Science.gov

Sample records for monitors failed elements

  1. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  2. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  3. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  4. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  5. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  6. Fail-safe sensor for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, Annelene F.; Li, Henry C. H.; Davis, Claire E.; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2008-04-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a fail-safe sensor to monitor the structural health of a composite repair. The low-cost fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system consists of a light source, two specially designed fiber Bragg gratings and a photodiode detector. This system is applied to a typical bonded composite scarf joint often employed in aerospace structures. A finite element model is developed to assess the change in strain distribution as the result of a structural debond. The proposed monitoring system will be validated through an experimental investigation.

  7. Effects of failed elements on sidelobes of array beampatterns.

    PubMed

    Cox, Henry; Lai, Hung

    2015-06-01

    It is common for arrays to degrade as elements fail, resulting in high sidelobes. The sensitivity of sidelobe levels to element failures is examined for an arbitrarily shaded array. Using the difference of complex beampatterns, it is found that the beampattern, which can be associated with just the failed elements, controls the degraded array response in the deep sidelobe region. Using results for addition of weighted random phasers, expressions are presented for an upper bound, the mean and standard deviation of the power sidelobes of the degraded array in terms of the number and shading weights of the failed elements. The upper bound depends on the percent of elements that fail and is independent of array size. The average sidelobe level depends on both the failed-to-good ratio and the number of remaining good elements, making large arrays more robust for the same percentage of failed elements. The standard deviation of sidelobe levels is approximately equal to the mean. The ratio of failed to remaining good elements is analogous to the combined amplitude and phase variance for uncorrelated tolerance errors. Combined effects of element failures and random amplitude and phase errors are then presented. PMID:26093427

  8. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.

    2005-07-01

    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  9. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? 141.561 Section 141.561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? If there is a failure in the...

  10. A combined wet/dry sipping cell for investigating failed TRIGA fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, J.; Gallhammer, H.; Bock, H.

    1988-07-01

    Investigation for a failed TRIGA fuel element is performed with the help of a combined wet/dry sipping cell, which has been designed and fabricated at the Atominstitut Vienna. In this sipping cell a TRIGA fuel element can be studied for fission product release, both at normal and at elevated temperatures. This report describes the design features of the sipping cell and the fission product identification procedure with the help of a high purity Germanium detector and a multichannel analyzer.

  11. Checklists and Monitoring in the Cockpit: Why Crucial Defenses Sometimes Fail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key; Berman, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Checklists and monitoring are two essential defenses against equipment failures and pilot errors. Problems with checklist use and pilots failures to monitor adequately have a long history in aviation accidents. This study was conducted to explore why checklists and monitoring sometimes fail to catch errors and equipment malfunctions as intended. Flight crew procedures were observed from the cockpit jumpseat during normal airline operations in order to: 1) collect data on monitoring and checklist use in cockpit operations in typical flight conditions; 2) provide a plausible cognitive account of why deviations from formal checklist and monitoring procedures sometimes occur; 3) lay a foundation for identifying ways to reduce vulnerability to inadvertent checklist and monitoring errors; 4) compare checklist and monitoring execution in normal flights with performance issues uncovered in accident investigations; and 5) suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of checklists and monitoring. Cognitive explanations for deviations from prescribed procedures are provided, along with suggestions for countermeasures for vulnerability to error.

  12. Preparation of Metal Filter Element for Fail Safety in IGCC Filter Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, J-H.; Ahn, I-S.; Bak, Y-C.; Bae, S-Y.; Ha, S-J.; Jang, H-J.

    2002-09-18

    Metal filter elements as the fail safety filter are fabricated by the methods using cold isostatic pressure (compress method) and binder (binder method) to form the filter element and tested in a experimental and bench units. The fail safety filter on the filtration system is mounted additionally in order to intercept the particle leak when the main filter element is broken. So it should have two contrary functions of a high permeability and being plugged easily. The filter element having high porosity and high plugging property was fabricated by the bind method. It has the porosity more than 50%, showed very small pressure drop less than 10mmH2O at the face velocity of 0.15m/s, and plugged within 5 minutes with the inhibition of the particle leak larger than 4 {micro}m. The test result of corrosion tendency in IGCC gas stream at 500 C shows SUS310L material is very reasonable among SUS310, SUS316, Inconel 600, and Hastelloy X.

  13. Monitoring arrangement for vented nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Campana, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor core, fuel elements are arranged in a closely packed hexagonal configuration, each fuel element having diametrically opposed vents permitting 180.degree. rotation of the fuel elements to counteract bowing. A grid plate engages the fuel elements and forms passages for communicating sets of three, four or six individual vents with respective monitor lines in order to communicate vented radioactive gases from the fuel elements to suitable monitor means in a manner readily permitting detection of leakage in individual fuel elements.

  14. 40 CFR 141.561 - What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if my system's turbidity monitoring equipment fails? 141.561 Section 141.561 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Filtration and Disinfection-Systems...

  15. Metacognitive Monitoring in University Classes: Anticipating a Graded vs. a Pass-Fail Test Affects Monitoring Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenberg, Jonathan; Dutke, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Three field studies tested the hypothesis that anticipating a graded test as opposed to a pass-fail test enhances metacognitive monitoring. Participants were teacher candidates who completed a mid-term and a final test in psychology courses. Each participant chose whether the result of the final test should be evaluated with one of five grades or…

  16. Fail-safe ion chamber beam loss monitor system for personnel protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Plum, M. A.; Browman, A. A.; Macek, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    A fail-safe beam loss monitor system has been designed for use in the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) Radiation Security System (RSS). The latest version (Model III) has been in use since 1991. This system has been carefully designed to protect personnel from large radiation doses caused by errant beam conditions during beam transport. Due to limited shielding between the beam transport lines and occupied areas, personnel can safely occupy these areas only if the beam losses in the transport lines are sufficiently low. Although the usual solution is to increase the bulk shielding between the beam lines and the occupied areas, the physical dimensions of the site do not permit additional shielding to be added. In this paper we will discuss the design and implementation of the fail-safe beam loss monitor system.

  17. Experimental research and finite element analysis of bridge piers failed in flexure-shear modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiguo; Si, Bingjun; Wang, Dongsheng; Guo, Xun

    2008-12-01

    In recent earthquakes, a large number of reinforced concrete (RC) bridges were severely damaged due to mixed flexure-shear failure modes of the bridge piers. An integrated experimental and finite element (FE) analysis study is described in this paper to study the seismic performance of the bridge piers that failed in flexure-shear modes. In the first part, a nonlinear cyclic loading test on six RC bridge piers with circular cross sections is carried out experimentally. The damage states, ductility and energy dissipation parameters, stiffness degradation and shear strength of the piers are studied and compared with each other. The experimental results suggest that all the piers exhibit stable flexural response at displacement ductilities up to four before exhibiting brittle shear failure. The ultimate performance of the piers is dominated by shear capacity due to significant shear cracking, and in some cases, rupturing of spiral bars. In the second part, modeling approaches describing the hysteretic behavior of the piers are investigated by using ANSYS software. A set of models with different parameters is selected and evaluated through comparison with experimental results. The influences of the shear retention coefficients between concrete cracks, the Bauschinger effect in longitudinal reinforcement, the bond-slip relationship between the longitudinal reinforcement and the concrete and the concrete failure surface on the simulated hysteretic curves are discussed. Then, a modified analysis model is presented and its accuracy is verified by comparing the simulated results with experimental ones. This research uses models available in commercial FE codes and is intended for researchers and engineers interested in using ANSYS software to predict the hysteretic behavior of reinforced concrete structures.

  18. Monitoring of live and woody elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with surveys operated on crib walls in Casentino and Versilia (Tuscany), where Salix alba cuttings did not develop as expected from literature data. After more then 10 years since realization and and an initial very high survival rate, a few plants are yet alive among those put in place and the root strengthening is localized in the first 0.30 m just below the structure front face, while at further depth the detected root area ratio (R.A.R.) does not determine a noticeable increase in soil cohesion (Guastini et al., 2012). Mortality curve in willow cuttings is comparable with growing curve in Alnus nigra plants born in front of the structure, due to shading as failing cause. Assessing quantitatively the residual strength of the timber elements and estimating their possible duration allow comparison with the time needed for a complete stabilisation of the para-natural succession. The two spans of time must be almost similar to avoid unexpected collapse of the frame or unacceptable costs for oversized structures. Since the realization of a new live crib-wall in Casentino we sampled Alnus and Salix cuttings to compare rooting, survivability and evolution in randomized block design. Tests with Resistograph carried out on timber elements gives a good relationship between test results and density; through the non-destructive test it is possible to differentiate portions of wood with a noticeable residual strength from the decayed parts without any more load bearing capacity. MOR value (flexural strength) of timber elements has been estimated on the basis of the effective section verified by the Resistograph (Guastini et al., 2012), and then confirmed through rupture in bending of the same elements (Wood Technology DEISTAF lab), by proving the non-destructive test utility.

  19. Elements of an integrated health monitoring framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Michael; Elgamal, Ahmed; Conte, Joel P.; Masri, Sami; Fountain, Tony; Gupta, Amarnath; Trivedi, Mohan; El Zarki, Magda

    2003-07-01

    Internet technologies are increasingly facilitating real-time monitoring of Bridges and Highways. The advances in wireless communications for instance, are allowing practical deployments for large extended systems. Sensor data, including video signals, can be used for long-term condition assessment, traffic-load regulation, emergency response, and seismic safety applications. Computer-based automated signal-analysis algorithms routinely process the incoming data and determine anomalies based on pre-defined response thresholds and more involved signal analysis techniques. Upon authentication, appropriate action may be authorized for maintenance, early warning, and/or emergency response. In such a strategy, data from thousands of sensors can be analyzed with near real-time and long-term assessment and decision-making implications. Addressing the above, a flexible and scalable (e.g., for an entire Highway system, or portfolio of Networked Civil Infrastructure) software architecture/framework is being developed and implemented. This framework will network and integrate real-time heterogeneous sensor data, database and archiving systems, computer vision, data analysis and interpretation, physics-based numerical simulation of complex structural systems, visualization, reliability & risk analysis, and rational statistical decision-making procedures. Thus, within this framework, data is converted into information, information into knowledge, and knowledge into decision at the end of the pipeline. Such a decision-support system contributes to the vitality of our economy, as rehabilitation, renewal, replacement, and/or maintenance of this infrastructure are estimated to require expenditures in the Trillion-dollar range nationwide, including issues of Homeland security and natural disaster mitigation. A pilot website (http://bridge.ucsd.edu/compositedeck.html) currently depicts some basic elements of the envisioned integrated health monitoring analysis framework.

  20. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure fails to extract oxoanion-forming elements that are extracted by municipal solid waste leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, K.; Iskander, M.; Sivia, G.

    1998-12-01

    US EPA and state regulatory agencies rely on standard extraction tests to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate surface water or groundwater. To evaluate the predictive abilities of these extraction tests, the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), the Waste Extraction Test (WET), and the Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP) were compared with actual municipal solid waste leachates (MSWLs) for their ability to extract regulated elements from a variety of industrial solid wastes in short- and long-term extractions. Short-term extractions used MSWLs from a variety of California landfills. Long-term sequential extractions simulated longer term leaching, as might occur in MSW landfills. For most regulated elements, the TCLP roughly predicted the maximum concentrations extracted by the MSWLs. For regulated elements that form oxoanions (e.g., Sb, As, Mo, Se, V), however the TCLP underpredicted the levels extracted by the MSWL. None of the standard tests adequately predicted these levels. The results emphasize the need for better standardized techniques to identify wastes that have the potential to contaminate groundwater with oxoanion-forming elements, particularly arsenic.

  1. Single-spore elemental analyses indicate that dipicolinic acid-deficient Bacillus subtilis spores fail to accumulate calcium.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Paul E; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2010-06-01

    Dipicolinic acid (pyridine-2,6-carboxylic acid; DPA) is a major component of bacterial spores and has been shown to be an important determinant of spore resistance. In the core of dormant Bacillus subtilis spores, DPA is associated with divalent calcium in a 1:1 chelate (Ca-DPA). Spores excrete Ca-DPA during germination, but it is unknown whether Ca and DPA are imported separately or together into the developing spore. Elemental analysis by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) of wild-type spores and mutant spores lacking the ability to synthesize DPA showed that DPA-less spores also lacked calcium, suggesting that the two compounds may be co-imported. PMID:20396869

  2. Identification of failed fuel element

    DOEpatents

    Fryer, Richard M.; Matlock, Robert G.

    1976-06-22

    A passive fission product gas trap is provided in the upper portion of each fuel subassembly in a nuclear reactor. The gas trap consists of an inverted funnel of less diameter than the subassembly having a valve at the apex thereof. An actuating rod extends upwardly from the valve through the subassembly to a point where it can be contacted by the fuel handling mechanism for the reactor. Interrogation of the subassembly for the presence of fission products is accomplished by lowering the fuel handling machine onto the subassembly to press down on the actuating rod and open the valve.

  3. Ariane fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    On September 10, 1982, a French Ariane rocket failed during launch from its maker's pads located in Kourou, Guiana, on the northern coast of South America. This was the second failure out of five attempted flights for the commercial rocket upon which the hopes and numerous payloads of ESA, the European Space Agency, are to ride. The European space community, including geophysical, commercial, and military interests, concludes that only three successes out of five attempts are not at all satisfactory (New Scientist, Sept. 16, 1982; Nature, Sept. 16, 1982).Ariane has been widely trumpeted as a strong competitor for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Delta and space shuttle launchers and as an instant, cheap solution to the problems of placing scientific and communications satellites into orbit. The costs of losing the fifth Ariane are high—on the order of $70 million, after insurance coverage. Doubts about using Ariane for future missions have been raised; when Ariane crashed into the Atlantic, it carried with it two satellites, the Marecs B, for marine communications, and the Sirio 2, an Italian telecommunications satellite. There are fears that EXOSAT, the European Space Agency's X ray astronomy observatory satellite may not make the planned flight launch window of November 1982.

  4. A summary of fault modelling and predictive health monitoring of rolling element bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Thalji, Idriss; Jantunen, Erkki

    2015-08-01

    The rolling element bearing is one of the most critical components that determine the machinery health and its remaining lifetime in modern production machinery. Robust Predictive Health Monitoring tools are needed to guarantee the healthy state of rolling element bearing s during the operation. A Predictive Health Monitoring tool indicates the upcoming failures which provide sufficient lead time for maintenance planning. The Predictive Health Monitoring tool aims to monitor the deterioration i.e. wear evolution rather than just detecting the defects. The Predictive Health Monitoring procedures contain detection, diagnosis and prognosis analysis, which are required to extract the features related to the faulty rolling element bearing and estimate the remaining useful lifetime. The purpose of this study is to review the Predictive Health Monitoring methods and explore their capabilities, advantages and disadvantage in monitoring rolling element bearings. Therefore, the study provides a critical review of the Predictive Health Monitoring methods of the entire defect evolution process i.e. over the whole lifetime and suggests enhancements for rolling element bearing monitoring.

  5. Trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis for pollution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    Methods and technology were developed to analyze 1000 samples/yr of coal and other pollution-related samples. The complete trace element analysis of 20-24 samples/wk averaged 3-3.5 man-hours/sample. The computerized data reduction scheme could identify and report data on as many as 56 elements. In addition to coal, samples of fly ash, bottom ash, crude oil, fuel oil, residual oil, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, filtered air particulates, ore, stack scrubber water, clam tissue, crab shells, river sediment and water, and corn were analyzed. Precision of the method was plus or minus 25% based on all elements reported in coal and other sample matrices. Overall accuracy was estimated at 50%.

  6. MONITORING CYCLICAL AIR-WATER ELEMENTAL MERCURY EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experimental work has demonstrated that elemental mercury evasion from natural water displays a diel cycle; evasion rates during the day can be two to three times evasion rates observed at night. A study with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) found that diurnal PCB air/wa...

  7. Dynamic SPR monitoring of yeast nuclear protein binding to a cis-regulatory element

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Grace; Brody, James P.

    2007-11-09

    Gene expression is controlled by protein complexes binding to short specific sequences of DNA, called cis-regulatory elements. Expression of most eukaryotic genes is controlled by dozens of these elements. Comprehensive identification and monitoring of these elements is a major goal of genomics. In pursuit of this goal, we are developing a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based assay to identify and monitor cis-regulatory elements. To test whether we could reliably monitor protein binding to a regulatory element, we immobilized a 16 bp region of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome 5 onto a gold surface. This 16 bp region of DNA is known to bind several proteins and thought to control expression of the gene RNR1, which varies through the cell cycle. We synchronized yeast cell cultures, and then sampled these cultures at a regular interval. These samples were processed to purify nuclear lysate, which was then exposed to the sensor. We found that nuclear protein binds this particular element of DNA at a significantly higher rate (as compared to unsynchronized cells) during G1 phase. Other time points show levels of DNA-nuclear protein binding similar to the unsynchronized control. We also measured the apparent association complex of the binding to be 0.014 s{sup -1}. We conclude that (1) SPR-based assays can monitor DNA-nuclear protein binding and that (2) for this particular cis-regulatory element, maximum DNA-nuclear protein binding occurs during G1 phase.

  8. The real-time monitoring surface figure of optical elements in continuous polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Xueke; Wei, Chaoyang; Gu, Jianxun; Dun, Aihuan; Shao, Jianda

    2014-08-01

    Continuous ring polishing is the key process in large aperture optical elements. The surface figure of polishing pad is inferred by the offline testing surface figure of workpiece. The defects, low processing efficiency and uncertainty processing time in traditional continuous polishing, the real-time monitoring method of polishing is proposed. The realtime monitoring system is set up based on the computer, the dynamic interferometer, a beam expanding system and a beam reflecting system. There are a workpiece and a glass monitoring plate placing in same ring. The surface figure of workpiece, monitored by the monitoring plate, synchronize with the surface of glass monitoring plate in Peak-Valley (PV) and POWER. The new method with simple structure is fast measuring and judgmental directly to the changes of surface figures. The results of real-time monitoring and surface figure converging on the workpiece are valid for continuous polishing through experimental validation.

  9. Rapid detection of delamination areas in laminated structural elements by means of optically monitored strain solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, I. V.; Belashov, A. V.; Dreiden, G. V.; Petrov, N. V.; Samsonov, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    Modern structural elements are often made of laminated polymer materials or composites on the base of polymer matrices. The proper functioning of these elements may be of vital importance especially in automotive and aerospace industries, in gas and oil transportation. The major problem in their performance is a possibility of a sudden and irreversible delamination caused by various factors. We propose and study a NDT approach aimed to detect delamination areas in adhesively bonded layered structural elements made of different materials. The proposed approach is evaluated by use of holographic detection and monitoring of the evolution of bulk strain solitons generated in such structures.

  10. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements, which are regulated for aquatic life protection, are a primary concern in highway- and urban-runoff studies because stormwater runoff may transport these constituents from the land surface to receiving waters. Many of these trace elements are essential for biological activity and become detrimental only when geologic or anthropogenic sources exceed concentrations beyond ranges typical of the natural environment. The Federal Highway Administration and State Transportation Agencies are concerned about the potential effects of highway runoff on the watershed scale and for the management and protection of watersheds. Transportation agencies need information that is documented as valid, current, and scientifically defensible to support planning and management decisions. There are many technical issues of concern for monitoring trace elements; therefore, trace-element data commonly are considered suspect, and the responsibility to provide data-quality information to support the validity of reported results rests with the data-collection agency. Paved surfaces are fundamentally different physically, hydraulically, and chemically from the natural surfaces typical of most freshwater systems that have been the focus of many traceelement- monitoring studies. Existing scientific conceptions of the behavior of trace elements in the environment are based largely upon research on natural systems, rather than on systems typical of pavement runoff. Additionally, the logistics of stormwater sampling are difficult because of the great uncertainty in the occurrence and magnitude of storm events. Therefore, trace-element monitoring programs may be enhanced if monitoring and sampling programs are automated. Automation would standardize the process and provide a continuous record of the variations in flow and water-quality characteristics. Great care is required to collect and process samples in a manner that will minimize potential contamination or attenuation of trace

  11. SEASONAL MONITORING OF ELEMENTS AT THREE CONSTRUCTED TREATMENT WETLANDS: 1999-2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    A suite of major, minor, and trace elements in sediment, pore water, and overlying water were monitored during winter and summer over a three year period at three different types of constructed treatment wetlands to evaluate their efficacy with season. Acid-volatile sulfide (AVS)...

  12. Structural Health Monitoring Using High-Density Fiber Optic Strain Sensor and Inverse Finite Element Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alexander; Quach, Cuong C.; Cooper, Eric G.; Parks, Jeffrey; Spangler, Jan L.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to mitigate accidents due to system and component failure, NASA s Aviation Safety has partnered with industry, academia, and other governmental organizations to develop real-time, on-board monitoring capabilities and system performance models for early detection of airframe structure degradation. NASA Langley is investigating a structural health monitoring capability that uses a distributed fiber optic strain system and an inverse finite element method for measuring and modeling structural deformations. This report describes the constituent systems that enable this structural monitoring function and discusses results from laboratory tests using the fiber strain sensor system and the inverse finite element method to demonstrate structural deformation estimation on an instrumented test article

  13. Optimal Design of River Monitoring Network in Taizihe River by Matter Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Zhe; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize the river monitoring network in Taizihe River, Northeast China. The situation of the network and water characteristics were studied in this work. During this study, water samples were collected once a month during January 2009 - December 2010 from seventeen sites. Futhermore, the 16 monitoring indexes were analyzed in the field and laboratory. The pH value of surface water sample was found to be in the range of 6.83 to 9.31, and the average concentrations of NH4+-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile phenol and total phosphorus (TP) were found decreasing significantly. The water quality of the river has been improved from 2009 to 2010. Through the calculation of the data availability and the correlation between adjacent sections, it was found that the present monitoring network was inefficient as well as the optimization was indispensable. In order to improve the situation, the matter element analysis and gravity distance were applied in the optimization of river monitoring network, which were proved to be a useful method to optimize river quality monitoring network. The amount of monitoring sections were cut from 17 to 13 for the monitoring network was more cost-effective after being optimized. The results of this study could be used in developing effective management strategies to improve the environmental quality of Taizihe River. Also, the results show that the proposed model can be effectively used for the optimal design of monitoring networks in river systems. PMID:26023785

  14. Mathematical modeling and remote monitoring of ion-exchange separation of transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Tselishchev, I.V.; Elesin, A.A.

    1988-07-01

    A mathematical model and calculational algorithms for the elution curves for ion-exchange separation of transplutonium elements (TPE) and the limits of optimal fractionation of the substances being separated, based on indicators of the process (yield, purification), are presented. The calculational programs are part of the programming provision of a small informational-calculational system based on the microcomputer Elektronika DZ-28, intended for remote monitoring of TPE separation. The elaborated programs can be implemented in the preliminary choice of necessary conditions of the TPE separation process, and also during and after the separation process for comparison of calculated results with the results of continuous, on-line remote monitoring and with the results of laboratory sample analysis. The possible application of the programs has been checked in the instance of the separation of curium and americium, and einsteinium and californium, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with the results of remote and laboratory-analytical monitoring.

  15. Seismic monitoring of heavy oil reservoirs: Rock physics and finite element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theune, Ulrich

    In the past decades, remote monitoring of subsurface processes has attracted increasing attention in geophysics. With repeated geophysical surveys one attempts to detect changes in the physical properties in the underground without directly accessing the earth. This technique has been proven to be very valuable for monitoring enhanced oil recovery programs. This thesis presents an modelling approach for the feasibility analysis for monitoring of a thermal enhanced oil recovery technique applied to heavy oil reservoirs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. In order to produce heavy oil from shallow reservoirs thermal oil recovery techniques such as the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are often employed. As these techniques are expensive and technically challenging, early detection of operational problems is without doubt of great value. However, the feasibility of geophysical monitoring depends on many factors such as the changes in the rock physical properties of the target reservoir. In order to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs, a fluid-substitutional rock physical study has been carried out to simulate the steam injection. The second modelling approach is based on a modified finite element algorithm to simulate the propagation of elastic waves in the earth, which has been developed independently in the framework of this thesis. The work summarized in this thesis shows a possibility to access the feasibility of seismic monitoring for heavy oil reservoirs through an extensive rock-physical study. Seismic monitoring is a useful tool in reservoir management decision process. However, the work reported here suggests that seismic monitoring of SAGD processes in the heavy oil reservoirs of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin is only feasible in shallow, unconsolidated deposits. For deeper, but otherwise geological similar reservoirs, the SAGD does not create a sufficient change in the rock physical properties to be

  16. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  17. A Spectral Element Approach for Modeling of Wave-Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Rolf T.; Fritzen, Claus-Peter

    2010-09-30

    During the last decades, guided waves have shown great potential for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. These waves can be excited and sensed by piezoelectric elements that can be permanently attached onto a structure offering online monitoring capability. As the setup of wave based SHM systems may be very difficult and time consuming there is a growing demand for efficient simulation tools providing the opportunity to design wave based SHM systems in a virtual environment. As usually high frequency waves are used, the associated short wavelength leads to the necessity of a very dense mesh, which makes conventional finite elements not well suited for this purpose. Therefore a flat shell spectral element approach is presented in this contribution. By including electromechanical coupling an SHM system can be simulated entirely from actuator voltage to sensor voltage. The focus of this contribution is the analysis of the effect of delaminations on propagating waves. A forward increment Lagrange multiplier method is used to simulate contact within the delaminated area. A model validation is performed using measured data of an anisotropic CFRP-plate.

