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Sample records for monkey aotus vociferans

  1. Relationship of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and proteinuria to cardiomyopathy in the owl monkey (Aotus vociferans)

    SciTech Connect

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Chavera, Alfonso; Montoya, Enrique J.; Takano, Juan; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine serum reference values for crea- tine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydroge- nase (LDH) in captive-born and wild-caught owl monkeys to assess their usefulness for diagnosing myocardial disease. Urine samples were also collected and semi-quantitative tests performed. There was no statistically significant difference between CK, AST, and LDH when comparing both groups. However, when comparing monkeys with proteinuria to those without proteinuria, a statistically significant difference in CK value was observed (P = 0.021). In addition, the CK/AST ratio revealed that 29% of the animals included in this study had values suggesting cardiac infarction. Grossly, cardiac concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and small, pitted kidneys were the most common findings. Microscopically, myocardial fibrosis, contraction band necrosis, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of coronary arteries, medium-sized renal arteries, and afferent glomerular arteriolae were the most significant lesions, along with increased mesangial matrix and hypercellularity of glomeruli, Bowman’s capsule, and peritubular space fibroplasia. These findings suggest that CK, AST, and LDH along with urinalysis provide a reliable method for diagnosing cardiomyopathies in the owl monkey. In addition, CK/AST ratio, proteinuria, and the observed histological and ultrastructural changes suggest that Aotus vociferans suffer from arterial hypertension and chronic myocardial infarction.

  2. Mosquito Infection Studies with Aotus Monkeys and Humans Infected with the Chesson Strain of Plasmodiun vivax

    PubMed Central

    Collins, William E.; Sullivan, JoAnn S.; Jeffery, Geoffrey M.; Nace, Douglas; Williams, Tyrone; Galland, G. Gale; Williams, Allison; Barnwell, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Oocyst counts were compared between mosquitoes that fed on humans versus mosquitoes that fed on Aotus monkeys, both of which were infected with the Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax. Oocyst counts obtained from mosquitoes fed on humans were almost 10-fold higher in number. Mosquitoes were more likely to be infected and with a higher rate of infection when they fed on monkeys before the peak in the asexual parasite count. Mosquitoes that fed on humans were more likely to be more heavily infected when fed after the peak in the asexual count. Of several species of owl monkeys, Aotus vociferans was infected at a higher frequency. On the basis of oocyst counts, Anopheles dirus were the most susceptible and An. maculatus were the least susceptible of the mosquito species tested. PMID:22403307

  3. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly. PMID:23759531

  4. Mutational changes in S-cone opsin genes common to both nocturnal and cathemeral Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Levenson, David H; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Evans, Sian; Jacobs, Gerald H

    2007-07-01

    Aotus is a platyrrhine primate that has been classically considered to be nocturnal. Earlier research revealed that this animal lacks a color vision capacity because, unlike all other platyrrhine monkeys, Aotus has a defect in the opsin gene that is required to produce short-wavelength sensitive (S) cone photopigment. Consequently, Aotus retains only a single type of cone photopigment. Other mammals have since been found to show similar losses and it has often been speculated that such change is in some fashion tied to nocturnality. Although most species of Aotus are indeed nocturnal, recent observations show that Aotus azarai, an owl monkey species native to portions of Argentina and Paraguay, displays a cathemeral activity pattern being active during daylight hours as frequently as during nighttime hours. We have sequenced portions of the S-cone opsin gene in A. azarai and Aotus nancymaae, the latter a typically nocturnal species. The S-cone opsin genes in both species contain the same fatal defects earlier detected for Aotus trivirgatus. On the basis of the phylogenetic relationships of these three species these results imply that Aotus must have lost a capacity for color vision early in its history and they also suggest that the absence of color vision is not compulsively linked to a nocturnal lifestyle. PMID:17253622

  5. Antiviral Activity of Chloroquine Against Dengue Virus Type 2 Replication in Aotus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Muniz, José Augusto Pereira Carneiro; Imbeloni, Aline Amaral; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dengue virus (DENV) of the Flaviviridae family is a single positive-stranded RNA virus that is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of chloroquine (CLQ) as an antiviral drug against dengue virus in monkeys. To analyze the action of the drug in vivo, nonhuman primates groups (Aotus azarai infulatus) were inoculated with a subcutaneous injection of a virulent strain of DENV-2, treated and untreated CLQ. Blood hematological, viremia, and serum biochemical values were obtained from 16 DENV-2-inoculated, treated and untreated; four received only CLQ and one mock-infected Aotus monkeys. Monkey serum samples (day 0–10 post-inoculation) were assayed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Cytometric Bead Array for determination of viremia and inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Additionally, body temperature and activity levels were determined. In the present work, CLQ was effective on replication of DENV-2 in Aotus monkeys; a time viremia reduction was observed compared with the controls. The concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma in the serum of the animals had a statistically significant reduction in the groups treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. A significant decrease in systemic levels of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was also observed in the animals treated with CLQ after infection compared with the controls. These results suggest that CLQ interferes in DENV-2 replication in Aotus monkeys. PMID:25664975

  6. Evaluation of Artemisone Combinations in Aotus Monkeys Infected with Plasmodium falciparum▿

    PubMed Central

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Kotecka, Barbara M.; Edstein, Michael D.; Haynes, Richard K.; Fugmann, Burkhard; Kyle, Dennis E.; Rieckmann, Karl H.

    2009-01-01

    Artemisone (single oral dose, 10 mg/kg of body weight) cured nonimmune Aotus monkeys of their Plasmodium falciparum infections when combined with mefloquine (single oral dose, 5 and 10 mg/kg but not 2.5 mg/kg). In combination with amodiaquine (20 mg/kg/day), artemisone (10 mg/kg/day) given orally for 3 days cured all infected monkeys. Three days of treatment with artemisone (30 mg/kg/day) and clindamycin (100 mg/kg/day) was also curative. PMID:19506062

  7. Evaluation of artemisone combinations in Aotus monkeys infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Kotecka, Barbara M; Edstein, Michael D; Haynes, Richard K; Fugmann, Burkhard; Kyle, Dennis E; Rieckmann, Karl H

    2009-08-01

    Artemisone (single oral dose, 10 mg/kg of body weight) cured nonimmune Aotus monkeys of their Plasmodium falciparum infections when combined with mefloquine (single oral dose, 5 and 10 mg/kg but not 2.5 mg/kg). In combination with amodiaquine (20 mg/kg/day), artemisone (10 mg/kg/day) given orally for 3 days cured all infected monkeys. Three days of treatment with artemisone (30 mg/kg/day) and clindamycin (100 mg/kg/day) was also curative. PMID:19506062

  8. Immune Responses and Protection of Aotus Monkeys Immunized with Irradiated Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

    PubMed Central

    Jordán-Villegas, Alejandro; Perdomo, Anilza Bonelo; Epstein, Judith E.; López, Jesús; Castellanos, Alejandro; Manzano, María R.; Hernández, Miguel A.; Soto, Liliana; Méndez, Fabián; Richie, Thomas L.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    A non-human primate model for the induction of protective immunity against the pre-erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium vivax malaria using radiation-attenuated P. vivax sporozoites may help to characterize protective immune mechanisms and identify novel malaria vaccine candidates. Immune responses and protective efficacy induced by vaccination with irradiated P. vivax sporozoites were evaluated in malaria-naive Aotus monkeys. Three groups of six monkeys received two, five, or ten intravenous inoculations, respectively, of 100,000 irradiated P. vivax sporozoites; control groups received either 10 doses of uninfected salivary gland extract or no inoculations. Immunization resulted in the production low levels of antibodies that specifically recognized P. vivax sporozoites and the circumsporozoite protein. Additionally, immunization induced low levels of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses. Intravenous challenge with viable sporozoites resulted in partial protection in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the Aotus monkey model may be able to play a role in preclinical development of P. vivax pre-erythrocytic stage vaccines. PMID:21292877

  9. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus) need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Erkert, Hans G

    2010-01-01

    Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai) of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months) 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals) to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to moonlight. Furthermore

  10. Moonstruck Primates: Owl Monkeys (Aotus) Need Moonlight for Nocturnal Activity in Their Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Duque, Eduardo; de la Iglesia, Horacio; Erkert, Hans G.

    2010-01-01

    Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans), nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai) of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6–18 months) 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n = 10 individuals) to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to moonlight

  11. Sequence and diversity of T-cell receptor alpha V, J, and C genes of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae.

    PubMed

    Favre, N; Daubenberger, C; Marfurt, J; Moreno, A; Patarroyo, M; Pluschke, G

    1998-09-01

    We cloned and sequenced TcR alpha chain cDNA of three healthy Aotus nancymaae monkeys. Fifteen different TRAJ segments and 9 different TRAV genes were identified in the 29 rearrangements analyzed. As expected from the greater phylogenetic distance, A. nancymaae TRA gene sequences diverged more from the human sequences than those of the chimpanzee or the rhesus macaque. However, no Aotus TRAJ segment or TRAV gene was found which lacked a human counterpart. These counterparts were AJ02, AJ05, AJ09, AJ15, AJ22, AJ23, AJ28, AJ30, AJ32, AJ34, AJ37, AJ40, AJ42, AJ45, AJ52 and AV2S1, AV2S3, AV3S1, AV8S1, AV12S1, AV15S1, ADV21S1/DV5, AV22S1S and AV23S1, respectively. In most cases the identity of amino acid sequences between corresponding Aotus and human genes was greater than 80%. This marked conservation of TRA gene sequences indicates a close structural relationship of Aotus and human TcR and demonstrates that the TcR repertoire in primates is remarkably stable. The results support the concept of using Aotus monkeys, which are susceptible to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, as an animal model for the evaluation of molecularly defined malaria vaccine candidates. PMID:9716644

  12. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    SciTech Connect

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Montoya, Enrique J.; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-08-16

    Abstract Dyscoria was observed in a female owl monkey and her two offspring. A third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two males paired with the female died, one of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all three animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly, H. simplex or H. saimiri-1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing animals into breeding or research colonies that were previously kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is observed in nonhuman primates.

  13. Density estimates of Panamanian owl monkeys (Aotus zonalis) in three habitat types.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Magdalena S; Samudio, Rafael; Bearder, Simon K; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2010-02-01

    The resolution of the ambiguity surrounding the taxonomy of Aotus means data on newly classified species are urgently needed for conservation efforts. We conducted a study on the Panamanian owl monkey (Aotus zonalis) between May and July 2008 at three localities in Chagres National Park, located east of the Panama Canal, using the line transect method to quantify abundance and distribution. Vegetation surveys were also conducted to provide a baseline quantification of the three habitat types. We observed 33 individuals within 16 groups in two out of the three sites. Population density was highest in Campo Chagres with 19.7 individuals/km(2) and intermediate densities of 14.3 individuals/km(2) were observed at Cerro Azul. In la Llana A. zonalis was not found to be present. The presence of A. zonalis in Chagres National Park, albeit at seemingly low abundance, is encouraging. A longer-term study will be necessary to validate the further abundance estimates gained in this pilot study in order to make conservation policy decisions. PMID:19852005

  14. Persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    De, Sai Lata; Stanisic, Danielle I; van Breda, Karin; Bellete, Bernadette; Harris, Ivor; McCallum, Fiona; Edstein, Michael D; Good, Michael F

    2016-08-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan of the Plasmodium genus and results in 0.5-0.7million deaths per year. Increasing drug resistance of the parasite and insecticide resistance of mosquitoes necessitate alternative control measures. Numerous vaccine candidates have been identified but none have been able to induce robust, long-lived protection when evaluated in malaria endemic regions. Rodent studies have demonstrated that chemically attenuated blood stage parasites can persist at sub-patent levels and induce homologous and heterologous protection against malaria. Parasite-specific cellular responses were detected, with protection dependent on CD4+ T cells. To investigate this vaccine approach for Plasmodium falciparum, we characterised the persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated P. falciparum FVO strain parasites (CAPs) in non-splenectomised Aotus nancymaae monkeys following administration of a single dose. Control monkeys received either normal red blood cells or wild-type parasites followed by drug treatment. Chemical attenuation was performed using tafuramycin A, which irreversibly binds to DNA. CAPs were detected in the peripheral blood for up to 2days following inoculation as determined by thick blood smears, and for up to 8days as determined by quantitative PCR. Parasite-specific IgG was not detected in monkeys that received CAPs; however, in vitro parasite-specific T cell proliferation was observed. Following challenge, the CAP monkeys developed an infection; however, one CAP monkey and the infection and drug-cure monkeys showed partial or complete resistance. These experiments lay the groundwork for further assessment of CAPs as a potential vaccine against malaria. PMID:27238088

  15. A Replicating Adenovirus Capsid Display Recombinant Elicits Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites in Aotus nancymaae Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Karen, Kasey A.; Deal, Cailin; Adams, Robert J.; Nielsen, Carolyn; Ward, Cameron; Espinosa, Diego A.; Xie, Jane; Zavala, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    Decades of success with live adenovirus vaccines suggest that replication-competent recombinant adenoviruses (rAds) could serve as effective vectors for immunization against other pathogens. To explore the potential of a live rAd vaccine against malaria, we prepared a viable adenovirus 5 (Ad5) recombinant that displays a B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum on the virion surface. The recombinant induced P. falciparum sporozoite-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Human adenoviruses do not replicate in mice. Therefore, to examine immunogenicity in a system in which, as in humans, the recombinant replicates, we constructed a similar recombinant in an adenovirus mutant that replicates in monkey cells and immunized four Aotus nancymaae monkeys. The recombinant replicated in the monkeys after intratracheal instillation, the first demonstration of replication of human adenoviruses in New World monkeys. Immunization elicited antibodies both to the Plasmodium epitope and the Ad5 vector. Antibodies from all four monkeys recognized CSP on intact parasites, and plasma from one monkey neutralized sporozoites in vitro and conferred partial protection against P. falciparum sporozoite infection after passive transfer to mice. Prior enteric inoculation of two animals with antigenically wild-type adenovirus primed a response to the subsequent intratracheal inoculation, suggesting a route to optimizing performance. A vaccine is not yet available against P. falciparum, which induces the deadliest form of malaria and kills approximately one million children each year. The live capsid display recombinant described here may constitute an early step in a critically needed novel approach to malaria immunization. PMID:25368113

  16. Protective immunity induced in Aotus monkeys by recombinant SERA proteins of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Inselburg, J; Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Green, K M; Kansopon, J; Hahm, B K; Bathurst, I C; Barr, P J; Rossan, R N

    1991-01-01

    We describe the vaccination of Panamanian monkeys (Aotus sp.) with two recombinant blood stage antigens that each contain a portion of the N-terminal region of the SERA (serine repeat antigen) protein of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We immunized with either a 262-amino-acid SERA fragment (SERA I) that contains amino acids 24 to 285 of the 989-amino-acid protein or a 483-amino-acid SERA fragment (SERA N) that contains amino acids 24 to 506 as part of a fusion protein with human gamma interferon. The recombinant proteins were shown to stimulate protective immunity when administered with complete and incomplete Freund adjuvant. Four of six immunized monkeys challenged by intravenous inoculation with blood stage P. falciparum developed parasitemias that were reduced by at least 1,000-fold. Two of six immunized monkeys developed parasitemias which were comparable to the lowest parasitemia in one of four controls and were 50- to 1,000-fold lower than in the other three controls. PMID:1900809

  17. Protective immunity induced in Aotus monkeys by recombinant SERA proteins of Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Inselburg, J; Bzik, D J; Li, W B; Green, K M; Kansopon, J; Hahm, B K; Bathurst, I C; Barr, P J; Rossan, R N

    1991-04-01

    We describe the vaccination of Panamanian monkeys (Aotus sp.) with two recombinant blood stage antigens that each contain a portion of the N-terminal region of the SERA (serine repeat antigen) protein of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We immunized with either a 262-amino-acid SERA fragment (SERA I) that contains amino acids 24 to 285 of the 989-amino-acid protein or a 483-amino-acid SERA fragment (SERA N) that contains amino acids 24 to 506 as part of a fusion protein with human gamma interferon. The recombinant proteins were shown to stimulate protective immunity when administered with complete and incomplete Freund adjuvant. Four of six immunized monkeys challenged by intravenous inoculation with blood stage P. falciparum developed parasitemias that were reduced by at least 1,000-fold. Two of six immunized monkeys developed parasitemias which were comparable to the lowest parasitemia in one of four controls and were 50- to 1,000-fold lower than in the other three controls. PMID:1900809

  18. Owl monkeys (Aotus nigriceps and A. infulatus) follow routes instead of food-related cues during foraging in captivity.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Renata Souza; Bicca-Marques, Júlio César

    2014-01-01

    Foraging at night imposes different challenges from those faced during daylight, including the reliability of sensory cues. Owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) are ideal models among anthropoids to study the information used during foraging at low light levels because they are unique by having a nocturnal lifestyle. Six Aotus nigriceps and four A. infulatus individuals distributed into five enclosures were studied for testing their ability to rely on olfactory, visual, auditory, or spatial and quantitative information for locating food rewards and for evaluating the use of routes to navigate among five visually similar artificial feeding boxes mounted in each enclosure. During most experiments only a single box was baited with a food reward in each session. The baited box changed randomly throughout the experiment. In the spatial and quantitative information experiment there were two baited boxes varying in the amount of food provided. These baited boxes remained the same throughout the experiment. A total of 45 sessions (three sessions per night during 15 consecutive nights) per enclosure was conducted in each experiment. Only one female showed a performance suggestive of learning of the usefulness of sight to locate the food reward in the visual information experiment. Subjects showed a chance performance in the remaining experiments. All owl monkeys showed a preference for one box or a subset of boxes to inspect upon the beginning of each experimental session and consistently followed individual routes among feeding boxes. PMID:25517894

  19. Antibody responses to a novel Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein vaccine correlate with protection against experimental malaria infection in Aotus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, David R; Kocken, Clemens H M; White, John H; Cowan, Graeme J M; Samuel, Kay; Dubbeld, Martin A; Voorberg-van der Wel, Annemarie; Thomas, Alan W; McBride, Jana S; Arnot, David E

    2014-01-01

    The Block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum has been identified as a target of protective immunity by a combination of seroepidemiology and parasite population genetics. Immunogenicity studies in small animals and Aotus monkeys were used to determine the efficacy of recombinant antigens derived from this region of MSP-1 as a potential vaccine antigen. Aotus lemurinus griseimembra monkeys were immunized three times with a recombinant antigen derived from the Block 2 region of MSP-1 of the monkey-adapted challenge strain, FVO of Plasmodium falciparum, using an adjuvant suitable for use in humans. Immunofluorescent antibody assays (IFA) against erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum using sera from the immunized monkeys showed that the MSP-1 Block 2 antigen induced significant antibody responses to whole malaria parasites. MSP-1 Block 2 antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed no significant differences in antibody titers between immunized animals. Immunized animals were challenged with the virulent P. falciparum FVO isolate and monitored for 21 days. Two out of four immunized animals were able to control their parasitaemia during the follow-up period, whereas two out of two controls developed fulminating parasitemia. Parasite-specific serum antibody titers measured by IFA were four-fold higher in protected animals than in unprotected animals. In addition, peptide-based epitope mapping of serum antibodies from immunized Aotus showed distinct differences in epitope specificities between protected and unprotected animals. PMID:24421900

  20. Antibody Responses to a Novel Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein Vaccine Correlate with Protection against Experimental Malaria Infection in Aotus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, David R.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; White, John H.; Cowan, Graeme J. M.; Samuel, Kay; Dubbeld, Martin A.; der Wel, Annemarie Voorberg-van; Thomas, Alan W.; McBride, Jana S.; Arnot, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The Block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum has been identified as a target of protective immunity by a combination of seroepidemiology and parasite population genetics. Immunogenicity studies in small animals and Aotus monkeys were used to determine the efficacy of recombinant antigens derived from this region of MSP-1 as a potential vaccine antigen. Aotus lemurinus griseimembra monkeys were immunized three times with a recombinant antigen derived from the Block 2 region of MSP-1 of the monkey-adapted challenge strain, FVO of Plasmodium falciparum, using an adjuvant suitable for use in humans. Immunofluorescent antibody assays (IFA) against erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum using sera from the immunized monkeys showed that the MSP-1 Block 2 antigen induced significant antibody responses to whole malaria parasites. MSP-1 Block 2 antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed no significant differences in antibody titers between immunized animals. Immunized animals were challenged with the virulent P. falciparum FVO isolate and monitored for 21 days. Two out of four immunized animals were able to control their parasitaemia during the follow-up period, whereas two out of two controls developed fulminating parasitemia. Parasite-specific serum antibody titers measured by IFA were four-fold higher in protected animals than in unprotected animals. In addition, peptide-based epitope mapping of serum antibodies from immunized Aotus showed distinct differences in epitope specificities between protected and unprotected animals. PMID:24421900

  1. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-07-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually yet experimentation took place using A. nancymaae. High levels of extraction in Peru have had population-level impacts with significantly lower densities of Aotus spp. (3-24 individuals/km(2)) compared to Colombian sites with low hunting pressure (26-44 individuals/km(2)). Post-experimental release of this species in Colombian territory has created a new distribution whose status and impacts on resident populations of A. vociferans remain unknown. The trapping method has also had environmental impact, with loss of over 65,000 trees (including sleeping sites), annually. As Aotus species are registered under the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, international trade requires official permission and evidence that extraction does not impact wild populations. However, no official records exist and CITES legislation has failed, due principally to a lack of appropriate monitoring by national authorities responsible for compliance. Of further concern is that we had previously documented and reported the illegal trade to the appropriate governmental authorities yet still no action was taken-as demonstrated by the continuing trade in 2013. Enforcement eventually occurred when a non-governmental organization initiated legal action against organizations responsible. A successful second instance ruling by the Colombian State's Council in 2013 revoked trapping permits. Using the trade in owl monkeys as a case study we consider

  2. Parity Modifies Endocrine Hormones in Urine and Problem-Solving Strategies of Captive Owl Monkeys (Aotus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Eckles, Meredith; Kirk, Emily; Landis, Timothy; Evans, Sian; Lambert, Kelly G

    2014-01-01

    Parental behavior modifies neural, physiologic, and behavioral characteristics of both maternal and paternal mammals. These parenting-induced modifications extend to brain regions not typically associated with parental responses themselves but that enhance ancillary responses, such as foraging efficiency and predator avoidance. Here we hypothesized that male and female owl monkeys (Aotus spp.) with reproductive experience (RE) would demonstrate more adaptive ancillary behavioral and neuroendocrine responses than those of their nonRE counterparts. To assess cognitive skills and coping flexibility, we introduced a foraging strategy task, including a set of novel objects (coin holders) marked with different symbols representing different food rewards, to the animals. To assess endocrine responses, urine samples were assayed for cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels and their ratios to determine physiologic measures of emotional regulation in RE and nonRE owl monkeys. Compared with nonRE monkeys, experienced parents had higher DHEA:cortisol ratios after exposure to habituation training and on the first day of testing in the foraging task. Both hormones play critical roles in the stress response and coping mechanisms, and a high DHEA:cortisol ratio usually indicates increased coping skills. In addition, RE monkeys exhibited more efficient foraging responses (by 4-fold) than did the nonRE mating pairs. We conclude that RE modifies relevant behavioral and hormonal responses of both maternal and paternal owl monkeys exposed to a challenging cognitive paradigm. Corroborating previous research demonstrating adaptive modifications in foraging efficiency and emotional responses in reproductively experienced rodents, the current results extend these findings to a monogamous primate species. PMID:25527030

  3. Susceptibility and lack of evidence for a viremic state of rabies in the night owl monkey, Aotus nancymaae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabies causes an acute fatal encephalomyelitis in most mammals following infection with rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus. Little is known about rabies virus infection in species of New World non-human Primates (NHP). To investigate the suitability of the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae asissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies a viable animal model for rabies virus candidate vaccine testing, we used clinical presentation, serology, viral isolation, and PCR to evaluate the incubation period, immunity, and pathogenesis of infected animals. We tested the hypothesis that no viremic state exists for rabies virus. Methods Eight monkeys divided into two equal groups were inoculated intramuscularly either in the neck or footpad with 105 pfu of rabies virus (Pasteur/V-13R) and observed for >130 days. Oral and blood samples were collected and analyzed. Results Two monkeys inoculated in the neck displayed classic paralytic rabies. The mean incubation period was 11.5 days. The average maximum IgG response (antibody titer >0.200 O.D.) was achieved at day 10.0 and 62.3 in the clinical rabies and non-clinical rabies cases, respectively (p = 0.0429). No difference in IgM or IgG time to seroconversion or average maximum IgM level was observed between neck versus footpad inoculation groups. No viremia or viral shedding was detected by PCR or viral isolation during the observation period, including within the two symptomatic animals three days after disease onset. Tissue sections examined were unremarkable for inflammation or other histologic signs of rabies within the asymptomatic animal. Similarly none of the brain sections exhibited immunoreactivity for rabies virus antibody. Discussion This study demonstrates there is no difference in time to immune response between inoculation sites and distance to the brain; however, immune response tends to be more rapid in cases of clinically apparent disease and

  4. An optimized microsatellite genotyping strategy for assessing genetic identity and kinship in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai).

