole organisms were homogenized and analyzed for silver, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, mercury, 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB homologues, percent moisture, percent lipids, ?13C, and ?15N.

Brandenberger, Jill M.; Suslick, Carolynn R.; Johnston, Robert K.

2008-10-09

189

BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS, DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND DIBENZOFURANS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)  

EPA Science Inventory

A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chroma tography/high-resolution ma...

190

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

Hoffman, R. J.; Hallock, R. J.; Rowe, T. G.; Lico, M. S.; Burge, H. L.; Thompson, S. P.

1990-01-01

191

Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota for the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond: model testing using Chernobyl data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Cooling Pond’ scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond, which was heavily contaminated in 1986 as a result of the reactor accident. The calculation tasks include (a) reconstruction of the dynamics of radionuclide transfer and bioaccumulation in aquatic media and biota following the

I. I. Kryshev; T. G. Sazykina; F. O. Hoffman; K. M. Thiessen; B. G. Blaylock; Y. Feng; D. Galeriu; R. Heling; A. I. Kryshev; A. L. Kononovich; B. Watkins

1998-01-01

192

A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the reports of the occurrence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in industrialized nations, information on PFCs in less industrialized countries is meager. In the present study, concentrations and profiles of PFCs were investigated in surface waters (rivers, lakes, coastal seas and untreated sewage; n=42) including the Ganges River water, and biota such as shrimp (n=2), fish (n=28), and Ganges River dolphin

Leo W. Y. Yeung; Nobuyoshi Yamashita; Sachi Taniyasu; Paul K. S. Lam; Ravindra K. Sinha; Dnyandev V. Borole; Kurunthachalam Kannan

2009-01-01

193

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The article addresses studies of radioactive contamination of the terrestrial faunal complex and radionuclide concentration ratios in bodies of small birds, small mammals, amphibians, and reptiles living in the area.

E. Farfan; T. Jannik

2011-01-01

194

Responses of selected aquatic biota in Watts Bar Reservoir to thermal discharges from Kingston Steam-Electric Plant in 1978 and 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the 1978 and 1979 investigations on the effects of the power plant on the biota of Watts Bar Reservoir are presented and compared to the results of the 1973 to 1975 studies. Water chemistry, phytoplankton, periphyton, zooplankton and benthic macroinvertebrate data were collected. Water quality parameter values in 1978 and 1979 were within expected ranges. Upstream\\/downstream differences in

T. M. Craven; D. L. Dycus; D. A. Tomljanovich

1983-01-01

195

Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in the sediments and biota of two adjacent estuaries, the Orwell and the Stour, in eastern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of the concentrations of the elements As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediments and biota of two adjacent estuaries, the Orwell and Stour, in eastern England. The Orwell Estuary, with its urbanized head, was more contaminated with heavy metals than the Stour Estuary. Generally, in both estuaries, concentrations of metals were

P Wright; C. F Mason

1999-01-01

196

Responses of Selected Aquatic Biota to Thermal Discharges from Cumberland Steam-Electric Plant: Barkley Reservoir, Tennessee, 1978 and 1979. Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The extent and degree of exposure of aquatic biota to the thermal plume from Cumberland Steam-Electric Plant (CUF) depends upon several factors, including temperature and volume of water discharged from the plant into the Cumberland River and river flow r...

T. M. Craven D. L. Dycus D. C. Wade

1983-01-01

197

Comparison of streambed sediment and aquatic biota as media for characterizing trace elements and organochlorine compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1992-93, 27 organochlorine compounds (pesticides plus total PCB) and 17 trace elements were analyzed in bed sediment and aquatic biota from 20 stream sites in the Willamette Basin as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Data from each medium were compared to evaluate their relative effectiveness for assessing occurrence (broadly defined as documentation of important concentrations) of these constituents. Except for Cd, Hg, Se, and Ag, trace element concentrations generally were higher in bed sediment than in biota. Conversely, although frequencies of detection for organochlorine compounds in biota were only slightly greater than in bed sediment, actual concentrations in biota (normalized to lipid) were as much as 19 times those in sediment (normalized to organic carbon). Sculpin (Cottus spp.) and Asiatic clams (Corbicula fluminea), found at 14 and 7 sites, respectively, were the most widespread taxa collected during the study. Concentrations of trace elements, particularly As and Cu, were typically greater in Asiatic clams than in sculpin. In contrast, almost half of the organochlorine compounds analyzed were found in sculpin, but only DDT and its degradation products were detected in Asiatic clams; this may be related to the lipid content of sculpin, which was about three times higher than for clams. Thus, the medium of choice for assessing occurrence depends largely on the constituent(s) of interest.

Wentz, D. A.; Waite, I. R.; Rinella, F. A.

1998-01-01

198

Effect of increasing COâ on ocean biota. Volume II, Part 5. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible COâ-induced climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to predict the most important biological effects on the marine biota caused by increased atmospheric COâ concentrations and concomitant climactic changes are discussed. Particular attention is placed on phytoplankton, benthic plants, microbial cells, zooplankton, and fish stocks, and how changes in one or more of these trophic levels can result in significant changes in the nature and dynamics of

1982-01-01

199

An Integrated Case Study for Evaluating the Impacts of an Oil Refinery Effluent on Aquatic Biota in the Delaware River: Integration and Analysis of Study Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of statistical and graphical techniques incorporating a “weight of evidence” approach were used to interpret results from an integrated Triad case study designed to determine potential environmental impacts to aquatic biota in the Delaware River that may be linked to PAHs found in Motiva's oil refinery effluent. Sediment concentrations of various metals, PCBs and LMW PAHs exceeding both

Raymond W. Alden III; Lenwood W. Hall Jr; Daniel M. Dauer; Dennis T. Burton

2005-01-01

200

Non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fisheries of the Susquehanna River from the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-radiological consequences to the aquatic biota and fishes of the Susquehanna River from the March 28, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island Nuclear Station were assessed through the post-accident period of July 1979. Thermal and chemical discharges during the period did not exceed required effluent limitations. Several million gallons of treated industrial waste effluents were released into the river

C. R. Jr. Hickey; R. B. Samworth

1979-01-01

201

Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy  

SciTech Connect

Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

Brandt, Charles A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Becker, James M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Porta, Augusto C. (BATTELLE GENEVA RESEARCH)

2001-12-01

202

Evaluation of PCB and hexachlorobenzene biota-sediment accumulation factors based on ingested sediment in a deposit-feeding clam  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated sediment exposure experiments were conducted using a marine deposit-feeding clam (Macoma nasuta) to determine biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) based on ingested sediment and fecal organic carbon. Internal, or gut, BSAFs were determined for hexachlorobenzene and 13 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and were compared to those found with the standard method of calculating BSAFs, which uses the organic carbon and contaminant concentration of the whole or external sediment. The results of these experiments indicated that gut BSAFs were consistently smaller and less variable across sediment types than the corresponding standard BSAFs. Although these results indicate that using ingested sediment concentrations and fecal total organic carbon to calculate gut BSAFs might improve the predictive ability of the standard BSAF model, the benefit is small when compared to the difficulty in measuring the contaminant concentration on ingested sediment and the organic carbon content of feces.

Boese, B.L.; Lee, H. II; Specht, D.T.; Randall, R. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Newport, OR (United States); Pelletier, J. [Dyncorp, Newport, OR (United States)

1996-09-01

203

Distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons and organochlorinated contaminants in marine biota and coastal sediments from the ROPME Sea Area during 2005.  

PubMed

The composition and spatial distribution of various petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs), comprising both aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and selected chlorinated pesticides and PCBs were measured in biota and coastal sediments from seven countries in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman (Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates). Evidence of extensive marine contamination with respect to organochlorinated compounds and PHs was not observed. Only one site, namely the BAPCO oil refinery in Bahrain, was considered to be chronically contaminated. Comparison of the results from this survey for ? DDTs and ? PCBs in rock oysters from the Gulf of Oman with similar measurements made at the same locations over the past two decades indicates a temporal trend of overall decreasing ? PCB concentrations in oysters, whereas ? DDTs levels have little changed during that period. PMID:20965523

de Mora, Stephen; Tolosa, Imma; Fowler, Scott W; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cassi, Roberto; Cattini, Chantal

2010-12-01

204

Exceptional vertebrate biotas from the Triassic of China, and the expansion of marine ecosystems after the Permo-Triassic mass extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Triassic was a time of turmoil, as life recovered from the most devastating of all mass extinctions, the Permo-Triassic event 252 million years ago. The Triassic marine rock succession of southwest China provides unique documentation of the recovery of marine life through a series of well dated, exceptionally preserved fossil assemblages in the Daye, Guanling, Zhuganpo, and Xiaowa formations. New work shows the richness of the faunas of fishes and reptiles, and that recovery of vertebrate faunas was delayed by harsh environmental conditions and then occurred rapidly in the Anisian. The key faunas of fishes and reptiles come from a limited area in eastern Yunnan and western Guizhou provinces, and these may be dated relative to shared stratigraphic units, and their palaeoenvironments reconstructed. The Luoping and Panxian biotas, both from the Guanling Formation, are dated as Anisian (Pelsonian) on the basis of conodonts and radiometric dates, the former being slightly older than the latter. The Xingyi biota is from the Zhuganpo Formation, and is Ladinian or early Carnian, while the Guanling biota is from the overlying Xiaowa Formation, dated as Carnian. The first three biotas include extensive benthos and burrowing in the sediments, and they were located in restricted basins close to shore. Further, even though the Luoping and Panxian biotas are of similar age, their faunas differ significantly, reflecting perhaps palaeogeographically isolated basins. Between the time of the Xingyi and Guanling biotas, there was a major transgression, and the Guanling biota is entirely different in character from the other three, being dominated by pelagic forms such as large floating crinoids attached to logs, very large ichthyosaurs and thalattosaurs, and pseudoplanktonic bivalves, with no benthos and no burrowing. Phylogenetic study of the fishes and marine reptiles shows apparently explosive diversification among 20 actinopterygian lineages very early in the Early Triassic, but a later expansion of marine reptile groups, in the late Olenekian and early Anisian. This offset in diversification patterns is matched by comparisons of feeding guild categories and body size data. New research tools will shed considerable light on the phylogenetic and ecological implications of recovery of mairne vertebrates in the Triassic.

Benton, Michael J.; Zhang, Qiyue; Hu, Shixue; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wen, Wen; Liu, Jun; Huang, Jinyuan; Zhou, Changyong; Xie, Tao; Tong, Jinnan; Choo, Brian

2013-10-01

205

The impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on marine biota: Retrospective assessment of the first year and perspectives.  

PubMed

An international study under the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was performed to assess radiological impact of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) on the marine environment. This work constitutes the first international assessment of this type, drawing upon methodologies that incorporate the most up-to-date radioecological models and knowledge. To quantify the radiological impact on marine wildlife, a suite of state-of-the-art approaches to assess exposures to Fukushima derived radionuclides of marine biota, including predictive dynamic transfer modelling, was applied to a comprehensive dataset consisting of over 500 sediment, 6000 seawater and 5000 biota data points representative of the geographically relevant area during the first year after the accident. The dataset covers the period from May 2011 to August 2012. The method used to evaluate the ecological impact consists of comparing dose (rates) to which living species of interest are exposed during a defined period to critical effects values arising from the literature. The assessed doses follow a highly variable pattern and generally do not seem to indicate the potential for effects. A possible exception of a transient nature is the relatively contaminated area in the vicinity of the discharge point, where effects on sensitive endpoints in individual plants and animals might have occurred in the weeks directly following the accident. However, impacts on population integrity would have been unlikely due to the short duration and the limited space area of the initially high exposures. Our understanding of the biological impact of radiation on chronically exposed plants and animals continues to evolve, and still needs to be improved through future studies in the FDNPS marine environment. PMID:24784739

Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Aono, Tatsuo; Brown, Justin E; Hosseini, Ali; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Sazykina, Tatiana; Steenhuisen, Frits; Strand, Per

2014-07-15

206

Polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in Chukchi Sea biota and sediments and their toxicological response in the Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area-Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) project, we determined the distribution and concentrations of aliphatic n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments (0–1 cm) among 52 sites across the Chukchi Sea and in muscle tissues of the benthic Northern whelk, Neptunea heros, collected opportunistically. In addition, downcore profiles of contaminants were determined at three targeted sites to establish historic patterns. Baseline responses of PAH exposure and its potential toxicological effects were examined in the common Arctic cod, Boreogadus saida, through measures of cytochrome P4501A/ ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (CYP1A/EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissue. The total concentration of PAHs in surface sediments throughout the study area, including parent and alkyl-homologs, were very low (<1600 ng g?1 dry wt) except for a single station, where values were 2–20-fold greater than at other baseline sites (2956 ng g?1 dry wt). Alkyl-substituted PAHs were the dominant form in all surface (54–93%) and subsurface sediments (50–81% of the total), with a general decrease in total PAH concentrations observed downcore. In biota, larger Neptunea showed lower total concentrations of PAHs in foot muscles (4.5–10.7 ng g?1 wet wt) compared to smaller animals; yet aliphatic n-alkane (C19–C33) concentrations (0.655–5.20 ?g g?1 wet wt) increased in larger organisms with distributions dominated by long-chain (C23–C33) hydrocarbons. In B. saida, CYP1A1, GST, and SOD enzyme levels were comparable to baseline levels previously reported in other pristine systems. Of the three assays, only SOD had a significant correlation between gene expression and enzyme activity.

Harvey, H. Rodger; Taylor, Karen A.; Pie, Hannah V.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.

2014-04-01

207

Oil spill in the Rio de la Plata estuary, Argentina: 1. Biogeochemical assessment of waters, sediments, soils and biota.  

PubMed

Aliphatic (ALI) and aromatic (ARO) hydrocarbon concentrations, composition and sources were evaluated in waters, sediments, soils and biota to assess the impact of approximately 1000 tons of oil spilled in Rio de la Plata coastal waters. Total ALI levels ranged from 0.4-262 microg/l in waters, 0.01-87 microg/g in sediments, 5-39 microg/g in bivalves, 12-323 microg/g in macrophytes to 948-5187 microg/g in soils. ARO varied from non-detected 10 microg/l, 0.01-1.3 mug/g, 1.0-16 microg/g, 0.5-6.9 microg/g to 22-67 microg/g, respectively. Offshore (1, 5, 15 km) waters and sediments were little affected and contained low background hydrocarbon levels reflecting an effective wind-driven transport of the slick to the coast. Six months after the spill, coastal waters, sediments, soils and biota still presented very high levels exceeding baseline concentrations by 1-3 orders of magnitude. UCM/resolved aliphatic ratio showed a clear trend of increasing decay: coastal waters (3.3) < macrophytes (6.7) < soils (9.4) < offshore sediments (13) < coastal sediments (17) < clams (52). All environmental compartments consistently indicated that the most impacted area was the central sector close to Magdalena city, specially low-energy stream embouchures and bays which acted as efficient oil traps. The evaluation of hydrocarbon composition by principal component analysis indicated the predominance of biogenic (algae, vascular plant cuticular waxes), background anthropic, pyrogenic and diagenetic hydrocarbons, offshore and in non-impacted coastal sites. In contrast, polluted stations presented petrogenic signatures characterized by the abundance of isoprenoids, low molecular weight n-alkanes and methylated aromatics in different stages of alteration. The petrogenic/biogenic ratio ( n-C23) and petrogenic/pyrogenic relationship (methylated/unsubstitued PAH) discriminated the samples according to the different degree of impact. The following paper present the results of the study of the progress of hydrocarbon disappearance in sediments and soils 13 and 42 months after the spill. PMID:15589655

Colombo, J C; Barreda, A; Bilos, C; Cappelletti, N; Demichelis, S; Lombardi, P; Migoya, M C; Skorupka, C; Suárez, G

2005-03-01

208

Literature Review and Database of Relations Between Salinity and Aquatic Biota: Applications to Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Long-term accumulation of salts in wetlands at Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Mont., has raised concern among wetland managers that increasing salinity may threaten plant and invertebrate communities that provide important habitat and food resources for migratory waterfowl. Currently, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is evaluating various water management strategies to help maintain suitable ranges of salinity to sustain plant and invertebrate resources of importance to wildlife. To support this evaluation, the USFWS requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide information on salinity ranges of water and soil for common plants and invertebrates on Bowdoin NWR lands. To address this need, we conducted a search of the literature on occurrences of plants and invertebrates in relation to salinity and pH of the water and soil. The compiled literature was used to (1) provide a general overview of salinity concepts, (2) document published tolerances and adaptations of biota to salinity, (3) develop databases that the USFWS can use to summarize the range of reported salinity values associated with plant and invertebrate taxa, and (4) perform database summaries that describe reported salinity ranges associated with plants and invertebrates at Bowdoin NWR. The purpose of this report is to synthesize information to facilitate a better understanding of the ecological relations between salinity and flora and fauna when developing wetland management strategies. A primary focus of this report is to provide information to help evaluate and address salinity issues at Bowdoin NWR; however, the accompanying databases, as well as concepts and information discussed, are applicable to other areas or refuges. The accompanying databases include salinity values reported for 411 plant taxa and 330 invertebrate taxa. The databases are available in Microsoft Excel version 2007 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5098/downloads/databases_21april2009.xls) and contain 27 data fields that include variables such as taxonomic identification, values for salinity and pH, wetland classification, location of study, and source of data. The databases are not exhaustive of the literature and are biased toward wetland habitats located in the glaciated North-Central United States; however, the databases do encompass a diversity of biota commonly found in brackish and freshwater inland wetland habitats.

Gleason, Robert A.; Tangen, Brian A.; Laubhan, Murray K.; Finocchiaro, Raymond G.; Stamm, John F.

2009-01-01

209

The Submarine Volcano Eruption off El Hierro Island: Effects on the Scattering Migrant Biota and the Evolution of the Pelagic Communities  

PubMed Central

The submarine volcano eruption off El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) on 10 October 2011 promoted dramatic perturbation of the water column leading to changes in the distribution of pelagic fauna. To study the response of the scattering biota, we combined acoustic data with hydrographic profiles and concurrent sea surface turbidity indexes from satellite imagery. We also monitored changes in the plankton and nekton communities through the eruptive and post-eruptive phases. Decrease of oxygen, acidification, rising temperature and deposition of chemicals in shallow waters resulted in a reduction of epipelagic stocks and a disruption of diel vertical migration (nocturnal ascent) of mesopelagic organisms. Furthermore, decreased light levels at depth caused by extinction in the volcanic plume resulted in a significant shallowing of the deep acoustic scattering layer. Once the eruption ceased, the distribution and abundances of the pelagic biota returned to baseline levels. There was no evidence of a volcano-induced bloom in the plankton community.

Ariza, Alejandro; Kaartvedt, Stein; R?stad, Anders; Garijo, Juan Carlos; Aristegui, Javier; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Hernandez-Leon, Santiago

2014-01-01

210

Baseline Assessment of Physical Characteristics, Aquatic Biota, and Selected Water-Quality Properties at the Reach and Mesohabitat Scale for Reaches of Big Cypress, Black Cypress, and Little Cypress Bayous, Big Cypress Basin, Northeastern Texas, 2010-11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Northeast Texas Municipal Water District and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, did a baseline assessment of physical characteristics and aquatic biota (fish and muss...

C. L. Braun J. B. Moring

2013-01-01

211

Determination of alkylphenol and alkylphenolethoxylates in biota by liquid chromatography with detection by tandem mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and the corresponding ethoxylates (1 to 5) in biota is presented. Extraction methods were developed for egg and fish matrices based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction cleanup, using octadecylsilica or aminopropyl cartridges. Identification and quantitation were accomplished by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and compared to the traditional liquid chromatography with fluorescence spectroscopy detection. LC-MS-MS provides high sensitivity and specificity required for these complex matrices and an accurate quantitation with the use of 13C-labeled internal standards. Quantitation limits by LC-MS-MS ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g in eggs, and from 6 to 22 ng/g in fish samples. These methods were successfully applied to osprey eggs from the Chesapeake Bay and fish from the Great Lakes area. Total levels found in osprey egg samples were up to 18 ng/g wet mass and as high as 8.2 ??g/g wet mass in the fish samples. ?? Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; De La, Paz, Aviles, M.; Rattner, B. A.; Rice, C. P.

2003-01-01

212

Determination of alkylphenol and alkylphenolethoxylates in biota by liquid chromatography with detection by tandem mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and the corresponding ethoxylates (1 to 5) in biota is presented. Extraction methods were developed for egg and fish matrices based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction cleanup, using octadecylsilica or aminopropyl cartridges. Identification and quantitation were accomplished by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and compared to the traditional liquid chromatography with fluorescence spectroscopy detection. LC-MS-MS provides high sensitivity and specificity required for these complex matrices and an accurate quantitation with the use of 13C-labeled internal standards. Quantitation limits by LC-MS-MS ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g in eggs, and from 6 to 22 ng/g in fish samples. These methods were successfully applied to osprey eggs from the Chesapeake Bay and fish from the Great Lakes area. Total levels found in osprey egg samples were up to 18 ng/g wet mass and as high as 8.2 ug/g wet mass in the fish samples.

Schmitz-Afonso, I.; Loyo-Rosales, J.E.; de la Paz Aviles, M.; Rattner, B.A.; Rice, C.P.

2003-01-01

213

Concentrations of some heavy metals in water, suspended solids, and biota species from Maluan Bay, China and their environmental significance.  

PubMed

Concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) in surface water (including total recoverable, dissolved, suspended solids) and in aufwuchs encrusted on Moerella iridescens Benson from seven selected sites and two reference sites in Maluan Bay were investigated in order to understand current metal contamination due to industrialization and urbanization in Xiamen, China. The muscle tissues of the study species (Penceus penicillatus, Scylla serrata Forskal, Harengula zunasi Bleeker, Tillapia nilotica) from a trawling area within Maluan Bay were also analyzed in order to evaluate its safety as seafood. Based on the obtained data, metal concentrations in surface water were compared with Marine Seawater Quality Standards of China and the US EPA acute and chronic criteria, which showed that Maluan Bay may be subjected to different levels of contamination by the metals. Metal concentrations under study in the edible parts (muscle) of the investigated biota species were within the safety permissible levels for human consumption. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, the relationships between metal concentrations in surface water and in M. iridescens were evaluated. Copper concentrations in M. iridescens were more strongly positively correlated with particulate copper in suspended solids and total recoverable copper in water rather than with dissolved copper at the sampling sites. The data suggested that copper-rich suspended solids contributed substantially to copper accumulation by M. iridescens and played a critical role in the pathway of copper into the food chain. The conclusions of this investigation are likely to be applicable to other relevant scenarios. PMID:20508984

Wang, Zaosheng; Yan, Changzhou; Pan, Qikun; Yan, Yijun

2011-04-01

214

Atlantic origin of the arctic biota? Evidence from phylogenetic and biogeographical analysis of the cheilostome bryozoan genus pseudoflustra.  

PubMed

The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available. PMID:23536863

Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D; Denisenko, Nina V; Berning, Björn

2013-01-01

215

Under Cover at Pre-Angiosperm Times: A Cloaked Phasmatodean Insect from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota  

PubMed Central

Background Fossil species that can be conclusively identified as stem-relatives of stick- and leaf-insects (Phasmatodea) are extremely rare, especially for the Mesozoic era. This dearth in the paleontological record makes assessments on the origin and age of the group problematic and impedes investigations of evolutionary key aspects, such as wing development, sexual size dimorphism and plant mimicry. Methodology/Principal Findings A new fossil insect species, Cretophasmomima melanogramma Wang, Béthoux and Ren sp. nov., is described on the basis of one female and two male specimens recovered from the Yixian Formation (Early Cretaceous, ca. 126±4 mya; Inner Mongolia, NE China; known as ‘Jehol biota’). The occurrence of a female abdominal operculum and of a characteristic ‘shoulder pad’ in the forewing allows for the interpretation of a true stem-Phasmatodea. In contrast to the situation in extant forms, sexual size dimorphism is only weakly female-biased in this species. The peculiar wing coloration, viz. dark longitudinal veins, suggests that the leaf-shaped plant organ from the contemporaneous ‘gymnosperm’ Membranifolia admirabilis was used as model for crypsis. Conclusions/Significance As early as in the Early Cretaceous, some stem-Phasmatodea achieved effective leaf mimicry, although additional refinements characteristic of recent forms, such as curved fore femora, were still lacking. The diversification of small-sized arboreal insectivore birds and mammals might have triggered the acquisition of such primary defenses.

Wang, Maomin; Bethoux, Olivier; Bradler, Sven; Jacques, Frederic M. B.; Cui, Yingying; Ren, Dong

2014-01-01

216

PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in sediment and biota from the Mondego estuary (Portugal).  

