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Sample records for monosomic addition lines

  1. Cucumis monosomic alien addition lines: morphological, cytological, and genotypic analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Feng; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Qian, Chun-Tao; Jahn, Molly M; Staub, Jack E; Zhuang, Fei-Yun; Lou, Qun-Feng; Ren, Gang

    2004-05-01

    Cucumis hystrix Chakr. (HH, 2n=24), a wild relative of the cultivated cucumber, possesses several potentially valuable disease-resistance and abiotic stress-tolerance traits for cucumber ( C. sativus L., CC, 2n=14) improvement. Numerous attempts have been made to transfer desirable traits since the successful interspecific hybridization between C. hystrix and C. sativus, one of which resulted in the production of an allotriploid (HCC, 2n=26: one genome of C. hystrix and two of C. sativus). When this genotype was treated with colchicine to induce polyploidy, two monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) (plant nos. 87 and 517: 14 CC+1 H, 2n=15) were recovered among 252 viable plants. Each of these plants was morphologically distinct from allotriploids and cultivated cucumbers. Cytogenetic and molecular marker analyses were performed to confirm the genetic constitution and further characterize these two MAALs. Chromosome counts made from at least 30 meristematic cells from each plant confirmed 15 nuclear chromosomes. In pollen mother cells of plant nos. 87 and 517, seven bivalents and one univalent were observed at diakinesis and metaphase I; the frequency of trivalent formation was low (about 4-5%). At anaphase I and II, stochastic and asymmetric division led to the formation of two gamete classes: n=7 and n=8; however, pollen fertility was relatively high. Pollen stainability in plant no. 87 was 86.7% and in plant no. 517 was 93.2%. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed using 100 random 10-base primers. Genotypes obtained with eight primers (A-9, A-11, AH-13, AI-19, AJ-18, AJ-20, E-19, and N-20) showed a band common to the two MAAL plants and C. hystrix that was absent in C. sativus, confirming that the alien chromosomes present in the MAALs were derived from C. hystrix. Morphological differences and differences in banding patterns were also observed between plant nos. 87 and 517 after amplification with primers AI-5, AJ-13, N-12, and N-20

  2. Abnormal mitosis induced by wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Lan; Yang, Man-Yu; Ren, Zheng-Long; Yan, Ben-Ju; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Octoploid triticale were derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Mianyang11') × rye (Secale cereale L. 'Kustro'), and some progeny were obtained by the backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. In situ hybridization using rye genomic DNA and repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes was used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Three wheat-rye 1R monosomic addition lines and a wheat line (12FT-1685) containing a 1R and a 1BL.1RS translocation chromosome were identified. Abnormal mitosis was observed in the two lines. During mitosis of a 1R monosomic addition line (3-8-20-1R-2), lagging chromosomes, micronuclei, chromosomal bridges, and the one pole segregation of 1R chromosome were observed. Abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was also observed in some of the self-progeny plants of lines 12FT-1685 and 3-8-20-1R-2. These progeny contained 1R chromosome or 1R chromosome arm. In addition, 4B chromosomes were absent from one of the progeny of 3-8-20-1R-2. This abnormal mitotic behaviour of chromosomes was not observed in two other 1R monosomic addition lines. These results indicate that a single 1R chromosome added to wheat might cause abnormal mitotic behaviour of both wheat and rye chromosomes and different genetic variations might occurr among the sibling 1R monosomic addition lines. PMID:24564212

  3. Alterations and Abnormal Mitosis of Wheat Chromosomes Induced by Wheat-Rye Monosomic Addition Lines

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Fei, Yunyan; Tan, Feiquan; Ren, Zhenglong; Yan, Benju; Zhang, Huaiyu; Tang, Zongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. ‘Mianyang11’×rye S. cereale L. ‘Kustro’ and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with ‘Mianyang11’ followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in ‘Mianyang11’. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat. PMID:23936213

  4. Biochemical analyses of the antioxidative activity and chemical ingredients in eight different Allium alien monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Matsumoto, Misato; Date, Rie; Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs. PMID:24317054

  5. Salt stress induced proteome and transcriptome changes in sugar beet monosomic addition line M14.

    PubMed

    Yang, Le; Ma, Chunquan; Wang, Linlin; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2012-06-15

    Sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 displays interesting phenotypes such as apomixis and salt stress tolerance. Here we reported proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of M14 leaves and roots under 500mM NaCl treatment for seven days. Proteins from control and treated samples were extracted and separated using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). A total of 40 protein spots from leaf gels and 36 protein spots from root gels exhibited significant changes. Using mass spectrometry and database searching, 38 unique proteins in leaves and 29 unique proteins in roots were identified. The proteins included those involved in metabolism, protein folding, photosynthesis, and protein degradation. In addition, cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Fifty-eight unigenes including 14 singletons and 44 contigs were obtained. Some salt-responsive genes were identified to function in metabolism, photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, protein synthesis and protein degradation. This research has revealed candidate genes and proteins for detailed functional characterization, and set the stage for further investigation of the salt tolerance mechanisms in sugar beet. PMID:22498239

  6. Seed colour loci, homoeology and linkage groups of the C genome chromosomes revealed in Brassica rapa–B. oleracea monosomic alien addition lines

    PubMed Central

    Heneen, Waheeb K.; Geleta, Mulatu; Brismar, Kerstin; Xiong, Zhiyong; Pires, J. Chris; Hasterok, Robert; Stoute, Andrew I.; Scott, Roderick J.; King, Graham J.; Kurup, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Brassica rapa and B. oleracea are the progenitors of oilseed rape B. napus. The addition of each chromosome of B. oleracea to the chromosome complement of B. rapa results in a series of monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs). Analysis of MAALs determines which B. oleracea chromosomes carry genes controlling specific phenotypic traits, such as seed colour. Yellow-seeded oilseed rape is a desirable breeding goal both for food and livestock feed end-uses that relate to oil, protein and fibre contents. The aims of this study included developing a missing MAAL to complement an available series, for studies on seed colour control, chromosome homoeology and assignment of linkage groups to B. oleracea chromosomes. Methods A new batch of B. rapa–B. oleracea aneuploids was produced to generate the missing MAAL. Seed colour and other plant morphological features relevant to differentiation of MAALs were recorded. For chromosome characterization, Snow's carmine, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used. Key Results The final MAAL was developed. Morphological traits that differentiated the MAALs comprised cotyledon number, leaf morphology, flower colour and seed colour. Seed colour was controlled by major genes on two B. oleracea chromosomes and minor genes on five other chromosomes of this species. Homoeologous pairing was largely between chromosomes with similar centromeric positions. FISH, GISH and a parallel microsatellite marker analysis defined the chromosomes in terms of their linkage groups. Conclusions A complete set of MAALs is now available for genetic, genomic, evolutionary and breeding perspectives. Defining chromosomes that carry specific genes, physical localization of DNA markers and access to established genetic linkage maps contribute to the integration of these approaches, manifested in the confirmed correspondence of linkage groups with specific chromosomes. Applications include marker

  7. Transmission of alien chromosomes from selfed progenies of a complete set of Allium monosomic additions: the development of a reliable method for the maintenance of a monosomic addition set.

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Wako, T; Kojima, A; Yamauchi, N; Tashiro, Y

    2003-12-01

    Selfed progeny of a complete set of Allium fistulosum - Allium cepa monosomic addition lines (2n = 2x + 1 = 17, FF+1A-FF+8A) were produced to examine the transmission rates of respective alien chromosomes. All eight types of the selfed monosomic additions set germinable seeds. The numbers of chromosomes (2n) in the seedlings were 16, 17, or 18. The eight extra chromosomes varied in transmission rate (%) from 9 (FF+2A) to 49 (FF+8A). The complete set of monosomic additions was reproduced successfully by self-pollination. A reliable way to maintain a set of Allium monosomic additions was developed using a combination of two crossing methods, selfing and female transmission. FF+8A produced two seedlings with 18 chromosomes. Cytogenetical analyses, including GISH, showed that the seedlings were disomic addition plants carrying two entire homologous chromosomes from A. cepa in an integral diploid background of A. fistulosum. Flow cytometry analysis showed that a double dose of the alien 8A chromosome caused fluorescence intensity values spurring in DNA content, and isozyme analysis showed increased glutamate dehydrogenase activity at the gene locus Gdh-1. PMID:14663528

  8. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these. PMID:20938763

  9. FISH to mitotic chromosomes and extended DNA fibres of Beta procumbens in a series of monosomic additions to beet (B. vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Mesbah, M; Wennekes-Van Eden, J; De Jong, J H; De Bock, T S; Lange, W

    2000-01-01

    The physical localization and organization of a Procumbentes-specific repetitive DNA sequence, PB6-4, on the chromosomes of Beta procumbens (2n = 18) were studied, using FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) to mitotic chromosomes and extended DNA fibres. The chromosomes of B. procumbens were studied in metaphase complements of the species itself, as well as in preparations of a series of eight different B. procumbens-derived monosomic additions to B. vulgaris (2n = 18). FISH to chromosome spreads of B. procumbens revealed that PB6-4 hybridizes to all chromosomes, predominantly in the pericentromeric regions, but with differences in size and brightness of the signals. Hybridization of PB6-4 to metaphase complements of B. vulgaris revealed no signals, indicating that cross-hybridization with the genome of this species was negligible. Consequently, hybridization of PB6-4 to metaphase complements of the monosomic additions yielded fluorescent signals on the alien chromosomes only. The previously observed differences in size and brightness of the fluorescent spots were confirmed using the single alien chromosomes. FISH of PB6-4 to extended DNA fibres of the monosomic additions indicated differences in the fluorescent track lengths between the alien chromosomes. Measurements of the fluorescent tracts allowed classification into discrete groups, varying from one to three groups per B. procumbens chromosome. The data revealed that the brightness or size of the signal at mitotic metaphase and the length of the fluorescent tracks on the DNA fibres were correlated. PMID:10919719

  10. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D.F.