    PubMed

    Babb, Paul L; McIntosh, Annick M; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Di Fiore, Anthony; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterize a panel of 20 microsatellite markers that reproducibly amplify in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) for use in genetic profiling analyses. A total of 128 individuals from our study site in Formosa, Argentina, were genotyped for 20 markers, 13 of which were found to be polymorphic. The levels of allelic variation at these loci provided paternity exclusion probabilities of 0.852 when neither parent was known, and 0.981 when one parent was known. In addition, our analysis revealed that, although genotypes can be rapidly scored using fluorescence-based fragment analysis, the presence of complex or multiple short tandem repeat (STR) motifs at a microsatellite locus could generate similar fragment patterns from alleles that have different nucleotide sequences and perhaps different evolutionary origins. Even so, this collection of microsatellite loci is suitable for parentage analyses and will allow us to test various hypotheses about the relationship between social behavior and kinship in wild owl monkey populations. Furthermore, given the limited number of platyrrhine-specific microsatellite loci available in the literature, this STR panel represents a valuable tool for population studies of other cebines and callitrichines. PMID:21912137

  5. A recombinant vaccine expressed in the milk of transgenic mice protects Aotus monkeys from a lethal challenge with Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Stowers, Anthony W.; Chen, Li-how; Zhang, Yanling; Kennedy, Michael C.; Zou, Lanling; Lambert, Lynn; Rice, Timothy J.; Kaslow, David C.; Saul, Allan; Long, Carole A.; Meade, Harry; Miller, Louis H.

    2002-01-01

    Two strains of transgenic mice have been generated that secrete into their milk a malaria vaccine candidate, the 42-kDa C-terminal portion of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142). One strain secretes an MSP142 with an amino acid sequence homologous to that of the FVO parasite line, the other an MSP142 where two putative N-linked glycosylation sites in the FVO sequence have been removed. Both forms of MSP142 were purified from whole milk to greater than 91% homogeneity at high yields. Both proteins are recognized by a panel of monoclonal antibodies and have identical N termini, but are clearly distinguishable by some biochemical properties. These two antigens were each emulsified with Freund's adjuvant and used to vaccinate Aotus nancymai monkeys, before challenge with the homologous P. falciparum FVO parasite line. Vaccination with a positive control molecule, a glycosylated form of MSP142 produced in the baculovirus expression system, successfully protected five of six monkeys. By contrast, vaccination with the glycosylated version of milk-derived MSP142 conferred no protection compared with an adjuvant control. Vaccination with the nonglycosylated, milk-derived MSP142 successfully protected the monkeys, with 4/5 animals able to control an otherwise lethal infection with P. falciparum compared with 1/7 control animals. Analysis of the different vaccines used suggested that the differing nature of the glycosylation patterns may have played a critical role in determining efficacy. This study demonstrates the potential for producing efficacious malarial vaccines in transgenic animals. PMID:11752405

  6. Endogenous New World primate type C viruses isolated from owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) kidney cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Todaro, G J; Sherr, C J; Sen, A; King, N; Daniel, M D; Fleckenstein, B

    1978-01-01

    A type C virus (OMC-1) detected in a culture of owl monkey kidney cells resembled typical type C viruses morphologically, but was slightly larger than previously characterized mammalian type C viruses. OMC-1 can be transmitted to bat lung cells and cat embryo fibroblasts. The virions band at a density of 1.16 g/ml in isopycnic sucrose density gradients and contain reverse transcriptase and a 60-65S RNA genome composed of approximately 32S subunits. The reverse transcriptase is immunologically and biochemically distinct from the polymerases of othe retroviruses. Radioimmunoassays directed to the interspecies antigenic determinants of the major structure proteins of other type C viruses do not detect a related antigen in OMC-1. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments using labeled viral genomic RNA or proviral cDNA transcripts to normal cellular DNA of different species show that OMC-1 is an endogenous virus with multiple virogene copies (20-50 per haploid genome) present in normal owl monkey cells and is distinct from previously isolated type C and D viruses. Sequences related to the OMC-1 genome can be detected in other New World monkeys. Thus, similar to the Old World primates (e.g., baboons as a prototype), the New World monkeys contain endogenous type C viral genes that appear to have been transmitted in the primate germ line. Images PMID:76312

  7. AVPR1A sequence variation in monogamous owl monkeys (Aotus azarai) and its implications for the evolution of platyrrhine social behavior.

    PubMed

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Schurr, Theodore G

    2010-10-01

    The arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) has been implicated in increased partner preference and pair bonding behavior in mammalian lineages. This observation is of considerable importance for studies of social monogamy, which only appears in a small subset of primate taxa, including the Argentinean owl monkey (Aotus azarai). Thus, to investigate the possible influence of AVPR1A on the evolution of social behavior in owl monkeys, we sequenced this locus in a wild population from the Gran Chaco. We also assessed the interspecific variation of AVPR1A in platyrrhine species that represent a set of phylogenetically and behaviorally disparate taxa. The resulting data revealed A. azarai to have a unique genic structure for AVPR1A that varies in coding sequence and microsatellite repeat content relative to other primate and mammalian species. Specifically, one repetitive region that has been the focus in studies of human AVPR1A diversity, "RS3," is completely absent in A. azarai and all other platyrrhines examined. This finding suggests that, if AVPR1A modulates behavior in owl monkeys and other neotropical primates, it does so independent of this region. These observations have also provided clues about the process by which the range of social behavior in the Order Primates evolved through lineage-specific neurogenetic variation. PMID:20838784

  8. A PfRH5-Based Vaccine Is Efficacious against Heterologous Strain Blood-Stage Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Aotus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Alexander D.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Lucas, Carmen M.; Lugo-Roman, Luis A.; Crosnier, Cécile; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Diouf, Ababacar; Miura, Kazutoyo; Lambert, Lynn E.; Ventocilla, Julio A.; Leiva, Karina P.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Illingworth, Joseph J.; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Hjerrild, Kathryn A.; Alanine, Daniel G.W.; Turner, Alison V.; Moorhead, Jeromy T.; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Wu, Yimin; Long, Carole A.; Wright, Gavin J.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Draper, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Antigenic diversity has posed a critical barrier to vaccine development against the pathogenic blood-stage infection of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To date, only strain-specific protection has been reported by trials of such vaccines in nonhuman primates. We recently showed that P. falciparum reticulocyte binding protein homolog 5 (PfRH5), a merozoite adhesin required for erythrocyte invasion, is highly susceptible to vaccine-inducible strain-transcending parasite-neutralizing antibody. In vivo efficacy of PfRH5-based vaccines has not previously been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that PfRH5-based vaccines can protect Aotus monkeys against a virulent vaccine-heterologous P. falciparum challenge and show that such protection can be achieved by a human-compatible vaccine formulation. Protection was associated with anti-PfRH5 antibody concentration and in vitro parasite-neutralizing activity, supporting the use of this in vitro assay to predict the in vivo efficacy of future vaccine candidates. These data suggest that PfRH5-based vaccines have potential to achieve strain-transcending efficacy in humans. PMID:25590760

  9. Tuberculosis-like lesions arising from the use of Freund's complete adjuvant in an owl monkey (Aotus sp)

    SciTech Connect

    Malaga, Carlos A.; Weller, Richard E.; Broderson, J R.; Gozalo, Alfonso S.

    2004-04-01

    An apparently normal, non-tuberculin-reacting, splenectomized owl monkey presented tuberculosis-like lesions of the lung at necropsy. Histological and bacteriological examination failed to demonstrate the presence of acid-fast organisms. Retrospective inquiry showed the animal had been inoculated using complete Freund's Adjuvant during a malaria vaccine trial. Lesions observed were compatible with lipid embolism of the adjuvant in the lungs.

  10. Social monogamy in wild owl monkeys (Aotus azarae) of Argentina: the potential influences of resource distribution and ranging patterns.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Using published and new data from a population of monogamous owl monkeys in the Argentinean Chaco, I examine the hypothesis that social monogamy is a default social system imposed upon males because the spatial and/or temporal distribution of resources and females makes it difficult for a single male to defend access to more than one mate. First, I examine a set of predictions on ranging patterns, use of space, and population density. This first section is followed by a second one considering predictions related to the abundance and distribution of food. Finally, I conclude with a section attempting to link the ranging and ecological data to demographic and life-history parameters as proxies for reproductive success. In support of the hypothesis, owl monkey species do live at densities (7-64 ind/km(2) ) that are predicted for monogamous species, but groups occupy home ranges and core areas that vary substantially in size, with pronounced overlap of home ranges, but not of core areas. There are strong indications that the availability of food sources in the core areas during the dry season may be of substantial importance for regulating social monogamy in owl monkeys. Finally, none of the proxies for the success of groups were strongly related to the size of the home range or core area. The results I present do not support conclusively any single explanation for the evolution of social monogamy in owl monkeys, but they help us to better understand how it may function. Moreover, the absence of conclusive answers linking ranging, ecology, and reproductive success with the evolution of social monogamy in primates, offer renewed motivation for continuing to explore the evolution of monogamy in owl monkeys. PMID:25931263

  11. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  12. Development of an Aotus nancymaae model for Shigella Vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Michael; Kaminski, Robert W; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Galvez Carrillo, Hugo; Tilley, Drake Hamilton; Baldeviano, Christian; Simons, Mark P; Reynolds, Nathanael D; Ranallo, Ryan T; Suvarnapunya, Akamol E; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Oaks, Edwin V

    2014-05-01

    Several animal models exist to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of candidate Shigella vaccines. The two most widely used nonprimate models for vaccine development include a murine pulmonary challenge model and a guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model. Nonhuman primate models exhibit clinical features and gross and microscopic colonic lesions that mimic those induced in human shigellosis. Challenge models for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Campylobacter spp. have been successfully developed with Aotus nancymaae, and the addition of a Shigella-Aotus challenge model would facilitate the testing of combination vaccines. A series of experiments were designed to identify the dose of Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T that induces an attack rate of 75% in the Aotus monkey. After primary challenge, the dose required to induce an attack rate of 75% was calculated to be 1 × 10(11) CFU. Shigella-specific immune responses were low after primary challenge and subsequently boosted upon rechallenge. However, preexisting immunity derived from the primary challenge was insufficient to protect against the homologous Shigella serotype. A successive study in A. nancymaae evaluated the ability of multiple oral immunizations with live-attenuated Shigella vaccine strain SC602 to protect against challenge. After three oral immunizations, animals were challenged with S. flexneri 2a 2457T. A 70% attack rate was demonstrated in control animals, whereas animals immunized with vaccine strain SC602 were protected from challenge (efficacy of 80%; P = 0.05). The overall study results indicate that the Shigella-Aotus nancymaae challenge model may be a valuable tool for evaluating vaccine efficacy and investigating immune correlates of protection. PMID:24595138

  13. Protective Efficacy of a Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein-Based Vaccine in Aotus nancymaae Is Associated with Antibodies to the Repeat Region

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Anjali; Hall, Cysha E.; Sullivan, JoAnn S.; Nace, Douglas; Williams, Tyrone; Collins, William E.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Barnwell, John W.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that Vivax Malaria Protein 001 (VMP001), a vaccine candidate based on the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium vivax, is immunogenic in mice and rhesus monkeys in the presence of various adjuvants. In the present study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of VMP001 formulated with a TLR9 agonist in a water-in-oil emulsion. Following immunization, the vaccine efficacy was assessed by challenging Aotus nancymaae monkeys with P. vivax sporozoites. Monkeys from both the low- and high-dose vaccine groups generated strong humoral immune responses to the vaccine (peak median titers of 291,622), and its subunits (peak median titers to the N-term, central repeat and C-term regions of 22,188; 66,120 and 179,947, respectively). 66.7% of vaccinated monkeys demonstrated sterile protection following challenge. Protection was associated with antibodies directed against the central repeat region. The protected monkeys had a median anti-repeat titer of 97,841 compared to 14,822 in the non-protected monkeys. This is the first report demonstrating P. vivax CSP vaccine-induced protection of Aotus monkeys challenged with P. vivax sporozoites. PMID:25329054

  14. Sleep in the nocturnal primate, Aotus trivirgatus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the cycles of wakefulness and stages of sleep in owl monkeys during 24-hr periods divided into half dark and half light segments. Recordings of electrophysiological activity were used. Reversal of the sequence of light and dark served to test the influence of environmental lighting on the sleep-wakefulness cycles. The sleep patterns of owl monkeys expressed in percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) were compared with those of a closely related New World monkey species, Saimiri Sciureus.

  15. Multi-directional chromosome painting maps homologies between species belonging to three genera of New World monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Stanyon, R; Bigoni, F; Slaby, T; Muller, S; Stone, G; Bonvicino, C R; Neusser, M; Seuánez, H N

    2004-12-01

    We mapped chromosomal homologies in two species of Chiropotes (Pitheciini, Saki Monkeys) and one species of Aotus (Aotinae, Owl Monkey) by multi-directional chromosome painting. Human chromosome probes were hybridized to Chiropotes utahicki, C. israelita and Aotus nancymae metaphases. Wooly Monkey chromosome paints were also hybridized to Owl Monkey metaphases. We established Owl Monkey chromosome paint probes by flow sorting and reciprocally hybridized them to human chromosomes. The karyotypes of the Bearded Saki Monkeys studied here are close to the hypothesized ancestral platyrrhine karytoype, while that of the Owl Monkey appears to be highly derived. The A. nancymae karyotype is highly shuffled and only three human syntenic groups were found conserved coexisting with 17 derived human homologous associations. A minimum of 14 fissions and 13 fusions would be required to derive the A. nancymae karyotype from that of the ancestral New World primate karyotype. An inversion between homologs to segments of human 10 and 16 suggests a link between Callicebus and Chiropotes, while the syntenic association of 10/11 found in Aotus and Callicebus suggests a link between these two genera. Future molecular cytogenetic work will be needed to determine whether these rearrangements represent synapomorphic chromosomal traits. PMID:15616867

  16. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains. PMID:3914842

  17. Molecular cladistic markers in New World monkey phylogeny (Platyrrhini, Primates).

    PubMed

    Singer, Silke S; Schmitz, Jürgen; Schwiegk, Claudia; Zischler, Hans

    2003-03-01

    Transpositions of primate-specific Alu elements were applied as molecular cladistic markers in a phylogenetic analysis of South American primates. Seventy-four human and platyrrhine loci containing intronic Alu elements were PCR screened in various New World monkeys and the human outgroup to detect the presence of orthologous retrotransposons informative of New World monkey phylogeny. Six loci revealed size polymorphism in the amplification pattern, indicating a shared derived character state due to the presence of orthologous Alu elements confirmed by subsequent sequencing. Three markers corroborate (1) New World monkey monophyly and one marker supports each of the following callitrichine relationships: (2) Callithrix and Cebuella are more closely related to each other than to any other callitrichine, (3) the callitrichines form a monophyletic clade including Callimico, and (4) the next living relatives to the callitrichines are Cebus, Saimiri, and Aotus. PMID:12644406

  18. Age and sex-specific mortality of wild and captive populations of a monogamous pair-bonded primate (Aotus azarae).

    PubMed

    Larson, Sam M; Colchero, Fernando; Jones, Owen R; Williams, Lawrence; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    In polygynous primates, a greater reproductive variance in males have been linked to their reduced life expectancy relative to females. The mortality patterns of monogamous pair-bonded primates, however, are less clear. We analyzed the sex differences in mortality within wild (NMales  = 70, NFemales  = 73) and captive (NMales  = 25, NFemales  = 29) populations of Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarae), a socially and genetically monogamous primate exhibiting biparental care. We used Bayesian Survival Trajectory Analysis (BaSTA) to test age-dependent models of mortality. The wild and captive populations were best fit by the logistic and Gompertz models, respectively, implying greater heterogeneity in the wild environment likely due to harsher conditions. We found that age patterns of mortality were similar between the sexes in both populations. We calculated life expectancy and disparity, the latter a measure of the steepness of senescence, for both sexes in each population. Males and females had similar life expectancies in both populations; the wild population overall having a shorter life expectancy than the captive one. Furthermore, captive females had a reduced life disparity relative to captive males and to both sexes in the wild. We interpret this pattern in light of the hazards associated with reproduction. In captivity, where reproduction is intensely managed, the risks associated with gestation and birth are tempered so that there is a reduction in the likelihood of captive females dying prematurely, decreasing their overall life disparity. PMID:25866126

  19. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J H; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1990-01-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled pork insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report we describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. We demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in our immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. Squirrel monkey glucagon is identical with the usual glucagon found in Old World mammals, which predicts that the glucagons of other New World monkeys would not differ from the usual Old World mammalian glucagon. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species. PMID:2263627

  20. Development and annotation of shotgun sequence libraries from New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Natalie M; Xu, Ke; Yi, Soojin V; Wildman, Derek E

    2012-09-01

    The draft genome sequences of several primates are available, providing insights into evolutionary and anthropological research. However, genomic resources from New World monkeys are conspicuously lacking. To date, the genomes of only two platyrrhine species, the common marmoset and the Bolivian squirrel monkey, have been fully sequenced. This is especially limiting for comparative genomics research, considering that New World monkeys are the most speciose primate group, and platyrrhine genetic diversity is comparable to that of the catarrhines (i.e. apes and Old World monkeys). Here, we present the generation and annotation of numerous sequence reads from the genomes of Spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth), Owl monkey (Aotus lemurinus) and Uakari (Cacajao calvus), representing the three platyrrhine families, Atelidae, Cebidae and Pitheciidae, respectively. These sequencing reads were developed from gDNA shotgun libraries containing over 3000 individual sequences with an average length of 726 bps. Of these sequences, 1220 contain <20% repeats, and thus are potentially highly useful phylogenetic markers for other platyrrhine species. Among them, a large number of sequencing reads were found to match unique regions within the human (2462 sequences) and the marmoset (2829 sequences) genomes. In particular, the majority of these sequencing reads are from putatively neutrally evolving intergenic regions. Thus, they are likely to be highly informative for inferring neutral evolutionary patterns and genomic evolution for other New World monkeys. PMID:22715851

  1. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Jinghua ); Eng, J.; Yalow, R.S. City Univ. of New York, NY )

    1990-12-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled park insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report the authors describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. They demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in their immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species.

  2. Monkey Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwood, Christine Horvatis

    2012-01-01

    A ballerina, a gladiator, a camper, a baseball player, a surfer, and a shopper; these are just a few of the amazing monkeys that the author's seventh graders created from papier-mache. This project provided an opportunity for students to express themselves through the creation of sculptural characters based on their own interests, hobbies, and…

  3. Housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories: adaptations allowing essential species-specific behaviour.

    PubMed

    Röder, E L; Timmermans, P J A

    2002-07-01

    During the last two decades an increasing amount of attention has been paid to the housing and care of monkeys and apes in laboratories, as has been done with the housing and care of other categories of captive animals. The purpose of this review is to develop recommendations for adaptations of housing and care from our knowledge of the daily behavioural activity of monkeys and apes in natural conditions and in enriched laboratory conditions. This review deals mainly with adaptations of daily housing and care with respect to behaviour, and it is restricted to commonly-used species: Callitrichidae (Callitrix jacchus, Saguinus oedipus); Cebidae (Aotus trivirgatus, Saimiri sciureus, Cebus apella); Cercopithecidae (Macaca fascicularis, M. mulatta, M. nemestrina, M. arctoides, Chlorocebus aethiops, Papio hamadryas, P. cynocephalus); Pongidae (Pan troglodytes). PMID:12144737

  4. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lemelin, P

    1995-06-01

    The caudal myology of prehensile-tailed monkeys (Cebus apella, Alouatta palliata, Alouatta seniculus, Lagothrix lagotricha, and Ateles paniscus) and nonprehensile-tailed primates (Eulemur fulvus, Aotus trivirgatus, Callithrix jacchus, Pithecia pithecia, Saimiri sciureus, Macaca fascicularis, and Cercopithecus aethiops) was examined and compared in order to identify muscular differences that correlate with osteological features diagnostic of tail prehensility. In addition, electrophysiological stimulation was carried out on different segments of the intertransversarii caudae muscle of an adult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) to assess their action on the prehensile tail. Several important muscular differences characterize the prehensile tail of New World monkeys compared to the nonprehensile tail of other primates. In atelines and Cebus, the mass of extensor caudae lateralis and flexor caudae longus muscles is more uniform along the tail, and their long tendons cross a small number of vertebrae before insertion. Also, prehensile-tailed monkeys, especially atelines, are characterized by well-developed flexor and intertransversarii caudae muscles compared to nonprehensile-tailed primates. Finally, Ateles possesses a bulkier abductor caudae medialis and a more cranial origin for the first segment of intertransversarii caudae than do other prehensile-tailed platyrrhines. These myological differences between nonprehensile-tailed and prehensile-tailed primates, and among prehensile-tailed monkeys, agree with published osteological and behavioral data. Caudal myological similarities and differences found in Cebus and atelines, combined with tail-use data from the literature, support the hypothesis that prehensile tails evolved in parallel in Cebus and atelines. PMID:7595958

  5. The clinical-grade 42-kilodalton fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium falciparum strain FVO expressed in Escherichia coli protects Aotus nancymai against challenge with homologous erythrocytic-stage parasites.