  18. A Finite Element Model of Electrode Placement During Stimulus Evoked Electromyographic Monitoring of Iliosacral Screw Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, M.A; Moed, B.R; Barnett, D.W

    2008-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures that occur as a result of substantial orthopedic trauma are frequently repaired using iliosacral screws to stabilize the fracture. Stimulus evoked electromyography, using pulsed current stimuli provided through the drill bit cathode, has been advocated to prevent nerve root injury during iliosacral screw insertion. Our objective was to examine the effects of anode location, drill bit position, and anatomical structure on the nerve monitoring technique. A three-dimensional finite element model was constructed from computed tomography data to evaluate the effectiveness of five anode locations at four stations of drill bit insertion. Results indicate that the anode location should be at the midline or on the side contralateral to drill bit insertion. Locating the anode at other positions, such that the nerve root is outside of the primary electromagnetic field, leads to an attenuated electromyographic response that will ultimately lead to the failure of the monitoring technique. PMID:19587797

  19. Fibre Bragg gratings sensor for monitoring distance changes between structural elements inside a building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeu, E.; Gnewuch, H.; Jackson, D. A.; Podoleanu, A.

    2006-03-01

    The distance changes between structural elements inside a building (e.g. walls, pillars, stairs, etc.) ought to be monitored, especially in seismic-prone areas, in order to assess its stability. Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are now the most interesting choice for this purpose, since several gratings can be included in the fibre, resulting in a quasi-distributed sensor, which can be illuminated using a single light source and interrogated simply by a single optical spectrum analyzer (USA), using wavelength multiplexing. The paper deals with such a sensor, which was installed for monitoring the distance changes in a construction joint between two building blocks inside the University "Politehnica" of Bucharest. Since this city is placed in a seismic-prone area, we use a fast scanning USA, so that the dynamic behavior of the monitored construction joint is expected to be captured during future earthquakes. Slow drifts of the construction joint width will be also monitored. The paper describes the sensor structure and working principle, the experimental tests and main parameters evaluation. The reported sensor is temperature compensated. It has an estimated distance resolution better or equal to 10 μm, and a linearity of +0.2%...-0.35% for displacements up to 0.55 mm. Simulated dynamic tests are also reported.

  20. An Overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program Propulsion Health Monitoring Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has been initiated with aggressive goals to reduce the civil aviation accident rate, To meet these goals, several technology investment areas have been identified including a sub-element in propulsion health monitoring (PHM). Specific AvSP PHM objectives are to develop and validate propulsion system health monitoring technologies designed to prevent engine malfunctions from occurring in flight, and to mitigate detrimental effects in the event an in-flight malfunction does occur. A review of available propulsion system safety information was conducted to help prioritize PHM areas to focus on under the AvSP. It is noted that when a propulsion malfunction is involved in an aviation accident or incident, it is often a contributing factor rather than the sole cause for the event. Challenging aspects of the development and implementation of PHM technology such as cost, weight, robustness, and reliability are discussed. Specific technology plans are overviewed including vibration diagnostics, model-based controls and diagnostics, advanced instrumentation, and general aviation propulsion system health monitoring technology. Propulsion system health monitoring, in addition to engine design, inspection, maintenance, and pilot training and awareness, is intrinsic to enhancing aviation propulsion system safety.

  1. Danube catchment water chemistry monitoring - elemental pattern determination from source to mouth using ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovsky, Anastassiya; Zitek, Andreas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the elemental composition of river water is an important tool to determine the chemical status of a river. However, currently many studies are limited to the analysis of heavy metals included in the EU Water Framework Directive Priority Substances List (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb). Yet, the assessment of further elements (e.g. Ca, Mg, Si) can give additional relevant information for understanding catchment processes such as soil erosion, weathering, hydrological changes or glacial melting. In addition, site specific "elemental pattern" can be used as tracer for ecological studies, like habitat and migration studies of fish or birds. Elemental information is of particular interest complementary to isotopic data where only little variability in the isotopic signatures can be observed. In this work, we investigated water samples collected from 68 sampling sites along the longitudinal course of the river Danube including the major tributaries during the Joint Danube Survey 3 (JDS3) in 2013. Water samples were obtained as triplicates in the middle of the river and analyzed using Inductively Coupled - Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Method validation was performed using riverine water (NRC SLRS-5) certified reference material as well as in-house prepared quality control standards. Due to the diverse geology and changing natural and anthropogenic factors along the longitudinal course of the Danube, pronounced elemental variations among the water samples were documented. For instance, especially some major elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na) together with some minor elements (Si, Sr) are known to reflect in particular regional geological morphologies. In addition, the variation in Si/Ca ratios can be used as an indicator for weathering conditions, especially in the mountainous areas along the Danube. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb downstream of some large cities and industrial areas are signs of significant anthropogenic impact. In combination, the chemical

  2. Speed of sound estimation with active PZT element for thermal monitoring during ablation therapy: feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younsu; Guo, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Alexis; Boctor, Emad M.

    2016-04-01

    Controlling the thermal dose during ablation therapy is instrumental to successfully removing the tumor while preserving the surrounding healthy tissue. In the practical scenario, surgeons must be able to determine the ablation completeness in the tumor region. Various methods have been proposed to monitor it, one of which uses ultrasound since it is a common intraoperative imaging modality due to its non-invasive, cost-effective, and convenient natures. In our approach, we propose to use time of flight (ToF) information to estimate speed of sound changes. Accurate speed of sound estimation is crucial because it is directly correlated with temperature change and subsequent determination of ablation completeness. We divide the region of interest in a circular fashion with a variable radius from the ablator tip. We introduce the concept of effective speed of sound in each of the sub-regions. Our active PZT element control system facilitates this unique approach by allowing us to acquire one-way ToF information between the PZT element and each of the ultrasound elements. We performed a simulation and an experiment to verify feasibility of this method. The simulation result showed that we could compute the effective speed of sound within 0.02m/s error in our discrete model. We also perform a sensitivity analysis for this model. Most of the experimental results had less than 1% error. Simulation using a Gaussian continuous model with multiple PZT elements is also demonstrated. We simulate the effect of the element location one the optimization result.

  3. Bridge Deformation Monitoring: Instight From InSAR Time-Series And Finite Element Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshiri, Roghayeh; Motagh, Mahdi; Baes, Marzieh; Sharifi, Mohammad-Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the capability of advanced InSAR time-series techniques such as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) for monitoring of civil engineering structures like bridge. Deformation monitoring of bridges are essential to mitigate not only the financial and human losses, but also ecological and environmental-related problems. Assessment of deformation during bridge lifespan can provide invaluable insight for better planning and management. The study area, Lake Urmia Causeway (LUC) in northwest Iran, consists of one bridge and two embankments on both sides of it. The difference between the deformation rate of the embankments on both sides of the bridge may seriously damage the bridge itself, so it is very important to accurately monitor them in space and time in order to assess the state of the bridge concerning deformations. In this study we apply the InSAR time-series technique of SBAS for 58 SAR images including 10 ALOS, 30 Envisat and 18 TerraSAR-X (TSX) to assess deflation of embankments of Urmia bridge during 2003-2013. The InSAR results are used in a 2D Finite Element Model (FEM) to assess structural stability of the embankments.

  4. Turbine engine rotor health monitoring evaluation by means of finite element analyses and spin tests data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Woike, Mark R.; Clem, Michelle; Baaklini, George Y.

    2014-04-01

    Generally, rotating engine components undergo high centrifugal loading environment which subject them to various types of failure initiation mechanisms. Health monitoring of these components is a necessity and is often challenging to implement. This is primarily due to numerous factors including the presence of scattered loading conditions, flaw sizes, component geometry and materials properties, all which hinder the simplicity of applying health monitoring applications. This paper represents a summary work of combined experimental and analytical modeling that included data collection from a spin test experiment of a rotor disk addressing the aforementioned durability issues. It further covers presentation of results obtained from a finite element modeling study to characterize the structural durability of a cracked rotor as it relates to the experimental findings. The experimental data include blade tip clearance, blade tip timing and shaft displacement measurements. The tests were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory, a high precision spin rig. The results are evaluated and examined to determine their significance on the development of a health monitoring system to pre-predict cracks and other anomalies and to assist in initiating a supplemental physics based fault prediction analytical model.

  5. Monitoring Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 Expression During Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bodak, Maxime; Ciaudo, Constance

    2016-01-01

    Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE-1 or L1) are a class of transposable elements which account for almost 19 % of the mouse genome. This represents around 600,000 L1 fragments, among which it is estimated that 3000 intact copies still remain capable to retrotranspose and to generate deleterious mutation by insertion into genomic coding region. In differentiated cells, full length L1 are transcriptionally repressed by DNA methylation. However at the blastocyst stage, L1 elements are subject to a demethylation wave and able to be expressed and to be inserted into new genomic locations. Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (mESCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Mouse ESCs can be maintained undifferentiated under controlled culture conditions or induced into the three primary germ layers, therefore they represent a suitable model to follow mechanisms involved in L1 repression during the process of differentiation of mESCs. This protocol presents how to maintain culture of undifferentiated mESCs, induce their differentiation, and monitor L1 expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. L1 transcriptional levels are assessed by real-time qRT-PCR performed on total RNA extracts using specific L1 primers and translation levels are measured by Western blot analysis of L1 protein ORF1 using a specific L1 antibody. PMID:26895058

  6. Microwave plasma monitoring system for the elemental composition analysis of high temperature process streams

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, high temperature capability refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury. The invention may be incorporated into a high temperature process device and implemented in situ for example, such as with a DC graphite electrode plasma arc furnace. The invention further provides a system for the elemental analysis of process streams by removing particulate and/or droplet samples therefrom and entraining such samples in the gas flow which passes through the plasma flame. Introduction of and entraining samples in the gas flow may be facilitated by a suction pump, regulating gas flow, gravity or combinations thereof.

  7. Who Really Failed? Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiuri, Katherine M.; Leon, Raul A.

    2012-01-01

    Scott Jaschik's (2010) article "Who Really Failed?" details the experience of Dominique Homberger, a tenured faculty member at Louisiana State University (LSU) who was removed from teaching her introductory biology course citing student complaints in regards to "the extreme nature" of the grading policy. This removal has sparked a debate, where…

  8. Monitoring trace elements by nuclear techniques in PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, M. Carmo; Almeida, S. Marta; Reis, Miguel A.; Oliveira, Orlando R.

    2003-06-01

    As part of a contract for air quality monitoring at an urban waste incinerator neighborhood, measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 are being routinely evaluated. Two samples are collected for 24 h at the weekend and a working day, using a Gent collector, which separates the particulate in two fractions: PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. Filters are polycarbonate Nuclepore, sized 47 mm, which, for analysis, are cut as: one half to be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and one quarter for proton induced X-rays emission (PIXE). Both techniques are multielemental determining together around 25 chemical elements. Comparison of results is just possible for potassium, iron and zinc, which are compared in this work. A better agreement is obtained in PM2.5 suggesting a homogeneity trend. Fe and K compare quite well and Zn may show quite different results.

  9. Monitoring of jökulhlaups and element fluxes in proglacial Icelandic rivers using osmotic samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Gałeczka, Iwona M.; Gkritzalis-Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Palmer, Martin R.; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Jónsson, Þorsteinn; Gislason, Sigurður R.

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of volatile emissions from volcanoes is an integral part of understanding magmatic systems, with the exsolution and extent of volcanic degassing having a large impact on the nature of an eruption. Measurements of volatiles have traditionally focused on gas emissions into the atmosphere, but volatiles can also become dissolved in proximal water bodies en route to the surface. Thus the monitoring of rivers draining active volcanic areas can provide insights to identifying changes in activity. This process is particularly important for sub-glacial volcanoes in Iceland, where much of the volatile release is transported within glacial outbreak floods, termed jökulhlaups. Monitoring and characterising these phenomena is hampered by the dependence on spot sampling of stochastic events under challenging field conditions, which often leads to bias in the collected data. A recent technological advance is the osmotic sampler, an electricity-free pump that continuously collects water that can subsequently be divided into time-averaged samples. This technique allows for continued and unsupervised deployment of a sampler for weeks to months, representing a cost-efficient form of chemical monitoring. In this study we deployed osmotic samplers in two rivers in southern Iceland. Skálm is a proglacial river from Mýrdalsjökull glacier and Katla volcano, while Skaftá is a larger drainage system from the western part of Vatnajökull glacier. Both rivers are prone to jökulhlaups from geothermal and volcanic sources, and a small jökulhlaup of geothermal origin occurred during the second deployment in Skaftá in January 2014. The two deployments show that osmotic samplers are capable of delivering accurate chemical data in turbulent conditions for several key elements. Total dissolved fluxes for the deployment at Skaftá are calculated to be Na = 9.9 tonnes/day, Mg = 10.5 t/d, Si = 34.7 t/d, Cl = 11.0 t/d, Ca = 31.6 t/d, DIC = 50.8 t/d, and SO4 = 28.3 t/d, with

  10. Monitoring the chemical vapor deposition growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes by tapered element oscillating microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švrček, V.; Kleps, I.; Cracioniou, F.; Paillaud, J. L.; Dintzer, T.; Louis, B.; Begin, D.; Pham-Huu, C.; Ledoux, M.-J.; Le Normand, F.

    2006-05-01

    The growth of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) produced by a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) process has been monitored using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) probe. This technique displays a high sensitivity (<1μg). Growths in the TEOM microreactor are investigated with catalytic particles (Fe, Ni) dispersed on different supports. First, high surface area Fe /Al2O3 or Fe (Ni) exchanged on zeolite powders is used. Second, growths are performed on array of nickel dots or Fe /Si-nc particles dispersed on large holes patterned on Si(100) substrates. An accurate monitoring of the early stages of growth permits a precise evaluation of the growth rates and shows substantial differences between these samples which greatly differ by the surface area. On catalysts dispersed on Si(100) the mass uptake is linear throughout the process. On high surface area catalysts, however, a saturation of the mass uptake is indifferently observed. This saturation is explained either by diffusion limitation by the growing MWCNTs or by internal diffusion through the pores or external diffusion through the grains of the catalyst. The kinetic dependence with partial pressure of the incoming C2H6:H2 gas mixture is then explored on the Fe /Al2O3 catalyst. A linear dependence of the MWCNT growth an (PC2H6/PH2)1/2 is found. A simple model is then developed that accounts for this dependence only if an associative and competitive adsorption of ethane is the rate determining step of thP overall process. These results thus bring insight to improve and control the CCVD growth kinetics of MWCNTs.P

  11. Failing by design.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Rita Gunther

    2011-04-01

    It's hardly news that business leaders work in increasingly uncertain environments, where failures are bound to be more common than successes. Yet if you ask executives how well, on a scale of one to 10, their organizations learn from failure, you'll often get a sheepish "Two-or maybe three" in response. Such organizations are missing a big opportunity: Failure may be inevitable but, if managed well, can be very useful. A certain amount of failure can help you keep your options open, find out what doesn't work, create the conditions to attract resources and attention, make room for new leaders, and develop intuition and skill. The key to reaping these benefits is to foster "intelligent failure" throughout your organization. McGrath describes several principles that can help you put intelligent failure to work. You should decide what success and failure would look like before you start a project. Document your initial assumptions, test and revise them as you go, and convert them into knowledge. Fail fast-the longer something takes, the less you'll learn-and fail cheaply, to contain your downside risk. Limit the number of uncertainties in new projects, and build a culture that tolerates, and sometimes even celebrates, failure. Finally, codify and share what you learn. These principles won't give you a means of avoiding all failures down the road-that's simply not realistic. They will help you use small losses to attain bigger wins over time. PMID:21510521

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A COMMUNITY MONITOR AND PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO PM 2.5 MASS AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN BALTIMORE, MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between a community monitor and personal exposures to PM2.5 mass and trace elements was investigated for 28 days during the summer of 1998 in a retirement home in Baltimore, Maryland. Daily community, outdoor, and indoor PM2.5 were measured with a URG Versatile...

  13. THE TAPERED ELEMENT OSCILLATING MICROBALANCE: A MONITOR FOR SHORT-TERM MEASUREMENT OF FINE AEROSOL MASS CONCENTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new instrument for short-term monitoring of ambient aerosol fine mass concentration has been developed based on a unique device called a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). The detector consists of a tapered hollow tube fixed at the wide end and holding an exchange...

  14. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material. PMID:25791415

  15. Finite element simulation of guided waves in pipelines for long range monitoring against third party attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussein, Salisu; Harrigan, John J.; Starkey, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Guided waves (GW) are finding more applications for structural health monitoring (SHM) of pipelines and other long, slender structures, particularly in the areas of corrosion and crack detection. Third party impact, both accidental and intentional, is also a major cause of pipeline failure. The use of low frequency (below 10 kHz) GW to detect damage caused by a third-party is investigated. Field test data on a 1 km long pipeline are compared with finite element (FE) predictions to illustrate the potential of low frequency GW to travel long distances along a pipeline. An FE study indicates the type and frequency of GW that can propagate long distances (low attenuation) without significant change in shape (low dispersion). The FE analysis is conducted on a typical 10 in (255 mm) diameter steel pipe with 7.8 mm wall thickness. The effects of pipe diameter and thickness on the GW propagation characteristics are illustrated. It is shown that certain frequencies for certain pipe geometries produce a very dispersive signal and should be avoided for GW SHM and the reasons for this are discussed.

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in Nerium oleander for pollution monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, E. F. O.; Simabuco, S. M.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2000-07-01

    This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Nerium oleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees in December and April. The measurement was made with a white beam of synchrotron radiation calibrated with thin samples from MicroMatter. The results indicate that some metals such as Ti, V, Fe and Zn have major content in samples that were collected in places with a high traffic flow, even in the leaves that have been washed. The levels of Mn, Co, Cu and Ni did not show significant differences between the samples. The Pb level also did not vary significantly. This was expected because in Brazil gasoline without Pb has been used for many years. The results seem to indicate that the leaves from Nerium oleander absorb metals from the atmosphere and may be used as an environmental indicator.

  17. Selection of Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring Sites based on Geographic Parameters Extraction of GIS and Fuzzy Matter-Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Ma, Jianhao; Zhao, Li; Sun, Ce; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively monitor the atmospheric quality of small-scale areas, it is necessary to optimize the locations of the monitoring sites. This study combined geographic parameters extraction by GIS with fuzzy matter-element analysis. Geographic coordinates were extracted by GIS and transformed into rectangular coordinates. These coordinates were input into the Gaussian plume model to calculate the pollutant concentration at each site. Fuzzy matter-element analysis, which is used to solve incompatible problems, was used to select the locations of sites. The matter element matrices were established according to the concentration parameters. The comprehensive correlation functions KA (xj) and KB (xj), which reflect the degree of correlation among monitoring indices, were solved for each site, and a scatter diagram of the sites was drawn to determine the final positions of the sites based on the functions. The sites could be classified and ultimately selected by the scatter diagram. An actual case was tested, and the results showed that 5 positions can be used for monitoring, and the locations conformed to the technical standard. In the results of this paper, the hierarchical clustering method was used to improve the methods. The sites were classified into 5 types, and 7 locations were selected. Five of the 7 locations were completely identical to the sites determined by fuzzy matter-element analysis. The selections according to these two methods are similar, and these methods can be used in combination. In contrast to traditional methods, this study monitors the isolated point pollutant source within a small range, which can reduce the cost of monitoring. PMID:25923911

  18. Concentrations of Elements in Hellbender Blood and Fish Fillets from the Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Mike J.; Brumbaugh, William G.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of contaminant monitoring surveys conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) blood and fish. Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus, Ictalurus punctatus, Pylodictis olivaris), redhorse (Moxostoma anisorum, Moxostoma erythrurum), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus, Micropterus Lacepede, Ambloplites rupestris), walleye (Sander vitreus), and sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) were collected from 17 sites as part of the Department's General Contaminant Monitoring Program. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and other sunfish (Lepomis megalotis, Lepomis cyanellus) were collected from 18 sites as part of the Department's Resource Assessment and Monitoring Program. Blood from hellbenders was collected from seven sites as part of the Department's Hellbender Monitoring Program.

  19. Do ICP-MS based methods fulfill the EU monitoring requirements for the determination of elements in our environment?

    PubMed

    Tirez, Kristof; Vanhoof, Chris; Bronders, Jan; Seuntjens, Piet; Bleux, Nico; Berghmans, Patrick; De Brucker, Nicole; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2015-12-01

    Undoubtedly, the most important advance in the environmental regulatory monitoring of elements of the last decade is the widespread introduction of ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) due to standards developed by the European Committee for Standardization. The versatility of ICP-MS units as a tool for the determination of major, minor and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Ti, V and Zn) in surface water, groundwater, river sediment, topsoil, subsoil, fine particulates and atmospheric deposition is illustrated in this paper. Ranges of background concentrations for major, minor and trace elements obtained from a regional case study (Flanders, Belgium) are summarized for all of these environmental compartments and discussed in the context of a harmonized implementation of European regulatory monitoring requirements. The results were derived from monitoring programs in support of EU environmental quality directives and were based on a selection of (non-polluted) background locations. Because of the availability of ICP-MS instruments nowadays, it can be argued that the main hindrance for meeting the European environmental monitoring requirements is no longer the technical feasibility of analysis at these concentration levels, but rather (i) potential contamination during sampling and analysis, (ii) too limited implementation of quality control programs, validating the routinely applied methods (including sampling and low level verification) and (iii) lack of harmonization in reporting of the chemical environmental status between the individual member states. PMID:26487336

  20. The Impact of Non-Passive Monitor Behavior on Developing Tree Ring Elemental Concentration Based Chronologies of Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukata, A. R.; Kyser, K.

    2008-12-01

    Most temperate tree species contain visibly distinct annual growth rings. These individual rings contain distinct isotopic and elemental compositions from pith to bark. As these individual rings can be dated to specific growth years, it is tempting to interpret these variations as directly reflecting temporal changes in the geochemical environment. However, tree physiology, in addition to changes in elemental bioavailability can effect the elemental composition of the growth ring. The viability of variations in tree ring elemental concentration as a proxy for changing environmental conditions is dependent on whether they are passive monitors of element bioavailability or their active incorporation can be characterized and properly considered during interpretation. We measured elemental concentrations in tree rings from red and white oak trees at sites across Southern Ontario, Canada, to determine whether they passively record changes in geochemical cycling in the presence of environmental stress. Periods of stress were defined as sustained intervals with elevated δ13C values in tree rings relative to contemporaneous atmospheric carbon dioxide. In some trees, nutrient concentrations (Ca, Mg, Mn) were highly variable during periods of stress while chemically similar non-nutrients (Ba, Sr) and the anthropogenic pollutant Pb were not. The concentration of Ca and Sr in the tree rings were related to bedrock type and leachable concentration in the soil, while Mn, Ba and Pb were not, but were inversely related to soil pH. The erratic behavior of nutrients during periods of stress suggests that although they are not always passive monitors of bioavailability, their variation may have environmental significance. The application of analytical techniques such as laser ablation ICP-MS to micro- sample across individual rings and around the bole will likely lead to the application of dendrochemistry to study environmental questions of a spatial or sub-annual nature. Although

  1. [Comparison of Monitoring Methods of Organic Carbon and Element Carbon in Atmospheric Fine Particles].

