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Sample records for monoecious cucumbers ii

  1. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. II. Carbon exchange rates, enzyme activities, and starch and nutrient concentrations. [Cucumis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.; Huber, S.C.; Patterson, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Carbon exchange capacity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germinated and grown in controlled environment chambers at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ decreased from the vegetative growth stage to the fruiting stage, during which time capacity of plants grown at 350 microliters per liter increased. Carbon exchange rates (CERs) measured under growth conditions during the fruiting period were, in fact, lower in plants grown at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ than those grown at 350. Progressive decreases in CERs in 1000 microliters per liter plants were associated with decreasing stomatal conductances and activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase. Leaf starch concentrations were higher in 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ grown-plants than in 350 microliters per liter grown plants but calcium and nitrogen concentrations were lower, the greatest difference occurring at flowering. Sucrose synthase and sucrose-P-synthase activities were similar in 1000 microliters per liter compared to 350 microliters per liter plants during vegetative growth and flowering but higher in 350 microliters per liter plants at fruiting. The decreased carbon exchange rates observed in this cultivar at 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ could explain the lack of any yield increase when compared with plants grown at 350 microliters per liter.

  2. Contents and Recovery of Gibberellins in Monoecious and Gynoecious Cucumber Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Atsmon, Dan; Lang, Anton; Light, Elliot N.

    1968-01-01

    Diffusates from seedlings and root exudates from 6-week-old plants of a monoecious line of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., contained considerably higher levels of gibberellin-(GA-) like substances than did those from plants of an isogenic gynoecious line. Most of the GA-like activity was found in a chromatogram region typical of GA1 and GA3; some activity, particularly in root exudates, appeared also at an RF similar to that of GA4 and GA7. When seedlings were treated with 3H-labeled GA1, more radioactivity was found in the diffusates from monoecious seedlings than from gynoecious ones. The same was true of biological activity in root diffusates from older plants which had been treated with gibberellin A4+7. In conjunction with evidence present in literature, these results support the idea that endogenous GAs play a part in the regulation of sex expression in cucumber, relatively high levels favoring the formation of staminate flowers. PMID:16656843

  3. A novel allele of monoecious (m) locus is responsible for elongated fruit shape and perfect flowers in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sex determination is controlled primarily by the F (female) and M (monoecy) loci. Homozygous recessive mm plants bear bisexual (perfect) flowers and the fruits are often round shaped. CsACS2 encoding the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase has been shown ...

  4. Acclimation to high CO/sub 2/ in monoecious cucumbers. I. Vegetative and reproductive growth. [Cucmuis sativus L

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    CO/sub 2/ concentrations of 1000 compared to 350 microliters per liter in controlled environment chambers did not increase total fruit weight or number in a monoecious cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Chipper) nor did it increase biomass, leaf area, or relative growth rates beyond the first 16 days after seeding. Average fruit weight was slightly, but not significantly greater in the 1000 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ treatment because fruit numbers were changed more than total weight. Plants grown at 1000 and 350 microliters per liter CO/sub 2/ were similar in distribution of dry matter and leaf area between mainstem, axillary, and subaxillary branches. Early flower production was greater in 1000 microliters per liter plants. Subsequent flower numbers were either lower in enriched plants or similar in the two treatments, except for the harvest at fruiting when enriched plants produced many more male flowers than the 350 microliters per liter treatments.

  5. Sex Determination in the Monoecious Species Cucumber Is Confined to Specific Floral Whorls

    PubMed Central

    Kater, Martin M.; Franken, John; Carney, Kim J.; Colombo, Lucia; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2001-01-01

    In unisexual flowers, sex is determined by the selective repression of growth or the abortion of either male or female reproductive organs. The mechanism by which this process is controlled in plants is still poorly understood. Because it is known that the identity of reproductive organs in plants is controlled by homeotic genes belonging to the MADS box gene family, we analyzed floral homeotic mutants from cucumber, a species that bears both male and female flowers on the same individual. To study the characteristics of sex determination in more detail, we produced mutants similar to class A and C homeotic mutants from well-characterized hermaphrodite species such as Arabidopsis by ectopically expressing and suppressing the cucumber gene CUCUMBER MADS1 (CUM1). The cucumber mutant green petals (gp) corresponds to the previously characterized B mutants from several species and appeared to be caused by a deletion of 15 amino acid residues in the coding region of the class B MADS box gene CUM26. These homeotic mutants reveal two important concepts that govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the arrest of either male or female organ development is dependent on their positions in the flower and is not associated with their sexual identity. Second, the data presented here strongly suggest that the class C homeotic function is required for the position-dependent arrest of reproductive organs. PMID:11251091

  6. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  7. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase or coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Kamo, Kathryn; Jordan, Ramon; Guaragna, Mary Ann; Hsu, Hei-Ti; Ueng, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These plants were multiplied in vitro and challenged with purified CMV isolated from Gladiolus using a hand-held gene gun. Three out of 19 independently transformed plants expressing the replicase gene under control of the duplicated CaMV 35S promoter were found to be resistant to CMV subgroup I. Three out of 21 independently transformed plants with the CMV subgroup II coat protein gene under control of the Arabidopsis UBQ3 promoter were resistant to CMV subgroup II. Eighteen independently transformed plants with either the CMV subgroup I coat protein or a combination of CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins were challenged and found to be susceptible to both CMV subgroups I or II. Virus resistant plants with the CMV replicase transgene expressed much lower RNA levels than resistant plants expressing the CMV subgroup II coat protein. This work will facilitate the evaluation of virus resistance in transgenic Gladiolus plants to yield improved floral quality and productivity. PMID:20411391

  8. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  9. Zoospore-derived monoecious gametophytes in Undaria pinnatifida (Phaeophyceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Pang, Shaojun; Shan, Tifeng; Liu, Feng; Gao, Suqin

    2014-03-01

    The annual life cycle of the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringer comprises a macroscopic diploid sporophyte stage and a microscopic haploid gametophyte stage. In 2011, an unusual zoospore-derived monoecious gametophyte isolate (designated as line 10-5-3) of U. pinnatifida was observed. To understand this phenomenon, a comprehensive screening of eighty-two previously identified male gametophyte cultures, isolated from three randomly selected cultivars (lines 10, 7, and 5) was performed. Thirty-six of the isolates developed both antheridia and oogonia on the same filamentous fragment in a standard gametogenesis test (SGT: 18°C, 60 μmol photons/(m2·s)). Selfing of the monoecious gametophyte or crossing it with a normal male gametophyte both gave rise to morphologically normal sporophytic offspring. However, crossing resulted in a much higher fertilization rate (89.7%). The hybrid and selfed sporophytic offspring were grown to maturity in flow tanks at an ambient temperature of 10-18°C over a period of 69 days. Active zoospores were released from both types of mature sporophylls. The majority of these developed into male gametophytes, while 15%-20% developed into the observed monoecious structures on the same filament. Using PCR amplification it was found that all the monoecious gametophyte isolates and the sporophytic offspring resulting from the selfing and crossing lacked the femalelinked microsatellite sequence (a part of the locus Up-AC-2A8, GenBank accession No. AY738602.1), indicating their male nature. U. pinnatifida is an invasive species in some regions and the implications of the above findings for this species in nature are briefly discussed.

  10. Dioecy, more than monoecy, affects plant spatial genetic structure: the case study of Ficus

    PubMed Central

    Nazareno, Alison G; Alzate-Marin, Ana L; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto S

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis, we attempt to understand how monoecy and dioecy drive spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations. For this purpose, plants of the genus Ficus were used as a comparative model due to their particular characteristics, including high species diversity, variation in life histories, and sexual systems. One of the main issues we assessed is whether dioecious fig tree populations are more spatially genetically structured than monoecious populations. Using the Sp statistic, which allows for quantitative comparisons among different studies, we compared the extent of SGS between monoecious and dioecious Ficus species. To broaden our conclusions we used published data on an additional 27 monoecious and dioecious plant species. Furthermore, genetic diversity analyses were performed for two monoecious Ficus species using 12 microsatellite markers in order to strengthen our conclusions about SGS. Our results show that dioecy, more than monoecy, significantly contributes to SGS in plant populations. On average, the estimate of Sp was six times higher for dioecious Ficus species than monoecious Ficus species and it was two times higher in dioecious than monoecious plant species. Considering these results, we emphasize that the long-distance pollen dispersal mechanism in monoecious Ficus species seems to be the dominant factor in determining weak spatial genetic structure, high levels of genetic diversity, and lack of inbreeding. Although Ficus constitute a model species to study SGS, a more general comparison encompassing a wider range of plants is required in order to better understand how sexual systems affect genetic structure. PMID:24223285

  11. A monoecious and diploid Moran model of random mating.

    PubMed

    Hössjer, Ola; Tyvand, Peder A

    2016-04-01

    An exact Markov chain is developed for a Moran model of random mating for monoecious diploid individuals with a given probability of self-fertilization. The model captures the dynamics of genetic variation at a biallelic locus. We compare the model with the corresponding diploid Wright-Fisher (WF) model. We also develop a novel diffusion approximation of both models, where the genotype frequency distribution dynamics is described by two partial differential equations, on different time scales. The first equation captures the more slowly varying allele frequencies, and it is the same for the Moran and WF models. The other equation captures departures of the fraction of heterozygous genotypes from a large population equilibrium curve that equals Hardy-Weinberg proportions in the absence of selfing. It is the distribution of a continuous time Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process for the Moran model and a discrete time autoregressive process for the WF model. One application of our results is to capture dynamics of the degree of non-random mating of both models, in terms of the fixation index fIS. Although fIS has a stable fixed point that only depends on the degree of selfing, the normally distributed oscillations around this fixed point are stochastically larger for the Moran than for the WF model. PMID:26807805

  12. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars reveals its karyotype variations and sex chromosomes constitution.

    PubMed

    Razumova, Olga V; Alexandrov, Oleg S; Divashuk, Mikhail G; Sukhorada, Tatiana I; Karlov, Gennady I

    2016-05-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L., 2n = 20) is a dioecious plant. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation. The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. The DNA of 210 monoecious plants was used for PCR analysis with the male-associated markers MADC2 and SCAR323. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the subtelomeric CS-1 probe to chromosomes plates and karyotyping revealed a lack of Y chromosome and presence of XX sex chromosomes in monoecious cultivars with the chromosome number 2n = 20. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected. The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants. PMID:26149370

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of CpACS27A gene reveals its involvement in monoecy instability and other associated traits in squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez, Cecilia; Manzano, Susana; Megías, Zoraida; Barrera, Alejandro; Boualem, Adnane; Garrido, Dolores; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    A number of Cucurbita pepo genotypes showing instable monoecy or partial andromonoecy, i.e. an incomplete conversion of female into bisexual flowers, have been detected. Given that in melon and cucumber andromonoecy is the result of reduction of ethylene production in female floral buds, caused by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7 and CsACS2; we have cloned and characterized two related C. pepo genes, CpACS27A and CpACS27B. The molecular structure of CpACS27A and its specific expression in the carpels of female flowers during earlier stages of flower development suggests that this gene is the Cucurbita ortholog of CmACS7 and CsACS2. CpACS27B is likely to be a paralogous pseudogene since it has not been found to be expressed in any of the analyzed tissues. CpACS27A was sequenced in Bolognese (Bog) and Vegetable Spaghetti (Veg), two monoecious inbred lines whose F2 was segregating for partial andromonoecy. The Bog allele of CpACS27A carried a missense mutation that resulted in a substitution of the conserved serine residue in position 176 by an alanine. Segregation analysis indicated that this mutant variant is necessary but not sufficient to confer the andromonoecious phenotype in squash. In concordance with its involvement in stamen arrest, a reduction in CpACS27A expression has been found in bisexual flower buds at earlier stages of development. This reduction in CpACS27A expression was concomitant with a downregulation of other ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes during earlier and later stages of ovary development. The role of CpACS27A is discussed regarding the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes in the control of andromonoecy-associated traits, such as the delayed maturation of corolla and stigma as well as the parthenocarpic development of the fruit. PMID:24595516

  14. The incidence and pattern of copollinator diversification in dioecious and monoecious figs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Yuan; Machado, Carlos A; Dang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Differences in breeding system are associated with correlated ecological and morphological changes in plants. In Ficus, dioecy and monoecy are strongly associated with different suites of traits (tree height, population density, fruiting frequency, pollinator dispersal ecology). Although approximately 30% of fig species are pollinated by multiple species of fig-pollinating wasps, it has been suggested that copollinators are rare in dioecious figs. Here, we test whether there is a connection between the fig breeding system and copollinator incidence and diversification by conducting a meta-analysis of molecular data from pollinators of 119 fig species that includes new data from 15 Asian fig species. We find that the incidence of copollinators is not significantly different between monoecious and dioecious Ficus. Surprisingly, while all copollinators in dioecious figs are sister taxa, only 32.1% in monoecious figs are sister taxa. We present hypotheses to explain those patterns and discuss their consequences on the evolution of this mutualism. PMID:25495152

  15. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  16. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber

    PubMed Central

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I.; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species. PMID:25414713

  17. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  18. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2013-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family like melon, squash and pumpkins. It is a popular vegetable crop used in Indian traditional medicine since ancient times. This vegetable is very high in water content and very low in calories. It has potential antidiabetic, lipid lowering and antioxidant activity. Cucumber has a cleansing action within the body by removing accumulated pockets of old waste materials and chemical toxins. Fresh fruit juice is used for nourishing the skin. It gives a soothing effect against skin irritations and reduces swelling. Cucumber also has the power to relax and alleviate the sunburn's pain. The fruit is refrigerant, haemostatic, tonic and useful in hyperdipsia, thermoplegia etc. The seeds also have a cooling effect on the body and they are used to prevent constipation. Several bioactive compounds have been isolated from cucumber including cucurbitacins, cucumegastigmanes I and II, cucumerin A and B, vitexin, orientin, isoscoparin 2″-O-(6‴-(E)-p-coumaroyl) glucoside, apigenin 7-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroylglucoside) etc. Despite huge exploration of cucumber in agricultural field, comparatively very few studies have been published about its chemical profile and its therapeutic potential. This article reviews the therapeutic application, pharmacological and phytochemical profile of different parts of C. sativus. In this review we have explored the current phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge available with this well known plant and several promising aspects for research on cucumber. PMID:23098877