    PubMed

    Darko, Christian A; Angov, Evelina; Collins, William E; Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S; Girouard, Autumn S; Hitt, Stacy L; McBride, Jana S; Diggs, Carter L; Holder, Anthony A; Long, Carole A; Barnwell, John W; Lyon, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    A 42-kDa fragment from the C terminus of major merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) is among the leading malaria vaccine candidates that target infection by asexual erythrocytic-stage malaria parasites. The MSP1(42) gene fragment from the Vietnam-Oak Knoll (FVO) strain of Plasmodium falciparum was expressed as a soluble protein in Escherichia coli and purified according to good manufacturing practices. This clinical-grade recombinant protein retained some important elements of correct structure, as it was reactive with several functional, conformation-dependent monoclonal antibodies raised against P. falciparum malaria parasites, it induced antibodies (Abs) that were reactive to parasites in immunofluorescent Ab tests, and it induced strong growth and invasion inhibitory antisera in New Zealand White rabbits. The antigen quality was further evaluated by vaccinating Aotus nancymai monkeys and challenging them with homologous P. falciparum FVO erythrocytic-stage malaria parasites. The trial included two control groups, one vaccinated with the sexual-stage-specific antigen of Plasmodium vivax, Pvs25, as a negative control, and the other vaccinated with baculovirus-expressed MSP1(42) (FVO) as a positive control. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Ab titers induced by E. coli MSP1(42) were significantly higher than those induced by the baculovirus-expressed antigen. None of the six monkeys that were vaccinated with the E. coli MSP1(42) antigen required treatment for uncontrolled parasitemia, but two required treatment for anemia. Protective immunity in these monkeys correlated with the ELISA Ab titer against the p19 fragment and the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain 2 fragment of MSP1(42), but not the MSP1(42) protein itself or the EGF-like domain 1 fragment. Soluble MSP1(42) (FVO) expressed in E. coli offers excellent promise as a component of a vaccine against erythrocytic-stage falciparum malaria. PMID:15618165

  6. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Adams, John H.; Pasini, Erica M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  7. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Saliba, Kathryn; Thomson-Luque, Richard; Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H M; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Adams, John H; Pasini, Erica M

    2016-07-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  8. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  9. Monkey Able After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    On May 28, 1959, a Jupiter Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile provided by a U.S. Army team in Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, launched a nose cone carrying Baker, A South American squirrel monkey and Able, An American-born rhesus monkey. This photograph shows Able after recovery of the nose cone of the Jupiter rocket by U.S.S. Kiowa.

  10. 3D Analysis of the TCR/pMHCII Complex Formation in Monkeys Vaccinated with the First Peptide Inducing Sterilizing Immunity against Human Malaria

    PubMed Central

    López, Carolina; Yepes, Gloria; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2010-01-01

    T-cell receptor gene rearrangements were studied in Aotus monkeys developing high antibody titers and sterilizing immunity against the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite upon vaccination with the modified synthetic peptide 24112, which was identified in the Merozoite Surface Protein 2 (MSP-2) and is known to bind to HLA-DRβ1*0403 molecules with high capacity. Spectratyping analysis showed a preferential usage of Vβ12 and Vβ6 TCR gene families in 67% of HLA-DRβ1*0403-like genotyped monkeys. Docking of peptide 24112 into the HLA-DRβ1*0401–HA peptide–HA1.7TCR complex containing the VDJ rearrangements identified in fully protected monkeys showed a different structural signature compared to nonprotected monkeys. These striking results show the exquisite specificity of the TCR/pMHCII complex formation needed for inducing sterilizing immunity and provide important hints for a logical and rational methodology to develop multiepitopic, minimal subunit-based synthetic vaccines against infectious diseases, among them malaria. PMID:20333301

  11. Oxytocin receptor gene sequences in owl monkeys and other primates show remarkable interspecific regulatory and protein coding variation.

    PubMed

    Babb, Paul L; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Schurr, Theodore G

    2015-10-01

    The oxytocin (OT) hormone pathway is involved in numerous physiological processes, and one of its receptor genes (OXTR) has been implicated in pair bonding behavior in mammalian lineages. This observation is important for understanding social monogamy in primates, which occurs in only a small subset of taxa, including Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). To examine the potential relationship between social monogamy and OXTR variation, we sequenced its 5' regulatory (4936bp) and coding (1167bp) regions in 25 owl monkeys from the Argentinean Gran Chaco, and examined OXTR sequences from 1092 humans from the 1000 Genomes Project. We also assessed interspecific variation of OXTR in 25 primate and rodent species that represent a set of phylogenetically and behaviorally disparate taxa. Our analysis revealed substantial variation in the putative 5' regulatory region of OXTR, with marked structural differences across primate taxa, particularly for humans and chimpanzees, which exhibited unique patterns of large motifs of dinucleotide A+T repeats upstream of the OXTR 5' UTR. In addition, we observed a large number of amino acid substitutions in the OXTR CDS region among New World primate taxa that distinguish them from Old World primates. Furthermore, primate taxa traditionally defined as socially monogamous (e.g., gibbons, owl monkeys, titi monkeys, and saki monkeys) all exhibited different amino acid motifs for their respective OXTR protein coding sequences. These findings support the notion that monogamy has evolved independently in Old World and New World primates, and that it has done so through different molecular mechanisms, not exclusively through the oxytocin pathway. PMID:26025428

  12. Rhesus monkey platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Harbury, C.B.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to describe the adenine nucleotide metabolism of Rhesus monkey platelets. Nucleotides are labelled with /sup 14/C-adenine and extracted with EDTA-ethanol (EE) and perchlorate (P). Total platelet ATP and ADP (TATP, TADP) is measured in the Holmsen Luciferase assay, and expressed in nanomoles/10/sup 8/ platelets. TR=TATP/TADP. Human platelets release 70% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.7. Rhesus platelets release 82% of their TADP, with a ratio of released ATP/ADP of 0.33. Thus, monkey platelets contain more ADP than human platelets. Thin layer chromatography of EE gives a metabolic ratio of 11 in human platelets and 10.5 in monkey platelets. Perchlorate extracts metabolic and actin bound ADP. The human and monkey platelets ratios were 5, indicating they contain the same proportion of actin. Thus, the extra ADP contained in monkey platelets is located in the secretory granules.

  13. Climatic niche evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    Duran, Andressa; Meyer, Andreas L S; Pie, Marcio R

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in recent years on species distribution modeling and phylogenetic niche conservatism, little is known about the way in which climatic niches change over evolutionary time. This knowledge is of major importance to understand the mechanisms underlying limits of species distributions, as well as to infer how different lineages might be affected by anthropogenic climate change. In this study we investigate the tempo and mode climatic niche evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini). Climatic conditions found throughout the distribution of 140 primate species were investigated using a principal component analysis, which indicated that mean temperature (particularly during the winter) is the most important climatic correlate of platyrrhine geographical distributions, accounting for nearly half of the interspecific variation in climatic niches. The effects of precipitation were associated with the second principal component, particularly with respect to the dry season. When models of trait evolution were fit to scores on each of the principal component axes, significant phylogenetic signal was detected for PC1 scores, but not for PC2 scores. Interestingly, although all platyrrhine families occupied comparable regions of climatic space, some aotid species such as Aotus lemurinus, A. jorgehernandezi, and A. miconax show highly distinctive climatic niches associated with drier conditions (high PC2 scores). This shift might have been made possible by their nocturnal habits, which could serve as an exaptation that allow them to be less constrained by humidity during the night. These results underscore the usefulness of investigating explicitly the tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution and its role in determining species distributions. PMID:24376729

  14. Climatic Niche Evolution in New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini)

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Andressa; Meyer, Andreas L. S.; Pie, Marcio R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in recent years on species distribution modeling and phylogenetic niche conservatism, little is known about the way in which climatic niches change over evolutionary time. This knowledge is of major importance to understand the mechanisms underlying limits of species distributions, as well as to infer how different lineages might be affected by anthropogenic climate change. In this study we investigate the tempo and mode climatic niche evolution in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini). Climatic conditions found throughout the distribution of 140 primate species were investigated using a principal component analysis, which indicated that mean temperature (particularly during the winter) is the most important climatic correlate of platyrrhine geographical distributions, accounting for nearly half of the interspecific variation in climatic niches. The effects of precipitation were associated with the second principal component, particularly with respect to the dry season. When models of trait evolution were fit to scores on each of the principal component axes, significant phylogenetic signal was detected for PC1 scores, but not for PC2 scores. Interestingly, although all platyrrhine families occupied comparable regions of climatic space, some aotid species such as Aotus lemurinus, A. jorgehernandezi, and A. miconax show highly distinctive climatic niches associated with drier conditions (high PC2 scores). This shift might have been made possible by their nocturnal habits, which could serve as an exaptation that allow them to be less constrained by humidity during the night. These results underscore the usefulness of investigating explicitly the tempo and mode of climatic niche evolution and its role in determining species distributions. PMID:24376729

  15. Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs with Their Thoughts

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157593.html Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs With Their Thoughts Scientists say technology might ... made it possible for monkeys to operate a robotic wheelchair using only the monkey's thoughts say the ...

  16. Respiratory Pathogens in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Good, Robert C.; May, Bessie D.

    1971-01-01

    Respiratory disease in a dynamic colony of nonhuman primates during a 4-year period was due primarily to infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, and Haemophilus influenzae. The principal secondary invaders were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and streptococci. A high fatality rate was associated with infections caused by each of the primary pathogens, and females appeared to be more susceptible than males. Incidence of respiratory disease was greatest in the fall and early winter; however, at all times newly colonized monkeys had a higher infection rate than conditioned monkeys. Infections were occasionally confined only to the lungs and were sometimes present without grossly observable lung lesions. The information given on susceptibility of 10 species of nonhuman primates to respiratory infections provides a basis for developing disease models. PMID:16557951

  17. Brain tumors in irradiated monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haymaker, W.; Miquel, J.; Rubinstein, L. J.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of 32 monkeys which survived one to seven years after total body exposure to protons or to high-energy X rays. Among these 32 monkeys there were 21 which survived two years or longer after exposure to 200 to 800 rad. Glioblastoma multiforme developed in 3 of the 10 monkeys surviving three to five years after receiving 600 or 800 rad 55-MeV protons. Thus, the incidence of tumor development in the present series was far higher than the incidence of spontaneously developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literature. This suggests that the tumors in the present series may have been radiation-induced.

  18. Correlates of genetic monogamy in socially monogamous mammals: insights from Azara's owl monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Huck, Maren; Fernandez-Duque, Eduardo; Babb, Paul; Schurr, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of mating systems, a central topic in evolutionary biology for more than 50 years, requires examining the genetic consequences of mating and the relationships between social systems and mating systems. Among pair-living mammals, where genetic monogamy is extremely rare, the extent of extra-group paternity rates has been associated with male participation in infant care, strength of the pair bond and length of the breeding season. This study evaluated the relationship between two of those factors and the genetic mating system of socially monogamous mammals, testing predictions that male care and strength of pair bond would be negatively correlated with rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). Autosomal microsatellite analyses provide evidence for genetic monogamy in a pair-living primate with bi-parental care, the Azara's owl monkey (Aotus azarae). A phylogenetically corrected generalized least square analysis was used to relate male care and strength of the pair bond to their genetic mating system (i.e. proportions of EPP) in 15 socially monogamous mammalian species. The intensity of male care was correlated with EPP rates in mammals, while strength of pair bond failed to reach statistical significance. Our analyses show that, once social monogamy has evolved, paternal care, and potentially also close bonds, may facilitate the evolution of genetic monogamy. PMID:24648230

  19. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  20. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  1. Monkey Able Being Ready for preflight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Able, is being ready for placement into a capsule for a preflight test of Jupiter, AM-18 mission. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959 and also carried a rhesus monkey, Baker, into suborbit.

  2. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. PMID:27388917

  3. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  4. Monkeys Match and Tally Quantities across Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kerry E.; MacLean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys…

  5. Monkey Baker in bio-pack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    A squirrel monkey, Baker, in bio-pack couch being readied for Jupiter (AM-18 flight). Jupiter, AM-18 mission, also carried an American-born rhesus monkey, Able into suborbit. The flight was successful and both monkeys were recovered in good condition. AM-18 was launched on May 28, 1959.

  6. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  7. Polyspecific associations between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and other primates in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    One of the most common types of polyspecific association observed in Neotropical primate communities is that between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and capuchins (Cebus). The present study focused on association patterns in two Saimiri sciureus groups in eastern Brazilian Amazonia, between March and October, 2009. The associations were analyzed in terms of the species involved, the degree of association, and niche breadth and overlap. The study involved two S. sciureus groups (B4 and GI) on the right and left bank of the Tocantins River, respectively, within the area of the Tucuruí reservoir in southeastern Pará. Relations between species were classified as associations (individuals within 50 m and moving in the same direction), and encounters (individuals within 50 m and no coordinated movement). Group B4 was in association with Cebus apella during 100% of monitoring, and with Chiropotes satanas in 20.2%. By contrast, Group GI associated with Cebus 54.8% of the time, and with Chiropotes utahickae 2.5%. Encounters with Alouatta belzebul and Saguinus niger were recorded at both sites, with Aotus azarae and Dasyprocta prymnolopha at B4, and with Callicebus moloch, Dasyproct aleporina, Mazama gouazoubira, and Nasua nasua at GI. Overall, Saimiri had a broader niche than Cebus in terms of vertical spacing and diet, but not for substrate use. This pattern did not appear to be affected by association. While group GI spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in association with Cebus during the wet season, group B4 associated with Chiropotes more during the dry season. Despite the higher association rates, niche overlap was greater for all variables at B4. This may reflect differences in the ranging and foraging patterns at the two sites, and the varying potential benefits of association for Saimiri. PMID:21809365

  8. Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Service, Susan K.; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; Jentsch, James D.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Turner, Trudy R.; Warren, Wesley C.; Weinstock, George M.; Woods, Roger P.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an international collaboration to develop the vervet monkey as the most comprehensively phenotypically and genomically characterized NHP, a process that will enable the scientific community to employ this model for systems biology investigations. PMID:24174437

  9. Steroid metabolism by monkey and human spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Sehgal, A.; Pruthi, J.S.; Anand-Kumar, T.C.

    1983-05-01

    Freshly ejaculated spermatozoa from monkey and human were washed and incubated with tritium labelled androgens or estradiol to study the pattern of spermatozoa steroid metabolism. When equal concentrations of steroid substrates were used for incubation, monkey and human spermatozoa showed very similar pattern of steroid conversion. Spermatozoa from both species converted testosterone mainly to androstenedione, but reverse conversion of androstenedione to testosterone was negligible. Estradiol-17 beta was converted mainly to estrone. The close similarity between the spermatozoa of monkey and men in their steroid metabolic pattern indicates that the rhesus monkey could be an useful animal model to study the effect of drugs on the metabolic pattern of human spermatozoa.

  10. Macaque monkeys experience visual crowding

    PubMed Central

    Crowder, Erin A.; Olson, Carl R.

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral vision, objects that are easily discriminated on their own become less discriminable in the presence of surrounding clutter. This phenomenon is known as crowding.The neural mechanisms underlying crowding are not well understood. Better insight might come from single-neuron recording in nonhuman primates, provided they exhibit crowding; however, previous demonstrations of crowding have been confined to humans. In the present study, we set out to determine whether crowding occurs in rhesus macaque monkeys. We found that animals trained to identify a target letter among flankers displayed three hallmarks of crowding as established in humans. First, at a given eccentricity, increasing the spacing between the target and the flankers improved recognition accuracy. Second, the critical spacing, defined as the minimal spacing at which target discrimination was reliable, was proportional to eccentricity. Third, the critical spacing was largely unaffected by object size. We conclude that monkeys, like humans, experience crowding. These findings open the door to studies of crowding at the neuronal level in the monkey visual system. PMID:26067532

  11. Test monkeys anesthetized by routine procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test monkeys are safely anesthetized for five minutes by confining them for less than six minutes in enclosures containing a controlled volume of ether. Thus the monkeys can be properly and safely positioned on test couches and fitted with electrodes or other devices prior to physiological tests.

  12. On Loss Aversion in Capuchin Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G.; Huntsberry, Mary E.; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R.; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Suomi, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that…

  13. Metacognition in Monkeys during an Oculomotor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middlebrooks, Paul G.; Sommer, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether rhesus monkeys show evidence of metacognition in a reduced, visual oculomotor task that is particularly suitable for use in fMRI and electrophysiology. The 2-stage task involved punctate visual stimulation and saccadic eye movement responses. In each trial, monkeys made a decision and then made a bet. To earn…

  14. Chimpanzee counting and rhesus monkey ordinality judgments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation is conducted to address the questions of whether chimpanzees can count and whether rhesus monkeys can differentiate written numbers. One investigation demonstrates the capacity of a chimpanzee to produce a quantity of responses appropriate to a given Arabic numeral. Rhesus monkeys are shown to have the capability for making fine differentiations between quantities of pellets and Arabic numerals.

  15. Prototype Abstraction by Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Redford, Joshua S.; Haas, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyze the shape categorization of rhesus monkeys ("Macaca mulatta") and the role of prototype- and exemplar-based comparison processes in monkeys' category learning. Prototype and exemplar theories make contrasting predictions regarding performance on the Posner-Homa dot-distortion categorization task. Prototype theory--which…

  16. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago

    2016-07-11

    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution. PMID:27404235

  17. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  18. Generation of Chimeric Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2011-01-01

    Summary Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the 4-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible. PMID:22225614

  19. Simian varicella virus reactivation in cynomolgus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Mahalingam, Ravi Traina-Dorge, Vicki Wellish, Mary Lorino, Rebecca Sanford, Robert Ribka, Erin P. Alleman, Scott J. Brazeau, Elizabeth Gilden, Donald H.

    2007-11-10

    SVV infection of primates closely resembles VZV infection of humans. Like VZV, SVV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons. We used this model to study the effect of immunosuppression on varicella reactivation. Cynomolgus monkeys latently infected with SVV were irradiated and treated with tacrolimus and prednisone. Of four latently infected monkeys that were immunosuppressed and subjected to the stress of transportation and isolation, one developed zoster, and three others developed features of subclinical reactivation. Another non-immunosuppressed latently infected monkey that was subjected to the same stress of travel and isolation showed features of subclinical reactivation. Virus reactivation was confirmed not only by the occurrence of zoster in one monkey, but also by the presence of late SVV RNA in ganglia, and the detection of SVV DNA in non-ganglionic tissue, and SVV antigens in skin, ganglia and lung.

  20. Chromosome evolution in new world monkeys (Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, E H C; Neusser, M; Müller, S

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, New World monkey (NWM, Platyrrhini, Anthropoideae) comparative cytogenetics has shed light on many fundamental aspects of genome organisation and evolution in this fascinating, but also highly endangered group of neotropical primates. In this review, we first provide an overview about the evolutionary origin of the inferred ancestral NWM karyotype of 2n = 54 chromosomes and about the lineage-specific chromosome rearrangements resulting in the highly divergent karyotypes of extant NWM species, ranging from 2n = 16 in a titi monkey to 2n = 62 in a woolly monkey. Next, we discuss the available data on the chromosome phylogeny of NWM in the context of recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. In the last part, we highlight some recent research on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the large-scale evolutionary genomic changes in platyrrhine monkeys. PMID:22699158

  1. Can Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Represent Invisible Displacement?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filion, Christine M.; Washburn, David A.; Gulledge, Jonathan P.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to assess whether or not rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could represent the unperceived movements of a stimulus. Subjects were tested on 2 computerized tasks, HOLE (monkeys) and LASER (humans and monkeys), in which subjects needed to chase or shoot at, respectively, a moving target that either remained visible or became invisible for a portion of its path of movement. Response patterns were analyzed and compared between target-visible and target-invisible conditions. Results of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of extrapolating movement. That this extrapolation involved internal representation of the target's invisible movement was suggested but not confirmed. Experiment 4, however, demonstrated that the monkeys are capable of representing the invisible displacements of a stimulus.

  2. Cytogenesis in the monkey retina

    SciTech Connect

    La Vail, M.M.; Rapaport, D.H.; Rakic, P. )

    1991-07-01

    Time of cell origin in the retina of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied by plotting the number of heavily radiolabeled nuclei in autoradiograms prepared from 2- to 6-month-old animals, each of which was exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) on a single embryonic (E) or postnatal (P) day. Cell birth in the monkey retina begins just after E27, and approximately 96% of cells are generated by E120. The remaining cells are produced during the last (approximately 45) prenatal days and into the first several weeks after birth. Cell genesis begins near the fovea, and proceeds towards the periphery. Cell division largely ceases in the foveal and perifoveal regions by E56. Despite extensive overlap, a class-specific sequence of cell birth was observed. Ganglion and horizontal cells, which are born first, have largely congruent periods of cell genesis with the peak between E38 and E43, and termination around E70. The first labeled cones were apparent by E33, and their highest density was achieved between E43 and E56, tapering to low values at E70, although some cones are generated in the far periphery as late as E110. Amacrine cells are next in the cell birth sequence and begin genesis at E43, reach a peak production between E56 and E85, and cease by E110. Bipolar cell birth begins at the same time as amacrines, but appears to be separate from them temporally since their production reaches a peak between E56 and E102, and persists beyond the day of birth. Mueller cells and rod photoreceptors, which begin to be generated at E45, achieve a peak, and decrease in density at the same time as bipolar cells, but continue genesis at low density on the day of birth. Thus, bipolar, Mueller, and rod cells have a similar time of origin.

  3. The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, Meryl L.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    The susceptibility of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness was investigated using test conditions that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness in squirrel monkeys. Ten male rhesus monkeys and ten male Bolivian squirrel monkeys were rotated in the vertical axis at 150 deg/s for a maximum duration of 45 min. Each animal was tested in two conditions, continuous rotation and intermittent rotation. None of the rhesus monkeys vomited during the motion tests but all of the squirrel monkeys did. Differences were observed between the species in the amount of activity that occurred during motion test, with the squirrel monkeys being significantly more active than the rhesus monkeys. These results, while substantiating anecdotal reports of the resistance of rhesus monkeys to motion sickness, should be interpreted with caution because of the documented differences that exist between various species with regard to stimuli that are provocative for eliciting motion sickness.