    PubMed

    Pang, Bo; Ji, Dong-sheng; Liu, Zi-rui; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yue-si

    2016-04-15

    Accurate measurement of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric fine particulate is an important scientific basis for studying the formation and source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol. The selection of different analysis programs will lead to difference in the OC and EC concentrations, and further result in the misjudgment of the results. The OC and EC concentrations observed using three temperature protocols including RT-Quartz ( R) , NIOSH 5040 (N) and Fast-TC (F) were compared and analyzed in combination with the degree of air pollution in Beijing. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the TC (TC = OC + EC), OC and EC concentrations observed using R, N and F protocols and certain deviation was found among the TC (TC = OC + EC) , OC and EC concentrations. For TC, the results observed using R protocol were 5% lower than those using N protocol; hut 1% higher than those using F protocol. For OC, the results obtained using R were 9% lower than those using N protocol and 1% higher than those using F protocol. For EC, the results obtained using R were 20% higher than those using N protocol and 11% lower than those using F protocol. The variation coefficients for TC, OC and EC obtained based on R protocol were less than the other two temperature protocols under different air quality degrees. The slopes of regression curves of TC, OC and EC between on-line analysis using R protocol and off-line analysis were 1.21,1. 14 and 1.35, respectively. The correlation coefficients of TC, OC and EC were 0.99, 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. In contrast with the Black carbon ( BC) concentrations monitored by multi-angle absorption spectrophotometer (MAAP), the EC concentrations measured by on-line OC/EC analyzer using R protocol were obviously lower. When the BC concentrations were less than or equal to 8 gg*m3, the EC/BC ratio was 0.39. While the EC/BC ratio was 0.88, when the BC concentrations were greater than 8 ggm3. The variation

  2. Elemental Abundances in the Solar Corona as Measured by the X-ray Solar Monitor Onboard Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narendranath, S.; Sreekumar, P.; Alha, L.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Huovelin, J.; Athiray, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    The X-ray Solar Monitor (XSM) on the Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 was flown to complement lunar elemental abundance studies by the X-ray fluorescence experiment C1XS. XSM measured the ≈ 1.8 - 20 keV solar X-ray spectrum during its nine months of operation in lunar orbit. The soft X-ray spectra can be used to estimate absolute coronal abundances using intensities of emission-line complexes and the plasma temperature derived from the continuum. The best estimates are obtained from the brightest flare observed by XSM: a C2.8-class flare. The well-known first-ionization potential (FIP) effect is observed; abundances are enhanced for the low-FIP elements Fe, Ca, and Si, while the intermediate-FIP element S shows values close to the photospheric abundance. The derived coronal abundances show a quasi-mass-dependent pattern of fractionation.

  3. Using laser micro mass spectrometry with the LAMMA-1000 instrument for monitoring relative elemental concentrations in vitrinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lyons, P.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Fletcher, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The variation in relative elemental concentrations among a series of coal macerals belonging to the vitrinite maceral group was determined using laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Variations in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V concentrations among the coals were determined using the LAMM A-1000 instrument. LAMMS analysis is not limited to these elements; their selection illustrates the application of the technique. Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V have minimal site-to-site variance in the vitrinite macerals of the studied coals as measured by LAMMS. The LAMMS data were compared with bulk elemental data obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and D. C. arc optical emission spectroscopy (DCAS) in order to determine the reliability of the LAMMS data. The complex nature of the ionization phenomena in LAMMS and the lack of standards characterized on a microscale makes obtaining quantitative elemental data within the ionization microvolume difficult; however, we demonstrate that the relative variation of an element among vitrinites from different coal beds in the eastern United States can be observed using LAMMS in a "bulk" mode by accumulating signal intensities over several microareas of each vitrinite. Our studies indicate gross changes (greater than a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the element) can be monitored when the elemental concentration is significantly above the detection limit. "Bulk" mode analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of future elemental LAMMS microanalyses. The primary advantage of LAMMS is the inherent spatial resolution, ~ 20 ??m for coal. Two different vitrite bands in the Lower Bakerstown coal bed (CLB-1) were analyzed. The analysis did not establish any certain concentration differences in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V between the two bands. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Monitoring aerosol elemental composition in particle size fractions of long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metternich, P.; Georgii, H.-W.; Groeneveld, K. O.

    1983-04-01

    Collection of atmospheric samples was performed at Malta, a semi-remote environment in the Mediterranean, in case of long-range transport studies of pollutants and natural substances. Using PIXE as a non-destructive trace-element analytical tool, the elemental composition of these samples was determined. Atmospheric concentrations obtained in this study were of one magnitude higher than those observed over the open North Alantic in purely marine air. For most of the anomalously enriched elements in the Mediterranean aerosol, the high concentrations can be explained by long-range transport.

  5. ESA Data User Element PERMAFROST: a spaceborne permafrost monitoring and information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Heim, B.; Boike, J.; Elger, K.; Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Westermann, S.; Sobiech, J.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost is a subsurface phenomenon whose ground thermal regime is mainly influenced by air temperature, land cover, soil and rock properties and snow parameters. Many spaceborne applications are potentially indicative for the thermal state of Permafrost, such as ‘land surface temperature’, ‘surface moisture’, ‘freeze/thaw’, ‘terrain’, ‘vegetation’ and ‘changes of surface waters’. The major task of the ESA Data User Element Permafrost project is to develop circumarctic/-boreal Earth Observation services of these parameters with extensive involvement of the permafrost research community The DUE PERMAFROST datasets will be processed in the EO-PERMAFROST Information System and provided via a WebGIS-interface. Further information is available at www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/ permafrost. In order to set up the required validation tasks and information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Most of the foreseen DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing applications are well established and can optimally become operational. The goal of DUE PERMAFROST is to lend confidence in their scientific utility for high-latitude permafrost landscapes. Therefore, a major component is the evaluation of the DUE PERMAFROST products. Ground measurements in the high-latitude landscapes involve challenging logistics and are networked on multidisciplinary and circum-arctic level by the Permafrost community. The International Permafrost Association (IPA) has built up the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) that is a network of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) projects. A major part of the DUE PERMAFROST core User group is contributing to GTN-P. Additional members of these programs and circum-arctic networks have also been involved in the consulting process and ground data providing process. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and

  6. Investigation of an 11mm diameter twin screw granulator: Screw element performance and in-line monitoring via image analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Ridade; Martinez-Marcos, Laura; Osorio, Juan G; Cruise, Paul; Jones, Ian; Halbert, Gavin W; Lamprou, Dimitrios A; Litster, James D

    2015-12-30

    As twin screw granulation (TSG) provides one with many screw element options, characterization of each screw element is crucial in optimizing the screw configuration in order to obtain desired granule attributes. In this study, the performance of two different screw elements - distributive feed screws and kneading elements - was studied in an 11 mm TSG at different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios. The kneading element configuration was found to break large granules more efficiently, leading to narrower granule size distributions. While pharmaceutical industry shifts toward continuous manufacturing, inline monitoring and process control are gaining importance. Granules from an 11 mm TSG were analysed using the Eyecon™, a real-time high speed direct imaging system, which has been used to capture accurate particle size distribution and particle count. The size parameters and particle count were then assessed in terms of their ability to be a suitable control measure using the Shewhart control charts. d10 and particle count were found to be good indicators of the change in L/S ratio. However, d50 and d90 did not reflect the change, due to their inherent variability even when the process is at steady state. PMID:26385406

  7. Can Failing Schools Be Fixed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires states and school districts to act aggressively to turn around failing schools. NCLB lists 31 different interventions of varying degrees of severity that are available to state and local policymakers when faced with schools whose students fail to make sufficient academic progress and sets forth…

  8. Trace element contamination in industrial regions of Poland studied by moss monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Frontasyeva, M; Szarek-Lukaszewska, G; Klich, M; Kucharska-Fabiś, A; Gundorina, S F; Ostrovnaya, T M

    2003-09-01

    The use of terrestrial mosses as biomonitors in large-scale multi-element studies of heavy metal deposition from the atmosphere is a well established technique in Europe. In such studies it is advantageous to determine as many elements as possible in order to distinguish between different source categories. A combination of INAA and AAS has been found very useful in this respect, in particular when epithermal activation is used for instrumental neutron activation analysis. A total of 33 elements (Al, Cl, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Pb, Th, and U) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. moss samples from the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region and Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin and from the control (background) area in Northeast Poland were identified. The highest concentrations of the majority of trace elements were found in mosses growing in the Silesia-Kraków Industrial Region, only Cu and As concentrations were higher in mosses in the Legnica-Głogów Copper Basin. These results are in conformity with the load of trace elements emissions in these areas. PMID:12952355

  9. [Biological monitoring of exposure to carcinogenic metallic elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in four secondary metallurgical sectors].

    PubMed

    De Palma, G; Corsini, A; Gilberti, E; Gabusi, V; Tagliani, G; Tomasi, C; Gandellini, A; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was aimed at evaluating in a large sample of male foundry workers the current exposure levels to carcinogenic compounds, including metallic elements [arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni)] and aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH) by a biological monitoring approach, using validated biomarkers of exposure. Workers were recruited from 15 aluminium, copper alloy, electric steel and cast iron foundries and provided an end-of-shift urine sample to determine urinary concentrations of As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP). Metallic elements were determined either by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Be, Cd and Cr) or by atomic absorption spectrometry (As, Ni), whereas 1-OHP was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Most of the determinations fell within the laboratory's reference values. Age and lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol, diet) played a significant interfering role. PMID:23405579

  10. MONITORING IN THE VADOSE ZONE: A REVIEW OF TECHNICAL ELEMENTS AND METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the topics of (1) principles of pollutant movement in the vadose zone (zone of aeration or unsaturated zone), (2) basic chemical reactions of fluids in the zone, (3) state-of-the-art monitoring techniques, and (4) the relative advantages and disadvantages of th...

  11. Analysis of selected biomonitors to evaluate the suitability for their complementary use in monitoring trace element atmospheric deposition.

    PubMed

    Cucu-Man, Simona-Maria; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2013-09-01

    The biomonitoring properties of oak tree bark compared with the epiphytic moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the influence of the tree bark, as its growth substrate, on the content of heavy metals in moss were investigated. Samples of the epiphytic moss H. cupressiforme and oak tree bark (Quercus spp.) were collected in Eastern Romania at a total of 44 sampling sites. Parallel moss and bark samples were collected from the same sides of the trunk circumference. V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, In, Tl, Sn, Pb, and Bi were determined by ICP-MS. Principal component analysis was used to identify possible sources of metals in bark and moss. Six factors explaining 87 % of the total variance in the data set were chosen. The main factors represent long-range atmospheric transport of elements (Zn, Cd, (Pb), Bi, (Mo), (Tl)), local emissions from industrial sources (As, Cr, Ni, V), road traffic (Pb, Zn) and agricultural activities (Cu, (Zn)). The element concentrations in moss and bark samples are of the same order of magnitude. For almost all the elements, higher concentrations were obtained in moss. Significant correlations between concentrations in moss and bark samples were obtained for 7 of the 13 elements: V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, In, and Bi, all typical anthropogenic pollutants. The use of tree bark for monitoring purposes might be an alternative in areas where there is a scarcity of mosses. PMID:23420523

  12. Gravitational wave triggered searches for failed supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, James; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Stellar core collapses occur to all stars of sufficiently high mass and often result in supernovae. A small fraction of supergiant stars, however, are thought to collapse directly into black holes without producing supernovae. A survey of such ``failed'' supernovae would require monitoring millions of supergiants for several years. That is very challenging even for current surveys. With the start of the Advanced LIGO science run, we investigate the possibility of detecting failed supernovae by looking for missing supergiants associated with gravitational wave triggers. We use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Our project is a joint effort between the community and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. In this talk we report on our ongoing efforts and discuss prospects for future searches.

  13. On the use of the EMI for the health monitoring of bonded elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulizzi, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Milazzo, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    The low weight, robustness and fatigue resistance of adhesive joints make them suitable for structural joints. A fully developed nondestructive evaluation technique however is needed to monitor and assess the quality of bonded joints. In the present paper the application of the electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique is proposed. In the EMI method a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) is attached to the structure of interest. The high sensitivity and low power consumption make the EMI method feasible for real time structural health monitoring. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of the electromechanical response of a PZT to the curing and the quality of the adhesive used for bonded joints. A PXI unit running under LabView and an auxiliary circuit were employed to measure the electric impedance of a PZT glued to an aluminum plate. The system aimed at monitoring the bond line between an aluminum strip and the plate. The conductive signature of the PZT was measured and analyzed during the curing. The experimental results show that the electromechanical impedance technique is sensitive to the curing time and variations are observed for adhesives of different quality.

  14. Who Really Failed New Orleans?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Thomas D.

    2008-09-01

    I read with unusual interest the Forum ``Earth Scientists and Public Policy: Have We Failed New Orleans?'' in the 4 March issue of Eos (89(10), 2008). As an Earth scientist who lived in New Orleans during most of the early 1960s, I believe strongly that Earth scientists did not fail to recognize infrastructure problems. Further, they tried to communicate these problems and potential dangers to civic leaders in New Orleans and to government officials in Baton Rouge and Washington.

  15. Comparative study of the suitability of three lichen species to trace-element air monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cercasov, V; Pantelică, A; Sălăgean, M; Caniglia, G; Scarlat, A

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the suitability of three lichen species (Cetraria islandica, Evernia prunastri, and Ramalina farinacea) as transplants to trace-element air biomonitoring, they were exposed on substratum-free supports, from July 1996 until July 1997, in three European countries with different climates (Germany, Italy, Romania), at six sites with different types of air pollutants (two in each country). After 2, 4, 6, and 12 months of exposure, some portions of thallus were collected, prepared, and measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest and by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis (EDXRFA) at the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart. Fifteen environmentally relevant elements: As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, V, and Zn were determined. The analytical results were compared statistically. To study the distribution of the trace-elements between the lichens and the lichen throughfall water inside a virtual column, the throughfall water was collected under the lichen transplants during 6 and 12 months. The dried residues were analysed by INAA at Bucharest. The accumulating capacity for all investigated species is evident. For a comparative evaluation, the initial element contents, the "accumulation factors" relative to the bulk deposition, the interspecies "calibration factors", and the "retention efficiencies", defined as ratios of the lichen enrichment to the sum of this enrichment and the content in the lichen throughfall water, were considered. These criteria attest the best suitability for Evernia prunastri, followed by Ramalina farinacea and Cetraria islandica. PMID:12125725

  16. Monitoring of cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer membrane using streptolysin O as a sensing and signal transduction element.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Atsushi; Ikeya, Kana; Aoyagi, Miki; Takatsuji, Ryutaro; Yanagida, Akio; Shibusawa, Yoichi; Sugawara, Masao

    2016-09-01

    Streptolysin O (SLO), which recognizes sterols and forms nanopores in lipid membranes, is proposed as a sensing element for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer. The structural requirements of eight sterols for forming nanopores by SLO confirmed that a free 3-OH group in the β-configuration of sterols is required for recognition by SLO in a lipid bilayer. The extent of nanopore formation by SLO in lipid bilayers increased in the order of cholestanolmonitoring of cholesterol oxidase-mediated oxidation of cholesterol in a lipid bilayer. The potential of the SLO nanopore-based method for monitoring cholesterol oxidation in a lipid bilayer by other oxidative enzymes is also discussed. PMID:27362457

  17. Definition, technology readiness, and development cost of the orbit transfer vehicle engine integrated control and health monitoring system elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, I.; Balcer, S.; Cochran, M.; Klop, J.; Peterson, S.

    1991-01-01

    An Integrated Control and Health Monitoring (ICHM) system was conceived for use on a 20 Klb thrust baseline Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV) engine. Considered for space used, the ICHM was defined for reusability requirements for an OTV engine service free life of 20 missions, with 100 starts and a total engine operational time of 4 hours. Functions were derived by flowing down requirements from NASA guidelines, previous OTV engine or ICHM documents, and related contracts. The elements of an ICHM were identified and listed, and these elements were described in sufficient detail to allow estimation of their technology readiness levels. These elements were assessed in terms of technology readiness level, and supporting rationale for these assessments presented. The remaining cost for development of a minimal ICHM system to technology readiness level 6 was estimated. The estimates are within an accuracy range of minus/plus 20 percent. The cost estimates cover what is needed to prepare an ICHM system for use on a focussed testbed for an expander cycle engine, excluding support to the actual test firings.

  18. Improved multi-element measurement of absorption via the fecal monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, R.S.; Gibson, I.L.; Weber, C.E.; Atkinson, S.A.

    1986-03-01

    The fecal monitoring technique for measuring the absorption of Mn, Se and Fe was studied in eight piglets using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Four day old piglets were fed a complete liquid diet for five days prior to the administration of an isotope dose (/sup 75/Se, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe) equilibrated with the milk feeding. /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was used as a fecal marker. Subsequently stool and urine samples were collected daily for 15-21 days. Following counting, the % fecal excretion of the administered dose was calculated. As 0 to 33% of the administered /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/ was absorbed this fecal marker is inappropriate for piglets. Results indicate that endogenous excretion for each of the isotopes was not constant but decreased exponentially with time. An improved method for calculating the endogenous excretion was therefore developed. This method is based on the pattern of endogenous excretion in comparable piglets injected intravenously with the same isotopes, and on the level of endogenous excretion in the orally fed animals in the post-absorptive phase of excretion. These findings have important implications for the estimation of endogenous excretion in future fecal monitoring absorption studies. Previous results using the latter technique have frequently underestimated true absorption.

  19. Anthropogenic rare earth element fluxes into floodplains: Coupling between geochemical monitoring and hydrodynamic sediment transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Hostache, Renaud; Iffly, Jean François; Pfister, Laurent; Stille, Peter

    2015-09-01

    As all rare earth elements (REEs) have an increasingly important role in high tech industries, they are now recognized as emergent pollutants in river systems impacted by anthropogenic activity. Over the past 20 years, significant anthropogenic contributions were reported for Gd, La and Sm, and we may expect that REE contamination in rivers is to further increase in a near future. Despite the work done to assess the environmental impact of REE pollutions in larger river systems, we are still lacking information on the dynamics of these anthropogenic compounds in relation to hydrological changes. Here, we observed for the first time particulate Ce originating from local industrial activities in Luxembourg and we quantified the anthropogenic contribution to the REE fluxes at the river basin scale during a single flood event.

  20. Comparison of trace element concentrations in tissue of common carp and implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; DeWeese, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from four sites in the Red River of the North in 1994 were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (So), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations differed among liver, muscle, and whole body. Generally, trace element concentrations were the greatest in livers while concentrations in whole bodies were greater than those in muscle for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and concentrations in muscle were similar to whole body for As and Se. Concentrations of Cr were lower in liver than either muscle or whole body. Correlations between liver and whole body concentrations were stronger than those between liver and muscle concentrations, but the strongest correlations were between muscle and whole body concentrations. Examination of tissue concentrations by collection sites suggested that, for a general survey, the whole body may be the most effective matrix to analyze.

  1. Making processing fail-safe

    SciTech Connect

    Freiburghouse, R.

    1982-05-01

    The author describes the Stratus/32 multiprocessor, a fault-tolerant system for commercial applications which supports on-line transaction processing, batch processing, word processing and interactive program development. It uses a combination of hardware and software that provides continuous processing of user programs during computer failure without checkpoint/restart programming at the user or system level. Central to the system's fail-safe operation are processing modules, each of which has redundant logic and communication paths, logic and CPU boards and main and disk memory. Twin components operate in parallel with each other; when one fails, its partner carries on.

  2. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  3. Comparision of photogrammetric point clouds with BIM building elements for construction progress monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttas, S.; Braun, A.; Borrmann, A.; Stilla, U.

    2014-08-01

    For construction progress monitoring a planned state of the construction at a certain time (as-planed) has to be compared to the actual state (as-built). The as-planed state is derived from a building information model (BIM), which contains the geometry of the building and the construction schedule. In this paper we introduce an approach for the generation of an as-built point cloud by photogrammetry. It is regarded that that images on a construction cannot be taken from everywhere it seems to be necessary. Because of this we use a combination of structure from motion process together with control points to create a scaled point cloud in a consistent coordinate system. Subsequently this point cloud is used for an as-built - as-planed comparison. For that voxels of an octree are marked as occupied, free or unknown by raycasting based on the triangulated points and the camera positions. This allows to identify not existing building parts. For the verification of the existence of building parts a second test based on the points in front and behind the as-planed model planes is performed. The proposed procedure is tested based on an inner city construction site under real conditions.

  4. Environmental monitoring of trace elements in bark of Scots pine by thick-target PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harju, L.; Saarela, K.-E.; Rajander, J.; Lill, J.-O.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    2002-04-01

    Bark samples were taken from Scots pines ( Pinus sylvestris L.) from a polluted area near a metal plant and from a relatively non-polluted site. Thick-target particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used for the analyses after different types of prepreparation of the samples. The bark samples were analysed directly by radially scanning from inner to outer bark in order to study the variability of elemental concentrations in different layers. Some clear differences were found in the chemical composition of the inner and outer bark. The lowest detection limits for the analyses of heavy metal ions were obtained by combining dry ashing at 550 °C with the PIXE method. More than 100 times higher concentrations were found for the heavy metal ions Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As and Pb in the bark samples from a polluted area in comparison to samples from a non-polluted area. The work demonstrated that external-beam thick-target PIXE is a sensitive and reliable method for quantitative determination of heavy metals in tree bark samples.

  5. Monitoring trace elements generated by automobiles: air pollutants with possible health impacts.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Khaleeq; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar; Javeed, Aqeel

    2013-07-01

    Major transformations in the environmental composition are principally attributable to the combustion of fuels by automobiles. Motorized gasoline-powered two-stroke auto-rickshaws (TSA) and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (FSA) are potential source of air pollution in south Asia and produce toxic amount of particulate matter (PM) to the environment. In this study, we attempted to characterize elemental pollutants from the PM of TSA and FSA using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. The observations of the existing investigation recognized significant increase in Al (P < 0.05), P (P < 0.01), and Zn (P < 0.01) from the PM samples of FSA. In addition, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na and S were also observed exceeding the recommended National Institute for Environmental Studies limits. On the contrary, increased concentration of Sr and V were observed in the PM samples from TSA. It is generally believed that FSA generates smaller amount of PM but data obtained from FSA are clearly describing that emissions from FSA comprised potentially more toxic substances than TSA. The current research is specific to metropolitan population and has evidently revealed an inconsistent burden of exposure to air pollutants engendered by FSA in urban communities, which could lead to the disruption of several biological activities and may cause severe damage to entire ecological system. PMID:23263758

  6. The spatial distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Xu, Dongyu; Wei, Xin; Gao, Li

    2015-11-01

    The alteration of hydrologic condition of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) after impoundment has caused numerous environmental changes. This study investigated the distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs) in sediments from three tributaries (ZY, MX and CT) and one mainstream (CJ) in TGR during different seasons. The average contents of most SMTEs excluding Sb in the winter were similar to that in the summer. For Sb, its average concentrations in the summer and winter were roughly six and three times higher than its background value, respectively. Contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediments were obviously contaminated by Sb. The enrichment factors (EF) of Ga and Sb were higher than 2.0, revealing the possible anthropogenic inputs; However, the EFs of other SMTEs were lower than 1.5, indicating the natural inputs. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested the most SMTEs were positively correlated with major elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and clay contents, which implies that SMTEs had the same sources with these major metals, and the fine particles might be a major carrier for transporting SMTEs from the rivers to the TGR.

  7. The spatial distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Xu, Dongyu; Wei, Xin; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    The alteration of hydrologic condition of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) after impoundment has caused numerous environmental changes. This study investigated the distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs) in sediments from three tributaries (ZY, MX and CT) and one mainstream (CJ) in TGR during different seasons. The average contents of most SMTEs excluding Sb in the winter were similar to that in the summer. For Sb, its average concentrations in the summer and winter were roughly six and three times higher than its background value, respectively. Contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediments were obviously contaminated by Sb. The enrichment factors (EF) of Ga and Sb were higher than 2.0, revealing the possible anthropogenic inputs; However, the EFs of other SMTEs were lower than 1.5, indicating the natural inputs. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested the most SMTEs were positively correlated with major elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and clay contents, which implies that SMTEs had the same sources with these major metals, and the fine particles might be a major carrier for transporting SMTEs from the rivers to the TGR. PMID:26538153

  8. Finite element modeling of the dynamic response of a composite reinforced concrete bridge for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanjani Zadeh, V.; Patnaik, A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) modeling of a composite steel stinger supported reinforced concrete (RC) deck highway bridge subjected to moving truck loads. FE models were validated using test data that were generated elsewhere for structural health monitoring. The FE models were established using a commercial FE analysis package called ABAQUS/standard. The case study bridge was discretized to a combination of shell and solid elements which represent the deck and piers, respectively. Numerous constrain interactions were defined to make the model suitable to obtain accurate results. Moving loads induced by two standard AASHTO trucks were developed through a specific load-time history, applied on 35 nodes on the superstructure. To study the dynamic behavior of the bridge under a moving load, a modal analysis followed by an implicit dynamic analysis was carried out. Acceptable agreement was found between the field measurements and FE simulation. Most concerned dynamic response was strains at different locations in bridge girders and columns, because it is the only critical parameter that can be measured with confidence during SHM at site. The range of strains determined in analysis was reasonably close to the measured strains at the site of the study bridge. Several parameters including damping, truck weight and speed, and material properties were studied. Truck speed had the highest effect on strain response of both girders and columns.