    1984-11-01

    The cytogenetics of monosomics in maize generated using the r-X1 system was studied. The goal was to isolate as many as possible of the ten possible primary monosomic types and to characterize them by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis; (2) the cytological behavior of monosomic chromosomes in meiosis; (3) the effect of monosomic on recombination in heterozygous bivalents; and (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics. 113 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (ACR)

  11. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Progress report, May 16, 1979-May 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D. F.

    1980-02-01

    Monosomics lack a pairing partner in each meiotic cell, and genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition. Monosomics for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in Zea mays have been isolated. This is the only series of this type that has been recovered in any diploid organism. The monosomic plants are vigorous, good cytological samples can be taken, and crosses can be made. All possible monosomic types are being isolated and characterized by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis; (2) the cytological behavior of univalent chromosomes; (3) the effect of monosomy and trisomy on intergenic and intragenic recombination; (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics; (5) the effect of aneuploidy on the relative amounts of specific fatty acids in embryos; (6) monosomic mutational mapping; and (7) metabolic profile analysis of monosomics. Systems in maize to detect the environmental and genetic induction of non-disjunction are also being developed. By comparing a monosomic with its disomic siblings, one compares one and two copies of all genes on an entire chromosome. If a gene expressing dosage effects resides on a specific chromosome, a difference will be found between a plant monosomic for that chromosome and its diploid siblings. Genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool have been discovered.

  12. Direct comparison between genomic constitution and flavonoid contents in Allium multiple alien addition lines reveals chromosomal locations of genes related to biosynthesis from dihydrokaempferol to quercetin glucosides in scaly leaf of shallot (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Masuzaki, S; Shigyo, M; Yamauchi, N

    2006-02-01

    The extrachromosome 5A of shallot (Allium cepa L., genomes AA) has an important role in flavonoid biosynthesis in the scaly leaf of Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (FF+nA). This study deals with the production and biochemical characterisation of A. fistulosum-shallot multiple alien addition lines carrying at least 5A to determine the chromosomal locations of genes for quercetin formation. The multiple alien additions were selected from the crossing between allotriploid FFA (female symbol) and A. fistulosum (male symbol). The 113 plants obtained from this cross were analysed by a chromosome 5A-specific PGI isozyme marker of shallot. Thirty plants were preliminarily selected for an alien addition carrying 5A. The chromosome numbers of the 30 plants varied from 18 to 23. The other extrachromosomes in 19 plants were completely identified by using seven other chromosome markers of shallot. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses of the 19 multiple additions were conducted to identify the flavonoid compounds produced in the scaly leaves. Direct comparisons between the chromosomal constitution and the flavonoid contents of the multiple alien additions revealed that a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene for the synthesis of quercetin from kaempferol was located on 7A and that an anonymous gene involved in the glucosidation of quercetin was on 3A or 4A. As a result of supplemental SCAR analyses by using genomic DNAs from two complete sets of A. fistulosum-shallot monosomic additions, we have assigned F3'H to 7A and flavonol synthase to 4A. PMID:16411131

  13. Monosomal karyotype as an adverse prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in first complete remission: a retrospective survey on behalf of the ALWP of the EBMT

    PubMed Central

    Brands-Nijenhuis, Angelique V.M.; Labopin, Myriam; Schouten, Harry C.; Volin, Liisa; Socié, Gérard; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Huynh, Anne; Ljungman, Per; Malard, Florent; Esteve, Jordi; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overall benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation observed in patients with poor cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission, the precise effect of this procedure for different poor-risk subtypes has not been fully analyzed. This retrospective analysis was performed to investigate whether allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed in first complete remission in patients with monosomal karyotype can overcome the adverse prognosis associated with these patients. Of the 4635 patients included in the study, 189 (4%) harbored a monosomal karyotype. The presence of a monosomal karyotype was associated with a worse outcome, with an inferior leukemia-free survival and overall survival (5-year leukemia-free survival and overall survival: 24±3% and 26±3% vs. 53±1% and 57±1% in monosomal-karyotype and non-monosomal-karyotype, respectively; P<0.0001) and higher relapse risk after transplantation (cumulative incidence of relapse at 5 years: 56±4% in monosomal-karyotype vs. 28±1% in non-monosomal-karyotype; P<0.0001). The adverse negative impact of monosomal karyotype cytogenetics was confirmed in the entire cohort in a multivariate analysis [Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.88, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.29–2.73, P=0.001 for relapse incidence; HR:1.71, 95%CI:1.27–2.32, P<0.0001 for leukemia-free survival; HR:1.81, 95%CI:1.32–2.48, P=0.0002 for overall survival], and was independent of the presence of other poor-risk cytogenetic subtypes. In summary, monosomal karyotype arises as a strong negative prognostic feature in acute myeloid leukemia also in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission, stressing the need to develop additional pre- and post-transplantation strategies aimed at improving overall results. Nonetheless, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in early phase is currently the best therapy for this very poor-risk acute

  14. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Progress report, May 16, 1980-May 15, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D. F.

    1981-02-01

    Monosomics lack a pairing partner in each meiotic cell, and genes on an entire chromosome are present in the hemizygous condition. We have isolated monosomics for chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 in Zea mays utilizing a recently-discovered system. This is the only series of this type that has been recovered in any diploid organism. The monosomic plants are surprisingly vigorous, good cytological samples can be taken, and crosses can be made. We are isolating all possible monosomic types and characterizing them by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis, (2) the cytological behavior of univalent chromosomes, (3) the effect of monosomy and trisomy on intergenic and intragenic recombination, (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics, (5) the effect of aneuploidy on the relative amounts of specific fatty acids in embryos, (6) monosomic mutational mapping, (7) the effect of monosomy on pollen exine morphology with the scanning electron microscope, and (8) the effect of monosomy on DIMBOA levels. We are also developing test systems utilizing maize to detect the environmental or genetic induction of non-disjunction. This study has discovered genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool.

  15. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Outcomes in Monosomal Karyotype Myeloid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Marcelo C; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Medeiros, Bruno C; Armand, Philippe; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Akpek, Görgün; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cairo, Mitchell S; Cerny, Jan; Copelan, Edward A; Deol, Abhinav; Freytes, César O; Gale, Robert Peter; Ganguly, Siddhartha; George, Biju; Gupta, Vikas; Hale, Gregory A; Kamble, Rammurti T; Klumpp, Thomas R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Luger, Selina M; Liesveld, Jane L; Litzow, Mark R; Marks, David I; Martino, Rodrigo; Norkin, Maxim; Olsson, Richard F; Oran, Betul; Pawarode, Attaphol; Pulsipher, Michael A; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Reshef, Ran; Saad, Ayman A; Saber, Wael; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Ringdén, Olle; Tallman, Martin S; Uy, Geoffrey L; Wood, William A; Wirk, Baldeep; Pérez, Waleska S; Batiwalla, Minoo; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    The presence of monosomal karyotype (MK+) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with dismal outcomes. We evaluated the impact of MK+ in AML (MK+AML, n = 240) and in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (MK+MDS, n = 221) on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes compared with other cytogenetically defined groups (AML, n = 3360; MDS, n = 1373) as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 1998 to 2011. MK+ AML was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 1.98; P < .01), similar transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (hazard ratio, 1.01; P = .90), and worse survival (hazard ratio, 1.67; P < .01) compared with those outcomes for other cytogenetically defined AML. Among patients with MDS, MK+ MDS was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 2.39; P < .01), higher TRM (hazard ratio, 1.80; P < .01), and worse survival (HR, 2.02; P < .01). Subset analyses comparing chromosome 7 abnormalities (del7/7q) with or without MK+ demonstrated higher mortality for MK+ disease in for both AML (hazard ratio, 1.72; P < .01) and MDS (hazard ratio, 1.79; P < .01). The strong negative impact of MK+ in myeloid malignancies was observed in all age groups and using either myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Alternative approaches to mitigate disease relapse in this population are needed. PMID:26327629

  16. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Comprehensive report, February 1, 1977-May 15, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D. F.

    1981-02-01

    The application for a Research Contract to the US Atomic Energy Commission of February, 1970 proposed to isolate as many as possible to the 10 maize monosomic types and to characterize them by studying: (1) the cytology of meiosis, (2) the cytological behavior of monosomic chromosomes in meiosis, (3) the effect of monosomy on recombination in heterozygous bivalents, and (4) the frequency and types of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations arising in monosomics. This study has identified genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool. In this study we have also determined that distributive pairing, gene compensation, and gene magnification do not occur in maize, and we have demonstrated that the 5S rRNA template is not a nucleolar organizing region.

  17. Fouling control in seawater by on-line acid addition

    SciTech Connect

    Salvago, G.; Taccani, G.; Polimeni, R.; Fumagalli, G.; Picenoni, D.

    1996-11-01

    An experimental plant was set up containing once-through test lines supplied with seawater. The pH level of the seawater was maintained at 6.3 by the acids addition. Heat exchange monitoring equipment and channels exposing different metal specimens were installed on each of the lines. Observation by microscope and EDS analyses were carried out both on the specimen surfaces and on the cross section of the fouling after fracturing in liquid N{sub 2}. The results obtained show that: fouling must not be confused with its effects or simply with its biological components; acidifying seawater can prevent the resistance to heat exchange from increasing without impeding its biological activity. Observation by microscope of the fouling cross sections showed that in untreated seawater the foulings on stainless steel were composed of a continuous compact layer, covered by disorderly clusters. These compact layers were found to contain high quantities of corrosion products of the metals. Elements typical of corrosion products of ferrous materials (Fe, Mn) were also found on Pt, copper alloys and plastic materials. The addition of HCl or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the seawater, to bring it to pH 6.3, reduces the amount of fouling adhering to the surfaces, prevents the development of the continuous layer containing iron and prevents significant increases in heat exchange resistance. The addition of CO{sub 2} can encourage the development of incoherent fibrous material with high Si content and low Fe content which is of little impediment to heat exchange. The addition of lactic acid can encourage both the abnormal development of biomass and the formation of several, separate, layers on stainless steel surfaces.

  18. Maize chromosome and chromosome segment additions to oat including new B73 and Mo17 addition lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat-maize addition (OMA) lines with one, or occasionally more, chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L., 2n=2x=20) added to oat (Avena sativa L., 2n=6x=42) can be developed from oat x maize crosses. Self-fertile disomic addition lines for maize chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, short arm of 10, and a mon...