PubMed

The concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in sediment and key species as an initial investigation on PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs contamination in the Mondego estuary (Portugal). The results demonstrated that the values of the total PCDD/Fs (?PCDD/Fs) concentrations were considerably lower than those of the sum of dl-PCBs (?dl-PCBs) in all the studied samples. Regarding the contribution of individual congeners, OCDD was the predominant PCDD/F and the mono-ortho PCB 118 and PCB 105 were the dominant PCBs in the majority of the samples. Our results suggest that PCDD/Fs and PCBs behave quite differently along the aquatic food web: ?PCDD/Fs concentrations were lower in higher trophic-level organisms with fish presenting a distinct PCDD/Fs congeners profile; on the contrary, the higher ?dl-PCBs values were found in upper-level biota, although not exclusively, and quite similar dl-PCBs congener profiles were observed in nearly all the studied species. PMID:21458025

Nunes, Margarida; Marchand, Philippe; Vernisseau, Anaïs; Le Bizec, Bruno; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel A

2011-05-01

217

An Assessment of Perfluorinated Organic Compounds and the Potentail Impacts to Water Quality and Biota in Coastal Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanized estuaries are well-documented to have elevated contaminant levels in sediments, water and associated biota. Most previous research efforts examining the effects of anthropogenic contamination in urbanized estuaries has focused on persistent priority pollutants, such as trace metals, pesticides, PCBs and PAHs. Recently, concerns have been raised about the occurrence, transport and distribution and effects of emerging contaminants being released into coastal watersheds through upland runoff from both urban and agricultural lands, sewage discharges, industrial releases, and aquaculture. Apalachicola Bay a major estuarine, commercial and recreational seafood resource is the endpoint of the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin. Today the river basin encapsulates a vast and evolving expanse of agricultural, urban, industrial, silvaculture, and natural landscapes and activities. The purpose of this study is to monitor the occurrence of an emerging class of compounds (perfluorinated organic compounds) in the Apalachicola Bay watershed. Given the dynamic growth and development up river from the Bay organic substances (lipophillic and water soluble compounds) inputs may be increasing and impacting the ecology of the Bay which compared to other bay areas is at this time relatively pristine. This issue can be investigated utilizing in-situ permeable membrane sampling devices specific for lipophillic and water-soluble compounds in concert with sediment samples. The results may serve as a baseline for the hypothesized increase in inputs coinciding with upstream and coastal development.

Erhunse, A.; Gragg, R.

2006-12-01

218

Soil biota drive expression of genetic variation and development of population-specific feedbacks in an invasive plant.  

PubMed

Invasive plant species alter soils in ways that may affect the success of subsequent generations, creating plant-soil feedbacks. Ailanthus altissima is an invasive tree introduced two centuries ago to North America. We hypothesized that geographically distinct populations of A. altissima have established feedbacks specific to their local environment, due to soil communities cultivated by A. altissima. We collected seeds and soils from three populations in the eastern United States, and in the greenhouse reciprocally planted all families in all collected soils as well as in a control mixed soil, and in soils that had been irradiated for sterilization. There were positive plant-soil feedbacks for two populations in the live field-collected soils, but strong negative feedbacks for the third population. There were no population-level performance differences or feedbacks in the sterilized population locale soils, supporting a soil biotic basis for feedbacks and for the expression of genetic differentiation in A. altissima. If populations of Ailanthus altissima vary in the extent to which they benefit from and promote these plant-soil biota feedbacks, the interaction between invader and invaded community may be more important in determining the course of invasion than are the characteristics of either alone. PMID:21797149

Felker-Quinn, Emmi; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

2011-06-01

219

Upper Clear Creek watershed aquatic chemistry and biota surveys, 2004-5, Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, Shasta County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, performed a comprehensive aquatic biota survey of the upper Clear Creek watershed, Shasta County, California, during 2004-5. Data collected in this study can provide resource managers with information regarding aquatic resources, watershed degradation, and regional biodiversity within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area. Surveys of water chemistry, bed-sediment chemistry, algae assemblages, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, aquatic vertebrate assemblages, in-stream habitat characteristics, and sediment heterogeneity were conducted at 17 stream sites during both 2004 and 2005, with an additional 4 sites surveyed in 2005. A total of 67 bed-sediment samples were analyzed for major and trace inorganic element concentrations. Forty-six water samples were analyzed for trace metals and nutrients. A total of 224 taxa of invertebrates were collected during these surveys. Eleven fish species, seven of which were native, and two species of larval amphibians, were collected. A total of 24 genera of soft algae and 159 taxa of diatoms were identified. To date, this survey represents the most comprehensive inventory of aquatic resources within Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, and this information can serve as a baseline for future monitoring efforts and to inform management decisions.

Wulff, Marissa L.; May, Jason T.; Brown, Larry R.

2012-01-01

220

Determination of alkylphenol and alkylphenolethoxylates in biota by liquid chromatography with detection by tandem mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol and the corresponding ethoxylates (1 to 5) in biota is presented. Extraction methods were developed for egg and fish matrices based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction cleanup, using octadecylsilica or aminopropyl cartridges. Identification and quantitation were accomplished by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) and compared to the traditional liquid chromatography with fluorescence spectroscopy detection. LC-MS-MS provides high sensitivity and specificity required for these complex matrices and an accurate quantitation with the use of 13C-labeled internal standards. Quantitation limits by LC-MS-MS ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g in eggs, and from 6 to 22 ng/g in fish samples. These methods were successfully applied to osprey eggs from the Chesapeake Bay and fish from the Great Lakes area. Total levels found in osprey egg samples were up to 18 ng/g wet mass and as high as 8.2 microg/g wet mass in the fish samples. PMID:14503813

Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; de la Paz Avilés, Maria; Rattner, Barnett A; Rice, Clifford P

2003-08-22

221

Atlantic Origin of the Arctic Biota? Evidence from Phylogenetic and Biogeographical Analysis of the Cheilostome Bryozoan Genus Pseudoflustra  

PubMed Central

The intricate geological evolution of the Arctic Ocean is paralleled by complexities in the biogeographical and phylogenetical histories of the Arctic biota, including bryozoans. Here we present revised taxonomic descriptions for all known species of the bryozoan genus Pseudoflustra, and use the present-day distributions and phylogenetic relationships between these species to infer the historical biogeography of the genus. Nine species belonging to the genus Pseudoflustra are recognized in the Arctic and North Atlantic. One new species, previously identified as Ichthyaria aviculata, is described as Pseudoflustra radeki sp. nov. Another species, previously assigned to Smittoidea as S. perrieri, is transferred to Pseudoflustra. Biogeographical analysis of Pseudoflustra reveals that species distributions mostly match current patterns pertaining in the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Distributions were probably shaped by recent geological history as present-day current directions in the Arctic Ocean are believed to have been similar for at least the last 120 000 years. Phylogenetic analysis of Pseudoflustra places the five Arctic-North Atlantic species in a clade crownward of a paraphyletic grouping of North Atlantic species. Given that the Arctic Ocean was fully glaciated until 18 000 years, the most likely explanation for this phylogeographical pattern is that species of Pseudoflustra colonized the Arctic relatively recently from North Atlantic sources. However, a fuller understanding of the origin of Pseudoflustra in the Arctic will require molecular and fossil data, neither of which are currently available.

Kuklinski, Piotr; Taylor, Paul D.; Denisenko, Nina V.; Berning, Bjorn

2013-01-01

222

Review of samples of water, sediment, tailings, and biota at the Little Bonanza mercury mine, San Luis Obispo County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sample Sites and Methods Samples were collected to assess the concentrations of Hg and biogeochemically relevant constituents in tailings and wasterock piles at the Little Bonanza Hg mine. Tailings are present adjacent to a three-pipe retort used to process the Hg ore. The tailings occur in the upper 15 cm of the soil adjacent to the retort and slag from the retort is present on the surface. An area of disturbed soil and rock uphill from the retort was likely formed during construction of a dam that provided water for mining activities. Wasterock in these piles was sampled. The largest amount of tailings is exposed to the west of the retort in the bank of WF Las Tablas Creek. Water, sediment, and biota were sampled from WF Las Tablas Creek, which flows through the mine area. Sample-site locations are shown in figures 10 and 11 and listed in table 1. Samples were collected when streamflow was low and no precipitation had occurred.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L,; Goldstein, Daniel N.; Brussee, Brianne E.; May, Jason T.

2011-01-01

223

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

Seiler, R. L.; Ekechukwu, G. A.; Hallock, R. J.

1993-01-01

224

Do site-specific radiocarbon measurements reflect localized distributions of 14C in biota inhabiting a wetland with point contamination sources?  

PubMed

Duke Swamp is a wetland ecosystem that receives (14)C via a groundwater pathway originating from a waste management area on Atomic Energy Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories site. This groundwater reaches the surface of the swamp, resulting in relatively high (14)C levels over an area of 146 m(2). The objective of this study was to quantify (14)C concentrations in flora and fauna inhabiting areas of Duke Swamp over the gradient of (14)C activity concentrations in moss to determine whether (14)C specific activities in receptor biota reflect the localized nature of the groundwater source in the swamp. Representative receptor plants and animals, and corresponding air and soil samples were collected at six sites in Duke Swamp with (14)C specific activities in air that ranged from 1140 to 45,900 Bq/kg C. In general, it was found that specific activities of (14)C in biota tissues reflected those measured in environmental media collected from the same sampling site. The findings demonstrate that mosses could be used in monitoring programs to ensure protection of biota in areas with elevated (14)C, negating the need to capture and euthanize higher organisms. PMID:23712022

Yankovich, T; King-Sharp, K J; Benz, M L; Carr, J; Killey, R W D; Beresford, N A; Wood, M D

2013-12-01

225

Effects of Biota orientalis extract and its flavonoid constituents, quercetin and rutin on serum uric acid levels in oxonate-induced mice and xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase activities in mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypouricemic actions of Biota orientalis (BO) extract and its flavonoid constituents quercetin and rutin, were in vivo examined using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. Quercetin and rutin, when administered three times orally to the oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice, were able to elicit dose-dependent hypouricemic effects. The effects of quercetin and rutin were more potent than that of Biota orientalis extract at the

Ji Xiao Zhu; Ying Wang; Ling Dong Kong; Cheng Yang; Xin Zhang

2004-01-01

226

Relationships between soil aggregation and mycorrhizae as influenced by soil biota and nitrogen nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the form of N nutrition on soil stability is an important consideration for the management of sustainable agricultural\\u000a systems. We grew soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] plants in pot cultures in unsterilized soil, and treated them by (1) inoculating them with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, fertilizing with (2) nitrate or (3) ammonia, or (4) by providing only minimum N

G. J. Bethlenfalvay; I. C. Cantrell; K. L. Mihara; R. P. Schreiner

1999-01-01

227

Prediction under Change (PUC): Water, Earth and Biota in the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is facing severe water management challenges, in the context of population growth, degradation of a poorly distributed resource, and the considerable uncertainties posed by the effects of climate change. Sustainable management requires the ability to predict the space-time distribution of water resources, water quality and environmental health, to help balance the needs of both humans and the environment. The rapid rates of change that the water cycle and the environment are likely to experience as a result of increasing human impacts (e.g., climate change, land use and land cover changes) requires that prediction and management frameworks better capture coupling and feedbacks across the built, natural, and social systems that define the sustainability of water resources. As we ponder a changing environment - climate, hydrology, land use, biogeochemical cycles, human dynamics - there is an increasing need now to embrace the long-term evolution of linked sub-systems (climatic, hydrologic, geomorphic, ecological etc., as well as human) through a new generation of conceptual and quantitative models that either explicitly or implicitly include the interactions and feedbacks between these sub-systems. Their co-evolution is driven by exogenous variability imposed on the system by weather, climate and anthropogenic factors, and endogenous variability generated by the sub-systems themselves as a result of certain adaptive evolutionary processes. In this talk I will outline the fundamental issues involved in predictions at long time scales (decades) and large space scales (regions) in a fast changing environment, including significant paradigm shifts in the way we seek the fundamental understanding needed to underpin these predictions, including the need for sustained community efforts.

Sivapalan, M.

2011-12-01

228

A program in global biology. [biota-environment interaction important to life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Global Biology Research Program and its goals for greater understanding of planetary biological processes are discussed. Consideration is given to assessing major pathways and rates of exchange of elements such as carbon and nitrogen, extrapolating local rates of anaerobic activities, determining exchange rates of ocean nutrients, and developing models for the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus. Satellites and sensors operating today are covered: the Nimbus, NOAA, and Landsat series. Block diagrams of the software and hardware for a typical ground data processing and analysis system are provided. Samples of the surface cover data achieved with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, the Multispectral Scanner, and the Thematic Mapper are presented, as well as a productive capacity model for coastal wetlands. Finally, attention is given to future goals, their engineering requirements, and the necessary data analysis system.

Mooneyhan, D. W.

1983-01-01

229

Geological dates and molecular rates: rapid divergence of rivers and their biotas.  

PubMed

We highlight a novel molecular clock calibration system based on geologically dated river reversal and river capture events. Changes in drainage pattern may effect vicariant isolation of freshwater taxa, and thus provide a predictive framework for associated phylogeographic study. As a case in point, New Zealand's Pelorus and Kaituna rivers became geologically isolated from the larger Wairau River system 70 to 130 kyr BP. We conducted mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic analyses of two unrelated freshwater-limited fish taxa native to these river systems (Gobiomorphus breviceps, n = 63; Galaxias divergens, n = 95). Phylogenetic analysis of combined control region and cytochrome b sequences yielded reciprocally monophyletic clades of Pelorus-Kaituna and Wairau haplotypes for each species. Calibrated rates of molecular change based on this freshwater vicariant event are substantially faster than traditionally accepted rates for fishes but consistent with other recent inferences based on geologically young calibration points. A survey of freshwater phylogeographic literature reveals numerous examples in which the ages of recent evolutionary events may have been substantially overestimated through the use of "accepted" calibrations. We recommend that--wherever possible--biologists should start to reassess the conclusions of such studies by using more appropriate molecular calibrations derived from recent geological events. PMID:17464882

Waters, Jonathan M; Rowe, Diane L; Apte, Smita; King, Tania M; Wallis, Graham P; Anderson, Leigh; Norris, Richard J; Craw, Dave; Burridge, Christopher P

2007-04-01

230

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations Appendices; 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report consists of appendices A-F containing the biological data which were collected from Lake Roosevelt, Washington. The data are to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses of reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the model included: Quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

1995-08-01

231

Effects of CO2 on benthic biota: an in situ benthic chamber experiment in Storfjorden (Norway).  

PubMed

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods, either sub-seabed or in ocean depths, introduces risk of CO2 leakage and subsequent interaction with the ecosystem. It is therefore important to obtain information on possible effects of CO2. In situ CO2 exposure experiments were carried out twice for 10 days during 2005 using a Benthic Chamber system at 400 m depth in Storfjorden, Norway. pCO2 in the water above the sediment in the chambers was controlled at approximately 500, 5000 and 20,000 ?atm, respectively. This article describes the experiment and the results from measured the biological responses within the chamber sediments. The results show effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on biological processes such as increased nanobenthos density. Methane production and sulphate reduction was enhanced in the approximately 5000 ?atm chamber. PMID:23465619

Ishida, Hiroshi; Golmen, Lars G; West, Julia; Krüger, Martin; Coombs, Patricia; Berge, John Arthur; Fukuhara, Tastuo; Magi, Michimasa; Kita, Jun

2013-08-30

232

Persistent organic pollutants and metals in the freshwater biota of the Canadian Subarctic and Arctic: an overview.  

PubMed

Over 1999-2002, an extensive series of contaminant studies was conducted on freshwater biota of Canada's Arctic and Subarctic regions. The majority of inorganic contaminant studies focused on mercury and fish. While mercury concentrations were low in benthic feeding fish such as whitefish, predatory fish such as lake trout, pike, and walleye frequently had mercury levels which exceeded 0.2 mug/g, the consumption guideline for frequent consumers of fish, and 0.5 microg/g, the guideline for the commercial use of fish. Numerous consumption advisories were issued for lakes along the Mackenzie River. Relatively high mercury levels appear to be due to a combination of relatively old fish populations (because of light fishing pressures) and tend to be more prevalent in smaller lakes where warmer summer water temperatures and watershed influences result in greater mercury and methyl mercury inputs. Mercury levels were substantially lower in char than in lake trout, possibly due to a combination of a less fish-rich diet, a colder environment, and smaller MeHg watershed inputs. Less research has been conducted on other metals but some, such as rubidium, show pronounced variations in concentration that may be related to geological influences. Temporal trend monitoring has revealed little evidence of declining mercury levels in fish that can be attributed to declining atmospheric inputs. Because mercury follows complex pathways in the environment, other factors may operate to counteract reductions in atmospheric mercury sources, e.g., climatic variability, changes in the commercial fishery, and interactions between fish species. Most organochlorine (OC) investigations were based on long term trend monitoring and focused on char (Cornwallis Island), burbot (Great Slave Lake, Yukon lakes, Slave River at Fort Smith, Mackenzie River at Fort Good Hope) and lake trout (Yukon lakes, Great Slave Lake). There was strong evidence of declining OC concentrations in char, particularly SigmaHCH and Sigmachlordane, which may reflect a response to declining atmospheric inputs. Endosulfan concentrations increased, as in the atmosphere. There also was evidence of declining OC concentrations in burbot in the Slave and Mackenzie rivers but not in Great Slave Lake and Yukon lakes. OC concentrations decreased in lake trout in Yukon lakes in the 2000s, most probably because of changes in the fish themselves (i.e., reduced lipid content, condition factor) and possibly climatic variability. Similarly, OCs declined in Great Slave Lake trout. New research on PDBEs and perfluorinated compounds determined that these contaminants are widespread in freshwater fish and concentrations may be increasing. Global warming is a major issue of concern for Arctic and Subarctic waters and may have adverse impacts on contaminant levels in fish and other biota. There is a need for contaminant studies in the north to be broadened to investigate climatic effects. In addition, monitoring studies should be broadened to consider factors affecting other aspects of fish biology. Foremost among these is integrating contaminant monitoring studies on lakes such as Lake Laberge and Great Slave Lake with stock assessment studies. Ecosystem based studies should be conducted on Great Slave Lake and Lake Laberge to more effectively understand contaminant trends and should consider inputs (atmospheric, river inflow, resupension), losses (sedimentation, volatilization), and biological pathways. PMID:16225909

Evans, Marlene S; Muir, Derek; Lockhart, W Lyle; Stern, Gary; Ryan, M; Roach, Pat

2005-12-01

233

Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of concerns expressed by the U.S. Congress and the environmental community, the Department of the Interior began a program in late 1985 to identify the nature and extent of water-quality problems induced by irrigation that might exist in the western States. Surface water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from March through September 1995 along the lower Colorado River and in agricultural drains at nine sites in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, and analyzed for selected inorganic and organic constituents. Analyses of water, bottom sediment, and biota were completed to determine if irrigation return flow has caused, or has the potential to cause, harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife in the study area. Concentrations of dissolved solids in surface-water samples collected in March generally did not vary substantially from surface-water samples collected in June. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 712 to 3,000 milligrams per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Concentrations of chloride in 9 of 18 water samples and concentrations of sulfate in 16 of 18 water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Calcium and sodium were the dominant cations, and chloride and sulfate were the dominant anions. The maximum selenium concentration of 8 micrograms per liter exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic-life chronic criterion of 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of lead in 7 of 18 water samples and concentrations of mercury in 4 of 18 water samples exceeded the aquatic-life cronic criteria of 3.2 and 0.012 micrograms per liter, respectively. Concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, and silver in the water samples were below analytical reporting limits. Arsenic was detected in 3 of 9 bottom-sediment samples, and concentrations ranged from 11 to 16 micrograms per gram. Concentrations ofaluminum, beryllium, boron, copper, lead, and zinc were highest in samples from Main Drain at southerly international boundary near San Luis, Arizona. Selenium was detected in all bottom-sediment samples, and concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 micrograms per gram. Concentrations of cadmium, europium, homium, mercury, molybdenum, silver, tantalum, tin, and uranium were below analytical reporting limits in the bottom-sediment samples. Concentrations of trace elements in bottom-sediment samples were within the ranges found in a study of soils of the western United States and did not indicate a significant accumulation of these constituents. p,p'Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (commonly referred to as p,-p'-DDE) was detected in one bottom-sediment sample at a concentration of 1.4 micrograms per gram. No other organochlorine compounds were detected in the bottom-sediment samples. DDE was present in all fish and bird samples. Almost one-half of the fish samples contained DDE residues that were two times higher than the mean calculated for a national study in 1984-85. Twenty-tree percent of the fish contained more than three times the national mean. Fish from downstream parts of the Main Drain had the highest concentrations of DDE. Although concentrations of DDE in fish and in bird carcasses and eggs were above background levels, residues generally were below thresholds associated with chronic poisoning and reproductive problems in figh and wildlife. Concentrations of 18 trace elements were detected in cattail (Typha sp.) roots, freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), fish, and bird samples. Selenium in most fish and in livers of red-winged (Agelaius phoeniceus) and yellow-headed (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) blackbirds was above background concentrations but below toxic concentrations. In contrast, selenium was present in a killdeer (Charadrium vociferus) liver sample at potentially toxic con

Tadayon, Saeid; King, K. A.; Andrews, Brenda; Roberts, William

1997-01-01

234

Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and expected life detection targets. We have characterized the mineralogy, organic chemistry and microbiology of ten selected sample sites from the Utah desert in close vicinity to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign (organized by International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), NASA Ames and ESA ESTEC). Compared with extremely arid deserts (such as the Atacama), organic and biological materials can be identified in a larger number of samples and subsequently be used to perform correlation studies. Among the important findings of this field research campaign are the diversity in the mineralogical composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles, mainly Bacteria and also Archaea and Eukarya was observed. The dominant factor in measurable bacterial abundance seems to be soil porosity and lower small (clay-sized) particle content. However, correlations between many measured parameters are difficult to establish. Field research conducted during the EuroGeoMars 2009 campaign shows that the geological history and depositional environment of the region, as well as the mineralogy influence the ability to detect compounds such as amino acids and DNA. Clays are known to strongly absorb and bind organic molecules often preventing extraction by even sophisticated laboratory methods. Our results indicate the need for further development and optimization of extraction procedures that release biological compounds from host matrices to enable the effective detection of biomarkers during future sampling campaigns on Earth and Mars.

Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W. F. M.; Thiel, C. S.; Quinn, R.; Sephton, M. A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, J. M.; Direito, S. O. L.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; van Sluis, C. A.; Foing, B. H.

2011-07-01

235

Metals in water, sediments, and biota of an offshore oil exploration area in the Potiguar Basin, Northeastern Brazil.  

PubMed

Metal concentrations were evaluated in water, bottom sediments, and biota in four field campaigns from 2002 to 2004 in the Potiguar Basin, northeastern Brazil, where offshore oil exploration occurs. Analyses were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Total metal concentrations in water (dissolved + particulate) and sediments were in the range expected for coastal and oceanic areas. Abnormally high concentrations in waters were only found for Ba (80 ?g l(-1)) and Mn (12 ?g l(-1)) at the releasing point of one of the outfalls, and for the other metals, concentrations in water were found in stations closer to shore, suggesting continental inputs. In bottom sediments, only Fe and Mn showed abnormal concentrations closer to the effluent releasing point. Metal spatial distribution in shelf sediments showed the influence of the silt-clay fraction distribution, with deeper stations at the edge of the continental shelf, which are much richer in silt-clay fraction showing higher concentrations than shallower sediments typically dominated by carbonates. Metal concentrations in estuarine (mollusks and crustaceans) and marine (fish) organisms showed highest concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae). Fish tissues metal concentrations were similar between the continental shelf influenced by the oil exploration area and a control site. The results were within the range of concentrations reported for pristine environments without metals contamination. The global results suggest small, if any, alteration in metal concentrations due to the oil exploration activity in the Potiguar Basin. For monitoring purposes, the continental inputs and the distribution of the clay-silt fraction need to be taken into consideration for interpreting environmental monitoring results. PMID:23014923

Lacerda, L D; Campos, R C; Santelli, R E

2013-05-01

236

Did southern Western Ghats of peninsular India serve as refugia for its endemic biota during the Cretaceous volcanism?  

PubMed Central

The Western Ghats (WG) of south India, a global biodiversity hotspot, has experienced complex geological history being part of Gondwana landmass and encountered extensive volcanic activity at the end of Cretaceous epoch. It also has a climatically and topographically heterogeneous landscape. Thus, the WG offer a unique setting to explore the influence of ecological and geological processes on the current diversity and distribution of its biota. To this end, three explicit biogeographical scenarios were hypothesized to evaluate the distribution and diversification of wet evergreen species of the WG – (1) southern WG was a refuge for the wet evergreen species during the Cretaceous volcanism, (2) phylogenetic breaks in the species phylogeny would correspond to geographic breaks (i.e., the Palghat gap) in the WG, and (3) species from each of the biogeographic subdivisions within the WG would form distinct clades. These hypotheses were tested on the centipede genus Digitipes from the WG which is known to be an ancient, endemic, and monophyletic group. The Digitipes molecular phylogeny was subjected to divergence date estimation using Bayesian approach, and ancestral areas were reconstructed using parsimony approach for each node in the phylogeny. Ancestral-area reconstruction suggested 13 independent dispersal events to explain the current distribution of the Digitipes species in the WG. Among these 13 dispersals, two dispersal events were at higher level in the Digitipes phylogeny and were from the southern WG to the central and northern WG independently in the Early Paleocene, after the Cretaceous Volcanism. The remaining 11 dispersal events explained the species’ range expansions of which nine dispersals were from the southern WG to other biogeographic subdivisions in the Eocene-Miocene in the post-volcanic periods where species-level diversifications occurred. Taken together, these results suggest that southern WG might have served as a refuge for Digitipes species during Cretaceous volcanism.

Joshi, Jahnavi; Karanth, Praveen

2013-01-01

237

Environmental contaminant concentrations in biota from the lower Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Planned harbor expansion and industrial developments may adversely affect the economically important aquatic resources of the lower Savannah River, including those at the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge. To establish the present level of chemical contamination in this system, we collected a total of 102 samples of nine species of fish and fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) from eleven sites in the lower Savannah River and on the Savannah National Wildlife Refuge, and analyzed them for concentrations of organochlorine chemicals, aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, and 13 elemental contaminants: aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Residues of DDT (mainly as DDE),trans-nonachlor, dieldrin, Aroclor? 1260, mirex, and petroleum hydrocarbons were common in fish from the lower Savannah River, but concentrations were below those warranting environmental concern. In general, the concentrations of elemental contaminants also were low; however, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium concentrations were elevated in fish from river stations near the city of Savannah, and lead was elevated in samples from the National Wildlife Refuge. Contamination of the lower Savannah River by organic and elemental contaminants, as indicated by concentrations in fishes and fiddler crabs, did not appear to pose a hazard.