  19. A GAMYB homologue CsGAMYB1 regulates sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiaolan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Wenjiao; Liu, Xingwang; Chen, Chunhua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Sen; Ren, Huazhong

    2014-07-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a typical monoecious vegetable with individual male and female flowers, and has been used as a model plant for sex determination. It is well known that sex differentiation of cucumber can be regulated by phytohormones, such as gibberellic acid (GA) and ethylene. The molecular mechanism of female sex expression modulated by ethylene has been widely understood, but how GA controls male sex expression remains elusive. In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis and rice, GA can regulate stamen and anther development via the transcriptional regulation of GAMYB. Here we characterized a GAMYB homologue CsGAMYB1 in cucumber. We found that CsGAMYB1 is predominantly expressed in male flower buds, where its expression is upregulated by GA3 treatment. CsGAMYB1 protein is localized in the nucleus. CsGAMYB1 can partially rescue stamen development and fertility phenotypes of an Arabidopsis myb33 myb65 double mutant. However, constitutive overexpression of CsGAMYB1 in wild-type Arabidopsis resulted in male sterility, which mimics the effect of GA overdose in flower development. Knockdown of CsGAMYB1 in cucumber decreases the ratio of nodes with male and female flowers, and ethylene is not involved in this process. Our data suggest that CsGAMYB1 regulates sex expression of cucumber via an ethylene-independent pathway. PMID:24790111

  20. A Cucumber DELLA Homolog CsGAIP May Inhibit Staminate Development through Transcriptional Repression of B Class Floral Homeotic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Bin; Yang, Sen; An, Jingbo; Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) stimulates stamen development by opposing the DELLA repression of B and C classes of floral homeotic genes. GA can promote male flower formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a typical monoecious vegetable with unisexual flowers, and the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we characterized a DELLA homolog CsGAIP in cucumber, and we found that CsGAIP is highly expressed in stem and male flower buds. In situ hybridization showed that CsGAIP is greatly enriched in the stamen primordia, especially during the hermaphrodite stage of flower development. Further, CsGAIP protein is located in nucleus. CsGAIP can partially rescue the plant height, stamen development and fertility phenotypes of Arabidopsis rga-24/gai-t6 mutant, and ectopic expression of CsGAIP in wide-type Arabidopsis results in reduced number of stamens and decreased transcription of B class floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI). Our data suggest that monoecious CsGAIP may inhibit staminate development through transcriptional repression of B class floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24632777

  1. Optimal Thermal Environments for Plant Metabolic Processes (Cucumis sativus L.) (Light-Harvesting Chlorophyll a/b Pigment-Protein Complex of Photosystem II and Seedling Establishment in Cucumber).

    PubMed Central

    Burke, J. J.; Oliver, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the temperatures providing maximal photosystem II fluorescence reappearance following illumination and thermal kinetic windows (TKWs), obtained from the temperature characteristics of enzyme apparent Km values, have been proposed as indicators of the bounds of thermal stress in plants. In this study, we have evaluated the temperature optimum for the accumulation of the chlorophyll a/b light-harvesting complex of photosystem II (LHCP II), its mRNA, and the mRNA of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Ashley) as a broader measure of metabolism than that provided by either the fluorescence reappearance or TKWs. The TKW for cucumber is between 23.5 and 39[deg]C, with the minimum apparent Km occurring at 32.5[deg]C. The photosystem II variable fluorescence reappearance following illumination was maximal between 30 and 35[deg]C. Maximum synthesis of the LHCP II occurred at 30[deg] C. The light-induced accumulation of the LHCP II and the small subunit of Rubisco mRNAs showed similar temperature characteristics. Suboptimal temperatures delayed germination, altered cotyledonary soluble sugar content, and broadened the temperature range for chlorophyll accumulation. These results demonstrate an effect of seed reserve mobilization on the range of temperatures for chlorophyll accumulation, and suggest that metabolic temperature characteristics may be broadened by increasing available substrates for enzyme utilization. This study provides new information about the relationship between TKWs and cellular responses to temperature. In addition, the results suggest that the temperature range outside of which plants experience temperature stress is narrower than traditionally supposed. PMID:12231821

  2. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm. PMID:25794580

  3. Comparison of electric and growth responses to excision in cucumber and pea seedlings. II. Long-distance effects are caused by the release of xylem pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahlberg, R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Excision of a growing stem causes local wound responses, such as membrane depolarization and growth inhibition, as well as effects at larger distances from the cut. In this study, cucumber hypocotyls were excised 100 mm below the hook, so that the growing region was beyond the reach of the wound-induced depolarization (up to 40 mm). Even at such a distance, the cut still caused a considerable and rapid drop in the hypocotyl growth rate. This growth response is not a direct wound response because it does not result from the cut-induced depolarization and because it can be simulated by root pressure manipulation (using a pressure chamber). The results indicate that the growth response resulted from the rapid release of the xylem pressure upon excision. To test this conclusion we measured the xylem pressure by connecting a pressure probe to the cut surface of the stem. Xylem pressure (Px) was found to be +10 to +40 kPa in cucumber hypocotyls and -5 to -10 kPa or lower in pea epicotyls. Excision of the cucumber hypocotyl base led to a rapid drop in Px to negative values, whereas excision in pea led to a rapid rise in Px to ambient (zero) pressure. These fast and opposite Px changes parallel the excision-induced changes in growth rate (GR): a decrease in cucumber and a rise in pea. The sign of the endogenous xylem pressure also determined whether excision induced a propagating depolarization in the form of a slow wave potential (SWP). Under normal circumstances pea seedlings generated an SWP upon excision whereas cucumber seedlings failed to do so. When the Px in cucumber hypocotyls was experimentally inverted to negative values by incubating the cumber roots in solutions of NaCN or n-ethylmaleimide, excision caused a propagating depolarization (SWP). The experiment shows that only hydraulic signals in the form of positive Px steps are converted into propagating electric SWP signals. These propagating depolarizations might be causally linked to systemic 'wound

  4. Against the odds: complete outcrossing in a monoecious clonal seagrass Posidonia australis (Posidoniaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Gecan, Ilena; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Kendrick, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Seagrasses are marine, flowering plants with a hydrophilous pollination strategy. In these plants, successful mating requires dispersal of filamentous pollen grains through the water column to receptive stigmas. Approximately 40 % of seagrass species are monoecious, and therefore little pollen movement is required if inbreeding is tolerated. Outcrossing in these species is further impacted by clonality, which is variable, but can be extensive in large, dense meadows. Despite this, little is known about the interaction between clonal structure, genetic diversity and mating systems in hydrophilous taxa. Methods Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were used to characterize genetic diversity, clonal structure, mating system and realized pollen dispersal in two meadows of the temperate, monoecious seagrass, Posidonia australis, in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. Key Results Within the two sampled meadows, genetic diversity was moderate among the maternal shoots (R = 0·45 and 0·64) and extremely high in the embryos (R = 0·93–0·97). Both meadows exhibited a highly clumping (or phalanx) structure among clones, with spatial autocorrelation analysis showing significant genetic structure among shoots and embryos up to 10–15 m. Outcrossing rates were not significantly different from one. Pollen dispersal distances inferred from paternity assignment averaged 30·8 and 26·8 m, which was larger than the mean clone size (12·8 and 13·8 m). Conclusions These results suggest highly effective movement of pollen in the water column. Despite strong clonal structure and moderate genetic diversity within meadows, hydrophilous pollination is an effective vector for completely outcrossed offspring. The different localized water conditions at each site (highly exposed conditions vs. weak directional flow) appear to have little influence on the success and pattern of successful pollination in the two meadows. PMID:24812250

  5. Identification of a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene linked to the female (F) locus that enhances female sex expression in cucumber.

    PubMed Central

    Trebitsh, T; Staub, J E; O'Neill, S D

    1997-01-01

    Sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is controlled largely by three genes: F, m, and a. The F and m loci interact to produce monoecious (M_f_) or gynoecious (M_f_) sex phenotypes. Ethylene and factors that induce ethylene biosynthesis, such as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) and auxin, also enhance female sex expression. A genomic sequence (CS-ACS1) encoding ACC synthase was amplified from genomic DNA by a polymerase chain reaction using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. Expression of CS-ACS1 is induced by auxin, but not by ACC, in wounded and intact shoot apices. Southern blo hybridization analysis of near-isogenic gynoecious (MMFF) and monoecious (MMff) lines derived from divers genetic backgrounds revealed the existence of an additional ACC synthase (CS-ACS1G) genomic sequence in the gynoecious lines. Sex phenotype analysis of a segregating F2 population detected a 100% correlation between the CS-ACS1G marker and the presence of the F locus. The CS-ACS1G gene is located in linkage group B coincident with the F locus, and in the population tested there was no recombination between the CS-ACS1G gene and the F locus. Collectively, these data suggest that CS-ACS1G is closely linked to the F locus and may play a pivotal role in the determination of sex in cucumber flowers. PMID:9085580

  6. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  7. Living on the edge: Fig tree phenology at the northern range limit of monoecious Ficus in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Compton, Stephen G.; Xiao, Hui; Lu, Qian; Chen, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are a species-rich group of mainly tropical and subtropical plants that are of ecological importance because of the large numbers of vertebrates that utilise their figs for food. Factors limiting their distributions to warmer regions are still poorly understood, but are likely to include factors linked to their specialised pollination biology, because each Ficus species is dependent on one or a small number of host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae) for pollination. Adult fig wasps are short-lived, but some species are capable of dispersing extremely long distances to pollinate their hosts. Close to its northern range limit we investigated the phenology of Ficus virens, the monoecious fig tree that reaches furthest north in China. Relatively few trees produced any figs, and very few retained figs throughout the winter. Despite this, new crops produced in spring were pollinated, with seasonally migrant pollinators from plants growing further south the most likely pollen vectors. An inability to initiate new crops at low temperatures may limit the distribution of monoecious fig trees to warmer areas.

  8. [Effect of bagging on greenhouse cucumber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Zhang, Shulian; Liang, Yinli; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Fuli; Quan, Qingzhuan

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that culturing cucumber with film bag increased cucumber yield by 12.3% - 15.1%, reduced abnormal cucumber by 65.3% - 72.8%, and the shape of cucumber was straight and smooth. The keeping-fresh period of the cucumber prolonged to 20 - 25 days, its vitamin C increased 21.9%, and total sugar increased to 5.1%. Paper bagging increased cucumber yield by 7.2% - 10.1%, and reduced abnormal cucumber by 52.2% - 57.7%. Bag body could efficiently prevent the cucumber from the direct pollution of chemicals spray. The survival pesticides in film and paper bags was 0.760 mg x kg(-1) and 1.2208 mg x kg(-1), reduced by 83.3% and 73.2%, respectively, compared to non-bagging. PMID:15506119

  9. De Novo Assembly of Bitter Gourd Transcriptomes: Gene Expression and Sequence Variations in Gynoecious and Monoecious Lines.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Anjali; Singh, V K; Bharadwaj, D R; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, Ashutosh; Rai, A K; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Parameswaran, Sriram; Singh, Major; Naik, P S

    2015-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a nutritious vegetable crop of Asian origin, used as a medicinal herb in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Molecular breeding in bitter gourd is in its infancy, due to limited molecular resources, particularly on functional markers for traits such as gynoecy. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of bitter gourd using Illumina next-generation sequencer, from root, flower buds, stem and leaf samples of gynoecious line (Gy323) and a monoecious line (DRAR1). A total of 65,540 transcripts for Gy323 and 61,490 for DRAR1 were obtained. Comparisons revealed SNP and SSR variations between these lines and, identification of gene classes. Based on available transcripts we identified 80 WRKY transcription factors, several reported in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; 56 ARF genes which play a pivotal role in auxin-regulated gene expression and development. The data presented will be useful in both functions studies and breeding programs in bitter gourd. PMID:26047102

  10. De Novo Assembly of Bitter Gourd Transcriptomes: Gene Expression and Sequence Variations in Gynoecious and Monoecious Lines

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anjali; Singh, V. K.; Bharadwaj, D. R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Rai, Ashutosh; Rai, A. K.; Mugasimangalam, Raja; Parameswaran, Sriram; Singh, Major; Naik, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a nutritious vegetable crop of Asian origin, used as a medicinal herb in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine. Molecular breeding in bitter gourd is in its infancy, due to limited molecular resources, particularly on functional markers for traits such as gynoecy. We performed de novo transcriptome sequencing of bitter gourd using Illumina next-generation sequencer, from root, flower buds, stem and leaf samples of gynoecious line (Gy323) and a monoecious line (DRAR1). A total of 65,540 transcripts for Gy323 and 61,490 for DRAR1 were obtained. Comparisons revealed SNP and SSR variations between these lines and, identification of gene classes. Based on available transcripts we identified 80 WRKY transcription factors, several reported in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses; 56 ARF genes which play a pivotal role in auxin-regulated gene expression and development. The data presented will be useful in both functions studies and breeding programs in bitter gourd. PMID:26047102

  11. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    PubMed

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-03-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  12. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    PubMed Central

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  13. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Methods and Results: Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucu...

  14. 2008 Public Sector Cucumber Research Priority Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In December 2008, a national wide survey was conducted to identify priorities for cucumber research in the public sector. The questions in the survey were in four categories: diseases, insects, abiotic stresses and other issues. The survey was sent to cucumber-related researchers in the public insti...

  15. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  16. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon.