  4. On loss aversion in capuchin monkeys.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, Alan; Roma, Peter G; Huntsberry, Mary E; Warren-Boulton, Frederick R; Sakagami, Takayuki; Ruggiero, Angela M; Suomi, Stephen J

    2008-03-01

    Chen, Lakshminarayanan, and Santos (2006) claim to show in three choice experiments that monkeys react rationally to price and wealth shocks, but, when faced with gambles, display hallmark, human-like biases that include loss aversion. We present three experiments with monkeys and humans consistent with a reinterpretation of their data that attributes their results not to loss aversion, but to differences between choice alternatives in delay of reinforcement. PMID:18422015

  5. Sequential planning in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Danly, Erin; Morgan, Gin; Colombo, Michael; Terrace, Herbert S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the planning abilities of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by training them on a five-item list composed of coloured photographs and then testing them on switch and mask trials. In contrast to previous studies where monkeys made responses using a joystick, in the current study, monkeys made responses directly to a touch screen. On switch trials, after a response to the first list item, the on-screen positions of two list items were exchanged. Performance on trials in which the second and third list items were exchanged was poorer compared to normal (non-switch) trials for all subjects. When the third and fourth items were exchanged, however, only one subject continued to show performance deficits. On mask trials, following a response to the first item, the remaining items were covered by opaque white squares. When two items were masked, all four subjects responded to each masked item at a level significantly above chance. When three items were masked, however, only one subjected was able to respond to all three masked items at a level significantly above chance. The results of the present study indicate that three of our four monkeys planned one response ahead while a single monkey planned two responses ahead. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to previous studies on planning in chimpanzees and monkeys. PMID:21184125

  6. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  7. Eye preferences in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Duncan A; Tomonaga, Masaki; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2016-07-01

    This study explored whether capuchin monkey eye preferences differ systematically in response to stimuli of positive and negative valence. The 'valence hypothesis' proposes that the right hemisphere is more dominant for negative emotional processing and the left hemisphere is more dominant for positive emotional processing. Visual information from each eye is thought to be transferred faster to and primarily processed by the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. Therefore, it was predicted capuchin monkeys would show greater left eye use for looking at negative stimuli and greater right eye use for looking at positive stimuli. Eleven captive capuchin monkeys were presented with four images of different emotional valence (an egg and capuchin monkey raised eyebrow face were categorised as positive, and a harpy eagle face and capuchin monkey threat face were categorised as negative) and social relevance (consisting of capuchin monkey faces or not), and eye preferences for viewing the stimuli through a monocular viewing hole were recorded. While strong preferences for using either the left or right eye were found for most individuals, there was no consensus at the population level. Furthermore, the direction of looking, number of looks and duration of looks did not differ significantly with the emotional valence of the stimuli. These results are inconsistent with the main hypotheses about the relationship between eye preferences and processing of emotional stimuli. However, the monkeys did show significantly more arousal behaviours (vocalisation, door-touching, self-scratching and hand-rubbing) when viewing the negatively valenced stimuli than the positively valenced stimuli, indicating that the stimuli were emotionally salient. These findings do not provide evidence for a relationship between eye preferences and functional hemispheric specialisations, as often proposed in humans. Additional comparative studies are required to better understand the phylogeny of lateral

  8. Circadian phase relationships in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.; Wekstein, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Two adult male pigtail monkeys were placed in an isolated, soundproofed chamber (entered for cleaning only) for a period of six months, during which time their deep body temperatures T sub DB, telemetered from transmitters implanted in the abdominal cavity), fluid intake, urinary output (UV), urinary sodium and potassium were continuously monitored. During the first 3 1/2 months, lights (L) were turned on at 0000 hours, off at 1200 hours. Photoperiod phase was then delayed (light span prolonged) 6 hours to a new schedule: L on at 0600 hours, off at 1800 hours. Six weeks later, photoperiod phase was advanced 6 hours to return to the original schedule. Prior to shift, T sub DB typically began a steep rise 0-5 hours prior to L on, a steep fall 3-4 hours prior to L off, relative plateaus in between. Urinary Na typically peaks 2 hours prior to L off, has a minimum 2-4 hours prior to L on; K tends both to peak and show a minimum 2-8 hours earlier than Na; in contrast, UV peaks at L on, has a minimum 2-6 hours after L off. Upon delaying photoperiod phase, T sub DB shift was completed in 8 days. UV shifted more rapidly but tended to overshoot the new phase. Within 5 days, UV and K completed their shifts, although Na did not fully resynchronize within the 6 week period monitored.

  9. Somatosensory deficits in monkeys treated with misonidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Maurissen, J.P.J.; Conroy, P.J.; Passalacqua, W.; Von Burg, R.; Weiss, B.; Sutherland, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Misonidazole, a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, can produce peripheral sensory disorders in humans. It has been studied in monkeys with a computer-controlled system for evaluating vibration sensitivity. Monkeys were trained to report when vibration was stimulating the finger tip. Sinusoidal vibrations of several frequencies were presented. Two monkeys were dosed with misonidazole and their vibration sensitivity tested. They received a dose of 3 g/m/sup 2/ (about 180 mg/kg) twice weekly over a period of 6 to 10 weeks. An amplitude-frequency detection function was determined for each monkey before and after drug treatment. An analysis of covariance comparing polynomial regressions was performed. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between control and experimental curves in both monkeys. Pharmacokinetic data indicated a half-life of the drug in blood of about 4 to 5 hr. The overall half-life for elimination did not increase throughout prolonged treatment with msonidazole. Neither motor nor sensory nerve conduction velocity was reduced after treatment.

  10. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  11. Ethanol drinking in socially housed squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, S; Titchen, K; Miczek, K A

    1998-07-01

    This study proposes a method to assess voluntary alcohol drinking in socially living squirrel monkeys. Group-housed squirrel monkeys were induced to drink a sucrose solution and subsequently an ethanol/sucrose solution in an experimental chamber attached to the home colony room, allowing the daily intake to be monitored for each individual without disrupting the social context. Sucrose concentration (0.03-0.6 M, corresponding to 1-20%) and ethanol concentration (0-4%) were gradually increased in tap water and in a 0.6 M (ca. 20%) sucrose solution during daily 30-min and 10-min sessions, respectively. Blood ethanol levels ranged from 10-50 mg/dl and remained below intoxication level. These experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to arrange conditions under which individual socially housed squirrel monkeys voluntarily drink a sweetened ethanol solution. PMID:10065925

  12. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  13. Spaceflight and immune responses of Rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies indicates that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The objective of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of Rhesus monkeys. The expected significance of the work is a determination of the range of immunological functions of the Rhesus monkey, a primate similar in many ways to man, affected by space flight. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection may be determined as well as the duration of alterations in immune responses. Additional information on the nature of cellular interactions for the generation of immune responses may also be obtained.

  14. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  15. Transcranial photoacoustic tomography of the monkey brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Huang, Chao; Guo, Zijian; Anastasio, Mark; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    A photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system using a virtual point ultrasonic transducer was developed for transcranial imaging of monkey brains. The virtual point transducer provided a 10 times greater field-of-view (FOV) than finiteaperture unfocused transducers, which enables large primate imaging. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through up to two skulls ranging from 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The mass density and speed of sound distributions of the skull were estimated from adjunct X-ray CT image data and utilized with a timereversal algorithm to mitigate artifacts in the reconstructed image due to acoustic aberration. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. The oxygenation saturation (sO2) in blood phantoms through a monkey skull was also imaged and quantified, with results consistent with measurements by a gas analyzer. Our experimental results demonstrate that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull, and the imaging aberration caused by skull can be corrected to a great extent.

  16. Computing Arm Movements with a Monkey Brainet

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Arjun; Ifft, Peter J.; Pais-Vieira, Miguel; Woo Byun, Yoon; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) extract motor commands from a single brain to control the movements of artificial devices. Here, we introduce a Brainet that utilizes very-large-scale brain activity (VLSBA) from two (B2) or three (B3) nonhuman primates to engage in a common motor behaviour. A B2 generated 2D movements of an avatar arm where each monkey contributed equally to X and Y coordinates; or one monkey fully controlled the X-coordinate and the other controlled the Y-coordinate. A B3 produced arm movements in 3D space, while each monkey generated movements in 2D subspaces (X-Y, Y-Z, or X-Z). With long-term training we observed increased coordination of behavior, increased correlations in neuronal activity between different brains, and modifications to neuronal representation of the motor plan. Overall, performance of the Brainet improved owing to collective monkey behaviour. These results suggest that primate brains can be integrated into a Brainet, which self-adapts to achieve a common motor goal. PMID:26158523

  17. Aging: Lessons for Elderly People from Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Crockford, Catherine

    2016-07-11

    As life expectancy increases, health in the elderly is a growing issue. Health is linked to remaining socially active, but the elderly typically narrow their social networks. The social life of aging monkeys shows interesting parallels, indicating social patterns may be rooted in evolution. PMID:27404240

  18. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  19. Neuropeptides and alcohol addiction in monkeys.

    PubMed

    van Ree, J M; Kornet, M; Goosen, C

    1994-01-01

    Neuropeptides have been implicated in experimental drug addiction. Desglycinamide (Arg8) vasopressin (DGAVP) attenuates heroin and cocaine intake during initiation of drug self-administration in rats. beta-Endorphin is self-administered in rats and a role of endogenous opioids in cocaine reward has been proposed. The present studies deal with voluntary alcohol consumption in monkeys under free choice conditions. Monkeys initiated alcohol drinking within a few days and after a stable drinking pattern was acquired increased their ethanol consumption during a short period following interruption of the alcohol supply (relapse). The alcohol drinking behavior seems under the control of reinforcement principles. DGAVP reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking in the majority of treated monkeys. Initiation of alcohol drinking induced modifications in neuroendocrine homeostasis e.g. an increased plasma beta-endorphin. Both the opioid antagonist naltrexone and the opioid agonist morphine dose-dependently decreased alcohol intake during continuous supply and after imposed abstinence. The monkeys were more sensitive to both drugs after imposed abstinence. The effects are interpreted in the context of the endorphin compensation hypothesis of addictive behavior. It is suggested that endorphins may be particularly implicated in craving for addictive drugs and in relapse of addictive behavior. PMID:8032147

  20. Japanese monkeys perceive sensory consonance of chords.

    PubMed

    Izumi, A

    2000-12-01

    Consonance/dissonance affects human perception of chords from early stages of development [e.g., Schellenberg and Trainor, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 3321-3328 (1996)]. To examine whether consonance has some role in audition of nonhumans, three Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were trained to discriminate simultaneous two-tone complexes (chords). The task was serial discrimination (AX procedure) with repetitive presentation of background stimuli. Each tone in a chord was comprised of six harmonics, and chords with complex ratios of fundamental frequency (e.g., frequency ratio of 8:15 in major seventh) resulted in dissonance. The chords were transposed for each presentation to make monkeys attend to cues other than the absolute frequency of a component tone. Monkeys were initially trained to detect changes from consonant (octave) to dissonant (major seventh). Following the successful acquisition of the task, transfer tests with novel chords were conducted. In these transfer tests, the performances with detecting changes from consonant to dissonant chords (perfect fifth to major seventh; perfect fourth to major seventh) were better than those with detecting reverse changes. These results suggested that the consonance of chords affected the performances of monkeys. PMID:11144600

  1. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-01

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys. PMID:27610562

  2. The myth of the aggressive monkey.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when managing rhesus macaques in the research laboratory setting. PMID:16221082

  3. The pattern of the arterial supply of the pancreas in anthropoid apes, catarrhine monkeys and platyrrhine monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shawuti, Alimujiang; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Saito, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2009-11-01

    To get the full understanding of the arterial distribution to the pancreas, the analysis of the distribution of the variety of monkey species would be helpful. In this study, we studied the layout of the pancreatic artery in anthropoids (1 gorilla, 3 chimpanzees and 2 white-handed gibbons), in catarrhine monkeys (1 hamadryas baboon, 2 anubid baboons, 10 savannah monkeys) and in platyrrhine monkeys (6 squirrel monkeys). The pancreas of the monkeys was supplied by the arteries originating from the celiac trunk and/or superior mesenteric artery. There were three patterns in the arterial distribution; (1) the celiac artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (2) the superior mesenteric artery supplied the major area of the pancreas. (3) the celiac artery supplied the whole pancreas. The pattern of the arterial distribution to the monkey pancreas had a wide variety. The result would be helpful for the elucidation of the development of the vascular distribution in the pancreas. PMID:20166548

  4. What Are My Chances? Closing the Gap in Uncertainty Monitoring between Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Smith, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) but not capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) respond to difficult or ambiguous situations by choosing not to respond or by seeking more information. Here we assessed whether a task with very low chance accuracy could diminish this species difference, presumably indicating that capuchins—compared to macaques—are less risk averse as opposed to less sensitive to signals of uncertainty. Monkeys searched for the largest of six stimuli on a computer screen. Trial difficulty was varied, and monkeys could choose to opt out of any trial. All rhesus monkeys, including some with no prior use of the uncertainty response, selectively avoided the most difficult trials. The majority of capuchins sometimes made uncertainty responses, but at lower rates than rhesus monkeys. Nonetheless, the presence of some adaptive uncertainty responding suggests that capuchins also experience uncertainty and can respond to it, though with less proficiency than macaque monkeys. PMID:25368870

  5. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

    PubMed

    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  6. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  7. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  8. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops)

    PubMed Central

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Underwood, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas' larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys' basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas. PMID:24187623

  9. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  10. Spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Chandra, M; Mansfield, K G

    1999-06-01

    Spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates are of great importance. A spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma was observed in an 18-year-old female rhesus monkey. Grossly, the visceral pericardium was multifocally irregular and thickened with tan discoloration and was soft in consistency. Histologically, the pericardium contained highly in-folded branching fronds lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells. Tumor invaded into approximately half of the thickness of the atrial and ventricular muscles. Tumor penetration was not observed into the atrial or ventricular cavity. Within the myocardium, neoplastic cells formed glandular structures which were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells. Neoplastic cells were weakly positive with PAS and strongly positive for colloid iron and alcian blue. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for both vimentin and cytokeratin and negative with CEA and Leu-M1, indicating mesothelial origin. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey. PMID:10475114

  11. Anatomic Brain Asymmetry in Vervet Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Fears, Scott C.; Scheibel, Kevin; Abaryan, Zvart; Lee, Chris; Service, Susan K.; Jorgensen, Matthew J.; Fairbanks, Lynn A.; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Woods, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetry is a prominent feature of human brains with important functional consequences. Many asymmetric traits show population bias, but little is known about the genetic and environmental sources contributing to inter-individual variance. Anatomic asymmetry has been observed in Old World monkeys, but the evidence for the direction and extent of asymmetry is equivocal and only one study has estimated the genetic contributions to inter-individual variance. In this study we characterize a range of qualitative and quantitative asymmetry measures in structural brain MRIs acquired from an extended pedigree of Old World vervet monkeys (n = 357), and implement variance component methods to estimate the proportion of trait variance attributable to genetic and environmental sources. Four of six asymmetry measures show pedigree-level bias and one of the traits has a significant heritability estimate of about 30%. We also found that environmental variables more significantly influence the width of the right compared to the left prefrontal lobe. PMID:22205941

  12. Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Dimitrov, Dragan; Carmena, Jose M.; Crist, Roy; Lehew, Gary; Kralik, Jerald D.; Wise, Steven P.

    2003-09-01

    A paradigm is described for recording the activity of single cortical neurons from awake, behaving macaque monkeys. Its unique features include high-density microwire arrays and multichannel instrumentation. Three adult rhesus monkeys received microwire array implants, totaling 96-704 microwires per subject, in up to five cortical areas, sometimes bilaterally. Recordings 3-4 weeks after implantation yielded 421 single neurons with a mean peak-to-peak voltage of 115 ± 3 μV and a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 5:1. As many as 247 cortical neurons were recorded in one session, and at least 58 neurons were isolated from one subject 18 months after implantation. This method should benefit neurophysiological investigation of learning, perception, and sensorimotor integration in primates and the development of neuroprosthetic devices.

  13. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  14. What do monkeys' music choices mean?

    PubMed

    Lamont, Alexandra M

    2005-08-01

    McDermott and Hauser have recently shown that although monkeys show some types of preferences for sound, preferences for music are found only in humans. This suggests that music might be a relatively recent adaptation in human evolution. Here, I focus on the research methods used by McDermott and Hauser, and consider the findings in relation to infancy research and music psychology. PMID:16006174

  15. Scleral Biomechanics in the Aging Monkey Eye

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Michaël J. A.; Suh, J-K. Francis; Bottlang, Michael; Burgoyne, Claude F.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the age-related differences in the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear biomechanical properties of posterior sclera from old (22.9 ± 5.3 years) and young (1.5 ± 0.7 years) rhesus monkeys. Methods The posterior scleral shell of each eye was mounted on a custom-built pressurization apparatus, then intraocular pressure (IOP) was elevated from 5 to 45 mmHg while the 3D displacements of the scleral surface were measured using speckle interferometry. Each scleral shell geometry was digitally reconstructed from data generated by a 3D digitizer (topography) and 20 MHz ultrasounds (thickness). An inverse finite element (FE) method incorporating a fiber-reinforced constitutive model was used to extract a unique set of biomechanical properties for each eye. Displacements, thickness, stress, strain, tangent modulus, structural stiffness, and preferred collagen fiber orientation were mapped for each posterior sclera. Results The model yielded 3-D deformations of posterior sclera that matched well with those observed experimentally. The posterior sclera exhibited inhomogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear mechanical behavior. The sclera was significantly thinner (p = 0.038), and tangent modulus and structural stiffness were significantly higher in old monkeys (p < 0.0001). On average, scleral collagen fibers were circumferentially oriented around the optic nerve head (ONH). We found no difference in the preferred collagen fiber orientation and fiber concentration factor between age groups. Conclusions Posterior sclera from old monkeys is significantly stiffer than that from young monkeys and is therefore subject to higher stresses but lower strains at all levels of IOP. Age-related stiffening of the sclera may significantly influence ONH biomechanics, and potentially contribute to age-related susceptibility to glaucomatous vision loss. PMID:19494203

  16. The pathology of innactivation in monkeys.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarz De Bourne, M. N.; Mcclure, H.; Keeling, M.

    1973-01-01

    Progress report on a long-term experiment using rhesus monkeys and designed to study the effects of isolation up to one year, as well as the effects of bed rest simulated by immobilization in a plaster cast for six months. The investigation includes histopathological and histochemical studies of these effects on various internal organs and tissues, and some of the preliminary results of these studies are presented and discussed.

  17. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies. PMID:26989299

  18. Microwaves modify thermoregulatory behavior in squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) trained to regulate environmental temperature (Ta) behaviorally were exposed in the far field of a horn antenna to ten-minute periods of 2,450 MHz CW microwaves. Incident power density ranged from 1 to 22 mW/cm2. The corresponding specific absorption rate (SAR), derived from temperature increments in saline-filled styrofoam models, ranged from 0.15 to 3.25 W/kg. Controls included exposure to infrared radiation equivalent incident energy and no radiation exposure. Normal thermo-regulatory behavior produces tight control over environmental and body temperatures; most monkeys select a Ta of 34-36 degrees C. Ten-minute exposures to 2,450 MHz CW microwaves at an incident power density of 6-8 mW/cm2 stimulated all animals to select a lower Ta. This threshold energy represents a whole-body SAR of 1.1 W/kg, about 20% of the resting metabolic rate of the monkey. Thermoregulatory behavior was highly efficient, and skin and rectal temperatures remained stable, even at 22 mW/cm2 where the preferred Ta was lowered by as much as 4 degrees C. No comparable reduction in selected Ta below control levels occurred during exposure to infrared radiation of equal incident power density.

  19. Spaceflight and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    In the grant period, we perfected techniques for determination of interleukin production and leukocyte subset analysis of rhesus monkeys. These results are outlined in detail in publication number 2, appended to this report. Additionally, we participated in the ARRT restraint test to determine if restraint conditions for flight in the Space Shuttle could contribute to any effects of space flight on immune responses. All immunological parameters listed in the methods section were tested. Evaluation of the data suggests that the restraint conditions had minimal effects on the results observed, but handling of the monkeys could have had some effect. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 3, appended to this report. Additionally, to help us develop our rhesus monkey immunology studies, we carried out preliminary studies in mice to determine the effects of stressors on immunological parameters. We were able to show that there were gender-based differences in the response of immunological parameters to a stressor. These results are outlined in detail in manuscript number 4, appended to this report.

  20. Hot-hand bias in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Tommy C; Wilke, Andreas; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2014-07-01

    Human decision-makers often exhibit the hot-hand phenomenon, a tendency to perceive positive serial autocorrelations in independent sequential events. The term is named after the observation that basketball fans and players tend to perceive streaks of high accuracy shooting when they are demonstrably absent. That is, both observing fans and participating players tend to hold the belief that a player's chance of hitting a shot are greater following a hit than following a miss. We hypothesize that this bias reflects a strong and stable tendency among primates (including humans) to perceive positive autocorrelations in temporal sequences, that this bias is an adaptation to clumpy foraging environments, and that it may even be ecologically rational. Several studies support this idea in humans, but a stronger test would be to determine whether nonhuman primates also exhibit a hot-hand bias. Here we report behavior of 3 monkeys performing a novel gambling task in which correlation between sequential gambles (i.e., temporal clumpiness) is systematically manipulated. We find that monkeys have better performance (meaning, more optimal behavior) for clumped (positively correlated) than for dispersed (negatively correlated) distributions. These results identify and quantify a new bias in monkeys' risky decisions, support accounts that specifically incorporate cognitive biases into risky choice, and support the suggestion that the hot-hand phenomenon is an evolutionary ancient bias. PMID:25545977

  1. Species tree estimation for a deep phylogenetic divergence in the New World monkeys (Primates: Platyrrhini).

    PubMed

    Perez, S Ivan; Klaczko, Julia; dos Reis, Sérgio F

    2012-11-01

    The estimation of a robust phylogeny is a necessary first step in understanding the biological diversification of the platyrrhines. Although the most recent phylogenies are generally robust, they differ from one another in the relationship between Aotus and other genera as well as in the relationship between Pitheciidae and other families. Here, we used coding and non-coding sequences to infer the species tree and embedded gene trees of the platyrrhine genera using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method for the multispecies coalescent (*BEAST) for the first time and to compared the results with those of a Bayesian concatenated phylogenetic analysis. Our species tree, based on all available sequences, shows a closer phylogenetic relationship between Atelidae and Cebidae and a closer relationship between Aotus and the Cebidae clade. The posterior probabilities are lower for these conflictive tree nodes compared to those in the concatenated analysis; this finding could be explained by some gene trees showing no concordant topologies between Aotus and the other genera. Moreover, the topology of our species tree also differs from the findings of previous molecular and morphological studies regarding the position of Aotus. The existence of discrepancies between morphological data, gene trees and the species tree is widely reported and can be related to processes such as incomplete lineage sorting or selection. Although these processes are common in species trees with low divergence, they can also occur in species trees with deep and rapid divergence. The sources of the inconsistency of morphological and molecular traits with the species tree could be a main focus of further research on platyrrhines. PMID:22841656

  2. Perceptual Learning: 12-Month-Olds' Discrimination of Monkey Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Joseph; Flom, Ross; Jones, Jacob; Martin, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Six-month-olds reliably discriminate different monkey and human faces whereas 9-month-olds only discriminate different human faces. It is often falsely assumed that perceptual narrowing reflects a permanent change in perceptual abilities. In 3 experiments, ninety-six 12-month-olds' discrimination of unfamiliar monkey faces was examined. Following…

  3. Spatial Relational Memory in 9-Month-Old Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavenex, Pierre; Lavenex, Pamela Banta

    2006-01-01

    This experiment assesses spatial and nonspatial relational memory in freely moving 9-mo-old and adult (11-13-yr-old) macaque monkeys ("Macaca mulatta"). We tested the use of proximal landmarks, two different objects placed at the center of an open-field arena, as conditional cues allowing monkeys to predict the location of food rewards hidden in…

  4. Discrimination Reversal Learning in Capuchin Monkeys ("Cebus apella")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Klein, Emily D.; Evans, Theodore A.; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M.; Harris, Emily H.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    2008-01-01

    Learning styles in capuchin monkeys were assessed with a computerized reversal-learning task called the mediational paradigm. First, monkeys were trained to respond with 90% accuracy on a two-choice discrimination (A+B-). Then the authors examined differences in performance on three different types of reversal trials (A-B+, A-C+, B+C-), each of…

  5. Monkeys, Apes and Other Primates. Young Discovery Library Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Andre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume introduces the primate family, their physiology, and habits. Topics described include: (1) kinds of monkeys, including lemur, chimpanzee, gorilla, squirrel monkey, and marmoset; (2) behaviors when…

  6. Effects of Permanent Separation from Mother on Infant Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suomi, Stephen; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A study designed to investigate the effects of permanent maternal separation in infant rhesus monkeys, 60, 90, and 120 days of age, and housed individually or in Paris. Monkeys separated at 90 days and housed individually showed the highest levels of disturbance. (DP)

  7. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Numerical Ordering in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated how within-stimulus heterogeneity affects the ability of rhesus monkeys to order pairs of the numerosities 1 through 9. Two rhesus monkeys were tested in a touch screen task where the variability of elements within each visual array was systematically varied by allowing elements to vary in color, size, shape, or any combination of…

  8. INHALATION TOXICOLOGY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MANGANESE IN RHESUS MONKEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four male and four female rhesus monkeys were exposed to manganese oxide (Mn3O4) aerosol at 100 micrograms/cubic meter in an exposure chamber for periods up to 66 weeks. Three male and three female monkeys were maintained as unexposed controls. Observation and clinical chemistry ...