Winger, P. V.; Schultz, D. P.; Johnson, W. W.

1990-01-01

238

Measurement of Lake Roosevelt Biota in Relation to Reservoir Operations; 1991 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to collect biological data from Lake Roosevelt to be used in the design of a computer model that would predict biological responses to reservoir operations as part of the System Operation Review program. Major components of the Lake Roosevelt model included: quantification of impacts to phytoplankton, zooplanktons, benthic invertebrates, and fish caused by reservoir drawdowns and low water retention times; quantification of number, distribution, and use of fish food organisms in the reservoir by season; determination of seasonal growth of fish species as related to reservoir operations, prey abundance and utilization; and quantification of entrainment levels of zooplankton and fish as related to reservoir operations and water retention times. This report summarized the data collected on Lake Roosevelt for 1991 and includes limnological, zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrate, fishery, and reservoir operation data. Discussions cover reservoir operation affect upon zooplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Reservoir operations brought reservoir elevations to a low of 1,221.7 in April, the result of power operations and a flood control shift from Dworshak Dam, in Idaho, to Grand Coulee Dam. Water retention times were correspondingly low reaching a minimum of 14.7 days on April 27th.

Griffith, Janelle R.; McDowell, Amy C.; Scholz, Allan T.

1995-08-01

239

Hydrothermal mineral deposits and fossil biota from a young (0.1 Ma) abyssal hill on the flank of the fast spreading East Pacific Rise: Evidence for pulsed hydrothermal flow and tectonic tapping of axial heat and fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat flow data indicate that most hydrothermal heat loss from ocean lithosphere occurs on the flanks of the mid-ocean ridge, but few ridge flank hydrothermal sites are known. We describe the first nonseamount, abyssal hill hydrothermal mineral deposits to be recovered from the fast spreading East Pacific Rise (EPR) flanks. Deposits were sampled at two sites on an abyssal hill ˜5 km east of the EPR axis, just north of Clipperton Fracture Zone at 10°20'N, on ˜0.1 Ma lithosphere. "Tevnia Site" is on the axis-facing fault scarp of the hill, and "Ochre Site" is located ˜950 m farther east near the base of the outward-facing slope. Clusters of fragile, biodegradable Tevnia worm tubes at both sites indicate that hydrothermal fluids carried sufficient H2S to sustain Tevnia worms, and that fluid flow waned too recently to allow time for tube destruction. Presence of microbial mats and other biota also are consistent with recent waning of flow. The deposits are mineralogically zoned, from nontronite-celadonite to hydrous Fe-oxide+opaline silica to Mn-oxide (birnessite and todorokite). This places them into a distinctive class of Fe-Si-Mn hydrothermal deposits found along tectonic cracks and faults in young oceanic crust, and suggests that (1) deposits precipitated along an O2 gradient between ambient seawater and hydrothermal fluid; (2) fluid temperatures were <150°C and (3) undiluted fluids were Mg-depleted, and Fe-, K-, Si- and Mn-enriched. These fluids may derive from high temperature seawater-basalt interaction ± phase separation proximal to the axial melt zone, and lose Cu and Zn before venting due to conductive cooling and/or pH increase. Ochre Site samples are purely hydrothermal; however, Tevnia Site samples incorporate volcanic, sedimentary, and fossil components, and exhibit at least three generations of fracturing and hydrothermal cementation. The Tevnia Site breccias accumulated on the exposed fault scarp, possibly during multiple slip events and hydrothermal pulses as the abyssal hill was uplifted. We hypothesize that frequent earthquakes rejuvenate young abyssal hill hydrothermal systems episodically over 104-105 years, tapping axial heat and hydrothermal fluids, sustaining biota, and likely helping to chill the margins of the axial melt zone.

Benjamin, Sara B.; Haymon, Rachel M.

2006-05-01

240

Trace elements and organic compounds in streambed sediment and aquatic biota from the Sacramento River Basin, California, October and November 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Elevated levels of trace elements and hydrophobic organic compounds were detected in streambed sediments and aquatic biota [Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) or bottom-feeding fish] of the Sacramento River Basin, California, during October and November 1995. Trace elements detected included cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc. Elevated levels of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the upper Sacramento River are attributed to a mining land use, and elevated levels of zinc and lead in an urban stream, and possibly in the lower Sacramento River, are attributed to urban runoff processes. Elevated levels of mercury in streambed sediment are attributed to either past mercury mining or to the use of mercury in past gold mining operations. Mercury mining was an important land use within the Coast Ranges in the past and gold mining was an important land use of the Sierra Nevada in the past. Mercury was the only trace element found in elevated levels in the tissue of aquatic biota, and those levels also could be attributed to either mining or urban runoff. Hydrophobic organic compounds also were detected in streambed sediments and aquatic biota. The most frequently detected compounds were DDT and its breakdown products, dieldrin, oxychlordane, and toxaphene. Differences were found in the types of compounds detected at agricultural sites and the urban site. Although both types of sites had measurable concentrations of DDT or its breakdown products, the urban site also had measurable concentrations of pesticides used for household pest control. Few semivolatile compounds were detected in the streambed sediments of any site. The semivolatile compound p-cresol, a coal-tar derivative associated with road maintenance, was found in the highest concentration.

MacCoy, Dorene E.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

1999-01-01

241

Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

2009-01-01

242

Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

2009-01-01

243

Levels and chemical speciation of arsenic in representative biota and sediments of a tropical mangrove wetland, India.  

PubMed

The general concern for arsenic in the marine environment is associated with its wide distribution and potential toxicity. In the present work, concentrations and chemical speciation of arsenic were characterized in sediments and representative biota from the Indian Sundarban, the largest continuous mangrove tract formed at the mouth of the Hugli (Ganges) River estuary, northeastern part of the Bay of Bengal. Analyzed organisms included both shellfish (Macoma birmanica, Sanguinolaria acuminata and Meretrix meretrix) and finfish (Liza parsia, Liza tade, Harpodon nehereus and Eleutheronema tetradactylum). Arsenic concentrations in sediments did not exceed 4 ?g g(-1) dry weight with the contribution of inorganic molecules (arsenate and arsenite) ranging from 61.7 to 81.3%. Total As (TAs) concentrations varied from less than 2 to 16 ?g g(-1) in tissues of bivalves; the more elevated As accumulation was observed in gills and the mantle probably due to ion exchange properties of the mucous layer covering these organs, whereas adductor muscle and the podium showed limited values. Distribution of various arsenic compounds followed a quite similar trend in bivalve tissues; arsenobetaine (AsB) was the most dominant form followed by compounds such as dimethylarsinate (DMA), trimethyl arsine-oxide (TMAO), tetramethyl arsonium (TETRA) and arsenocholine (AsC), while inorganic arsenic (IAs) represented a minor constituent (0.2 to 6.9%). Among the fish, detritivorous/herbivorous species (L. parsia and L. tade) exhibited TAs concentrations of 10.8 and 9.71 ?g g(-1) dry wt with a prevalence of AsB (52-67%) and TETRA (26-35%); higher concentrations of TAs were measured in the two carnivorous species (20.62 and 19.67 ?g g(-1) dry wt, in H. nehereus and E. tetradactylum respectively) mostly as AsB (63.3-72.3%) and AsC (17.5-28.6%). The obtained results can be considered as baseline levels for arsenic in the investigated area, confirming the predominance of organoarsenicals in marine organisms compared to more toxic inorganic compounds. Considering the ecological importance of this ecosystem and the increasing anthropogenic impact, the distribution of arsenic through the food chain should be continuously monitored, using organisms of different feeding guilds as indicators. PMID:23400359

Fattorini, Daniele; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Regoli, Francesco; Bhattacharya, Bhaskar Deb; Rakshit, Dibyendu; Satpathy, Kamala Kanta; Chatterjee, Mousumi

2013-04-01

244

An Effective Solid State Sensor for In-situ Measurement of the Chemical and Thermal Environment Near Vent Biota - Preliminary Results from the Galapagos Expedition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal activity and associated biota 25 years ago in the Galapagos Rift Zone, numerous efforts have been devoted to study the chemistry of the venting fluids and its impact on vent animals. However, owing to limited progress in development of in-situ sensing technology under this extreme condition, our knowledge of this systems has largely been derived from indirect methods. Based on our recent success in development of chemical sensors for application in seafloor hot spring fluids, a new in-situ sensor unit was constructed with capabilities optimized for application with DSV Alvin in relatively low temperature conditions of diffuse flow regime. The sensor consists of Ir-IrO2 and Ti-TiO2 electrodes as parallel pH sensing elements, together with Ag-AgCl as a reference. These sensors are used in combination with Pt as a dissolved H2 sensing element, and Ag-Ag2S as a dissolved H2S sensor. A Ti-sheathed E-type thermocouple is also included inside the electrode package for temperature control. All sensing elements are enclosed in a Ti compartment with O.D. of 1.75 cm. The horizontal distances between all of the sensing electrodes and thermocouples are less than 0.5 cm. Moreover, the response region of the sensor is limited to 0.5 cm from the tip, which allows precise control of chemical measurement in specific thermal regimes. Measurements are recorded at the rate of 3-5 seconds per-reading through an inductively coupled link (ICL) between the sensor unit and the receiving computer inside the sub. The entire sensor, including supporting electronics, is directly mounted on the starboard side manipulator of Alvin, thus utilizing the submersible's hydraulic system for mechanical movement. Measurements were successfully conducted during six dives at depths of 2501 to 1666 meters, while vent fluid temperatures were up to 22.9°C. The highest temperature was recorded at the base of a colony of Riftia pachyptila during Alvin dive 3790 to the Mark F area. A relatively stable chemical environment characterizes the 22.9°C-warm fluids. In general, pH is significantly lower than ambient, while dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations are higher. In reference to the ambient seawater values, these differences can be up to 0.48 pH units, and 1.58 and 1.43 log units for dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations respectively. Sensor measurements in the vicinity of the tubeworm plume reveal fluctuations in both temperature (~6°C) and pH conditions. Dissolved H2S concentrations, however, are still at the level of approximately one log unit higher than the ambient seawater. From the tubeworm plume to the base, a well defined negative linear correlation was observed between fluid temperature and pH, which likely reflects mixing dynamics between the seawater and vent fluid. Measurements were also performed around living mussels at venting sites. At the top of the mussel beds, fluid temperatures are only 1~2°C higher than seawater, while deep into the beds, relatively large temperature, pH and dissolved H2 anomalies were detected. Clearly, the ability to measure in-situ chemistry in real time offers great promise for future discovery of the complex interaction between biological communities and hydrothermal fluid at the vent sites. The success to date notwithstanding, additional lab-based efforts are needed to enhance sensor performance and operational characteristics.

Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.

2002-12-01

245

Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in the sediments and biota of two adjacent estuaries, the Orwell and the Stour, in eastern England.  

PubMed

A study was made of the concentrations of the elements As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediments and biota of two adjacent estuaries, the Orwell and Stour, in eastern England. The Orwell Estuary, with its urbanized head, was more contaminated with heavy metals than the Stour Estuary. Generally, in both estuaries, concentrations of metals were highest towards the head and the mouth. Saltmarsh sediments accumulated higher concentrations of most metals than mudflat sediments. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences; Mytilus edulis had higher concentrations of Cd, Littorina littorea higher concentrations of Cu and Mn and Arenicola marina higher concentrations of Hg. Invertebrates from the Orwell had higher metal concentrations than those from the Stour. Algae had generally lower levels of metals than invertebrates. Metal concentrations were greatest and more variable in the top 10 cm of sediment. Metals were at greatest concentrations in winter and lowest in summer in sediments, algae and invertebrates. Mercury concentration increased with size in the three invertebrate species studied, but Cd and Zn generally were at higher concentrations in younger animals. Comparisons of sediments with average shale values indicated anthropogenic enrichment with several metals but it was considered that only Pb, at some sites, and possibly Hg posed potential threats to the ecology of the estuaries. PMID:10085564

Wright, P; Mason, C F

1999-02-01

246

A case study of trace metals in suspended particulate matter and biota before wastewater treatment plant from the Izmir Bay, Turkey.  

PubMed

The concentrations of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Fe) from suspended particulate matter (SPM) and biota in Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea) were studied in order to evaluate the environmental impact of the anthropogenic metals before building of Wastewater Treatment Plant. SPM samples were collected in wet and dry periods from Izmir Bay. Metal concentrations in SPM (Cu, 0.36-2.19; Mn, 0.07-11.3; Ni, 0.43-7.81; Zn, 7.33-269; Fe, 1.00-266 ?g dm(-3)) were comparable to those reported for other moderately polluted bays. Maximum metal concentrations in SPM were observed during summer season. SPM metal concentrations displayed a clear spatial trend with values increasing with proximity to urban centers. Cu and Zn concentrations in SPM were especially high in the inner bay. SPM were found to be contaminated by Zn. The vertical profile of Mn, Zn, and Ni concentrations in SPM had a maximal value at the upper layer and decreased to minimal value at the bottom layer of the inner bay in summer, in contrast to the observed pattern of Fe and Cu. Maximum Cu concentrations were obtained in Penaeus kerathurus. Also, maximum Zn and Fe concentrations were found in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Relatively high Cu levels were found in Sardina pilcardus and Mullus barbatus than other fish species. Besides, Cu levels were lower in Diplodus annularis and Merluccius merluccius. Finally, metal levels in biota tissues were lower than the limits of European Dietary Standards and Guidelines. PMID:21701893

Kontas, Aynur

2012-05-01

247

Isomer-specific analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in soil, sediment, and biota collected near the site of a former chlor-alkali plant  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations and composition of polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners were determined in soil, sediments, blue crab, striped mullet, and boat-tailed grackle collected near a chlor-alkali plant to determine their congener profile, bioaccumulation properties, and toxic potential. Concentrations of total PCNs as high as 23 {micro}g/g, dry wt, were found in sediments collected at the marsh contaminated by disposal of wastes from the chlor-alkali process. The spatial distribution of sediment-PCN concentrations was not related with those observed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The PCN congener profile did not resemble those of any technical mixtures. Hepta- and octa-chloronaphthalenes were the most abundant congeners accounting for greater than 50% of the total PCN concentrations in soil and sediments. A characteristic profile of PCNs in samples collected at the chlor-alkali site suggests the formation of chloronaphthalene congeners during chlor-alkali process, as has been suggested for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Concentrations of total PCNs in biota were 3--5 orders of magnitude less than in sediments. The profile of PCN congeners in biota was predominated by tetra- or penta-chloronaphthalenes, while hepta- and octa-chloronaphthalenes were not detected.

Kannan, K.; Blankenship, A.L.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Imagawa, T. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

1998-09-01

248

Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first appearance of its namesake herbivorous condylarth, Meniscotherium, but Wa-M seemingly lacks APP taxa. Overlying Wa-M is the better known 'Wa-0' fauna in a zone spanning 30 meters of strata and about 120 thousand years of geological time. This has dwarfed mammals and APP taxa, and is overlain in turn by strata with a standard Wa-1 early Eocene fauna. Documentation is still in progress, but it appears that the change from a Cf-3 to a Wa-M fauna lagged behind the onset of the CIE, the Wa-M fauna coincided with maximum excursion of the CIE, and the Wa-0 fauna lagged behind this maximum excursion and filled the recovery phase of the CIE. It is possible that other short-lived faunas will be found in addition to those already known because the events of interest are so short in duration that they may not be preserved in every stratigraphic section. Biotic effects (e.g., dwarfing and other adaptive change, biotic extinction, and biotic origination) are compelling reasons to study global warming, and the PETM provides an opportunity to study warming and sustainability in an event free from human influence.;

Gingerich, P. D.

2012-12-01

249

Effect of increasing CO/sub 2/ on ocean biota. Volume II, Part 5. Environmental and societal consequences of a possible CO/sub 2/-induced climate change  

SciTech Connect

Attempts to predict the most important biological effects on the marine biota caused by increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations and concomitant climactic changes are discussed. Particular attention is placed on phytoplankton, benthic plants, microbial cells, zooplankton, and fish stocks, and how changes in one or more of these trophic levels can result in significant changes in the nature and dynamics of the overall food web. Surface waters of the entire marine environment are considered, including the intertidal zone and estuaries; deeper waters are not considered. The major environmental factors considered are: (1) an increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations; (2) an increase in atmospheric temperature; (3) a decrease in pH of ocean water; and (4) an increase in atmospheric ozone concentration. The magnitude and temporal aspects of these atmospheric changes are based on previously developed models. (ERB)

Holm-Hansen, O.

1982-07-01

250

Relationships Between sea bed Morphology, Chemosynthetic Biota and Fluid Flow in the Source area of the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sissano or Aitape tsunami that struck the north coast of Papua New Guinea (PNG) in the evening of July 17th 1998 left more than 2,000 people dead and 12,000 homeless as three villages were completely destroyed and four more badly damaged. The source of the local tsunami remains controversial and has been postulated as due to seabed dislocation either by thrust or sediment slump, although there is increasing recognition that the latter alternative is most likely. The alternative source mechanisms of the tsunami were addressed during 1999 to 2001 by offshore studies including the acquisition of multibeam bathymetry, sub-bottom profiling, sediment sampling, seabed observation from the JAMSTEC Dolphin 3K Remotely Operated Vehicle and Shinkai 2000 Manned Submersible and seismic profiling. One of the most intriguing discoveries during the offshore surveys was of extant chemosynthetic biological communities, comprising bacterial mats, mussels, and tubeworms. These were found in the amphitheatre region where the source of the tsunami was located. Their presence indicates the active expulsion of sulphide- and methane-rich pore fluids from the sediment. The spatial variation and style of the faunas provides evidence on the mechanisms controlling fluid expulsion, the chemical composition of the fluid, and the levels of fluid flow. There is also undoubtedly a close association between the chemosynthetic faunas, levels of fluid flow and the generation of sediment slumping. We present evidence that shows that the variations in the type and concentration of biota together with variation in the location of active venting and sulphide rich sediments allows discrimination between areas of recently active and less active seabed deformation. We surmise that variations in extant mussel shell size may enable the relative timing of deformation to be elucidated. In conclusion, we propose that detailed mapping of the features and biotas described above supports a slump origin for the 1998 PNG event and may also provide important evidence in identifying seabed areas elsewhere that may be or become unstable.

Tappin, D. R.; McMurtry, G. M.; Matsumoto, T.

2001-12-01

251

Application of Biota Dose Assessment Committee Methodology to Assess Radiological Risk to Salmonids in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Protective guidance for biota in the U.S. Department of Energy's Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota is based on population level protection guides of 10 or 1 mGy.d-1, respectively. Several "ecologically significant units" of Pacific salmon are listed under the Endangered Species Act. The Middle Columbia Steelhead unit is endangered and the adult steelhead spawn in the reach. The reach also supports one of the largest spawning populations of fall chinook salmon in the Northwest. The existence of the major spawning areas in the Hanford Reach has focused considerable attention on their ecological health by the U.S. Department of Energy, other federal and state regulatory agencies, and special interest groups. Dose assessments for developing salmonid embryos were performed for the hypothetical exposure to tritium, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes at specific sites on the Hanford Reach. These early life stages are potentially exposed in some areas of the Hanford Reach to radiological contaminants that enter the river via shoreline seeps and upwelling through the river substrate. At the screening level, one site approached the dose guideline of 10 mGy.d-1 established with the RAD-BCG methodology and exceeded a precautionary benchmark of 2.5 mGy.d-1. Special status of listed species affords these populations more consideration when assessing potential impacts of exposure to radionuclides and other contaminants associated with the Hanford Site operations. The evolution of dose benchmarks for aquatic organisms and consideration of precautionary principal and cumulative impacts are discussed in this paper.

Poston, Ted M.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Peterson, Robert E.

2002-07-22

252

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1986-87  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water, bottom sediment, and biota were sampled during 1986 and 1987 in the Salton Sea area to determine concentrations of trace elements and pesticides as part of the Department of Interior Irrigation Drainage Program. The sampling sites (12 water, 15 bottom sediment, and 5 biota) were located in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The focus of sampling was to determine the current or potential threat to the wildlife of the Salton National Wildlife Refuge from irrigation projects sponsored or operated by the Department of the Interior. Results of the investigation indicate that selenium is the major element of concern. Elevated concentrations of selenium in water were restricted to tile-drain effluent. The maximum selenium concentration of 300 microg/L was detected in a tile-drain sample, and the minimum concentration of 1 microg/L was detected in a composite sample of Salton Sea water. The median selenium concentration was 19 microg/L. In contrast to the water, the highest bottom-sediment selenium concentration of 3.3 mg/kg was in a composite sample from the Salton Sea. The selenium detected in samples of waterfowl and fish also are of concern, but, to date, no studies have been done in the Salton Sea area to determine if selenium has caused adverse biological effects. Concentrations of boron and manganese were elevated in tile-drain samples throughout the Imperial Valley. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl were at levels that could cause reproduction impairment. Elevated concentrations of chromium, nickel, and zinc were detected in the Whitewater River , but they were not associated with irrigation drainage. Organochlorine pesticide residues were detected in bottom sediment throughout the study area at levels approaching those measured more than 10 years ago. More detailed studies would be needed to determine if these residues are affecting the waterfowl. (USGS)

Setmire, J. G.; Wolfe, J. C.; Stroud, R. K.

1990-01-01

253

A survey of perfluorinated compounds in surface water and biota including dolphins from the Ganges River and in other waterbodies in India.  

PubMed

Despite the reports of the occurrence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in industrialized nations, information on PFCs in less industrialized countries is meager. In the present study, concentrations and profiles of PFCs were investigated in surface waters (rivers, lakes, coastal seas and untreated sewage; n=42) including the Ganges River water, and biota such as shrimp (n=2), fish (n=28), and Ganges River dolphin (Platanista gangetica; n=15). PFOS was the dominant PFC found in most of the samples analyzed including water samples except untreated sewage (water: <0.04-3.91 ng L(-1); biota: 0.248-27.9 ng g(-1) ww). Long-chain (C11-C18) perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were not detected in the water samples (<0.2 ng L(-1)), although PFDA (0.061-0.923 ng g(-1) ww) and PFUnDA (0.072-0.998 ng g(-1) ww) were found in biological samples The arithmetic mean PFOS concentration found in the liver of Ganges River dolphin was 27.9 ng g(-1) ww. Bioconcentration and biomagnifications factors of PFCs were estimated in the Ganges River basin food web. The highest concentration of PFOA, 23.1 ng L(-1), was found in untreated sewage samples. Overall, concentrations of PFCs of water and biological samples from India are lower than the concentrations reported for other countries so far. PFC profiles in Indian waters are dominated by PFOS, followed by PFOA, which is different from the pattern reported for other countries such as Korea, Japan and USA, where PFOA was the predominant compound in waters. The flux estimates for PFOS, PFOA and PFNA from the Ganges River in India to the Bay of Bengal were in the range of several hundreds of kilograms per year. PMID:19328521

Yeung, Leo W Y; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Sinha, Ravindra K; Borole, Dnyandev V; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2009-06-01

254

Determination of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in water, sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid using large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Several methods were developed to detect the cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) including octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in water, sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid samples. Analytical techniques employed to optimize measurement of this compound class in various matrices included membrane-assisted solvent extraction in water, liquid-solid extraction for sediment, soil, biota, and biosolid samples. A subsequent analysis of the extract was conducted by large-volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). These methods employed no evaporative techniques to avoid potential losses and contamination of the volatile siloxanes. To compensate for the inability to improve detection limits by concentrating final sample extract volumes we used a LVI-GC-MS. Contamination during analysis was minimized by using a septumless GC configuration to avoid cVMS's associated with septum bleed. These methods performed well achieving good linearity, low limits of detection, good precision, recovery, and a wide dynamic range. In addition, stability of cVMS in water and sediment was assessed under various storage conditions. D4 and D5 in Type-I (Milli-Q) water stored at 4°C were stable within 29d; however, significant depletion of D6 (60-70%) occurred only after 3d. Whereas cVMS in sewage influent and effluent were stable at 4°C within 21d. cVMS in sediment sealed in amber glass jars at -20°C and in pentane extracts in vials at -15°C were stable during 1month under both storage conditions. PMID:23211330

Wang, De-Gao; Alaee, Mehran; Steer, Helena; Tait, Tara; Williams, Zackery; Brimble, Samantha; Svoboda, Lewina; Barresi, Enzo; Dejong, Maryl; Schachtschneider, Joanne; Kaminski, Ed; Norwood, Warren; Sverko, Ed

2013-10-01

255

Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for transport to streams and irrigation drains that are tributary to the Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Colorado Rivers. Selenium concentrations in about 64\\x11percent of water samples collected from the lower Gunnison River and about 50 percent of samples from the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line exceeded the U.S.\\x11Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 5\\x11micrograms per liter for protection of aquatic life. Almost all selenium concentrations in samples collected during the nonirrigation season from Mancos Shale areas exceeded the aquatic-life criterion. The maximum selenium concentrations in surface-water samples were 600\\x11micrograms per liter in the Uncompahgre Project area and 380\\x11micrograms per liter in the Grand Valley. Irrigation drainage from the Uncompahgre Project and the Grand Valley might account for as much as 75 percent of the selenium load in the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line. The primary source areas of selenium were the eastern side of the Uncompahgre Project and the western one-half of the Grand Valley, where there is extensive irrigation on soils derived from Mancos Shale. The largest mean selenium loads from tributary drainages were 14.0 pounds per day from Loutsenhizer Arroyo in the Uncompahgre Project and 12.8 pounds per day from Reed Wash in the Grand Valley. Positive correlations between selenium loads and dissolved-solids loads could indicate that salinity-control projects designed to decrease dissolved-solids loads also could decrease selenium loads from the irrigated areas. Selenium concentrations in irrigation drainage in the Grand Valley were much higher than concentrations predicted by simple evaporative concentration of irrigation source water. Selenium probably is removed from pond water by chemical and biological processes and incorporated into bottom sediment. The maximum selenium concentration in bottom sediment was 47 micrograms per gram from a pond on the eastern side of the

Butler, D. L.; Wright, W. G.; Stewart, K. C.; Osmundson, B. C.; Krueger, R. P.; Crabtree, D. W.