    PubMed

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) to 3 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber. PMID:26527842

  17. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 to 3 × 105 endospores/cm3 of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 105 endospores/cm3 of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber. PMID:26527842

  18. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins. PMID:11676424

  19. [Cucumber diseases diagnosis using multispectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ning-Fang; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yong-Dao; Li, Bao-Ju

    2009-02-01

    For a reliable diagnosis of plant diseases and insect pests, spectroscopy analysis technique and mutispectral imaging technique are proposed to diagnose five cucumber diseases, namely Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola and Pseudoperonospora cubensis. In the experiment, the cucumbers' multispectral images of 14 visible lights channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation environment. And the 5 cucumber diseases, healthy leaves and reference white were classified using their multispectral information, the distance, angle and relativity. The discrimination of Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and reference white was 100%, and that of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and healthy leaves was 80% and 93.33% respectively. The mean correct discrimination of diseases was 81.90% when the distance and relativity were used together. The result shows that the method realized good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis. PMID:19445229

  20. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  1. Cucumber applied genomics: where we are five years after release of cucumber draft genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first cucumber draft genome (North China fresh market type inbred line 9930) was released in 2009 (Version 1.0). Since then, due to the use of next generation sequencing technologies, seven high-density SSR- or SNP-based cucumber genetic maps have been constructed with mapped loci ranging from 7...

  2. Significant parent-of-origin effects in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is a useful plant to study organellar effects because chloroplasts are maternally and mitochondria paternally transmitted. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured weights of plants approximately...

  3. Studies on in vitro culture of cucumber microspores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microspores are unique because they possess relatively few, large mitochondria and these mitochondria are paternally transmitted to progenies. We are working to develop microspore embryogenesis of cucumber microspores as possible targets for mitochondrial transformation...

  4. Development of applied genomics tools for cucumber breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The past three years have witnessed rapid accumulation of whole genome sequences and other genomics resources in cucumber. So far, draft genomes of three cucumber inbred lines have been released; many cucumber lines are being re-sequenced using next-generation sequencing technologies; nearly three m...

  5. Cucumber Phylogeny, Genetics and Genomics as of 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. In the past two years significant progress has been made in cucumber genetics and genomics research. The whole genomes of three cucumber genotypes have been sequenced and assembled. Nearly three million ESTs from different tissue...

  6. Molecularly tagged genes and quantitative trait loci in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the release of the cucumber draft genome, significant progress has been made in molecular mapping, tagging or cloning of horticulturally important genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in cucumber, which provides the foundation for practicing marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. ...

  7. Pollination of cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae), by the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Solange A B dos; Roselino, Ana C; Bego, Luci R

    2008-01-01

    When for a successful fruit development the fertilization of flowers is necessary, bees can be used as crop-pollinators in greenhouses. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the stingless bees Scaptotrigona aff. depilis Moure and Nannotrigona testaceicornis Lepeletier as pollinators of cucumber plants (Cucumus sativus var. caipira) in greenhouses during the Brazilian winter season. The study was conducted in four greenhouses (GH), of which two greenhouses contained bee colonies to ascertain pollination of the cucumber plants (GH I, with S. aff. depilis, GH II, with N. testaceicornis), whereas the other two greenhouses (GH III, GH IV) had no bee colonies and served as control groups. Furthermore, we planted cucumbers in an open field plot (OA) where pollination by any/various visiting insects could occur. Each of the experimental areas measured 87.5 m2. Without pollination (GH III, GH IV), the plants produced a low number of cucumbers, and the fruits were smaller and less heavy than in those experimental areas where pollination occurred. In the open field area, not protected against unfavorable climatic conditions, the plants produced fewer flowers than the plants in the greenhouses. The highest cucumber yield (with the highest amount of perfect fruits) was found in those greenhouses which housed the stingless bees as pollinators (GH I, GH II). Our results demonstrate that stingless bees can be successfully and efficiently used as pollinators of greenhouse cucumbers during the winter season. PMID:19061034

  8. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  9. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ec...

  10. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  11. The Unique Mitochondrial Genetics of Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cells typically contain two organelles, plastids and mitochondria. For the vast majority of plants, both of these organelles are maternally transmitted. Cucumber and melon are exceptions to this rule because the mitochondria are paternally transmitted. These two plants also possess mitochon...

  12. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regeneration of cucumber from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of specific regions of...

  13. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  14. Mapping of Mitochondrial Sorting Locus in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, DNA is located in three different places, the chloroplast, mitochondrion, and nucleus. Most angiosperms transmitted their organellar DNA through the egg (mitochondrial DNA), and through the egg and/ or pollen (chloroplast DNA). Transmission of the organellar DNA in cucumber is unique beca...

  15. In vitro culture of cucumber microspores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to develop protocol for embryogenesis of cucumber microspores as possible targets for mitochondrial transformation. Protocols for successful isolation and viability testing of cultured microspores were identified. Mean percentage of viable microspores from in vitro cultured plants was lo...

  16. Marker-Assisted Selection in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though the short life cycle (3 months), low chromosome number (2n=2x=14) and small genomic size (~880 Mega base pairs, 750-1000 cM) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) makes it an attractive model crop species for genomic analysis, its narrow genetic base (3-8% polymorphism) is an impediment for t...

  17. Pure human urine is a good fertiliser for cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Sjöblom, Annalena; Fabritius, Helena; Karinen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Human urine obtained from separating toilets was tested as a fertiliser for cultivation of outdoor cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in a Nordic climate. The urine used contained high amounts of nitrogen with some phosphorus and potassium, but numbers of enteric microorganisms were low even though urine had not been preserved before sampling. The cucumber yield after urine fertilisation was similar or slightly better than the yield obtained from control rows fertilised with commercial mineral fertiliser. None of the cucumbers contained any enteric microorganisms (coliforms, enterococci, coliphages and clostridia). In the taste assessment, 11 out of 20 persons could recognise which cucumber of three cucumbers was different but they did not prefer one over the other cucumber samples, since all of them were assessed as equally good. PMID:16413181

  18. DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW MONOECIOUS SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. VOLVOX (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE), BASED ON COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CULTURED MATERIAL(1).

    PubMed

    Isaka, Nanako; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Species of Volvox sect. Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) are unique because they have thick cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells and spiny-walled zygotes. This section is taxonomically important because the genus Volvox is polyphyletic. However, taxonomic studies of species in Volvox sect. Volvox have not been carried out on cultured material. Here, we performed a taxonomic study of monoecious species of Volvox sect. Volvox based on the comparative morphology and molecular phylogeny of chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA using various strains originating from Japan and two preserved strains from the USA. The strains were clearly divided into four species, V. globator L., V. barberi W. Shaw, V. kirkiorum sp. nov., and V. ferrisii sp. nov., on the basis of differences in numbers of zygotes (eggs) in the sexual spheroids, form of zygote wall, and somatic cell shape. Sequences for ITS of nuclear rDNA resolved that the two new species have phylogenetic positions separated from V. globator, V. barberi, V. capensis F. Rich et Pocock, and V. rousseletii G. S. West UTEX 1862 within Volvox sect. Volvox. PMID:27011093

  19. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of cucumber compounds: enzymes responsible for browning in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Jiménez, Mercedes; Cabanes, Juana; García-Carmona, Francisco; Escribano, Josefa

    2003-12-17

    The inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase by cucumber extracts was evaluated. The inhibitory effect was measured by both polarographic and spectrophotometric methods. The commercial aldehyde, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, described as a major volatile compound of cucumber, was characterized as a noncompetitive inhibitor against 4-tert-butylcatechol oxidation by mushroom tyrosinase. The K(I) obtained was 3.4 mM. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was not detected in cucumber skin extracts. However, the presence of PPO was revealed by Western blot; a single band was found with a M(r) of 53 kDa. These results support the assumption that the enzyme PPO is present in the cucumber skin, but its activity is inhibited. Peroxidase (PO) was also found in cucumber skin extracts. This enzyme was detected in the soluble fraction but not in the membrane fraction. The kinetic characterization of PO was carried out. Native isoelectric focusing revealed several acidic PO isoenzymes with a pI in the range between 5 and 6, a basic isoenzyme, and one principal neutral isoenzyme of pI = 7.2. PMID:14664542

  20. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in infected cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Shang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingliang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, were characterised in cucumber plants by deep sequencing. CGMMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CGMMV-infected cucumber plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards C/A/U, suggesting that CGMMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were also predicted. PMID:26586331

  1. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Violaxanthin De-Epoxidase (CsVDE) in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongyu; Kong, Lingcui; Niu, Dandan; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2013-01-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under high light stress. We have cloned a violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene (CsVDE) from cucumber. The amino acid sequence of CsVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. RT-PCR analysis and histochemical staining show that CsVDE is expressed in all green tissues in cucumber and Arabidopsis. Using GFP fusion protein and immunogold labeling methods, we show that CsVDE is mainly localized in chloroplasts in cucumber. Under high light stress, relative expression of CsVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) is increased rapidly, and abundance of the gold particles was also increased. Furthermore, CsVDE is quickly induced by cold and drought stress, reaching maximum levels at the 2nd hour and the 9th day, respectively. The ratio of (A+Z)/(V+A+Z) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is reduced in transgenic Arabidopsis down-regulated by the antisense fragment of CsVDE, compared to wild type (WT) Arabidopsis under high light stress. This indicates decreased functionality of the xanthophyll cycle and increased sensitivity to photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) in transgenic Arabidopsis under high light stress. PMID:23717606

  2. Genetic diversity among cucumis metuliferus populations revealed by cucumber microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud (African horned cucumber, AHC) is native to Africa and is a relative of cultivated cucumber (C. sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.). AHC is being promoted as a specialty fruit crop in a number of countries. In addition, several traits in C. metuliferus such as high...

  3. Exploring Weighty Matters with "Cucumber Soup": An Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columba, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Children's literature can play a significant role in integrating math and science concepts into real-world applications. One particularly delightful selection is "Cucumber Soup" (Krudwig, 1998). This book can create a context--making cucumber soup--for weighing and for a real-life on adding fractions. This kind of learning context takes children…

  4. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  5. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map of the Cucumber Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops as cucumber, melon, watermelon, and squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular li...

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding genetic variation in germplasm collection is essential for the conservation and their efficient use in plant breeding. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Previous studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop’s genetic structu...

  7. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage during harvest and postharvest handling and processing. While it is easier to detect external defects, it is difficult to detect internal defects such as bruises and hollow or split cucumbers. Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was i...

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  9. Patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation in flowers of the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Arceo-Gómez, G; Alonso, C; Abdala-Roberts, L; Parra-Tabla, V

    2016-07-01

    Pollen deposition and pollen tube formation are key components of angiosperm reproduction but intraspecific variation in these has rarely been quantified. Documenting and partitioning (populations, plants and flowers) natural variation in these two aspects of plant reproduction can help uncover spatial mosaics of reproductive success and underlying causes. In this study, we assess variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation for the endemic monoecious shrub Cnidoscolus souzae throughout its distribution range in Mexico, and determine how this variation is structured among populations, plants and flowers. We also infer the relative importance of pollen quantity and quality in determining pollination success in this species. While we found no evidence suggesting that pollen receipt limits C. souzae reproduction across 19 populations, we did find extensive variation in pollen load size and pollen tube number per flower. Total variation in pollen receipt and pollen tube number was mostly explained by intra-individual and among-population variance. Furthermore, pollen load size had a stronger effect on the number of pollen tubes at the base of the style than pollen germination rate, suggesting that pollen quantity may be more important than quality for pollen tube success in C. souzae. Our results suggest that both small within-plant flower differences and broad-scale differences in community attributes can play an important role in determining pollination success. We emphasise the need to evaluate patterns and sources of variation in pollen deposition and pollen tube formation as a first step in understanding the causes of variation in pollination success over broad spatial scales. PMID:26916543

  10. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2015-11-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  11. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  12. Diagnosis method of cucumber downy mildew with NIR hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Youwen; Li, Tianlai; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to develop a hyperspectral imaging system in the near infrared (NIR) region (900-1700 nm) to diagnose cucumber downy mildew. Hyperspectral images were acquired from each diseased cucumber leaf samples with downy mildew and then their spectral data were extracted. Spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the high dimensionality of the data and for selecting some important wavelengths. Out of 256 wavelengths, only two wavelengths (1426 and 1626nm) of first PC were selected as the optimum wavelengths for the diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew. The data analysis showed that it is possible to diagnose cucumber downy mildew with few numbers of wavelengths on the basis of their statistical image features and histogram features. The results revealed the potentiality of NIR hyperspectral imaging as an objective and non-destructive method for the authentication and diagnosis of cucumber downy mildew.

  13. A genetically novel, narrow-host-range isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from rosemary.

    PubMed

    Tepfer, Mark; Girardot, Gregory; Fénéant, Lucie; Ben Tamarzizt, Hana; Verdin, Eric; Moury, Benoît; Jacquemond, Mireille

    2016-07-01

    An isolate of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), designated CMV-Rom, was isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) plants in several locations near Avignon, France. Laboratory studies showed that, unlike typical CMV isolates, CMV-Rom has a particularly narrow host range. It could be transmitted by aphids Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae, but with low efficacy compared to a typical CMV isolate. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the CMV-Rom genomic RNAs shows that this isolate does not belong to any of the previously described CMV subgroups, IA, IB, II or III. PMID:27138549

  14. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers. PMID:27400992

  15. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  16. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    PubMed Central

    Aminin, Dmitry L.; Menchinskaya, Ekaterina S.; Pisliagin, Evgeny A.; Silchenko, Alexandra S.; Avilov, Sergey A.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata). They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), Akt (protein kinase B), ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases), FAK (focal adhesion kinase), MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics. PMID:25756523

  17. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  18. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  19. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  20. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  1. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-05-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts. PMID:25984989

  2. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Janakiram, Naveena B.; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts. PMID:25984989

  3. Diallel crossing among doubled haploids of cucumber reveals significant reciprocal-cross differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an excellent plant for studying organellar effects on phenotypes because chloroplasts show maternal and mitochondria paternal transmission. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured fresh and d...

  4. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  5. Fine mapping of short hypocotyl locus in semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In cucumber, hypocotyl length is a useful trait in establishing strong seedlings before transplanting or grafting. The semi-wild Xishuangbanna cucumber (XIS) exhibits very short hypocotyl as compared with most cultivated cucumbers. In this study, we investigated the inheritance of short hypocotyl wi...