  19. Genetic Rearrangements of Six Wheat–Agropyron cristatum 6P Addition Lines Revealed by Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 4x = 28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat–A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat–A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

  20. Cytogenetic and molecular identification of three Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation addition lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Yuan, Jianhua; Bie, Tongde; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Peidu

    2009-06-01

    Chromosome 2C from Aegilops cylindrica has the ability to induce chromosome breakage in common wheat (Tritivum aestivum). In the BC(1)F(3) generation of the T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and a hybrid between T. aestivum-Leymus racemosus Lr.7 addition line and T. aestivum-Ae. cylindrica 2C addition line, three disomic translocation addition lines (2n = 44) were selected by mitotic chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization. We further characterized these T. aestivum-L. racemosus translocation addition lines, NAU636, NAU637 and NAU638, by chromosome C-banding, in situ hybridization using the A- and D-genome-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones 676D4 and 9M13; plasmids pAs1 and pSc119.2, and 45S rDNA; as well as genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probes, in combination with double ditelosomic test cross and SSR marker analysis. The translocation chromosomes were designated as T3AS-Lr7S, T6BS-Lr7S, and T5DS-Lr7L. The translocation line T3AS-Lr7S was highly resistant to Fusarium head blight and will be useful germplasm for resistance breeding. PMID:19539248

  1. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Jauhar, Prem P; Peterson, Terrance S

    2013-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid-an allotetraploid between 2 wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). Even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal imbalance, for example, addition of alien chromosome 1E of diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum. Therefore, one way to broaden its genetic base is to add a desirable chromosome(s) from diploid wild relatives. We attempted chromosomal engineering with chromosomes of a diploid wheatgrass, Thinopyrum bessarabicum-a source of resistance to some diseases including Fusarium head blight. Several advanced hybrids and alien addition lines were studied using traditional cytology, multicolor fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers. Hybrid derivatives varied in chromosome number from F1 to F8 generations and in backcross generations. In advanced generations, we exercised selection against 28-chromosome plants and in favor of 30-chromosome plants that helped recover 14 addition lines in the F8 generation, as indicated by the absence of segregation for 29-chromosome plants. Disomic additions showed regular meiosis with 15 bivalents, 14 of durum wheat, and 1 of Th. bessarabicum. The addition lines will facilitate further chromosome engineering work on durum wheat for broadening its genetic base. PMID:23396879

  2. Model for Assembly Line Re-Balancing Considering Additional Capacity and Outsourcing to Face Demand Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadhi, TMAA; Sumihartati, Atin

    2016-02-01

    The most critical stage in a garment industry is sewing process, because generally, it consists of a number of operations and a large number of sewing machines for each operation. Therefore, it requires a balancing method that can assign task to work station with balance workloads. Many studies on assembly line balancing assume a new assembly line, but in reality, due to demand fluctuation and demand increased a re-balancing is needed. To cope with those fluctuating demand changes, additional capacity can be carried out by investing in spare sewing machine and paying for sewing service through outsourcing. This study develops an assembly line balancing (ALB) model on existing line to cope with fluctuating demand change. Capacity redesign is decided if the fluctuation demand exceeds the available capacity through a combination of making investment on new machines and outsourcing while considering for minimizing the cost of idle capacity in the future. The objective of the model is to minimize the total cost of the line assembly that consists of operating costs, machine cost, adding capacity cost, losses cost due to idle capacity and outsourcing costs. The model develop is based on an integer programming model. The model is tested for a set of data of one year demand with the existing number of sewing machines of 41 units. The result shows that additional maximum capacity up to 76 units of machine required when there is an increase of 60% of the average demand, at the equal cost parameters..

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. In-line image analysis on the effects of additives in batch cooling crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Haiyan; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Kallas, Juha

    2006-03-01

    The effects of two potassium salt additives, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid dipotassium salt (EDTA) and potassium pyrophosphate (KPY), on the batch cooling crystallization of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) were investigated. The crystal growth rates of certain crystal faces were determined from in-line images taken with a MTS particle image analysis (PIA) video microscope. An in-line image processing method was developed to characterize the size and shape of the crystals. The nucleation kinetics was studied by measurement of the metastable zone width and induction time. A significant promotion effect on both nucleation and growth of KDP was observed when EDTA was used as an additive. KPY, however, exhibited strong inhibiting impacts. The mechanism underlying the EDTA promotion effect on crystal growth was further studied with the 2-dimension nucleation model. It is shown that the presence of EDTA increased the density of adsorbed molecules of the crystallizing solute on the surface of the crystal.

  5. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales. PMID:24135313

  6. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs. PMID:19420800

  7. [Single-pump on-line addition of modifier for supercritical fluid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lu, F; Liu, L L; Li, L; Zhai, Z X; Wu, Y T

    1999-11-01

    Modified CO2 as mobile phase is usually necessary for packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography. Single syringe pump was applied in this work to add modifier through a parallel connection device, which can maintain constant and stable volume fraction of modifier without any contamination of the pump. Viscosity of the modifiers (here are methanol and acetone) and the length of the CO2 pipe line/modifier pipe line can affect the volume fraction. Volume fractions of methanol and acetone were determined by gas chromatography and ultraviolet spectrometry respectively and their rules of variation were also examined. It shows that the volume fraction of methanol is lower than that of acetone under similar condition. With fixed modifierr line, the longer the CO2 line is, the higher the volume fraction will be. The new device can conveniently alter the nature and ratio of the modifier with quite stable volume fraction. The online addition device can tentatively replace the dual-pump system. PMID:12552698

  8. Development and Characterization of a Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng 7Ns Chromosome Addition Line with Leaf Rust Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wanli; Wang, Jing; Wang, Liangming; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Xinhong; Zhao, Jixin; Yang, Qunhui; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a Triticum aestivum-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs) disomic addition line 2-1-6-3. Individual line 2-1-6-3 plants were analyzed using cytological, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), EST-SSR, and EST-STS techniques. The alien addition line 2-1-6-3 was shown to have two P. huashanica chromosomes, with a meiotic configuration of 2n = 44 = 22 II. We tested 55 EST-SSR and 336 EST-STS primer pairs that mapped onto seven different wheat chromosomes using DNA from parents and the P. huashanica addition line. One EST-SSR and nine EST-STS primer pairs indicated that the additional chromosome of P. huashanica belonged to homoeologous group 7, the diagnostic fragments of five EST-STS markers (BE404955, BE591127, BE637663, BF482781 and CD452422) were cloned, sequenced and compared. The results showed that the amplified polymorphic bands of P. huashanica and disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 shared 100% sequence identity, which was designated as the 7Ns disomic addition line. Disomic addition line 2-1-6-3 was evaluated to test the leaf rust resistance of adult stages in the field. We found that one pair of the 7Ns genome chromosomes carried new leaf rust resistance gene(s). Moreover, wheat line 2-1-6-3 had a superior numbers of florets and grains per spike, which were associated with the introgression of the paired P. huashanica chromosomes. These high levels of disease resistance and stable, excellent agronomic traits suggest that this line could be utilized as a novel donor in wheat breeding programs. PMID:23976963

  9. Cytogenetic abnormalities and monosomal karyotypes in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: correlations with clinical characteristics and outcome.

    PubMed

    Manola, Kalliopi N; Panitsas, Fotios; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Daraki, Aggeliki; Karakosta, Maria; Stavropoulou, Cryssa; Avgerinou, Georgia; Hatzipantelis, Emmanuel; Pantelias, Gabriel; Sambani, Constantina; Pagoni, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The whole spectrum of chromosomal abnormalities and their prognostic significance in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been fully elucidated yet, although a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained recently. Moreover, the incidence and prognostic impact of monosomal karyotypes (MKs), which are new cytogenetic categories reported recently in adults with AML, are currently unknown for childhood and adolescent AML. In this study, we investigated the cytogenetic and clinical characteristics of 140 children and adolescents (≤21 y) with AML, and correlated their cytogenetic features with both the clinical characteristics and outcomes of our patient cohort. The most frequent cytogenetic abnormality found in our study was the t(15;17), followed by the t(8;21). Striking differences in the genetic abnormalities and French-American-British subtypes were found among infants, children, and adolescents. Of 124 cases, 15 (12.1%) met the criteria of the MK definition, and 12 of the 15 MKs (80%) were complex karyotypes. Of 124 cases, 27 (21.8%) had cytogenetic abnormalities sufficient to be diagnosed as AML with myelodyspastic sydrome-related features. As expected, patients with the t(15;17) had the most favorable outcomes, whereas patients with 11q23 rearrangements and monosomy 7 had the worst outcomes. These data expand our knowledge by providing novel insights into the cytogenetic features and their correlations with clinical characteristics and outcomes in childhood and adolescent AML. PMID:23411131

  10. Additional line of sight methodology to that presented by John W. Strohbehn in the use of line of sight microwave propagation in remote atmospheric probing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, C. I.

    1969-01-01

    Some additional microwave and infrared techniques are reported which are being tested in line-of-sight tropospheric scattering. Newly measured parameters of the incoherent scattered microwave field are sensitive to wavefront sphericity, to wind speed, and to the eddy wavenumber spectrum. A recommendation for advancing the state of the art is given by a proposed experimental program.

  11. Automatable on-line generation of calibration curves and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-03-01

    Two methods are described that enable on-line generation of calibration standards and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample solution, and diluent to achieve a desired solution composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line solution mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in solution composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing solution streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.

  12. Comparing Number Lines and Touch Points to Teach Addition Facts to Students with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Foust, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three elementary students with autism were taught single-digit addition problem-solving skills using number and touch-point strategies. Prior to the study, all students were unable to correctly calculate single-digit addition problems. An alternating-treatments design was used to compare the acquisition performance of single-digit addition…

  13. Toward introducing C4 photosynthesis to C3 oat by use of oat x maize addition lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable oat x maize addition (OMA) lines consisting of a single maize (Zea mays L.) chromosome added to the entire oat (Avena sativa L.) genome have been recovered for each of the ten maize chromosomes. The presence of individual maize chromosomes has been associated with several novel phenotypes in ...