1996-01-01

256

Soil pollution associated to the El Borracho Pb-Ag mine (Badajoz Province, Spain). Metal transfer to biota: oak-tree and moss.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El Borracho mine was active since Roman times, but with its higher production period on 19th Century. Mine closure occured without restoration works and nowadays the mining area is dedicated to deer hunting activities. In order to evaluate heavy metals distribution on mining tailings and surrounding soils of the studied area, 40 samples of dumps, soils and sediments were taken. Samples from the mine tailings were collected with an Eijkelkamp soil core sampler for undisturbed samples, with a vertical constant spacing of 25 cm. With this procedure, a total of 21 samples were taken in two points at main dump. Samples of Oak-tree leaves and moss were taken to evaluate metal transfer to biota. Analytical determinations have included soil parameters (pH, conductivity, organic matter content), and total metal contents in geological and biological samples by EDXRF. Analytical determinations shows higher metal contents in dumps, especially in surficial samples, 17,700 mg kg-1 and 470 mg kg-1 in average of Pb and Zn respectively, and lower contents in soils, 5,200 mg kg-1 and 300 mg kg-1, and sediments, 3,500 mg kg-1 and 120 mg kg-1. Metal contents in tailings profiles shows higher levels of Pb, Zn and Cu at 3.5 meters depth, a zone with lower grainsize and higher moisture. Differences in efficiency of extraction techniques and metal remobilization inside the dump can be an explanation for this enrichment level. Metal contents in agricultural soils exceeded maximum allowed levels by European Community (300 mg kg-1 for Pb and Zn and 140 mg kg-1 for Cu). Metal contents in biota evidence that Oak-tree bioaccumulates some metals, especially those with higher mobility in acidic conditions like Zn and Sb, with averages Bioaccumulation factor (BAF = plant concentration/soil concentration) of 0.48 and 0.85 respectively. Moss reaches high concentrations of Pb and Zn (3,000 mg kg-1 and 175 mg kg-1 in average respectively). Uptake pattern of Pb and Zn by plants leaves and mosses seems to be similar and can be characterized by logistic curves, with higher affinity of mosses to uptake metals from soils.

López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Naharro, Elena; García-Noguero, Eva Maria; Higueras, Pablo

2014-05-01

257

CONSOLIDATION OF BASELINE INFORMATION, DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY, AND INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL IMPACTS ON FRESHWATER SHELLFISH, INSECTS, AND OTHER BIOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

A computerized information system was developed for storing, retrieving, and analyzing data collected during limnological surveys. To facilitate storage of information, a series of hierarchial codes was developed. These codes not only reduced storage requirements, but also helped...

258

Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

2013-01-01

259

Urban stormwater inputs to an adapted coastal wetland: Role in water treatment and impacts on wetland biota.  

PubMed

The Lake Pertobe wetland system is a semi-natural wetland that has been modified primarily for recreational use. However, this lake system receives stormwater from much of the central business district of Warrnambool City (Victoria, Australia) and serves as a buffer zone between the stormwater system and the Merri River and Merri Marine Sanctuary. This work considers the impact of stormwater inputs on Lake Pertobe and the effectiveness of the lake in protecting the associated marine sanctuary. Sediment contaminants (including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) and water quality parameters within the lake, groundwater and stormwater system were measured. Water quality parameters were highly variable between stormwater drains and rain events. Suspended solids rapidly settled along open drains and shortly after entering the lake. Groundwater inputs increased both salinity and dissolved nitrogen in some stormwater drains. Some evidence of bioaccumulation of metals in the food chain was identified and sediment concentrations of several PAHs were very high. The lake acted as a sink for PAHs and some metals and reductions in Escherichia coli, biological oxygen demand and total phosphorus were observed, affording some protection to the associated marine sanctuary. Nutrient retention was inadequate overall and it was identified that managing the lake primarily as a recreational facility impacted on the effectiveness of stormwater treatment in the system. PMID:24747245

Howitt, Julia A; Mondon, Julie; Mitchell, Bradley D; Kidd, Toby; Eshelman, Bruce

2014-07-01

260

Microbe-I: fungal biota analyses of the Japanese experimental module KIBO of the International Space Station before launch and after being in orbit for about 460 days.  

PubMed

In addition to the crew, microbes also find their way aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, microbial monitoring is necessary for the health and safety of the crew and for general maintenance of the facilities of this station. Samples were collected from three sites in the Japanese experimental module KIBO on the ISS (air diffuser, handrail, and surfaces) for analysis of fungal biota approximately 1 year after this module had docked with the ISS. Samples taken from KIBO before launch and from our laboratory were used as controls. In the case of KIBO, both microbe detection sheet (MDS) and swab culture tests of orbital samples were negative. The MDS were also examined by field emission-scanning electron microscopy; no microbial structures were detected. However, fungal DNAs were detected by real-time PCR and analyzed by the clone library method; Alternaria sp. and Malassezia spp. were the dominant species before launch and in space, respectively. The dominant species found in specimens from the air conditioner diffuser, lab bench, door push panel, and facility surfaces on our laboratory (ground controls) were Inonotus sp., Cladosporium sp., Malassezia spp., and Pezicula sp., respectively. The fungi in the KIBO were probably derived from contamination due to humans, while those in our laboratory came from the environment (e.g., the soil). In conclusion, the cleanliness in KIBO was equivalent to that in a clean room environment on the ground. PMID:21950271

Satoh, Kazuo; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Sugita, Takashi; Tsukii, Yuuji; Takatori, Kosuke; Benno, Yoshimi; Makimura, Koichi

2011-12-01

261

Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effects on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington : Annual Report 3/15/00-3/14/01.  

SciTech Connect

The University of Washington, College of Forest Resources and the Center for Streamside Studies in Seattle, Washington, is being funded by the Bonneville Power Administration to conduct a three-year research project to measure the watershed scale response of stream habitat to abandoned mine waste, the dispersion of metals, and their effects on biota in the Methow River basin. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are processes and pathways that result in the dispersion of metals from their source at abandoned mines to biological receptors in the Methow River. The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Assess ecological risk due to metal contamination from mines near the Methow; (2) Measure impact of metals from mines on groundwater and sediments in Methow River; (3) Measure response of organisms in the Methow River to excess metals in the sediments of the Methow River; (4) Recommend restoration guidelines and biological goals that target identified pathways and processes of metal pollution affecting salmon habitat in the Methow basin; and (5) Submit peer review journal publications. When concluded, this study will contribute to the advancement of current best management practices by describing the processes responsible for the release of metals from small abandoned mine sites in an arid environment, their dispersal pathways, and their chemical and biological impacts on the Methow River. Based on these processes and pathways, specific remediation recommendations will be proposed.

Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

2001-06-01

262

Total Mercury, Methylmercury, and Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Data for Biota from Selected Streams in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2002-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program conducted a multidisciplinary study to investigate the bioaccumulation of mercury from 2002 to 2004. Study areas were located in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida. Each study area included one urban site, and one or two nonurban sites that had the following attributes: high-percent wetland or low-percent wetland. Periphyton, macroinvertebrates, and forage fish were collected twice per year (during 2003 and 2004) to capture seasonality. Top predators, specifically largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), brown trout (Salmo trutta), and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii), were collected once per year (Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida in 2003; Florida only in 2004). All biota were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic category and were analyzed for mercury and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Periphyton and invertebrates were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury; fish were analyzed for total mercury only. This report presents (1) methodology and data on mercury, methylmercury, stable isotopes, and (2) other ecologically relevant measurements in biological tissues of periphyton, invertebrates, forage fish, and predator fish.

Chasar, Lia C.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.

2008-01-01

263

A hybrid empirical-mechanistic modeling approach for extrapolating biota-sediment accumulation factors and bioaccumulation factors across species, time, and/or ecosystems.  

PubMed

An approach is presented for extrapolating field-measured biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) across species, time, and/or ecosystems. This approach, called the hybrid bioaccumulation modeling approach, uses mechanistic bioaccumulation models to extrapolate field-measured bioaccumulation data (i.e., BSAFs and BAFs) to new sets of ecological conditions. The hybrid approach predicts relative differences in bioaccumulation using food web models with two sets of ecological conditions and parameters: One set for the ecosystem where the BSAFs and/or BAFs were measured, and the other set for the ecological conditions and parameters for which the extrapolated BSAFs and/or BAFs are desired. The field-measured BSAF (or BAF) is extrapolated by adjusting the measured BSAF (or BAF) by the predicted relative difference, which is derived from two separate solutions of the food web model. Extrapolations of polychlorinated biphenyl BSAFs and BAFs for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from southern Lake Michigan to Green Bay of Lake Michigan (Green Bay, WI, USA) walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), as well as Hudson River largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens), resulted in generally better agreement between measured and predicted BSAFs and BAFs with the hybrid approach. PMID:16833159

Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

2006-07-01

264

Analytical method for the determination of halogenated norbornene flame retardants in environmental and biota matrices by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new methodology for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds (DPMA, Dec 602, Dec 603 and Dec 604) by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS-MS) was developed for three different matrices, including environmental (sediment and sludge) and biota (fish) samples. Analytical parameters such as linearity, repeatability and reproducibility, recoveries, limits of detection and limits of quantification were evaluated, showing satisfactory values for the developed methodology. Moreover, a comparison with the analysis by GC-NCI-MS was carried out. Method limits of detection (MDLs), ranging between 0.12 and 1.26 pg/g dw, 1.16-2.90 pg/g dw and 2.30-21.1 pg/g lw for sediment, sludge and fish respectively, were much better than those obtained by GC-MS, with improvement factor up to 320. The applicability of the developed methodology was demonstrated by the analysis of real samples collected in a non-producing area, the Ebro river basin (Spain). DP values were up to 1.61 ng/g dw, 18.8 ng/g dw and 2.24 ng/g lw for sediment, sludge and fish samples, respectively. PMID:22695692

Barón, Enrique; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

2012-07-27

265

Establishment of sentinel sampling sites to monitor changes in water and sediment quality and biota related to visitor use at Lake Powell, Arizona and Utah, 2004-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty sentinel sampling sites were established and sampled during 2004–06 at Lake Powell, Arizona and Utah, by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service—Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The sentinel sampling sites provide sampling locations on Lake Powell, the Nation’s second largest reservoir that can be visited and sampled repeatedly over time to monitor changes in water and sediment quality and also biota. The sites were established in response to an Environmental Impact Statement that addressed the use of personal watercraft on Lake Powell. The use of personal watercraft can potentially introduce hydrocarbons and other contaminants and are of concern to the health of visitors and aquatic habitats of these environments. Data from this initial sampling period (2004–06) include (1) discrete measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and water clarity; (2) major ions, nutrients, and organic carbon; (3) trace elements including rare earths; (4) organic compounds including oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds; (5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lakebed sediments; and (6) continuous depth profile measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Also, the National Park Service-Glen Canyon National Recreation Area collected bacteria samples during this initial sampling period.

Hart, Robert J.; Taylor, Howard E.; Anderson, G. M.

2012-01-01

266

Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses

Klaus Birkhofer; T. Martijn Bezemer; Jaap Bloem; Michael Bonkowski; Søren Christensen; David Dubois; Fleming Ekelund; Andreas Fließbach; Lucie Gunst; Katarina Hedlund; Paul Mäder; Juha Mikola; Christophe Robin; Heikki Setälä; Fabienne Tatin-Froux; Wim H. Van der Putten; Stefan Scheu

2008-01-01

267

Transfer of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems--default concentration ratios for aquatic biota in the Erica Tool.  

PubMed

The process of assessing risk to the environment following a given release of radioactivity requires the quantification of activity concentrations in environmental media and reference organisms. The methodology adopted by the ERICA Integrated Approach involves the application of concentration ratios (CR values) and distribution coefficients (K(d) values) for aquatic systems. Within this paper the methodologies applied to derive default transfer parameters, collated within the ERICA Tool databases, are described to provide transparency and traceability in the documentation process. Detailed information is provided for the CR values used for marine and freshwater systems. Of the total 372 CR values derived for the marine ecosystem, 195 were identified by literature review. For the freshwater system, the number of values based on review was less, but still constituted 129 from a total of 372 values. In both types of aquatic systems, 70-80% of the data gaps have been filled by employing "preferable" approaches such as those based on substituting values from taxonomically similar organisms or biogeochemically similar elements. PMID:18343543

Hosseini, A; Thørring, H; Brown, J E; Saxén, R; Ilus, E

2008-09-01

268

Compilation of 1988 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Annual progress report No. 7, January-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1988 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

Not Available

1989-08-01

269

Compilation of 1987 annual reports of the avy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. Annual progress report No. 6, January-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of ten studies performed during 1987 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

Not Available

1988-08-01

270

Compilation of 1987 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 1. Annual progress report No. 6, January-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of ten studies performed during 1987 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

Not Available

1988-08-01

271

Compilation of 1987 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Annual progress report No. 6, January-December 1987  

SciTech Connect

This is the sixth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of ten studies performed during 1987 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

Not Available

1988-08-01

272

Compilation of 1988 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Annual progress report No. 7, January-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports documents the progress of eight studies performed during 1988 at the Wisconsins and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

Not Available

1989-08-01

273

The San Francisco Bay Biota Since the Last Sea Level Maximum: Comparing Fossil and Recent Assemblages of Benthic Foraminifera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of fossil and Recent foraminiferal assemblages in San Francisco Bay can give us information about how the Bay's ecosystems have changed or remained resilient during the glacial cycles of the Pleistocene. This information, in turn, can help us to predict the potential impact of future environmental change on this system. In this study, we compared the species proportions, overall similarity, and species diversity of the Recent foraminiferal assemblage at one site in South San Francisco Bay with the fossil foraminiferal assemblage from Pleistocene samples taken at several sites in South San Francisco Bay, in order to test the hypothesis that the foraminiferal assemblage in San Francisco Bay has not changed significantly since the last interglacial interval. Comparisons of total sample similarity indicate that the upper layer of the Yerba Buena mud was deposited during conditions similar to today's South San Francisco Bay. The presence of a large number of dead tests of Elphidium gunteri Cole and Elphidiella hannai (Cushman and Grant), together with the lack of living populations of these species in South San Francsico Bay, make it difficult to interpret the presence of these taxa in similar abundances in the Plestocene and today. Possibly due to the introduction of the Japanese foraminifer Trochammina hadai Uchio, the modern assemblage has shifted away from the dominance of Elphidium excavatum (Terquem) found in the Pleistocene. Species diversity has neither decreased nor increased between the Pleistocene and the present day in South San Francisco Bay, suggesting that environmental change and human activity has not affected species diversity of the benthic foraminiferal fauna. These data show that comparisons between fossil and Recent assemblages are powerful tools in interpreting paleoenvironments, and may help us to understand the impact of human activity on estuarine and other marine systems. More research is needed on the living populations of E. gunteri and E. hannai today to be able to interpret the significance of these populations in the Pleistocene bay.

Lesen, A. E.; Lipps, J. H.

2004-12-01

274

Ecological Status of the St. Louis River System, as Informed by Spatially Comprehensive Surveys and Comparison to Coastal Wetlands Elsewhere  

EPA Science Inventory

Extensive data on biota and the physical/chemical environment were collected across the lower St. Louis River in 2004-2007 as part of multiple studies undertaken by EPA. The 2005-2007 work provides a spatially highly-resolved assessment of conditions across the system, while the ...

275

Trends in marine biological invasions at local and regional scales: the Northeast Pacific Ocean as a model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced species are an increasing agent of global change. Biogeographic comparisons of introduced biotas at regional and global scales can clarify trends in source regions, invasion pathways, sink regions, and survey effort. We identify the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP; northern California to British Columbia) as a model system for analyzing patterns of marine invasion success in cool temperate waters. We

Marjorie J. Wonham; James T. Carlton

2005-01-01

276

Simulation of glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 variations using a comprehensive Earth system model of intermediate complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of strong glacial-interglacial variations in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and the role of CO2 in driving glacial cycles still remain debatable. Here using the model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-2 which includes all major components of the Earth system - atmosphere, ocean, land surface, ice sheets, terrestrial biota and weathering, aeolian dust and marine biogeochemistry - we performed simulation

Victor Brovkin; Andrei Ganopolski; Reinhard Calov; Guy Munhoven; David Archer

2010-01-01

277

A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China and the phylogeny of Cretaceous basal eucryptodiran turtles  

PubMed Central

Background Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is an emblematic turtle from the Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China, a geological rock unit that is famous for yielding perfectly preserved skeletons of fossil vertebrates, including that of feathered dinosaurs. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis was one of the first vertebrates described from this fauna, also known as the Jehol Biota. The holotype was lost during World War II and only one additional specimen has been described since. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is a critical taxon for unraveling the phylogenetic relationships of Cretaceous pancryptodires from Asia, a group that is considered to be of key importance for the origin of crown-group hidden-neck turtles (Cryptodira). Results A new specimen of Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis is described here from the Jiufotang Formation of Qilinshan, Chifeng, Inner Mongolia, China. This is the third specimen described and expands the range of this taxon from the Yixian Formation of the Fuxin-Yixian Basin in Liaoning to the Jiufotang Formation of the Chifeng-Yuanbaoshan Basin. A possible temporal extension of the range is less certain. The new finding adds to our understanding of the morphology of this taxon and invites a thorough revision of the phylogeny of Macrobaenidae, Sinemydidae, and closely allied forms. Conclusions Our comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of Cretaceous Asian pancryptodires yielded two main competing hypotheses: in the first these taxa form a paraphyletic grade, whereas in the second they form a monophyletic clade. The inclusion of problematic tree changing taxa, such as Panpleurodires (stem?+?crown side-neck turtles) has a major influence on the phylogenetic relationships of Sinemydidae and closely allied forms. Manchurochelys manchoukuoensis nests within Sinemydidae together with Sinemys spp. and Dracochelys bicuspis in the majority of our analyses.

2014-01-01

278

Potential effects of climate change on inland glacial lakes and implications for lake-dependent biota in Wisconsin: final report April 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

F statewide, and an increase in precipitation of 1”–2”. However, summer precipitation in the northern part of the state is expected to be less and winter precipitation will be greater. By the end of the 21st century, the magnitude of changes in temperature and precipitation are expected to intensify. Such climatic changes have altered, and would further alter hydrological, chemical, and physical properties of inland lakes. Lake-dependent wildlife sensitive to changes in water quality, are particularly susceptible to lake quality-associated habitat changes and are likely to suffer restrictions to current breeding distributions under some climate change scenarios. We have selected the common loon (Gavia immer) to serve as a sentinel lake-dependent piscivorous species to be used in the development of a template for linking primary lake-dependent biota endpoints (e.g., decline in productivity and/or breeding range contraction) to important lake quality indicators. In the current project, we evaluate how changes in freshwater habitat quality (specifically lake clarity) may impact common loon lake occupancy in Wisconsin under detailed climate-change scenarios. In addition, we employ simple land-use/land cover and habitat scenarios to illustrate the potential interaction of climate and land-use/land cover effects. The methods employed here provide a template for studies where integration of physical and biotic models is used to project future conditions under various climate and land use change scenarios. Findings presented here project the future conditions of lakes and loons within an important watershed in northern Wisconsin – of importance to water resource managers and state citizens alike.

Meyer, Michael W.; Walker, John F.; Kenow, Kevin P.; Rasmussen, Paul W.; Garrison, Paul J.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hunt, Randall J.

2013-01-01

279

Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming, 1992-93  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected in 1992-93 from irrigation drainage areas and wetlands of the Wind River Federal Irrigation Project, Wind River Indian Reservation, Wyoming. Most samples collected had concentrations of chemical constituents less than the established levels of concern for water, bottom sediment, and biota. In the Little Wind Unit irrigation area, however, selenium and mercury concentrations in water exceeded criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Six water samples analyzed from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 had selenium concentrations that equaled or exceeded 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of mercury in water were 0.1 micrograms per liter or less, except at four sites: one sample collected in 1993 from Sharp Nose Draw (4.9 micrograms per liter) and three samples collected in 1992 from Little Wind Unit and Johnstown Unit (0.2 micrograms per liter). Mercury concentrations in all bottom-sediment samples were less than 0.02 micrograms per liter, except at Sharp Nose Pond where a concentration of 0.02 micrograms per liter was measured. Selenium concentrations in some aquatic vegetation, inverte- brates, fish, bird eggs, and bird livers collected from the Little Wind Unit in 1993 exceeded established levels of concern. At Goose Pond and Sharp Nose Pond, selenium in the livers of five bird samples collected exceeded the 10 micrograms per gram level associated with reproductive failure in aquatic birds. Mercury concentrations in the livers of birds sampled at Sharp Nose Pond also were greater than suggested levels in dietary items for the protection of sensitive species of mammals and birds that regularly consume aquatic organisms.

Grasso, Dennis N.; Jennings, Mary E.; Sadler, Wilfrid J.

1995-01-01

280

Cryptic Neogene vicariance and Quaternary dispersal of the red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus): insights on the evolution of North American warm desert biotas.  

PubMed

We define the geographical distributions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages embedded within a broadly distributed, arid-dwelling toad, Bufo punctatus. These patterns were evaluated as they relate to hypothesized vicariant events leading to the formation of desert biotas within western North America. We assessed mtDNA sequence variation among 191 samples from 82 sites located throughout much of the species' range. Parsimony-based haplotype networks of major identified lineages were used in nested clade analysis (NCA) to further elucidate and evaluate shallow phylogeographic patterns potentially associated with Quaternary (Pleistocene-Holocene) vicariance and dispersal. Phylogenetic analyses provided strong support for three monophyletic lineages (clades) within B. punctatus. The geographical distributions of the clades showed little overlap and corresponded to the general boundaries of the Peninsular Desert, and two continental desert regions, Eastern (Chihuahuan Desert-Colorado Plateau) and Western (Mojave-Sonoran deserts), geographically separated along the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Madre Occidental. The observed divergence levels and congruence with postulated events in earth history implicate a late Neogene (latest Miocene-early Pliocene) time frame for separation of the major mtDNA lineages. Evaluation of nucleotide and haplotype diversity and interpretations from NCA reveal that populations on the Colorado Plateau resulted from a recent, likely post-Pleistocene, range expansion from the Chihuahuan Desert. Dispersal across historical barriers separating major continental clades appear to be recent, resulting in secondary contacts in at least two areas. Given the observed contact between major clades, we speculated as to why the observed deep phylogeographic structure has not been eroded during the multiple previous interglacials of the Pleistocene. PMID:16101772

Jaeger, Jef R; Riddle, Brett R; Bradford, David F

2005-09-01

281

Mercury at the Oat Hill Extension Mine and James Creek, Napa County, California: Tailings, Sediment, Water, and Biota, 2003-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Executive Summary The Oat Hill Extension (OHE) Mine is one of several mercury mines located in the James Creek/Pope Creek watershed that produced mercury from the 1870's until 1944 (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965). The OHE Mine developed veins and mineralized fault zones hosted in sandstone that extended eastward from the Oat Hill Mine. Waste material from the Oat Hill Mine was reprocessed at the OHE Mine using gravity separation methods to obtain cinnabar concentrates that were processed in a retort. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management requested that the U.S. Geological Survey measure and characterize mercury and other chemical constituents that are potentially relevant to ecological impairment of biota in tailings, sediment, and water at the OHE Mine and in the tributaries of James Creek that drain the mine area (termed Drainage A and B) (Figs. 1 and 2). This report summarizes such data obtained from sampling of tailings and sediments at the OHE on October 17, 2003; water, sediment, and biota from James Creek on May 20, 2004; and biota on October 29, 2004. These data are interpreted to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential ecological impact of the mine on the James Creek watershed. The mine tailings are unusual in that they have not been roasted and contain relatively high concentrations of mercury (400 to 1200 ppm) compared to unroasted waste rock at other mines. These tailings have contaminated a tributary to James Creek with mercury primarily by erosion, on the basis of higher concentration of mercury (780 ng/L) measured in unfiltered (total mercury, HgT) spring water flowing from the OHE to James Creek compared to 5 to 14 ng/L HgT measured in James Creek itself. Tailing piles (presumably from past Oat Hill mine dumping) near the USBLM property boundary and upstream of the main OHE mine drainage channel (Drainage A; Fig. 2) also likely emit mercury, on the basis of their mercury composition (930 to 1200 ppm). The OHE spring water is likely an appreciable source of sulfate and carbonate to James Creek, because the spring water was enriched in sulfate (130 mg/L) and carbonate (430 mg/L as CaCO3) compared to James Creek water (70 to 100 mg/L SO42- and 110 to 170 mg/L as CaCO3) at the time of sampling. Concentrations of mercury in active channel sediment from James Creek are variable and potentially high, on the basis of chemical analysis (2.5 to 17 _g/g-wet sediment) and easily visible cinnabar grains in panned concentrates. Average (geometric mean) organic mercury (presumably monomethyl mercury (MMHg); ?2.3.3) concentrations in several invertebrate taxa collected from the James Creek watershed locations were higher than invertebrates taken from a Northern California location lacking a known point source of mercury. The mean proportion of MMHg to total mercury in James Creek predatory insect samples was 40 percent (1 standard deviation = 30 percent); only 40 percent of all insect samples had a MMHg/HgT proportion greater than 0.5. The low proportions of MMHg measured in invertebrates in James Creek and the presence of cinnabar in the creek suggest that some invertebrates may have anomolously high Hg concentrations as a result of the injestion or adhesion of extremely fine-grained cinnabar particles. Interpretation of HgT in frogs and fish as an indicator of mercury reactivity, biouptake, or trophic transfer is limited, pending MMHg measuremens, by the possibility of these whole-body samples having contained cinnabar particles at the time of analysis. To minimize this limitation, the gastrointestinal tracts and external surfaces of all amphibians, where cinnabar most likely resides, were carefully flushed to remove any visible particles. However, extremely fine-grained, invisible, adhesive cinnabar particles likely exist in the amphibians' habitats. HgT in foothill yellow-legged frogs collected from the James Creek study area, ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 ug/g Hg, was on average twice that of an extensive

Slowey, Aaron J.; Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T

2007-01-01

282

Transitions in ancient inland freshwater resource management in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations in and around coastal lagoons.  