  6. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  7. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  8. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  9. De novo assembly of a draft genome for Cucumis hystrix, the closest relative of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis hystrix (2n = 2x = 24, HH) is the only known species that is cross-compatible with cucumber and has a great potential for cucumber improvement, To facilitate introgression of C. hystrix chromatins into cucumber genetic background through development of introgression library, we sequenced two...

  10. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot. PMID:26471979

  11. Chromosome rearrangements during domestication of cucumber as revealed from high-density genetic mapping and draft genome assembly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an economically important vegetable crop, but available genetic and genomics resources for cucumber are limited that hinders progress in cucumber breeding. In this study, we made significant contributions to the cucumber research community by developing a high-density genetic map for cul...

  12. A review of the immune molecules in the sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhuang; Li, Hui; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Xia; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jing; Liu, Cenjie

    2015-05-01

    It is very important to identify and characterize the immune-related genes that respond to pathogens. Until recently, only some of the immune-related genes in sea cucumbers had been characterized. Their expression patterns after pathogen challenges have been analyzed via expressed sequence tag libraries, microarray studies and proteomic approaches. These genes include lectins, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, enzymes, clotting protein, pattern recognition proteins, Toll receptors, complement C3 and other humoral factors that might participate in the innate immune system of sea cucumbers. Although the participation of some of these immune molecules in the sea cucumber's innate immune defense against invading pathogens has been demonstrated, the functions of many of the molecules remain unclear. This review focuses on the discovery and functional characterization of the immune-related molecules from the sea cucumber for the first time and provides new insights into the immune mechanisms of the sea cucumber, which opens new possibilities for developing drugs for novel anti-bacterial and antiviral applications in fisheries. PMID:25655326

  13. Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yi; Ma, Yongshuo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Huimin; Duan, Lixin; Chen, Huiming; Zeng, Jianguo; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Shenhao; Gu, Wenjia; Liu, Min; Ren, Jinwei; Gu, Xingfang; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Ye; Yasukawa, Ken; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Qi, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lucas, William J; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-28

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors. PMID:25430763

  14. Gravity-regulated formation of the peg in developing cucumber seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that peg formation in the vascular transition region (TR zone) between the hypocotyl and the root in Cucurbitaceae seedlings is a gravimorphogenetic phenomenon. Initiation of the peg became visible 36 h after imbibition when cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee Hybrid II) seeds were germinated in a horizontal position at 24 degrees C in the dark. Simultaneously, sedimented amyloplasts (putative statoliths) were apparent in the sheath cells surrounding the vascular strands, and in the cortical cells immediately adjacent to them, in the TR zone. In contrast, the other cortical cells, some of which were destined to develop into the peg, contained amyloplasts which were not sedimented. These results suggest that the graviperception mechanism for peg formation may be like that of statoliths in shoot gravitropism. By 48 h following imbibition, the cells of the TR zone still had sedimented amyloplasts but had lost their sensitivity to gravity, possibly because of their maturation.

  15. Biotransformation of ceria nanoparticles in cucumber plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Zhiyong; He, Xiao; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Zhi; Tai, Renzhong; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2012-11-27

    Biotransformation is a critical factor that may modify the toxicity, behavior, and fate of engineered nanoparticles in the environment. CeO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) are generally recognized as stable under environmental and biological conditions. The present study aims to investigate the biotransformation of CeO(2) NPs in plant systems. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show needlelike clusters on the epidermis and in the intercellular spaces of cucumber roots after a treatment with 2000 mg/L CeO(2) NPs for 21 days. By using a soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy (STXM) technique, the needlelike clusters were verified to be CePO(4). Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES) spectra show that Ce presented in the roots as CeO(2) and CePO(4) while in the shoots as CeO(2) and cerium carboxylates. Simulated studies indicate that reducing substances (e.g., ascorbic acids) played a key role in the transformation process and organic acids (e.g., citric acids) can promote particle dissolution. We speculate that CeO(2) NPs were first absorbed on the root surfaces and partially dissolved with the assistance of the organic acids and reducing substances excreted by the roots. The released Ce(III) ions were precipitated on the root surfaces and in intercellular spaces with phosphate, or form complexes with carboxyl compounds during translocation to the shoots. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the biotransformation and in-depth exploring the translocation process of CeO(2) NPs in plants. PMID:23098040

  16. Resistance of sweetpotato genotypes to spotted and banded cucumber beetles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay techniques were developed for evaluating the resistance of sweetpotato germplasm to larvae and adults of the banded and spotted cucumber beetles. For the adult bioassay, individual beetles were placed on pieces of sweetpotato peel (periderm and cortex with stele removed) that was embedded ...

  17. The Genome of the Cucumber, Cucumis Sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen...

  18. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  19. Genome Wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The whole genome sequence of the cucumber cultivar Gy14 was recently sequenced at 15× coverage with the Roche 454 Titanium technology. The microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) in the assembled scaffolds were computationally explored and characterized. A total of 112,073 SSRs ...

  20. Effects of wounding on cytokinin activity in cucumber cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Crane, K E; Ross, C W

    1986-12-01

    Three known physiological responses to exogenous cytokinins were measured in wounded and nonwounded cotyledons from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Marketer) seedlings grown in darkness. Enhanced cell division, chlorophyll formation, and cotyledon expansion were detected in wounded cotyledons. The data suggest that wounding enhances endogenous cytokinin activity. PMID:16665151

  1. Suppression of cucurbit scab on cucumber leaves by photodynamic dyes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to test the ability of the photodynamic dyes bengal rose, toluidine blue, and methylene blue, to protect systemically cucumber plants from cucurbit scab. At the stage of one true leaf, water or aqueous solutions of the dyes were applied to the leaf as droplets. When the se...

  2. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and recombination among these repeats produces rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phen...

  3. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  4. Neiella marinum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from sea cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel strain, designated J221**T, was isolated from the intestine of a sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, collected from earthen ponds in Qingdao, China. The strain is Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, aerobic, and rod-shaped cell. Growth of strain J221T was observed at temperatures between 10...

  5. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  6. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  7. Sequencing Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Chloroplast Genomes Identifies Differences Between Chilling-Tolerant and-Susceptible Cucumber Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete sequencing of cucumber chloroplast (cp)DNA was facilitated by the development of 414 consensus chloroplast sequencing primers (CCSPs) from conserved cpDNA sequences of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cpDNAs, using deg...

  8. [Effects of rotation and intercropping on bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber].

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng-zhi; Wang, Shu; Yang, Yang

    2008-12-01

    By the method of PCR-DGGE, this paper studied the effects of rotation with wheat, soybean, villose vetch, clover, and alfalfa and intercropping with onion and garlic on the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber. The results showed that rotation and intercropping with test plants increased the diversity and evenness indices of bacterial communities in cucumber rhizosphere soil, and also, cucumber yield. The sequencing of DGGE bands indicated that most of the bands had high homology with uncultured bacterial species, and were of Sphingobacterium and Proteobacteria. High bacterium G+C was only detected when cucumber was intercropped with onion. The diversity of soil bacterial communities varied with the growth stages of cucumber, being the highest at vigorous fruiting stage. It was suggested that intercropping with onion and rotation with wheat were the best cultivation modes of cucumber. PMID:19288729

  9. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  10. Study on the Methods of Detecting Cucumber Downy Mildew Using Hyperspectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Youwen; Zhang, Lin

    Hyperspectral imaging technology, which can integrate the advantages of spectral detection and image detection, meets the need of detecting the cucumber diseases fast and nondestructively. In this paper, hyperspectral imaging technology is adopted to detect the cucumber downy mildew fast and nondestructively. Firstly, hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves infected downy mildew are acquired by the hyperspectral image acquisition system. And optimum wavelengths are collected by the principal component analysis to get the featured images. Then the image fusion technology is adopted to combine collected images with the featured images to form new images by pixel-level image fusion. Finally, the methods of the image enhancement, binarization, corrosion and dilatation treatments are carried out, so the cucumber downy mildew is detected. The result shows that the accuracy rate of the algorithm for detecting cucumber disease can reach nearly 90%. Studies have shown that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to detect cucumber downy mildew.

  11. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    PubMed

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. "Ekron") either non-grafted or grafted onto "P360" (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber. PMID:27621740

  12. Can Adverse Effects of Acidity and Aluminum Toxicity Be Alleviated by Appropriate Rootstock Selection in Cucumber?

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Youssef; Rea, Elvira; Cardarelli, Mariateresa; Bitterlich, Michael; Schwarz, Dietmar; Colla, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Low-pH and aluminum (Al) stresses are the major constraints that limit crop yield in acidic soils. Grafting vegetable elite cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks may represent an effective tool to improve crop tolerance to acidity and Al toxicity. Two greenhouse hydroponic experiments were performed to evaluate growth, yield, biomass production, chlorophyll index, electrolyte leakage, mineral composition, and assimilate partitioning in plant tissues of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. “Ekron”) either non-grafted or grafted onto “P360” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne; E/C) or figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché; E/F). Cucumber plants were cultured in pots and supplied with nutrient solutions having different pH and Al concentrations: pH 6, pH 3.5, pH 3.5 + 1.5 mM Al, and pH 3.5 + 3 mM Al (Experiment 1, 14 days) and pH 6, pH 3.5, and pH 3.5 + 0.75 mM Al (Experiment 2, 67 days). Significant depression in shoot and root biomass was observed in response to acidity and Al concentrations, with Al-stress being more phytotoxic than low pH treatment. Significant decrease in yield, shoot, and root biomass, leaf area, SPAD index, N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and B concentration in aerial parts (leaves and stems) in response to low pH with more detrimental effects at pH 3.5 + Al. Grafted E/C plants grown under low pH and Al had higher yield, shoot, and root biomass compared to E/F and non-grafted plants. This better crop performance of E/C plants in response to Al stress was related to (i) a reduced translocation of Al from roots to the shoot, (ii) a better shoot and root nutritional status in K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn concentration, (iii) a higher chlorophyll synthesis, as well as (iv) the ability to maintain cell membrane stability and integrity (lower electrolyte leakage). Data provide insight into the role of grafting on Al stress tolerance in cucumber. PMID:27621740

  13. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  14. Construction of a Fosmid Library of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and Comparative Analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E Regions from Cucumber and Melon (Cucumis melo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber and melon are the most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae and are members of distinct subgenera in the genus Cucumis. We undertook comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes. A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as...

  15. Triterpene glycosides from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria conicospermium.

    PubMed

    Avilov, Sergey A; Antonov, Alexandr S; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A; Riguera, Ricardo; Jimenez, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, cucumariosides A(2)-5 (1), A(3)-2 (2), A(3)-3 (3), and isokoreoside A (4), along with the previously isolated koreoside A (5), have been found in the sea cucumber Cucumariaconicospermium. Glycoside 1 was isolated as a native substance, while glycosides 2-5 were identified through their desulfated derivatives. Their structures have been deduced by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All the glycosides contain the same branched pentasaccharide carbohydrate chain but differ in the number and positions of the sulfate groups. Glycoside 1 has one, glycosides 2 and 3 have two, and glycosides 4 and 5 have three sulfate groups. Glycosides 2-5 are non-holostane derivatives; their aglycons lack the 18(20)-lactone and are characterized by shortened side chains, which is a very rare feature among the sea cucumber glycosides. PMID:12880305

  16. Characterization of the optical properties of normal and defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.; Cen, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pickling cucumbers. This research was intended to measure the spectral absorption and scattering properties of normal and internally defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles, using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique. Spatially-resolved hyperspectral scattering images were acquired from 50 freshly harvested 'Journey' pickling cucumbers in the summer of 2008. The cucumbers were then subjected to rolling under mechanical load to induce internal damage. The damaged cucumbers were imaged again one hour and one day after the mechanical stress treatment. In addition, 20 whole pickles each of normal and defective (bloated) class were also measured by following the same procedure as that for pickling cucumbers. Spectra of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for pickling cucumbers and whole pickles were extracted from the spatially-resolved scattering profiles, using an inverse algorithm for a diffusion theory model, for the spectral range of 700-1,000 nm. It was found that within one hour after mechanical damage, changes in the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for the cucumbers were minimal. One day after mechanical damage, the absorption coefficient for the cucumbers increased noticeably for the wavelengths of 700-920 nm, whereas the reduced scattering coefficient decreased more significantly for the wavelengths of 700-1,000 nm. Overall mechanical damage had greater impact on the scattering properties than on the absorption properties. After brining, pickles became translucent and scattering was greatly diminished. Thus the diffusion theory model was no longer valid for determining the optical properties of whole pickles. This

  17. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    McFeeters, Roger F; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys

    2010-04-01

    Waste water containing high levels of NaCl from cucumber fermentation tank yards is a continuing problem for the pickled vegetable industry. A major reduction in waste salt could be achieved if NaCl were eliminated from the cucumber fermentation process. The objectives of this project were to ferment cucumbers in brine containing CaCl(2) as the only salt, to determine the course of fermentation metabolism in the absence of NaCl, and to compare firmness retention of cucumbers fermented in CaCl(2) brine during subsequent storage compared to cucumbers fermented in brines containing both NaCl and CaCl(2) at concentrations typically used in commercial fermentations. The major metabolite changes during fermentation without NaCl were conversion of sugars in the fresh cucumbers primarily to lactic acid which caused pH to decrease to less than 3.5. This is the same pattern that occurs when cucumbers are fermented with NaCl as the major brining salt. Lactic acid concentration and pH were stable during storage and there was no detectable production of propionic acid or butyric acid that would indicate growth of spoilage bacteria. Firmness retention in cucumbers fermented with 100 to 300 mM CaCl(2) during storage at a high temperature (45 degrees C) was not significantly different from that obtained in fermented cucumbers with 1.03 M NaCl and 40 mM CaCl(2). In closed jars, cucumber fermentations with and without NaCl in the fermentation brine were similar both in the chemical changes caused by the fermentative microorganisms and in the retention of firmness in the fermented cucumbers. PMID:20492282

  18. Overview of USDA-SCRI Project: Cucumber applied genomics: tool development and applications for recessive disease resistance genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cucumber project was recently funded by the USDA NIFA-SCRI program which is titled “Translational genomics in cucumber - tool development and application for recessive disease resistances”. This grant was the result of a joint effort of the UW public cucumber research community with strong support...