  14. Cytological and Molecular Characterization of Homoeologous Group-1 Chromosomes in Hybrid Derivatives of a Durum Disomic Alien Addition Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB). To incorporate FHB resistance from diploid wheatgrass (Lophopyrum elongatum (Host) Á. Löve, 2n = 2x = 14; EE) we produced earlier a stable alien disomic addition line, DGE-1, incorporating...

  15. Microdissection and chromosome painting of the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chromosome painting is an efficient tool for chromosome research. However, plant chromosome painting is relatively underdeveloped. In this study, chromosome painting was developed and used to identify alien chromosomes in TAi-27, a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium addition line, and chromosomes of...

  16. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat-rye 1R addition line with multiple spikelets and resistance to powdery mildew.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wujuan; Wang, Changyou; Chen, Chunhuan; Wang, Yajuan; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Xinlun; Ji, Wanquan

    2016-04-01

    Alien addition lines are important for transferring useful genes from alien species into common wheat. Rye is an important and valuable gene resource for improving wheat disease resistance, yield, and environment adaptation. A new wheat-rye addition line, N9436B, was developed from the progeny of the cross of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) cultivar Shaanmai 611 and rye (Secale cereal L., 2n = 2x = 14, RR) accession Austrian rye. We characterized this new line by cytology, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), molecular markers, and disease resistance screening. N9436B was stable in morphology and cytology, with a chromosome composition of 2n = 42 + 2t = 22II. GISH investigations showed that this line contained two rye chromosomes. GISH, FISH, and molecular maker identification suggested that the introduced R chromosome and the missing wheat chromosome arms were 1R chromosome and 2DL chromosome arm, respectively. N9436B exhibited 30-37 spikelets per spike and a high level of resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) isolate E09 at the seedling stage. N9436B was cytologically stable, had the trait of multiple spikelets, and was resistant to powdery mildew; this line should thus be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:27021228

  17. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    PubMed

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance. PMID:26218854

  18. [Study on chromosomes aberration in wheat-rye disomics addition lines induced by the gametocidal chromosome 2C].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Ping; Wang, Zhan-Bin; Xu, Xiang-Ling; Li, Ji-Lin

    2004-11-01

    In the present study,Chinese Spring-Imperial (1 R-7R) wheat-rye disomic addition lines were hybridized with Chinese Spring-2C (derived from Aegilops cylindrica) disomic addition lines. The F1 hybrids were examined by mitotic and meiotic analysis. There were observed abnormal chromosome configurations. A total of 430 F2 plants were obtained by self-pollination. Chromosomes aberrations, such as translocation, deletions, isobrachial and dicentromere chromosomes, are identified in F2 individual plants by C-banding combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, chromosome spontaneous substitutions such as 2C substituting for wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B and 2D were also observed. The rule and frequency of chromosome aberration in F2 are the following: 22 out of 430 F2 plants (5.11%) were found involving aberration rye chromosomes. Among them, 10 plants were identified as wheat-rye chromosome translocation lines comprising 2.3%. Rye chromosome deletions comprised 12 of them (2.79%). 3 isobrachial aberrations were detected (about 0.7%), too. Most of the translocation lines are with wheat centromere, only one of them is with rye centromere. Rye chromosome aberrations occurred unevenly among homoeologous groups. There were 5 in 1R, 3 in 2R, 1 in 3R, 3 in 4R, 6 in 5R and 4 in 6R. The majority of the translocation lines are terminal translocation. 54 out of the total 430 progenies are wheat deletions,and 27 are distributed in the A group, 20 in the B group and 7 in the D group respectively. Finally,we discussed the possible cause for the uneven chromosome aberration among homoeologous groups in wheat and rye as well as the effect characteristics of 2C on wheat and rye chromosome. PMID:15651680

  19. Isolation and characterization of a wheat--Psathyrostachys huashanica 'Keng' 3Ns disomic addition line with resistance to stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Du, Wanli; Wang, Jing; Pang, Yuhui; Wang, Liangming; Wu, Jun; Zhao, Jixin; Yang, Qunhui; Chen, Xinhong

    2014-01-01

    We isolated a wheat germplasm line, 22-2, which was derived from common wheat (Triticum aestivum '7182') and Psathyrostachys huashanica 'Keng' (2n = 2x = 14, NsNs). Genomic composition and homoeologous relationships of 22-2 was analyzed using cytology, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), EST-SSR, and EST-STS to characterize the alien chromatin in the transfer line. The cytological investigations showed that the chromosome number and configuration were 2n = 44 = 22 II. Mitotic and meiotic GISH using P. huashanica genomic DNA as the probe indicated that 22-2 contained a pair of P. huashanica chromosomes. The genomic affinities of the introduced P. huashanica chromosomes were determined by EST-SSR and EST-STS using multiple-loci markers from seven wheat homoeologous groups between the parents and addition line. One EST-SSR and 17 EST-STS markers, which were located on the homoeologous group 3 chromosomes of wheat, amplified polymorphic bands in 22-2 that were unique to P. huashanica. Thus, these markers suggested that the introduced Ns chromosome pair belonged to homoeologous group 3, so we designated 22-2 as a 3Ns disomic addition line. Based on disease reaction to mixed races (CYR31, CYR32, and Shuiyuan14) of stripe rust in the adult stages, 22-2 was found to have high resistance to stripe rust, which was possibly derived from its P. huashanica parent. Consequently, the new disomic addition line 22-2 could be a valuable donor source for wheat improvement depending on the excellent agronomic traits, especially, the introduction of novel disease resistance genes into wheat during breeding programs. PMID:24564214

  20. The 70 S monosome accumulation and in vitro initiation complex formation by Escherichia coli ribosomes at 5 C. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broeze, R. J.; Pope, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The inhibition of translation which is observed after shifting Escherichia coli to low temperature was investigated. 70 S ribosomes were isolated from E. coli 8 hours after a shift to 5 C synthesized protein in the absence of added mRNA (i.e., endogenous protein synthesis by 70 S monosomes) at a rate which was three times greater than the rate of endogenous protein synthesis by 70 S ribosomes which were isolated at the time of the shift to 5 C. Calculations based on the rates of endogenous protein synthesis and polyphenylalanine synthesis indicate that 70 S monosomes comprise only 0.1% of the total E. coli 70 S ribosome population after 8 hours at 5 c. Experiments designed to test initiation complex formation on ApUpG or formaldehyde treated MS-2 viral RNA demonstrated that, although the rate of formation of 30 S initiation complexes was not inhibited, the rate of formation of active 70 S initiation complexes, able to react with puromycin, was inhibited to a great extent at 5 C. A model depicting the effects of low temperature on the E. coli translation system is proposed.

  1. Gamma Tocopherol and Lovastatin Additively Induced Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line (HT29)

    PubMed Central

    Zeidooni, Leila; Rezaei, Mohsen; Hashemi Tabar, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a physiological process needed to remove unwanted or damaged cells. It has been hypothesized that any failure of programmed cell death leads to the development of neoplasm. Identifying new agents which induce apoptosis in tumor cells is of great significance in treatment of neoplasms. Numerous studies suggest that exposure of tumor cells to statins and gamma tocopherol can lead to cell death. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell death induced by gamma tocopherol and lovastatin in human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HT29) using flow cytometry. Material and Methods HT29 cells were grown in DMEM medium, exposed to different concentrations of lovastatin (10,20,40,100μM ) and gamma tocopherol (25,50,100,200μM) for 48 and 72 hours, individually and in combination (100μM both, 48 h). Phenotype of apoptosis was determined by means of flow cytometry. Results All Concentrations of lovastatin (10, 20, 40, 100 μM) and gamma tocopherol (25, 50, 100, 200 μM) induced an apoptotic response in HT29 cells. In combination, a significant increase in apoptosis phenotype was also demonstrated (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study showed that lovastatin when combined with gamma tocopherol, could induce apoptosis in HT29 cells more potently than each agent alone, which uncovers the significance of targeting the proliferative signaling in different points of the pathway. PMID:24624174

  2. Many QTLs with minor additive effects are associated with a large difference in growth between two selection lines in chickens.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Lina; Park, Hee-Bok; Wahlberg, Per; Fredriksson, Robert; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Siegel, Paul B; Andersson, Leif

    2005-10-01

    Two growth-selected lines in chickens have been developed from a single founder population by divergent selection for body weight at 56 days of age. After more than 40 generations of selection they show a nine-fold difference in body weight at selection age and large differences in growth rate, appetite, fat deposition and metabolic characteristics. We have generated a large intercross between these lines comprising more than 800 F2 birds. QTL mapping revealed 13 loci affecting growth. The most striking observation was that the allele in the high weight line in all cases was associated with enhanced growth, but each locus explained only a small proportion of the phenotypic variance using a standard QTL model (1.3-3.1%). This result is in sharp contrast to our previous study where we reported that the two-fold difference in adult body size between the red junglefowl and White Leghorn domestic chickens is explained by a small number of QTLs with large additive effects. Furthermore, no QTLs for anorexia or antibody response were detected despite large differences for these traits between the founder lines. The result is an excellent example where a large phenotypic difference between populations occurs in the apparent absence of any single locus with large phenotypic effects. The study underscores the need for powerful experimental designs in genetic studies of multifactorial traits. No QTL at all would have reached genome-wide significance using a less powerful design (e.g. approx. 200 F2 individuals) regardless of the nine-fold phenotypic difference between the founder lines for the selected trait. PMID:16356285

  3. Characterization of a new wheat-Aegilops biuncialis addition line conferring quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J P; Yao, C H; Yang, E N; Yin, M Q; Liu, C; Ren, Z L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new disomic addition line, 12-5-2, with 44 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. 12-5-2 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and C-banding revealed that 12-5-2 was a 1U(b) disomic addition line (ADL1U(b)). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-2 presented all high molecular weight glutenin subunits (7 + 8 and 2 + 12) of CN19 and 2 new subunits that were designated Ux and Uy. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness of 12-5-2 were significantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1U(b)-specific polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1041, TNAC1071, TNAC1-01, and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new ADL1U(b) 12-5-2 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end-product quality and resistance to disease. PMID:24615031

  4. Wavefront holoscopy: application of digital in-line holography for the inspection of engraved marks in progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucho, Beatriz; Micó, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are engraved with permanent marks at standardized locations in order to guarantee correct centering and alignment throughout the manufacturing and mounting processes. Out of the production line, engraved marks provide useful information about the PAL as well as act as locator marks to re-ink again the removable marks. Even though those marks should be visible by simple visual inspection with the naked eye, engraving marks are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, and partially occluded and difficult to recognize on tinted or antireflection-coated lenses. Here, we present an extremely simple optical device (named as wavefront holoscope) for visualization and characterization of permanent marks in PAL based on digital in-line holography. Essentially, a point source of coherent light illuminates the engraved mark placed just before a CCD camera that records a classical Gabor in-line hologram. The recorded hologram is then digitally processed to provide a set of high-contrast images of the engraved marks. Experimental results are presented showing the applicability of the proposed method as a new ophthalmic instrument for visualization and characterization of engraved marks in PALs.