PubMed

The increasing anthropogenic pressure on natural environments results in impacts that affect tropical forest areas and their biodiversity. Adverse impacts on terrestrial and oceanic environments often compound in the intertidal area, where mangrove forest ecosystems thrive. In tropical coastal areas of many developing countries where people depend on wood and other mangrove forest products and services, forest degradation leads to socioeconomic problems. At the same time, increasing freshwater needs in these areas are expected to cause additional problems. On the basis of remote sensing and ground truthing complemented by colonial archival material from the Dutch East India Company (1602-1800), we report that changes to the historic system of inland freshwater management have increased dramatically in recent times. Hydrological changes, such as interbasin transfers, have resulted in a qualitative ecological and socioeconomic degradation in three coastal lagoons in southern Sri Lanka. Variations in river hydrology have caused changes in the areas suitable as mangrove habitat and, thus, have resulted in an altered distribution. However, increases in mangrove area can mask the degradation of the site in terms of floristic composition, significance of the species, and biodiversity (this effect is termed "cryptic ecological degradation"). It is important that such changes be carefully monitored to ensure biological and socioeconomic sustainability. PMID:15797030

Dahdouh-Guebas, F; Hettiarachchi, S; Lo Seen, D; Batelaan, O; Sooriyarachchi, S; Jayatissa, L P; Koedam, N

2005-03-29

283

Simulation of CO? leakages during injection and storage in sub-seabed geological formations: metal mobilization and biota effects.  

PubMed

To assess the potential effects on metal mobilization due to leakages of CO2 during its injection and storage in marine systems, an experimental set-up was devised and operated, using the polychaete Hediste diversicolor as the model organism. The objective was to study the effects of such leakage in the expected scenarios of pH values between 8.0 and 6.0. Polychaetes were exposed for 10 days to seawater with sediment samples collected in two different coastal areas, one with relatively uncontaminated sediment as reference (RSP) and the other with known contaminated sediment (ML), under pre-determined pH conditions. Survival and metal accumulation (Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, As and Hg) in the whole body of H. diversicolor were employed as endpoints. Mortality was significant at the lowest pH level in the sediment with highest metal concentrations. In general, metal concentrations in tissues of individuals exposed to the contaminated sediment were influenced by pH. These results indicate that ocean acidification due to CO2 leakages would provoke increased metal mobilization, causing adverse side effects in sediment toxicity. PMID:24721118

Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Basallote, M Dolores; De Orte, Manoela R; DelValls, T Ángel; Riba, Inmaculada; Blasco, Julián

2014-07-01

284

Areas Susceptible to Irrigation-Induced Selenium Contamination of Water and Biota in the Western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) studied contamination induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States during 1986-95. Comprehensive compilation, synthesis, and evaluation of the data resulting from these studies were initiated by DOI in 1992. Soils and ground water in irrigated areas of the West can contain high concentrations of selenium because of (1) residual selenium from the soil's parent rock beneath irrigated land; (2) selenium derived from rocks in mountains upland from irrigated land by erosion and transport along local drainages, and (3) selenium brought into the area in surface water imported for irrigation. Application of irrigation water to seleniferous soils can dissolve and mobilize selenium and create hydraulic gradients that cause the discharge of seleniferous ground water into irrigation drains. Given a source of selenium, the magnitude of selenium contamination in drainage-affected aquatic ecosystems is strongly related to the aridity of the area and the presence of terminal lakes and ponds. Marine sedimentary rocks and deposits of Late Cretaceous or Tertiary age are generally seleniferous in the Western United States. Depending on their origin and history, some Tertiary continental sedimentary deposits also are seleniferous. Irrigation of areas associated with these rocks and deposits can result in concentrations of selenium in water that exceed criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Geologic and climatic data for the Western United States were evaluated and incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to produce a map identifying areas susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination. Land is considered susceptible where a geologic source of selenium is in or near the area and where the evaporation rate is more than 2.5 times the precipitation rate. In the Western United States, about 160,000 square miles of land, which includes about 4,100 square miles (2.6 million acres) of land irrigated for agriculture, has been identified as being susceptible. Biological data were used to evaluate the reliability of the map. In 12 of DOl's 26 study areas, concentrations of selenium measured in bird eggs were elevated sufficiently to significantly reduce hatchability of the eggs. The GIS map identifies 9 of those 12 areas. Deformed bird embryos having classic symptoms of selenium toxicosis were found in four of the study areas, and the map identifies all four as susceptible to irrigation-induced selenium contamination.

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Peltz, Lorri A.

1999-01-01

285

Compilation of 1988 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) Communications System Ecological-Monitoring Program. Volume 1. Annual progress report No. 7, January-December 1988  

SciTech Connect

This is the seventh compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1988 at the Wisconsin and Michigan Transmitting Facilities. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships.

Not Available

1989-08-01

286

What's in the Biota Bag? Examining Australian Fossil Biota.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a classroom activity in which candy is used to represent some Australian fossils with students asked to examine specimens and locate on a map of Australia where it might have been discovered. (Author/MM)

Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

2002-01-01

287

Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin, Washington; distribution of pesticides and other organic compounds in water, sediment, and aquatic biota, 1987-91; with a section on dissolved organic carbon in the Yakima River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1987-91, chemical data were collected for pesticides and other organic compounds in surface water, streambed sediment, suspended sediment, agricultural soil, and aquatic biota to determine the occurrence, distribution, transport, and fate of organic compounds in the Yakima River basin in Washington. The report describes the chemical and physical properties of the compounds most frequently detected in the water column; organochlorine compounds including DDT, organophosphorus compounds, thiocarbamate and sulfite compounds, acetamide and triazine compounds, and chlorophenoxy-acetic acid and benzoic compounds. Concentrations are evaluated relative to chronic-toxicity water quality criteria and guidelines for the protection of human health and freshwater aquatic life.

Rinella, Joseph F.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Crawford, J. Kent; Foreman, William T.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Aiken, George R.

1999-01-01

288

Recently discovered landlocked basins in Indonesia reveal high habitat diversity in anchialine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the variability of physical settings of anchialine systems in Indonesia is discussed together with the consequences\\u000a these settings have for the environment and biota within the systems. Exploration in two karstic areas (Berau, East Kalimantan\\u000a and Raja Ampat, West Papua) has resulted in the discovery of 20 previously unknown anchialine systems in Indonesia. Based\\u000a on parameters such

Leontine E. Becking; Willem Renema; Nadiezhda K. Santodomingo; Bert W. Hoeksema; Yosephine Tuti; Nicole J. de Voogd

289

Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part B, Effect on biota in Stillwater and Fernley Wildlife Management Areas and other nearby wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality reconnaissance study during 1986-87 found high concentrations of several potentially toxic elements in water, bottom sediment, and biota in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (WMA). This study prompted the U.S. Department of the Interior to initiate a more detailed study to determine the hydrogeochemical processes that control water quality in the Stillwater WMA, and other nearby wetlands, and the resulting effects on biota, especially migratory birds. Present wetland size is about 10% of historical size; the dissolved- solids load in the water in these now-isolated wetlands has increased only moderately, but the dissolved-solids concentration has increased more than seven-fold. Wetland vegetation has diminished and species composition in flow water has shifted to predominant salt-tolerant species in many areas. Decreased vegetative cover for nesting is implicated in declining waterfowl production. Decreases in numbers or virtual absence of several wildlife species are attributed to degraded water quality. Results of toxicity tests indicate that water in some drains and wetland areas is acutely toxic to some fish and invertebrates. Toxicity is attributed to the combined presence of arsenic, boron, lithium, and molybdenum. Biological pathways are involved in the transport of mercury and selenium from agricultural drains to wetlands. Hatch success of both artificially incubated and field-reared duck eggs was greater than/= 90 percent; no teratogenesis was observed. Mercury in muscle tissue of waterfowl harvested from Carson Lake in October 1987 exceeded the human health criterion six-fold.

edited by Hallock, Robert J.; Hallock, Linda L.

1993-01-01

290

Synthesis and interpretation of surface-water quality and aquatic biota data collected in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, 1979-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

ABSTRACT Shenandoah National Park in northern and central Virginia protects 777 square kilometers of mountain terrain in the Blue Ridge physiographic province and more than 90 streams containing diverse aquatic biota. Park managers and visitors are interested in the water quality of park streams and its ability to support healthy coldwater communities and species, such as the native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), that are at risk in the eastern United States. Despite protection from local stressors, however, the water quality of streams in the park is at risk from many regional stressors, including atmospheric pollution, decline in the health of the surrounding forests because of invasive forest pests, and global climate change. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, undertook a study to compile, analyze, and synthesize available data on water quality, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and fish within Shenandoah National Park. Specifically, the effort focused on creating a comprehensive water-resources database for the park that can be used to evaluate temporal trends and spatial patterns in the available data, and characterizing those data to better understand interrelations among water quality, aquatic macroinvertebrates, fish, and the landscape. Data from three primary sources, namely the Shenandoah Watershed Study, the Shenandoah National Park Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Monitoring Program, and the Springs and Headwater Streams Study, were compiled and loaded into the National Park Service’s NPSTORET database. This effort yielded a comprehensive database containing nearly 1.3 million measurements of habitat characteristics, approximately 442,000 measurements of water-quality characteristics, and over 438,000 measurements of biological taxa (fish and aquatic macroinvertebrates), collected across 673 sites over a period of more than 30 years. Temporal trends in water quality indicate conflicting patterns in terms of acidity. Long-term (20- and 30-year) trends in acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) and pH may indicate some improvement (decreasing acidity), but short-term (5-year) trends suggest increasing acidity. The long-term increase in pH occurred park-wide, although the increases were minimal in watersheds having siliciclastic bedrock. The long-term increases in ANC were mostly limited to watersheds with basaltic bedrock. Trends in concentrations of stream-water sulfate, another constituent of atmospheric deposition, indicated long-term improvements (declines in concentration) in watersheds having basaltic bedrock, long-term increases in concentration in watersheds having granitic bedrock, but no trend in watersheds with siliciclastic bedrock. Park-wide increases in mean, median, and maximum water temperatures were detected over the last 20 years. The average annual increase in mean water temperature park-wide was 0.04 °C, which equates to about 1.2 °C over the last 30 years. Short-term trends generally coincided with long-term trends but were more variable. Water temperatures generally tracked air temperatures, and additional analyses of longer-term (greater than 80 years) regional air-temperature data showed that the most recent increases in air temperature are not unprecedented. Analysis of spatial patterns in water quality demonstrated that watersheds with higher mean elevations, lower land-surface gradients, and greater proportions of basaltic and carbonate geology are least affected by acidification and tend to be improving over time. Watersheds having greater proportions of siliciclastic and granitic geology, with smaller watershed areas and higher minimum watershed elevation tend to be affected by acidification and are experiencing continued degradation in water quality. There was no apparent spatial pattern in the water-temperature trends. Benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics were found to be highly correlated with geology and, to a lesser extent, watershed area. Temporal trends in benthic macroinvertebrates showed evidence of change in community structure

Jastram, John D.; Snyder, Craig D.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Rice, Karen C.

2013-01-01

291

Chapter 1. Determination of elements in natural-water, biota, sediment, and soil samples using collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new analytical method for the determination of elements in filtered aqueous matrices using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been implemented at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory that uses collision/reaction cell technology to reduce molecular ion interferences. The updated method can be used to determine elements in filtered natural-water and other filtered aqueous matrices, including whole-water, biota, sediment, and soil digestates. Helium or hydrogen is used as the collision or reaction gas, respectively, to eliminate or substantially reduce interferences commonly resulting from sample-matrix composition. Helium is used for molecular ion interferences associated with the determination of As, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Mg, Na, Ni, V, W and Zn, whereas hydrogen is used for Ca, Fe, Se, and Si. Other elements that are not affected by molecular ion interference also can be determined simply by not introducing a collision/reaction gas into the cell. Analysis time is increased by about a factor of 2 over the previous method because of the additional data acquisition time in the hydrogen and helium modes. Method detection limits for As, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Se, Si (as SiO2), V, W, and Zn, all of which use a collision/reaction gas, are 0.06 microgram per liter (?g/L) As, 0.04 milligram per liter (mg/L) Ca, 0.02 ?g/L Co, 0.02 ?g/L Cr, 0.04 ?g/L Cu, 1 ?g/L Fe, 0.007 mg/L K, 0.009 mg/L Mg, 0.09 mg/L Na, 0.05 ?g/L Ni, 0.04 ?g/L Se, 0.03 mg/L SiO2, 0.05 ?g/L V, 0.03 ?g/L W, and 0.04 ?g/L Zn. Most method detection limits are lower or relatively unchanged compared to earlier methods except for Co, K, Mg, Ni, SiO2, and Tl, which are less than a factor of 2 higher. Percentage bias for samples spiked at about one-third and two-thirds of the concentration of the highest calibration standard ranged from -8.1 to 7.9 percent for reagent water, -14 to 21 percent for surface water, and -16 to 16 percent for ground water. The percentage bias for reagent water spiked at trace-element concentrations of 0.5 to 3 ?g/L averaged 4.4 percent with a range of -6 to 16 percent, whereas the average percentage bias for Ca, K, Mg, Na, and SiO2 was 1.4 percent with a range of -4 to 10 percent for spikes of 0.5 to 3 mg/L. Elemental results for aqueous standard reference materials compared closely to the certified concentrations; all elements were within 1.5 F-pseudosigma of the most probable concentration. In addition, results from 25 filtered natural-water samples and 25 unfiltered natural-water digestates were compared with results from previously used methods using linear regression analysis. Slopes from the regression analyses averaged 0.98 and ranged from 0.87 to 1.29 for filtered natural-water samples; for unfiltered natural-water digestates, the average slope was 1.0 and ranged from 0.83 to 1.22. Tests showed that accurate measurements can be made for samples having specific conductance less than 7,500 microsiemens per centimeter (?S/cm) without dilution; earlier ICP-MS methods required dilution for samples with specific conductance greater than 2,500 ?S/cm.

Garbarino, John R.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Cree, Mark E.

2006-01-01

292

Wastewater indicator compounds in wastewater effluent, surface water, and bed sediment in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway and implications for water resources and aquatic biota, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The results of this study indicate that aquatic biota in the St. Croix River are exposed to a wide variety of organic contaminants that originate from diverse sources including WWTP effluent. The data on wastewater indicator compounds indicate that exposures are temporally and spatially variable and that OWCs may accumulate in bed sediment. These results also indicate that OWCs in water and bed sediment increase downstream from discharges of wastewater effluent to the St. Croix River; however, the presence of OWCs in surface water and bed sediment at the Sunrise site indicates that potential sources of compounds, such as WWTPs or other sources, are upstream from the Taylors Falls-St. Croix Falls area.

Tomasek, Abigail A.; Lee, Kathy E.; Hansen, Donald S.

2012-01-01

293

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Vermejo Project area and the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge, Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, 1993  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on findings of limited studies during 1989-92, a reconnaissance investigation was conducted in 1993 to assess the effects of the Vermejo Irrigation Project on water quality in the area of the project, including the Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge. This project was part of a U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program to determine whether irrigation drainage has caused or has the potential to cause significant harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife and whether irrigation drainage may adversely affect the suitability of water for other beneficial uses. For this study, samples of water, sediment, and biota were collected from 16 sites in and around the Vermejo Irrigation Project prior to, during the latter part of, and after the 1993 irrigation season (April, August-September, and November, respectively). No inorganic constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. The State of New Mexico standard of 750 micrograms per liter for boron in irrigation water was exceeded at three sites (five samples), though none exceeded the livestock water standard of 5,000 micrograms per liter. Selenium concentrations exceeded the State of New Mexico chronic standard of 2 micrograms per liter for wildlife and fisheries water in at least eight samples from five sites. Bottom-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for trace elements and compared to concentrations of trace elements in soils of the Western United States. Concentrations of three trace elements at eight sites exceeded the upper values of the expected 95-percent ranges for Western U.S. soils. These included molybdenum at one site, selenium at seven sites, and uranium at four sites. Cadmium and copper concentrations exceeded the National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program 85th percentile in fish from six sites. Average concentrations of selenium in adult brine flies (33.7 mg/g dry weight) were elevated above concentrations in other invertebrates. Concentrations of other elements were below their respective toxicity levels. Plants, invertebrates, fish, and fish fillets were collected and analyzed. These analyses were compared to diagnostic criteria and to each other to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of trace elements. Plants contained larger dry weight concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, boron, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, nickel, and vanadium than invertebrates and fish. Adult brine flies, gathered from playas, contained larger geometric mean dry weight concentrations of boron, magnesium, and selenium than other invertebrates. Of all samples collected, the largest mercury concentrations were found in fish fillets, although these concentrations were below levels of concern. Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation was evident in various habitats of the study area. Biological samples from Natural playa, an endemic wetland, and Half playa, a playa that receives additional water through seepage and irrigation delivery canals, generally had elevated concentrations of boron, iron, magnesium, and selenium than samples from reservoir and river sites. Selenium concentrations were lowest in biota from the two reservoir sites, although a wetland immediately downstream from the dam impounding Lake No. 13 (created by seepage from the reservoir) had elevated concentrations of selenium in biota. The geometric mean selenium concentration of whole-fish samples, except those from Lakes No. 13 and No. 14, exceeded the 5-mg/g dry weight selenium concentration that demarcates the approximate lower limit of the threshold range of concentrations that have been associated with adverse effects on piscine reproduction. Biota collected on and in the area around Maxwell National Wildlife Refuge contained concentrations of selenium that are in the low

Bartolino, J. R.; Garrabrant, L. A.; Wilson, Mark; Lusk, J. D.

1996-01-01

294

Activity measurements of a suite of radionuclides (241Am, 239,240Pu, 238Pu, 238U, 234U, 235U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 137Cs, 210Pb, 90Sr and 40K) in biota reference material (Ocean Shellfish): CCRI(II)-S3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005, the CCRI decided that a comparison undertaken from 2002 to 2008 by the NIST (under the auspices of the Inter-America Metrology System [SIM]) in the development of a new biota (Ocean Shellfish) standard reference material (SRM) was sufficiently well constructed that it could be converted into a supplementary comparison under CCRI(II), with comparison identifier CCRI(II)-S3. This would enable the comparison to be used to support calibration and measurement capability (CMC) claims for radionuclide measurements in reference materials (specifically, animal-based organic materials). Previous comparisons of radionuclides have been of single or multiple nuclides in non-complex matrices and results of such could not be extended to support capabilities to measure the same nuclides in reference materials. The results of this comparison have been used to determine the certified reference value of the SRM. The key comparison working group (KCWG) of the CCRI(II) has approved this approach as a mechanism to link all the results to certified 'reference values' in lieu of the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of these specified radionuclides in this type of matrix (shellfish) so as to support CMCs of similar materials submitted by the present participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Nour, S.; Karam, L. R.; Inn, K. G. W.

2012-01-01

295

Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems  

PubMed Central

Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world.

de Vries, Franciska T.; Thebault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A.; Bj?rnlund, Lisa; Bracht J?rgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, S?ren; de Ruiter, Peter C.; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W. H. Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R.; Setala, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P.; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H.; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D.

2013-01-01

296

Soil food web properties explain ecosystem services across European land use systems.  

PubMed

Intensive land use reduces the diversity and abundance of many soil biota, with consequences for the processes that they govern and the ecosystem services that these processes underpin. Relationships between soil biota and ecosystem processes have mostly been found in laboratory experiments and rarely are found in the field. Here, we quantified, across four countries of contrasting climatic and soil conditions in Europe, how differences in soil food web composition resulting from land use systems (intensive wheat rotation, extensive rotation, and permanent grassland) influence the functioning of soils and the ecosystem services that they deliver. Intensive wheat rotation consistently reduced the biomass of all components of the soil food web across all countries. Soil food web properties strongly and consistently predicted processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations, and they were a better predictor of these processes than land use. Processes of carbon loss increased with soil food web properties that correlated with soil C content, such as earthworm biomass and fungal/bacterial energy channel ratio, and were greatest in permanent grassland. In contrast, processes of N cycling were explained by soil food web properties independent of land use, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and bacterial channel biomass. Our quantification of the contribution of soil organisms to processes of C and N cycling across land use systems and geographic locations shows that soil biota need to be included in C and N cycling models and highlights the need to map and conserve soil biodiversity across the world. PMID:23940339

de Vries, Franciska T; Thébault, Elisa; Liiri, Mira; Birkhofer, Klaus; Tsiafouli, Maria A; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Brady, Mark Vincent; Christensen, Søren; de Ruiter, Peter C; d'Hertefeldt, Tina; Frouz, Jan; Hedlund, Katarina; Hemerik, Lia; Hol, W H Gera; Hotes, Stefan; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; Uteseny, Karoline; van der Putten, Wim H; Wolters, Volkmar; Bardgett, Richard D

2013-08-27

297

Compilation of 1989 annual reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 2. tabs C-F. Annual progress report, Jan-Dec 89  

SciTech Connect

This is the eighth compilation of annual reports for the Navy's ELF Communications Systems Ecological Monitoring Program. The reports document the progress of eight studies performed during 1989 near the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility -- Republic, Michigan. The purpose of the monitoring is to determine whether electromagnetic fields produced by the ELF Communications System will affect resident biota or their ecological relationships. Soil Amoeba: Arthropoda and Earthworms: Pollinating Insects: Small Mammals and Nesting Birds.

Not Available

1990-08-01

298

Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part C, Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents a summary of the detailed scientific study of Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and other nearby wetlands in west-central Nevada during 1987-90. The work was funded by the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior with the overall objectives of determining (1) the extent, magnitude, and effects of selected water-quality constituents associated with irrigation drainage on fish, wildlife, and human health, and (2) the sources and exposure pathways that cause contamination where adverse effects are documented. Much of the information in this report was summarized from two previously published interpretive reports that were completed to fulfill study objectives. Where applicable, data for the study area from other published sources also were utilized. The results of these studies indicate that the aquatic biota in natural wetlands of the Carson Desert are adversely affected by hydrological and geochemical sources and processes in the Newlands Irrigation Project area. Reactions between water and naturally occurring minerals in the shallow alluvial aquifer increase concentrations of potentially toxic constituents in ground water that eventually enters the wetlands. Once in the wetlands, these constituents are furhter concentrated by evaporation and transpiration. Water from some agricultural drains that enter Stillwater WMA was acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. The drains in the agricultural areas, which eventually discharge to the wetlands, were also implicated as sites of uptake of selenium and mercury by aquatic organisms.

Hoffman, Ray J.

1993-01-01

299

An Integrated Case Study for Evaluating the Impacts of an Oil Refinery Effluent on Aquatic Biota in the Delaware River: Sediment Core Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) determine if historical exceedences of oil and grease concentrations above the limits allowed in the National Pollution Elimination Discharge System permit for the wastewater treatment facility of Motiva Enterprises LLC Refinery, Delaware City, Delaware, could be determined from the sedimentary records of the Delaware River and, if so, (2) were the concentrations

Clark R. Alexander; Richard F. Lee; Dennis T. Burton; Lenwood W. Hall Jr

2005-01-01

300

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex, California, 1988-89. Water resources investigation  

SciTech Connect

The report describes results of a reconnaissance field investigation of the quality of irrigation drainwater and the effects of its use on five federally managed wildlife refuges in the Sacramento Valley, California. The investigation was designed to determine the magnitude and extent of any water-quality problems that could threaten wildlife and human health. Samples of water, sediment, and biological tissue were collected on or near the refuges and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. The results of the chemical analyses were compared to various standards and criteria, baseline data, and toxicological studies. These comparisons are discussed in the context of the geological, hydrological, and biological systems in the study area.

Dileanis, P.D.; Sorenson, S.K.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Maurer, T.C.

1992-01-01

301

Biological indicators for monitoring water quality of MTF canals system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological models, diversity indexes, were developed to predict environmental effects of NASA's Mississippi test facility (MTF) chemical operations on canal systems in the area. To predict the effects on local streams, a physical model of unpolluted streams was established. The model is fed by artesian well water free of background levels of pollutants. The species diversity and biota composition of unpolluted MTF stream was determined; resulting information will be used to form baseline data for future comparisons. Biological modeling was accomplished by adding controlled quantities or kinds of chemical pollutants and evaluating the effects of these chemicals on the biological life of the stream.