  9. The spatial distribution, accumulation and potential source of seldom monitored trace elements in sediments of Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Huaidong; Xu, Dongyu; Wei, Xin; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    The alteration of hydrologic condition of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) after impoundment has caused numerous environmental changes. This study investigated the distribution, accumulation and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs) in sediments from three tributaries (ZY, MX and CT) and one mainstream (CJ) in TGR during different seasons. The average contents of most SMTEs excluding Sb in the winter were similar to that in the summer. For Sb, its average concentrations in the summer and winter were roughly six and three times higher than its background value, respectively. Contamination factor (CF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) demonstrated that most of the sediments were obviously contaminated by Sb. The enrichment factors (EF) of Ga and Sb were higher than 2.0, revealing the possible anthropogenic inputs; However, the EFs of other SMTEs were lower than 1.5, indicating the natural inputs. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested the most SMTEs were positively correlated with major elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) and clay contents, which implies that SMTEs had the same sources with these major metals, and the fine particles might be a major carrier for transporting SMTEs from the rivers to the TGR. PMID:26538153

  10. Monitoring transmission routes of Listeria spp. in smoked salmon production with repetitive element sequence-based PCR techniques.

    PubMed

    Zunabovic, M; Domig, K J; Pichler, I; Kneifel, W

    2012-03-01

    Various techniques have been used for tracing the transmission routes of Listeria species and for the assessment of hygiene standards in food processing plants. The potential of repetitive element sequence-based PCR (Rep-PCR) methods (GTG₅ and REPI + II) for the typing of Listeria isolates (n = 116), including Listeria monocytogenes (n = 46), was evaluated in a particular situation arising from the relocation of a company producing cold-smoked salmon. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using three restriction enzymes (ApaI, AscI, and SmaI) was used for comparison. Identical transmission scenarios among two companies could be identified by cluster analysis of L. monocytogenes isolates that were indistinguishable by both Rep-PCR and PFGE. The calculated diversity index (DI) indicates that Rep-PCR subtyping of Listeria species with primer sets GTG₅ and REPI + II has a lower discrimination power than does PFGE. When concatenated Rep-PCR cluster analysis was used, the DI increased from 0.934 (REPI + II) and 0.923 (GTG₅) to 0.956. The discrimination power of this method was similar to that of PFGE typing based on restriction enzyme Apa I (DI = 0.955). Listeria welshimeri may be useful as an indicator for monitoring smoked salmon processing environments. Rep-PCR meets the expectations of a reasonable, fast, and low-cost molecular subtyping method for the routine monitoring of Listeria species. The discriminatory power as characterized by the DI sufficiently quantifies the probability of unrelated isolates being characterized as different subtypes. Therefore, Rep-PCR typing based on two primer systems (GTG₅ and REPI + II) may be a useful tool for monitoring industrial hygiene. PMID:22410224

  11. Finite element modeling to determine thermal residual strain distribution of bonded composite repairs for structural health monitoring design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Wayne; Jones, Rhys; Davis, Claire; Galea, Stephen C.

    2002-11-01

    The economic implication of fleet upgrades, particularly in Australia with military aircraft such as the F-111 and F/A-18, has led to an increasing reliance on composite repair technology to address fatigue and corrosion-affected aircraft components. The increasing use of such repairs has led to a research effort to develop various in-situ health monitoring systems that may be incorporated with a repair. This paper reports on the development of a theoretical methodology that uses finite element analysis (FEA) to model the strain profiles which optical sensors, on or within the patch, will be exposed to under various operational scenarios, including load and disbond. Numerical techniques are then used to predict the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) reflections which occur with these strain profiles. The quality of these reflection are a key consideration when designing FBG based structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. This information can be used to optimise the location of both surface mounted, and embedded sensors, and determine feasibility of SHM system design. Research was conducted into the thermal residual strain (TRS) within the patch. A finite element study revealed the presence of significant thermal residual strain gradients along the surface of the tapered region of the patch. As Bragg gratings are particularly sensitive to strain gradients, (producing a result similar to a chirped grating) the strain gradient on the composite at potential sensor locations both under load, and in the event of disbond was considered. A sufficiently high gradient leads to an altered Bragg reflection. These spurious reflections need to be considered, and theoretically obtained reflections can provide information to allow for load scenarios where the Bragg shift is not a smooth, well defined peak. It can also be shown that embedded fibres offer a higher average thermal residual strain reading, while being subject to a much lower strain gradient. This particularly favors the

  12. Dust formation by failed supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-11-01

    We consider dust formation during the ejection of the hydrogen envelope of a red supergiant during a failed supernova (SN) creating a black hole. While the dense, slow moving ejecta are very efficient at forming dust, only the very last phases of the predicted visual transient will be obscured. The net grain production consists of Md ˜ 10- 2 M⊙ of very large grains (10-1000 μm). This means that failed SNe could be the source of the very large extrasolar dust grains possibly identified by Ulysses, Galileo and radar studies of meteoroid re-entry trails rather than their coming from an ejection process associated with protoplanetary or other discs.

  13. Segmented Coil Fails In Steps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stedman, Ronald S.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic coil degrades in steps when faults occur, continues to operate at reduced level instead of failing catastrophically. Made in segments connected in series and separated by electrically insulating barriers. Fault does not damage adjacent components or create hazard. Used to control valves in such critical applications as cooling systems of power generators and chemical process equipment, where flammable liquids or gases handled. Also adapts to electrical control of motors.

  14. Bioenergetics of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir; Joubert, Frédéric

    2011-07-01

    The heart is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels to the periphery by repeated, rhythmic contractions at variable intensity. As such the heart should permanently adjust energy production to energy utilization and is a high-energy consumer. For this the heart mainly depends on oxidative metabolism for adequate energy production and on efficient energy transfer systems. In heart failure, there is disequilibrium between the work the heart has to perform and the energy it is able to produce to fulfill its needs. This has led to the concept of energy starvation of the failing heart. This includes decreased oxygen and substrate supply, altered substrate utilization, decreased energy production by mitochondria and glycolysis, altered energy transfer and inefficient energy utilization. Mitochondrial biogenesis and its transcription cascade are down-regulated. Disorganization of the cytoarchitecture of the failing cardiomyocyte also participates in energy wastage. Finally, the failing of the cardiac pump, by decreasing oxygen and substrate supply, leads to a systemic energy starvation. Metabolic therapy has thus emerged as an original and promising approach in the treatment heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria and Cardioprotection. PMID:20869993

  15. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part I: Elemental Carbon and Iron–Soot Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Birch, M. Eileen; Ku, Bon-Ki; Evans, Douglas E.; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:514–31.)] Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this Issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported here, in Part I, while results for PAHs are reported in Part II [Birch ME. (Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2011; 55: 1037–47.)]. Respirable EC area concentrations inside the facility were about 6–68 times higher than outdoors, while personal breathing zone samples were up to 170 times higher. PMID:21965464

  16. Development of a standard protocol for monitoring trace elements in continental waters with moss bags: inter- and intraspecific differences.

    PubMed

    Cesa, Mattia; Bertossi, Alberto; Cherubini, Giovanni; Gava, Emanuele; Mazzilis, Denis; Piccoli, Elisa; Verardo, Pierluigi; Nimis, Pier Luigi

    2015-04-01

    This paper is a contribution for validating a standard method for trace element monitoring based on transplants and analysis of aquatic bryophytes, in the framework of the EC Directive 2000/60. It presents the results of an experiment carried out to assess significant differences in the amount and variability of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in three moss species (Cinclidotus aquaticus, Fontinalis antipyretica, Platyhypnidium riparioides) and two different parts of the moss (whole plant vs apical tips). Mosses were caged in bags made of a plastic net and transplanted for 2 weeks to an irrigation canal impacted by a waste water treatment plant. Trace element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) before and after exposure to the experimental and control sites in five samples. Enrichment factors >2 were found for Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in all moss species, lower in C. aquaticus, intermediate in F. antipyretica and higher in P. riparioides (the species we recommend to use). The analysis of apical tips after exposure instead of the whole plant led to (I) lower concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Fe and Zn in C. aquaticus (-7 to -30%) and of Fe and Pb (-13, -18%) in P. riparioides, (II) higher concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn (+14 to +18%) in P. riparioides, while (III) no significant difference (p > 0.05) in F. antipyretica. Data variability after exposure was generally lower in apical tips, especially in C. aquaticus and in F. antipyretica, less in P. riparioides. In the aim of standardizing the moss-bag technique, the analysis of apical tips is recommended. PMID:25647488

  17. When do Floquet systems fail to heat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Anushya

    Periodically driven quantum systems do not have a conserved energy. Thus, statistical mechanical lore holds that if they thermalize, it must be to infinite temperature. I will first show this holds in undriven systems that satisfy the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis. I will then present two counter-examples to infinite temperature heating. The first is the bosonic O(N) model at infinite N, in which the steady states are paramagnetic and have non-trivial correlations. The second is the Clifford circuit model, which can fail to heat depending on the choice of circuit elements. The resulting steady states can then be localized or delocalized but not ergodic. Such models shed light on the nature of interacting Floquet localization.

  18. Fail-safe liquid containment materials

    SciTech Connect

    Watt, D.F.; Pan, R.

    1994-12-31

    The transportation of hazardous liquids poses a problem if the vehicle hauling the liquids is involved an accident. The current work is attempting to develop an inexpensive tough flexible sparsely-reinforced elastomer sheet to incorporate inside the containers, to contain leakage should the outer shell fail. The thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer is chosen as an ideal candidate for at least one side of a two-sheet matrix material because of its unique physical properties. This matrix is reinforced with webs of continuous fiber of various types and patterns. The reinforcement becomes a load carrying structure element designed to resist both crack initiation and propagation, in the accident event. In this paper, we focus on studying the deformation behaviour of the sparsely reinforced elastomer sheet by means of tensile tests, tear tests, snag tests, slow puncture tests, large missile impact tests and hydraulic bulge tests.

  19. FAIL-SAFE TRANSFER LINE FOR HAZARDOUS FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The design principles, development, laboratory testing, fabrication and field testing of a fail-safe transfer line for hazardous liquids are described. The system provides a 2-inch-ID flexible hose line for off-loading tank cars or trucks and detects leaks by monitoring flow inve...

  20. High elastic polyurethane/carbon nanotube composite laminate for structure health monitoring by gain shifting of antenna sensing element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejnik, Robert; Slobodian, Petr; Matyas, Jiri; Gorakh Babar, Dipak

    2016-03-01

    The composite of carbon nanotubes and polyurethane (PU) was prepared by simple filtration technique. The PU nonwoven filtration membrane was prepared by electrospinning. A layer of carbon nanotubes was prepared by vacuum filtration on the surface of PU membrane. The resulting composite was subsequently placed on highly elastic polyurethane substrate. The contribution shows an efficient method of preparing the sensing element for monitoring the state of strain of loaded structures by using highly elastic polyurethane / carbon nanotubes composite. This sensor has been involved as passive antenna with stable resonance frequency of 650 MHz. When it is get deformed in the range from 0 to 3.5% the sensor gain was changing from -39 dB to - 19.45 dB. But if it is get deformed by 15% and again measured strain from 0 to 3.5%, sensor gain was changing from -33 dB to -12.3 dB, which clearly indicates the damage of structure.

  1. Pollution Characteristics and Possible Sources of Seldom Monitored Trace Elements in Surface Sediments Collected from Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Bo; Wei, Xin; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Wan, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical study of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) sediments was carried out to analyze the concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs). The mean concentrations of Li, B, Be, Bi, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Sb, and Tl were 47.08, 2.47, 59.15, 0.50, 119.20, 17.83, 30.31, 3.25, 4.14, and 0.58 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of total SMTEs, together with their spatial distribution, showed that the SMTEs were mainly due to anthropogenic inputs in the region of TGR. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicates that Tl, Be, V, Co, and Fe are at the unpolluted level; Bi, Li, Ga, and Sn were at the “uncontaminated to moderately contaminated” level. However, B was classified as “moderately contaminated” level and Sb was ranked as “strongly contaminated” level. The pollution level of the SMTEs is Sb > B > Bi > Li > Ga > Sn > Tl > Be > V > Co > Fe. The results of Correlation Analysis and Principal Component Analysis indicated Be, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Tl, Bi, and Fe in sediments have a natural source. B and Li were positively correlated with each other and mainly attributed into similar anthropogenic input. In addition, Sb has less relationship with other SMTEs, indicating that Sb has another kind of anthropogenic source. PMID:25136647

  2. Pollution characteristics and possible sources of seldom monitored trace elements in surface sediments collected from Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Wei, Xin; Zhou, Huaidong; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Wan, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical study of Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) sediments was carried out to analyze the concentrations, distribution, accumulation, and potential sources of the seldom monitored trace elements (SMTEs). The mean concentrations of Li, B, Be, Bi, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Sb, and Tl were 47.08, 2.47, 59.15, 0.50, 119.20, 17.83, 30.31, 3.25, 4.14, and 0.58 mg/kg, respectively. The concentrations of total SMTEs, together with their spatial distribution, showed that the SMTEs were mainly due to anthropogenic inputs in the region of TGR. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicates that Tl, Be, V, Co, and Fe are at the unpolluted level; Bi, Li, Ga, and Sn were at the "uncontaminated to moderately contaminated" level. However, B was classified as "moderately contaminated" level and Sb was ranked as "strongly contaminated" level. The pollution level of the SMTEs is Sb > B > Bi > Li > Ga > Sn > Tl > Be > V > Co > Fe. The results of Correlation Analysis and Principal Component Analysis indicated Be, V, Co, Ga, Sn, Tl, Bi, and Fe in sediments have a natural source. B and Li were positively correlated with each other and mainly attributed into similar anthropogenic input. In addition, Sb has less relationship with other SMTEs, indicating that Sb has another kind of anthropogenic source. PMID:25136647

  3. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  4. We Must Teach Students to Fail Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Leah Blatt

    2009-01-01

    In the author's role as an academic dean, she frequently meets with students on probation who have not yet learned how to fail and are consequently paralyzed academically. One of the most pivotal skills for a student who wishes to succeed in the academic arena is the ability to fail well. "Good failing" requires the strength to make use of a…

  5. Why Waveform Correlation Sometimes Fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, J.

    2015-12-01

    Waveform correlation detectors used in explosion monitoring scan noisy geophysical data to test two competing hypotheses: either (1) an amplitude-scaled version of a template waveform is present, or, (2) no signal is present at all. In reality, geophysical wavefields that are monitored for explosion signatures include waveforms produced by non-target sources that are partially correlated with the waveform template. Such signals can falsely trigger correlation detectors, particularly at low thresholds required to monitor for smaller target explosions. This challenge is particularly formidable when monitoring known test sites for seismic disturbances, since uncatalogued natural seismicity is (generally) more prevalent at lower magnitudes, and could be mistaken for small explosions. To address these challenges, we identify real examples in which correlation detectors targeting explosions falsely trigger on both site-proximal earthquakes (Figure 1, below) and microseismic "noise". Motivated by these examples, we quantify performance loss when applying these detectors, and re-evaluate the correlation-detector's hypothesis test. We thereby derive new detectors from more general hypotheses that admit unknown background seismicity, and apply these to real data. From our treatment, we derive "rules of thumb'' for proper template and threshold selection in heavily cluttered signal environments. Last, we answer the question "what is the probability of falsely detecting an earthquake collocated at a test site?", using correlation detectors that include explosion-triggered templates. Figure Top: An eight-channel data stream (black) recorded from an earthquake near a mine. Red markers indicate a detection. Middle: The correlation statistic computed by scanning the template against the data stream at top. The red line indicates the threshold for event declaration, determined by a false-alarm on noise probability constraint, as computed from the signal-absent distribution using

  6. Electrocardiogram of the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Hombach, Vinzenz

    2002-09-01

    In the failing heart general specific (e.g., Q-waves after acute myocardial infarction, persistent ST-elevations in post-myocardial infarction left ventricular aneurysm) and unspecific ECG changes (e.g., left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, ST-T-alterations due to digitalis glycosides or antiarrhythmic drugs) may be seen in the conventional 12-lead ECG. In addition, atrial and ventricular tachy-arrhythmias may be detected and quantified by 24-hour-Holter ECG recordings, that may be relevant for a worse prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure. Heart rate variability as the most relevant derived ECG parameter of sympathetic tone fluctuations may be of important prognostic significance in congestive heart failure patients. An abnormal signal averaged P-wave duration may predict the incidence of atrial fibrillation, as may apply to QRS-prolongation and/or ventricular late potentials in the signal averaged ECG for the incidence of serious life-threatening ventricular tachy-arrhythmias or death from pump failure. Last but not least, cardiac repolarization abnormalities may be detected by QT dispersion-, QT-/QTc-fluctuation- or T-wave alternans studies, but the true prognostic significance of these parameters for predicting sudden cardiac death or death from pump failure in patients with congestive heart failure remains unclear. PMID:12114840

  7. Fail-safe electric actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.J.

    1988-07-19

    In combination with a control mechanism characterized by the ability to be moved from inoperative to operative position and back, a fail-safe actuator device for automatically returning the control mechanism to inoperative position when interruption of electric power occurs is described which comprises: a fluid-driven vaned torque actuator: electric-motor-driven fluid power means for operating the torque actuator; electrically operated valve means for controlling the power fluid flow between the torque actuator and the fluid power generating means; at least one shaft projecting from the torque actuator; coupling means for operatively connecting the shaft to the control mechanism to be operated by the failsafe actuator device; reversible means for storing energy, the reversible means being operatively connected to the shaft; a limit-switch operating cam mounted on and rotable with the shaft; a limit switch positioned for activation by the limit-switch operating cam; and electric circuitry means for interconnecting the motordriven fluid power generating means, the valve means, and the limit switch.

  8. Failed epidural: causes and management.

    PubMed

    Hermanides, J; Hollmann, M W; Stevens, M F; Lirk, P

    2012-08-01

    Failed epidural anaesthesia or analgesia is more frequent than generally recognized. We review the factors known to influence the success rate of epidural anaesthesia. Reasons for an inadequate epidural block include incorrect primary placement, secondary migration of a catheter after correct placement, and suboptimal dosing of local anaesthetic drugs. For catheter placement, the loss of resistance using saline has become the most widely used method. Patient positioning, the use of a midline or paramedian approach, and the method used for catheter fixation can all influence the success rate. When using equipotent doses, the difference in clinical effect between bupivacaine and the newer isoforms levobupivacaine and ropivacaine appears minimal. With continuous infusion, dose is the primary determinant of epidural anaesthesia quality, with volume and concentration playing a lesser role. Addition of adjuvants, especially opioids and epinephrine, may substantially increase the success rate of epidural analgesia. Adjuvant opioids may have a spinal or supraspinal action. The use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with background infusion appears to be the best method for postoperative analgesia. PMID:22735301

  9. Digital and analog readout systems for fiber-optic strain sensors as applied to the monitoring of roller element bearing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Juan C.; Conkey, Andrew P.; Perez, Robert X.; Taylor, Henry F.

    2003-11-01

    A rotating machinery test rig was instrumented with fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensors for condition monitoring of rolling element bearings. Strain variations produced by ball passes were observed and analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Wavelength division multiplexing was utilized to simultaneously monitor the sensors with analog and digital readout systems-analog for high bandwidth and digital for high dynamic range and the monitoring of multiple sensors. The effects of imbalance on the shaft, changes in rotational speed, effects on the rotor system, and detection of bearing defects were investigated. Frequency peaks observed in the bearing sensor spectra closely matched predicted values. Imbalance and rotational speed tests showed good agreement with expected trends, and bearing defects were successfully detected.

  10. The Effects of Self-Monitoring of Story Elements on the Reading Comprehension of High School Seniors with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabtree, Tim; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Konrad, Moira

    2010-01-01

    This study used a multiple baseline across participants design to examine the effects of self-monitoring and active responding on the reading comprehension of three high school seniors with learning disabilities and significant attention problems. The self-monitoring intervention required the participants to read a story and stop reading at three…

  11. Environmental monitoring of the area surrounding oil wells in Val d'Agri (Italy): element accumulation in bovine and ovine organs.

    PubMed

    Miedico, Oto; Iammarino, Marco; Paglia, Giuseppe; Tarallo, Marina; Mangiacotti, Michele; Chiaravalle, A Eugenio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, environmental heavy metal contamination in the Val d'Agri area of Southern Italy was monitored, measuring the accumulation of 18 heavy metals (U, Hg, Pb, Cd, As, Sr, Sn, V, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Cu, Zn, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al) in the organs of animals raised in the surrounding area (kidney, lung, and liver of bovine and ovine species). Val d'Agri features various oil processing centers which are potentially a significant source of environmental pollution, making it essential to perform studies that will outline the state of the art on which any recovery plans and interventions may be developed. The analysis was carried out using official and accredited analytical methods based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and the measurements were statistically processed in order to give a contribution to risk assessment. Even though five samples showed Pb and Cd concentrations above the limits defined in the European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006, the mean concentrations of most elements suggest that contamination in this area is low. Consequently, these results also suggest that there is no particular risk for human exposure to toxic trace elements. Nevertheless, the findings of this work confirm that element accumulation in ovine species is correlated with geographical livestock area. Therefore, ovine-specific organs might be used as bioindicators for monitoring contamination by specific toxic elements in exposed areas. PMID:27165602

  12. Ballooning osteolysis in 71 failed total ankle arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpal; Reichard, Theresa; Hameister, Rita; Awiszus, Friedemann; Schenk, Katja; Feuerstein, Bernd; Roessner, Albert; Lohmann, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Aseptic loosening is a major cause of failure in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). In contrast to other total joint replacements, large periarticular cysts (ballooning osteolysis) have frequently been observed in this context. We investigated periprosthetic tissue responses in failed TAA, and performed an element analysis of retrieved tissues in failed TAA. Patients and methods - The study cohort consisted of 71 patients undergoing revision surgery for failed TAA, all with hydroxyapatite-coated implants. In addition, 5 patients undergoing primary TAA served as a control group. Radiologically, patients were classified into those with ballooning osteolysis and those without, according to defined criteria. Histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and elemental analysis of tissues was performed. Von Kossa staining and digital microscopy was performed on all tissue samples. Results - Patients without ballooning osteolysis showed a generally higher expression of lymphocytes, and CD3+, CD11c+, CD20+, and CD68+ cells in a perivascular distribution, compared to diffuse expression. The odds of having ballooning osteolysis was 300 times higher in patients with calcium content >0.5 mg/g in periprosthetic tissue than in patients with calcium content ≤0.5 mg/g (p < 0.001). Interpretation - There have been very few studies investigating the pathomechanisms of failed TAA and the cause-effect nature of ballooning osteolysis in this context. Our data suggest that the hydroxyapatite coating of the implant may be a contributory factor. PMID:27196532

  13. Failed Supernovae, Dusty Stars and Cepheid Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Jill Renee

    This dissertation explores evolved massive stars through three different projects. The first study monitors the fates of massive stars, the second looks at the mid-IR contribution of dusty asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in 6 nearby galaxies and the final study determines the distance to M81 using Cepheid variables and estimates the effect of metallicity on the Cepheid period-luminosity relations. We have been monitoring 27 galaxies within 10 Mpc with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) in the U, B, V and R bands to search for failed supernovae, massive stars that collapse to form a black hole without a SN explosion. We search for stars that have "vanished" over the course of our survey or show the low luminosity, long period transient predicted by Lovegrove & Woosley (2013) for failed explosions of red supergiants. After analyzing the first 4 years of data we are left with two good candidates requiring further study. Under the assumption that further data will eliminate these candidates, we find an upper limit on the fraction of core collapses leading to a failed SN of f = 0.40 at 90% confidence. For 1 or 2 surviving candidates the median fractions are f . ≃ 0.30 and f ≃ 0.40 respectively with symmetric 90% confidence limits of 0.07 ≤ f ≤ 0.62 and 0.15 ≤ f ≤ 0.69. As the duration of the survey continues to increase, it will definitively probe the f ≃ 20-30% failure rates needed to explain the absence of massive SN progenitors. We measure the integrated contributions of dusty AGB stars and other luminous red mid-IR sources to the mid-IR luminosities of 6 galaxies (M81, NGC 2403, NGC 300, M33 and the Magellanic Clouds). We find a trend of decreasing AGB contribution with increasing galaxy metallicity, luminosity and mass and decreasing specific star formation rate. However, these galaxy properties are strongly correlated in our sample and the simplest explanation of the trend is galaxy metallicity. In total, hot dust emission from AGB and other

  14. Rescuing failed oral implants via Wnt activation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xing; Li, Jingtao; Chen, Tao; Mouraret, Sylvain; Dhamdhere, Girija; Brunski, John B.; Zou, Shujuan; Helms, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Implant osseointegration is not always guaranteed and once fibrous encapsulation occurs clinicians have few options other than implant removal. Our goal was to test whether a WNT protein therapeutic could rescue such failed implants. Material and Methods Titanium implants were placed in over-sized murine oral osteotomies. A lack of primary stability was verified by mechanical testing. Interfacial strains were estimated by finite element modelling and histology coupled with histomorphometry confirmed the lack of peri-implant bone. After fibrous encapsulation was established peri-implant injections of a liposomal formulation of WNT3A protein (L-WNT3A) or liposomal PBS (L-PBS) were then initiated. Quantitative assays were employed to analyse the effects of L-WNT3A treatment. Results Implants in gap-type interfaces exhibited high interfacial strains and no primary stability. After verification of implant failure, L-WNT3A or L-PBS injections were initiated. L-WNT3A induced a rapid, significant increase in Wnt responsiveness in the peri-implant environment, cell proliferation and osteogenic protein expression. The amount of peri-implant bone and bone in contact with the implant were significantly higher in L-WNT3A cases. Conclusions These data demonstrate L-WNT3A can induce peri-implant bone formation even in cases where fibrous encapsulation predominates. PMID:26718012

  15. Quantitative real-time monitoring of multi-elements in airborne particulates by direct introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Sato, Hikaru; Hiyoshi, Katsuhiro; Furuta, Naoki

    2012-10-01

    A new calibration system for real-time determination of trace elements in airborne particulates was developed. Airborne particulates were directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the concentrations of 15 trace elements were determined by means of an external calibration method. External standard solutions were nebulized by an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) coupled with a desolvation system, and the resulting aerosol was introduced into the plasma. The efficiency of sample introduction via the USN was calculated by two methods: (1) the introduction of a Cr standard solution via the USN was compared with introduction of a Cr(CO)6 standard gas via a standard gas generator and (2) the aerosol generated by the USN was trapped on filters and then analyzed. The Cr introduction efficiencies obtained by the two methods were the same, and the introduction efficiencies of the other elements were equal to the introduction efficiency of Cr. Our results indicated that our calibration method for introduction efficiency worked well for the 15 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb). The real-time data and the filter-collection data agreed well for elements with low-melting oxides (V, Co, As, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Pb). In contrast, the real-time data were smaller than the filter-collection data for elements with high-melting oxides (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Ba). This result implies that the oxides of these 8 elements were not completely fused, vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the initial radiation zone of the inductively coupled plasma. However, quantitative real-time monitoring can be realized after correction for the element recoveries which can be calculated from the ratio of real-time data/filter-collection data.