  9. Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and titi monkeys (Callicebus) in travel tasks.

    PubMed

    Fragaszy, D M

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel and titi monkeys were observed in a series of experiments in which the subjects' task was to move to a distant goal along above-ground pathways. The pathways were entirely visible to the subjects in all experiments. However, visual cues along the pathways (in Experiment I) and physical and spatial properties of the pathways (in Experiments II and III) were varied systematically in order to determine what effect features had upon selection of travel paths for monkeys of each species. Marked performance differences between the species were evident in these experiments, including differences in latency to move past the choice point, proportion of trials in which the shortest route was chosen first, and changes over test sessions in frequency of initial choice of the shortest route. In particular, titis tended to move past the choice point more slowly than squirrel monkeys; to pay more attention to distant properties of the pathways prior to making a decision, especially after experience in the test setting; and to prefer habitual pathways when these were available, whereas squirrel monkeys preferred novel routes when these were available. The relative "optimality" of decision making in these tasks in relation to species-typical modes of traveling and foraging in natural habitats is discussed. An alternative view of decision making, in which optimality is not assumed to be the only decision-making strategy, is suggested as an appropriate vehicle for further investigation into the sources of short-term variability in choice behavior. PMID:7223106

  10. Do monkeys think in metaphors? Representations of space and time in monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Dustin J; Casasanto, Daniel; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-11-01

    Research on the relationship between the representation of space and time has produced two contrasting proposals. ATOM posits that space and time are represented via a common magnitude system, suggesting a symmetrical relationship between space and time. According to metaphor theory, however, representations of time depend on representations of space asymmetrically. Previous findings in humans have supported metaphor theory. Here, we investigate the relationship between time and space in a nonverbal species, by testing whether non-human primates show space-time interactions consistent with metaphor theory or with ATOM. We tested two rhesus monkeys and 16 adult humans in a nonverbal task that assessed the influence of an irrelevant dimension (time or space) on a relevant dimension (space or time). In humans, spatial extent had a large effect on time judgments whereas time had a small effect on spatial judgments. In monkeys, both spatial and temporal manipulations showed large bi-directional effects on judgments. In contrast to humans, spatial manipulations in monkeys did not produce a larger effect on temporal judgments than the reverse. Thus, consistent with previous findings, human adults showed asymmetrical space-time interactions that were predicted by metaphor theory. In contrast, monkeys showed patterns that were more consistent with ATOM. PMID:20846645

  11. Monkeying around: Use of Survey Monkey as a Tool for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey; McKay, Cassandra; Moses, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the use of an online survey tool called Survey Monkey, which can be used by school social workers and school social work educators for evaluation of practice, needs assessment, and program evaluation. Examples of questions are given. Principles of writing good survey questions are described. (Contains 2 tables and 1…

  12. Comparison of celecoxib metabolism and excretion in mouse, rabbit, dog, cynomolgus monkey and rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Paulson, S K; Zhang, J Y; Jessen, S M; Lawal, Y; Liu, N W; Dudkowski, C M; Wang, Y F; Chang, M; Yang, D; Findlay, J W; Berge, M A; Markos, C S; Breau, A P; Hribar, J D; Yuan, J

    2000-07-01

    1. The metabolism and excretion of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, was investigated in mouse, rabbit, the EM (extensive) and PM (poor metabolizer) dog, and rhesus and cynomolgus monkey. 2. Some sex and species differences were evident in the disposition of celecoxib. After intravenous (i.v.) administration of [14C]celecoxib, the major route of excretion of radioactivity in all species studied was via the faeces: EM dog (80.0%), PM dog (83.4%), cynomolgus monkey (63.5%), rhesus monkey (83.1%). After oral administration, faeces were the primary route of excretion in rabbit (72.2%) and the male mouse (71.1%), with the remainder of the dose excreted in the urine. After oral administration of [14C]celecoxib to the female mouse, radioactivity was eliminated equally in urine (45.7%) and faeces (46.7%). 3. Biotransformation of celecoxib occurs primarily by oxidation of the aromatic methyl group to form a hydroxymethyl metabolite, which is further oxidized to the carboxylic acid analogue. 4. An additional phase I metabolite (phenyl ring hydroxylation) and a glucuronide conjugate of the carboxylic acid metabolite was produced by rabbit. 5. The major excretion product in urine and faeces of mouse, rabbit, dog and monkey was the carboxylic acid metabolite of celecoxib. PMID:10963063

  13. Establishment and ultrasound characteristics of atherosclerosis in rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is one of the main risk factors cause acute cerebral-cardio vascular diseases. It's of great significance to establish an atherosclerosis animal model that can mimic the characteristics and nature course of human patients. Therefore, a rhesus monkey model was induced by high-fat diet to monitor their lipid profile and intima-media thickness (IMT) of artery walls and study atherosclerosis progression. Methods Fifty male rhesus monkeys were enrolled in this study. All of these monkeys were aged 7 to 14 years with BMI >30 kg/m2. They were fed with high-fat diet containing 10% of fat for the first 48 weeks. Use ultrasound to measure the IMT at bilateral common carotid arteries and their bifurcations and aorta (AO) of the monkeys, and screen out the individuals with thickened IMT for the next phase. In the next 48 weeks, some of these monkeys (n = 4) were fed with standard diet containing 3% fat. Meanwhile the other monkeys (n = 5) were fed with high-fat diet for another 48 weeks. Their serum lipid level was monitored and arterial IMT was also determined periodically. Results Serum lipid level of all 50 monkeys elevated after fed with high-fat diet for the first 48 weeks. IMT thickening at right common carotid bifurcation and aorta (AO) was thickened in 9 monkeys. Furthermore, 4 of these 9 monkeys were fed with standard diet and other 5 monkeys were fed with high-fat diet in the following 48 weeks. The serum lipid level of the 4 monkeys recovered and their IMT at RBIF and AO did not progress. However, the lipid level of other 5 monkeys remained high, and their IMT thickening of AO progressed, and plaques and calcification focuses were found at the anterior wall of aorta near the bifurcation of common iliac artery. Conclusions After high-fat diet induction for 96 weeks, serum lipid levels of rhesus monkeys elevated significantly, which subsequently caused IMT thickening and plaques formation. When IMT thickening occurred, further vascular

  14. Motion Sickness-Induced Food Aversions in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, M. Aaron; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned aversions to colored, flavored water were established in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by following consumption with 90 min of simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation. The experimental group (N= 13) drank significantly less of the green, almond-flavored test solution than did the control group (N=14) during three post-treatment preference testing days. Individual differences were noted in that two experimental monkeys readily drank the test solution after rotational stimulation. Only two of the experimental monkeys showed emesis during rotation, yet 10 monkeys in this group developed an aversion. These results suggest that: (1) motion sickness can be readily induced in Squirrel monkeys with simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation, and (2) that conditioned food aversions are achieved in the absence of emesis in this species.

  15. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  16. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Schultheiss, T.E. ); Stephens, L.C.; Price, R.E.; Ang, K.K.; Peters, L.J. )

    1994-04-30

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D[sub 50] = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Vestibular adaptation to space in monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, M.; Raphan, T.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Cohen, B.

    1998-01-01

    Otolith-induced eye movements of rhesus monkeys were studied before and after the 1989 COSMOS 2044 and the 1992 to 1993 COSMOS 2229 flights. Two animals flew in each mission for approximately 2 weeks. After flight, spatial orientation of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was altered. In one animal the time constant of postrotatory nystagmus, which had been shortened by head tilts with regard to gravity before flight, was unaffected by the same head tilts after flight. In another animal, eye velocity, which tended to align with a gravitational axis before flight, moved toward a body axis after flight. This shift of orientation disappeared by 7 days after landing. After flight, the magnitude of compensatory ocular counter-rolling was reduced by about 70% in both dynamic and static tilts. Modulation in vergence in response to naso-occipital linear acceleration during off-vertical axis rotation was reduced by more than 50%. These changes persisted for 11 days after recovery. An up and down asymmetry of vertical nystagmus was diminished for 7 days. Gains of the semicircular canal-induced horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes were unaffected in both flights, but the gain of the roll angular vestibulo-ocular reflex was decreased. These data indicate that there are short- and long-term changes in otolith-induced eye movements after adaptation to microgravity. These experiments also demonstrate the unique value of the monkey as a model for studying effects of vestibular adaptation in space. Eye movements can be measured in three dimensions in response to controlled vestibular and visual stimulation, and the results are directly applicable to human beings. Studies in monkeys to determine how otolith afferent input and central processing is altered by adaptation to microgravity should be an essential component of future space-related research.

  18. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lynne R; Tanimola, Adebowale A; Olubode, Oluseun S; Garshelis, David L

    2009-07-01

    Although primates are hunted on a global scale, some species are protected against harassment and killing by taboos or religious doctrines. Sites where the killing of sacred monkeys or the destruction of sacred groves is forbidden may be integral to the conservation of certain species. In 2004, as part of a distribution survey of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria, we investigated reports of sacred monkeys in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria. We confirmed nine new sites where primates are protected as sacred: four with tantalus monkeys (Chlorocebus tantalus) and five with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). During 2004-2006, we visited two communities (Akpugoeze and Lagwa) previously known to harbor sacred populations of Ce. sclateri to estimate population abundance and trends. We directly counted all groups and compared our estimates with previous counts when available. We also estimated the size of sacred groves and compared these with grove sizes reported in the literature. The mean size of the sacred groves in Akpugoeze (2.06 ha, n = 10) was similar to others in Africa south of the Sahel, but larger than the average grove in Lagwa (0.49 ha, n = 15). We estimated a total population of 124 Sclater's monkeys in 15 groups in Lagwa and 193 monkeys in 20 groups in Akpugoeze. The Akpugoeze population was relatively stable over two decades, although the proportion of infants declined, and the number of groups increased. As Sclater's monkey does not occur in any official protected areas, sacred populations are important to the species' long-term conservation. Despite the monkeys' destruction of human crops, most local people still adhere to the custom of not killing monkeys. These sites represent ideal locations in which to study the ecology of Sclater's monkey and human-wildlife interactions. PMID:19408287

  19. Which senses play a role in nonhuman primate food selection? A comparison between squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Freist, Pamela; Krause, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other senses may play in food selection. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess which senses are involved in the evaluation of food by two species of New World primates: the squirrel monkey and the spider monkey. To this end, six animals per species were repeatedly presented with both familiar and novel food items, and their behavior was videotaped and analyzed. To obtain a further indication of the relative importance of visual and chemosensory cues, the animals were also presented with familiar food items that were experimentally modified in color, odor, or both color and odor. The results demonstrate that squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys use olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues in addition to visual information to evaluate novel food, whereas they mainly inspect familiar food items visually prior to consumption. Our findings also show that in both species the use of nonvisual cues decreased rapidly with repeated presentations of novel food, suggesting a fast multimodal learning process. Further, the two species clearly differ in their relative use of nonvisual cues when evaluating novel or modified food, with spider monkeys relying more on olfactory cues than squirrel monkeys, and squirrel monkeys relying more on tactile cues compared to spider monkeys. PMID:17146790

  20. The misbehaviour of a metacognitive monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Ken; Evans, Theodore A.; Menzel, Emilie; Smith, J. David; Beran, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Metacognition, the monitoring of one’s own mental states, is a fundamental aspect of human intellect. Despite tests in nonhuman animals suggestive of uncertainty monitoring, some authors interpret these results solely in terms of primitive psychological mechanisms and reinforcement regimes, where “reinforcement” is invariably considered to be the delivery and consumption of earned food rewards. Surprisingly, few studies have detailed the trial-by-trial behaviour of animals engaged in such tasks. Here we report ethology-based observations on a rhesus monkey completing sparse-dense discrimination problems, and given the option of escaping trials (i.e., responding “uncertain”) at its own choosing. Uncertainty responses were generally made on trials of high objective difficulty, and were characterized by long latencies before beginning visible trials, long times taken for response, and, even after controlling for difficulty, high degrees of wavering during response. Incorrect responses were also common in trials of high objective difficulty, but were characterized by low degrees of wavering. This speaks to the likely adaptive nature of “hesitation,” and is inconsistent with models which argue or predict implicit, inflexible information-seeking or “alternative option” behaviours whenever challenging problems present themselves, Confounding models which suggest that nonhuman behaviour in metacognition tasks is driven solely by food delivery/consumption, the monkey was also observed allowing pellets to accumulate and consuming them during and after trials of all response/outcome categories (i.e., whether correct, incorrect, or escaped). This study thus bolsters previous findings that rhesus monkey behaviour in metacognition tasks is in some respects disassociated from mere food delivery/consumption, or even the avoidance of punishment. These and other observations fit well with the evolutionary status and natural proclivities of rhesus monkeys

  1. Observations on chronic polyarthritis in monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, E G L

    1981-01-01

    Erosion and inflammatory changes in the carpus, fingers and toes of a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, are described; this was one of 152 animals in each of which four fixed limbs were available for examination. The histological changes resembled closely those found in adult human rheumatoid arthritis. The limited literature is reviewed (including cases with amyloid disease). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:7299780

  2. Squirrel Monkey Requirements for Chronic Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined: (1) the ability of a small non-human primate to tolerate chronic centrifugation on a centrifuge with a radius of 0.9 m, and (2) the influence of centrifuge radius on the response of primates to hyperdynamic fields. Eight adult male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 1.5 g via centrifugation at two different radii (0.9 m and 3.0 m). Body temperature, activity, feeding and drinking were monitored. These primates did tolerate and adapt to 1.5G via centrifugation on either radius centrifuge. The results show, however, that centrifuge radius does have an effect on the responses of the primate to the hyperdynamic environment. Adaptation to the hyperdynamic environment occurred more quickly on the larger centrifuge. This study demonstrates that a small, non-human primate model, such as the squirrel monkey, could be used on a 0.9 m radius centrifuge such as is being considered by the NASA Space Station Program.

  3. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-01-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. PMID:24850892

  4. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kevin B; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Woolverton, William L

    2009-10-01

    The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays. Indifference points were calculated and discounting functions were established. Discounting functions for saccharin were well described by a hyperbolic function. Moreover, the discounting rates for saccharin in all six monkeys were comparable to those of other non-human animals responding for non-drug reinforcers. Also consistent with other studies of non-human animals, changing the amount of a saccharin reinforcer available after a 10-s delay did not affect its relative subjective value. Discounting functions for saccharin were steeper than we found in a previous study with cocaine, raising the possibility that drugs such as cocaine may be discounted less steeply than non-drug reinforcers. PMID:19540317

  5. Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Woolverton, William L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    The present, subjective value of a reinforcer typically decreases as a function of the delay to its receipt, a phenomenon termed delay discounting. Delay discounting, which is assumed to reflect impulsivity, is hypothesized to play an important role in drug abuse. The present study examined delay discounting of cocaine injections by rhesus monkeys. Subjects were studied on a discrete-trials task in which they chose between 2 doses of cocaine: a smaller, immediate dose and a larger, delayed dose. The immediate dose varied between 0.012 and 0.4 mg/kg/injection, whereas the delayed dose was always 0.2 mg/kg/injection and was delivered after a delay that varied between 0 and 300 s in different conditions. At each delay, the point at which a monkey chose the immediate and delayed doses equally often (i.e., the ED50) provided a measure of the present, subjective value of the delayed dose. Dose-response functions for the immediate dose shifted to the left as delay increased. The amount of the immediate dose predicted to be equal in subjective value to the delayed dose decreased as a function of the delay, and hyperbolic discounting functions provided good fits to the data (median R(2)=.86). The current approach may provide the basis for an animal model of the effect of delay on the subjective value of drugs of abuse. PMID:17563210

  6. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Sulzman, F M; Ferraro, J S; Fuller, C A; Moore-Ede, M C; Klimovitsky, V; Magedov, V; Alpatov, A M

    1992-03-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer. PMID:1523235

  7. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  8. Vestibuloocular reflex of rhesus monkeys after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard; Kozlovskaia, Inessa; Raphan, Theodore; Solomon, David; Helwig, Denice; Cohen, Nathaniel; Sirota, Mikhail; Iakushin, Sergei

    1992-01-01

    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of two rhesus monkeys was recorded before and after 14 days of spaceflight. The gain (eye velocity/head velocity) of the horizontal VOR, tested 15 and 18 h after landing, was approximately equal to preflight values. The dominant time constant of the animal tested 15 h after landing was equivalent to that before flight. During nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), the latency, rising time constant, steady-state eye velocity, and phase of modulation in eye velocity and eye position with respect to head position were similar in both monkeys before and after flight. There were changes in the amplitude of modulation of horizontal eye velocity during steady-state OVAR and in the ability to discharge stored activity rapidly by tilting during postrotatory nystagmus (tilt dumping) after flight: OVAR modulations were larger, and tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested on the day of landing and for several days thereafter. If the gain and time constant of the horizontal VOR exchange in microgravity, they must revert to normal soon after landing. The changes that were observed suggest that adaptation to microgravity had caused alterations in way that the central nervous system processes otolith input.

  9. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    PubMed

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  10. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Ferraro, J. S.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.; Klimovitsky, V.; Magedov, V.; Alpatov, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer.

  11. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys crack nuts dexterously.

    PubMed

    Mangalam, Madhur; Fragaszy, Dorothy M

    2015-05-18

    Dexterous tool use has been crucial in the evolution of hominid percussive technology. According to Newell, "dexterity" is the ability of an organism to make goal-directed corrections in movements to optimize effort. Dexterous movements are smooth and effective and accomplish the same goal with less energy than less dexterous movements. Dexterity develops during the later phases of refining a motor skill as the actor becomes sensitive to the outcome of the preceding movement, or to its modulation. In the present study, we examined how wild bearded capuchin monkeys, Sapajus libidinosus, at Fazenda Boa Vista in Piauí, Brazil, that routinely crack palm nuts using stones by placing them on rock outcrops, boulders, and logs (collectively termed anvils) modulate the kinematic parameters of the strikes while processing a single tucum, Astrocaryum campestre nut. The monkeys cracked the nuts by repeatedly striking them with moderate force (i.e., not exceeding a threshold), rather than by striking them more forcefully once, and modulated the kinematic parameters of the current strike on the basis of the condition of the nut following the preceding strike (i.e., the development of any fracture or crack). Repeatedly striking the nuts with moderate force is energetically more efficient than forcefully striking them once and reduces the likelihood of smashing the kernel. Determining the changing energetic constraints of the task and dynamically optimizing movements using those as criteria are dexterous accomplishments. We discuss the implications of the present findings. PMID:25936553

  12. Effects of dietary cadmium on rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nomiyama, Kazuo; Nomiyama, Hiroko; Nomura, Yasuo; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Matsui, Kanji; Yotoriyama, Mamoru; Akahori, Fumiaki; Iwao, Soichiro; Koizumi, Naoko; Masaoka, Toshio; Kitamura, Shoji; Tsuchiya, Kenzaburo; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Kosaku

    1979-01-01

    Ten male rhesus monkeys, each weighing 3.5 kg, were divided into four groups of 3, 3, 2, and 2, and were fed daily with 100 g pelleted food containing 300, 30, 3, and 0 ppm cadmium, respectively. Urine samples were collected every 2 weeks and blood samples every 4 weeks. One monkey each of the 300 and 30 ppm groups was autopsied for pathological examination and tissue cadmium determination at the week 24 of the experiment; the remaining 8 animals were killed after 55 weeks. The lowest exposed group (3 ppm) did not show any specific biological response to cadmium over a period of 55 weeks. In the 30 ppm group, no significant changes were observed for up to 24 weeks, although cadmium concentration in the renal cortex and urine at 24 weeks were 300 μg/g wet weight and 18 μg/l., respectively. Plasma urea nitrogen and urine protein (quantitative determination) increased after 30 and 36 weeks. At 55 weeks of the experiment, qualitative tests were negative for low molecular weight proteinuria and glycosuria, and the results remained normal for renal and liver function tests and blood analysis, although cadmium concentrations in the renal cortex of two monkeys were 460 and 730 μg/g wet weight and those in the liver were 110 and 160 μg/g wet weight, respectively. In the highest exposure group (300 ppm), urine cadmium increased to 250 μg/l. by 11 weeks, and urine retinol-binding protein, plasma GOT, GPT, and LDH increased after 12 weeks. Proteinuria (quantitative determination), glycosuria, aminoaciduria (panaminoaciduria), and erythrocytopenia were observed after 16 weeks, when urine cadmium was 500–900 μg/l. Hypohemoglobinopathy and proteinuria (qualitative determination) were observed after 20 and 24 weeks, while cadmium concentrations in the renal cortex and the liver were 760 and 430 μg/g wet weight at 24 weeks, respectively. Slightly depressed tubular reabsorption of phosphate, increased urine β2-microglobulin, increased plasma urea nitrogen, and increased