  5. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Extracted from Intergeneric Allopolyploid and Additions with Orychophragmus.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Mayank; Dang, Yanwei; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, genomes AACC) was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n = 62, genomes AACCOO) with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24, genome OO), by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments) and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent. PMID:27148282

  6. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Extracted from Intergeneric Allopolyploid and Additions with Orychophragmus

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Mayank; Dang, Yanwei; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, genomes AACC) was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n = 62, genomes AACCOO) with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24, genome OO), by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments) and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent. PMID:27148282

  7. Addition of 5-fluorouracil to doxorubicin-paclitaxel sequence increases caspase-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Zoli, Wainer; Ulivi, Paola; Tesei, Anna; Fabbri, Francesco; Rosetti, Marco; Maltoni, Roberta; Giunchi, Donata Casadei; Ricotti, Luca; Brigliadori, Giovanni; Vannini, Ivan; Amadori, Dino

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of a combination of doxorubicin (Dox), paclitaxel (Pacl) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), to define the most effective schedule, and to investigate the mechanisms of action in human breast cancer cells. Methods The study was performed on MCF-7 and BRC-230 cell lines. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated by sulphorhodamine B assay and the type of drug interaction was assessed by the median effect principle. Cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and apoptosis-related marker (p53, bcl-2, bax, p21), caspase and thymidylate synthase (TS) expression were assessed by western blot. Results 5-FU, used as a single agent, exerted a low cytotoxic activity in both cell lines. The Dox→Pacl sequence produced a synergistic cytocidal effect and enhanced the efficacy of subsequent exposure to 5-FU in both cell lines. Specifically, the Dox→Pacl sequence blocked cells in the G2-M phase, and the addition of 5-FU forced the cells to progress through the cell cycle or killed them. Furthermore, Dox→Pacl pretreatment produced a significant reduction in basal TS expression in both cell lines, probably favoring the increase in 5-FU activity. The sequence Dox→Pacl→48-h washout→5-FU produced a synergistic and highly schedule-dependent interaction (combination index < 1), resulting in an induction of apoptosis in both experimental models regardless of hormonal, p53, bcl-2 or bax status. Apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was induced through caspase-9 activation and anti-apoptosis-inducing factor hyperexpression. In the BRC-230 cell line, the apoptotic process was triggered only by a caspase-dependent mechanism. In particular, at the end of the three-drug treatment, caspase-8 activation triggered downstream executioner caspase-3 and, to a lesser degree, caspase-7. Conclusion In our experimental models, characterized by different biomolecular profiles representing the different biology of human breast

  8. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a New Wheat-Rye 6R Chromosome Disomic Addition Line with Powdery Mildew Resistance

    PubMed Central

    An, Diaoguo; Zheng, Qi; Luo, Qiaoling; Ma, Pengtao; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Lihui; Han, Fangpu; Xu, Hongxing; Xu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhou, Yilin

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) possesses many valuable genes that can be used for improving disease resistance, yield and environment adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, the documented resistance stocks derived from rye is faced severe challenge due to the variation of virulent isolates in the pathogen populations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop desirable germplasm and search for novel resistance gene sources against constantly accumulated variation of the virulent isolates. In the present study, a new wheat-rye line designated as WR49-1 was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. Using sequential GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), mc-FISH (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization), mc-GISH (multicolor GISH) and EST (expressed sequence tag)-based marker analysis, WR49-1 was proved to be a new wheat-rye 6R disomic addition line. As expected, WR49-1 showed high levels of resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 19 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its reaction pattern to different Bgt isolates, WR49-1 may possess new resistance gene(s) for powdery mildew, which differed from the documented powdery mildew gene, including Pm20 on chromosome arm 6RL of rye. Additionally, WR49-1 was cytologically stable, had improved agronomic characteristics and therefore could serve as an important bridge for wheat breeding and chromosome engineering. PMID:26237413

  9. Additive Effects of Retinoic Acid (RA) and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP-4) Apoptosis Signaling in Retinoblastoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Patrick; Doliva, Rebekka; Busch, Maike; Philippeit, Claudia; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Retinoids have been shown to serve promising therapeutic agents for human cancers, e.g. the treatment of neuroblastoma. Synthetic retinoids, specific for particular retinoic acid (RA) receptors, are tested as new therapy strategies. In the present study, application of recombinant retinoic acid (RA) lowers retinoblastoma (RB) cell viability and induces apoptosis in RB cell lines. Combined treatment of RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) increases the pro-apoptotic effect of RA in the RB cells lines WERI-Rb1, Y-79, RB355, RBL-30 and RBL-15, indicating an additive effect. We could show that in WERI-Rb1 cells RA/BMP-4 mediated cell death is at least partially caspase-dependent, whereby RA and BMP-4 additively increased (i) Apaf-1 mRNA levels, (ii) caspase-9 cleavage activity and (iii) the number of activated, cleaved caspase-3 positive cells. Compared to single application of RA and BMP-4, combined RA/BMP-4 treatment significantly augments mRNA levels of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) RARα and RARß and the retinoic X receptor (RXR) RXRγ suggesting an interaction in the induction of these RA receptor subtypes in WERI-Rb1 cells. Agonist studies revealed that both, RARs and RXRs are involved in RA/BMP-4 mediated apoptosis in WERI-Rb1 retinoblastoma cells. Employing specific RAR subtype antagonists and a RXRß and RXRγ knockdown, we proved that RA/BMP-4 apoptosis signaling in WERI-Rb1 cells requires the RA receptor subtypes RARα, RARß, RXRß and RXRγ. Deciphering signaling mechanisms underlying apoptosis induction of RA and BMP-4 in WERI-Rb1 cells, our study provides useful starting-points for future retinoid-based therapy strategies in retinoblastoma. PMID:26173116

  10. Molecular Cytogenetic Identification of a New Wheat-Rye 6R Chromosome Disomic Addition Line with Powdery Mildew Resistance.

    PubMed

    An, Diaoguo; Zheng, Qi; Luo, Qiaoling; Ma, Pengtao; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Lihui; Han, Fangpu; Xu, Hongxing; Xu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Zhou, Yilin

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) possesses many valuable genes that can be used for improving disease resistance, yield and environment adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, the documented resistance stocks derived from rye is faced severe challenge due to the variation of virulent isolates in the pathogen populations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop desirable germplasm and search for novel resistance gene sources against constantly accumulated variation of the virulent isolates. In the present study, a new wheat-rye line designated as WR49-1 was produced through distant hybridization and chromosome engineering protocols between common wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 and rye cultivar German White. Using sequential GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), mc-FISH (multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization), mc-GISH (multicolor GISH) and EST (expressed sequence tag)-based marker analysis, WR49-1 was proved to be a new wheat-rye 6R disomic addition line. As expected, WR49-1 showed high levels of resistance to wheat powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) pathogens prevalent in China at the adult growth stage and 19 of 23 Bgt isolates tested at the seedling stage. According to its reaction pattern to different Bgt isolates, WR49-1 may possess new resistance gene(s) for powdery mildew, which differed from the documented powdery mildew gene, including Pm20 on chromosome arm 6RL of rye. Additionally, WR49-1 was cytologically stable, had improved agronomic characteristics and therefore could serve as an important bridge for wheat breeding and chromosome engineering. PMID:26237413

  11. Identification of an additional class of C3-binding membrane proteins of human peripheral blood leukocytes and cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, J L; Housley, G A; Dykman, T R; MacDermott, R P; Atkinson, J P

    1985-01-01

    Proteins binding the third component of complement (C3) were isolated by affinity chromatography from surface-labeled solubilized membranes of human peripheral blood cells and cell lines. The isolated molecules were subjected to NaDodSO4/PAGE, and autoradiographs of these gels indicated that C3-binding proteins could be divided into three groups based on Mr: (i) gp200, an approximately 200,000 Mr molecule previously identified as the C3b/C4b receptor or CR1; (ii) gp140, an approximately 140,000 Mr molecule previously identified as the C3d receptor or CR2; and (iii) gp45-70, a heretofore unrecognized group of 45,000-70,000 Mr C3-binding molecules. The cell distribution, Mr, antigenic cross-reactivity, and specificity of gp45-70 were examined. Erythrocytes have no detectable gp45-70, but all leukocyte populations examined possess this group of molecules. On neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes, CR1 is the predominant C3-binding glycoprotein, but gp45-70 is present on both cell populations and on macrophage and neutrophil cell lines. B plus null cells, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, and an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell line possess CR1, CR2, and gp45-70. On T cells and T-cell lines gp45-70 is the predominant or, in some cases, the only C3-binding protein isolated. gp45-70 is structurally characterized as a broad band or doublet with a mean Mr that is slightly different for each cell population. gp45-70 binds iC3, C3b, and C4b, but not C3d, indicating that the binding region is probably within the C3c portion of C3b. A polyclonal antibody to CR1 and monoclonal antibodies to CR1 and CR2 do not immunoprecipitate gp45-70. While gp45-70 has not been previously characterized on human cells, a C3b-binding glycoprotein of similar Mr is present on rabbit alveolar macrophages. We conclude that gp45-70 is an additional group of membrane proteins present on human leukocytes that possess ligand-binding activity for C3b. Images PMID:3871945