  16. Metals and trace element concentrations in breast milk of first time healthy mothers: a biological monitoring study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for the newborn infant. However, since all infants cannot be breast-fed, there is a need for background data for setting adequate daily intakes. Previously, concentration data on major essential elements and some toxic elements in breast milk, based on different analytical techniques, have been published. There is no recent study on a large number of metals and trace elements in breast milk, using a sensitive analytical method for determination of low element concentrations. Methods Breast milk concentrations of 32 metals and elements in early lactation (days 14-21) were determined in a random sample of first time Swedish mothers (n = 60) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Results There were small inter-individual concentration variations in the macroelements Ca, K, Mg, P and S, and striking similarities across studies and over time, supporting a tight regulation of these elements in breast milk. Large inter-individual and over time differences were detected for Na concentrations, which may reflect an increase in salt consumption in Swedish women. Large inter-individual differences were also detected for the microelements Co, Cr, Mn and Mo, and the toxic metals As, Cd, Pb, Sb and V. Arsenic and B were positively correlated with fish consumption, indicating influence of maternal intake on breast milk concentrations. Observed differences in breast milk element concentrations across studies and over time could be attributed to the timing of sampling and a general decline over time of lactation (Cu, Fe, Mo, Zn), a possible lack of regulation of certain elements in breast milk (As, B, Co, Mn, Se) and time trends in environmental exposure (Pb), or in some cases to differences in analytical performance (Cr, Fe). Conclusions This study provides reliable updated information on a number of metals and elements in breast milk, of which some have not previously been reported. PMID:23241426

  17. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  18. Why Have So Many Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Devices Failed?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, John L.; Rice, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary to the inherent limitations of both point-of-care and central laboratory glucose technologies, continuous glucose measurement has recently enjoyed a high level of investment. Because of the perceived advantages by some of measuring in the intravascular space compared to the subcutaneous tissue, a number of technologies have been developed. In this review, we evaluate nine systems that have shown promise, although only one of these has been cleared for sale in the United States. The detection methodology, regulatory status, technical issues, and company circumstance surrounding each technology are examined. PMID:26129733

  19. Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Hu, Jian-Sen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region. PMID:27089945

  20. Use of the lichen Xanthoria mandschurica in monitoring atmospheric elemental deposition in the Taihang Mountains, Hebei, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Jie; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Fang, Shi-Bo; Liu, Si-Wa; Hu, Jian-Sen; Wang, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in China. Lichens are a useful biomonitor for atmospheric elemental deposition but have rarely been used in North China. The aim of this study was to investigate the atmospheric depositions of 30 trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, V and Zn) in a region of the Taihang Mountains, Hebei Province, China using lichens as biomonitors. Epilithic foliose lichen Xanthoria mandschurica was sampled from 21 sites and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results show that 1) eight elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, P, Pb, Sb and Zn) are of atmospheric origin and are highly influenced by the atmospheric transportation from the North China Plain, as well as local mining activities, while 2) the remaining 22 elements are primarily of crustal origin, the concentration of which has been enhanced by local mining and quarrying activities. These results clearly validate the applicability of lichens in biomonitoring of atmospheric elemental deposition and demonstrate the spatial pattern for air pollution in the region. PMID:27089945

  1. A fail-safe CMOS logic gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobin, V.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports a design technique to make Complex CMOS Gates fail-safe for a class of faults. Two classes of faults are defined. The fail-safe design presented has limited fault-tolerance capability. Multiple faults are also covered.

  2. Experiencing the failing dentition: what dentists do.

    PubMed

    Hellyer, P

    2016-05-13

    The heavily restored, failing dentition, often associated with older patients, is one of the clinical challenges of our time. Patients tend to have high hopes for definitive, comfortable solutions and dentists may struggle to meet those expectations. In his autobiographical work, Experience, Martin Amis describes his failing dentition and its emotional consequences. His reflections have much to teach us as a profession. PMID:27173707

  3. Is journalism failing on climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  4. Concentration of Elements in Whole-body Fish, Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Fish Eggs from the 2008 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in whole-body fish, fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and fish eggs. Whole-body, fillet, or egg samples of catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, Ictalurus furcatus, Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), walleye (Sander vitreus), crappie (Pomoxis annularis, Pomoxis nigromaculatus), shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and Missouri saddled darter (Etheostoma tetrazonum) were collected from 23 sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs also were collected from walleye (Sander vitreus) at one of the sites.

  5. Concentrations of Elements in Fish Fillets, Fish Muscle Plugs, and Crayfish from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation General Contaminant Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillets of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), bass (Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus dolomieu, Morone chrysops), walleye (Sander vitreus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans), and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected from 21 sites as part of the Department's Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Long-pincered crayfish (Orconectes longidigitus) were collected from one site to assess trophic transfer of metals to fish. Fish muscle plugs were collected from smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at two different locations from one site.

  6. Performance characteristics of the robust laser interferometer (RLI) with respect to health monitoring needs for civil, mechanical, and aerospace infrastructure elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroli, John M.; Karchnak, Martin; Goodenow, Theodore C.

    2004-07-01

    Correct sensing provides the availability of information for health monitoring interests, including those associated with unit health, stress, diagnostics and prognostics. Data is presented from measurement projects employing a 'highly linear,' wideband (0 to hundreds of kilohertz), large dynamic range (over 180 dB demonstrated in both displacement and acceleration), non-contact, vibration and Acoustic Emissions (AE) measurement capability. The measurement capability is currently embodied in an Epoch Engineering, Inc. Research and Development (R&D) Robust Laser Interferometer (RLI). Existing data from previous measurement projects is assessed in terms of its potential to provide meaningful information for health monitoring needs in situations involving civil, mechanical and aerospace infrastructure elements. In addition to performance considerations, implementation alternatives, integration benefits, cost considerations and remaining work that would need to be accomplished for commercializing the RLI capability is presented.

  7. Development of an LS-DYNA nonlinear finite element model for use in damage detection and health monitoring of highway bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzougui, Dhafer; Jin, Shuang; Livingston, Richard A.

    2001-08-01

    As part of a program to apply stochastic system analysis to structural heath monitoring of highway structures, a detailed Finite Element (FE) model of a typical highway bridge has been developed. The model was created for use with the nonlinear explicit FE code, LS-DYNA, and consists of 144 parts and approximately 40,000 elements. The model represents a standard two-lane bridge with a span length of 40 meters. It consists of 4 girders and 21 cross frame sections. This paper discusses some important practical aspects involved in the modeling of such highway bridges including connections, material properties, boundary and dynamic loading conditions. Extensive simulations were conducted using a SGI supercomputer at the FHWA sponsored National Crash Analysis Center at the George Washington University to determine the bridge structural response under dynamic loadings. The resulting data sets from these simulations are used as the basis for chaotic system invariant spectrum analysis described in related papers in this conference.

  8. [MONITORING OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND ELEMENTS IN THE SNOW COVER IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS AT THE TERRITORY OF THE MOSCOW REGION].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A A; Karpova, E A; Malysheva, A G; Mikhaylova, R I; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of snow cover pollution by heavy metals and elements (zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, strontium, manganese, fluorine, lithium) was performed in 20 districts of the Moscow region in 2009, 2012 and 2013. The assessment of the levels of contamination by heavy metals and elements was given by means of comparison of them with the average values in the snow cover near Moscow in the end of the last century and in some areas of the world, that no exposed to technological environmental impact. 7 districts of Moscow region were characterized by a high content of lead and cadmium in the snow water. It requires the control of water, soil and agricultural products pollution. PMID:26625612

  9. Use of UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy to monitor label-free interaction between molecular recognition elements and erythropoietin on a gold-coated polycarbonate platform.

    PubMed

    Citartan, Marimuthu; Gopinath, Subash C B; Tominaga, Junji; Chen, Yeng; Tang, Thean-Hock

    2014-08-01

    Label-free-based detection is pivotal for real-time monitoring of biomolecular interactions and to eliminate the need for labeling with tags that can occupy important binding sites of biomolecules. One simplest form of label-free-based detection is ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectroscopy, which measure changes in reflectivity as a means to monitor immobilization and interaction of biomolecules with their corresponding partners. In biosensor development, the platform used for the biomolecular interaction should be suitable for different molecular recognition elements. In this study, gold (Au)-coated polycarbonate was used as a platform and as a proof-of-concept, erythropoietin (EPO), a doping substance widely abused by the athletes was used as the target. The interaction of EPO with its corresponding molecular recognition elements (anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer) is monitored by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Prior to this, to show that UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy is a suitable method for measuring biomolecular interaction, the interaction between biotin and streptavidin was demonstrated via this strategy and reflectivity of this interaction decreased by 25%. Subsequent to this, interaction of the EPO with anti-EPO monoclonal antibody and anti-EPO DNA aptamer resulted in the decrease of reflectivity by 5% and 10%, respectively. The results indicated that Au-coated polycarbonate could be an ideal biosensor platform for monitoring biomolecular interactions using UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. A smaller version of the Au-coated polycarbonate substrates can be derived from the recent set-up, to be applied towards detecting EPO abuse among atheletes. PMID:24881539

  10. Incompatible Trace Elements in Olivine: Using Sc, Y and V as Temperature and Redox Monitors in Basaltic Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallmann, G.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2012-12-01

    Olivine is the dominant constituent phase of the Earth's upper mantle and the first silicate mineral to crystallize from primitive basaltic melts on cooling following decompression. The physical and chemical properties of olivine have, therefore, been of great interest to geochemists and geophysicists. Yet, olivine is so poor in incompatible trace elements (phosphorus being the exception) that it features in much geochemical modeling merely as an inert dilutant. Consequently, our understanding of incompatible trace-element partitioning between olivine and silicate melt has lagged behind that of phases such as pyroxenes or garnet, which control bulk crystal/melt partitioning behavior during mantle melting. Advances in trace-element microanalysis, particularly LA-ICP-MS, have now placed the determination of incompatible elements in natural olivines within reach, and recent studies have shown that mantle and magmatic olivines can preserve complex intracrystalline distributions of these elements. The combined major and trace element compositions of phenocrystal olivines could, therefore, provide unique and detailed insights into magmatic evolution. The course of evolution of basaltic magmas depends substantially on their redox state, hence oxygen fugacity, but there is increasing evidence that this intensive thermodynamic variable may be less well understood in basalts than commonly supposed. The redox state of terrestrial basalts has to a large extent been inferred from the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios of their quenched glasses. However, this quantity appears to be significantly affected during late and post-eruptive processes in magmatic systems (e.g. by degassing, charge-transfer reactions of redox-variable species, and alteration), so that the degree to which the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios preserved in basaltic glasses reflect the oxidation state of the magma at high temperature is unclear. The equilibrium partitioning relations preserved in olivine phenocrysts in basalts are, in

  11. A prototype expert system for the monitoring of defected nuclear fuel elements in Canada deuterium uranium reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.J.; Green, R.J. ); Che, C.W.T. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports on a prototype expert system for fuel failure monitoring in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) power reactors. Based on a coolant activity analysis, the system is able to provide information in an operating reactor on the number of fuel failures, the average defect size, and the amount of tramp uranium deposited on the in-core surfaces of the primary heat transport system. The fission product release model used in the system is based on results from an in-reactor experimental program at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The expert system is validated against fuel failure data from a number of CANDU power reactors.

  12. Enhanced flow injection leaching of rocks by focused microwave heating with in-line monitoring of released elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silva, Milithza; Kyser, Kurt; Beauchemin, Diane

    2007-02-19

    A focused microwave digestion system was used to heat a mini-column of sample of crushed rock (hematite) during its successive leaching by repeated 250-microL injections of water, HNO(3) 1%, 10% and 30% (v/v). The mini-column was connected to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry instrument, which allowed a continuous monitoring of the progressive release of elements by a given leaching reagent. Quantitation of the accessible fraction of Mg, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Sb and Pb was done by calibration using 250-microL injections of standard solutions prepared in the leaching reagent matrices. Total digestion of the sample residue was also done to verify mass balance. With the exception of Mg, V and Co, where the same total amount was released with or without microwave heating, an increased release resulted from focused microwave heating, by up to an order of magnitude. Furthermore, mass balance was verified for more elements using microwave heating, presumably because of a lower relative proportion of spectroscopic interference as a result of an increased release of analytes. Using microwave energy in general resulted in the dissolution of additional phases, as evidenced by significantly different (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios as well as the increased release of elements with milder reagents. In fact, in the case of Pb, leaching with 30% HNO(3) was no longer necessary as all the Pb was released in the first three leaching reagents. Microwave heating could therefore be used advantageously in on-line leaching for exploration geochemistry and environmental monitoring. PMID:17386636

  13. Monitoring impacts of air pollution: PIXE analysis and histopathological modalities in evaluating relative risks of elemental contamination.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Camer, Gerry Amor; Anwar, Khaleeq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Environmental toxicants invariably affect all biological organisms resulting to sufferings ranging from subclinical to debilitating clinical conditions. This novel research aimed to determine the toxic burdens of increased environmental elements in some vital organs/tissues of the wild animals (starling, owl, crow and pigeon), exposed to air polluted environment were assessed using particle induced X-ray emission and histopathological approaches. The presence of significantly elevated amounts of elemental toxicants namely: Aluminum (Al), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Manganese (Mn), Silicon (Si) and Vanadium (V) from the skin, muscle, lungs, liver and kidney of sampled animals were in concurrence with the observed histopathological changes. The skin of sampled starling, owl, pigeon and crow spotlighted highly significant increase (P < 0.001) in Al, Cl, Mg and Si. Muscle samples with myodegenerative lesions and mineral depositions highlighted substantial augmentation (P < 0.001) in the amount of Al, Fe, Mn, Si and V. The lungs of starling, owl, and pigeon were severely intoxicated (P < 0.001) with increased amount of Al, Fe, K, Mn and Si producing pulmonary lesions of congestion, edema, pneumonitis and mineral debris depositions. Liver samples revealed that the sampled animals were laden with Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn and V with histopathological profound degenerative changes and hepatic necrosis. Kidney sections presented severe tubular degenerative and necrotic changes that may be attributed to increased amounts of Cl and Fe. These current findings implied that the environmental/elemental toxicants and the accompanying lesions that were discerned in the organs/tissues of sampled birds may as well be afflicting people living within the polluted area. Further assessment to more conclusively demonstrate correlations of current findings to those of the populace within the area is encouraged. PMID:24468923

  14. Seismic response trends evaluation via long term monitoring and finite element model updating of an RC building including soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butt, F.; Omenzetter, P.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response trends evaluation and finite element model updating of a reinforced concrete building monitored for a period of more than two years. The three storey reinforced concrete building is instrumented with five tri-axial accelerometers and a free-field tri-axial accelerometer. The time domain N4SID system identification technique was used to obtain the frequencies and damping ratios considering flexible base models taking into account the soil-structure-interaction (SSI) using 50 earthquakes. Trends of variation of seismic response were developed by correlating the peak response acceleration at the roof level with identified frequencies and damping ratios. A general trend of decreasing frequencies was observed with increased level of shaking. To simulate the behavior of the building, a three dimensional finite element model (FEM) was developed. To incorporate real in-situ conditions, soil underneath the foundation and around the building was modeled using spring elements and non-structural components (claddings and partitions) were also included. The developed FEM was then calibrated using a sensitivity based model updating technique taking into account soil flexibility and non-structural components as updating parameters. It was concluded from the investigation that knowledge of the variation of seismic response of buildings is necessary to better understand their behavior during earthquakes, and also that the participation of soil and non-structural components is significant towards the seismic response of the building and these should be considered in models to simulate the real behavior.

  15. Monitoring environmental levels of trace elements near a hazardous waste incinerator: human health risks after a decade of regular operations.

    PubMed

    Giné Bordonaba, Jordi; Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2011-12-01

    In 1998, we initiated an environmental surveillance program of the only hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Spain. The concentrations of a number of metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Tl, and V) were analyzed in soil and vegetation samples collected around the facility. Since then, periodical measurements of these same elements have been performed in both matrices. In 2009 and 2010, soil and vegetation samples were again collected, and the levels of the above elements were determined. In general terms, the temporal trends in metal concentrations were not homogeneous, showing significant changes between the baseline and the latest surveys. Metal levels in soil and herbage samples analyzed in the current survey were similar to recent data reported for other urban and industrial areas, being notably lower than the reference values set by national regulatory organisms. Moreover, more than 10 years after regular operations of the HWI, exposure to metals would not mean, either now or in past surveys, any carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic health risks for the population living in the neighborhood. PMID:21710372

  16. Results of space environment measurement carried out by the Roscosmos monitoring system elements and their correlation with different space weather characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Anashin, Vasily; Elushov, Ilya; Kozyukova, Olga

    The Monitoring System of space radiation exposure on electronic components is developed by the Institute of Space Device Engineering by order Roscosmos. The key targets of the Monitoring System are space environment measurements, space model correction, space weather characteristics forecast, improvement of radiation hardness technical requirements and etc. The Monitoring System includes two parts: the ground-based and the space-born segments. The ground-based segment includes the forecast station, the analytic complex and the data output system. The space-born segment base elements are TID sensors operating by MNOSFET dosimetry principle. Sensor temperature stabilization is achieved by choosing of operational point according to the minimal change of sensor current-voltage curve. The set of 38 TID sensors is placed on 19 spacecrafts currently. The spacecrafts operate in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) (approximately 20 000 km with inclination of 65(°) ). The flight data obtained perfectly correlate with total dose flight data registered using MOSFET placed on Van Allen Probe spacecraft functioning in high elliptical orbit (apogee is 37 000 km, perigee is 650 km, inclination is 10(°) ). Also coincidence with the dose data from GIOVE-B spacecraft (circular orbit 23200 km, inclination of 56(°) ) of Galileo system is observed. We have observed several abrupt dose rate increases from April, 2010. The flight data are compared with other monitoring system data and ground measurements. The comparison results show that high energy electrons (> 1 MeV) give general contribution in accumulated dose and anomalous dose rate increases. These results are in agreement with shielding stopping power calculation results. The high electron fluxes rise significantly in MEO as a result of Van Allen belts shifting during geomagnetic storms. The flight data were compared with calculation results obtained using different space models. The comparison shows that for some long-term interval the

  17. Finite element modelling of non-bonded piezo sensors for biomedical health monitoring of bones based on EMI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Shashank; Bhalla, Suresh; Madan, Alok; Gupta, Ashok

    2016-04-01

    Extensive research is currently underway across the world for employing piezo sensors for biomedical health monitoring in view of their obvious advantages such as low cost,fast dynamics response and bio-compatibility.However,one of the limitations of the piezo sensor in bonded mode based on the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique is that it can cause harmful effects to the humans in terms of irritation ,bone and skin disease. This paper which is in continuation of the recent demonstration of non-bonded configuration is a step towards simulating and analyzing the non-bonded configuration of the piezo sensor for gauging its effectiveness using FEA software. It has been noted that the conductance signatures obtained in non-bonded mode are significantly close to the conventional bonded configuration, thus giving a positive indication of its field use.

  18. The Steubenville Comprehensive Air Monitoring Program (SCAMP): concentrations and solubilities of PM2.5 trace elements and their implications for source apportionment and health research

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Connell; Stephen E. Winter; Vincent B. Conrad; Myoungwoo Kim; Kevin C. Crist

    2006-12-15

    The elemental compositions of the water-soluble and acid-digestible fractions of 24-hr integrated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples collected in Steubenville, OH, from 2000 to 2002 were determined using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The water-soluble elemental compositions of PM2.5 samples collected at four satellite monitoring sites in the surrounding region were also determined. Fe was the most abundant but least water soluble of the elements determined at the Steubenville site. Fe solubility and its correlations with SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and temperature varied by season. Higher ambient concentrations were observed at Steubenville than at each of the four satellite sites for 10 of the 18 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn) determined in the water-soluble PM2.5 fraction. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Zn at Steubenville were substantially higher than concentrations reported recently for larger U.S. cities. An (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}-dominated source, likely representing secondary PM2.5 from coal-fired plants to the west and southwest of Steubenville, accounted for 42% of the PM2.5 mass, and two sources likely dominated by emissions from motor vehicles and from iron and steel facilities in the immediate Steubenville vicinity accounted for 20% and 10%, respectively. Other sources included a primary coal combustion source (3%). Results suggest the importance of very different regional and local source mechanisms in contributing to PM2.5 mass at Steubenville and reinforce the need for further research to elucidate whether metals such as Fe, Mn, and Zn play a role in the PM2.5 health effects observed previously there. 76 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Role of sediment-trace element chemistry in water-quality monitoring and the need for standard analytical methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.

    1991-01-01

    Multiple linear regression models calculated from readily obtainable chemical and physical parameters can explain a high percentage (70% or greater) of observed sediment trace-element variance for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sb, Se, and Hg. Almost all the factors used in the various models fall into the category of operational definitions (e.g., grain size, surface area, and geochemical substrates such as amorphous iron and manganese oxides). Thus, the concentrations and distributions used in the various models are operationally defined, and are subject to substantial change depending on the method used to determine them. Without standardized procedures, data from different sources are not comparable, and the utility and applicability of the various models would be questionable.