  13. Perception of chasing in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the intentions of others is crucial in developing positive social relationships. Comparative human and non-human animal studies have addressed the phylogenetic origin of this ability. However, few studies have explored the importance of motion information in distinguishing others' intentions and goals in non-human primates. This study addressed whether squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) are able to perceive a goal-directed motion pattern-specifically, chasing-represented by two geometric objects. In Experiment 1, we trained squirrel monkeys to discriminate a "Chasing" sequence from a "Random" sequence. We then confirmed that this discrimination transferred to new stimuli ("Chasing" and "Random") in a probe test. To determine whether the monkeys used similarities of trajectory to discriminate chasing from random motion, we also presented a non-chasing "Clone" sequence in which the trajectories of the two figures were identical. Three of six monkeys were able to discriminate "Chasing" from the other sequences. In Experiment 2, we confirmed humans' recognition of chasing with the stimuli from Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, the three monkeys for which discrimination did not transfer to the new stimuli in Experiment 1 were trained to discriminate between "Chasing" and "Clone" sequences. At testing, all three monkeys had learned to discriminate chasing, and two transferred their learning to new stimuli. Our results suggest that squirrel monkeys use goal-directed motion patterns, rather than simply similarity of trajectory, to discriminate chasing. Further investigation is necessary to identify the motion characteristics that contribute to this discrimination. PMID:26156787

  14. The Thatcher illusion in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Nakata, Ryuzaburo; Osada, Yoshihisa

    2012-07-01

    Like humans, Old World monkeys are known to use configural face processing to distinguish among individuals. The ability to recognize an individual through the perception of subtle differences in the configuration of facial features plays an important role in social cognition. To test this ability in New World monkeys, this study examined whether squirrel monkeys experience the Thatcher illusion, a measure of face processing ability in which changes in facial features are difficult to detect in an inverted face. In the experiment, the monkeys were required to distinguish between a target face and each of the three kinds of distracter faces whose features were altered to be different from those of the target. For each of the pairs of target and distracter faces, four rotation-based combinations of upright and inverted face presentations were used. The results revealed that when both faces were inverted and the eyes of the distracter face were altered by rotating them at an angle of 180° from those of the target face, the monkeys' discrimination learning was obstructed to a greater extent than it was under the other conditions. Thus, these results suggest that the squirrel monkey does experience the Thatcher illusion. Furthermore, it seems reasonable to assume that squirrel monkeys can utilize information about facial configurations in individual recognition and that this facial configuration information could be useful in their social communications. PMID:22411620

  15. Germline transmission in transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Sean; Chi, Tim; Prucha, Melinda S.; Ahn, Kwang Sung; Connor-Stroud, Fawn; Jean, Sherrie; Gould, Kenneth; Chan, Anthony W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic nonhuman primate models are increasingly popular model for neurological and neurodegenerative disease because their brain functions and neural anatomies closely resemble those of humans [1–6]. Transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys (HD monkeys) developed clinical features similar to those seen in HD patients, making the monkeys suitable for preclinical study of HD [6–12]. However, until HD monkey colonies can be readily expanded, their use in preclinical studies will be limited [1, 13, 14]. In the present study, we confirmed germline transmission of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) transgene in both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated from three male HD monkey founders (F0), as well as in second-generation offspring (F1) produced via artificial insemination by using intrauterine insemination (IUI) technique. A total of five offspring were produced from fifteen females that were inseminated by IUI using semen collected from the three HD founders (5/15; 33%). Thus far, sperm collected from HD founder (rHD8) has led to two F1 transgenic HD moenkys with germline transmission rate at 100% (2/2). mHTT expression was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using skin fibroblasts from the F1 HD monkeys, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) established from one of the F1 HD monkeys (rHD8-2). Here we report the stable germline transmission and expression of the mHTT transgene in HD monkeys, which suggest possible expansion of HD monkey colonies for preclinical and biomedical researches. PMID:25917881

  16. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    PubMed

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk. PMID:26984356

  17. Neurobehavioral development of common marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Braun, Katarina M; Emborg, Marina E

    2016-03-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys are a resource for biomedical research and their use is predicted to increase due to the suitability of this species for transgenic approaches. Identification of abnormal neurodevelopment due to genetic modification relies upon the comparison with validated patterns of normal behavior defined by unbiased methods. As scientists unfamiliar with nonhuman primate development are interested to apply genomic editing techniques in marmosets, it would be beneficial to the field that the investigators use validated methods of postnatal evaluation that are age and species appropriate. This review aims to analyze current available data on marmoset physical and behavioral postnatal development, describe the methods used and discuss next steps to better understand and evaluate marmoset normal and abnormal postnatal neurodevelopment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 141-158, 2016. PMID:26502294

  18. Performance Monitoring in Monkey Frontal Eye Field

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dian; Ferrera, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    The frontal eye fields (FEF) are thought to mediate response selection during oculomotor decision tasks. In addition, many FEF neurons have robust postsaccadic responses, but their role in postchoice evaluative processes (online performance monitoring) is only beginning to become apparent. Here we report error-related neural activity in FEF while monkeys performed a biased speed-categorization task that enticed the animals to make impulsive errors. Twenty-three percent of cells in macaque FEF coded an internally generated error-related signal, and many of the same cells also coded task difficulty. The observed responses are primarily consistent with three related concepts that have been associated with performance monitoring: (1) response conflict; (2) uncertainty; and (3) reward prediction. Overall, our findings suggest a novel role for the FEF as part of the neural network that evaluates the preceding choice to optimize behavior in the future. PMID:24478349

  19. Neurobehavioral Development of Common Marmoset Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schultz-Darken, Nancy; Braun, Katarina M.; Emborg, Marina E.

    2016-01-01

    Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) monkeys are a resource for biomedical research and their use is predicted to increase due to the suitability of this species for transgenic approaches. Identification of abnormal neurodevelopment due to genetic modification relies upon the comparison with validated patterns of normal behavior defined by unbiased methods. As scientists unfamiliar with nonhuman primate development are interested to apply genomic editing techniques in marmosets, it would be beneficial to the field that the investigators use validated methods of postnatal evaluation that are age and species appropriate. This review aims to analyze current available data on marmoset physical and behavioral postnatal development, describe the methods used and discuss next steps to better understand and evaluate marmoset normal and abnormal postnatal neurodevelopment PMID:26502294

  20. 49. Historic American Buildings Survey CARVING IN MONKEY LOGGIA PHOTOCOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Historic American Buildings Survey CARVING IN MONKEY LOGGIA PHOTOCOPY OF PLATE FROM IRVIN L. SCOOT, 'MARALAGO', THE AMERICAN ARCHITECT (JUNE 20, 1928), P. 809 - Mar-a-Lago, 1100 South Ocean Boulevard, Palm Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

  1. Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of decorative panel featuring a monkey at Ten Mile River Playground comfort station, looking northwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  2. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, H A; Reese, R T

    1985-01-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a Mr 95,000 antigen. Images PMID:3898084

  3. Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... 157462.html Monkey Trial Offers Hope for Future Ebola Treatment for Humans Antibodies from 1995 survivor protected ... 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An antibody treatment for Ebola might be able to protect people for up ...

  4. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Iwama, Ryosuke; Sato, Tsubasa; Sakurai, Ken; Takasuna, Kiyoshi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    To estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), a three-blood-sample method using iodixanol was assessed in comparison with the conventional multisample strategy using inulin. Iodixanol and inulin were coadministered intravenously 40 mg I/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively, to male monkeys, followed by blood collection 60, 90 and 120 min later. A close correlation (r=0.96) was noted between the GFR values estimated by both methods. In clinically healthy monkeys, the basal values were determined to be 3.06 ± 0.50 ml/min/kg. This is the first report, suggesting that serum clearance of iodixanol is a ready-to-use tool for a screening the GFR in monkeys, although it is necessary to perform a more longitudinal study using animals with reduced renal function. PMID:24998395

  5. Monkeys as a source of viral diseases in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pille, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Under institutional scientific-research conditions, during contact with monkeys or their tissues, there is a danger of infection of the associates by simian viruses which are pathogenic to man. Presented in this paper is information on these stimulants.

  6. Developmental changes of cognitive vocal control in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Gavrilov, Natalja; Nieder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary origins of human language are obscured by the scarcity of essential linguistic characteristics in non-human primate communication systems. Volitional control of vocal utterances is one such indispensable feature of language. We investigated the ability of two monkeys to volitionally utter species-specific calls over many years. Both monkeys reliably vocalized on command during juvenile periods, but discontinued this controlled vocal behavior in adulthood. This emerging disability was confined to volitional vocal production, as the monkeys continued to vocalize spontaneously. In addition, they continued to use hand movements as instructed responses during adulthood. This greater vocal flexibility of monkeys early in ontogeny supports the neoteny hypothesis in human evolution. This suggests that linguistic capabilities were enabled via an expansion of the juvenile period during the development of humans. PMID:27252457

  7. Extinction Deficits in Socially Isolated Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, John P.; Sackett, Gene P.

    1976-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were reared in total isolation, in partial isolation, or under normal conditions with access to mothers and peers. Each group was compared on the rate of acquisition of a simple operant response. (GO)

  8. Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley.

    PubMed

    Steckenfinger, Shawn A; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2009-10-27

    Very realistic human-looking robots or computer avatars tend to elicit negative feelings in human observers. This phenomenon is known as the "uncanny valley" response. It is hypothesized that this uncanny feeling is because the realistic synthetic characters elicit the concept of "human," but fail to live up to it. That is, this failure generates feelings of unease due to character traits falling outside the expected spectrum of everyday social experience. These unsettling emotions are thought to have an evolutionary origin, but tests of this hypothesis have not been forthcoming. To bridge this gap, we presented monkeys with unrealistic and realistic synthetic monkey faces, as well as real monkey faces, and measured whether they preferred looking at one type versus the others (using looking time as a measure of preference). To our surprise, monkey visual behavior fell into the uncanny valley: They looked longer at real faces and unrealistic synthetic faces than at realistic synthetic faces. PMID:19822765

  9. Music perception and octave generalization in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wright, A A; Rivera, J J; Hulse, S H; Shyan, M; Neiworth, J J

    2000-09-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were tested for octave generalization in 8 experiments by transposing 6- and 7-note musical passages by an octave and requiring same or different judgments. The monkeys showed no octave generalization to random-synthetic melodies, atonal melodies, or individual notes. They did show complete octave generalization to childhood songs (e.g., "Happy Birthday") and tonal melodies (from a tonality algorithm). Octave generalization was equally strong for 2-octave transpositions but not for 0.5- or 1.5-octave transpositions of childhood songs. These results combine to show that tonal melodies form musical gestalts for monkeys, as they do for humans, and retain their identity when transposed with whole octaves so that chroma (key) is preserved. This conclusion implicates similar transduction, storage, processing, and relational memory of musical passages in monkeys and humans and has implications for nature-nurture origins of music perception. PMID:11006902

  10. Automatic brain segmentation in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Joshi, Sarang; Coe, Christopher; Short, Sarah J.; Gilmore, John

    2007-03-01

    Many neuroimaging studies are applied to primates as pathologies and environmental exposures can be studied in well-controlled settings and environment. In this work, we present a framework for both the semi-automatic creation of a rhesus monkey atlas and a fully automatic segmentation of brain tissue and lobar parcellation. We determine the atlas from training images by iterative, joint deformable registration into an unbiased average image. On this atlas, probabilistic tissue maps and a lobar parcellation. The atlas is then applied via affine, followed by deformable registration. The affinely transformed atlas is employed for a joint T1/T2 based tissue classification. The deformed atlas parcellation masks the tissue segmentations to define the parcellation. Other regional definitions on the atlas can also straightforwardly be used as segmentation. We successfully built average atlas images for the T1 and T2 datasets using a developmental training datasets of 18 cases aged 16-34 months. The atlas clearly exhibits an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio compared to the original images. The results further show that the cortical folding variability in our data is highly limited. Our segmentation and parcellation procedure was successfully re-applied to all training images, as well as applied to over 100 additional images. The deformable registration was able to identify corresponding cortical sulcal borders accurately. Even though the individual methods used in this segmentation framework have been applied before on human data, their combination is novel, as is their adaptation and application to rhesus monkey MRI data. The reduced variability present in the primate data results in a segmentation pipeline that exhibits high stability and anatomical accuracy.

  11. Spacelab flight simulated by two monkeys at CERMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langereux, P.

    1980-01-01

    A semiautomatic module for two monkeys was designed. The module shelters two Rhesus monkeys seated side by side in a compartment, reducing the emotional stresses caused by isolation. Food pellets, water, and air are supplied and body wastes are automatically removed. Physiological and environmental parameters are continually monitored, making possible the performance of experiments concerning the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disorders of weightlessness. A ten day flight of the module in Spacelab was simulated.

  12. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  13. Stereological Analysis of the Rat and Monkey Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Chareyron, Loïc J.; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Amaral, David G.; Lavenex, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala is part of a neural network that contributes to the regulation of emotional behaviors. Rodents, especially rats, are used extensively as model organisms to decipher the functions of specific amygdala nuclei, in particular in relation to fear and emotional learning. Analysis of the role of the nonhuman primate amygdala in these functions has lagged work in the rodent but provides evidence for conservation of basic functions across species. Here we provide quantitative information regarding the morphological characteristics of the main amygdala nuclei in rats and monkeys, including neuron and glial cell numbers, neuronal soma size, and individual nuclei volumes. The volumes of the lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei were, respectively, 32, 39, and 39 times larger in monkeys than in rats. In contrast, the central and medial nuclei were only 8 and 4 times larger in monkeys than in rats. The numbers of neurons in the lateral, basal, and accessory basal nuclei were 14, 11, and 16 times greater in monkeys than in rats, whereas the numbers of neurons in the central and medial nuclei were only 2.3 and 1.5 times greater in monkeys than in rats. Neuron density was between 2.4 and 3.7 times lower in monkeys than in rats, whereas glial density was only between 1.1 and 1.7 times lower in monkeys than in rats. We compare our data in rats and monkeys with those previously published in humans and discuss the theoretical and functional implications that derive from our quantitative structural findings. PMID:21618234

  14. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident. PMID:26758818

  15. Acute microwave irradiation and cataract formation in rabbits and monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kramar, P; Harris, C; Emery, A F; Guy, A W

    1978-09-01

    Rabbits and monkeys were irradiated in the near field of a cavity-backed 2450 MHz resonant slot radiator, to determine the cataractogenic threshold. Rabbits developed cataracts at incident "apparent" power densities of 180 mW/cm2 (E2/120 pi, where E=rms/electric field strength). Monkeys sustained facial burns, but no lens damage, even at incident "apparent" power densities of 500 mW/cm2. These results were substantiated by computer thermal models. PMID:108401

  16. TRANSFERRIN: VARIATIONS IN BLOOD SERUM OF RED HOWLER MONKEYS.

    PubMed

    SCHOEN, M A; ARENDS, T

    1964-11-01

    Blood serum samples from 33 red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) were examined. Three different phenotypes were found and denominated A, B, and C. Four serums could not be classified because their transferrin apparently did not bind iron-59, possibly owing to saturation. A difference was observed in the electrophoretic migration and pattern of the transferrins in these monkeys compared with those of other primates. PMID:14197564

  17. Hepatobiliary disposition in primary cultures of dog and monkey hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kelly A; Kostrubsky, Vsevolod; Sahi, Jasminder

    2006-01-01

    Hepatobiliary transporters are a major route for elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous products. In vitro hepatobiliary models have been reported for human and rat, but not for the other preclinical species used in safety evaluation. We have established methodologies for culturing dog and monkey hepatocytes with optimal bile canalicular formation and function, using a sandwich culture comprising rigid collagen substratum and gelled collagen overlay. Hepatic uptake utilizing sinusoidal transporters and biliary excretion through canalicular transporters were assessed using the bile salt taurocholate, salicylate (negative control), and the Bsep inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and glyburide. There was significant taurocholate and salicylate canalicular efflux in dog and monkey hepatocytes, although the amount of salicylate transported was one thousandth that of taurocholate. Species differences were observed, as glyburide significantly inhibited taurocholate uptake in monkey (64% at 10 microM) but not dog hepatocytes, and inhibited taurocholate efflux in dog (100% at 10 microM) but not monkey hepatocytes. CsA did not inhibit bile salt uptake and significantly inhibited canalicular efflux in dog (at 0.1 microM) and monkey (at 1 and 10 microM) hepatocyte cultures. These results suggest that glyburide is a bile salt uptake inhibitor in monkey but not in dog hepatocytes and that CsA inhibits bile salt canalicular efflux but not basolateral uptake in these species. We have established dog and monkey hepatocytes in sandwich culture with intact bile canalicular formation and function. The differences observed in taurocholate transport between dog and monkey hepatocytes may be indicative of in vivo species differences. PMID:16749858

  18. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans

    PubMed Central

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A.; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L.; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M.; Swanbeck, Sonja N.; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism. PMID:25027164

  19. Auditory artificial grammar learning in macaque and marmoset monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Benjamin; Slater, Heather; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Milne, Alice E; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Smith, Kenny; Petkov, Christopher I

    2013-11-27

    Artificial grammars (AG) are designed to emulate aspects of the structure of language, and AG learning (AGL) paradigms can be used to study the extent of nonhuman animals' structure-learning capabilities. However, different AG structures have been used with nonhuman animals and are difficult to compare across studies and species. We developed a simple quantitative parameter space, which we used to summarize previous nonhuman animal AGL results. This was used to highlight an under-studied AG with a forward-branching structure, designed to model certain aspects of the nondeterministic nature of word transitions in natural language and animal song. We tested whether two monkey species could learn aspects of this auditory AG. After habituating the monkeys to the AG, analysis of video recordings showed that common marmosets (New World monkeys) differentiated between well formed, correct testing sequences and those violating the AG structure based primarily on simple learning strategies. By comparison, Rhesus macaques (Old World monkeys) showed evidence for deeper levels of AGL. A novel eye-tracking approach confirmed this result in the macaques and demonstrated evidence for more complex AGL. This study provides evidence for a previously unknown level of AGL complexity in Old World monkeys that seems less evident in New World monkeys, which are more distant evolutionary relatives to humans. The findings allow for the development of both marmosets and macaques as neurobiological model systems to study different aspects of AGL at the neuronal level. PMID:24285889

  20. Frustrative nonreward and pituitary-adrenal activity in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Fong, K D; Schrieken, N; Levine, S

    2000-12-01

    Little is known about frustration-induced changes in stress physiology in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we assess in two experiments with squirrel monkeys plasma levels of pituitary-adrenal stress hormones in conditions designed to provoke frustrative nonreward. In the first experiment 18 prepubertal monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested without food at any of the sites. These monkeys responded with significant increases in cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the second experiment 18 adult monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested after food was moved to a different foraging site. Nine monkeys found food at the relocated site, discontinued foraging at the previously baited site, and responded with decreases in cortisol. The other nine monkeys failed to find the relocated site, initially increased their visits to the previously baited site, and responded with elevations in cortisol and ACTH. In keeping with comparable findings in rats, our observations indicate that frustrative nonreward elicits ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol in primates. PMID:11239675

  1. Color-detection thresholds in rhesus macaque monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Gagin, Galina; Bohon, Kaitlin S; Butensky, Adam; Gates, Monica A; Hu, Jiun-Yiing; Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Pulumo, Reitumetse L; Qu, Jane; Stoughton, Cleo M; Swanbeck, Sonja N; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-01-01

    Macaque monkeys are a model of human color vision. To facilitate linking physiology in monkeys with psychophysics in humans, we directly compared color-detection thresholds in humans and rhesus monkeys. Colors were defined by an equiluminant plane of cone-opponent color space. All subjects were tested on an identical apparatus with a four-alternative forced-choice task. Targets were 2° square, centered 2° from fixation, embedded in luminance noise. Across all subjects, the change in detection thresholds from initial testing to plateau performance (“learning”) was similar for +L − M (red) colors and +M − L (bluish-green) colors. But the extent of learning was higher for +S (lavender) than for −S (yellow-lime); moreover, at plateau performance, the cone contrast at the detection threshold was higher for +S than for −S. These asymmetries may reflect differences in retinal circuitry for S-ON and S-OFF. At plateau performance, the two species also had similar detection thresholds for all colors, although monkeys had shorter reaction times than humans and slightly lower thresholds for colors that modulated L/M cones. We discuss whether these observations, together with previous work showing that monkeys have lower spatial acuity than humans, could be accounted for by selective pressures driving higher chromatic sensitivity at the cost of spatial acuity amongst monkeys, specifically for the more recently evolved L − M mechanism. PMID:25027164

  2. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded within an ongoing learning-set (LS) task. At a break in the LS task, monkeys selected one of two icons indicating that they had or had not encoded the occurrence of the PM cue (the latter icon resumed the LS task). Critically, during this response period, the PM response icon appeared after a delay during which monkeys could self-initiate the PM response prior to receiving any external prompt. Monkeys selected the PM and LS icons when each was the optimal response, illustrating that they could encode, store, and respond appropriately to a stimulus event in the future. Critically, some monkeys self-initiated the PM response prior to that icon’s appearance, indicating that they could retrieve the PM and act on their intention to make that response without the aid of a prompt. These monkeys appeared capable of using PM in this task. Thus, this capacity appears not to be limited to humans. PMID:22883317

  3. Control of Working Memory in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, while discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the two cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of two consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25436219

  4. Control of working memory in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsiao-Wei; Hampton, Robert R

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive control is critical for efficiently using the limited resources in working memory. It is well established that humans use rehearsal to increase the probability of remembering needed information, but little is known in nonhumans, with some studies reporting the absence of active control and others subject to alternative explanations. We trained monkeys in a visual matching-to-sample paradigm with a post-sample memory cue. Monkeys either saw a remember cue that predicted the occurrence of a matching test that required memory for the sample, or a forget cue that predicted a discrimination test that did not require memory of the sample. Infrequent probe trials on which monkeys were given tests of the type not cued on that trial were used to assess whether memory was under cognitive control. Our procedures controlled for reward expectation and for the surprising nature of the probes. Monkeys matched less accurately after forget cues, whereas discrimination accuracy was equivalent in the 2 cue conditions. We also tested monkeys with lists of 2 consecutive sample images that shared the same cue. Again, memory for expected memory tests was superior to that on unexpected tests. Together these results show that monkeys cognitively control their working memory. PMID:25546104

  5. Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Lack Expertise in Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew; Pradhan, Gauri