Sethi, S. L.

1975-01-01

302

Surface-water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota, 1975-90  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The distribution of pesticides and other synthetic organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota in the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin was examined from 1987 through 1990 as part of the pilot National Water-Quality Assesssment Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. Historical data for water and sediment collected from 1975 through 1986 were similar to data collected from 1987 through 1990. Some compounds were detected in concentrations that exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Results from pesticide sampling at four stations in 1988 and 1989 identified several agricultural pesticides that were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in urban areas than in agricultural areas. Results from herbicide sampling at 17 stations in the Kankakee and Iroquois River Basins in 1990 indicated that atrazine concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water during runoff periods. Results from sampling for volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in water indicate that, with one exception, all stations at which more than one compound was detected were within 2 miles downstream from the nearest point source. Detections at two stations in the Chicago urban area accounted for 37 percent of the total number of detections. Concentrations of tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and 1,2-dichlorethane from stations in the Des Plaines River Basin exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for drinking water in one and two samples from the two stations in the Chicago area. Phenols and pentachlorophenols were detected most frequently in the Des Plaines River Basin where point-source discharges were common. Phenol concentrations were significantly different among the Des Plaines, Kankakee, and Fox River Basins. Phenols and pentachlorophenols never exceeded the general use and secondary contact standards. Results from a 1989 synoptic survey of semivolatile organic compounds in sediment indicate that these compounds were detected most frequently at sites in the Chicago urban area. Of the 17 stations at which 10 or more compounds were detected, 14 were located in the Des Plaines River subbasin, and 1 was on the Illinois River mainstem. As was the case with organic compounds in water, each of these sites was located within 2 miles downstream from point sources. Biota samples were collected and analyzed for organochlorines and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in 1989 and 1990. The most commonly detected compound in both years was p,p'-DDE. National Academy of Science recommendations for chlordane and dieldrin for protection of predators were exceeded in 19 and 10 samples, respectively, when the 1989 and 1990 data were combined. In the nine fish-fillet samples collected in 1989, concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency fish-tissue criteria in nine fillets for p,p'-DDE and five fillets for dieldrin.

Sullivan, Daniel J.; Stinson, Troy W.; Crawford, J. Kent; Schmidt, Arthur R.; Colman, John A.

1998-01-01

303

The presence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements in water and lakebed materials and the potential for bioconcentration in biota at established sampling sites on Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Park Service is responsible for monitoring the effects of visitor use on the quality of water, lakebed material (bottom sediments), and biota, in Lake Powell, Utah and Arizona. A sampling program was begun in 2010 to assess the presence, distribution, and concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds in the water column and bottom sediment. In response to an Environmental Impact Statement regarding personal watercraft and as a continuation from previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, water samples were collected and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using semipermeable membrane devices and inorganic elements using a fixed-bottle sampler deployed at established monitoring sites during 2010 and 2011. Lakebed material samples were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic elements, some of which could be harmful to aquatic biota if present at concentrations above established aquatic life criteria. Of the 44 PAH compounds analyzed, 26 individual compounds were detected above the censoring limit in the water column by semipermeable membrane devices. The highest number of compounds detected were at Lone Rock Beach, Wahweap Marina, Rainbow Bridge National Monument, and Antelope Marina which are all located in the southern part of Lake Powell where visitation and boat use is high. Because PAHs can remain near their source, the potential for bioconcentration is highest near these sites. The PAH compound found in the highest concentration was phenol (5,902 nanograms per liter), which is included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s priority pollutants list. The dissolved inorganic chemistry of water samples measured at the sampling sites in Lake Powell defined three different patterns of elements: (1) concentrations were similar between sites in the upper part of the lake near Farley Canyon downstream to Halls Crossing Marina, a distance of about 36 lake miles, (2) concentrations varied depending on the element between Halls Crossing Marina downstream to the mouth of the Escalante River, a distance of about 33 lake miles, and (3) concentrations were similar between sites from below the mouth of the Escalante River to Glen Canyon Dam, a distance of about 68 lake miles. Analysis of lakebed bottom sediment material samples detected PAH compounds at all sampling sites except at Halls Crossing Marina, Stanton Creek, and Forgotten Canyon. Twenty-four of 44 PAHs analyzed in lakebed material were detected above the reporting limit. Perylene was the most prevalent compound detected above the reporting limit in lakebed material and was detected at three sampling sites. Concentrations of perylene ranged from an estimate of 24.0 to 47.9 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg). Fluoranthene had the highest concentration of any PAH and was detected at the Wahweap Marina with a concentration of 565 ?g/kg. The highest sum of concentrations for all compounds found in lakebed material samples at one site was at the Wahweap Marina, which had concentrations five times higher than the next highest site. The three major tributaries to Lake Powell—the Colorado, Escalante, and San Juan Rivers—all showed elevated concentrations of inorganic elements in their delta sediments for most elements relative to the majority of the sediment samples taken from the lake itself. However, there were four lake sites that had concentrations for most inorganic elements that equaled or exceeded those of the tributaries. Two of these sites were at the northeast part of the lake, nearest to the Colorado River as it enters Lake Powell (Farley Canyon and Blue Notch Canyon), one was at the Escalante River below 50-Mile Canyon, and other was at Antelope Marina.

Schonauer, Kurt T.; Hart, Robert J.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

2014-01-01

304

Determination of selenomethionine and seleno-methyl-selenocysteine in biota by ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic digestion and multi-shot stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method based on stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been optimized for the determination of seleno-methyl-selenocysteine (SeMetSeCys) and selenomethionine (SeMet) in biota samples. Aliquots of freeze-dried tissue, a mixture of protease XIV-lipase and water were sonicated for 2min. After extraction, the extract was separated by centrifugation and subjected to derivatization and SBSE-TD-GC-MS. The parameters affecting derivatization, absorption and desorption steps were investigated. The optimized conditions consist of a derivatization with 40?L of ethyl chloroformate (ECF) in 400?L of a water:ethanol:pyridine (60:32:8) mixture, followed by dilution to 1.5mL of 70g NaClL(-1) in water at neutral pH and an extraction step using 10mm×1mm PDMS stir bar, stirring at 800rpm for 20min at room temperature (23±1°C). Three stir bars were used for the extraction of three different aliquots of the same sample and then placed in a single glass desorption liner and simultaneously desorbed for GC-MS analysis. The desorption step required the following conditions: 300°C (desorption temperature), 6min (desorption time), 50mLmin(-1) (vent flow) and -5°C (cryotrapping temperature). The method provided precise (8.1%) and accurate results in the mgSekg(-1) range (using the selected-ion monitoring-SIM mode) against certified reference material SELM-1 yeast, with recoveries higher than 80% for spiked algae and clams samples. PMID:23497851

Mellano, F; Bujalance, M; Giráldez, I; Ruiz-Azcona, P; Sánchez-Rodas, D; Morales, E

2013-07-26

305

Land system architecture: Using land systems to adapt and mitigate global environmental change  

SciTech Connect

Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.

Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.

2013-04-01

306

Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Owyhee and Vale Projects, Oregon and Idaho, 1990-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reconnaissance investigation was conducted during 1990--91 in the Owyhee and Vale projects in eastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho, as well as at a number of sites in the Snake River and tributaries to the Snake River in the area of study. The objective of the study was to determine if agricultural drainwater entering the study area was causing, or had the potential to cause, significant harmful effects to human health, fish and wildlife, or may adversely affect the suitability of water for beneficial uses. Approximately 153,000 acres of land are irrigated annually within the areas of the Owyhee and Vale projects. Large quantities of water are required because of the semiarid climate and relatively high evaporation rates. Several reservoirs in the area are filled annually during the wet, nonirrigation season to sustain irrigation during the dry summer months. During the irrigation season, this impounded water, along with direct diversions from the Malheur, Owyhee, and Snake Rivers, is transported to the irrigated areas through a series of diversion tunnels, siphons, canals, aqueducts, ditches, and drains. Major crops grown in the area include sugar beets, alfalfa hay and other hay crops, onions, and winter wheat. Minor crops include corn, potatoes, mint, various seed crops, and fruit. In 1987, it was estimated that the following amounts of pesticides were used in the project areas: 2,4-D (21,000 lbs [pounds]), chlorpyrifos (1,000 lbs), dacthal (40,000 lbs), dicamba (320 lbs), endosulfan (2,500 lbs), ethion (11,000 lbs), malathion (24,000 lbs), parathion (5,000 lbs), and phorate (11,000 lbs). Median concentrations and values for total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness in the Vale project area were greater than 1.5 times those values observed in the Owyhee project area or at other Snake River locations. During irrigation (August 1990), total dissolved solids, alkalinity, sodium adsorption ratio, and hardness values increased in a downstream manner. Constituent values at drainwater sites generally were comparable to concentrations below the irrigated ureas in the Owyhee and Vale project areas. The trace elements arsenic, boron, copper, molybdenum, vanadium, and zinc were detected in most water samples; cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium were detected in some samples at concentrations generally near the analytical reporting limit; mercury was not detected in any samples. In some water samples, concentrations of arsenic, boron, cadmium, copper, and lead exceeded State or Federal water-quality standards or criteria. Most trace elements in bottom sediment were detected at concentrations within the expected 95-percent baseline range for soils from the Western United States. Concentrations that exceeded the 95-percent baseline range for study area soils were: (1) arsenic and lead in one sample from a site in the Vale project area; (2) mercury, lead, and tin in one sample from a site in the Snake River system; (3) manganese in two samples from two sites in the Snake River system; and (4) manganese from one sample from a site in the Vale project area. Fifteen pesticides and metabolites were detected in whole-water samples collected from sites in the study area. DDT, plus its metabolites (DDE and DDD), dieldrin, endrin, 2,4-D, dicamba, and dacthal were detected in samples collected from seven or more sites. Other pesticides detected included chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, ethion, malathion, parathion, phorate, and lindane. Most of the detected pesticide concentrations generally were largest in drainwater and at the most downstream sampling locations in the Owyhee and Vale project areas. Concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria established for the protection of freshwater aquatic life in 86 percent of the whole-water samples analyzed for DDT plus its metabolites, 71 percent of the dieldrin samples, 14 percent of the endrin samples, and 10 percent of the parathion samples. Eight pesticides and

Rinella, F. A.; Mullins, W. H.; Schuler, C. A.

1994-01-01

307

Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

1999-01-01

308

Compilation of 1986 annual reports of the Navy ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological-monitoring program. Volume 2. Tabs D-G. Annual progress report, January-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Navy is conducting a long-term program to monitor for possible effects from the operation of its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. This report documents progress of the following studies: Soil Amoeba; Soil and Litter Arthropoda and Earthworm Studies; Biological Studies on Pollinating insects: Megachilid Bees; and Small Vertebrates: Small Mammals and Nesting Birds.

Not Available

1987-07-01

309

Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of irrigation drainage on the water quality and wildlife of the Klamath Basin in California and Oregon was evaluated during 1990-92 as part of the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior. The study focused on land serviced by the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, which supplies irrigation water to agricultural land in the Klamath Basin and the Lost River Basin. The Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuges, managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are in the study area. These refuges provide critical resting and breeding habitat for waterfowl on the Pacific flyway and are dependent on irrigation drainwater from upstream agriculture for most of their water supply. Water-quality characteristics throughout the study area were typical of highly eutrophic systems during the summer months of 1991 and 1992. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations and pH tended to fluctuate each day in response to diurnal patterns of photosynthesis, and frequently exceeded criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were generally at or above threshold levels characteristic of eutrophic lakes and streams. At most sites the bulk of dissolved nitrogen was organically bound. Elevated ammonia concentrations were common in the study area, especially down- stream of drain inputs. High pH of water increased the toxicity of ammonia, and concentrations exceeded criteria at sites upstream and downstream of irrigated land. Concentrations of ammonia in samples from small drains on the Tule Lake refuge leaseland were higher than those measured in the larger, integrating drains at primary monitoring sites. The mean ammonia concentration in leaseland drains [1.21 milligrams per liter (mg/L)] was significantly higher than the mean concentration in canals delivering water to the leaseland fields (0.065 mg/L) and higher than concentrations reported to be lethal to Daphnia magna (median lethal concentration of 0.66 mg/L). Dissolved- oxygen concentrations also were lower, and Daphnia survivability measured during in situ bioassays was correspondingly lower in the leaseland drains than in water delivery canals. In static laboratory bioassays, water samples collected at the primary monitoring sites caused toxicity in up to 78 percent of Lemna minor tests, in up to 49 percent of Xenopus laevis tests, in 17 percent and 8 percent of Hyalella azteca and Pimephales promelas tests, respectively, and 0 percent in Daphnia magna tests. In situ exposure at the sites caused mortality in more than 83 percent of Pimephales tests and in more than 41 percent of Daphnia and Hyalella tests. Much of the observed toxicity appears to have been caused by low dissolved oxygen, high pH, and ammonia. Although water in the study area was toxic to a variety of organisms, no statistically significant differences in the degree of toxicity between sites were observed above or below irrigated agricultural land in any of the bioassays. Pesticides were frequently detected in water samples collected at the monitoring sites during the 1991 and 1992 irrigation seasons. Among the most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, EPTC, and metolachlor and the insecticide terbufos. All the insecticides detected were at concentrations substantially below acute toxicity values reported for aquatic organisms. The herbicide acrolein has been used extensively in the basin to manage aquatic plant growth in irrigation canals and drains. The concentration of acrolein was monitored in a canal near Tule Lake after an application in order to evaluate the potential for the pesticide to be transported to refuge waters. Although acrolein concentrations were toxic to fish in the channels adjacent to Tule Lake, very little of the canal water entered the refuge during the monitoring period. Organochlorine pesticide concentrations in 25 surficial sediment samples collected in 1990 were below bas

Dileanis, P. D.; Schwarzbach, S. E.; Bennett, Jewel

1996-01-01

310

Development of an innovative and "green" stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine biota.  

PubMed

There is a growing awareness of the need to reduce the negative impact of chemical analyses on the environment and to develop new eco-friendly and sustainable analytical methods without compromising performance. In this study, we developed a "green" analytical method enabling the accurate and simultaneous routine analysis of 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reduced quantities (100mg and 1g wet weight (WW)) of marine biota samples (fish muscle, mussel and oyster tissues) using alkaline digestion combined with stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS/MS). The innovative method provides good selectivity and specificity for most compounds. In 1gWW samples, limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1 to 10?g/kgWW in fish muscle and from 0.5 to 10?g/kgWW in mussel tissue. The method enables most analytes to be quantified below the restrictive limits established by the European Commission (2 and 10?g/kgWW in fish muscle and bivalve mollusc, respectively). Higher LOQs were obtained in 100mgWW samples ranging from 1 to 50?g/kgWW. Recovery and linearity were assessed for all analytes. The results were satisfactory for most compounds with recoveries ranging from 94% to 117% in 1gWW mussel samples at spike concentration of 10ng/gWW with standard deviation not exceeding 12%. However, results confirmed that the SBSE efficiency is affected by the complexity of biological matrices, especially for high molecular weight compounds in lipid-rich mussel tissue. Because of the matrix effects, matrix-matched calibrations were carried out. Validation was performed using the standard reference material 1974c with recovery ranging from 71% to 119% except for naphthalene, anthracene and benzo(e)pyrene that were therefore not validated. Overall, the developed method meets analytical validation criteria for most compounds. Thanks to the combination of alkaline digestion and SBSE, which greatly simplifies sample treatment and limits solvent use to ethanol, the developed method followed most green analytical chemistry principles. PMID:24857036

Lacroix, C; Le Cuff, N; Receveur, J; Moraga, D; Auffret, M; Guyomarch, J

2014-07-01

311

NMITA: Neogene Marine Biota of Tropical America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Department of Geoscience, University of Iowa, and funded by the National Science Foundation, NMITA is an online biotic database "containing images and data for taxa used in analyses of Tropical American biodiversity over the past 25 million years." The Website offers Taxonomic Lists (with links to images and data for individual taxa), Morphologic Characters (currently for Zooxanthellate Corals and Elasmobranchs and Teleosteans), Identification Keys (currently for Zooxanthellate Corals), Occurrences in the Dominican Republic, and Instructional Aids. Images and data are provided for the following individual taxa: Bivalves, Gastropods, Bryozoans, Azooxanthellate Corals, Zooxanthellate Corals, Benthic Forams, Ostracodes, and Elasmobranchs and Teleosteans. Although Panama data will eventually be included, the site currently highlights data from the Dominican Republic.

312

Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or in quantitation protocols. These finding imply that Lake Superior is not receiving a unique atmospheric burden, but, because I have not explored terrestrial inputs, I cannot fully nullify hypothesis c.

Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

1998-11-01

313

Southwest Energy Study. Appendix H. Biota.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report evaluates the expected biotic effects of the operation and construction of existing and proposed power-generating facilities in the multi-state- study area. The nature and distribution of existing fish and wildlife habitat and associated specie...

1972-01-01

314

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: Plan and summary of 1982 progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Ecological Monitoring Program is to study ecological and/or biological characteristics of selected biota in an environment that includes natural stresses and low-level ELF electromagnetic fields. Sixteen general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the System area are being examined. Study sites were selected in 1982, and will be examined further in 1983. Statistical methods of analysis proposed by investigators are identified, and biological and ecological end-points selected for study are described. Data collection began in 1982 and will be continued in 1983 for studies of vegetation, soil animals, pollinating insects, small mammals and birds, wetlands, vegetation associations, and aquatic community relationships.

Zapotosky, J. E.; Abromavage, M. M.

1983-08-01

315

Detailed study of selenium and selected constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1991-95  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior began the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) to investigate these concerns at irrigation projects sponsored by the Department. The San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Study teams composed of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at 61 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Supplemental data collection conducted during 1991-95 by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its contractor extended the time period and sampling sites available for analysis. Analytical chemistry performed on samples indicated that most potentially toxic elements other than selenium generally were not high enough to be of concern to fish, wildlife, and human health. Element concentrations in some water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples exceeded applicable standards and criteria suggested by researchers in current literature. Selenium concentrations in water samples from 28 sites in the study area exceeded the 2-microgram-per-liter wildlife-habitat standard. Vanadium concentrations in water exceeded the 100-microgram-per-liter standard for livestock-drinking water at one site. In biota, selenium and aluminum concentrations regularly equaled or exceeded avian dietary threshold concentrations. In bottom sediment and soil, element concentrations above the upper limit of the baseline range for western soils were: selenium, 24 exceedances; lead, 2 exceedances; molybdenum, 2 exceedances; strontium, 4 exceedances; and zinc, 4 exceedances. Concentrations of total selenium in bottom-sediment and soil samples were significantly greater for Cretaceous than for non-Cretaceous soil types in the study area and were generally similar for habitats within and outside irrigation-affected areas. Mean and median total-selenium concentrations in samples from areas with Cretaceous soil types were 4.6 and 2.2 micrograms per gram, respectively. Mean and median total-selenium concentrations in samples from areas with non-Cretaceous soil types were 0.6 and 0.15 microgram per gram, respectively. Samples from the study area had low concentrations of organic constituents. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in a few biological samples at low concentrations. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were not detected in whole-water samples collected using conventional water-sampling techniques. In tests involving the use of semipermeable-membrane devices to supplement conventional water assays for PAH's, low concentrations of PAH's were found at several locations in the Hammond Irrigation Supply Canal, but were not detected in the Hammond ponds at the downstream reach of the Hammond irrigation service area. PAH compounds do not appear to reach the San Juan River through the Hammond Canal. Data indicate that water samples from irrigation-drainage-affected habitats had increased mean selenium concentrations compared with samples from irrigation-delivery habitat. The mean selenium concentration in water was greatest at seeps and tributaries draining irrigated land (17 micrograms per liter); less in irrigation drains and in ponds on irrigated land (6 micrograms per liter); and least in backwater, the San Juan River, and irrigation-supply water (0.5 - 0.6 microgram per liter). Statistical tests imply that irrigation significantly increases selenium concentrations in water samples when a Department of the Interior irrigation project is developed on selenium-rich sediments. Water samples from sites with Cretaceous soils had signi

Thomas, Carole L.; Wilson, R. M.; Lusk, J. D.; Bristol, R. S.; Shineman, A. R.

1998-01-01

316

Digital Mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geographic information systems (GIS), once used predominantly by experts in cartography and computer programming, have become pervasive in everyday business and consumer use. This unit explores GIS in general as a technology about which much more can be learned, and it also explores applications of that technology. Students experience GIS technology through the use of Google Earth on the environmental topic of plastics in the ocean in an area known as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. The use of this topic in GIS makes the unit multi-disciplinary, incorporating the physics of ocean currents, the chemistry associated with pollutant degradation and chemical sorption to organic-rich plastics, and ecological impact to aquatic biota.

University Of Houston

317

Bioavailability of heavy metals in terrestrial and aquatic systems: A quantitative approach  

SciTech Connect

Speciation and bioavailability are the keywords in the relation between the total metal content of the system and the resulting effects for biota. The metal ion binding to the biotic surface is pH dependent, as is metal ion binding to soils. The binding of metal ion to the biotic surface of an organism when present in soil can decrease with increasing pH, whereas the binding behavior of the biotic surface as such will always increase with increasing pH. The metal toxicity for plants often increases with increasing pH for water culture experiments, in which the opposite effect is observed for plants growing in soils. These seemingly contradictive observations can be explained by considering the interaction between an organism and metal ions present in soil to be the result of competition for that metal ion by all components (including the organism) present in the system. This concept is illustrated on the basis of model calculations concerning cadmium binding to a bacterium present in a clay and a sandy soil as influenced by pH and calcium concentration. In addition, the concept is applied for calculating the impact of algal bloom on the copper speciation in an aquatic system. The concept might be a valuable tool in predicting quantitatively the metal ion sorption to biota present in a complex system and to predict the relative change in availability due to environmental changes.

Plette, A.C.C.; Nederlof, M.M.; Temminmghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsduk, W.H. van

1999-09-01

318

Global analysis of river systems: from Earth system controls to Anthropocene syndromes.  

PubMed Central

Continental aquatic systems from rivers to the coastal zone are considered within two perspectives: (i) as a major link between the atmosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and oceans within the Earth system with its Holocene dynamics, and (ii) as water and aquatic biota resources progressively used and transformed by humans. Human pressures have now reached a state where the continental aquatic systems can no longer be considered as being controlled by only Earth system processes, thus defining a new era, the Anthropocene. Riverine changes, now observed at the global scale, are described through a first set of syndromes (flood regulation, fragmentation, sediment imbalance, neo-arheism, salinization, chemical contamination, acidification, eutrophication and microbial contamination) with their related causes and symptoms. These syndromes have direct influences on water uses, either positive or negative. They also modify some Earth system key functions such as sediment, water, nutrient and carbon balances, greenhouse gas emissions and aquatic biodiversity. Evolution of river syndromes over the past 2000 years is complex: it depends upon the stages of regional human development and on natural conditions, as illustrated here for the chemical contamination syndrome. River damming, eutrophication and generalized decrease of river flow due to irrigation are some of the other global features of river changes. Future management of river systems should also consider these long-term impacts on the Earth system.

Meybeck, Michel

2003-01-01

319

Metal biogeochemistry in surface-water systems; a review of principles and concepts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Metals are ubiquitous in natural surface-water systems, both as dissolved constituents and as particulate constituents. Although concentrations of many metals are generally very low (hence the common term 'trace metals'), their effects on the water quality and the biota of surfacewater systems are likely to be substantial. Biogeochemical partitioning of metals results in a diversity of forms, including hydrated or 'free' ions, colloids, precipitates, adsorbed phases, and various coordination complexes with dissolved organic and inorganic ligands. Much research has been dedicated to answering questions about the complexities of metal behavior and effects in aquatic systems. Voluminous literature on the subject has been produced. This paper synthesizes the findings of aquatic metal studies and describes some general concepts that emerge from such a synthesis. Emphasis is on sources, occurrence, partitioning, transport, and biological interactions of metals in freshwater systems of North America. Biological interactions, in this case, refer to bioavailability, effects of metals on ecological characteristics and functions of aquatic systems, and roles of biota in controlling metal partitioning. This discussion is devoted primarily to the elements aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, and zinc and secondarily to cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, silver, and vanadium. Sources of these elements are both natural and anthropogenic. Significant anthropogenic sources are atmospheric deposition, discharges of municipal and industrial wastes, mine drainage, and urban and agricultural runoff. Biogeochemical partitioning of metals is controlled by various characteristics of the water and sediments in which the metals are found. Among the most important controlling factors are pH, oxidation-reduction potential, hydrologic features, sediment grain size, and the existence and nature of clay minerals, organic matter, and hydrous oxides of manganese and iron. Partitioning is also controlled by biological processes that provide mechanisms for detoxification of metals and for enhanced uptake of nutritive metals. Partitioning is important largely because availability to biota is highly variable among different phases. Hence, accumulation in biological tissues and toxicity of an element are dependent not only on total concentration of the element but also on the factors that control partitioning.

Elder, John F.

1988-01-01

320

Extremely-low-frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: Summary of 1990 progress. Technical report, 1 Jan-31 Dec 90  

SciTech Connect

A long term ecological monitoring program is being conducted to monitor for possible electromagnetic effects that operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System might have to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities of the program consisted of site selection, characterization of critical study aspects, and validation of assumptions made in original proposals. Data collection for studies at the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility (NRTF)-Clam Lake, Wisconsin was completed, as scheduled, during 1990. Data collection for studies at the NRTF-Republic, Michigan is planned to continue through 1992. This report summarizes the progress of the monitoring program during 1990. To date, investigators conclude that on effects have occurred on biota exposed to EM Fields produced by either a fully operational or an intermittently energized ELF transmitting produced by either a fully operational or an intermittently energized ELF transmitting facility.