  20. In-situ monitoring of actinides and rare earth elements by electrothermal hollow cathode discharge spectrometry. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Edelson, M.C.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes an Electrothermal Hollow Cathode Discharge Spectrometry (ET-HCDS) source being constructed for the analytical determination of actinides and rare earth elements. This work was initiated with the support of the Office of Safeguards and Security; the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration began funding work in this area in mid-FY1992 and the work is continuing into FY1993 with funds from both sources. Special features of this instrument should permit it to be used for the determination of individual isotopic species, which is important for safeguard`s materials control and accountancy. ET-HCDS can be achieved using compact instrumentation suitable for use in field laboratories. The technique is capable of determining a suite of environmentally-important species, such as the actinides and the heavy metals, in a variety of physical forms (e.g., in solution, as found on air particulates, or in soils). ET-HCDS should be capable of very sensitive analyses and should require very small samples (e.g., microgram). Since ET-HCDS is possible in an air atmosphere (at reduced pressures), it may be useful for the real-time determination of hazardous materials, both radioactive and non radioactive, contained in dusts released during waste retrieval operations; ET-HCDS should also be useful for the rapid and sensitive analysis of metals in soils.

  1. How to Recognize a Failed Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Elisha G; Pham, Tam N; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-10-01

    Failed burn resuscitation can occur at various points. Early failed resuscitation will be largely caused by prehospital factors. During resuscitation, failure will present as a patient's nonresponse to adjunctive therapy. Late failure will occur in the setting of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Burn care providers must be vigilant during the resuscitation to identify a threatened resuscitation so that adjunctive therapies or rescue maneuvers can be used to convert to a successful resuscitation. However, when a patient's resuscitative course becomes unsalvageable, transition to comfort care should be taken to avoid prolongation of suffering. PMID:27600128

  2. Concentrations of elements in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish from the 2011 Missouri Department of Conservation general contaminant monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Thomas W.; Walther, Michael J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; McKee, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the results of a contaminant monitoring survey conducted annually by the Missouri Department of Conservation to examine the levels of selected elemental contaminants in fish fillets, fish muscle plugs, and crayfish. Fillet samples of yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), golden redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from six sites as part of the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. Fish dorsal muscle plugs were collected from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) at eight of the sites, and crayfish from two sites. Following preparation and analysis of the samples, highlights of the data were as follows: cadmium and lead residues were most elevated in crayfish tissue samples from the Big River at Cherokee Landing, with 1 to 8 micrograms per gram dry weight and 22 to 45 micrograms per gram dry weight, respectively. Some dorsal muscle plugs from largemouth bass collected from Clearwater Lake, Lake St. Louis, Noblett Lake, Hazel Creek Lake, and Harrison County Lake contained mercury residues (1.7 to 4.7 micrograms per gram dry weight) that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Water Quality Criterion of 1.5 micrograms per gram dry weight of fish tissue (equivalent to 0.30 micrograms per gram wet weight).

  3. Monitoring urban impacts on suspended sediment, trace element, and nutrient fluxes within the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Program design, methodological considerations, and initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, A.J.; Elrick, K.A.; Smith, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Atlanta, Georgia (City of Atlanta, COA), is one of the most rapidly growing urban areas in the US. Beginning in 2003, the US Geological Survey established a long-term water-quantity/quality monitoring network for the COA. The results obtained during the first 2 years have provided insights into the requirements needed to determine the extent of urban impacts on water quality, especially in terms of estimating the annual fluxes of suspended sediment, trace/major elements, and nutrients. During 2004/2005, suspended sediment fluxes from the City of Atlanta (COA) amounted to about 150 000 t year-1; ??? 94% of the transport occurred in conjunction with storm-flow, which also accounted for ??? 65% of the annual discharge. Typically, storm-flow averaged ??? 20% of theyear. Normally, annual suspended sediment fluxes are determined by summing daily loads based on a single calculation step using mean-daily discharge and a single rating curve-derived suspended sediment concentration. Due to the small and 'flashy' nature of the COAs streams, this approach could produce underestimates ranging from 25% to 64%. Accurate estimates (?? 15%) require calculation time-steps as short as every 2-3 h. Based on annual median base-flow/storm-flow chemical concentrations, the annual fluxes of ??? 75% of trace elements (e.g. Cu, Pb, Zn), major elements (e.g. Fe, Al), and total P occur in association with suspended sediment; in turn, ??? 90% of the transport of these constituents occur in conjunction with storm-flow. As such, base-flow sediment-associated and dissolved contributions represent relatively insignificant portions of the total annual load. An exception is total N, whose sediment-associated fluxes range from 50% to 60%; even so, storm-related transport typically exceeds 80%. Hence, in urban environments, non-point-source appear to be the dominant contributors to the fluxes of these constituents.

  4. Failed Citizenship, Civic Engagement, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Many racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and religious groups are denied structural inclusion into their nation-state. Consequently, they do not internalize the values and symbols of the nation-state, develop a strong identity with it, or acquire political efficacy. The author conceptualizes this process as "failed citizenship,"…

  5. Examination of a Failed Professional Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Rachel L.; Penny, G. Richard

    2015-01-01

    Schools are using various forms of professional learning communities (PLCs) in order to increase student achievement and improve educational practices through enhanced communication and collaboration among teachers. This study examined a PLC that had too narrow a focus and failed therefore to affect student achievement. A critical shortcoming of…

  6. The Art of Saving a Failing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Les

    2012-01-01

    While the debate continues over whether to close failing schools or attempt fixing them, the author asserts that the solution most often lies in assigning strong leaders to them who will take definite and immediate action. Reviewing his own success turning around schools, he says creating a sense of urgency, unloading poor performing staff, and…

  7. Contested Spaces of a "Failing" Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai, Roi; Serriere, Stephanie; Mitra, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Amid the recent proliferation of teacher-led movements resisting high-stakes testing across the United States, the authors identify how a "failing" elementary school reclaimed local discourse by taking political action against top-down measures. Framed as competing modes of school reform, the authors offer the sociocultural framework of…

  8. Fail-safe bidirectional valve driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, H.

    1974-01-01

    Cross-coupled diodes are added to commonly used bidirectional valve driver circuit to protect circuit and power supply. Circuit may be used in systems requiring fail-safe bidirectional valve operation, particularly in chemical- and petroleum-processing control systems and computer-controlled hydraulic or pneumatic systems.

  9. WIC: A Food Program That Fails.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, George G.

    1991-01-01

    Relates the origin and aims of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) begun in 1972. It has failed to improve the health of newborn children or lower the infant mortality rate, because these problems relate to behavior rather than lack of food. Prenatal care and medical intervention are more appropriate…

  10. Airborne LiDAR data as a key element of the integrated monitoring of the reservoir shore zone development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2015-04-01

    The research of the transformation of the shore zone of artificial water reservoirs are long-term monitoring studies, often covering the entire length of the shoreline of the tested basin. Extremely valuable sources of data in such studies are variously dated cartographic materials: large-scale maps and surveying plans as well as aerial photographs. In recent years, the materials derived from the airborne laser scanning, i.e. light detection and ranging (LiDAR) which are among the most accurate terrain data, gained importance. The possibility of using data from the airborne laser scanning in the studies of the transformation of the shore zone of a water reservoir will be presented on the example of the Jeziorsko Reservoir on the Warta River (Central Poland). The reservoir was created in the years 1986-1992. It is a typical retention reservoir with large, nearly 5-m, water level changes in a yearly cycle. Its total surface area, depending on the water level, is between 19.6 km2 and 242.3 km2. The total length of the shore is 44.3 km, of which 14.2 km (32.1%) are embanked. Nearly 40% of the non-embanked shore is still active, and its development is the result of the processes of shoreline erosion, mass movements and accumulation. Most problems are caused by the abrasive shores which represent 27% of the non-embanked shoreline. The height of the accompanying cliff varies from a few cm to 12.5 m. In the years 1991-2009 the shoreline of the reservoir retreated by 6.9 to 18.7 m in the northern part of the reservoir (the cliff of 1-12.2 m) and by 9 to 29.6 m in its southern part (the cliff of 2.0-8.5 m). The cliff recession pace with the development of the shore zone significantly decreased; in the northern part of the reservoir the cliff recession dropped from 1.5 m/y in 1991-2004 to 0.5 m/y in 2004-2009, while in the southern part - from 0.7-2.22 m/y in 1991-2004 to 0-1.12 m/y in 2004-2009. The study used the airborne LiDAR data from the years 2009 and 2011 in the ALS

  11. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater samples have been collected in California as part of statewide investigations of groundwater quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP is being conducted in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater resources used for drinking-water supply and to improve public knowledge of groundwater quality in California. Quality-control samples (source-solution blanks, equipment blanks, and field blanks) were collected in order to ensure the quality of the groundwater sample results. Olsen and others (2010) previously determined study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element results based primarily on field blanks collected in California from May 2004 through January 2008. SRLs are raised reporting levels used to reduce the likelihood of reporting false detections attributable to contamination bias. The purpose of this report is to identify any changes in the frequency and concentrations of detections in field blanks since the last evaluation and update the SRLs for more recent data accordingly. Constituents analyzed were aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), tungsten (W), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Data from 179 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from March 2006 through March 2013 by the GAMA-PBP indicated that for trace elements that had a change in detection frequency and concentration since the previous review, the shift occurred near October 2009, in conjunction with a change in the capsule filters used by the study. Results for 89 field blanks and equipment blanks collected from October 2009 through March 2013 were

  12. The Steubenville Comprehensive Air Monitoring Program (SCAMP): concentrations and solubilities of PM(2.5) trace elements and their implications for source apportionment and health research.

    PubMed

    Connell, Daniel P; Winter, Stephen E; Conrad, Vincent B; Kim, Myoungwoo; Crist, Kevin C

    2006-12-01

    The elemental compositions of the water-soluble and acid-digestible fractions of 24-hr integrated fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) samples collected in Steubenville, OH, from 2000 to 2002 were determined using dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The water-soluble elemental compositions of PM(2.5) samples collected at four satellite monitoring sites in the surrounding region were also determined. Fe was the most abundant but least water soluble of the elements determined at the Steubenville site, having a mean ambient concentration of 272 ng/m3 and a median fractional solubility of 6%. Fe solubility and its correlations with SO4(2-) and temperature varied significantly by season, consistent with the hypothesis that secondary sulfates may help to mobilize soluble Fe under suitable summertime photochemical conditions. Significantly higher ambient concentrations were observed at Steubenville than at each of the four satellite sites for 10 of the 18 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn) determined in the water-soluble PM(2.5) fraction. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Zn at Steubenville were substantially higher than concentrations reported recently for larger U.S. cities. Receptor modeling identified seven sources affecting the Steubenville site. An (NH4)2SO4-dominated source, likely representing secondary PM(2.5) from coal-fired plants to the west and southwest of Steubenville, accounted for 42% of the PM(2.5) mass, and two sources likely dominated by emissions from motor vehicles and from iron and steel facilities in the immediate Steubenville vicinity accounted for 20% and 10%, respectively. Other sources included an NH4NO3 source (15%), a crustal source (6%), a mixed nonferrous metals and industrial source (3%), and a primary coal combustion source (3%). Results suggest the importance of very different regional and local source mechanisms in contributing to PM(2.5) mass at Steubenville and reinforce the need for further

  13. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diercks, D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power- gener-ating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive compo-nents are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in serv-ice. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress- corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  14. Risk externalities and too big to fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Nassim N.; Tapiero, Charles S.

    2010-09-01

    This paper establishes the case for a fallacy of economies of scale in large aggregate institutions and the effects of scale risks. The problem of rogue trading and excessive risk taking is taken as a case example. Assuming (conservatively) that a firm exposure and losses are limited to its capital while external losses are unbounded, we establish a condition for a firm not to be allowed to be too big to fail. In such a case, the expected external losses second derivative with respect to the firm capital at risk is positive. Examples and analytical results are obtained based on simplifying assumptions and focusing exclusively on the risk externalities that firms too big to fail can have.

  15. Pass-Fail: How Is It Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Clinton I.; And Others

    This study investigates the pass/fail (P/F) grading system. A sample of 154 Indiana University students was interviewed. Half of the group, 77 students, had not taken any P/F courses. Of the remaining 77 students, 42% had taken only one P/F course and most of the rest from two to five courses. Results of the student interview questionnaire…

  16. Marine sediments monitoring studies for trace elements with the application of fast temperature programs and solid sampling high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orani, Anna Maria; Han, Eunmi; Mandjukov, Petko; Vassileva, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Analytical procedure for the determination of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Cr in marine sediment samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS AAS) and direct solid sample analysis has been developed. The application of fast programs in combination with direct solid sampling allows to eliminate the drying and pretreatment steps, however makes impossible the use of liquid standards for calibration. Iridium treated platforms were applied throughout the present study. Calibration technique based on the use of solid certified reference materials (marine sediments) similar to the nature of the analyzed sample and statistics of regression analysis were applied to the real sediment samples. The instrumental parameters were optimized in order to obtain reproducible and interference free analytical signals. The ISO-17025 requirements and Eurachem guidelines were followed in the validation of the proposed analytical procedure. Accordingly, blanks, selectivity, calibration, linearity, working range, trueness, repeatability reproducibility, limits of detection and quantification and expanded uncertainty (k = 2) for all investigated elements were assessed. Two different approaches for the estimation of measurement uncertainty were applied and obtained results compared. The major contributors to the combined uncertainty of the analyte mass fraction were found to be the homogeneity of the samples and the microbalance precision. The influence of sample particle sizes on the total combined uncertainty was also evaluated. Traceability to SI system of units of the obtained by the proposed analytical procedure results was demonstrated. Additionally, validation of the methodology developed was effectuated by the comparison of the obtained results with independent method e.g. ICP-MS with external calibration. The use of solid sampling HR CS AAS for the determination of trace elements in marine sediment matrix gives significant advantages

  17. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p<0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r=0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  18. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies.

    PubMed

    Adams, William J; DeForest, David K; Tear, Lucinda M; Payne, Kelly; Brix, Kevin V

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents long-term monitoring data for 19 elements with a focus on arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se), in surface water (2002-2011), brine shrimp (2001-2011), and brine flies (1995-1996) collected from Great Salt Lake (GSL, Utah, USA). In open surface waters, mean (±standard deviation [SD]; range; n) As concentrations were 112 (±22.1; 54.0-169; 47) and 112 μg/L (±35.6; 5.1-175; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 16.3 μg/g (±5.6; 5.1-35.2; 62) dry weight (dw) in brine shrimp. Mean (±SD; range; n) Cu concentrations were 4.2 (±2.1; 1.3-12.5; 47) and 6.9 μg/L (±6.6; 1.9-38.1; 68) in filtered and unfiltered surface water samples, respectively, and 20.6 μg/g (±18.4; 5.4-126; 62) dw in brine shrimp. Finally, mean (±SD; range; n) dissolved and total recoverable Se concentrations were 0.6 (±0.1; 0.4-1.2; 61) and 0.9 μg/L (±0.7; 0.5-3.6; 89), respectively, and 3.6 μg/g (±2.2; 1.1-14.9; 98) dw in brine shrimp. Thus, Se in open lake surface waters was most often in the range of 0.5-1 μg/L, and concentrations in both surface water and brine shrimp were comparable to concentrations measured in other monitoring programs for the GSL. Temporally, the statistical significance of differences in mean dissolved or total recoverable As, Cu, and Se concentrations between years was highly variable depending which test statistic was used, and there was no clear evidence of increasing or decreasing trends. In brine shrimp, significant differences in annual mean concentrations of As, Cu, and Se were observed using both parametric and nonparametric statistical approaches, but, as for water, there did not appear to be a consistent increase or decrease in concentrations of these elements over time. PMID:25690606

  19. Selective monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homem-de-Mello, Luiz S.

    1992-04-01

    While in NASA's earlier space missions such as Voyager the number of sensors was in the hundreds, future platforms such as the Space Station Freedom will have tens of thousands sensors. For these planned missions it will be impossible to use the comprehensive monitoring strategy that was used in the past in which human operators monitored all sensors all the time. A selective monitoring strategy must be substituted for the current comprehensive strategy. This selective monitoring strategy uses computer tools to preprocess the incoming data and direct the operators' attention to the most critical parts of the physical system at any given time. There are several techniques that can be used to preprocess the incoming information. This paper presents an approach to using diagnostic reasoning techniques to preprocess the sensor data and detect which parts of the physical system require more attention because components have failed or are most likely to have failed. Given the sensor readings and a model of the physical system, a number of assertions are generated and expressed as Boolean equations. The resulting system of Boolean equations is solved symbolically. Using a priori probabilities of component failure and Bayes' rule, revised probabilities of failure can be computed. These will indicate what components have failed or are the most likely to have failed. This approach is suitable for systems that are well understood and for which the correctness of the assertions can be guaranteed. Also, the system must be such that assertions can be made from instantaneous measurements. And the system must be such that changes are slow enough to allow the computation.

  20. Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis for failed keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hager, Jonathan L; Phillips, David L; Goins, Kenneth M; Kitzmann, Anna S; Greiner, Mark A; Cohen, Alex W; Welder, Jeffrey D; Wagoner, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (Kpro-1) in eyes with failed keratoplasty. A retrospective review was performed of every patient treated with a Kpro-1 at a tertiary eye care center between January 1, 2008 and July 1, 2013. Eyes with a failed keratoplasty originally performed for corneal edema, trauma, or keratoconus were included in the statistical analysis. The main outcome measures were visual outcome, prosthesis retention, and postoperative complications. Twenty-four eyes met the inclusion criteria, including 13 eyes with corneal edema, 8 eyes with trauma, and 3 eyes with keratoconus. After a mean follow-up period of 28.9 months (range 7-63 months), the median best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/125. The BCVA was ≥20/40 in 4 (16.7 %) eyes, ≥20/70 in 9 (37.5 %) eyes, and ≥20/200 in 14 (58.3 %) eyes. Overall, the postoperative BCVA improved in 17 (70.9 %) eyes, was unchanged in 3 (12.5 %) eyes, and was worse in 4 (16.7 %) eyes. The initial Kpro-1 was retained in 22 (91.7 %) eyes, and was successfully repeated in the other 2 eyes. One or more serious prosthesis- or sight-threatening complications occurred in 8 (33.3 %) eyes. These included 1 case of wound dehiscence leading to prosthesis extrusion, 1 case of fungal keratitis leading to prosthesis extrusion, 4 cases of endophthalmitis, and 5 retinal detachments. The Boston Kpro-1 is associated with an excellent prognosis for prosthesis retention and satisfactory visual improvement in eyes with previous failed keratoplasty. PMID:25975459

  1. SPECTRA AND LIGHT CURVES OF FAILED SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Dahl, Jon A.; Fontes, Christopher J. E-mail: dahl@lanl.go

    2009-12-10

    Astronomers have proposed a number of mechanisms to produce supernova explosions. Although many of these mechanisms are now not considered primary engines behind supernovae (SNe), they do produce transients that will be observed by upcoming ground-based surveys and NASA satellites. Here, we present the first radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the spectra and light curves from three of these 'failed' SNe: SNe with considerable fallback, accretion-induced collapse of white dwarfs, and energetic helium flashes (also known as type Ia SNe).

  2. A non-contacting approach for full field dynamic strain monitoring of rotating structures using the photogrammetry, finite element, and modal expansion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baqersad, Javad

    Health monitoring of rotating structures such as wind turbines and helicopter rotors is generally performed using conventional sensors that provide a limited set of data at discrete locations near or on the hub. These sensors usually provide no data on the blades or interior locations where failures may occur. Within this work, an unique expansion algorithm was extended and combined with finite element (FE) modeling and an optical measurement technique to identify the dynamic strain in rotating structures. The merit of the approach is shown by using the approach to predict the dynamic strain on a small non-rotating and rotating wind turbine. A three-bladed wind turbine having 2.3-meter long blades was placed in a semi-built-in boundary condition using a hub, a machining chuck, and a steel block. A finite element model of the three wind turbine blades assembled to the hub was created and used to extract resonant frequencies and mode shapes. The FE model was validated and updated using experimental modal tests. For the non-rotating optical test, the turbine was excited using a sinusoidal excitation, a pluck test, arbitrary impacts on three blades, and random force excitations with a mechanical shaker. The response of the structure to the excitations was measured using three-dimensional point tracking. A pair of high-speed cameras was used to measure the displacement of optical targets on the structure when the blades were vibrating. The measured displacements at discrete locations were expanded and applied to the finite element model of the structure to extract the full-field dynamic strain. The results of the work show an excellent correlation between the strain predicted using the proposed approach and the strain measured with strain-gages for all of the three loading conditions. Similar to the non-rotating case, optical measurements were also preformed on a rotating wind turbine. The point tracking technique measured both rigid body displacement and flexible

  3. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  4. Triacylglycerol turnover in the failing heart.

    PubMed

    Carley, Andrew N; Lewandowski, E Douglas

    2016-10-01

    No longer regarded as physiologically inert the endogenous triacylglyceride (TAG) pool within the cardiomyocyte is now recognized to play a dynamic role in metabolic regulation. Beyond static measures of content, the relative rates of interconversion among acyl intermediates are more closely linked to dynamic processes of physiological function in normal and diseased hearts, with the potential for both adaptive and maladaptive contributions. Indeed, multiple inefficiencies in cardiac metabolism have been identified in the decompensated, hypertrophied and failing heart. Among the intracellular responses to physiological, metabolic and pathological stresses, TAG plays a central role in the balance of lipid handling and signaling mechanisms. TAG dynamics are profoundly altered from normal in both diabetic and pathologically stressed hearts. More than just expansion or contraction of the stored lipid pool, the turnover rates of TAG are sensitive to and compete against other enzymatic pathways, anabolic and catabolic, for reactive acyl-CoA units. The rates of TAG synthesis and lipolysis thusly affect multiple components of cardiomyocyte function, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, and enzyme activation, as well as the regulation of gene expression in both normal and diseased states. This review examines the multiple etiologies and metabolic consequences of the failing heart and the central role of lipid storage dynamics in the pathogenic process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:26993578

  5. Mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation in the failing heart

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Julie L.; Martin, Ola J.; Lai, Ling; Riley, Nicholas M.; Richards, Alicia L.; Vega, Rick B.; Leone, Teresa C.; Pagliarini, David J.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Bedi, Kenneth C.; Margulies, Kenneth B.; Coon, Joshua J.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial fuel and energy metabolic derangements contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recent evidence implicates posttranslational mechanisms in the energy metabolic disturbances that contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. We hypothesized that accumulation of metabolite intermediates of fuel oxidation pathways drives posttranslational modifications of mitochondrial proteins during the development of heart failure. Myocardial acetylproteomics demonstrated extensive mitochondrial protein lysine hyperacetylation in the early stages of heart failure in well-defined mouse models and the in end-stage failing human heart. To determine the functional impact of increased mitochondrial protein acetylation, we focused on succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA), a critical component of both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and respiratory complex II. An acetyl-mimetic mutation targeting an SDHA lysine residue shown to be hyperacetylated in the failing human heart reduced catalytic function and reduced complex II–driven respiration. These results identify alterations in mitochondrial acetyl-CoA homeostasis as a potential driver of the development of energy metabolic derangements that contribute to heart failure. PMID:26998524

  6. Rotordynamic Influence on Rolling ELement Bearing Selection and Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queitzsch, Gilbert K., Jr.; Fleming, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that illustrate the importance of dynamic considerations in the design of machinery supported by rolling element bearings. The first case concerns a milling spindle that experienced internal rubs and high bearing loads, and required retrofit of an additional . damped bearing. The second case deals with a small high-speed generator that suffered high vibration due to flexible mounting. The third case is a propulsion fan simulator rig whose bearings failed catastrophically due to improper bearing installation (which resulted in inadequate dynamic bearing stiffness) and lack of health monitoring instrumentation.

  7. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Zumwalt, L.R.