  19. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  20. Map-based cloning a multifunctional gene regulating leaf, flower and fruit development and plant architecture in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    standard-leaf type cucumbers as well as multi-branched vines not presented in standard-leaf type cucumbers. Littleleaf has the potential to address some problems in picking cucumber production. Littleleaf is controlled by a single, recessively inherited gene designated ll. In the present study, a hi...

  1. Role of selected oxidative yeasts and bacteria in cucumber secondary fermentation associated with spoilage of the fermented fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes during the spoilage of fermented cucumber pickles have been attributed to the metabolism of different yeasts and bacteria. In this study six organisms isolated from commercial spoiled cucumber pickles were evaluated for their possible role in primary and secondary cucumber fermentations. The...

  2. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  3. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  4. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  5. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  6. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  7. An ACC Oxidase Gene Essential for Cucumber Carpel Development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiming; Sun, Jinjing; Li, Shuai; Cui, Qingzhi; Zhang, Huimin; Xin, Fengjiao; Wang, Huaisong; Lin, Tao; Gao, Dongli; Wang, Shenhao; Li, Xia; Wang, Donghui; Zhang, Zhonghua; Xu, Zhihong; Huang, Sanwen

    2016-09-01

    Sex determination in plants gives rise to unisexual flowers that facilitate outcrossing and enhance genetic diversity. In cucumber and melon, ethylene promotes carpel development and arrests stamen development. Five sex-determination genes have been identified, including four encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and a transcription factor gene CmWIP1 that corresponds to the Mendelian locus gynoecious in melon and is a negative regulator of femaleness. ACC oxidase (ACO) converts ACC into ethylene; however, it remains elusive which ACO gene in the cucumber genome is critical for sex determination and how CmWIP1 represses development of female flowers. In this study, we discovered that mutation in an ACO gene, CsACO2, confers androecy in cucumber that bears only male flowers. The mutation disrupts the enzymatic activity of CsACO2, resulting in 50% less ethylene emission from shoot tips. CsACO2 was expressed in the carpel primordia and its expression overlapped with that of CsACS11 in female flowers at key stages for sex determination, presumably providing sufficient ethylene required for proper CsACS2 expression. CmACO3, the ortholog of CsACO2, showed a similar expression pattern in the carpel region, suggesting a conserved function of CsACO2/CmACO3. We demonstrated that CsWIP1, the ortholog of CmWIP1, could directly bind the promoter of CsACO2 and repress its expression. Taken together, we propose a presumably conserved regulatory module consisting of WIP1 transcription factor and ACO controls unisexual flower development in cucumber and melon. PMID:27403533

  8. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  9. Fixation of Emerging Interviral Recombinants in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Justin S.

    2013-01-01

    Interstrain recombinants were observed in the progenies of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) reassortant L1L2F3 containing RNAs 1 and 2 from LS-CMV and RNA 3 from Fny-CMV. We characterized these recombinants, and we found that their fixation was controlled by the nature of the replicating RNAs 1 and 2. We demonstrate that the 2b gene partially affects this fixation process, but only in the context of homologous RNAs 1 and 2. PMID:23115282

  10. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  11. Aj-rel and Aj-p105, two evolutionary conserved NF-κB homologues in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and their involvement in LPS induced immunity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Sun, Yongxin; Jin, Liji; Thacker, Philip; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been evolutionary conserved from insects to mammals and plays a major regulatory role in the initiation of physiological responses. In this study, we identified and characterized a primitive and functional NF-κB pathway active in the immune defence of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). The ancient NF-κB homologues, Aj-rel and Aj-p105, share numerous signature motifs with their vertebrate orthologues, notably the Rel Homology Domain, Rel Protein Signature DNA Binding Motif, Nuclear Localization Signal and the Ankyrin Repeats for Aj-p105. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these homologues belong to class I and II of NF-κB respectively. We examined the dimerization of Aj-rel and Aj-p105 and our results demonstrated that Aj-rel forms heterdimers with Aj-p105 and the degradation product of Aj-p105, namely Aj-p50. We further observed that LPS stimulation led to the degradation of Aj-p105 and the nuclear translocation of Aj-rel and Aj-p50. Taken together, our data indicate that the NF-κB signaling cascade is active in sea cucumber and plays a crucial role in regulating their immune defence. Our results increase the available information on sea cucumber immunity and provide new information for use in the study of the comparative and evolutionary aspects of immunity. PMID:23022054

  12. Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Li, Lin; An, Ya-Hong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth. PMID:27070289

  13. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  14. Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Yuanhong; Jiang, Tingfu; Wang, Han; Yang, Shuang; Lv, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A₁ was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A₁, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A₁, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. PMID:27322290

  15. Feeding behavior and digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiamin; Zhang, Libin; Pan, Yang; Lin, Chenggang; Wang, Fang; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-02-01

    The feeding behavior and digestive physiology of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are not well understood. A better understanding may provide useful information for the development of the aquaculture of this species. In this article the tentacle locomotion, feeding rhythms, ingestion rate (IR), feces production rate (FPR) and digestive enzyme activities were studied in three size groups (small, medium and large) of sea cucumber under a 12h light/12h dark cycle. Frame-by-frame video analysis revealed that all size groups had similar feeding strategies using a grasping motion to pick up sediment particles. The tentacle insertion rates of the large size group were significantly faster than those of the small and medium-sized groups (P<0.05). Feeding activities investigated by charge coupled device cameras with infrared systems indicated that all size groups of sea cucumber were nocturnal and their feeding peaks occurred at 02:00-04:00. The medium and large-sized groups also had a second feeding peak during the day. Both IR and FPR in all groups were significantly higher at night than those during the daytime (P<0.05). Additionally, the peak activities of digestive enzymes were 2-4h earlier than the peak of feeding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the light/dark cycle was a powerful environment factor that influenced biological rhythms of A. japonicus, which had the ability to optimize the digestive processes for a forthcoming ingestion. PMID:25449414

  16. Bag-in-box technology: Temperature prediction during blanching and cooling of cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the bag-in-box procedure cucumbers are blanched before brining to inactivate the natural microflora and enzymes present in them. In addition, it is desired that the temperature of the cucumbers after blanching and brining should not exceed 32 deg C (90 deg F), so as to minimize textural loss due ...

  17. Genetic Diversity of USDA Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. Collection Revealed by Cucumber Genomic Microsatellite Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naud (African horned cucumber, AHC) is indigenous to Africa and is a relative of cultivated cucumber (C. sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.). AHC is being promoted as a specialty fruit crop in a number of countries. In addition, several traits in C. metuliferus such as ...

  18. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  19. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  20. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  1. Reduction of Salmonella populations on cucumber fruit by application of lytic bacteriophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Foodborne illness outbreaks of Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 sickened over 1000 people and caused 5 deaths. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella contamination during growing and harvestin...

  2. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  3. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  4. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  5. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its three genomes show differential transmission: bi-parental nuclear, maternal chloroplast and paternal mitochondrial (mt). The mt DNA of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of rep...

  6. Biological characteristics and pathogenicity of a highly pathogenic Shewanella marisflavi infected sea cucumber (Apostichopus uaponicus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shewanella marisflavi isolate AP629 was characterized as a novel pathogen of sea cucumber. The LD50 values (14 days) in sea cucumber and swordtail fish were 3.89 × 106 and 4.85 × 104 CFU g-1 body weight, respectively. Studies on S. marisflavi had been conducted, including morphology, physiological a...

  7. Individual variation in growth in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck) housed individually

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Miao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Tian, Xiangli

    2010-09-01

    The exceptionally large individual growth variation has been previously recognized in several sea cucumber cohorts. However, there is a lack of information regarding the mechanism of such individual differences. In this study, the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) was reared individually in order to eliminate possible effects of social interaction, stocking density, etc. The results showed that there were substantial differences in growth among the sea cucumber individuals during the 100-day experiment. The special growth rate of the sea cucumber individuals differed by up to three folds (from 0.40% to 1.01%), and the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from 12.04% to 40.51%. The final wet body weight, food intake and food conversion efficiency for each sea cucumber were generally positively correlated with their initial wet body weight ( P<0.05). Energy budget of the animals showed that the food energy spent on respiration was much greater (about four folds) but energy deposited for growth was much less for (initially) smaller than for larger A. japonicus. The present result implies that there are obvious genetic differences among the sea cucumber individuals, largely accounting for the individual growth variation of the cohort sea cucumber. These results will provide some basic data for promoting selective breeding and farming of the sea cucumber.

  8. Genome sequencing, genetic diversity and field detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using LAMP technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent outbreaks of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus on cucumber, melon and watermelon in Australia, Canada, and the U.S. highlight the importance in implementing a cleaned seed program to manage this seed-borne virus from introduction. Both Canadian and Australian isolates were closely relate...

  9. Genome-wide Characterization of Simple Sequence Repeats in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide, but progress in genetic and genomics research in this crop is slow. Recently the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced, (ibred line ‘9930’ and pickling cultivar ‘Gy14’), which provides a powerful tool for developing markers in large scale...

  10. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide, but progress in genetic and genomics research in this crop is slow. Recently the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced, (ibred line ‘9930’ and pickling cultivar ‘Gy14’), which provides a powerful tool for developing markers in large scale...

  11. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  12. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling temperatures (<10 degrees C) may cause damage to Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  13. SEQUENCING OF CUCUMBER (CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) CHLOROPLAST GENOMES IDENTIFIES PUTATIVE CANDIDATE GENES FOR CHILLING TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling injury in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is conditioned by maternal factors and the sequencing of its chloroplast (cp) genome could lead to the identification of economically important candidate genes. Complete sequencing of cucumber cpDNA was facilitated by the development of 414 consensus...

  14. A truncated F-box protein confers the dwarfism in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dwarfism is an important plant architecture trait for cucumber breeding. In the present study, we identified a dwarf mutant 406M in cucumber which showed a shorter internode length as compared with its wild type. In a BC1F2 population from the cross of 406M with its wild type parental line 406, the ...

  15. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is susceptible to many foliage diseases. Although candidate genes for resistances to several pathogens in cucumber have been reported, the underlying defence mechanisms remain unclear. The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) proteins are a group of plant-specific transcription factors that ha...

  16. Small, repetitive DNAs contribute significantly to the expanded mitochondrial genome of cucumber.

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, J W; Havey, M J

    2001-01-01

    Closely related cucurbit species possess eightfold differences in the sizes of their mitochondrial genomes. We cloned mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments showing strong hybridization signals to cucumber mtDNA and little or no signal to watermelon mtDNA. The cucumber mtDNA clones carried short (30-53 bp), repetitive DNA motifs that were often degenerate, overlapping, and showed no homology to any sequences currently in the databases. On the basis of dot-blot hybridizations, seven repetitive DNA motifs accounted for >13% (194 kb) of the cucumber mitochondrial genome, equaling >50% of the size of the Arabidopsis mitochondrial genome. Sequence analysis of 136 kb of cucumber mtDNA revealed only 11.2% with significant homology to previously characterized mitochondrial sequences, 2.4% to chloroplast DNA, and 15% to the seven repetitive DNA motifs. The remaining 71.4% of the sequence was unique to the cucumber mitochondrial genome. There was <4% sequence colinearity surrounding the watermelon and cucumber atp9 coding regions, and the much smaller watermelon mitochondrial genome possessed no significant amounts of cucumber repetitive DNAs. Our results demonstrate that the expanded cucumber mitochondrial genome is in part due to extensive duplication of short repetitive sequences, possibly by recombination and/or replication slippage. PMID:11560907

  17. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  18. Development of preservation prediction chart for long term storage of fermented cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-flavors and odors in fermented cucumbers result from the growth of undesirable microorganisms during the secondary fermentation. Under laboratory conditions using a sterile fermented cucumber slurry medium, the spoilage fermentations were reproduced. Using this system the salt and pH conditions ...

  19. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  20. Evaluation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic softening in low salt cucumber fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of a firm, crisp fruit texture is a major consideration for pickled vegetables including pickles made from fermented cucumbers. It is known that cucumbers soften rapidly when fermented at low salt concentrations (<3%) without added calcium. This study has shown that there is non-enzymati...

  1. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  2. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  3. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  4. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  5. QTL mapping for downy mildew resistance in cucumber inbred line WI7120 (PI 330628)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM) is the most devastating fungal disease of cucumber worldwide. The molecular mechanism of DM resistance in cucumber is poorly understood, and use of marker-assisted breeding for DM resistance is not widely available. Here we reported QTL mapping of DM resistance with 243 F2:3 famili...

  6. Maternal Effects Supersede Nuclear Effects Conditioning Chilling Response in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling damage can be a major determinant of yield reduction in cucumber production by acting to alter in sex expression, flowering dates, and plant development. Previous research determined that the ability of cucumber plants to withstand a chilling event (i.e., tolerance and susceptibility) is d...