Abromavage, M.M.; Zapotosky, J.E.

1991-12-01

321

Disjunct distributions of freshwater snails testify to a central role of the Congo system in shaping biogeographical patterns in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background The formation of the East African Rift System has decisively influenced the distribution and evolution of tropical Africa’s biota by altering climate conditions, by creating basins for large long-lived lakes, and by affecting the catchment and drainage directions of river systems. However, it remains unclear how rifting affected the biogeographical patterns of freshwater biota through time on a continental scale, which is further complicated by the scarcity of molecular data from the largest African river system, the Congo. Results We study these biogeographical patterns using a fossil-calibrated multi-locus phylogeny of the gastropod family Viviparidae. This group allows reconstructing drainage patterns exceptionally well because it disperses very poorly in the absence of existing freshwater connections. Our phylogeny covers localities from major drainage basins of tropical Africa and reveals highly disjunct sister-group relationships between (a) the endemic viviparids of Lake Malawi and populations from the Middle Congo as well as between (b) the Victoria region and the Okavango/Upper Zambezi area. Conclusions The current study testifies to repeated disruptions of the distribution of the Viviparidae during the formation of the East African Rift System, and to a central role of the Congo River system for the distribution of the continent’s freshwater fauna during the late Cenozoic. By integrating our results with previous findings on palaeohydrographical connections, we provide a spatially and temporarily explicit model of historical freshwater biogeography in tropical Africa. Finally, we review similarities and differences in patterns of vertebrate and invertebrate dispersal. Amongst others we argue that the closest relatives of present day viviparids in Lake Malawi are living in the Middle Congo River, thus shedding new light on the origin of the endemic fauna of this rift lake.

2014-01-01

322

Chemical partitioning and bioavailability of lead and nickel in an estuarine system  

SciTech Connect

Sediments, water, and biota of an estuarine system were analyzed for concentrations of lead and nickel. Sediments were sequentially extracted to obtain the different chemically extractable fractions (exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe/Mn-oxide bound, organically bound, and residual fractions) of these metals. Concentrations of these metals in the soft tissue of an estuarine bivalve Villorita cyprinoides var. cochinensis were correlated with the concentrations of these metals present in the various sediment fractions, dissolved, and particulate phases in water. The degree of correlation between these various environmental variables and biological factors was considered as the index of bioavailability. Metal concentrations in the soft tissue and particulate phase of water were divided by the corresponding concentrations in the dissolved phase in water to obtain the bioconcentration ratio (BCR) and metal partitioning ratio (MPR), respectively. These ratios were found to be useful in quantifying the metal bioavailability. The relationship between other biological factors and environmental variables is also presented and discussed.

Babukutty, Y.; Chacko, J. [Cochin Univ. of Science and Technology (India)

1995-03-01

323

Summary of information on synthetic organic compounds and trace elements in tissue of aquatic biota, Clark Fork-Pend Oreille and Spokane River basins, Montana, Idaho, and Washington, 1974-96  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, data collected between 1974 and 1996 were compiled to describe contaminants in tissue of riverine species. Tissue-contaminant data from 11 monitoring programs and studies representing 28 sites in the study area were summarized. Tissue-contaminant data for most streams generally were lacking. Many studies have focused on and around mining-affected areas on the Clark Fork and Coeur d'Alene Rivers and their major tributaries. DDT and PCBs and their metabolites and congeners were the synthetic organic contaminants most commonly detected in fish tissue. Fish collected from the Spokane River in Washington contained elevated concentrations of PCB arochlors, some of which exceeded guidelines for the protection of human health and predatory wildlife. Tissue samples of fish from the Flathead River watershed contained higher-than-expected concentrations of PCBs, which might have resulted from atmospheric transport. Trace element concentrations in fish and macroinvertebrates collected in and around mining areas were elevated compared with background concentrations. Some cadmium, copper, lead, and mercury concentrations in fish tissue were elevated compared with results from other studies, and some exceeded guidelines. Macroinvertebrates from the Coeur d'Alene River contained higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc than did macroinvertebrates from other river systems in mining-affected areas. A few sportfish fillet samples, most from the Spokane River in Washington, were collected to assess human health risk. Concentrations of PCBs in these fillets exceeded screening values for the protection of human health. At present, there is no coordinated, long-term fish tissue monitoring program for rivers in the study area, even though contaminants are present in fish at levels considered a threat to human health. Development of a coordinated, centralized national data base for contaminants in fish tissue is needed. The National Water-Quality Assessment Program can provide a framework for other agencies to evaluate tissue contaminants in the Northern Rockies Intermontane Basins study area. As of 1996, there are no fish consumption advisories or fishing restrictions as a result of elevated contaminants on any rivers within the study area.

Maret, Terry R.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

1999-01-01

324

Extremely low frequency (elf) communications system ecological monitoring program. Summary of 1984 progress. Technical report, 1 January-31 December 1984  

SciTech Connect

A long-term program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982; studies were initiated in late summer of that year. Currently, 16 general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the ELF Communications System are being examined. During 1984, the Program continued and extended those major activities initiated in 1983, consisting of site selection, the characterization of critical study aspects, and, to a lesser degree, the validation of assumptions made in the original proposals. Progress is summarized for the 11 projects that comprise the Program as well as for the support activities of IIT Research Institute.

Zapotosky, J.E.

1985-07-01

325

New interdisciplinary initiative combines water, earth and biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrologic science was defined as a distinct interdisciplinary geoscience in 1991 through a report of the National Research Council, ``Opportunities in Hydrologic Sciences.'' As a result of this publications new funding program in hydrologic sciences was established at the National Science Foundation within the Division of Earth Sciences. This program nurtures a research community focused on building the science of

V. Gupta

2000-01-01

326

Interactions between soil biota and the effects on geomorphological features  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of animals with abiotic features of their environment has long been known to cause alterations to geomorphic features, and these interactions may cause feedback loops that further alter geomorphic features and animal communities. This paper samples the literature on selected burrowing animals in western North America, and discusses the interactions of animals with abiotic features of the environment

Beryl Zaitlin; Masaki Hayashi

327

Suspended and Dissolved Solids Effects on Freshwater Biota: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is widely recognized that suspended and dissolved solids in lakes, rivers, streams, and reservoirs affect water quality. In this report the research needs appropriate to setting freshwater quality criteria or standards for suspended solids (not includi...

D. L. Sorenson M. M. McCarthy E. J. Middlebrooks D. B. Porcella

1977-01-01

328

COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN CONTAMINANT AQUATIC BIOTA AND SEDIMENT DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Numerous studies have been done to determine the levels of chemical contaminants in fish and sediment in the Columbia River Basin. These studies were done because of concern that releases of toxic Chemicals into the Columbia River Basin may be impacting health and the environment...

329

The Caspian Lake: History, biota, structure, and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elongate, endorheic Caspian Lake has a north-south orientation and its main freshwater inflow, the Volga River, enters at the shallow north end. Two deep basins occupy its central and southern regions. These facts lead to horizontal differences in temperature, salinity, and ecology. Nutrient levels and primary production are low. Historically, lake level has fluctuated by -6 m, but on

H. J. Dumont

1998-01-01

330

Selenium in sediments and biota from estuaries of southwest England.  

PubMed

Selenium concentrations have been measured in sediment, fucoid macroalgae and macroinvertebrates from four estuaries of SW England (Yealm, Plym, Looe, Fal). Sediment concentrations ranged from about 0.4 ?g g(-1) in the Yealm to 1.49 ?g g(-1) at one site in the Plym. Concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus (0.05-0.31 ?g g(-1)) and F. ceranoides (0.05-0.51 ?g g(-1)) were significantly lower than corresponding concentrations in sediment but there was no correlation between algal and sediment concentrations. Selenium concentrations in Littorina littorea (~4 ?g g(-1)), Hediste diversicolor (2.82-12.68 ?g g(-1)), Arenicola marina (~17 ?g g(-1)) and Scrobicularia plana (1.18-6.85 ?g g(-1)) were considerably higher than concentrations in macroalga or sediment, suggesting that Se is effectively accumulated from the diet. Although Se concentrations in some invertebrates exceed toxicity thresholds for the diet of predacious birds and fish, no specific evidence for Se toxicity exists in these estuaries. PMID:23773950

Turner, Andrew

2013-08-15

331

SUSPENDED AND DISSOLVED SOLIDS EFFECTS ON FRESHWATER BIOTA: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

It is widely recognized that suspended and dissolved solids in lakes, rivers, streams, and reservoirs affect water quality. In this report the research needs appropriate to setting freshwater quality criteria or standards for suspended solids (not including bedload) and dissolved...

332

Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticle suspensions to aquatic biota.  

PubMed

Toxicity effects induced by nanosuspensions of CuO (<50?nm; Sigma-Aldrich) on macrophytic algae cells of Nitellopsis obtusa (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50]), microphytic algae Chlorella (30-min median inhibitory concentration [IC50]), shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus (24-h LC50), and rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (24-h LC50) were investigated. No substantial differences between the effects of nonsonicated and sonicated nCuO suspensions were observed. The particle size distribution analysis accomplished by the laser diffraction technique at suspension concentration from 3 to 100?mg/L revealed rapid (within 5?min) reagglomeration of the particles after the sonication. The observed adverse effects on N. obtusa cells may be attributed to nanoparticles per se, but not to ionic Cu, because neither chemical analysis nor biological testing (algae survival in the supernatants of suspensions) confirmed the presence of cupric ions in toxic amounts. Contrary to ionic Cu form, nCuO delayed the initial phase of N. obtusa cell membrane depolarization. Lethality tests with rewash demonstrated that the least used 5-min exposure in 100?mg/L nCuO sonicated suspension induced 70% mortality in charophyte cells after 8?d, whereas the rewash after a short exposure to a noticeably toxic concentration of Cu(2+) prevented cell mortality. The obtained data suggested the possible influence of a thick charophyte cell wall on the dynamics of nanotoxicity effects. PMID:22020877

Manusadžianas, Levonas; Caillet, Celine; Fachetti, Louis; Gylyt?, Brigita; Grigutyt?, Reda; Jurkonien?, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Thomas, Fabien; Vitkus, Rimantas; Férard, Jean-François

2012-01-01

333

Solar-driven chemical energy source for a Martian biota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microorganisms deep in the Martian soil could derive energy indirectly from the sun via chemical reactions involving atmospheric photolysis products of the solar ultraviolet flux. The Viking discovery of a chemically uniform regolith which, though poor in organics, is rich in sulfur-containing compounds suggests reaction sequences in which sulfur is recycled through reduced and oxidized states by biologically catalyzed reactions with photochemically-produced atmospheric constituents. One candidate reaction, reduction of soil sulfate minerals by molecular hydrogen, is already exploited on earth by bacteria of the ubiquitous and tenacious Desulfovibrio genus.

Clark, B. C.

1979-01-01

334

Modelling Biota-Sediment Interactions in Estuarine Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future choices about the realization of hydrodynamic infrastructures in estuaries should be based on solid forecast about the changes they will generate in the environment. While complex numerical models are available for simulating sediment transport on physical basis, biologic elements are still hard to predict. This research project is aimed towards the integration of physical and biological insights in sediment transport models. As first step, we modeled the macrozoobenthic species spatial distribution in estuarine environments as function of those environmental variables that are relevant for sediment transport. As second step, we measured in laboratory conditions the effect of several macrozoobenthic species on sediment erodability. These observations describe ecological processes but are based on physical parameters. They can be used to parametrize semi-empirical models of biotic-mediated sediment dynamics, thus accounting for the biotic-induced deviations of sedimentary processes from purely physical expectations. This project is part of the innovative program Building with Nature (www.ecoshape.nl).

Cozzoli, Francesco; Bouma, Tjeerd; Yseabert, Tom; Herman, Peter

2013-04-01

335

Compartmentalisation Strategies for Hydrocarbon-Based Biota on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-assembled structures in organic solvents is an under-developed research area and whether membranes could exist in the alkane lakes of Titan has remained an important, but unanswered, question. Therefore we are researching this possibility.

Norman, L. H.; Fortes, A. D.; Crawford, I.; Skipper, N.

2014-02-01

336

Export of Plant and Animal Species from an Insular Biota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deliberate and accidental establishment of exotic species in New Zealand is widely known. However, increasingly New Zealand native species are being introduced in other temperate regions of the world, and a significant proportion has become invasive. This chapter describes the establishment of native New Zealand plant and animal species elsewhere, and discusses the (varied) reasons for their success as

G. W. Yeates; P. A. Williams

337

Extremely low frequency (ELF) communications system ecological monitoring program: summary of 1986 progress. Technical report, 1 January-31 December 1986  

SciTech Connect

A long-term Ecological Monitoring Program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive-bidding process in mid-1982 and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities of the Program consisted of site selection, characterization of critical study aspects, and validation of assumptions made in original proposals. Subsequently, increasing emphasis has been placed on the collection of preoperational and operational data bases at the Michigan and Wisconsin Transmitting Facilities. The data bases are being used to make proposed spatial and/or temporal comparisons of biological and ecological variables. This report summarizes the progress of the Ecological Monitoring Program during 1986.

Zapotosky, J.E.

1987-12-01

338

ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program: Summary of 1987 progress. Technical report, 1 January-31 December 1987  

SciTech Connect

A long-term Ecological Monitoring Program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's extremely low-frequency (ELF) Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer-reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities of the Program consisted of site selection, characterization of critical study aspects, and validation of assumptions made in original proposals. Subsequently, increasing emphasis has been placed on the collection of preoperational and operational data bases at the Michigan and Wisconsin Transmitting Facilities. The data bases are being used to make proposed spatial and/or temporal comparisons of biological and ecological variables. This report summarizes the progress of the Ecological Monitoring Program during 1987.

Zapotosky, J.E.

1989-04-01

339

ELF (extremely low frequency) Communication System ecological monitoring program: electromagnetic-field measurements and engineering support - 1987. Technical report, 1982-1987  

SciTech Connect

A long-term program for studying possible effects from the operation of the Navy's ELF Communications System is being conducted on biota and ecosystems components in northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Sixteen general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the ELF system area are being examined. Formulation of an ELF Ecological Monitoring Program was completed in early 1982 by the Department of the Navy, and studies were initiated in late summer of the same year. Beginning in 1983 and continuing during 1984, major activities of the program consisted of characterization of critical aspects of each study, collection of data to validate assumptions made in proposals, and selection of study sites. From 1985 through 1987, activities centered on the operation of full-scale studies. This report documents electromagnetic (EM) field measurements at investigator-selected study sites from 1982 through 1987. Other engineering support activities are also described.

Haradem, D.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Zapotosky, J.E.

1988-08-01

340

ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system ecological monitoring program: Electromagnetic field measurements and engineering support -- 1988. Technical report, 1982-1988  

SciTech Connect

A long-term program for studying possible effects from the operation of the Navy's ELF Communications System is being conducted on biota and ecosystems components in northwestern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Sixteen general types of organisms from three major ecosystems in the ELF system area are being examined. Formulation of an ELF Ecological Monitoring Program was completed in early 1982 by the Department of the Navy, and studies were initiated in late summer of the same year. Beginning in 1983 and continuing during 1984, major activities of the program consisted of characterization of critical aspects of each study, collection of data to validate assumptions made in proposals, and selection of study sites. From 1985 through 1988, activities centered on the operation of full-scale studies. This report documents electromagnetic (EM) field measurements at investigator selected study sites from 1982 through 1988. Other engineering support activities are also described.

Haradem, D.P.; Gauger, J.R.; Zapotosky, J.E.

1989-05-01

341

Evolution of centralized nervous systems: Two schools of evolutionary thought  

PubMed Central

Understanding the evolution of centralized nervous systems requires an understanding of metazoan phylogenetic interrelationships, their fossil record, the variation in their cephalic neural characters, and the development of these characters. Each of these topics involves comparative approaches, and both cladistic and phenetic methodologies have been applied. Our understanding of metazoan phylogeny has increased greatly with the cladistic analysis of molecular data, and relaxed molecular clocks generally date the origin of bilaterians at 600–700 Mya (during the Ediacaran). Although the taxonomic affinities of the Ediacaran biota remain uncertain, a conservative interpretation suggests that a number of these taxa form clades that are closely related, if not stem clades of bilaterian crown clades. Analysis of brain–body complexity among extant bilaterians indicates that diffuse nerve nets and possibly, ganglionated cephalic neural systems existed in Ediacaran organisms. An outgroup analysis of cephalic neural characters among extant metazoans also indicates that the last common bilaterian ancestor possessed a diffuse nerve plexus and that brains evolved independently at least four times. In contrast, the hypothesis of a tripartite brain, based primarily on phenetic analysis of developmental genetic data, indicates that the brain arose in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Hopefully, this debate will be resolved by cladistic analysis of the genomes of additional taxa and an increased understanding of character identity genetic networks.

Northcutt, R. Glenn

2012-01-01

342

ELF (extremely low frequency) communications system-ecological monitoring program: Summary of 1988 progress. Technical report, 1 January-31 December 1988  

SciTech Connect

A long-term Ecological Monitoring Program is being conducted to monitor for possible effects from the operation of the U.S. Navy's ELF Communications System to resident biota and their ecological relationships. Monitoring studies were selected through a peer reviewed, competitive bidding process in mid-1982, and work on most studies began in late summer of that year. Preliminary activities of the Program consisted of site selection, characterization of critical study aspects, and validation of assumptions made in original proposal. Subsequently, increasing emphasis has been placed on the collection of preoperational and operational data bases at the Michigan and Wisconsin Transmitting Facilities. The data bases are being used to make proposed spatial and/or temporal comparisons of biological and ecological variables. This report summarizes the progress of the Ecological Monitoring Program during 1988.

Zapotosky, J.E.

1989-11-01

343

Absorption Capacities as a Basis of Stability for Closed Ecological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing plants in highly closed ecological systems (CES) will ultimately require conservation and recycling of plant essential elements to reduce system costs. One method for rapid recycling of elements would be incineration of residual, inedible biomass. The paper attempts to analyze the impact of biomass incineration for mineral recycling in a CES. Depending on system constraints, each CES will have its own range of steady-state operation, and this range becomes narrower as recycling rates increase. The paper presents a metric for CES stability, with the numerical estimates linked to carbon cycling rates. Along w th retrieving somei plant-essential elements, incineration of waste biomass would also release carbon dioxide, water, and other volatile compounds, depending on flue gas handling. Toxic products such as SO2 could damage or disrupt CES stability at high recycling rates. If such toxic species are not neutralized, the system tolerance would then be proportional to CES buffering or absorption capacity, and would be a non-linear function of the tolerance of the biota. We developed formulas to evaluate absorption capacities required for a stable CES by assessing different rates of material turnover. Numerical estimates of system stabilities in relation to carbon cycling rates were calculated for several examples of CES, including the Earth's Biosphere, the BIOS-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia, and the Biosphere-2 project in Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Rygalov, V.; Pechurkin, N.; Wheeler, R.; Fowler, P.

344

Ecotoxicological evaluation of carbamazepine using six different model systems with eighteen endpoints.  

PubMed

The occurrence of pharmaceutically active compounds in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. However, the ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals have still not been researched adequately. Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant commonly present in surface and groundwater, was studied, using six ecotoxicological model systems with eighteen endpoints evaluated at different exposure time periods. The battery included the immobilization of Daphnia magna, bioluminescence inhibition in the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, growth inhibition of the alga Chlorella vulgaris, and micronuclei induction and root growth inhibition in the plant Allium cepa. Cell morphology, neutral red uptake, total protein content, MTS metabolization, lactate dehydrogenase leakage and activity and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were studied in the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2. The total protein content, LDH activity, neutral red uptake and MTT metabolization in Vero monkey kidney cells were also investigated. The most sensitive system to carbamazepine was the Vero cell line, followed by Chlorella vulgaris, Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Allium cepa, and RTG-2 cells. EC50 values from 19 microM in Vero cells at 72 h to more than 1200 microM in other systems, were obtained. Comparing the concentrations in water and the toxicity quantified in our assay systems, carbamazepine is not expected to produce acute toxic effects in the aquatic biota under these circumstances, but chronic and synergistic effects with other chemicals cannot be excluded. PMID:14599440

Jos, A; Repetto, G; Rios, J C; Hazen, M J; Molero, M L; del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Fernández-Freire, P; Pérez-Martín, J M; Cameán, A

2003-01-01

345

Geobiocoenosis: the chemical elements and relative abundances in biotic and abiotic systems.  

PubMed

Geobiocoenosis (the total ecosystem i.e. biotic + abiotic) is concerned with the evolution of life on Earth, in particular the harmony which has developed between geochemical and biological systems. In any geochemical province the abundance of the elements in the geosphere should, to various degrees, be reflected by those present in the biosphere. The extent to which elements are transferred from an abiotic to a biotic system is normally controlled by the particular biological processes which characterise the biota. On the basis of associations between elements which were established during organic evolution, here I consider whether or not any coherent patterns in the abundances of the elements occur between abiotic and biotic systems. In particular, to establish what may be considered as normal and those which are disturbed, for example as a consequence of contamination and pollution of the environment. An objective is to establish natural abundance patterns for the elements in living organisms in order to provide baseline data for concentrations rather than accept alternatives, such as those based upon the sensitivity of a particular analytical technique or inspired guesses. PMID:3406701

Hamilton, E I

1988-06-01

346

Assessing land-use impacts on biodiversity using an expert systems tool  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Habitat alteration, in the form of land-use development, is a leading cause of biodiversity loss in the U.S. and elsewhere. Although statutes in the U.S. may require consideration of biodiversity in local land-use planning and regulation, local governments lack the data, resources, and expertise to routinely consider biotic impacts that result from permitted land uses. We hypothesized that decision support systems could aid solution of this problem. We developed a pilot biodiversity expert systems tool (BEST) to test that hypothesis and learn what additional scientific and technological advancements are required for broad implementation of such a system. BEST uses data from the U.S. Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP) and other data in a desktop GIS environment. The system provides predictions of conflict between proposed land uses and biotic elements and is intended for use at the start of the development review process. Key challenges were the development of categorization systems that relate named land-use types to ecological impacts, and relate sensitivities of biota to ecological impact levels. Although the advent of GAP and sophisticated desktop GIS make such a system feasible for broad implementation, considerable ongoing research is required to make the results of such a system scientifically sound, informative, and reliable for the regulatory process. We define a role for local government involvement in biodiversity impact assessment, the need for a biodiversity decision support system, the development of a prototype system, and scientific needs for broad implementation of a robust and reliable system.

Crist, P. J.; Kohley, T. W.; Oakleaf, J.

2000-01-01

347

Herbicide effects of metazachlor on duckweed (Lemna minor and Spirodela polyrhiza) in test systems with different trophic status and complexity.  

PubMed

Growth of common duckweed Lemna minor under optimal standard test conditions was compared to growth of L. minor exposed to nutrient-poor water in both a modified standardised test and in oligo- to mesotrophic indoor pond mesocosms in order to test the impact of trophic conditions and test system complexity on the effect of the herbicide metazachlor (2-chloro-N-(pyrazol-1-ylmethyl)acet-2',6'-xylidide) on aquatic macrophytes. In the mesocosms L. minor was replaced by greater duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza after 3 weeks due to high mortality even in the controls. The pond systems contained other macrophytes and biota as well as sediment and were thus more complex than standard test systems. For L. minor front area, the ErC(50) (50% effective concentration related to growth rate) was 2.8 microg L(-1) metazachlor in the standardised and 4.7 microg L(-1) in the modified laboratory test after 7 days (4.9 microg L(-1) and 52.9 microg L(-1) metazachlor when using front number). In the oligo- to mesotrophic pond mesocosms, similar sensitivities to metazachlor (ErC(50) 4.5-6.4 microg L(-1)) were noted for S. polyrhiza after 21 and 28 days of exposure. In comparison with dicotyledonous macrophytes, duckweed species are more sensitive for irreversible enzyme inhibitors of growth such as metazachlor independent of trophic status and complexity of the test system. PMID:20390937

Müller, Ruth; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Hilt, Sabine

2010-02-01

348

Microbial ecology of terrestrial Antarctica: Are microbial systems at risk from human activities?  

SciTech Connect

Many of the ecological systems found in continental Antarctica are comprised entirely of microbial species. Concerns have arisen that these microbial systems might be at risk either directly through the actions of humans or indirectly through increased competition from introduced species. Although protection of native biota is covered by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, strict measures for preventing the introduction on non-native species or for protecting microbial habitats may be impractical. This report summarizes the research conducted to date on microbial ecosystems in continental Antarctica and discusses the need for protecting these ecosystems. The focus is on communities inhabiting soil and rock surfaces in non-coastal areas of continental Antarctica. Although current polices regarding waste management and other operations in Antarctic research stations serve to reduce the introduction on non- native microbial species, importation cannot be eliminated entirely. Increased awareness of microbial habitats by field personnel and protection of certain unique habitats from physical destruction by humans may be necessary. At present, small-scale impacts from human activities are occurring in certain areas both in terms of introduced species and destruction of habitat. On a large scale, however, it is questionable whether the introduction of non-native microbial species to terrestrial Antarctica merits concern.

White, G.J.

1996-08-01

349

Aquatic toxicity assessment of the additive 6-methylcoumarine using four experimental systems.  