  12. Identification of an additional class of C3-binding membrane proteins of human peripheral blood leukocytes and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cole, J L; Housley, G A; Dykman, T R; MacDermott, R P; Atkinson, J P

    1985-02-01

    Proteins binding the third component of complement (C3) were isolated by affinity chromatography from surface-labeled solubilized membranes of human peripheral blood cells and cell lines. The isolated molecules were subjected to NaDodSO4/PAGE, and autoradiographs of these gels indicated that C3-binding proteins could be divided into three groups based on Mr: (i) gp200, an approximately 200,000 Mr molecule previously identified as the C3b/C4b receptor or CR1; (ii) gp140, an approximately 140,000 Mr molecule previously identified as the C3d receptor or CR2; and (iii) gp45-70, a heretofore unrecognized group of 45,000-70,000 Mr C3-binding molecules. The cell distribution, Mr, antigenic cross-reactivity, and specificity of gp45-70 were examined. Erythrocytes have no detectable gp45-70, but all leukocyte populations examined possess this group of molecules. On neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes, CR1 is the predominant C3-binding glycoprotein, but gp45-70 is present on both cell populations and on macrophage and neutrophil cell lines. B plus null cells, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, and an Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell line possess CR1, CR2, and gp45-70. On T cells and T-cell lines gp45-70 is the predominant or, in some cases, the only C3-binding protein isolated. gp45-70 is structurally characterized as a broad band or doublet with a mean Mr that is slightly different for each cell population. gp45-70 binds iC3, C3b, and C4b, but not C3d, indicating that the binding region is probably within the C3c portion of C3b. A polyclonal antibody to CR1 and monoclonal antibodies to CR1 and CR2 do not immunoprecipitate gp45-70. While gp45-70 has not been previously characterized on human cells, a C3b-binding glycoprotein of similar Mr is present on rabbit alveolar macrophages. We conclude that gp45-70 is an additional group of membrane proteins present on human leukocytes that possess ligand-binding activity for C3b. PMID:3871945

  13. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  14. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis of Thinopyrum chromatin in a wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid and six derived chromosome addition lines

    PubMed

    Chen; Conner; Laroche; Ji; Armstrong; Fedak

    1999-12-01

    The genomic origin of alien chromosomes present in a wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAF46 (2n = 8x = 56) and six derived chromosome addition lines were analyzed by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using S genomic DNA from Pseudoroegneria strigosa (2n = 2x = 14, SS) as a probe. The GISH analysis clearly showed that the chromosome complement of the partial amphiploid TAF46 consists of an entire wheat genome plus one synthetic genome consisting of a mixture of six S genome chromosomes and eight J (=E) genome chromosomes derived from Th. intermedium (2n = 6x = 42, JJJ(s)J(s)SS). There were no Js genome chromosomes present in TAF46. The J genome chromosomes present in TAF46 displayed a unique GISH hybridization pattern with the S genomic DNA probe, in which S genome DNA strongly hybridized at the terminal regions and weakly hybridized over the remaining parts of the chromosomes. This provides a diagnostic marker for distinguishing J genome chromosomes from Js or S genome or wheat ABD genome chromosomes. The genomic origin of the alien chromosomes present in the six derived chromosome addition lines were identified by their characteristic GISH hybridization patterns with S genomic DNA probe. GISH analysis showed that addition lines L1, L2, L3, and L5 carried one pair of J genome chromosomes, while addition lines L4 and L7 each carried one pair of S genome chromosomes. GISH patterns detected by the S genome probe on addition line of L1 were identical to those of the J genome chromosomes present in the partial amphiploid TAF46, suggesting that these chromosomes were not structurally altered when they were transferred from TAF46 to addition lines. PMID:10659790

  15. Fructan synthesis, accumulation, and polymer traits. I. Festulolium chromosome substitution lines

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Joe A.; Cairns, Andrew J.; Thomas, David; Charlton, Adam; Williams, Peter; Turner, Lesley B.

    2015-01-01

    The fructans found as storage carbohydrates in temperate forage grasses have a physiological role in regrowth and stress tolerance. They are also important for the nutritional value of fresh and preserved livestock feeds, and are potentially useful as feedstocks for biorefining. Seasonal variation in fructan content and the capacity for de novo fructan synthesis have been examined in a Festulolium monosomic substitution line family to investigate variation in the polymers produced by grasses in the ryegrass-fescue complex. There were significant differences between ryegrass and fescue. Fescue had low polymeric fructan content and a high oligomer/polymer ratio; synthesis of polymers longer than degree of polymerization 6 (DP6) from oligomers was slow. However, extension of polymer length from DP10/DP20 upward appeared to occur relatively freely, and, unlike ryegrass, fescue had a relatively even spread of polymer chain lengths above DP20. This included the presence of some very large polymers. Additionally fescue retained high concentrations of fructan, both polymeric and oligomeric, during conditions of low source/high sink demand. There were indications that major genes involved in the control of some of these traits might be located on fescue chromosome 3 opening the possibility to develop grasses optimized for specific applications. PMID:26217346

  16. Correlation of secondary-side IGA/SCC degradation of recirculating steam generator tubing with the on-line addition of boric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.J.; Zemitis, W.S.; Gorman, J.A. )

    1992-08-01

    A survey of field data indicates that the on-line addition of boric acid can reduce the rate of intergranular attack and stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) within the hot leg tube support crevices for some PWR steam generators. However, the beneficial effect was not seen at all surveyed plants. 68 refs., 12 tabs., 12 refs.

  17. Comparison of operation efficiency for the insert task when using stereoscopic images with additional lines, stereoscopic images, and a manipulator with force feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Katsuya; Shidoji, Kazunori; Matsubara, Kenjiro

    1999-05-01

    It has been reported that operation efficiency for the teleoperations using stereoscopic video images is lower than when using the naked eye in real environments. Here, the authors tried to improve the human-machine interface of this particular system to achieve higher operation efficiency for stereoscopic video imags by adding other information. An experiment was carried out under the four following conditions: when the insert task was performed by subjects using conventional stereoscopic video imags, when the centering lines of the cylindrical objects and holes were added to the conventional stereoscopic video images, when the force feedback was provided to the system manipulator as one object touched another object, and when both of the additional centering lines and force feedback were provided. The subject's task was to inset a cylindrical object into a round hole. The completion time was measured from the time of the starting signal to the time when the object was inserted into the hole. Completion time, when additional lines were given, was shorter than when the force feedback was provided, and when no additional information was provided. It was concluded that additional visual information contributed more to the recognition of the space rather than providing additional information about surface phenomena.

  18. Effects of the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on mechanical properties of luting and lining glass ionomer cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heravi, Farzin; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul; Mojtaba Zebarjad, Seyed

    2016-07-01

    Recently, the addition of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into glass ionomer cements (GICs) has attracted interest due to its remineralization of teeth and its antibacterial effects. However, it should be investigated to ensure that the incorporation of CPP-ACP does not have significant adverse effects on its mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of CPP-ACP on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC. The first step was to synthesize the CPP-ACP. Then the CPP-ACP at concentrations of 1%, 1.56% and 2% of CPP-ACP was added into a luting and lining GIC. GIC without CPP-ACP was used as a control group. The results revealed that the incorporation of CPP-ACP up to 1.56%(w/w) increased the flexural strength (29%), diametral tensile strength (36%) and microhardness (18%), followed by a reduction in these mechanical properties at 2%(w/w) CPP-ACP. The wear rate was significantly decreased (23%) in 1.56%(w/w) concentration of CPP-ACP and it was increased in 2%(w/w). Accordingly, the addition of 1.56%(w/w) CPP-ACP into luting and lining GIC had no adverse effect on the mechanical properties of luting and lining GIC and could be used in clinical practice.

  19. First- and Second-Line Bevacizumab in Addition to Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A United States–Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H.; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is a standard of care for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Continuation of bevacizumab beyond progression is an accepted standard of care based on a 1.4-month increase in median overall survival observed in a randomized trial. No United States–based cost-effectiveness modeling analyses are currently available addressing the use of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Our objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in the first-line setting and when continued beyond progression from the perspective of US payers. Methods We developed two Markov models to compare the cost and effectiveness of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin with or without bevacizumab in the first-line treatment and subsequent fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan with or without bevacizumab in the second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Model robustness was addressed by univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results Using bevacizumab in first-line therapy provided an additional 0.10 QALYs (0.14 life-years) at a cost of $59,361. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $571,240 per QALY. Continuing bevacizumab beyond progression provided an additional 0.11 QALYs (0.16 life-years) at a cost of $39,209. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $364,083 per QALY. In univariable sensitivity analyses, the variables with the greatest influence on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were bevacizumab cost, overall survival, and utility. Conclusion Bevacizumab provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in both the first- and second-line settings of metastatic colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:25691669

  20. Additive Effect of Pronase on the Eradication Rate of First-Line Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Chang Seok; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jin Bong; Baik, Gwang Ho; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Helicobacter pylori colonizes on the apical surface of gastric surface mucosal cells and the surface mucous gel layer. Pronase is a premedication enzyme for endoscopy that can disrupt the gastric mucus layer. We evaluated the additive effects of pronase combined with standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication. Methods This prospective, single-blinded, randomized, controlled study was conducted between June and October 2012. A total of 116 patients with H. pylori infection were enrolled in the study (n=112 patients, excluding four patients who failed to meet the inclusion criteria) and were assigned to receive either the standard triple therapy, which consists of a proton pump inhibitor with amoxicillin and clarithromycin twice a day for 7 days (PAC), or pronase (20,000 tyrosine units) combined with the standard triple therapy twice a day for 7 days (PACE). Results In the intention-to-treat analysis, the eradication rates of PAC versus PACE were 76.4% versus 56.1% (p=0.029). In the per-protocol analysis, the eradication rates were 87.5% versus 68.1% (p=0.027). There were no significant differences concerning adverse reactions between the two groups. Conclusions According to the interim analysis of the trial, pronase does not have an additive effect on the eradication of H. pylori infection (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01645761). PMID:25167799