    1961-11-28

    A fuel element was developed for a gas cooled nuclear reactor. The element is constructed in the form of a compacted fuel slug including carbides of fissionable material in some cases with a breeder material carbide and a moderator which slug is disposed in a canning jacket of relatively impermeable moderator material. Such canned fuel slugs are disposed in an elongated shell of moderator having greater gas permeability than the canning material wherefore application of reduced pressure to the space therebetween causes gas diffusing through the exterior shell to sweep fission products from the system. Integral fission product traps and/or exterior traps as well as a fission product monitoring system may be employed therewith. (AEC)

  8. Anderson localization makes adiabatic quantum optimization fail

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, Boris; Krovi, Hari; Roland, Jérémie

    2010-01-01

    Understanding NP-complete problems is a central topic in computer science (NP stands for nondeterministic polynomial time). This is why adiabatic quantum optimization has attracted so much attention, as it provided a new approach to tackle NP-complete problems using a quantum computer. The efficiency of this approach is limited by small spectral gaps between the ground and excited states of the quantum computer’s Hamiltonian. We show that the statistics of the gaps can be analyzed in a novel way, borrowed from the study of quantum disordered systems in statistical mechanics. It turns out that due to a phenomenon similar to Anderson localization, exponentially small gaps appear close to the end of the adiabatic algorithm for large random instances of NP-complete problems. This implies that unfortunately, adiabatic quantum optimization fails: The system gets trapped in one of the numerous local minima. PMID:20616043

  9. Fail-over file transfer process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semancik, Susan K. (Inventor); Conger, Annette M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides a fail-over file transfer process to handle data file transfer when the transfer is unsuccessful in order to avoid unnecessary network congestion and enhance reliability in an automated data file transfer system. If a file cannot be delivered after attempting to send the file to a receiver up to a preset number of times, and the receiver has indicated the availability of other backup receiving locations, then the file delivery is automatically attempted to one of the backup receiving locations up to the preset number of times. Failure of the file transfer to one of the backup receiving locations results in a failure notification being sent to the receiver, and the receiver may retrieve the file from the location indicated in the failure notification when ready.

  10. The best argument against kidney sales fails.

    PubMed

    Semrau, Luke

    2015-06-01

    Simon Rippon has recently argued against kidney markets on the grounds that introducing the option to vend will result in many people, especially the poor, being subject to harmful pressure to vend. Though compelling, Rippon's argument fails. What he takes to be a single phenomenon-social and legal pressure to vend-is actually two. Only one of these forms of pressure is, by Rippon's own account, harmful. Further, an empirically informed view of the regulated market suggests that this harmful pressure is easily avoided. Thus, the harm that is the lynchpin of Rippon's opposition is neither a necessary feature of the market nor is it likely to play a significant role in its operation. PMID:25256300

  11. Diagnosing And Treating The Failing Right Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, John J.; Tedford, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Right ventricular failure (RVF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is an increasing interest in proper assessment of right ventricle (RV) function as well as understanding mechanisms behind RVF. Recent findings Within this manuscript, we discuss the metabolic changes that occur in the RV that occur in response to RVF- in particular, a shift towards glycolysis and increased glutaminolysis. We will detail the advances made in non-invasive imaging in assessing the function of the RV and review the methods to assess right ventricle-pulmonary artery coupling. We lastly investigate the role of new treatment options in the failing RV, such as β-blocker therapy. Summary RVF is a complicated entity. Although some inferences on RV function and treatment can be made from LV, the RV has unique features, anatomically, metabolically and embryologically, which requires dedicated RV-directed research. PMID:25807224

  12. Etiologic analysis of 100 anatomically failed dacryocystorhinostomies

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Tarjani Vivek; Mohammed, Faraz Ali; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Naik, Milind N

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the etiological factors contributing to the failure of a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Patients and methods Retrospective review was performed in 100 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with anatomically failed DCR at presentation to a tertiary care hospital over a 5-year period from 2010 to 2015. Patient records were reviewed for demographic data, type of past surgery, preoperative endoscopic findings, previous use of adjuvants such as intubation and mitomycin C, and intraoperative notes during the re-revision. The potential etiological factors for failure were noted. Results Of the 100 patients with failed DCRs, the primary surgery was an external DCR in 73 and endoscopic DCR in 27 patients. Six patients in each group had multiple revisions. The mean ages at presentation in the external and endoscopic groups were 39.41 years and 37.19 years, respectively. All patients presented with epiphora. The most common causes of failure were inadequate osteotomy (69.8% in the external group and 85.1% in the endoscopic group, P=0.19) followed by inadequate or inappropriate sac marsupialization (60.2% in the external group and 77.7% in the endoscopic group, P=0.16) and cicatricial closure of the ostium (50.6% in the external group and 55.5% in the endoscopic group, P=0.83). The least common causes such as ostium granulomas and paradoxical middle turbinate (1.37%, n=1) were noted in the external group only. Conclusion Inadequate osteotomy, incomplete sac marsupialization, and cicatricial closure of the ostium were the most common causes of failure and did not significantly differ in the external and endoscopic groups. Meticulous evaluation to identify causative factors for failure and addressing them are crucial for subsequent successful outcomes. PMID:27555748

  13. Autonomous Component Health Management with Failed Component Detection, Identification, and Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Robert N.; Polites, Michael E.; Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper details a novel scheme for autonomous component health management (ACHM) with failed actuator detection and failed sensor detection, identification, and avoidance. This new scheme has features that far exceed the performance of systems with triple-redundant sensing and voting, yet requires fewer sensors and could be applied to any system with redundant sensing. Relevant background to the ACHM scheme is provided, and the simulation results for the application of that scheme to a single-axis spacecraft attitude control system with a 3rd order plant and dual-redundant measurement of system states are presented. ACHM fulfills key functions needed by an integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) system. It is: autonomous; adaptive; works in realtime; provides optimal state estimation; identifies failed components; avoids failed components; reconfigures for multiple failures; reconfigures for intermittent failures; works for hard-over, soft, and zero-output failures; and works for both open- and closed-loop systems. The ACHM scheme combines a prefilter that generates preliminary state estimates, detects and identifies failed sensors and actuators, and avoids the use of failed sensors in state estimation with a fixed-gain Kalman filter that generates optimal state estimates and provides model-based state estimates that comprise an integral part of the failure detection logic. The results show that ACHM successfully isolates multiple persistent and intermittent hard-over, soft, and zero-output failures. It is now ready to be tested on a computer model of an actual system.

  14. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  15. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  16. Student Discontinuations: Is the System Failing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSherry, Wilfred; Marland, Glenn R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses factors associated with fairness and equity in relation to student discontinuation in nursing education. Shows how discontinuation is an integral part of higher education quality reviews. Promotes pre-exit counseling, monitoring of attrition, and review of academic and professional standards. (SK)

  17. The Fail-Safe Micro Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Mary Anne

    A key element in a research paper writing assignment modified for students of English as a second language to assure their success is teacher control over most of the process. A chronological plan for action for the micro research project includes these steps: creating an awareness of current events and controversial issues, practicing necessary…

  18. Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160906.html Many Teens Give Sex Ed a Failing Grade International study finds courses ... HealthDay News) -- Teens around the world are getting sex education in schools that fail to address their ...

  19. Modern state of cycle chemistry monitoring systems at thermal power stations according to the experience gained at the moscow power engineering institute and Element research and production center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egoshina, O. V.; Voronov, V. N.; Nazarenko, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    Information about the development history of cycle chemistry monitoring systems is presented. The first pilot monitoring system at the Ryazan district power station is briefly described including the characteristics of the analyzers used in the system. The main principles for constructing monitoring systems are formulated. The characteristics of the monitoring systems that were designed and put in operation in the period from 2008 to 2011 are given together with a list of instruments and sample preparation devices used in them. The main advantages of modern analyzers used for chemical monitoring purposes are pointed out. Some problems affecting the operation of monitoring system equipment in the startup and transient operating modes of main power-generating equipment are specially mentioned.

  20. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  1. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot.... This form must be completed and submitted to the committee each time a lot fails either aflatoxin...

  2. Learning the lessons from Stafford failings.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-03-01

    The damning findings of the latest Francis Inquiry, headed up by Robert Francis QC, and set up to examine the deficiencies in the monitoring of patient safety and well-being at the main hospital run by the Mid Staffordshire Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Stafford Hospital, between January 2005 and March 2009, by the commissioning, supervisory, and regulatory bodies responsible, have been published. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, they will make uncomfortable reading for a wealth of different organisations--from the Trust itself to the Care Quality Commission, Monitor, the Department of Health, the West Midlands Strategic Health Authority, and The Health Protection Agency, and well also cause significant concern within the nursing and clinical professions. PMID:23573682

  3. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Wilbur L.; Schenter, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  4. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    PubMed

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  5. The Born rule fails in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2009-07-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule fails and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure problem in cosmology. A particular volume-averaged form is proposed.

  6. Arthroscopic revisions in failed meniscal surgery.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Gunter

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to classify meniscal tear forms as found in 195 revision arthroscopies. Interval between primary arthroscopy and revision was 7.8+/-5.6 month. All patients were available for control after 1 year. In 174 knees the lesion was located in the medial meniscus and in 21 knees in the lateral meniscus. In the medial meniscus an unstable posterior meniscal horn was seen in 93 knees followed by incomplete horizontal tear and meniscal destruction in 37. Flap tear, circumferential tear, and failed meniscal repair were also seen. In the lateral meniscus destruction of a discoid meniscus, instability near the popliteal hiatus, and various tear forms were seen with nearly equal frequency. Postoperatively Lysholm score increased significantly in both groups. Most meniscal tears, found in revision arthroscopy, are caused by an insufficient primary operation. A diligent analysis of the tear form is absolutely necessary. An adequate radical resection technique to establish a smooth meniscal crest is indispensable. PMID:12904905

  7. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Orederu, Temidayo A.; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS−). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress. PMID:23980142

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  12. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  13. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  14. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  15. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  16. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food... failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? (a) The importing or offering for import into the United States of an article of food in violation of...

  17. Ailing and failing endosseous dental implants: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Eric T; Covington, Lemuel L; Bishop, Barry G; Breault, Lawrence G

    2003-05-15

    Although the overall success rate of implant dentistry is very high, dental implants occasionally fail. It is essential for the clinician to recognize unhealthy implants and to determine whether they are ailing, failing, or failed prior to beginning any salvage efforts. Ailing and failing implants are amenable to therapy. Implants diagnosed as failed should be removed. This review provides the reader with information on non-surgical and surgical therapies available for managing ailing and failing implants. Undoubtedly, the best steps to avoid encountering ailing or failing implants involve proper case selection, excellent surgical technique, placing an adequate restoration on the implant, educating the implant patient to maintain meticulous oral hygiene, and evaluating the implant both clinically and radiographically at frequent recall visits. PMID:12761588

  18. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome. PMID:16627323

  19. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  20. Sediments fail to record geomagnetic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Meynadier, Laure; Bassinot, Franck; Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    We have studied four records of the last Matuyama-Brunhes reversal from sediment cores from the equatorial Indian Ocean, west equatorial Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean with deposition rates of 4cm/ka and 2cm/ka for one equatorial core. All measurements were performed using 8cc cubic samples. In three records the demagnetization diagrams of the transitional samples are of bad quality. In the best samples the characteristic component of magnetization is defined with a large error that is reflected by an increase of the MAD value by at least a factor 10 with respect to non-transitional samples. Although not being frequently reported in papers which tend to exhibit the best demagnetization diagrams, this behavior is actually typical of most transitions studied in sedimentary sequences and somehow questions the reliability of the records. It is frequently considered that failure to isolate the initial magnetization component is due to weakly magnetized transitional samples with magnetization about ten times lower than outside the reversal. However, the magnetization intensity of transitional samples is much stronger in two of the present cores than the non-transitional samples of the other cores. The VGP paths that were tentatively derived from these transitions are quite complex and very different from each other. After rescaling all results to the same resolution the length of the transitional intervals remains different between each core suggesting that different magnetization processes were at work and yielded different records of the rapid field changes during the transition. Because similar magnetic grains recorded different directions, demagnetization fails to isolate a characteristic component. The sediment from west equatorial Pacific is an interesting exception with nice univectorial transitional diagrams decreasing towards the origin. The inclination remains close to zero, while the declination rotates smoothly between the two polarities. As a

  1. If the antibody fails – a mass Western approach

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Ute; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Tschoep, Hendrik; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2008-01-01

    Sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) has attracted the interest of plant scientists for decades. It is the key enzyme in sucrose metabolism and is under investigation in various plant species, e.g. spinach, tobacco, poplar, resurrection plants, maize, rice, kiwi and Arabidopsis thaliana. In A. thaliana, there are four distinct SPS isoforms. Their expression is thought to depend on environmental conditions and plant tissue. However, these data were derived from mRNA expression levels only. No data on SPS protein identification from crude extracts have been available until now. An antibody approach failed to distinguish the four isoforms. Therefore, we developed a method for SPS quantification and isoform-specific identification in A. thaliana complex protein samples. Samples were separated on SDS-PAGE, digested and directly applied to liquid chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/TSQ-MS). In this approach, known as mass Western, samples were analysed in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, so that all four SPS isoforms could be measured in one experiment. In addition to the relative quantification, stable isotope-labelled internal peptide standards allowed absolute quantification of SPS proteins. Protein extracts from various plant tissues, samples harvested during the day or the night, and cold-stressed plants were analysed. The stress-specific SPS5a isoform showed increased concentrations in cold-stressed leaf material. PMID:18485062

  2. Experimenting `learn by doing' and `learn by failing'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based experiential learning overlook daily difficulties, which play a central role in manufacturing systems. To fill the need of a game overcoming such lack of vision, an innovative game direct in-field, named Kart Factory, has been developed. Actual production shifts are simulated, while keeping all the elements peculiar to a real production set (i.e. complexity, effort, safety). The working environment is a real pedal car assembly department, the products to be assembled have relevant size and weight (i.e. up to 35 kg approximately), and the provided tools are real production equipment (e.g. keys, screwdrivers, trans-pallets, etc.). Due to the need to maximise the impact on students, a labour-intensive process characterises the production department. The whole training process is based on three educational principles: Experience Value Principle, Error Value Principle, and Team Value Principle. As the 'learn by doing' and 'learn by failing' are favoured, the theory follows the practice, while crating the willingness to 'do' instead of just designing or planning. The gathered data prove the Kart Factory's effectiveness in reaching a good knowledge of lean concepts, notwithstanding the students' initial knowledge level.

  3. Comparative surface microanalysis of failed Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, C; Olivé, J

    1992-01-01

    The chemical composition and topography of an implant surface determine the human immunologic system response. This study compared the surfaces of 13 Brånemark oral implants, 11 that came from retrieved specimens which failed initially or did not osseointegrate and 2 that were never implanted (controls). The period of implantation in human jaws varied between 3 and 20 months. After cleaning and sterilization, the topography, surface chemical composition, and thickness of the oxide layer were studied. The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy did not show any significant topographic differences among the specimens. X-ray spectrographic microanalysis showed very similar composition (titanium and amounts less than 0.5% of other elements) in the outermost layer of the analyzed specimens. The Auger spectroscope revealed considerable percentage differences in the amount of carbon and silicon in the last monolayers, which could be attributed to handling or to an inadequate cleaning process. This places the retrieved specimens out of the acceptable statistical limits of contamination by introducing a factor of doubt for long-term prognosis in the hypothetical situation of their re-use. PMID:1398830

  4. Alpha-1-Adrenergic Receptor Subtypes in Non-Failing and Failing Human Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brian C.; Swigart, Philip M; DeMarco, Teresa; Hoopes, Charles; Simpson, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (α1-ARs) play adaptive roles in the heart and protect against the development of heart failure (HF). The three α1-AR subtypes,α1A, α1B, and α1D, have distinct physiological roles in mouse heart, but very little is known about α1-subtypes in human heart. Here we test the hypothesis that the α1A and α1B subtypes are present in human myocardium, similar to the mouse, and are not down-regulated in heart failure. Methods and Results Hearts from transplant recipients and unused donors were failing (n = 12; mean EF 24%) or non-failing (n = 9; mean EF 59%), and similar in age (~44 years) and sex (~70% male). We measured the α1-AR subtypes in multiple regions of both ventricles by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and radioligand binding. All three α1-AR subtype mRNAs were present, and α1A mRNA was most abundant (~65% of total α1-AR mRNA). However, only α1A and α1B binding were present, and the α1B was most abundant (60% of total). In failing hearts, α1A and α1B binding were not down-regulated, in contrast with β1-ARs. Conclusions Our data show for the first time that the α1A and α1B subtypes are both present in human myocardium, but α1D binding is not, and that the α1-subtypes are not down-regulated in HF. Since α1-subtypes in the human heart are similar to mouse, where adaptive and protective effects of α1-subtypes are most convincing, it might become feasible to treat HF with a drug targeting the α1A and/or α1B. PMID:19919991

  5. Interior's Climate Science Centers: Focus or Fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udall, B.

    2012-12-01

    After a whirlwind two years of impressive and critical infrastructure building, the Department of Interior's Climate Science Centers are now in a position to either succeed or fail. The CSCs have a number of difficult structural problems including too many constituencies relative to the available resources, an uneasy relationship among many of the constituencies including the DOI agencies themselves, a need to do science in a new, difficult and non-traditional way, and a short timeframe to produce useful products. The CSCs have built a broad and impressive network of scientists and stakeholders. These entities include science providers of the universities and the USGS, and decision makers from the states, tribes, DOI land managers and other federal agencies and NGOs. Rather than try to support all of these constituencies the CSCs would be better served by refocusing on a core mission of supporting DOI climate related decision making. The CSCs were designed to service the climate science needs of DOI agencies, many of which lost their scientific capabilities in the 1990s due to a well-intentioned but ultimately harmful re-organization at DOI involving the now defunct National Biological Survey. Many of these agencies would like to have their own scientists, have an uneasy relationship with the nominal DOI science provider, the USGS, and don't communicate effectively among themselves. The CSCs must not succumb to pursuing science in either the traditional mode of the USGS or in the traditional mode of the universities, or worse, both of them. These scientific partners will need to be flexible, learn how to collaborate and should expect to see fewer resources. Useful CSC processes and outputs should start with the recommendations of the 2009 NRC Report Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate: (1) begin with users' needs; (2) give priority to process over products; (3) link information producers and users; (4) build connections across disciplines and organizations

  6. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  7. APPLICATION OF A DUAL FINE PARTICLE SEQUENTIAL SAMPLER, A TAPERED ELEMENT OSCILLATING MICROBALANCE, AND OTHER AIR MONITORING METHODS TO ASSESS TRANSBOUNDARY INFLUENCE OF PM 2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transboundary influences of paniculate matter less than or equal to 2.5 um in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5,) have been investigated in a U.S.-Mexican border region using a dual fine particle sequential sampler (DFPSS) and tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). Daily me...

  8. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section... QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Quality and Handling Standards § 996.50 Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. (a) Lots of peanuts which have not...

  9. Erika's Stories: Literacy Solutions for a Failing Middle School Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2010-01-01

    Erika was a failing student at a large urban public middle school. She was poor, Hispanic, bilingual, and had repeated fourth grade. She scored low on her standardized tests and was failing several subject areas. In class, Erika was a student who sat silently with her head on her desk, and rarely turned in any of her assignments. She was a…

  10. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  11. A simplified soil extraction sequence to monitor the main and trace element speciation in soil after compost and mineral fertilizer additions upon the composition of wheat grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred; Erhart, Eva

    2016-04-01

    High quality biological waste treatment aims at producing compost in order to maintain a clean environment and to sustain soil organic carbon levels. Fertilization with compost as a source of organic carbon, nutrients, and accessory elements, as well as fertilization with mineral N- and PK fertilizer have been tested in a field experiment on a calcaric Fluvisol in the Danube wetlands, at 4 levels each. Yields of wheat were recorded, and grains and soils were sampled from each treatment, and analyzed for main and trace element composition. The corresponding soils were characterized by mobile phases, obtained by leaching with 0,16M acetic acid to cover exchangeables plus carbonates, and subsequently by 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3 to dissolve the pedogenic oxides. Total amounts were obtained from digests with perchloric- nitric-hydrofluoric acid. For quasi-total amounts, aqua regia was replaced by pressure decomposition with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid. The proposed extraction sequence permits to analyze and interpret soil for main elements, trace elements, nutrients and anions simultaneously. Factor analyses of soil extracts obtained from dilute acetic acid revealed Ba-Be-Cd-Cu-Li-S (traces), Ca-Mg-Mn (main carbonates), Al-Fe-B, Y, and P-K (nutrients) as chemically feasible principal components. Subsequent soil extracts from oxalate contained Al-B-Co-K-Na-Pb-Si-V-S (maybe acid silicate weathering), Cr-Li-Ni-Sr-Ti (maybe basic silicate weathering), Be-Cu-Fe-P, Co-Mg-Mn-Zn (Mn-oxides) and Ba-Sc as principal components. Factor analyses of total element data distinguished the principal components Ce-La-Li-Sc-Y-P (rare earths), Al-Ca-Fe-K-Mg-Na-P (main elements), Cd-Co-Cr-Cu-Ni-Zn (trace elements), As-Pb (contaminants), Ba-Mn-Sr, and Ti, which looks chemically feasible also. Factor analyses of those soil fractions which presumably form the main fractions of exchangeables, carbonates, pedogenic oxides and silicates, showed no cross connections, except for P. Oxalate

  12. Stress mapping of undamaged, strained, and failed regions of bone using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dooley, Kathryn A.; McCormack, Jordan; Fyhrie, David P.; Morris, Michael D.

    2009-07-01

    Stress differences via spectral shifts that arise among failed, strained, and undamaged regions of bone can be determined using Raman spectroscopy and double-notch specimens. A double-notch specimen is a model in which the early stages of fracture can be examined. At four-point bending, fracture occurs at one of the notches. Tissue near each notch is representative of bone in a state either directly before or after bone failure. Raman images are acquired among three regions: control, strained (root of unbroken notch), and failed (root of fractured notch). The center of gravities (CGs), a way to monitor wavenumber shifts, of the phosphate v1 band are calculated. A PO4-3 v1 band shift most likely corresponds to a change in spacing between phosphate cations and anions. This spectral shift is converted into stress values using the dv/dP coefficient, determined by applying known pressures/stresses and measuring the change in position of the PO4-3 v1 band. In comparison to control regions, the residual stress in strained and failed regions is significantly higher (p=0.0425 and p=0.0169, respectively). In strained regions, residual stress is concentrated near the corners of the unbroken notch, whereas in failed regions the high stresses are confined near the edge of the fracture.

  13. Metasomatic Reaction Zones as Monitors of Trace Element Transfer at the Slab-Mantle Interface: the Case of the Hochwart Peridotite (Ulten Zone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocchi, M.; Hermann, J.; Bargossi, G. M.; Mair, V.; Morten, L.

    2006-12-01

    Ultramafic blocks belonging to the Hochwart peridotite outcrop (Ulten Zone, Italian Alps) preserve a series of metasomatic mineral zones generated by infiltration of Si-rich hydrous fluids which occurred at the gneiss- peridotite interface. The age of the high pressure metamorphism for the Hochwart complex has been constrained at 330 Ma (Tumiati et al., 2003, EPSL, 210, 509-526). The country rocks are stromatic gneisses consisting mainly of quartz, K-feldspar, garnet, kyanite, biotite and muscovite. The ultramafic body consists of strongly serpentinized metaperidotites which are exposed as a hectometre-size lens along a steep gully, associated to monomineralic zones that developed at the contact between the peridotite body and the garnet gneiss country rocks. The composition of the metasomatic zones has been investigated in detail and records an order of metasomatic zoning formed by phlogopite-rich to tremolite-anthophyllite-rich rocks going from the host gneiss towards the peridotite. In some cases, the ultramafics fade into the gneisses developing serpentine and talc which has replaced, presumably at lower temperatures, the serpentine matrix and occurs in association with chlorite. Phlogopite aggregates (phlogopitite) with accessory minerals (quartz + zircon + apatite) and metabasic pods (phlogopite and hornblende) also occur. Black tourmaline (schorl-dravite solid solution) has been found for the first time in the contact near the phlogopite zone, suggesting an external addition of elements (boron and fluorine) to the system at high temperature. The formation of the metasomatic zones composed exclusively of hydrous phases must have involved extensive H2O-metasomatism as already documented for the Ulten peridotites. The source for these fluids can be a system of trondhjemitic-pegmatitic dikes cutting the peridotite that would have channelled aqueous fluids into the ultramafic rocks. Whole-rock geochemistry and trace element (LA ICP-MS) composition of hydrous

  14. 21 CFR 1.284 - What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the other consequences of failing to submit adequate prior notice or otherwise failing to comply with this subpart? 1.284 Section 1.284 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL...