  7. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage. PMID:17995647

  8. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber. PMID:26351149

  9. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    PubMed

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants. PMID:27094118

  10. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  11. Cucumber ECERIFERUM1 (CsCER1), which influences the cuticle properties and drought tolerance of cucumber, plays a key role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjiao; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Chong; Ren, Jiaojiao; Liu, Xiaofeng; Black, Kezia; Gai, Xinshuang; Wang, Qian; Ren, Huazhong

    2015-02-01

    Most land plants have a wax layer which covers their aerial parts to protect them from environmental stresses, such as drought, UV radiation, and pathogenic invasion. The wax biosynthesis has been well studied previously in Arabidopsis, but it still remains elusive in cucumber. Here, we isolated a CER1 homolog CsCER1 in cucumber, and we found that the expression of CsCER1 in the cucumber line 3401 which shows waxy fruit phenotype is much higher than that in the cucumber line 3413 which displays glossy fruit phenotype. Spatial and temporal expression analyses revealed that CsCER1 is specifically expressed in the epidermis where waxes are synthesized, and sub-cellular location showed that CsCER1 protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression of CsCER1 can be induced by low temperature, drought, salt stress and abscisic acid. In addition, abnormal expressions of CsCER1 in transgenic cucumber plants have dramatic effects on very-long-chain (VLC) alkanes biosynthesis, cuticle permeability, and drought resistance. Our data suggested that CsCER1 plays an important role in VLC alkanes biosynthesis in cucumber. PMID:25539982

  12. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  13. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumber and Botrytis cinerea during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Zhu, Jing; Wang, Jingqi; He, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered one of the most serious cucumber diseases. With the advent of Hi-seq technology, it is possible to study the plant–pathogen interaction at the transcriptome level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RNA-seq to identify cucumber and B. cinerea differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after the plant–pathogen interaction. In total, 248,908,688 raw reads were generated; after removing low-quality reads and those containing adapter and poly-N, 238,341,648 clean reads remained to map the reference genome. There were 3,512 cucumber DEGs and 1,735 B. cinerea DEGs. GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on these DEGs to study the interaction between cucumber and B. cinerea. To verify the reliability and accuracy of our transcriptome data, 5 cucumber DEGs and 5 B. cinerea DEGs were chosen for RT-PCR verification. This is the first systematic transcriptome analysis of components related to the B. cinerea–cucumber interaction. Functional genes and putative pathways identified herein will increase our understanding of the mechanism of the pathogen–host interaction. PMID:26536465

  14. Diversity analysis of type I ketosynthase in rhizosphere soil of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baixia; Gao, Zenggui; Shao, Yang; Yan, Jianfang; Hu, Yingchang; Yu, Jicheng; Liu, Qiu; Chen, Fei

    2012-04-01

    Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum (Sch1.) f.sp. cucumerinum Owen.] is a major soil-borne disease of cucumber worldwide, and can cause huge yield losses. Biological control of Fusarium wilt of cucumber has received considerable attention. Many bacteria, particularly actinomycetes, are known to produce secondary metabolites synthesized by Polyketide synthases (PKSs) with a diverse range of biological activities. Ketosynthase (KS) gene diversity was analyzed in samples which were collected from rhizosphere soil of both diseased cucumber and healthy cucumber in Dalian, China. The phylogenetic analysis amino acid (AA) sequences indicated that the KS genes in the rhizosphere soil samples were clustered into diverse seven clades, including Sorangium cellulosum, Anabaena variabilis, Nostoc punctiforme, Xanthobacter autotrophicus, Streptomyces, myxobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Among seven major clades in the phylogenetic tree, two clades were peculiar to rhizosphere soil of diseased cucumber and one was peculiar to healthy cucumber. Among the 182 cloned KS genes, 147 KS genes were clustered with the uncultured bacteria group. Most of the KS genes showed about 80% similarity at the AA level to sequences known in GenBank. These results revealed the great diversity and novelty of KS genes in rhizosphere soil of cucumber. PMID:21780139

  15. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables. PMID:27097058

  16. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-01

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain. PMID:8181009

  17. Occidental diffusion of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) 500–1300 CE: two routes to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2012-01-01

    Background The cucumber, Cucumis sativus, is one of the most widely consumed fruit vegetables the world over. The history of its dispersal to the Occident from its centre of origin, the Indian subcontinent, has been incorrectly understood for some time, due to the confusion of cucumbers with vegetable melons. Iconographic and literary evidence has shown that cucumber was absent in Roman times, up to 500 CE, but present in Europe by late medieval times, 1300. The objective of the present investigation was to determine more accurately when the cucumber arrived in Europe and by what route. Findings and Conclusions The evidence for the movement of C. sativus westward is entirely lexicographical until the 10th century. Syriac, Persian and Byzantine Greek sources suggest the presence of cucumbers, to the east and north-east of the Mediterranean Sea (modern Iran, Iraq and Turkey), by the 6th or 7th century. Arabic medical writings suggest the presence of cucumbers in Spain as early as the mid-9th century and in Tunisia by the early 10th century. Descriptive evidence in Arabic establishes the presence of cucumbers in Andalusia by the second half of the 10th century. Latin translations from Arabic sources indicate the presence of cucumbers in southern Italy by the second half of the 11th century. These writings, together with lexicographical discrepancies in names of cucurbits in late medieval Latin writings, suggest that cucumber was introduced to Europe by two independent diffusions. One diffusion appears to have been overland from Persia into eastern and northern Europe and preceded the Islamic conquests. The other, subsequent diffusion into western and southern Europe, was probably by a mostly maritime route from Persia or the Indian subcontinent into Andalusia. PMID:22104164

  18. A new indicator in early drought diagnosis of cucumber with chlorophyll fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Heng; Li, Haifeng; Xu, Liang; Liu, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Crop population growth information can more fully reflect the state of crop growth, eliminate individual differences, and reduce error in judgment. We have built a suitable plant population growth information online monitoring system with the plant chlorophyll fluorescence and spectral scanning imaging to get the crop growth status. On the basis of the fluorescence image detection, we have studied the early drought diagnosis of cucumber. The typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters can not reflect the drought degree significantly. We define a new indication parameter (DI). With the drought deepening, DI declines. DI can enlarge the early manifestation of cucumber drought (3-5 days), indicate more significantly in the early drought diagnosis of cucumber.

  19. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. PMID:24861368

  20. Chain conformational and physicochemical properties of fucoidans from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Kunhao

    2016-11-01

    Although fucoidans from sea cucumber (SC-FUCs) have been proven as potential bioactive polysaccharides and functional food ingridents, their chain conformation and physicochemical properties were still poorly understood. This study investigated the chain conformation of fucoidans from sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-FUC), Isostichopus badionotus (Ib-FUC) and Apostichopus japonicus (Aj-FUC), of which primary structure has been recently clarified. Chain conformation parameters demonstrated that studied SC-FUCs adopted random coil conformation in 150mM NaCl solution (pH 7.4). Based on the worm-like cylinder model and atomic force microscopy, the chain stiffness of SC-FUCs was further evaluated as Am-FUC≈Ib-FUC>Aj-FUC. It was suggested that the existence of branch structure increased the chain flexibility, while sulfated pattern exerted limited influence. SC-FUCs demonstrated shear-thinning rheological behavior and negative charge. Am-FUC possessed a higher thermostability than Ib-FUC and Aj-FUC. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular characteristics of SC-FUCs, which could facilitate their further application. PMID:27516290

  1. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.; Durachko, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  2. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    PubMed

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use. PMID:16011179

  3. Stress stimulus induced resistance to Cladosporium cucumerinum in cucumber seeding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Wang, Bo-Chu; Zhao, Hu-Cheng; Wang, Jing Bo

    2005-07-25

    Up to date, the studies of plant induced resistance have become the focus in plant pathology and physiology. During the course of pathogens penetrating the plant cell, besides of chemical secretion, the pathogens may generate mechanical signal caused by the physical pressure on the plant cell. In the non-host resistance, both the chemical signal and the mechanical stress signal are considered to have contribution to the entire defense reaction acted by the plant. The penetration of pathogen Cladosporium cucumerinum to cucumber is thought to be one of the model in research of plant induced resistance. In the current study, as a mechanical signal elicitor, the appropriate stress stimulus was proved to effectually induce the resistance of cucumber seedling to C. cucumerinum. After the treatment of the stress stimulus on leaves, the activities of resistance-related enzymes were significantly increased, such as phenylanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD). Also, we found that stress stimulation may cause synthesis of lignin, which acts as the physical barrier to defense the pathogens. The results suggest that stress stimulation may not only enhance ability of the plant cell resistance to pathogen penetration but also elicit the accumulation of pathogens suppression or antimicrobial chemical substance in the plant cell. PMID:16002268

  4. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  5. [Effects of NO3- stress on cucumber seedling growth and magnesium absorbing under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan-yong; Wang, Xiu-feng; Han, Yu-rui; Yang, Jing-jing; Wei, Min; Yang, Feng-juan; Shi, Qing-hua; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The effects of NO3- stress on the growth and the magnesium absorption of cucumber seedlings were investigated after 1 and 14 d of suboptimal temperature [18 °C/12 °C (day/night)] treatment. The results indicated that the growth, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII of cucumber seedlings were significantly inhibited by NO3- stress under suboptimal temperature. The magnesium content of cucumber seedlings was also significantly decreased compared with control treatment, especially in the IV treatment (suboptimal temperature +140 mmol · L(-1) NO3- + 1 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+), and the antagonistic impact of magnesium ion absorption on the absorption of potassium and calcium ion was observed. The magnesium deficiency symptom of cucumber seedlings could be partly alleviated by increasing the concentration of magnesium ion in the nutrient solution. PMID:26571650

  6. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  7. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  8. Pasteuria penetrans for control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato and cucumber, and M. arenaria on snapdragon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria, are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Field microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumbe...

  9. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  11. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt. PMID:26250808

  12. Spectral Changes of Cucumber Leaf During Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus to Led Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viazau, Y. V.; Kozel, N. V.; Domanski, V. P.; Shalygo, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    A direct correlation between the change of fluorescence at 77 K in leaves of cucumber plants growing under LED lighting and the change of the quantitative composition of structural proteins of PS1 and PS2 was established. It was shown that light absorption and the utilization of its energy during the long-term action of narrow-band light on cucumber plants could affect considerably spectra of the leaves because of changes in the synthesis of photosystem structural proteins.

  13. Exposure to Dust and Endotoxin of Employees in Cucumber and Tomato Nurseries

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, A. M.; Hansen, V. M.; Nielsen, S. H.; Olsen, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols in occupational settings is associated with a range of adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure levels to dust and endotoxin of people working in two cucumber nurseries and two tomato nurseries. Exposure was measured for greenhouse workers (n = 70) mainly working on harvesting cucumbers and tomatoes and clearing the plants after the harvest season. The people were exposed to between 0.2 and 15 mg inhalable dust m−3 (median = 1.6 mg m−3) and between 0.5 and 400 ng inhalable endotoxin m−3 (median = 32 ng m−3). The exposure to ‘total dust’ and endotoxin measured by stationary samplers (n = 30) in the greenhouses was low. Endotoxin was present in relatively high concentrations on cucumber leaves compared with leaves on pot plants. The Danish occupational exposure limit (OEL) for total organic dust is 3 mg m−3 and 36% and 17% of the cucumber and tomato workers, respectively, were exposed to >3.0 mg inhalable dust m−3. There is no OEL for endotoxin, but ‘no effect levels’ at ∼15 ng m−3 have been found. The majority of subjects (65%) were exposed to >15 ng m−3. Significantly higher exposure was found for employees in cucumber nurseries than for employees in tomato nurseries. Clearing tomato plants after the harvest season caused a higher exposure to endotoxin than tomato harvesting. In conclusion, people working in cucumber and tomato nurseries were often exposed to high levels of inhalable dust and endotoxin. Cucumber harvest workers were exposed to significantly more dust and endotoxin than tomato harvest workers. The dust and endotoxin aerosolized during the working processes were only transported to other areas in the greenhouses to a very low degree. Cucumber and tomato leaves were identified as endotoxin reservoirs. PMID:19033558

  14. Deposit-Feeding Sea Cucumbers Enhance Mineralization and Nutrient Cycling in Organically-Enriched Coastal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    MacTavish, Thomas; Stenton-Dozey, Jeanie; Vopel, Kay; Savage, Candida

    2012-01-01

    Background Bioturbators affect multiple biogeochemical interactions and have been suggested as suitable candidates to mitigate organic matter loading in marine sediments. However, predicting the effects of bioturbators at an ecosystem level can be difficult due to their complex positive and negative interactions with the microbial community. Methodology/Principal Findings We quantified the effects of deposit-feeding sea cucumbers on benthic algal biomass (microphytobenthos, MPB), bacterial abundance, and the sediment–seawater exchange of dissolved oxygen and nutrients. The sea cucumbers increased the efflux of inorganic nitrogen (ammonium, NH4+) from organically enriched sediments, which stimulated algal productivity. Grazing by the sea cucumbers on MPB (evidenced by pheopigments), however, caused a net negative effect on primary producer biomass and total oxygen production. Further, there was an increased abundance of bacteria in sediment with sea cucumbers, suggesting facilitation. The sea cucumbers increased the ratio of oxygen consumption to production in surface sediment by shifting the microbial balance from producers to decomposers. This shift explains the increased efflux of inorganic nitrogen and concordant reduction in organic matter content in sediment with bioturbators. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates the functional role and potential of sea cucumbers to ameliorate some of the adverse effects of organic matter enrichment in coastal ecosystems. PMID:23209636

  15. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar ‘EP6392’ which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  16. Mechanical stress induces neuroendocrine and immune responses of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jie; Li, Fenghui; Sun, Huiling; Gao, Fei; Yan, Jingping; Gai, Chunlei; Chen, Aihua; Wang, Qingyin

    2015-04-01

    Grading procedure in routine sea cucumber hatchery production is thought to affect juvenile sea cucumber immunological response. The present study investigated the impact of a 3-min mechanical perturbation mimicking the grading procedure on neuroendocrine and immune parameters of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. During the application of stress, concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine in coelomic fluid increased significantly, indicating that the mechanical perturbation resulted in a transient state of stress in sea cucumbers. Coelomocytes concentration in coelomic fluid increased transiently after the beginning of stressing, and reached the maximum in 1 h. Whereas, coelomocytes phagocytosis at 3 min, superoxide anion production from 3 min to 0.5 h, acid phosphatase activity at 0.5 h, and phenoloxidase activity from 3 min to 0.5 h were all significantly down-regulated. All of the immune parameters recovered to baseline levels after the experiment was conducted for 8 h, and an immunostimulation occurred after the stress considering the phagocytosis and acid phosphatase activity. The results suggested that, as in other marine invertebrates, neuroendocrine/immune connections exist in sea cucumber A. japonicus. Mechanical stress can elicit a profound influence on sea cucumber neuroendocrine system. Neuroendocrine messengers act in turn to modulate the immunity functions. Therefore, these effects should be considered for developing better husbandry procedures.