  1. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSD<5%) for all the additives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials. PMID:21641449

  2. The role of molybdenum additions and prior deformation on acicular ferrite formation in microalloyed Nb-Ti low-carbon line-pipe steels

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Zhenghua Stumpf, Waldo

    2008-06-15

    Microstructures in Nb-Ti-microalloyed line-pipe steels with various molybdenum additions, consisted mostly of acicular ferrite plus polygonal ferrite after hot rolling and rapid cooling. Structure-sensitive surface relief after etching on shadowed extraction replicas, allowed quantification of the acicular and polygonal ferrite contents. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of two alloys, one Mo-free and the other containing 0.22% Mo, were determined for cooling rates from 0.1 to 40 deg. C s{sup -1} without and with prior deformation of the austenite below the nil-recrystallisation temperature. Molybdenum additions slightly enhanced the acicular ferrite formation in the strain-free austenite whereas prior deformation had a much greater effect, and strongly promoted acicular ferrite formation in both alloys. Thin foil electron microscopy of acicular ferrite in these low-inclusion content alloys showed a preference for parallel acicular ferrite laths with less 'chaotically' nucleated laths.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of rituximab in addition to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dirk; Fischer, Kirsten; Kaiser, Peter; Eichhorst, Barbara; Walshe, Ronald; Reiser, Marcel; Kellermann, Lenka; Borsi, Lisa; Civello, Daniele; Mensch, Alexander; Bahlo, Jasmin; Hallek, Michael; Stock, Stephanie; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter

    2016-05-01

    The cost-effectiveness of rituximab in combination with fludarabine/cyclophosphamide (R-FC) for the first line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was evaluated. Based on long-term clinical data (follow-up of 5.9 years) from the CLL8-trial, a Markov-model with three health states (Free from disease progression, Progressive disease, Death) was used to evaluate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and cost per life years gained (LYG) of R-FC from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance (SHI). The addition of rituximab to FC chemotherapy results in a gain of 1.1 quality-adjusted life-years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of R-FC compared with FC was €17 979 per QALY (€15 773 per LYG). Results were robust in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. From the German SHI perspective, rituximab in combination with FC chemotherapy represents good value for first-line treatment of patients with CLL and compares favorably with chemotherapy alone. PMID:26584689

  4. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors of the human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79) may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, M. M.; Hieble, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    1. In agreement with the literature, correlation of the ability of a series of agonists and antagonists to displace [3H]-rauwolscine binding shows the alpha 2-adrenoceptors of HT29 cells, NG108-15 cells, OK cells and homogenates of rat sublingual gland to represent four distinct subtypes. 2. [3H]-rauwolscine also bound with high affinity (KD = 0.30 +/- 0.10 mM) to a human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Specific binding represents 73% of total binding, and a Bmax of 38 +/- 1 fmol mg-1 protein was determined. 3. Correlation of antagonist affinities against [3H]-rauwolscine with corresponding values in the other four tissue sources showed the Y79 cells to resemble most closely the OK cells, the prototype example of an alpha 2C-adrenoceptor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a regression slope of 1.01 being obtained for 10 antagonists in these two systems. 4. Comparison of KD values for [3H]-rauwolscine also showed a similarity between the OK cells (0.19 +/- 0.07 nM) and Y79 cells. 5. These data suggest that the human retinoblastoma cell line may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor subtype. PMID:1358385

  5. Addition of cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based first-line combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, Timothy S; Adams, Richard A; Smith, Christopher G; Meade, Angela M; Seymour, Matthew T; Wilson, Richard H; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, David; Kenny, Sarah L; Kay, Edward; Mitchell, Jenna K; Madi, Ayman; Jasani, Bharat; James, Michelle D; Bridgewater, John; Kennedy, M John; Claes, Bart; Lambrechts, Diether; Kaplan, Richard; Cheadle, Jeremy P

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In the Medical Research Council (MRC) COIN trial, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted antibody cetuximab was added to standard chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the aim of assessing effect on overall survival. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, patients who were fit for but had not received previous chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy (arm A), the same combination plus cetuximab (arm B), or intermittent chemotherapy (arm C). The choice of fluoropyrimidine therapy (capecitabine or infused fluouroracil plus leucovorin) was decided before randomisation. Randomisation was done centrally (via telephone) by the MRC Clinical Trials Unit using minimisation. Treatment allocation was not masked. The comparison of arms A and C is described in a companion paper. Here, we present the comparison of arm A and B, for which the primary outcome was overall survival in patients with KRAS wild-type tumours. Analysis was by intention to treat. Further analyses with respect to NRAS, BRAF, and EGFR status were done. The trial is registered, ISRCTN27286448. Findings 1630 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (815 to standard therapy and 815 to addition of cetuximab). Tumour samples from 1316 (81%) patients were used for somatic molecular analyses; 565 (43%) had KRAS mutations. In patients with KRAS wild-type tumours (arm A, n=367; arm B, n=362), overall survival did not differ between treatment groups (median survival 17·9 months [IQR 10·3–29·2] in the control group vs 17·0 months [9·4–30·1] in the cetuximab group; HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·87–1·23, p=0·67). Similarly, there was no effect on progression-free survival (8·6 months [IQR 5·0–12·5] in the control group vs 8·6 months [5·1–13·8] in the cetuximab group; HR 0·96, 0·82–1·12, p=0·60). Overall response rate increased from 57% (n=209

  6. On-line spectroscopic studies of group IV alkoxides and their interactions with organic additives during the sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect

    Wettling, D.; Truchet, S.; Guilment, J.; Poncelet, O.

    1996-12-31

    The potential of vibrational spectroscopy for the study of group 4 alkoxides M(OR){sub 4} has been demonstrated in several papers, but only a few of these papers have presented results from online measurements. The monitoring of different reactions such as the stabilization of the alkoxides with organic additives, the exchange processes between different metal alkoxides (R exchange or M exchange) and the hydrolysis process can be of great importance for the development of new synthetic routes leading to materials which are easier to process. NIR spectroscopy is a very versatile technique but lacks specificity while IR and Raman give more interpretive results but are not always easy during processing. The authors used both techniques along with chemometric tools to extract relevant information on their processes. The 2D correlation allowed benefits from the specificity of IR and Raman to develop robust NIR methods which are able to be used on line to monitor the different steps of the sol-gel process.

  7. The common food additive carrageenan is not a ligand for Toll-Like- Receptor 4 (TLR4) in an HEK293-TLR4 reporter cell-line model.

    PubMed

    McKim, James M; Wilga, Paul C; Pregenzer, Jeffrey F; Blakemore, William R

    2015-04-01

    Carrageenan (CGN) is widely used in the food manufacturing industry as an additive that stabilizes and thickens food products. Standard animal safety studies in which CGN was administered in diet showed no adverse effects. However, several in vitro studies have reported that intestinal inflammation is caused by CGN and that this effect is mediated through Toll-Like-Receptor 4 (TLR4). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of different types of CGN to bind and activate TLR4 signaling. To accomplish this a TLR4/MD-2/CD14/NFκB/SEAP reporter construct in a HEK293 cell line was used. The reporter molecule, secretable alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), was measured as an indicator of TLR4 activation. The test compounds were exposed to this system at concentrations of 0.1, 1, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 ng/mL for 24 h. Cytotoxicity was evaluated following the 24 h exposure period by LDH leakage and ATP. CGN binding to serum proteins was characterized by Toluidine Blue. The results show that CGN does not bind to TLR4 and is not cytotoxic to the HEK293 cells at the concentrations and experimental conditions tested and that CGN binds tightly to serum proteins. PMID:25640528

  8. OH-Radical Specific Addition to Glutathione S-Atom at the Air-Water Interface: Relevance to the Redox Balance of the Lung Epithelial Lining Fluid.

    PubMed

    Enami, Shinichi; Hoffmann, Michael R; Colussi, Agustín J

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in epithelial lining fluids (ELF) prevent inhaled air pollutants from reaching lung tissue. This process, however, may upset ELF's redox balance, which is deemed to be expressed by the ratio of the major antioxidant glutathione (GSH) to its putative oxidation product GSSG. Previously, we found that at physiological pH O3(g) rapidly oxidizes GS(2-)(aq) (but not GSH(-)) to GSO3(-) rather than GSSG. Here, we report that in moderately acidic pH ≤ 5 media ·OH(g) oxidizes GSH(-)(aq) to sulfenic GSOH(-), sulfinic GSO2(-), and sulfonic GSO3(-) acids via ·OH specific additions to reduced S-atoms. The remarkable specificity of ·OH on water versus its lack of selectivity in bulk water implicates an unprecedented steering process during [OH···GSH] interfacial encounters. Thus, both O3 and ·OH oxidize GSH to GSOH(-) under most conditions, and since GSOH(-) is reduced back to GSH in vivo by NADPH, redox balance may be in fact signaled by GSH/GSOH ratios. PMID:26722895

  9. An Automated Software Package for the KISS Objective-Prism Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies. II. Recent Additions and Project Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Salzer, J. J.