PubMed

The toxicity assessment of chemicals is one of the main issues in the current policies in order to protect the health of the environment and human beings. Food and cosmetic additives have been extensively studied in relation to their toxicity to humans, but data about their ecotoxicological effects are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of the additive 6-methylcoumarine in the aquatic milieu using a test battery comprising experimental model systems from different trophic levels. The inhibition of bioluminiscence was studied in the bacteria Vibrio fischeri (decomposer), the inhibition of growth was evaluated in the alga Chlorella vulgaris (producer) and immobilization was studied in the cladoceran Daphnia magna (first consumer). Finally, several end points were evaluated in the RTG-2 salmonid fish cell line, including neutral red uptake, protein content, methylthiazol tetrazolium salt metabolization, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity and leakage, and morphology. The sensitivity of the test systems employed was as follows: V. fischeri > D. magna > C. vulgaris > RTG-2 cell line. The results show that 6-methylcoumarine is not expected to produce acute toxic effects on the aquatic biota. However, chronic and synergistic effects with other chemicals cannot be excluded and should be further investigated. PMID:18392883

Jos, A; Repetto, G; Ríos, J C; Del Peso, A; Salguero, M; Cameán, A M

2009-01-01

350

Effects of placer mining on hydrologic systems in Alaska; status of knowledge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The report briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding placer mining in Alaska. A review of literature indicates that nearly all of the significant information on the effects of placer mining on the hydrologic system in Alaska is referenced in available reports. The addition of sediment, as well as other indirect changes this generates, appears to be the primary impact of placer mining on Alaskan streams. Other potential water-quality effects that should be considered are: increases in organic loading in the stream system; increases in minor element content; potential for acid drainage; and impacts on fish and other aquatic biota. Existing information is adequate to define parameters that may be affected by placer mining but inadequate to quantify changes resulting from an individual mining operation or to allow the prediction of the magnitude or duration of the impact. Additional studies that would improve the knowledge of the effects of placer mining include: short-term assessments, using available photographic information and existing hydrologic records, to document historical changes and active placer mining features; short-term studies using emperical sediment-transport formulas to estimate the effects of placer mine activities; and river quality assessments of selected basins affected by placer mining. (USGS)

Madison, R. J.

1981-01-01

351

Effect of chromium on larval chironomidae as determined by the optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system  

SciTech Connect

An optical-fiber light-interruption biomonitoring system for examining the activity of aquatic invertebrates has been developed to test potential toxicity of chromium and other compounds on tubicolous larval Diptera (Chironomidae). Chromium has been identified as a heavy metal of environmental concern, but little is known of its effect on aquatic biota at chronic or sublethal levels. When movement patterns of midge larvae, Chironomus tentans, are monitored by the system, three distinct phases are revealed: respiratory undulations, crawling-type movements, and rest or immobility. It has been shown in other studies that the rates and duration of movements are controlled by dissolved oxygen (DO) levels and temperature. Chromium alters the duration but not the rates of the three movement phases. At 0.01 ppm chromium, larval movement patterns were not altered. At 0.1 and 1.0 ppm, the duration of the respiratory phase was suppressed. Levels from 10.0 to 1000.0 ppm progressively increased the duration of this phase. The 48-h EC/sub 50/ for fourth instar larvae was calculated to be 61.0 ppm chromium, which shows that the change in respiratory movements does indicate potential lethality of the solutions. Thus, the biomonitoring system's sensitivity is apparent in detecting low-level effects of a heavy metal on this aquatic invertebrate.

Batac-Catalan, Z.; White, D.S.

1981-10-01

352

Flow and storage in groundwater systems.  

PubMed

The dynamic nature of groundwater is not readily apparent, except where discharge is focused at springs or where recharge enters sinkholes. Yet groundwater flow and storage are continually changing in response to human and climatic stresses. Wise development of groundwater resources requires a more complete understanding of these changes in flow and storage and of their effects on the terrestrial environment and on numerous surface-water features and their biota. PMID:12065826

Alley, William M; Healy, Richard W; LaBaugh, James W; Reilly, Thomas E

2002-06-14

353

Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: Phase 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal component of the aquatic community. The study investigated various environmental factors that affect Legionella profiles in power plant cooling waters. The results indicate that each of the four factors investigated (incubation temperature, water quality, the presence and type of associated biota, and the nature of the indigenous Legionella population) is important in determining

R. L. Tyndall; S. W. Christensen; J. A. Solomon

1985-01-01

354

HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF METALS AND METAL COMPOUNDS IN TERRESTRIAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Metal accumulation in soil can result in adverse effects on soil biota, and may concentrate metals in food chains to levels detrimental to humans and wildlife. A SETAC Pellston Workshop entitled " Hazard Identification Approach For Metals And Inorganic Metal Substances" examined...

355

Annual summary of the contents of the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) 1993 data base  

SciTech Connect

The data base of the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System (OREIS) contains data of known quality that can be accessed by OREIS users. OREIS meets data management/access requirements for environmental data as specified in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation and the State Oversight Agreement between the State of Tennessee and the Department of Energy. The types of environmental data within OREIS include measurement data from the following environmental disciplines: groundwater, surface water, sediment, soils, air, and biota. In addition to measurement data, the OREIS data base contains extensive descriptive and qualifier metadata to help define data quality and to enable end users to analyze the appropriateness of data for their purposes. Another important aspect of measurement data is their spatial context; OREIS maintains a comprehensive library of geographic data and tools to analyze and display spatial relationships of the data. As of November 1993, the OREIS data base consists of approximately 100,000 records associated with three environmental restoration projects along with coordinate data and background map data. The data base also contains 2,700 supporting codes and other reference data records. Geographic data include the S-16A base map for the Oak Ridge Reservation, boundaries for operable units, and high-resolution raster images for each of the sites.

McCord, R.A.; Herr, D.D.; Durfee, R.C.; Land, M.L.; Monroe, F.E.; Olson, R.J.; Thomas, J.K.; Tinnel, E.P.

1994-06-01

356

Body Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts and functions of the different systems in the body? Circulatory System Watch the Circulatory System and the Heart video. Complete one of the Circulatory System quizzes. Excretory System Label the parts of the excretory system. Respiratory System Quiz Complete respiratory system quiz to review parts. Skeletal System Label each part of the skeletal system. Vocabulary Review Change the settings to only include body system terms and play Hangman to review new vocabulary. ...

2011-11-02

357

Coniform stromatolites from geothermal systems, North Island, New Zealand  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coniform stromatolites are found in several sites in the Tokaanu and Whakarewarewa geothermal areas of North Island, New Zealand. At Tokaanu, silicification of these stromatolites is taking place in Kirihoro, a shallow hot springfed pool. At Whakarewarewa, subfossil silicified coniform stromatolites are found on the floor of "Waikite Pool" on the discharge apron below Waikite Geyser, and in an old sinter succession at Te Anarata. The microbes in the coniform stromatolites from Tokaanu, Waikite Pool, and Te Anarata have been well preserved through rapid silicification. Nevertheless, subtle differences in the silicification style induced morphological variations that commonly mask or alter morphological features needed for identification of the microbes in terms of extant taxa. The coniform stromatolites in the New Zealand hotspring pools are distinctive because (1) they are formed of upward tapering (i.e., conical) columns, (2) neighboring columns commonly are linked by vertical sheets or bridges, (3) internally, they are formed of alternating high- and low-porosity laminae that have a conical vertical profile, and (4) Phormidium form more than 90% of the biota. As such, they are comparable to modern coniform mats and stromatolites found in the geothermal systems of Yellowstone National Park and ice-covered lakes in Antarctica. Formation of the coniform stromatolites is restricted to pools that are characterized by low current energy and a microflora that is dominated by Phormidium. These delicate and intricate stromatolites could not form in areas characterized by fast flowing water or a diverse microflora. Thus, it appears that the distribution of these distinctive stromatolites is controlled by biological constraints that are superimposed on environmental needs.

Jones, B.; Renaut, R. W.; Rosen, M. R.; Ansdell, K. M.

2002-01-01

358

Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although conventional sediment parameters (mean grain size, sorting, and skewness) and provenance have typically been used to infer sediment transport pathways, most freshwater, brackish, and marine environments are also characterized by abundant sediment constituents of biological, and possibly anthropogenic and volcanic, origin that can provide additional insight into local sedimentary processes. The biota will be spatially distributed according to its response to environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon content, grain size, and intensity of currents and tidal flow, whereas the presence of anthropogenic and volcanic constituents will reflect proximity to source areas and whether they are fluvially- or aerially-transported. Because each of these constituents have a unique environmental signature, they are a more precise proxy for that source area than the conventional sedimentary process indicators. This San Francisco Bay Coastal System study demonstrates that by applying a multi-proxy approach, the primary sites of sediment transport can be identified. Many of these sites are far from where the constituents originated, showing that sediment transport is widespread in the region. Although not often used, identifying and interpreting the distribution of naturally-occurring and allochthonous biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic sediment constituents is a powerful tool to aid in the investigation of sediment transport pathways in other coastal systems.

McGann, Mary; Erikson, Li; Wan, Elmira; Powell, Charles, II; Maddocks, Rosalie F.

2013-01-01

359

Application of a cave inventory system to stimulate development of management strategies: the case of west-central Florida, USA.  

PubMed

The active management of air-filled cave systems is virtually non-existent within the karst landscape of west-central Florida. As in every karst landscape, caves are important because they contain a wide variety of resources (e.g., biota, speleothems) and can act as direct connections between surface and subsurface hydrological processes, potentially exacerbating the pollution of groundwater. Before sound management policies can be drafted, implemented, and enforced, stakeholders must first have knowledge of the management requirements of each cave. However, there is an informational disconnect between researchers, stakeholders, and the recreational caving community. Here, we present a cave inventory system that simplifies the dissemination of resource knowledge to stakeholders so that cave management and protection policies can be drafted and implemented at the state and local level. We inventoried 36 caves in west-central Florida, located on both public and private land, and analyzed cave resource data to provide insights on cave sensitivity and disturbance using two standardized indices. The data revealed that both public and private caves exhibit a wide range of sensitivity and disturbance, and before management strategies can be drafted, the ownership of each cave must be considered. Our inventory geodatabase serves as a link between researchers, landowners, and the public. To ensure the conservation and protection of caves, support from county or state government, combined with cave inventory data, is crucial in developing sound management policy. PMID:21665353

Harley, Grant L; Polk, Jason S; North, Leslie A; Reeder, Philip P

2011-10-01

360

Ecologically engineered system (EES) designed to integrate floating, emergent and submerged macrophytes for the treatment of domestic sewage and acid rich fermented-distillery wastewater: Evaluation of long term performance.  

PubMed

An ecologically engineered system (EES) was designed to mimic the natural cleansing functions of wetlands to bring about wastewater treatment. EES consisted of three tanks containing diverse biota viz., aquatic macrophytes, submerged plants, emergent plants and filter feeders connected in series. The designed system was evaluated for 216days by operating in continuous mode (20l/day) to treat both sewage (DS) and fermented-distillery wastewater (FDW, from hydrogen producing bioreactor). Floating macrophyte system (Tank 1) was more effective in removing COD and nitrates. Submerged and emergent integrated macrophyte system (Tank 2) showed an effective removal of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) along with COD. Filter-feeding system (Tank 3) visualized the removal of COD, VFA, turbidity and color. On the whole the system can treat effectively DS (COD, 68.06%; nitrate, 22.41%; turbidity, 59.81%) and FDW (COD, 72.92%; nitrate, 23.15%; color, 46.0%). The designed EES can be considered as an economical approach for the treatment of both sewage and fermented wastewaters. PMID:20093007

Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Chiranjeevi, P; Peri, Dinakar; Sarma, P N

2010-05-01

361

Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

2006-01-01

362

Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system  

SciTech Connect

Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or hot-spot,'' areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

1992-06-01

363

Transport and accumulation of cesium-137 and mercury in the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir system. Environmental Restoration Program  

SciTech Connect

Operations and waste disposal activities at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant) on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) have introduced a variety of airborne, liquid, and solid wastes into the surrounding environment. Some of these wastes may affect off-site areas by entering local streams, which ultimately drain into the Clinch and Tennessee river system. Previously reported concentrations of radionuclides, metals and organic compounds in water, sediment, and biota of the Clinch River and Watts Bar Reservoir suggest the presence of a variety of contaminants of possible concern to the protection of human health and the environment. The work reported here represents part of the initial scoping phase for the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. In this work, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is used to identify contaminant accumulation patterns and potential problem, or ``hot-spot,`` areas with regard to environmental hazard or human health. Radiocesium was chosen for this scoping effort because (1) its history of release into the Clinch River is reasonably well documented, (2) it is easy and inexpensive to measure by gamma spectrometry, and (3) it is rapidly sorbed to particulate matter and thus serves as a cost-effective tracer for identifying the transport and accumulation patterns of many other particle-reactive contaminants, such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and plutonium (Pu), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Olsen, C.R.; Larsen, I.L.; Lowry, P.D.; Moriones, C.R.; Ford, C.J.; Dearstone, K.C.; Turner, R.R.; Kimmel, B.L.; Brandt, C.C.

1992-06-01

364

Evaluation of ecologically relevant bioassays for a lotic system impacted by a coal-mine effluent, using Isonychia.  

PubMed

Many studies investigating the ecotoxicological impacts of industrial effluents on fresh-water biota utilize standardized test species such as the daphnids, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas. Such species may not be the most predictive or ecologically relevant gauges of the responses of instream benthic macroinvertebrates to certain stressors, such as total dissolved solids. An indigenous species approach should be adopted, using a sensitive benthic collector-filterer following development of practical laboratory bioassays. In the Leading Creek Watershed (southeast Ohio), an aggregated approximately 99% reduction in mean mayfly abundance for all impacted sites was observed below a coal-mine effluent with mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) microS cm(-1). The mayfly, Isonychia, was exposed for 7-days to a simulation of this effluent, in lotic microcosms. Based on lowest observable adverse effect concentrations, Isonychia survival was a more sensitive endpoint to SC (1,562 microS cm(-1)) than were 7-day C. dubia survival and fecundity (3,730 microS cm(-1)). Isonychia molting, a potentially more sensitive endpoint, was also examined. Using traditional test species to assess discharges to surface water alone may not adequately protect benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in systems impaired by discharges high in SC. PMID:15195819

Kennedy, A J; Cherry, D S; Currie, R J

2004-07-01

365

Interacting effects of discharge and channel morphology on transport of semibuoyant fish eggs in large, altered river systems.  

PubMed

Habitat fragmentation and flow regulation are significant factors related to the decline and extinction of freshwater biota. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids require moving water and some length of unfragmented stream to complete their life cycle. However, it is unknown how discharge and habitat features interact at multiple spatial scales to alter the transport of semi-buoyant fish eggs. Our objective was to assess the relationship between downstream drift of semi-buoyant egg surrogates (gellan beads) and discharge and habitat complexity. We quantified transport time of a known quantity of beads using 2-3 sampling devices at each of seven locations on the North Canadian and Canadian rivers. Transport time was assessed based on median capture time (time at which 50% of beads were captured) and sampling period (time period when 2.5% and 97.5% of beads were captured). Habitat complexity was assessed by calculating width?depth ratios at each site, and several habitat metrics determined using analyses of aerial photographs. Median time of egg capture was negatively correlated to site discharge. The temporal extent of the sampling period at each site was negatively correlated to both site discharge and habitat-patch dispersion. Our results highlight the role of discharge in driving transport times, but also indicate that higher dispersion of habitat patches relates to increased retention of beads within the river. These results could be used to target restoration activities or prioritize water use to create and maintain habitat complexity within large, fragmented river systems. PMID:24802361

Worthington, Thomas A; Brewer, Shannon K; Farless, Nicole; Grabowski, Timothy B; Gregory, Mark S

2014-01-01

366

Interacting Effects of Discharge and Channel Morphology on Transport of Semibuoyant Fish Eggs in Large, Altered River Systems  

PubMed Central

Habitat fragmentation and flow regulation are significant factors related to the decline and extinction of freshwater biota. Pelagic-broadcast spawning cyprinids require moving water and some length of unfragmented stream to complete their life cycle. However, it is unknown how discharge and habitat features interact at multiple spatial scales to alter the transport of semi-buoyant fish eggs. Our objective was to assess the relationship between downstream drift of semi-buoyant egg surrogates (gellan beads) and discharge and habitat complexity. We quantified transport time of a known quantity of beads using 2–3 sampling devices at each of seven locations on the North Canadian and Canadian rivers. Transport time was assessed based on median capture time (time at which 50% of beads were captured) and sampling period (time period when 2.5% and 97.5% of beads were captured). Habitat complexity was assessed by calculating width?depth ratios at each site, and several habitat metrics determined using analyses of aerial photographs. Median time of egg capture was negatively correlated to site discharge. The temporal extent of the sampling period at each site was negatively correlated to both site discharge and habitat-patch dispersion. Our results highlight the role of discharge in driving transport times, but also indicate that higher dispersion of habitat patches relates to increased retention of beads within the river. These results could be used to target restoration activities or prioritize water use to create and maintain habitat complexity within large, fragmented river systems.

Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Farless, Nicole; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Gregory, Mark S.

2014-01-01

367

Toxicological effects of the lipid regulator gemfibrozil in four aquatic systems.  

PubMed

Gemfibrozil is a lipid-regulating agent widely used in patients at risk of coronary disease. Pharmaceutical products, such as gemfibrozil, are found in municipal effluents and represent a major source of contamination. To date, there is little available information about the adverse effects of gemfibrozil in aquatic organisms. For this reason, the toxic effects were investigated using model systems from four trophic levels. The most sensitive system was the immobilization of Daphnia magna, with a non-observed adverse effect level of 30 microM and a mean effective concentration of 120 microM after 72 h, followed by the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, the hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 line and the inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization and lysosomal function were reduced in PLHC-1 cells, stimulations were observed for lysosomal function, metallothionein levels and succinate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and acetylcholinesterase activities. No changes were observed in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity. The main morphological alterations were hydropic degeneration and loss of cells. Modulation studies on gemfibrozil toxicity were also carried out. General antioxidants and calcium chelators did not modify the toxicity of gemfibrozil, whereas a Fe(III) chelator, a membrane permeable sulphydryl-protecting compound and glutathione level modifying agents did change the toxicity. One of the possible mechanisms of gemfibrozil toxicity seems to be the binding to sulphydryl groups, including those of glutathione. According to the result, gemfibrozil should be classified as harmful to aquatic organisms. However, comparing the concentrations in water and the toxicity quantified in the assayed systems, gemfibrozil is not expected to represent acute risk to the aquatic biota. PMID:17169444

Zurita, Jorge L; Repetto, Guillermo; Jos, Angeles; Salguero, Manuel; López-Artíguez, Miguel; Cameán, Ana M

2007-02-15

368

Compilation of 1990 annual reports of the Navy ELF Communications System Ecological-Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs G thru I. Annual report, Jan-Dec 90  

SciTech Connect

This portion of the report includes monitoring of and data for bird species and communities, aquatic ecosystem and a listing of technical reports. Effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields on most aspects of a bird species' life history are poorly understood. This investigation was designed to isolate effects of EM fields produced by ELF antenna systems on bird species breeding in or migrating through Wisconsin and Michigan. Specifically, we seek to determine if bird species richness and abundance differ between areas that are close to the antenna and those that are far enough away to be unaffected by the antenna. The goal of the aquatic ecosystems portion of the project is to determine the effects of low-level, long-term, electromagnetic radiation on the biota of streams. This electromagnetic radiation will be derived from the U.S. Navy's extremely low frequency submarine communication system (ELF) located in the upper peninsula of Michigan. The specific ecosystem being studied is the Ford River, a fourth order stream that arises in northern Dickinson and southern Marquette Counties and enters the Michigan portion of Green Bay south of Escanaba, Michigan. Detailed ecological sample and analyses are being conducted simutaneously at two sites.

Zapotosky, J.E.

1991-08-01

369

Aerospace Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.

2011-08-11

370

Aesthetics Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formal structure of aesthetics systems is defined. Aesthetics systems provide for the essential tasks of interpretation and evaluation is aesthetic analysis. Kolmogorov's formulation of information theory is applicable. An aesthetics system for a clas...

J. Gips G. Stiny

1973-01-01

371

Options for managing hypoxic blackwater in river systems: case studies and framework.  

PubMed

Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events. PMID:23912322

Whitworth, Kerry L; Kerr, Janice L; Mosley, Luke M; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S

2013-10-01

372

Mechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

Davis, Robert E.

2002-01-01

373

Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Ferner, Clayton

2003-04-21

374

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF THREE ENDEMIC FISHES IN SHOALS OF THE UPPER FLINT RIVER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many shoal habitats in the Piedmont of Georgia have been destroyed by reservoir construction, and the remaining are still threatened. To understand relations between aquatic biota and habitat conditions in shoals, we estimated fish densities in shoals differing in physical characteristics (e.g. size and bed material) throughout a 50 km reach of the upper Flint River (Meriwether, Pike, Upson, and

Paula A. Marcinek; Mary C. Freeman; Byron J. Freeman

375

Chapter 10 Speciation, Bioavailability and Toxicity of Copper in the Fly River System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discharge of mine tailings into the Fly River since 1984 has resulted in elevated concentrations of particulate and dissolved copper, with documented detrimental impacts on fish populations and other aquatic biota. This chapter reviews recent monitoring of copper and toxicity in the Fly River, assesses recent trends in copper bioavailability, and highlights data gaps in our current understanding of copper

Jenny L. Stauber; Simon C. Apte; Nicola J. Rogers

2008-01-01

376

Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of seeds to industrial effluents contaminated with azo dyes.  

PubMed

Numerous potentially mutagenic chemicals have been studied mainly because they can cause damaging and inheritable changes in the genetic material. Several tests are commonly used for biomonitoring pollution levels and to evaluate the effects of toxic and mutagenic agents present in the natural environment. This study aimed at assessing the potential of a textile effluent contaminated with azo dyes to induce chromosomal and nuclear aberrations in Allium cepa test systems. A continuous exposure of seeds in samples of the textile effluent in different concentrations was carried out (0.3%, 3%, 10%, and 100%). Cells in interphase and undergoing division were examined to assess the presence of chromosome aberrations, nuclear changes, and micronuclei. Our results revealed a mutagenic effect of the effluent at concentrations of 10% and 100%. At lower concentrations, the effluent (3% and 0.3%) did not induce mutagenic alterations in the test organism A. cepa. These findings are of concern, since cell damage may be transmitted to subsequent generations, possibly affecting the organism as a whole, as well as the local biota exposed to the effluent discharge. If the damage results in cell death, the development of the organism may be affected, which could also lead to its death. PMID:18495201

Caritá, R; Marin-Morales, M A

2008-06-01

377

Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate change and other drivers of habitat transformations; and (4) anticipation and adaptation to the growing probability of ecosystem regime shifts.

Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

2011-01-01

378

Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...

Ms.west

2009-07-07

379

Effects of Continuous Cropping of Rye on Soil Biota and Biochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term studies on the ecological effects of continuous rye cultivations carried out in Poland are summarized. It was shown that in continuous cropping of rye, despite the decrease of crop yields, no significant difference was observed in annual primary production rates compared with estimates found for rye fields cultivated in diversified crop rotation patterns. In continuous cultivation of rye fauna

Lech Ryszkowski; Lech Szajdak; Jerzy Karg

1998-01-01

380

Sinobaatar gen. nov.: First multituberculate from the Jehol Biota of Liaoning, Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multituberculate skeleton from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation at Dawangzhangzi, Lingyuan City, Liaoning Province,\\u000a Northeast China, provides new morphological information for early multituberculates. The specimen is the holotype of Sinobaatar lingyuanensis gen. et sp. nov. It has a narrow skull that lacks the superorbital crest or postorbital process. The dental formula is 3.?.5.2\\/1.0.3.2.\\u000a The dental morphology, especially that of

Yaoming Hu; Yuanqing Wang

2002-01-01

381

Effects of Metal Mixtures on Aquatic Biota: A Review of Observations and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the historical development of metal mixture interaction analyses is presented. The two major classifications of mixture models are outlined, the “Concentration Addition” and the “Response Addition” approaches. Within these two categories, a number of graphical, mathematical and statistical methods have been used, such as the toxic unit approach, relative potencies, toxicity equivalence factors, and dose-response relationships

W. P. Norwood; U. Borgmann; D. G. Dixon; A. Wallace

2003-01-01

382

Fission-track dating of haughton astrobleme and included biota, devon island, Canada.  

PubMed

Haughton Astrobleme is a major extraterrestrial impact structure located on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Northwest Territories. Apatite grains separated from shocked Precambrian gneiss contained in a polymict breccia from the center of the astrobleme yielded a fission-track date of 22.4 million +/- 1.4 million years before the present or early Miocene (Aquitanian). This provides a date for the impact event and an upper limit on the age of crater-filling lake sediments and a flora and vertebrate fauna occurring in them. A geologically precise date for these fossils provides an important biostratigraphic reference point for interpreting the biotic evolution of the Arctic. PMID:17834450

Omar, G; Johnson, K R; Hickey, L J; Robertson, P B; Dawson, M R; Barnosky, C W

1987-09-25

383

Investigation of Isotopic and Geochemical Evidence for an Active Planktonic Biota in the Precambrian  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The funded research was motivated by the earlier study of Burdett et al. (1990), who collected carbon and oxygen isotopic data from Paleoproterozoic rocks of the Northwest Territories from deep-and shallow-water facies of the Rocknest Platform. Their results displayed a possible decrease in (delta)C-13 with depth when arranged by increasing distance from the paleoshore. The most C-13-depleted samples were seafloor cements and fans from the underlying siliciclastic Odjick Formation, and slope carbonates of the Rocknest platform.

Kump, Lee R.

1997-01-01

384