  17. Distinct physiological responses of tomato and cucumber plants in silicon-mediated alleviation of cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jiawen; Guo, Jia; Hu, Yanhong; Gong, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    The alleviative effects of silicon (Si) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity were investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown hydroponically. The growth of both plant species was inhibited by 100 μM Cd, but Si application counteracted the adverse effects on growth. Si application significantly decreased the Cd concentrations in shoots of both species and roots of cucumber. The root-to-shoot transport of Cd was depressed by added Si in tomato whereas it was increased by added Si in cucumber. The total content of organic acids was decreased in tomato leaves but increased in cucumber roots and leaves by Si application under Cd stress. Si application also increased the cell wall polysaccharide levels in the roots of both species under Cd toxicity. Si-mediated changes in levels of organic acids and cell wall polysaccharides might contribute to the differences in Cd transport in the two species. In addition, Si application also mitigated Cd-induced oxidative damage in both species. The results indicate that there were different mechanisms for Si-mediated decrease in shoot Cd accumulation: in tomato, Si supply decreased root-to-shoot Cd transport; whereas in cucumber, Si supply reduced the Cd uptake by roots. It is suggested that Si-mediated Cd tolerance is associated with different physiological responses in tomato and cucumber plants. PMID:26136764

  18. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    PubMed

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  19. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals. PMID:22072996

  20. Compositional characteristics and antioxidant properties of fresh and processed sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ying; Khan, Muhammad Ahmad; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2007-02-21

    The antioxidant activity of fresh and rehydrated sea cucumber (Cucumaria frondosa) samples with/without internal organs was evaluated for the first time. In addition, their proximate, amino acid, and fatty acid compositions were examined. Rehydrated sea cucumber samples in distilled water were prepared from oven-dried products. All samples contained 83-90% moisture, but showed a significant difference among groups in their protein and lipid contents. Glutamic acid was the predominant amino acid in sea cucumber, followed by glycine and aspartic acid. Essential amino acids such as leucine and lysine were also present at high levels. The trend for free amino acid was different from that of total amino acids and varied among groups. Lipids in sea cucumber were dominated by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), ranging from 43.2 to 56.7% of the total fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) was present at a much lower concentration of 2.0-5.8%. All sea cucumber samples exhibited radical scavenging property against 2,2'-azobis(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, with rehydrated samples, especially those with internal organs, possessing higher antioxidant activity than their fresh counterparts. No correlation existed between radical scavenging capacity and total phenolics content, suggesting that other components, in addition to phenolic compounds, contribute to the antioxidant activity of sea cucumber. PMID:17243707

  1. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-01-01

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns. PMID:25959296

  2. Role of Transcription Factor HAT1 in Modulating Arabidopsis thaliana Response to Cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Zou, Li-Juan; Deng, Xing-Guang; Han, Xue-Ying; Tan, Wen-Rong; Zhu, Li-Jun; Xi, De-Hui; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana homeodomain-leucine zipper protein 1 (HAT1) belongs to the homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family class II that plays important roles in plant growth and development as a transcription factor. To elucidate further the role of HD-Zip II transcription factors in plant defense, the A. thaliana hat1, hat1hat3 and hat1hat2hat3 mutants and HAT1 overexpression plants (HAT1OX) were challenged with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). HAT1OX displayed more susceptibility, while loss-of-function mutants of HAT1 exhibited less susceptibility to CMV infection. HAT1 and its close homologs HAT2 and HAT3 function redundantly, as the triple mutant hat1hat2hat3 displayed increased virus resistance compared with the hat1 and hat1hat3 mutants. Furthermore, the induction of the antioxidant system (the activities and expression of enzymatic antioxidants) and the expression of defense-associated genes were down-regulated in HAT1OX but up-regulated in hat1hat2hat3 when compared with Col-0 after CMV infection. Further evidence showed that the involvement of HAT1 in the anti-CMV defense response might be dependent on salicylic acid (SA) but not jasmonic acid (JA). The SA level or expression of SA synthesis-related genes was decreased in HAT1OX but increased in hat1hat2hat3 compared with Col-0 after CMV infection, but there were little difference in JA level or JA synthesis-related gene expression among HAT1OX or defective plants. In addition, HAT1 expression is dependent on SA accumulation. Taken together, our study indicated that HAT1 negatively regulates plant defense responses to CMV. PMID:27328697

  3. Genetic Structure and Molecular Variability of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolates in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Shahideh; Arevalo, Rafael; Falk, Bryce W.; Groves, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L.) in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (π) was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure. PMID:24801880

  4. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  5. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  6. The first echinoderm gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus).

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunhua; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Wang, Yanhong; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been described as a key enzyme that facilitating the processing and presentation of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted antigen in mammals. In this study, the first echinoderm GILT named StmGILT was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus). The StmGILT cDNA is 1529 bp in length, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 87 bp, a 3'-UTR of 674 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp that encoding a protein of 255 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 27.82 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 4.73. The putative StmGILT protein possesses all the main characteristics of known GILT proteins, including a signature sequence, a reductase active site CXXC, twelve conserved cysteines, and two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. For the gene structure, StmGILT contains four exons separated by three introns. In the promoter region of StmGILT gene, an NF-κB binding site and an IFN-γ activation site were found. The thiol reductase activity of recombinant StmGILT protein was also demonstrated in this study. In addition, the highest level of mRNA expression was noticed in coelomocytes of S. monotuberculatus. In in vitro experiments performed in coelomocytes, the expression of StmGILT mRNA was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), inactivated bacteria or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] challenge, suggested that the sea cucumber GILT might play critical roles in the innate immune defending against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25449705

  7. Ability of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Fo47 To Induce Resistance against Pythium ultimum Infection in Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Benhamou, Nicole; Garand, Chantal; Goulet, Alain

    2002-01-01

    The influence exerted by nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo47 in triggering cucumber protection against infection by Pythium ultimum was investigated ultrastructurally. Macroscopic and microscopic observations of the pathogen colony in dual cultures revealed that reduction of Pythium growth was associated with marked disorders, including generalized disorganization of the host cytoplasm, retraction of the plasmalemma, and complete loss of the protoplasm. Cytochemical labeling of cellulose with an exoglucanase-gold complex showed that the cellulose component of the host cell walls was structurally preserved at a time when the host cytoplasm had undergone complete disorganization. A similar antagonistic process was observed at the root cell surface. Most striking and interesting was the finding that mycoparasitism, as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of Fo47 hyphae within nearly empty cells of the pathogen, occurred not only at the root surface but also within the invaded root tissues. The specific labeling pattern obtained with the exoglucanase-gold complex confirmed that Fo47 successfully penetrated cells of the pathogen, both in the rhizosphere and inside the root tissues. Pythium cells that could evade the first defensive line in the rhizosphere could penetrate the root epidermis, but their growth was restricted to the outermost tissues. Positive correlations between Fo47 treatment and induced resistance to infection by P. ultimum in cucumber were confirmed by (i) the reduction of pathogen viability; (ii) the elaboration of newly formed barriers, a phenomenon which was not seen in Fo47-free plants, where the pathogen proliferated in all root tissues within a few days; and (iii) the occlusion of intercellular spaces with a dense material likely enriched in phenolics. Taken together, our observations provide the first convincing evidence that Fo47 exerts a direct inhibitory effect on P. ultimum through a combination of antibiosis and mycoparasitism, in

  8. Fatty acid composition of the edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis.

    PubMed

    Careaga, Valeria P; Muniain, Claudia; Maier, Martas S

    2013-04-01

    The edible sea cucumber Athyonidium chilensis is a fishery resource of high commercial value in Chile, but no information on its lipid and fatty acid composition has been previously reported. Phospholipids were the major lipid contents of the ethanolic extracts of tubules, internal organs and body wall of A. chilensis. Saturated fatty acids predominated in tubule phospholipids (40.69%), while in internal organs and body wall phospholipids, the monounsaturated fatty acids were in higher amounts (41.99% and 37.94%, respectively). The main polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids were C20 : 2ω-6, arachidonic (C20 : 4ω-6) and eicosapentaenoic (C20 : 5ω-3) acids. These results demonstrate for the first time that A. chilensis is a valuable food for human consumption in terms of fatty acids. PMID:22583008

  9. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  10. [Co-crystallization of cucumber concentrate (Cucumis sativa L.)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, A; Beristain, C I

    1998-09-01

    A sucrose syrup of 70 degrees Brix was concentrated until a concentration greater than 95 degrees Brix was attained. It was studied the effect of concentration (20, 25 and 35 degrees Brix) on the physical properties of the cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) granules. Moisture content, solubility, and density were determined. The best results were found for the concentrated at 30 degrees Brix. Lemon juice was added to the concentrated to decrease pH from 5.5 to 4.0 to improve flavor and to avoid growth of molds and yeast. No significant differences in the higroscopicity were found between both pH (s). Sensory evaluation shows that 30 judges of 45 preferred the sample made with the co-crystallizate containing lemon juice. PMID:9951539

  11. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ayumi; Shiga, Ikumi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Shunya; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress. PMID:26275144

  12. Involvement of Singlet Oxygen in 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Photodynamic Damage of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Niranjan; Tripathy, Baishnab Charan

    1992-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., cv Poinsette) plants were sprayed with 20 millimolar 5-aminolevulinic acid and then incubated in the dark for 14 hours. The intact chloroplasts were isolated from the above plants in the dark and were exposed to weak light (250 micromoles per square meter per second). Within 30 minutes, photosystem II activity was reduced by 50%. The singlet oxygen (1O2) scavengers, histidine and sodium azide (NaN3) significantly protected against the damage caused to photosystem II. The hydroxyl radical scavenger formate failed to protect the thylakoid membranes. The production of 1O2 monitored as N,N-dimethyl p-nitrosoaniline bleaching increased as a function of light exposure time of treated chloroplasts and was abolished by the 1O2 quencher, NaN3. Membrane lipid peroxidation monitored as malondialdehyde production was also significantly reduced when chloroplasts were illuminated in the presence of NaN3 and histidine. Protochlorophyllide was the most abundant pigment accumulated in intact chloroplasts isolated from 5-aminolevulinic acid-treated plants and was probably acting as type II photosensitizer. PMID:16668650

  13. The magnesium-chelatase in developing cucumber cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Mg-chelatase in chloroplasts catalyzes the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin. This step is the first in the tetrapyrrole pathway unique to chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mg-chelatase was assayed in semi-green cucumber cotyledons by an adaptation of the method of Fuesler at al, (1984) Plant Physiol. 74, 928-933. Plastid intactness was essential for Mg-chelatase activity. The estimated Km for the protoporphyrin substrate was between 0.5 and 1.0 {mu}M. In the presence of 4 mM ATP and an ATP regenerating system, activities of 500 pmol Mg-Protoporphyrin/mg protein/20 min were routinely recorded. In greening cotyledons, the specific activity of the Mg-chelatase increased steadily until the chlorophyll content of the plastids reached about 30 nmol/mg plastid protein, at which point further greening caused a decrease in Mg-chelatase activity. The total heme content of the plastids also rose with greening and paralleled the increase in Mg-chelatase activity. The regulation of heme levels and Mg-chelatase activity in greening cotyledons will be discussed. Substrate specificity studies showed that mesoporphyrin and deuteroporphyrin were active substrates for Mg chelation. The Mg-chelatase was not inhibited by its product, Mg-Protoporphyrin, but was inhibited by N-methyl mesoporphyrin (I{sub 50} = 2.5 {mu}M). Mg-chelatase activity was also measured in fully mature pea and corn chloroplasts (grown under diurnal light); the specific activities were comparable with those in cucumber.

  14. Localization of a new gene for bitterness in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengping; Miao, Han; Sun, Rifei; Wang, Xiaowu; Huang, Sanwen; Wehner, Todd C; Gu, Xingfang

    2013-01-01

    Bitterness in cucumber fruit and foliage is due to the presence of cucurbitacins. Several genes have been described that control the trait, with bi (bi-1) making fruit and foliage bitter free and Bt (Bt-1) making the fruit highly bitter. Previous studies have reported the inheritance and molecular markers linked to bi-1 or Bt-1, but we were interested in studying the inheritance of fruit bitterness in the progeny of 2 nonbitter fruit inbred lines. The objective was to determine the inheritance of cucumber fruit and foliage bitterness and to locate them on a current linkage map using a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived by crossing 9110Gt and 9930. It was concluded from the inheritance analysis that there were 2 loci controlling fruit bitterness in the population. One locus was in the same position as the location previously identified for bi-1, and another locus was for bi-3. Using a simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, 2 loci for fruit bitterness in this RILs population were mapped. The locus of bi-1 was located at the region between SSR0004 and SSR02309 within the genetic distance of 5.2 cM on chromosome 6. The locus of bi-3 was placed in the region of SSR00116-SSR05321 within the genetic distance of 6.3 cM on chromosome 5. The physical distances for the regions of bi-1 and bi-3 were 11,430.94 Kb with 160 predicted genes and 1528.23 Kb with 198 predicted genes, respectively. Among 160 predicted genes for bi-1, there is a terpene synthase gene named Csa008595, which was speculated as the candidate gene of bi-1. PMID:23091223

  15. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  16. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber of different market classes. The genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using three mapping populations developed from cross betwee...

  17. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  18. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  19. Nondestructive detection of chilling injury in cucumber fruit using hyperspectral imaging with feature selection and supervised classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling injury, as a physiological disorder in cucumbers, occurs after the fruit has been subjected to low temperatures. It is thus desirable to detect chilling injury at early stages and/or remove chilling injured cucumbers during sorting and grading. This research was aimed to apply hyperspectral...

  20. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  1. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  2. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  3. Resurgance of soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber after application of methyl bromide chemical alternatives and solarization in tomato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during four consectutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long-term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato field...

  4. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber and melon are two economically important vegetable species. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon, where twelve melon chromosomes are thought to have undergone chromosome fusion to result in the ...

  5. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a combination of fumaric acid and cinnamaldehyde that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring compound, fumaric acid, was evaluated as a potential preservative for the long-term storage of cucumbers. Fumaric acid inhibited growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in an acidified cucumber juice medium model system resembling conditions that could allow preservation of cucu...