  15. Pictorial essay: Role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression

    PubMed Central

    Botchu, Rajesh; Khan, Aman; Jeyapalan, Kanagaratnam

    2012-01-01

    USG has been used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Scarring and incomplete decompression are the main causes for persistence or recurrence of symptoms. We performed a retrospective study to assess the role of ultrasound in failed carpal tunnel decompression. Of 422 USG studies of the wrist performed at our center over the last 5 years, 14 were for failed carpal tunnel decompression. Scarring was noted in three patients, incomplete decompression in two patients, synovitis in one patient, and an anomalous muscle belly in one patient. No abnormality was detected in seven patients. We present a pictorial review of USG findings in failed carpal tunnel decompression. PMID:22623813

  16. Failed Surgical Weight Loss Does Not Necessarily Mean Failed Metabolic Effects.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Ali; Jamal, Mohammad; Augustin, Toms; Corcelles, Ricard; Kirwan, John P; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic profile of patients after a failed surgical weight loss procedure is unknown. Long-term clinical outcomes of 31 obese diabetes patients with post-bariatric surgery excess weight loss of ≤25% were assessed. At a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 5-9 years) after surgery, remission and clinical improvement of diabetes occurred in seven (23%) and 13 (42%) patients, respectively. A long-term mean total weight loss of 7.0±4.7% and excess weight loss of 13.7±8.5% were associated with a mean reduction in fasting blood glucose level, from 158.9±66.7 to 128.4±35.3 mg/dL (P=0.03), and a significant decrease in diabetes medication requirements (P<0.001). A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (11.1±23.4 mm Hg, P=0.01) and level of circulating triglycerides (35.7±73.4 mg/dL, P=0.04) was also observed after surgery. A modest surgical weight loss in the range of 5-10% of initial weight was associated with significant improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors of morbidly obese diabetes patients. The markedly improved glycemic control (65% remission or clinical improvement) may be partly explained by weight-independent antidiabetes mechanisms of certain bariatric surgical procedures. PMID:26177379

  17. A proposal of monitoring and forecasting system for crustal activity in and around Japan using a large-scale high-fidelity finite element simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, T.; Ichimura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Here we propose a system for monitoring and forecasting of crustal activity, especially great interplate earthquake generation and its preparation processes in subduction zone. Basically, we model great earthquake generation as frictional instability on the subjecting plate boundary. So, spatio-temporal variation in slip velocity on the plate interface should be monitored and forecasted. Although, we can obtain continuous dense surface deformation data on land and partly at the sea bottom, the data obtained are not fully utilized for monitoring and forecasting. It is necessary to develop a physics-based data analysis system including (1) a structural model with the 3D geometry of the plate interface and the material property such as elasticity and viscosity, (2) calculation code for crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation using (1), (3) inverse analysis or data assimilation code both for structure and fault slip using (1)&(2). To accomplish this, it is at least necessary to develop highly reliable large-scale simulation code to calculate crustal deformation and seismic wave propagation for 3D heterogeneous structure. Actually, Ichimura et al. (2014, SC14) has developed unstructured FE non-linear seismic wave simulation code, which achieved physics-based urban earthquake simulation enhanced by 10.7 BlnDOF x 30 K time-step. Ichimura et al. (2013, GJI) has developed high fidelity FEM simulation code with mesh generator to calculate crustal deformation in and around Japan with complicated surface topography and subducting plate geometry for 1km mesh. Further, for inverse analyses, Errol et al. (2012, BSSA) has developed waveform inversion code for modeling 3D crustal structure, and Agata et al. (2015, this meeting) has improved the high fidelity FEM code to apply an adjoint method for estimating fault slip and asthenosphere viscosity. Hence, we have large-scale simulation and analysis tools for monitoring. Furthermore, we are developing the methods for

  18. It's elemental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Periodic Table of the elements will now have to be updated. An international team of researchers has added element 110 to the Earth's armory of elements. Though short-lived—of the order of microseconds, element 110 bottoms out the list as the heaviest known element on the planet. Scientists at the Heavy Ion Research Center in Darmstadt, Germany, made the 110-proton element by colliding a lead isotope with nickel atoms. The element, which is yet to be named, has an atomic mass of 269.

  19. Determination of elemental baseline using peltigeralean lichens from Northeastern Canada (Québec): Initial data collection for long term monitoring of the impact of global climate change on boreal and subarctic area in Canada.

    PubMed

    Darnajoux, Romain; Lutzoni, François; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2015-11-15

    Northeastern Canada is mostly free of anthropogenic activities. The extent to which this territory has been impacted by anthropogenic atmospheric depositions remains to be studied. The main goal of our study was to establish background levels for metals in boreal muscicolous/terricolous macrolichens over non-urbanized areas of northeastern Canada (Québec). Concentrations of 18 elements (Na, Mg, Al, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb) were determined for three species of the genus Peltigera (Peltigera aphthosa (L.) Willd. s.l., Peltigera neopolydactyla (Gyeln.) Gyeln. s.l., Peltigera scabrosa Th. Fr. s.l.), and Nephroma arcticum (L.) Torss., along a 1080 km south-north transect and along a of 730 km west-east transect. We report that elemental contents in the sampled lichen thalli are very low and similar to background levels found in other studies performed in pristine places (high elevation or remote ecosystems) throughout the world. Overall, our results demonstrate that most of the boreal and subarctic zone of Québec (northeastern Canada) is still pristine. The elemental baseline established in these lichen populations will contribute to monitor metal pollution in boreal and sub-polar ecosystems due to global climate change and future industrial expansion. PMID:26151649

  20. Council tax precept failed to cover cost of NLW.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Charging residents extra council tax to help pay for social care is insufficient to cover current funding gaps and has failed to cover the cost of the national living wage (NLW), a report warns. PMID:27573947

  1. Failing a student nurse: a new horizon of moral courage.

    PubMed

    Black, Sharon; Curzio, Joan; Terry, Louise

    2014-03-01

    The factors preventing registered nurses from failing students in practice are multifaceted and have attracted much debate over recent years. However, writers rarely focus on what is needed to fail an incompetent pre-registration nursing student in their final placement. This hermeneutic study explored the mentor experience of failing a pre-registration nursing student in their final placement. A total of 19 mentors were recruited from 7 different healthcare organisations in both inner city and rural locations in the southeast of England. Participants took part in individual reflective interviews about their experience of failing a pre-registration nursing student in their final placement. These experiences were interpreted through a hermeneutic discovery of meaning. The new horizon of understanding which developed as a result of this research is framed within the context of moral stress, moral integrity and moral residue with the overall synthesis being that these mentors' stories presented a new horizon of moral courage. PMID:23989859

  2. Elements of commissioning step-and-shoot IMRT: Delivery equipment and planning system issues posed by small segment dimensions and small monitor units

    SciTech Connect

    Aspradakis, Maria M. . E-mail: mania.aspradakis@physics.org; Lambert, Geoff D.; Steele, Alasdair

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the clinic necessitates commissioning for all systems involved. This paper describes work carried out for the treatment planning system (Helax-TMS version 6.1) and the treatment delivery equipment (Siemens Primus) available at our center. Particular regard was paid to small monitor units (MUs) and small field segments typical of step-and-shoot IMRT plans. The beam profile stability of the Siemens Primus accelerators when delivering small MU was examined with a linear detector array. Dose monitor linearity and intersegment variations were measured with a 0.6-cm{sup 3} ionization chamber. Treatment planning system calculated total scatter factors (S{sub cp}) and beam profiles for symmetric and asymmetric small fields for 6- and 15MV beams were compared against measurements in water using a 0.125-cm{sup 3} ionization chamber and a diamond detector. The 6- and 15MV beams from the Primus accelerators were found to be stable at MUs less than 10. Dose monitor linearity for small exposures under 10 MU was within {+-} 2% for 6 MV, but found to be not so initially for 15 MV. This could be remedied by an adjustment of a soft spot on the Siemens Primus. The delivery of small MU segments as part of an IMRT sequence was found to be consistent down to segment sizes of 1 MU. The treatment planning system pencil-beam convolution model agreed with measurement within {+-} 5% for fields collimated down to 3 x 3 cm. The collapsed cone point-kernel model better predicted the output for the smallest field, but displayed some unpredictable shifts in the position of the penumbra. The startup characteristics of Siemens Primus accelerators were found suitable for step-and-shoot IMRT. The diminution in accuracy of Helax-TMS dose calculation models for multileaf collimated fields of less than 2 x 2 cm has led us to avoid these in IMRT treatments at our center.

  3. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element variation in otoliths from fish collected near acid mine tailings: Potential for monitoring contaminant dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquet, M.; Halden, N. M.; Babaluk, J.; Campbell, J. L.; Nejedly, Z.

    2002-04-01

    Otoliths from fish sampled proximal to acid mine tailings located near Sherridon, Manitoba contain elevated abundances of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. Sr is also present in amounts ranging from 250 to 1200 ppm with the actual levels dependent on the lake from which fish were taken. Previous work on analyzing Zn and Mn suggests Zn will typically vary between 50 and ˜100 ppm (in marine and non-marine species) and Mn between 10 and ˜100 ppm. Otoliths analyzed in this study contain up to ˜1000 ppm Zn and up to ˜400 ppm Mn; Fe is present, ranging between 50 and 100 ppm and Cu is typically 40-50 ppm. Water samples showed variation in these elements depending on proximity to the tailings.

  4. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  5. Troubleshooting failed sterilization loads: Process failures and wet packs/loads.

    PubMed

    Seavey, Rose

    2016-05-01

    Sterilization process failures may place patients at risk. It is important that IPs, managers, educators, and staff members responsible for sterilization in health care facilities understand what to do if there is a biological, chemical, or mechanical sterilization monitor failure, or a wet pack. Sterilization process failures occur for many reasons: a malfunctioning sterilizer, user error (eg, incorrect packaging or loading procedures or incorrect cycle selection), poor steam quality, and others. All process failures should be investigated and the root cause of the failure identified. Understanding the possible causes of sterilization process failures and investigating tools for failed loads can help with risk assessment and necessary corrective action. PMID:27131132

  6. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel Silva; Filho, Mário Tomazello; Zucchi, Orghêda Luíza Araújo Domingues; Filho, Virgílio Franco do Nascimento

    2006-11-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, São Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ("Sibipiruna") was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark.

  7. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    SciTech Connect

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV`s) in S area. The FESV`s are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request.

  8. Fail-safe control system for a mine methane pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, M.C.; Kapsch, F.F.; Jeran, P.W.; Pepperney, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines has designed and put into operation a fail-safe control system for use in underground coal mines equipped with methane drainage pipelines. This control system can detect certain unsafe conditions and respond by automatically shutting off the flow of methane from the degasification borehole to the drainage pipeline. Methane flow is shut off when the methane content in the return airways reaches a predetermined level (typically 1.5%), when the methane drainage pipeline is ruptured by roof fall, or when there is an electric power failure. The fail-safe control system was designed using commercially available components and a methane analyzer system previously developed by the Bureau. The fail-safe system consists of a unit that combines a shutoff valve and pneumatic valve actuator, and electronic and mechanical equipment designed to detect hazards and effect shutdown. The fail-safe control system was designed to meet regulatory requirements issued by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Department of Labor, and State regulatory bodies for the safe operation of underground methane pipelines used for mine degasification. MSHA has inspected and tested this system and permitted its use in two mines. The Bureau installed the fail-safe system in two working coal mines, where successful performance has been demonstrated.

  9. Failed supernovae explain the compact remnant mass function

    SciTech Connect

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2014-04-10

    One explanation for the absence of higher mass red supergiants (16.5 M {sub ☉} ≲ M ≲ 25 M {sub ☉}) as the progenitors of Type IIP supernovae (SNe) is that they die in failed SNe creating black holes. Simulations show that such failed SNe still eject their hydrogen envelopes in a weak transient, leaving a black hole with the mass of the star's helium core (5-8 M {sub ☉}). Here we show that this naturally explains the typical masses of observed black holes and the gap between neutron star and black hole masses without any fine-tuning of stellar mass loss, binary mass transfer, or the SN mechanism, beyond having it fail in a mass range where many progenitor models have density structures that make the explosions more likely to fail. There is no difficulty including this ∼20% population of failed SNe in any accounting of SN types over the progenitor mass function. And, other than patience, there is no observational barrier to either detecting these black hole formation events or limiting their rates to be well below this prediction.

  10. [Monitoring of heavy metals and trace elements in the air, fruits and vegetables and soil in the province of Catania (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Ledda, Caterina; Cicciù, Francesca; Alonzo, Elena; Fallico, Roberto; Platania, Francesco; Di Mauro, Rosario; Valenti, Lina; Sciacca, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of fruits and vegetables with heavy metals can result from anthropogenic events (car or factory emissions, poor management of sewage and industrial waste) or from natural events (volcanic activity and geological soil matrix). The chemical and toxicological characteristics of heavy metals can have an impact on human health through several mechanisms. Other metals, on the other hand, are essential for maintenance of physiological and biochemical human processes, are protective against many diseases and must be present in the diet because they cannot be synthesized by the human body. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of heavy metals and trace elements both in fruit and vegetable products widely consumed in the province of Catania (Sicily, Italy) and in various environmental matrices (air, water and land), and to investigate possible sources of contamination. Fruit and vegetable products (tomatoes, lettuce, spinach, eggplants, potatoes, zucchini, grapes, apples and pears) were sampled (n = 60) from the towns of Adrano, Biancavilla and Mazzarrone. These locations were selected for their geomorphology, climate and cultivation characteristics. Levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, vanadium and selenium in fruit, vegetables, air and water samples were determined using atomic absorption spectrometer with graphite furnace Perkin-Elmer AAnalyst 800 while soil samples were evaluated by the atomic emission spectrometer Optima 2000 DV Perkin-Elmer. The presence of mercury was evaluated by atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor technique. Study results revealed widespread contamination of fruit and vegetables and mainly due to use of fertilizers and to volcanic activity. A strategy targeting the entire food chain is essential for ensuring food safety and consumer protection and maintaining contaminants at levels which are not hazardous to health. PMID:23532160

  11. Scalable and fail-safe deployment of the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system Rucio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassnig, M.; Vigne, R.; Beermann, T.; Barisits, M.; Garonne, V.; Serfon, C.

    2015-12-01

    This contribution details the deployment of Rucio, the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system. The main complication is that Rucio interacts with a wide variety of external services, and connects globally distributed data centres under different technological and administrative control, at an unprecedented data volume. It is therefore not possible to create a duplicate instance of Rucio for testing or integration. Every software upgrade or configuration change is thus potentially disruptive and requires fail-safe software and automatic error recovery. Rucio uses a three-layer scaling and mitigation strategy based on quasi-realtime monitoring. This strategy mainly employs independent stateless services, automatic failover, and service migration. The technologies used for deployment and mitigation include OpenStack, Puppet, Graphite, HAProxy and Apache. In this contribution, the interplay between these components, their deployment, software mitigation, and the monitoring strategy are discussed.

  12. National intelligence estimates and the Failed State Index.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Across 177 countries around the world, the Failed State Index, a measure of state vulnerability, was reliably negatively associated with the estimates of national intelligence. Psychometric analysis of the Failed State Index, compounded of 12 social, economic, and political indicators, suggested factorial unidimensionality of this index. The observed correspondence of higher national intelligence figures to lower state vulnerability might arise through these two macro-level variables possibly being proxies of even more pervasive historical and societal background variables that affect both. PMID:24597444

  13. Non-destructive monitoring of curing process in precast concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, S.; Ranz, J.; Fernández, R.; Albert, V.; Fuente, J. V.; Hernández, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, the use of precast concrete elements has gained importance because it offers many advantages over site-cast concrete. A disadvantage of site-cast concrete is that its properties vary according to the manufacturing method, the environment and even the operator who carried out the mixing, pouring and implementation of the concrete. Precast concrete elements are manufactured in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant) and this reduces the shrinkage and creep. One of the key properties of precast concrete is the capability to gain compressive strength rapidly under the appropriate conditions. The compressive strength determines if the precast can be stripped from the form or manipulated. This parameter is measured using destructive testing over cylindrical or cubic samples. The quality control of precast is derived from the fracture suffered by these elements, resulting in a "pass or fail" evaluation. In most cases, the solution to this problem is to allow the material to cure for a few hours until it acquires sufficient strength to handle the precast element. The focus of this paper is the description of the research project "CUREND". This project aims to design a non-destructive methodology to monitor the curing process in precast concrete. The monitoring will be performed using wireless sensor networks.

  14. Hydro-Mechanical Perturbation of a Steep Hillslope - Failing to Fail a Hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, D.; Schwarz, M.; Cohen, D.; Michlmayr, G.; Lehmann, P.; Gambazzi, F.; Hofer, M.; Stähli, M.

    2009-04-01

    Rapid shallow landslides are relatively common natural hazards in mountainous regions. The prediction of hydromechanical conditions inducing these events remains a challenge due to complex interactions of soil properties, vegetation and geologic conditions. Shallow landslides in alpine regions occur primarily in slopes steeper than 25 degrees and are triggered most often by heavy rainfall events. Nevertheless, extreme rainfall events on steep slopes >40 degrees in mountainous regions show remarkable stability. To analyze such hillslope response to extreme hydrologic input of long duration, we conducted a field experiment in the Loetschental valley (Wiler, Switzerland) where a small meadow (5 x 10 m) within a forest with soil depth between 0.3 and 1.5 m was instrumented with different sensors to monitor soil water pressure, soil and bedrock water content, electrical resistivity and occurrence of small movements. We applied water using two sprinklers and from a one meter deep trench upslope. Water was applied for two weeks at a rate of 36 L/hr/m2 (corresponding to annual rainfall amount of 860 mm applied in one day). Following this extended period of heavy rainfall, we supplied water to upslope trench (5 m wide and 1 m deep) at maximum rates of 200 L/min (potential seepage rates of 57 m per day!) resulting in surface runoff. Inflow rates less than 30L/min showed no surface runoff. Some tensiometers registered positive pore pressures in the range of 0.2 to 0.8 m of head, however, most of the applied water drained into bedrock and via preferential flow along macropores formed by decaying tree roots and rock fragment skeleton as indicated by geophysical methods and dye tracer experiments. The slope composition (roots, soil and rock fragments) and the interface between soil and bedrock show strong self-organization to maximize drainage capacity thereby reducing mechanical failure potential and landslide risk.

  15. Design study and comparative evaluation of JSFR failed fuel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, K.; Chikazawa, Y.; Ishikawa, N.; Kubo, S.; Okazaki, H.; Mito, M.; Tozawa, K.; Hayashi, M.

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual design study of an advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor JSFR has progressed in the 'Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) 'project in Japan. JSFR has two failed fuel detection systems in the core. One is a failed fuel detection (FFD) system which continuously monitors a fission product from failed fuel subassembly. The other is a failed fuel detection and location (FFDL) system which locates when it receives signals from FFD. The FFD system consists of a FFD-DN which detects delayed neutron (DN) in sodium and a FFD-CG which detects fission products in the cover gas of the reactor vessel. In this study, requirements to the FFD-DN and the FFD-DN design to meet the requirements were investigated for the commercial and demonstration JSFR. In the commercial JSFR, a sampling type FFD which collects sodium from the reactor vessel by sampling lines for DN detectors was adopted. The performances have been investigated and confirmed by a fluid analysis in the reactor upper plenum. In the demonstration JSFR, the performance of DN detectors installed on the primary cold-leg piping has been confirmed. For the FFDL systems, experiences in the previous fast reactors and the R and D of FFDL system for JSFR were investigated. This study focuses on the Selector-Valve and the Tagging-Gas FFDL systems. Operation experiences of the Selector-valve FFDL system were accumulated in PFR and Phenix. Tagging-gas system experiences were accumulated in EBR-II and FFTF. The feasibility of both FFDL systems for JSFR was evaluated. (authors)

  16. 75 FR 76262 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BJ85 Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Temporary regulations. SUMMARY: This document contains... environment, a party to a delivery-versus-payment transaction may lack the economic incentive to...

  17. Pass-Fail Evaluation: Phase II: Questionnaire Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle. Educational Assessment Center.

    This report presents the results of a study that was undertaken to identify student attitudes toward the Pass-Fail (P-F) option at the University of Washington. A questionnaire designed to assess student opinions toward and possible behavioral changes resulting from P-F courses was sent to a random sample of sophomores, juniors and seniors…

  18. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  19. Management of adults with prior failed hypospadias surgery

    PubMed Central

    Craig, James R.; Wallis, Chad; Brant, William O.; Hotaling, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypospadias is one of the most prevalent anomalies of the male genitalia. Contemporary hypospadias repair is very successful, but patients that have the surgery fail often require multiple surgeries throughout their life. Complications from failed hypospadias repairs have a significant impact on patients both psychologically and physically. Failed hypospadias repair encompasses a spectrum of problems that include hypospadias recurrence with an ectopic meatus, urethral fistula, urethral stricture, and ventral penile curvature. Repairs of hypospadias complications can be challenging due to the poor quality of surrounding tissue from disruption of normal vasculature in the re-operative field associated with the underlying disorder. One of the most challenging issues is dealing with urethral strictures. There have been multiple methods described at repairs of these in both a single stage and multiple staged procedures. Particular attention has been directed towards applications of grafts due to worse outcomes with flaps. Buccal mucosa has emerged as the leading graft material in staged repairs. When counseling patients with failed hypospadias it is important to discuss the expected outcome as repairs directed towards a terminally positioned meatus with a straight phallus may require multiple surgeries due to post-operative complications as well as the necessity of proceeding in a staged approach. PMID:26816767

  20. Recovery of failed solid-state anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liangcheng; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the performance of three methods for recovering failed solid-state anaerobic digesters. The 9-L digesters, which were fed with corn stover, failed at a feedstock/inoculum (F/I) ratio of 10 with negligible methane yields. To recover the systems, inoculum was added to bring the F/I ratio to 4. Inoculum was either added to the top of a failed digester, injected into it, or well-mixed with the existing feedstock. Digesters using top-addition and injection methods quickly resumed and achieved peak yields in 10days, while digesters using well-mixed method recovered slowly but showed 50% higher peak yields. Overall, these methods recovered 30-40% methane from failed digesters. The well-mixed method showed the highest methane yield, followed by the injection and top-addition methods. Recovered digesters outperformed digesters had a constant F/I ratio of 4. Slow mass transfer and slow growth of microbes were believed to be the major limiting factors for recovery. PMID:27155759

  1. Depressed phosphatidic acid-induced contractile activity of failing cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Tappia, Paramjit S; Maddaford, Thane G; Hurtado, Cecilia; Panagia, Vincenzo; Pierce, Grant N

    2003-01-10

    The effects of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known inotropic agent, on Ca(2+) transients and contractile activity of cardiomyocytes in congestive heart failure (CHF) due to myocardial infarction were examined. In control cells, PA induced a significant increase (25%) in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. The phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor, 2-nitro-4-carboxyphenyl N,N-diphenylcarbonate, blocked the positive inotropic action induced by PA, indicating that PA induces an increase in contractile activity and Ca(2+) transients through stimulation of PLC. Conversely, in failing cardiomyocytes there was a loss of PA-induced increase in active cell shortening and Ca(2+) transients. PA did not alter resting cell length. Both diastolic and systolic [Ca(2+)] were significantly elevated in the failing cardiomyocytes. In vitro assessment of the cardiac sarcolemmal (SL) PLC activity revealed that the impaired failing cardiomyocyte response to PA was associated with a diminished stimulation of SL PLC activity by PA. Our results identify an important defect in the PA-PLC signaling pathway in failing cardiomyocytes, which may have significant implications for the depressed contractile function during CHF. PMID:12504106

  2. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  3. Why Young People Fail To Get and Hold Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet provides advice to young people seeking their first jobs on how to avoid the pitfalls that have caused others to lose jobs or fail to be hired. Topics discussed in short, one-page sections include appearance, attitude and behavior, ignorance of labor market facts, misrepresentation, sensitivity about a physical defect, unrealistic…

  4. What is the optimal rate of failed extubation?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Failed extubation (FE), defined as reintubation 48 or 72 hours after planned extubation, occurs in a significant percentage of patients and is associated with a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality. This commentary reviews the literature describing FE rates and the clinical consequences of FE and proposes an 'optimal' rate of FE as well as avenues for future research. PMID:22356725

  5. Why the Merit Pay System Failed in the Federal Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Buddy Robert S.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of the merit pay system in the federal government and the ten unsurmountable problems that caused it to fail; i.e., unintended statutory provisions, open-ended regulations, novice technical assistance, drifting implementation policies, administrative errors, complicated systems, inconsistent employee treatment,…

  6. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC...

  7. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC...

  8. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC...

  9. 7 CFR 996.50 - Reconditioning failing quality peanuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reconditioning failing quality peanuts. 996.50 Section 996.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINIMUM QUALITY AND HANDLING STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC...

  10. When Consensus Decision-Making Fails: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Grant T.

    Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…