    2010-01-01

    Faces are salient stimuli for primates that rely predominantly on visual cues for recognizing conspecifics and maintaining social relationships. While previous studies have shown similar face discrimination processes in chimpanzees and humans, data from monkeys are unclear. Therefore, three studies examined face processing in rhesus monkeys using the face inversion effect, a fractured face task, and an individual recognition task. Unlike chimpanzees and humans, the monkeys showed a general face inversion effect reflected by significantly better performance on upright compared to inverted faces (conspecifics, human and chimpanzees faces) regardless of the subjects’ expertise with those categories. Fracturing faces alters first- and second-order configural manipulations whereas previous studies in chimpanzees showed selective deficits for second-order configural manipulations. Finally, when required to individuate conspecific’s faces, i.e., matching two different photographs of the same conspecific, monkeys showed poor discrimination and repeated training. These results support evolutionary differences between rhesus monkeys and Hominoids in the importance of configural cues and their ability to individuate conspecifics’ faces, suggesting a lack of face expertise in rhesus monkeys. PMID:19014263

  6. Facial expression recognition in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The ability to recognize and accurately interpret facial expressions is critically important for nonhuman primates that rely on these nonverbal signals for social communication. Despite this, little is known about how nonhuman primates, particularly monkeys, discriminate between facial expressions. In the present study, seven rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate four categories of conspecific facial expressions using a matching-to-sample task. In experiment 1, the matching pair showed identical photographs of facial expressions, paired with every other expression type as the nonmatch. The identity of the nonmatching stimulus monkey differed from the one in the sample. Subjects performed above chance on session 1, with no difference in performance across the four expression types. In experiment 2, the identity of all three monkeys differed in each trial, and a neutral portrait was also included as the nonmatching stimulus. Monkeys discriminated expressions across individual identity when the non-match was a neutral stimulus, but they had difficulty when the nonmatch was another expression type. We analysed the degree to which specific feature redundancy could account for these error patterns using a multidimensional scaling analysis which plotted the perceived dissimilarity between expression dyads along a two-dimensional axis. One axis appeared to represent mouth shape, stretched open versus funnelled, while the other appeared to represent a combination of lip retraction and mouth opening. These features alone, however, could not account for overall performance and suggest that monkeys do not rely solely on distinctive features to discriminate among different expressions. PMID:20228886

  7. Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

  8. Evaluation of seven hypotheses for metamemory performance in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Schroeder, Gabriel R.; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Templer, Victoria L.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the extent to which nonhumans and humans share mechanisms for metacognition will advance our understanding of cognitive evolution and will improve selection of model systems for biomedical research. Some nonhuman species avoid difficult cognitive tests, seek information when ignorant, or otherwise behave in ways consistent with metacognition. There is agreement that some nonhuman animals “succeed” in these metacognitive tasks, but little consensus about the cognitive mechanisms underlying performance. In one paradigm, rhesus monkeys visually searched for hidden food when ignorant of the location of the food, but acted immediately when knowledgeable. This result has been interpreted as evidence that monkeys introspectively monitored their memory to adaptively control information seeking. However, convincing alternative hypotheses have been advanced that might also account for the adaptive pattern of visual searching. We evaluated seven hypotheses using a computerized task in which monkeys chose either to take memory tests immediately or to see the answer again before proceeding to the test. We found no evidence to support the hypotheses of behavioral cue association, rote response learning, expectancy violation, response competition, generalized search strategy, or postural mediation. In contrast, we repeatedly found evidence to support the memory monitoring hypothesis. Monkeys chose to see the answer when memory was poor, either from natural variation or experimental manipulation. We found limited evidence that monkeys also monitored the fluency of memory access. Overall, the evidence indicates that rhesus monkeys can use memory strength as a discriminative cue for information seeking, consistent with introspective monitoring of explicit memory. PMID:25365530

  9. Texture discriminability in monkey inferotemporal cortex predicts human texture perception

    PubMed Central

    Zhivago, Kalathupiriyan A.

    2014-01-01

    Shape and texture are both important properties of visual objects, but texture is relatively less understood. Here, we characterized neuronal responses to discrete textures in monkey inferotemporal (IT) cortex and asked whether they can explain classic findings in human texture perception. We focused on three classic findings on texture discrimination: 1) it can be easy or hard depending on the constituent elements; 2) it can have asymmetries, and 3) it is reduced for textures with randomly oriented elements. We recorded neuronal activity from monkey inferotemporal (IT) cortex and measured texture perception in humans for a variety of textures. Our main findings are as follows: 1) IT neurons show congruent selectivity for textures across array size; 2) textures that were easy for humans to discriminate also elicited distinct patterns of neuronal activity in monkey IT; 3) texture pairs with asymmetries in humans also exhibited asymmetric variation in firing rate across monkey IT; and 4) neuronal responses to randomly oriented textures were explained by an average of responses to homogeneous textures, which rendered them less discriminable. The reduction in discriminability of monkey IT neurons predicted the reduced discriminability in humans during texture discrimination. Taken together, our results suggest that texture perception in humans is likely based on neuronal representations similar to those in monkey IT. PMID:25210165

  10. Variation in maxillary sinus anatomy among platyrrhine monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi D; Takai, Masanaru; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Egi, Naoko; Shigehara, Nobuo

    2005-09-01

    Variations in the maxillary sinus anatomy of extant and fossil catarrhine primates have been extensively examined using computed tomography (CT), and have potential utility for phylogenetic analyses. This approach has also been used to demonstrate its anatomical variation in eight of the 16 extant genera of platyrrhines and the absence of the sinus in Saimiri and Cacajao. We used this approach to evaluate the three-dimensional anatomy of the maxillary sinus in all extant platyrrhine genera, and here argue the phylogenic implications of this variation. This study confirms, for the most part, previous CT studies and augments them with the six genera not studied previously: Ateles, Lagothrix, Callithrix, Cebuella, Pithecia and Chiropotes. The entire maxilla is pneumatized by the sinus in the atelines, Cebus, and Callicebus, whereas the sinus pneumatizes only the medial part of the maxilla in the callitrichines and Aotus. Pithecia has a unique conformation in which the maxillary sinus and the expanded inferior meatus pneumatize the posteromedial and anterolateral parts of the entire maxilla, respectively. Chiropotes has no sinus, and the inferior meatus possibly expands into the area between the middle meatus and medial surface of the maxilla to disturb sinus formation, as in the case of its close relative Cacajao. Finally, we argue that the sinus that pneumatizes the entire maxilla is a primitive feature in extant platyrrhines and was probably shared by the last common ancestor of the anthropoids. PMID:16009397

  11. Retinohypothalamic connections in the rhesus monkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chijuka, John C.

    Previous studies of retinohypothalamic projections in macaques were performed with anterograde degeneration or autoradiographic techniques that were not sufficiently sensitive to fully define these projections. Results of studies in non-primates using sensitive tracers have revealed more extensive retinohypothalamic projection than previously seen. We hypothesize that there are more extensive retinohypothalamic projections in the higher primate, macaque monkey. Thus, the primary goal of this investigation was to characterize the retinohypothalamic projections in the macaque monkey using the more sensitive tract tracer, cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) unilaterally injected intravitreally. Secondary goals were to determine: (1) whether there is a retinal projection to the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus; (2) whether there are direct retinal projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus; and (3) whether any retinally-projecting hypothalamic neurons can be retrogradely labeled by intravitreal CTB injections. Our results confirmed our hypothesis that there are more extensive projections to the central targets. We found that, in addition to the well-described retinal projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a number of other hypothalamic areas were labeled. We observed projections to the medial and lateral preoptic areas, including the sleep-related ventrolateral preoptic area. A number of retinal fibers terminated immediately dorsal to the supraoptic nucleus (SO), with a few fibers penetrating and terminating within the nucleus. A few fibers continued laterally beyond the SO into the substantia innominata immediately ventral to the nucleus basalis of Meynert. In addition, a dense plexus of CTB-labeled, retinal fibers were present in the subventricular nucleus and adjacent subventricular area. Some of these fibers coursed dorsally from this region to penetrate the ependyma lining the third ventricle and apparently

  12. A comparative assessment of hand preference in captive red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa

    2014-01-01

    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates-the 'task complexity' theory and the 'postural origins' theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the 'niche structure' hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container). In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging). Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence the perception of

  13. A Comparative Assessment of Hand Preference in Captive Red Howler Monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and Yellow-Breasted Capuchin Monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos

    PubMed Central

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa

    2014-01-01

    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates–the ‘task complexity’ theory and the ‘postural origins’ theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the ‘niche structure’ hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container). In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging). Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence the

  14. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus. PMID

  15. Metabolism of glutamine and glutamate in monkey lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, H.M. Jr.; Zigler, J.S. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    In rat lenses, glutamine (GLN), not glutamate (GLU), from the surrounding fluids is the primary source of GLU utilized by several metabolic pathways. To study lenticular amino acid metabolism in a primate, fresh lenses from young (2-3 yr) rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 3, 6, or 24 hr in balanced salt medium containing 5 mM of amino-labeled /sup 15/N-GLN or /sup 15/N-GLU. The % enrichment of /sup 15/N in several free amino acids was determined by GCMS. GLN entered the monkey lenses more rapidly than GLU, but, in contrast to rat lenses, /sup 15/N-GLN did not more rapidly label other amino acids. The % of /sup 15/N in the (GLN + GLU) pool of the monkey lenses in /sup 15/N-GLN reached 20, 35, and 60% at 3, 6, and 24 hr respectively, compared with 10, 20, and 40% in the lenses in /sup 15/N-GLU. However, in monkey lenses incubated 24 hr with /sup 15/N-GLN, the /sup 15/N in alanine, serine, proline, and (aspartate + asparagine) was only 35, 6, 7, and 30% respectively, compared with 50, 10, 7, and 50% in monkey lenses with /sup 15/N-GLU. Compared with rat lenses, monkey lenses showed slower transport, deamidation, and metabolism of GLN, and less serine, proline, and glycine synthesis. Also, part of the GLU in monkey lenses appeared to be in a slowly transaminating pool. Species differences should be considered when rats are used as a model to study changes in human lenses during aging and cataractogenesis.

  16. Intrapericardial denervation: Responses to water immersion in rhesus monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

    1995-01-01

    Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings. water immersion; natriuresis; vasopressin; eardiae denervation; monkey

  17. Response to primary infection with Herpesvirus saimiri in immunosuppressed juvenile and newborn squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L N; Allen, W P

    1975-01-01

    Immunosuppression of juvenile squirrel monkeys with combined azathioprine, prednisolone, and antilymphocyte globulin resulted in decreased antibody responses to viral antigens after primary infection with Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS). The virus was repeatedly isolated from the oropharynx of immunosuppressed monkeys but not from untreated infected controls. Thus immune factors are important in inhibiting shedding of HVS from the oropharynx. HVS could be isolated from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of infected control monkeys but not from the lymphocytes of immunosuppressed monkeys. Immunosuppressed monkeys also had decreased percentages of lymphocytes capable of forming rosettes with sheep erythrocytes. These results indicate that the immunosuppressive agents had inhibitory effects on lymphocytes (presumably thymus derived) capable of being latently infected with HVS. Antibody responses in newborn monkeys infected with HVS were delayed compared with juvenile monkeys. Treatment of newborn monkeys with antilymphocyte globulin had no suppressive effect on antibody responses to HVS. PMID:170204

  18. Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was performed to determine experimental conditions for thalidomide induction of fetal malformations and to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity in cynomolgus monkeys. Cynomolgus monkeys were orally administered (±)-thalidomid...

  19. Blood-ocular barrier permeability in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, A; Ishiko, S; Kojima, M; Lipsky, S N

    1992-01-01

    The permeability of the blood-ocular barrier was investigated in five monkeys using vitreous fluorophotometry (VFP). Inward permeability (Pin) of the blood-retinal barrier was calculated by a computer simulation method. Kinetic VFP was performed after intravitreal injection of fluorescein (F) or fluorescein monoglucuronide (FG). The estimated mean value of Pin (x10(-6) cm/min) was 4.8 (SD 1.2). The mean rates of loss (per hour) of F from the anterior chamber (Ka) and the vitreous (Kv) were 0.11 (SD 0.01) and 0.13 (SD 0.03), respectively, which were approximately three and four times greater than those of FG (0.04 (SD 0.01) and 0.03 (SD 0.01), respectively). Probenecid administered intraperitoneally decreased both the Ka and the Kv of F significantly but had no effect on the Ka or the Kv of FG, suggesting that F was excreted from the eye with the aid of the active transport mechanism. The results of comparative studies of the rates of loss of F from the anterior chamber (Ka) and from the vitreous (Kv) suggested that active transport was more predominant in the blood-retinal barrier than in the blood-aqueous barrier. PMID:1739721

  20. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  1. Streptozotocin-associated lymphopenia in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Santosh; Bertera, Suzanne; Funair, Amber; Wijkstrom, Martin; Trucco, Massimo; Cooper, David KC; Bottino, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is used to induce diabetes in experimental animals. It has a variety of adverse effects, ranging from nausea, emesis, and weight loss to liver damage, renal failure, and metabolic acidosis. STZ also has effects on the immune system, being associated with lymphopenia in rodents, the mechanism of which is not fully understood. We present data on a significant STZ-associated reduction in lymphocyte count in nonhuman primates. We report a significant reduction in absolute lymphocyte count; in 2 monkeys, the lymphopenia persisted for >100 d. However, a significant increase in absolute monocyte count was noted. Furthermore, an increase in serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was observed. The reduction in lymphocyte numbers may contribute to immunomodulation that may be beneficial to a subsequent islet graft, and may reduce the need for immunosuppressive therapy. The increase in monocytes and MCP-1, however, may be detrimental to the islet graft. Studies are warranted to explore the mechanism by which STZ has its effect. PMID:25322828

  2. Patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and howler monkeys in Amazonia: are licks perceived as risky areas?

    PubMed

    Link, Andres; Galvis, Nelson; Fleming, Erin; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    Mineral licks--also known as "salados," "saladeros," or "collpas"--are specific sites in tropical and temperate ecosystems where a large diversity of mammals and birds come regularly to feed on soil. Although the reasons for vertebrate geophagy are not completely understood, animals are argued to obtain a variety of nutritional and health benefits from the ingestion of soil at mineral licks. We studied the temporal patterns of mineral lick use by white-bellied spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) and red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in a lowland rain forest in Amazonian Ecuador. Using camera and video traps at four different mineral licks, combined with behavioral follows of one group of spider monkeys, we documented rates of mineral lick visitation by both primate species and the relative frequency and intensity of mineral lick use by spider monkeys. On the basis of 1,612 days and 888 nights of mineral lick monitoring, we found that A. belzebuth and A. seniculus both visit mineral licks frequently throughout the year (on average ∼14% of days for both species), and mineral lick visitation was influenced by short-term environmental conditions (e.g. sunny and dry weather). For spider monkeys, the area surrounding the lick was also the most frequently and most intensively used region within the group's home range. The fact that spider monkeys spent long periods at the lick area before coming to the ground to obtain soil, and the fact that both species visited the lick preferentially during dry sunny conditions (when predator detectability is presumed to be relatively high) and visited simultaneously more often than expected by chance, together suggest that licks are indeed perceived as risky areas by these primates. We suggest that howler and spider monkeys employ behavioral strategies aimed at minimizing the probability of predation while visiting the forest floor at risky mineral lick sites. PMID:21328597

  3. Absence of deleterious effects of chronic microwave radiation on the eyes of rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    McAfee, R.D.; Ortiz-Lugo, R.; Bishop, R.; Gordon, R.

    1983-10-01

    Microwave irradiation of rhesus monkeys' eyes at 9.31 and 2.45 GHz and at an average power density of 150 mW per centimeter square is reported. Irradiation, beginning in 1976, of 17 monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was accomplished without restraint or anesthesia by training the monkeys to irradiate themselves. To data microwave radiation of these monkeys has not resulted in deleterious ocular effects.

  4. Normal Ocular Development in Young Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao-Grider, Ying; Hung, Li-Fang; Kee, Chea-su; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Smith, Earl L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to characterize normal ocular development in infant monkeys and to establish both qualitative and quantitative relationships between human and monkey refractive development. Methods The subjects were 214 normal rhesus monkeys. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 204 monkeys at about 3 weeks of age and longitudinal data were obtained from 10 representative animals beginning at about 3 weeks of age for a period of up to 5 years. Ocular development was characterized via refractive status, corneal power, crystalline lens parameters, and the eye’s axial dimensions, which were determined by retinoscopy, keratometry, phakometry and A-scan ultrasonography, respectively. Results From birth to about 5 years of age, the growth curves for refractive error and most ocular components (excluding lens thickness and equivalent lens index) followed exponential trajectories and were highly coordinated between the two eyes. However, overall ocular growth was not a simple process of increasing the scale of each ocular component in a proportional manner. Instead the rates and relative amounts of change varied within and between ocular structures. Conclusion The configuration and contribution of the major ocular components in infant and adolescent monkey eyes are qualitatively and quantitatively very comparable to those in human eyes and their development proceeds in a similar manner in both species. As a consequence, in both species the adolescent eye is not simply a scaled version of the infant eye. PMID:17416396

  5. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  6. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  7. Genetic differentiation in proboscis monkeys-A reanalysis.

    PubMed

    Nijman, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Ogata and Seino [Zoo Biol, 2015, 34:76-79] sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop of five proboscis monkeys Nasalis larvatus from Yokahama Zoo, Japan, that were imported from Surabaya Zoo, Indonesia. They compared their sequences with those of 16 proboscis monkeys from Sabah, Malaysia, and on the basis of a haplotype network analysis of 256 base pairs concluded that the northern Malaysian and southern Indonesian populations of proboscis monkeys are genetically differentiated. I provide information on the origin of the Indonesian proboscis monkeys, showing that they were the first-generation offspring of wild-caught individuals from the Pulau Kaget Strict Nature Reserve in the province of South Kalimantan. Using a phylogenetic approach and adding additional sequences from Indonesia and Malaysia, I reanalyzed their data, and found no support for a north-south divide. Instead the resulting tree based on 433 base pairs sequences show two strongly supported clades, both containing individuals from Indonesia and Malaysia. Work on captive individuals, as reported by Ogata and Seino, can aid in developing appropriate markers and techniques, but to obtain a more complete understanding of the genetic diversity and differentiation of wild proboscis monkeys, more detailed geographic sampling from all over Borneo is needed. Zoo Biol. 35:1-3, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26661798

  8. [First appearance of monkey pox in human beings in Gabon].

    PubMed

    Meyer, A; Esposito, J J; Gras, F; Kolakowski, T; Fatras, M; Muller, G

    1991-01-01

    The authors report on the first coming out in Gabon of human monkey-pox. Four children in the same family were simultaneously attacked. In one of the two fatal cases, diagnosis of monkey-pox was confirmed by the isolation of the virus. In the three other cases, diagnosis was based on clinical and epidemiological findings. The coming out of monkey-pox in Gabon squares with sporadic coming out of this zoonosis observed in the humid tropical forests of west and Central Africa. Two fatal cases presented some symptoms of hemorrhagic fever and cutaneous symptoms did not dominate the clinical feature. As a consequence of it, monkey-pox has to be envisaged in similar cases. The attack of liver and spleen in man has not been documented up till now, as it has been for monkeys. Classical diagnosis is based on the isolation of the virus from a cutaneous lesion. In the present case, the virus was isolated from a blood sample. Epidemiological study did not reveal any interhuman transmission evidence, nor the source of infection. PMID:1649373

  9. Social Recovery of Monkeys Isolated for the First Year of Life: 1. Rehabilitation and Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, M. A.; Harlow, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    This experiment demonstrated that 12-month-old monkeys reared in social isolation developed appropriate species-typical behavior through the use of adaptation, self pacing of visual input and exposure to younger "therapist" monkeys. A critical period of socialization is not indicated in the rhesus monkey. (GO)

  10. Photoacoustic tomography of monkey brain using virtual point ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Liming; Guo, Zijian; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-07-01

    A photoacoustic tomography system (PAT) using virtual point ultrasonic transducers was developed and applied to image a monkey brain. The custom-built transducers provide a 10-fold greater field-of-view (FOV) than finite-aperture unfocused transducers as well as an improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reduced artifacts rather than negative-lens transducers. Their tangential resolution, radial resolution, and (SNR) improvements were quantified using tissue phantoms. Our PAT system can achieve high uniformity in both resolution (<1 mm) and SNR (>8) within a large FOV of 6 cm in diameter, even when the imaging objects are enclosed by a monkey skull. The cerebral cortex of a monkey brain was accurately mapped transcranially, through a skull ranging from 2 to 4 mm in thickness. This study demonstrates that PAT can overcome the optical and ultrasound attenuation of a relatively thick skull and can potentially be applied to human neonatal brain imaging.

  11. Unrecognized "AIDS" in Monkeys, 1969-1980: Explanations and Implications.

    PubMed

    Hammett, Theodore M; Bronson, Roderick T

    2016-06-01

    AIDS was recognized in humans in 1981 and a simian form was described in the years 1983 to 1985. However, beginning in the late 1960s, outbreaks of opportunistic infections of AIDS were seen in monkeys in the United States. This apparent syndrome went unrecognized at the time. We have assembled those early cases in monkeys and offer reasons why they did not result in earlier recognition of simian or human AIDS, including weaknesses in understanding disease mechanisms, absence of evidence of human retroviruses, and a climate of opinion that devalued investigation of infectious disease and immunologic origins of disease. The "epistemological obstacle" explains important elements of this history in that misconceptions blocked understanding of the dependent relationship among viral infection, immunodeficiency, and opportunistic diseases. Had clearer understanding of the evidence from monkeys allowed human AIDS to be recognized earlier, life-saving prevention and treatment interventions might have been implemented sooner. PMID:27077355

  12. Operant discrimination of an interoceptive stimulus in rhesus monkeys1

    PubMed Central

    Slucki, Henry; Adam, Gyorgi; Porter, Robert W.