  6. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Until very recently, cucumber genetic and genomic resources, especially molecular markers, have been very limited, impeding progress of cucumber breeding efforts. Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high level of polymorphism and codominant inheritance. Data from previously characterized genomes has shown that these repeats vary in frequency, motif sequence, and genomic location across taxa. During the last year, the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced including the Chinese fresh market type inbred line '9930' and the North American pickling type inbred line 'Gy14'. These sequences provide a powerful tool for developing markers in a large scale. In this study, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in 203 Mbp assembled Gy14 DNA sequences, representing 55% of its nuclear genome, and in cucumber EST sequences. Similar analyses were performed in genomic and EST data from seven other plant species, and the results were compared with those of cucumber. Results A total of 112,073 perfect repeats were detected in the Gy14 cucumber genome sequence, accounting for 0.9% of the assembled Gy14 genome, with an overall density of 551.9 SSRs/Mbp. While tetranucleotides were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, dinucleotide repeats, which had more repeat units than any other SSR type, had the highest cumulative sequence length. Coding regions (ESTs) of the cucumber genome had fewer microsatellites compared to its genomic sequence, with trinucleotides predominating in EST sequences. AAG was the most frequent repeat in cucumber ESTs. Overall, AT-rich motifs prevailed in both genomic and EST data. Compared to the other species examined, cucumber genomic sequence had the highest density of SSRs (although comparable to the density of poplar

  7. Separation of light-induced linear, cyclic and stroma-sourced electron fluxes to P700+ in cucumber leaf discs after pre-illumination at a chilling temperature.

    PubMed

    Fan, Da-Yong; Hope, Alexander B; Jia, Husen; Chow, Wah Soon

    2008-06-01

    Pre-illumination of cucumber leaf discs at 4 degrees C with low-irradiance white light (i) led to a marked decrease in the extent of photo-oxidation of P700 (the special chlorophyll pair in the PSI reaction center) in actinic light at room temperature and (ii) hastened the post-illumination re-reduction of P700+. Quantifying the linear, cyclic and stroma-sourced electron fluxes to P700+ in two actinic light regimes, we found that there was no increase in cyclic or linear electron fluxes to account for these changes. Rather, we observed a decrease in the maximum extent of P700 photo-oxidation assayed by a strong flash superimposed on continuous, background light of wavelength 723 nm, which we interpret to represent a loss of stable charge separation in PSI due to enhanced charge recombination as a result of the pre-illumination treatment. The funneling of electrons towards fewer non-damaged PSI complexes could explain the hastened post-illumination re-reduction of P700+, aided by a slight increase in a stroma-sourced electron flux after prolonged pre-illumination at 4 degrees C. Quantifying the separate fluxes to P700+ helps to elucidate the effects of chilling of cucumber leaf discs in the light and the reasons for the hastened post-illumination re-reduction of P700+. PMID:18426807

  8. Unraveling Main Limiting Sites of Photosynthesis under Below- and Above-Ground Heat Stress in Cucumber and the Alleviatory Role of Luffa Rootstock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Ahammed, Golam J.; Zhou, Guona; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most thermo-sensitive processes in plants. Although the severity of heat stress could be attenuated by grafting approach, the primary damaged site of photosynthesis system under heat stress and the regulatory mechanism of rootstock-mediated heat tolerance are poorly understood. In the current study, cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and heat-tolerant luffa roots were exposed to root-zone heat (25/40°C) and aerial heat (40/25°C) individually and in combination (40/40°C) to understand the response of photosynthetic process by investigating energy absorption and distribution, electron transport in photosystem (PS) II and I, and CO2 assimilation. According to the results, root-zone heat stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decreasing Rubisco activity, while aerial heat stress mainly through inhibiting PSII acceptor side. The imbalance in light absorption and utilization resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species that caused damage to photosynthetic apparatus, forming a vicious cycle. On the contrary, grafting cucumber onto heat-tolerant luffa rootstock alleviated heat-induced photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress by maintaining higher root vitality, HSP70 accumulation, and antioxidant potential. PMID:27313587

  9. Unraveling Main Limiting Sites of Photosynthesis under Below- and Above-Ground Heat Stress in Cucumber and the Alleviatory Role of Luffa Rootstock.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Ahammed, Golam J; Zhou, Guona; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Zhou, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most thermo-sensitive processes in plants. Although the severity of heat stress could be attenuated by grafting approach, the primary damaged site of photosynthesis system under heat stress and the regulatory mechanism of rootstock-mediated heat tolerance are poorly understood. In the current study, cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and heat-tolerant luffa roots were exposed to root-zone heat (25/40°C) and aerial heat (40/25°C) individually and in combination (40/40°C) to understand the response of photosynthetic process by investigating energy absorption and distribution, electron transport in photosystem (PS) II and I, and CO2 assimilation. According to the results, root-zone heat stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decreasing Rubisco activity, while aerial heat stress mainly through inhibiting PSII acceptor side. The imbalance in light absorption and utilization resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species that caused damage to photosynthetic apparatus, forming a vicious cycle. On the contrary, grafting cucumber onto heat-tolerant luffa rootstock alleviated heat-induced photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress by maintaining higher root vitality, HSP70 accumulation, and antioxidant potential. PMID:27313587

  10. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chang-long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber. PMID:26979661

  11. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle. PMID:25129942

  12. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  13. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m{sup -2}) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50{degrees}C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50{degrees}were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37{degrees}C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai; Ni, Hanwen

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response. PMID:27231648

  15. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  16. Reliable Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression in Cucumber Grown under Different Nitrogen Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EFα proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress. PMID:24058446

  17. CsAP3: A Cucumber Homolog to Arabidopsis APETALA3 with Novel Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin-Jing; Li, Feng; Wang, Dong-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xia; Liu, Na; Gu, Hai-Tao; Zou, Cheng; Luo, Jing-Chu; He, Chao-Xing; Huang, San-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

    2016-01-01

    In our previous efforts to understand the regulatory mechanisms of cucumber unisexual flower development, we observed a stamen-specific down-regulation of the ethylene receptor CsETR1 in stage 6 female flowers of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). This down-regulation is correlated with the primordial anther-specific DNA damage that characterizes inappropriate stamen development in cucumber female flowers. To understand how CsETR1 is down regulated in the stamen, we characterized a cucumber MADS box gene homologous to Arabidopsis AP3, CsAP3. We demonstrated that CsAP3 is functionally equivalent to the Arabidopsis B-class MADS gene AP3. However, three novel characteristics of CsAP3 were found. These include firstly, binding and activating CsETR1 promoter in vitro and in vivo; secondly, containing a GV repeat in its C-terminus, which is conserved in cucurbits and required for the transcription activation; and thirdly, decreased expression as the node number increases, which is similar to that found for CsETR1. These findings revealed not only the conserved function of CsAP3 as a B-class floral identity gene, but also its unique functions in regulation of female flower development in cucumber. PMID:27540391

  18. Transcriptomic analysis reveals distinct resistant response by physcion and chrysophanol against cucumber powdery mildew

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanping; Tian, Shilin; Yang, Xiaojun; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yuhai

    2016-01-01

    Physcion and chrysophanol induce defense responses against powdery mildew in cucumbers. The combination of these two compounds has synergistic interaction against the disease. We performed RNA-seq on cucumber leaf samples treated with physcion and chrysophanol alone and with their combination. We generated 17.6 Gb of high-quality sequencing data (∼2 Gb per sample) and catalogued the expressions profiles of 12,293 annotated cucumber genes in each sample. We identified numerous differentially expressed genes that exhibited distinct expression patterns among the three treatments. The gene expression patterns of the Chr and Phy treatments were more similar to each other than to the Phy × Chr treatment. The Phy × Chr treatment induced the highest number of differentially expressed genes. This dramatic transcriptional change after Phy × Chr treatment leaves reflects that physcion combined with chrysophanol treatment was most closely associated with induction of disease resistance. The analysis showed that the combination treatment caused expression changes of numerous defense-related genes. These genes have known or potential roles in structural, chemical and signaling defense responses and were enriched in functional gene categories potentially responsible for cucumber resistance. These results clearly demonstrated that disease resistance in cucumber leaves was significantly influenced by the combined physcion and chrysophanol treatment. Thus, physcion and chrysophanol are appealing candidates for further investigation of the gene expression and associated regulatory mechanisms related to the defense response. PMID:27231648

  19. Growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka during periods of inactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Rongbin; Zang, Yuanqi; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2013-03-01

    The growth, metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated during periods of inactivity. The body weight, oxygen consumption rate (OCR), activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A. japonicus were measured during starvation, experimental aestivation and aestivation. The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period ( P < 0.05). The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments, but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment. The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments, whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment. The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24°C. To some extent, the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response. These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism of A. japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  20. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: →3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1→4) [FucαX(1→3)]GlcAβ(1→, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  1. The morphology of autotomy structures in the sea cucumber Eupentacta quinquesemita before and during evisceration.

    PubMed

    Byrne, M

    2001-03-01

    Evisceration in the dendrochirotid sea cucumber Eupentacta quinquesemita is a whole-body response involving a predictable series of events including muscle contraction and failure of three autotomy structures: (i) the introvert, the dexterous anterior extensible portion of the body wall, (ii) the tendon linking the pharyngeal retractor muscle to the longitudinal body wall muscle and (iii) the intestine-cloacal junction. The autotomy structures are histologically complex, consisting of muscle, nervous and connective tissue. Autotomy resulted from complete loss in the tensility of the connective tissue ground substance. Separation of the autotomy structures was facilitated by muscle contraction. The cell and tissue changes involved with autotomy were documented by microscopic examination of autotomising tissue. Change in the autotomy structures appears to initiate from the peritoneal side with delamination of the peritoneum followed by a wave of disruption as the connective tissue is infiltrated by coelomic fluid. Evisceration and autotomy in E. quinquesemita are neurally controlled, so particular attention was paid to the fate of neuronal elements. Neurosecretory-like processes containing large dense vesicles and axons were present in the connective tissue layers of the autotomy structures in association with extracellular matrix, muscles and neurons. These neuronal elements remained largely intact during autotomy and did not appear to be a source of factors that effect connective tissue change. They may, however, be involved in muscle activity. Holothuroid autotomy structures are completely or partially bathed in coelomic fluid, so there is potential for hormonal or neurosecretory activity using the coelomic fluid as a conduit. Connective tissue change during evisceration appears to be effected or mediated by an evisceration factor present in coelomic fluid that has a direct transmitter-like or neurosecretory-like mode of operation. The final outcome, expulsion of

  2. [Effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on nutrient distribution in cucumber and tomato plants and their fruit quality].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yan-Dong; Yang, Pei-Ling; Ren, Shu-Mei; Liu, Hong; Wu, Wen-Yong; S u, Yan-Ping; Fang, Yan-Xu

    2011-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on the nutrient distribution in cucumber and tomato plants and their fruit quality. Irrigation with treated wastewater promoted tomato growth significantly, but had definite inhibition effect on cucumber growth. After the irrigation with treated wastewater, the nitrogen in plants had the characteristics of upward translocation, potassium was easily to be accumulated in cucumber leaf but not accumulated in tomato root, and sodium was mostly accumulated in root but less enriched in leaf, not giving damage to the plants. No significant effects were observed on the distribution of calcium, magnesium, and chlorine in plants. Under the irrigation with treated wastewater, the overall quality of cucumber and tomato fruits was less affected. The nitrate concentration in cucumber and tomato fruits was increased by 5.3% and 32.9%, respectively, but still lower than the state food safety standard of China. PMID:21608253

  3. Characteristics of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus's population in the Sea of Japan (Kievka Bay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilova, G. S.; Sukhin, I. Yu.

    2011-06-01

    In Kievka Bay of the Sea of Japan, the population of the Japanese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus inhabits the areas of coarse sediments and complex bottom topography. These distributional patterns are closely related to the species' ecology, i.e., to the demand for protection against the wave turbulence. The aggregationing coverage of the sea cucumber population is about 80 hectares, where ˜200 thousand animals were accounted for in the last years. The aggregation's area varies during the year, which is closely related to the species' biological peculiarities, such as their behavioral patterns and the redistribution of their food resources. A significant increase of the juvenile population occurred after the farm-reared sea cucumber spat were released in 2003.

  4. Distribution and accumulative pattern of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in edible vegetables of cucumber, tomato, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Bedair M; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Vu, Ngoc Thang; Kim, Il Seop; Kang, Ho Min; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-01-21

    Veterinary antibiotics can be released to environment by the animals' excretions, which thereby poses human health and ecological risks. Six antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) at three concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) were employed in pots filled with a loamy sand upland soil. Three types of vegetable seedlings, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus), cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were also cultivated during 45 d in the greenhouse. All antibiotics taken up by tested plants showed negative effects on growth. Relatively high levels of tetracyclines and sulfonamides (SAs) were detected in the nonedible parts, roots, and leaves of cucumber and tomato, but fruit parts accumulated them lower than acceptable daily intake. Indeed, cucumber roots accumulated SAs by up to 94.6% of total addition (at 5 mg kg(-1) soil). PMID:25495233

  5. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers. PMID:27376927

  6. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. PMID:25727024

  7. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, C Y; Adams, D O

    1980-11-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C(2)H(4) production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C(2)H(4) production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C(2)H(4) is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C(2)H(4) production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C(2)H(4) biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-(14)C]methionine to ACC and C(2)H(4) than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  8. Ethylene Production by Chilled Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chien Yi; Adams, Douglas O.

    1980-01-01

    Chilling at 2.5 C accelerated the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and C2H4 production in cucumber fruit. Skin tissue contained higher levels of ACC and was more sensitive to chilling than was cortex tissue. Accumulation of ACC in chilled tissue was detected after 1 day of chilling and remained elevated even after C2H4 production started to decline. These data suggest that ACC synthesis is readily stimulated by chilling, whereas the system that converts ACC to C2H4 is vulnerable to chilling injury. Chilling-induced C2H4 production was inhibited by amino-ethoxyvinylglycine, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and cycloheximide. The utilization of methionine for ACC formation and chilling-induced C2H4 biosynthesis was established using l-[3,4-14C]methionine. Chilled tissue had a higher capacity to convert l-[3,4-14C]methionine to ACC and C2H4 than did nonchilled tissue. PMID:16661538

  9. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  10. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877