    1965-01-01

    Five rhesus macaques monkeys surgically prepared with Thiry small intestinal (jejunum) loops and implanted brain electrodes were restrained in primate chairs and kept on 23-hr deprivation-feeding cycle. After being trained to press a lever for sugar pills on an FR 25 schedule of reinforcement, a discrimination training procedure was established. Lever presses were reinforced during the SD—a non-aversive mechanical stimulus applied to the internal walls of the Thiry loop by rhythmic inflation-deflation of a small latex balloon by air at the rate of one cycle per sec at 100 mm Hg pressure. The SΔ was the absence of the visceral stimulation. The monkeys successfully discriminated between presence and absence of the internal stimulus. A discrimination reversal was attempted and completed on one monkey. The results clearly show operant discrimination based on an interoceptive stimulus. Cortical and subcortical EEG records reflected the onset but not termination of the visceral stimulation. PMID:4954822

  13. Blood groups of the mantled howler monkey (Alouatta palliata).

    PubMed

    Froehlich, J W; Socha, W W; Wiener, A S; Moor-Jankowski, J; Thorington, R W

    1977-01-01

    Fifty-two howler monkeys were tested for their human-type A-B-O blood groups. All were group B, as shown by the presence of B and H in their saliva, and anti-A in serum. The B-like agglutinogen of their red cells is common to all New World monkey species tested, and is of different origin and significance than their true A-B-O blood group. Differences among the B-like agglutinogens of the red cells of howler monkeys, marmosets, rabbits and humans group B were demonstrated, and limited tests have also been performed to study the biochemical basis of the anti-B reactions. PMID:412971

  14. Osteoblastic differentiation of monkey embryonic stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Akihiro; Takada, Tatsuyuki; Narita, Junko; Yamamoto, Gaku; Torii, Ryuzo

    2005-01-01

    Monkey embryonic stem (ES) cell is a useful tool for preclinical studies of regenerative medicine. In this paper, we investigated whether monkey ES cells can be differentiated into osteoblasts in vitro using factors known to promote osteogenesis. We prepared embryoid bodies (EB) in the presence of retinoic acid (RA) and subsequently differentiated in the medium containing either dexamethasone (DEX) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in addition to osteogenic supplements (OS), specifically ascorbic acid and beta-glycerophosphate. RA treatment during EB formation induced osteoblastic marker genes, such as collagen type 1, osteopontin, and Cbfa1. For the expression of osteocalcin, however, cultivation with medium containing either DEX or BMP-2 in addition to OS was required. These results showed that osteoblasts could be derived from monkey ES cells in vitro and BMP-2 + OS was effective to induce calcification. PMID:16390259

  15. An outbreak of severe leptospirosis in capuchin (Cebus) monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Szonyi, Barbara; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Ramírez, Marcela; Moreno, Natali; Ko, Albert I.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally acquired acute leptospirosis in monkeys is uncommon. This study reports an outbreak of severe leptospirosis among 52 capuchin (Cebus) monkeys that had been rescued from homes and housed in a wildlife rehabilitation center in Colombia in 2007. Case confirmation consisted of Leptospira isolation followed by a polymerase chain reaction targeting the LipL32 gene. The attack and mortality rates were 71% and 27%, respectively. Sixteen cases were confirmed. Necropsy revealed diffuse jaundice and pulmonary hemorrhage. Multi-locus sequence typing identified the agent to be Leptospira interrogans sequence type 17, indicating rats as the source of infection. An environmental survey confirmed rodent infestation as the cause of the outbreak. The extent of Leptospira transmission between humans and monkeys is unknown. Improper husbandry of non-human primates could create new reservoirs and transmission routes for Leptospira threatening conservation efforts and public health. PMID:20554228

  16. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; et al

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved tomore » have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.« less

  17. Construction and Evaluation of Novel Rhesus Monkey Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbink, Peter; Maxfield, Lori F.; Ng'ang'a, David; Borducchi, Erica N.; Iampietro, M. Justin; Bricault, Christine A.; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Blackmore, Stephen; Parenteau, Lily; Wagh, Kshitij; Handley, Scott A.; Zhao, Guoyan; Virgin, Herbert W.; Korber, Bette; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-19

    Adenovirus vectors are widely used as vaccine candidates for a variety of pathogens, including HIV-1. To date, human and chimpanzee adenoviruses have been explored in detail as vaccine vectors. Furthermore, the phylogeny of human and chimpanzee adenoviruses is overlapping, and preexisting humoral and cellular immunity to both are exhibited in human populations worldwide. More distantly related adenoviruses may therefore offer advantages as vaccine vectors. We describe the primary isolation and vectorization of three novel adenoviruses from rhesus monkeys. The seroprevalence of these novel rhesus monkey adenovirus vectors was extremely low in sub-Saharan Africa human populations, and these vectors proved to have immunogenicity comparable to that of human and chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine vectors in mice. These rhesus monkey adenoviruses phylogenetically clustered with the poorly described adenovirus species G and robustly stimulated innate immune responses. These novel adenoviruses represent a new class of candidate vaccine vectors.

  18. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Shang, Guowei; Chen, Jian; Geng, Xiaokun; Ye, Xin; Xu, Guoxun; Wang, Ju; Zheng, Jiasheng; Li, Hongjun; Akbary, Fauzia; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing; Ling, Feng; Ji, Xunming

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiology in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group: middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood flow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood flow was restored. A reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identified by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symptoms of neurological deficits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental findings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the field of brain injury research. PMID:25657726

  19. Atlas-Guided Segmentation of Vervet Monkey Brain MRI

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Li, Xiaoxing; Pohl, Kilian M; Bouix, Sylvain; Styner, Martin; Addicott, Merideth; Wyatt, Chris; Daunais, James B; Wells, William M; Kikinis, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The vervet monkey is an important nonhuman primate model that allows the study of isolated environmental factors in a controlled environment. Analysis of monkey MRI often suffers from lower quality images compared with human MRI because clinical equipment is typically used to image the smaller monkey brain and higher spatial resolution is required. This, together with the anatomical differences of the monkey brains, complicates the use of neuroimage analysis pipelines tuned for human MRI analysis. In this paper we developed an open source image analysis framework based on the tools available within the 3D Slicer software to support a biological study that investigates the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on brain morphometry in a longitudinally followed population of male vervets. We first developed a computerized atlas of vervet monkey brain MRI, which was used to encode the typical appearance of the individual brain structures in MRI and their spatial distribution. The atlas was then used as a spatial prior during automatic segmentation to process two longitudinal scans per subject. Our evaluation confirms the consistency and reliability of the automatic segmentation. The comparison of atlas construction strategies reveals that the use of a population-specific atlas leads to improved accuracy of the segmentation for subcortical brain structures. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we describe an image processing workflow specifically tuned towards the analysis of vervet MRI that consists solely of the open source software tools. Second, we develop a digital atlas of vervet monkey brain MRIs to enable similar studies that rely on the vervet model. PMID:22253661

  20. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical monkey genus, Alouatta.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Ortiz, L; Bermingham, E; Rico, C; Rodríguez-Luna, E; Sampaio, I; Ruiz-García, M

    2003-01-01

    We take advantage of the broad distribution of howler monkeys from Mexico to Argentina to provide a historical biogeographical analysis on a regional scale that encompasses the entire Neotropics. The phylogenetic relationships among 9 of the 10 recognized Alouatta species were inferred using three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. The nuclear gene regions provided no phylogenetic resolution among howler monkey species, and were characterized by very low levels of sequence divergence between Alouatta and the Ateles outgroup. The mtDNA genes, on the other hand, produced a well-resolved phylogeny, which indicated that the earliest split among howler monkeys separated cis- and trans-Andean clades. Eight monophyletic mtDNA haplotype clades were identified, representing six named species in South America, including Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta sara, Alouatta macconelli, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta belzebul, and Alouatta guariba, and two in Mesoamerica, Alouatta pigra and Alouatta palliata. Molecular clock-based estimates of branching times indicated that contemporary howler monkey species originated in the late Miocene and Pliocene, not the Pleistocene. The causes of Alouatta diversification were more difficult to pin down, although we posit that the initial cis-, trans-Andean split in the genus was caused by the late Miocene completion of the northern Andes. Riverine barriers to dispersal and putative forest refuges can neither be discounted nor distinguished as causes of speciation in many cases, and one, the other or both have likely played a role in the diversification of South American howler monkeys. Finally, we estimated the separation of Mesoamerican A. pigra and A. palliata at 3Ma, which corresponds to the completion date of the Panama Isthmus promoting a role for this earth history event in the speciation of Central American howler monkeys. PMID:12470939

  1. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities. PMID:26494578

  2. A Hybrid Monkey Search Algorithm for Clustering Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yongquan; Luo, Qifang

    2014-01-01

    Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. The k-means clustering algorithm is one of the most commonly used methods. However, it highly depends on the initial solution and is easy to fall into local optimum solution. In view of the disadvantages of the k-means method, this paper proposed a hybrid monkey algorithm based on search operator of artificial bee colony algorithm for clustering analysis and experiment on synthetic and real life datasets to show that the algorithm has a good performance than that of the basic monkey algorithm for clustering analysis. PMID:24772039

  3. Adaptation of the Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum to Panamanian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Baerg, D C

    1987-09-01

    The Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum, acquired at the second passage level in splenectomized Colombian owl monkeys, was adapted to owl monkeys of Panamanian origin. Patent infections were induced in 22 of 27 unaltered and 20 of 21 splenectomized recipients during 19 serial passages. The infections were significantly more virulent in splenectomized than normal Panamanian owl monkeys, however recrudescences in seven normal monkeys achieved peak parasitemias 48 times greater than in the primary attack. These results describe the first reproducible infections of indigenous falciparum malaria in Panamanian owl monkeys. PMID:3310680

  4. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya’an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis. PMID:26509708

  5. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

  6. Adenovirus type 2 expresses fiber in monkey-human hybrids and reconstructed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, G.A.; Anderson, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    Adenovirus type 2 protein expression was measured by indirect immunofluorescence in monkey-human hybrids and in cells reconstructed from monkey and human cell karyoplasts and cytoplasts. Monkey-human hybrid clones infected with adenovirus type 2 expressed fiber protein, whereas infected monkey cells alone did not. Hybrids constructed after the parental monkey cells were infected with adenovirus type 2 demonstrated that fiber synthesis in these cells could be rescued by fusion to uninfected human cells. Thus, human cells contain a dominant factor that acts in trans and overcomes the inability of monkey cells to synthesize fiber. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the block to adenovirus replication in monkey cells involves a nuclear event that prevents the formation of functional mRNA for some late viral proteins including fiber polypeptide.

  7. EVALUATION OF NEONATE SQUIRREL MONKEYS RECEIVING TRITIATED WATER THROUGHOUT GESTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of receiving tritiated water (HTO) throughout gestation on the developing primate was assessed by administering HTO to adult female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as the only source of drinking water beginning with the day of insemination and continuing throughout...

  8. Raiding parties of male spider monkeys: insights into human warfare?

    PubMed

    Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M; Verpooten, Jan; Slater, Kathryn; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel

    2006-12-01

    Raids into neighboring territories may occur for different reasons, including the increase of foraging and mating opportunities directly or indirectly through the killing of neighboring rivals. Lethal raids have been mainly observed in humans and chimpanzees, with raiding males being reported to search purposefully for neighbors. Here we report on the first cases ever witnessed of raiding parties of male spider monkeys, a species expected to show such a behavioral tendency, given its similarity with humans and chimpanzees in critical socio-ecological characteristics, such as fission-fusion social dynamics and male-male bonding. Despite the high degree of arboreality of spider monkeys, all seven witnessed raids involved the males progressing single file on the ground in unusual silence. This is remarkably similar to the behavior of chimpanzees. The circumstances around the raids suggest that factors such as reduced mating opportunities, number of males relative to that in the neighboring community, and the strength of bonds among males could play a role in the timing of such actions. The raids did not appear to be aimed at finding food, whereas there is some indication that they may directly or indirectly increase reproductive opportunities. Although no killing was observed, we cannot exclude the possibility that spider monkey raids may be aimed at harming rivals if a vulnerable individual were encountered. The similarity of spider monkey raids with those of chimpanzees and humans supports the notion that lethal raiding is a convergent response to similar socio-ecological conditions. PMID:16685723

  9. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  10. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  11. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  12. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  13. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  14. EXPERIMENTAL VIABLE VACCINE AGAINST PULMONARY COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MONKEYS1

    PubMed Central

    Converse, John L.; Castleberry, Merida W.; Snyder, Ernest M.

    1963-01-01

    Converse, John L. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), Merida W. Castleberry, and Ernest M. Snyder. Experimental viable vaccine against pulmonary coccidioidomycosis in monkeys. J. Bacteriol. 86:1041–1051. 1963.—Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) vaccinated by subcutaneous injection in the forearm with from 10 to 108 viable Coccidioides immitis arthrospores were protected against respiratory challenge with approximately 7000 viable arthrospores administered 6 months after vaccination. Protection was evident from: the healthy appearance throughout 4 months after respiratory challenge; negative chest X rays at 15, 30, 60, and 120 days; and only very minor histopathological pulmonary changes on autopsy at 120 days, with negative lung cultures in 80% of the animals. This was in striking contrast to the outward clinical appearance of control monkeys that were unvaccinated or had received nonviable arthrospore vaccines. These monkeys showed severe disease (loss of weight, accelerated respiration, severe coughing, general debilitation), positive X rays, massive pulmonary destruction, positive lung cultures, and death of five of nine animals. The appearance of spherules (very few in number, accompanied by very minor pathological changes) in the lungs of some of the “dissemination controls” (subcutaneous viable vaccination without respiratory challenge) indicated possible dissemination from the primary cutaneous infection, although oral transmission from the cutaneous lesions could not be ruled out. Images PMID:14080770

  15. Monkey Malaria in a European Traveler Returning from Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Hanspeter; Felger, Ingrid; Müller, Dania; Jokiranta, T. Sakari

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, a Finnish traveler was infected in Peninsular Malaysia with Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite that usually causes malaria in monkeys. P. knowlesi has established itself as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The disease is potentially life-threatening in humans; clinicians and laboratory personnel should become more aware of this pathogen in travelers. PMID:18760013

  16. A screw microdrive for adjustable chronic unit recording in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nichols, A M; Ruffner, T W; Sommer, M A; Wurtz, R H

    1998-06-01

    A screw microdrive is described that attaches to the grid system used for recording single neurons from brains of awake behaving monkeys. Multiple screwdrives can be mounted on a grid over a single cranial opening. This method allows many electrodes to be implanted chronically in the brain and adjusted as needed to maintain isolation. rights reserved. PMID:9696324

  17. A human homologue of monkey F5c

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Peeters, R.; Nelissen, K.; Vanduffel, W.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Area F5c is a monkey premotor area housing mirror neurons which responds more strongly to grasping observation when the actor is visible than when only the actor's hand is visible. Here we used this characteristic fMRI signature of F5c in seven imaging experiments – one in macaque monkeys and six in humans – to identify the human homologue of monkey F5c. By presenting the two grasping actions (actor, hand) and varying the low level visual characteristics, we localized a putative human homologue of area F5c (phF5c) in the inferior part of precentral sulcus, bilaterally. In contrast to monkey F5c, phF5c is asymmetric, with a right-sided bias, and is activated more strongly during the observation of the later stages of grasping when the hand is close to the object. The latter characteristic might be related to the emergence, in humans, of the capacity to precisely copy motor acts performed by others, and thus imitation. PMID:25711137

  18. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  19. Social Isolation Rearing: Species Differences in Behavior of Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Gene P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Social and nonsocial behaviors of infant rhesus (macaca mulatta) and pigtail (M. nemestrina) monkeys reared in total social isolation were compared with those of socialized controls. Results question the generality of rhesus total isolate behavior as a model for some human problems. (Author/SB)

  20. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  1. New Insights into Samango Monkey Speciation in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Desiré L.; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M. Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study. PMID:25798604

  2. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-09-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  3. Chemical recognition of fruit ripeness in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Omer; Orts Garri, Rosa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Schulz, Stefan; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Ayasse, Manfred; Laska, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacities that can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection. Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) display high olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe and unripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spider monkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits that become increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spider monkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound that mark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripe fruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise. PMID:26440380

  4. Astronaut William Thornton observes monkey in the RAHF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut William E. Thornton, 51-B/Spacelab 3 mission specialist, observes one of two squirel monkeys (cage #1) in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger.

  5. Evaluation of third-party reciprocity by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the question of mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Social evaluation during third-party interactions emerges early in human ontogeny, and it has been shown in adult capuchin monkeys who witness violations of reciprocity in object exchanges: Monkeys were less inclined to accept food from humans who refused to reciprocate with another human. A recent study reporting similar evidence in marmoset monkeys raised the possibility that such evaluations might be based on species' inherent cooperativeness. We tested a species not renowned for cooperativeness-squirrel monkeys-using the procedure used with marmosets and found a similar result. This finding rules out any crucial role for cooperative tendencies in monkeys' responses to unfair exchanges. We then tested squirrel monkeys using procedures more similar to those used in the original study with capuchins. Squirrel monkeys again accepted food less frequently from non-reciprocators, but unlike capuchins, they also strongly preferred reciprocators. We conclude that neither squirrel monkeys nor marmoset monkeys engaged in emotional bookkeeping of the type that probably underlies social evaluation in capuchin monkeys; instead, they employed one or more simple behavioral rules. Further comparative studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying social evaluation processes across species. PMID:27021433

  6. Rhesus Monkeys See Who They Hear: Spontaneous Cross-Modal Memory for Familiar Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Ikuma; Hampton, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys gather much of their knowledge of the social world through visual input and may preferentially represent this knowledge in the visual modality. Recognition of familiar faces is clearly advantageous, and the flexibility and utility of primate social memory would be greatly enhanced if visual memories could be accessed cross-modally either by visual or auditory stimulation. Such cross-modal access to visual memory would facilitate flexible retrieval of the knowledge necessary for adaptive social behavior. We tested whether rhesus monkeys have cross-modal access to visual memory for familiar conspecifics using a delayed matching-to-sample procedure. Monkeys learned visual matching of video clips of familiar individuals to photographs of those individuals, and generalized performance to novel videos. In crossmodal probe trials, coo-calls were played during the memory interval. The calls were either from the monkey just seen in the sample video clip or from a different familiar monkey. Even though the monkeys were trained exclusively in visual matching, the calls influenced choice by causing an increase in the proportion of errors to the picture of the monkey whose voice was heard on incongruent trials. This result demonstrates spontaneous cross-modal recognition. It also shows that viewing videos of familiar monkeys activates naturally formed memories of real monkeys, validating the use of video stimuli in studies of social cognition in monkeys. PMID:21887244

  7. Rosuvastatin Liver Partitioning in Cynomolgus Monkeys: Measurement In Vivo and Prediction Using In Vitro Monkey Hepatocyte Uptake.

    PubMed

    Morse, Bridget L; Cai, Hong; MacGuire, Jamus G; Fox, Maxine; Zhang, Lisa; Zhang, Yueping; Gu, Xiaomei; Shen, Hong; Dierks, Elizabeth A; Su, Hong; Luk, Chiuwa E; Marathe, Punit; Shu, Yue-Zhong; Humphreys, W Griffith; Lai, Yurong

    2015-11-01

    Unbound plasma concentrations may not reflect those in target tissues, and there is a need for methods to predict tissue partitioning. Here, we investigate the unbound liver partitioning (Kpu,u) of rosuvastatin, a substrate of hepatic organic anion transporting peptides, in cynomolgus monkeys and compare it with that determined using hepatocytes in vitro. Rosuvastatin (3 mg/kg) was administered orally to monkeys and plasma and liver (by ultrasound-guided biopsy) collected over time. Uptake into monkey hepatocytes was evaluated up to steady state. Binding in monkey plasma, liver, and hepatocytes was determined using equilibrium dialysis. Mean in vivo Kpu,u was 118 after correcting total liver partitioning by plasma and liver binding. In vitro uptake data were analyzed by compartmental modeling to determine active uptake clearance, passive diffusion, the intracellular unbound fraction, and Kpu,u. In vitro Kpu,u underpredicted that in vivo, resulting in the need for an empirical in vitro to in vivo scaling factor of 10. Adjusting model parameters using hypothetical scaling factors for transporter expression and surface area or assuming no effect of protein binding on active transport increased partitioning values by 1.1-, 6-, and 9-fold, respectively. In conclusion, in vivo rosuvastatin unbound liver partitioning in monkeys was underpredicted using hepatocytes in vitro. Modeling approaches that allow integrating corrections from passive diffusion or protein binding on active uptake could improve the estimation of in vivo intracellular partitioning of this organic anion transporting peptide substrate. A similar assessment of other active hepatic transport mechanisms could confirm and determine the extent to which limited accumulation in isolated hepatocytes needs to be considered in drug development. PMID:26341276

  8. Ordinal judgments of symbolic stimuli by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): the effects of differential and nondifferential reward.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Harris, Emily H; Evans, Theodore A; Klein, Emily D; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M; Washburn, David A

    2008-02-01

    Ordinal learning was investigated in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In Experiment 1, both species were presented with pairings of the Arabic numerals 0 to 9. Some monkeys were given food rewards equal to the value of the numeral selected and some were rewarded with a single pellet only for choosing the higher numeral within the pair. Both species learned to select the larger numeral, but only rhesus monkeys that were differentially rewarded performed above chance levels when presented with novel probe pairings. In Experiment 2, the monkeys were first presented with arrays of 5 familiar numerals (from the range 0 to 9) and then arrays of 5 novel letters (from the range A to J) with the same reward outcomes in place as in Experiment 1. Both species performed better with the numerals, suggesting that an ordinal sequence of all stimuli had been learned during Experiment 1, rather than a matrix of two-choice discriminations. PMID:18298281

  9. Patterns of cognitive decline in aged rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Herndon, J G; Moss, M B; Rosene, D L; Killiany, R J

    1997-08-01

    Although cognitive decline has been well established as a consequence of aging in non-human primate models, the prevalence or frequency of impairment for specific age ranges has not been described. The first aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of cognitive impairment on each of the six tests of cognitive performance by comparing the performance of early-aged (19-23 years old), advanced-aged (24-28 years old), and oldest-aged (29+ years old) monkeys to that of young adults (< 15 years old). The second aim was to derive a single overall measure of cognitive performance to help classify behavioral function in our aged monkeys. Accordingly, we obtained performance measures for these age groups on six behavioral measures: (1) acquisition of the delayed non-matching-to-sample task (DNMS); (2) performance of the DNMS with a delay of 120 sec; (3) the spatial condition of the delayed recognition span test (DRST); (4) the color condition of the DRST; (5) spatial reversal learning; and (6) object reversal learning. Early-aged monkeys displayed prevalence rates of impairment significantly greater than zero on all tasks except the DRST-color. The highest prevalence of impairment was observed in this age group in a task measuring spatial memory (DRST). Significant trends toward progressively higher impairment rates in advanced-aged and oldest-aged monkeys were observed for DNMS-acquisition, DRST-color and spatial reversal learning tasks. A linear transformation of standardized scores on the six cognitive tests was derived by means of principal components analysis (PCA). The first PCA (PCA1) included data from 30 monkeys with available data on all six measures, and yielded a composite measure which declined linearly with increasing age (r = -0.74). A second PCA (PCA2) was performed on data from 53 monkeys for which three test scores (DNMS-acquisition, DNMS-120s delay, and DRST-spatial condition) were available. The composite score derived from this analysis was highly

  10. Information Seeking by Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Smith, J. David

    2011-01-01

    Animal metacognition is an active, growing research area, and one part of metacognition is flexible information-seeking behavior. In Roberts et al. (2009), pigeons failed an intuitive information-seeking task. They basically refused, despite multiple fostering experiments, to view a sample image before attempting to find its match. Roberts et al. concluded that pigeons’ lack of an information-seeking capacity reflected their broader lack of metacognition. We report a striking species contrast to pigeons. Eight rhesus macaques and seven capuchin monkeys passed the Roberts et al. test of information seeking—often in their first testing session. Members of both primate species appreciated immediately the lack of information signaled by an occluded sample, and the need for an information-seeking response to manage the situation. In subsequent testing, macaques demonstrated flexible/varied forms of information management. Capuchins did not. The research findings bear on the phylogenetic distribution of metacognition across the vertebrates, and on the underlying psychological requirements for metacognitive and information-seeking performances. PMID:21459372