    1996-05-01

    We present an update on the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey (KISS) project. KISS is a wide-field survey for extragalactic emission-line objects being carried out with the Burrell Schmidt at Kitt Peak. While we are utilizing the classical objective-prism technique to find strong-lined star-forming galaxies and AGNs, the use of CCD detectors and automated reduction software promise to make KISS a powerful tool for the study of activity in galaxies. We are currently completing our first survey strip (100 square degrees). The data consist of deep (to B = 20) objective-prism images, deep direct images in both B and V, and small-format photometric calibration images of each field. The KISS reduction package was designed to run under the IRAF image processing environment, and will eventually grow to be a complete IRAF package. Tasks added to the package over the past year include precise astrometry and photometry modules. The astrometry routines utilize the HST Guide Star Catalog to perform a full plate solution on the direct image of each Schmidt field, and then assign accurate equatorial coordinates to each object in the field. The photometry module performs aperture photometry on the direct images for all objects in the KISS database catalog, and provides routines to transfer the photometry calibration from the small-format images taken under photometric conditions to the large-format survey images. Extensive tests and modifications have also been carried out on the pre-existing software described by Herrero & Salzer (1995) in order to better fine-tune the reduction procedures and parameter settings. In addition to presenting a complete description of the new software, we describe the current status of the survey and present some preliminary characteristics of the sample. Other members of the KISS project include V. Lipovetsky & A. Kniazev (S.A.O.), T. Boroson (NOAO/USGP), T. Thuan (U. Virginia), J. Moody (BYU), Y. Izotov (Ukrainian Acad. Sci.), and J. Herrero

  10. Non-additive effects of RBP4, ESR1 and IGF2 polymorphisms on litter size at different parities in a Chinese-European porcine line

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to study the effects on litter size of variants of the porcine genes RBP4, ESR1 and IGF2, currently used in genetic tests for different purposes. Moreover, we investigated a possible effect of the interaction between RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII polymorphisms. The IGF2-intron3-G3072A polymorphism is actually used to select lean growth, but other possible effects of this polymorphism on reproductive traits need to be evaluated. Methods Detection of polymorphisms in the genomic and cDNA sequences of RBP4 gene was carried out. RBP4-MspI and IGF2-intron3-G3072A were genotyped in a hyperprolific Chinese-European line (Tai-Zumu) and three new RBP4 polymorphisms were genotyped in different pig breeds. A bivariate animal model was implemented in association analyses considering the number of piglets born alive at early (NBA12) and later parities (NBA3+ ) as different traits. A joint analysis of RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII was performed to test their possible interaction. In the IGF2 analysis, paternal or maternal imprinting effects were also considered. Results Four different RBP4 haplotypes were detected (TGAC, GGAG, GAAG and GATG) in different pig breeds and wild boars. A significant interaction effect between RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII polymorphisms of 0.61 ± 0.29 piglets was detected on NBA3+. The IGF2 analysis revealed a significant increase on NBA3+ of 0.74 ± 0.37 piglets for the paternally inherited allele A. Conclusions All the analyzed pig and wild boar populations shared one of the four detected RBP4 haplotypes. This suggests an ancestral origin of the quoted haplotype. The joint use of RBP4-MspI and ESR1-PvuII polymorphisms could be implemented to select for higher prolificacy in the Tai-Zumu line. In this population, the paternal allele IGF2-intron3-3072A increased litter size from the third parity. The non-additive effects on litter size reported here should be tested before implementation in other pig breeding schemes. PMID

  11. Transcriptome analysis of genes related to resistance against powdery mildew in wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanquan; Niu, Zubiao; Bao, Yinguang; Tian, Qiuju; Wang, Honggang; Kong, Lingrang; Feng, Deshun

    2016-09-15

    Wheat powdery mildew, which is mainly caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), seriously damages wheat production. The wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien addition disomic line germplasm SN6306, being one of the important sources of genes for wheat resistance, is highly resistant to Bgt E09 and to many other powdery mildew physiological races. However, knowledge on the resistance mechanism of SN6306 remains limited. Our study employed high-throughput RNA sequencing based on next-generation sequencing technology (Illumina) to obtain an overview of the transcriptome characteristics of SN6306 and its parent wheat Yannong 15 (YN15) during Bgt infection. The sequencing generated 104,773 unigenes, 9909 of which showed varied expression levels. Among the 9909 unigenes, 1678 unigenes showed 0 reads in YN15. The expression levels in Bgt-inoculated SN6306 and YN15 of exactly 39 unigenes that showed 0 or considerably low reads in YN15 were validated to identify the genes involved in Bgt resistance. Among the 39 unigenes, 12 unigenes were upregulated in SN6306 by 3-45 times. These unigenes mainly encoded kinase, synthase, proteases, and signal transduction proteins, which may play an important role in the resistance against Bgt. To confirm whether the unigenes that showed 0 reads in YN15 are really unique to SN6306, 8 unigenes were cloned and sequenced. Results showed that the selected unigenes are more similar to SN6306 and Th. intermedium than to the wheat cultivar YN15. The sequencing results further confirmed that the unigenes showing 0 reads in YN15 are unique to SN6306 and are most likely derived from Th. intermedium (Host) Nevski. Thus, the genes from Th. intermedium most probably conferred the resistance of SN6306 to Bgt. PMID:27265028

  12. The Occurrence of Additional Giant Planets Inside the Water–Ice Line in Systems with Hot Jupiters: Evidence Against High-Eccentricity Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of only a few days is still uncertain. It is widely believed that these planets formed near the water–ice line of the protoplanetary disk, and subsequently migrated into much smaller orbits. Most of the proposed migration mechanisms can be classified either as disk-driven migration, or as excitation of a very high eccentricity followed by tidal circularization. In the latter scenario, the giant planet that is destined to become a hot Jupiter spends billions of years on a highly eccentric orbit, with apastron near the water–ice line. Eventually, tidal dissipation at periastron shrinks and circularizes the orbit. If this is correct, then it should be especially rare for hot Jupiters to be accompanied by another giant planet interior to the water–ice line. Using the current sample of giant planets discovered with the Doppler technique, we find that hot Jupiters with P orb < 10 days are no more or less likely to have exterior Jupiter-mass companions than longer-period giant planets with P orb ≥ 10 days. This result holds for exterior companions both inside and outside of the approximate location of the water–ice line. These results are difficult to reconcile with the high-eccentricity migration scenario for hot Jupiter formation.

  13. Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell secretome display antiproliferative effect on leukemia cell line and produce additive cytotoxic effect in combination with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Hendijani, Fatemeh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Sadeghi-aliabadi, Hojjat

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy moves toward clinic progressively. Recent evidences establish anticancer effect of mesenchymal stem cells. However multiple factors including type of cancer, MSC source, study design, and animal model play role in final outcome. Wharton's jelly - a newly approved source of MSCs - possesses superiorities to bone marrow as the conventional source; therefore investigation of its medical effects can produce beneficial results. In this survey we examined cytotoxic and proapoptotic effect of human Wharton's jelly MSC secretome on K562 human leukemia cells. MSCs were isolated from human Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord by explant culture method, then characterized according to ISCT criteria (morphology and plastic adherence, surface antigenicity and differentiation potential). MSC secretome was collected and its cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects on K562 cells in combination with doxorubicin were evaluated using BrdU cell proliferation assay and Annexin V-PI staining. Our results showed antiproliferative effect of mesenchymal stem cell secretome on K562 cancer cells, the effect was also added to cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin without induction of drug resistance. Human Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells exerted cytotoxic effect on leukemia cells. Addition of that effect to anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents can leads to cytotoxic drug dose reduction and diminished side effects. PMID:25779671

  14. Addition of long-acting beta2-agonists to inhaled steroids as first line therapy for persistent asthma in steroid-naive adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Ni Chroinin, Muireann; Greenstone, Ilana; Lasserson, Toby J; Ducharme, Francine M

    2014-01-01

    Background Consensus statements recommend the addition of long-acting inhaled ß2-agonists (LABA) only in asthmatic patients who are inadequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). It is not uncommon for some patients to be commenced on ICS and LABA together as initial therapy. Objectives To compare the efficacy of combining inhaled corticosteroids with long-acting ß2-agonists (ICS+LABA) with inhaled corticosteroids alone (ICS alone) in steroid-naive children and adults with persistent asthma. We assessed two protocols: (1) LABA + ICS versus a similar dose of ICS (comparison 1) and (2) LABA + ICS versus a higher dose of ICS (comparison 2). Search methods We identified randomised controlled trials through electronic database searches (May 2008). Selection criteria Randomised trials comparing ICS + LABA with ICS alone in children and adults with asthma who had no inhaled corticosteroids in the preceding 28 days prior to enrolment. Data collection and analysis Each author assessed studies independently for risk of bias and extracted data. We obtained confirmation from the trialists when possible. The primary endpoint was rate of patients with one or more asthma exacerbations requiring rescue systemic corticosteroids. Results are expressed as relative risks (RR) for dichotomous data and as mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous data. Main results Twenty-eight study comparisons drawn from 27 trials (22 adult; five paediatric) met the review entry criteria (8050 participants). Baseline data from the studies indicated that trial populations had moderate or mild airway obstruction (FEV1 65% predicted), and that they were symptomatic prior to randomisation. In comparison 1, the combination of ICS and LABA was not associated with a significantly lower risk of patients with exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids (RR 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73 to 1.47) or requiring hospital admissions (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.09 to 1

  15. Improvement of Lyme borreliosis serodiagnosis by a newly developed recombinant immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM line immunoblot assay and addition of VlsE and DbpA homologues.

    PubMed

    Goettner, Gereon; Schulte-Spechtel, Ulrike; Hillermann, Ruth; Liegl, Gabi; Wilske, Bettina; Fingerle, Volker

    2005-08-01

    We developed and evaluated a recombinant Borrelia line immunoblot assay based on 18 homologues of seven different antigens, i.e., p100, p58, p41i, BmpA, VlsE, OspC, and DbpA. Each recombinant antigen can be detected separately and is distinct even from homologues with identical molecular weights. This blot was compared to the recently described recombinant Borrelia Western immunoblot assay (U. Schulte-Spechtel, G. Lehnert, G. Liegl, V. Fingerle, C. Heimerl, B. J. Johnson, and B. Wilske, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:1299-1303, 2003). To verify sensitivity and specificity, both blots were evaluated for reactivity with Borrelia-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies with 85 sera from patients with different manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and 110 controls. According to European interpretation criteria for Borrelia Western blots, which define a serum as positive when it recognizes at least two bands, sensitivity increased significantly from 70.6% (Western blot) to 84.7% (line blot) for IgG (P = 0.042) and from 40.0% (Western blot) to 73.8% (line blot) for IgM (P < 0.005). The increased sensitivity for IgG detection is due to the new line blot technique, whereas the improvement in detection of IgM is mainly achieved through incorporation of the additional antigens. Notably, the recombinant VlsE of Borrelia garinii strain PBi displayed the highest sensitivity of all antigens tested for IgG detection and is also one of the most useful antigens for IgM. Due to its excellent sensitivity and specificity combined with ease of evaluation, this line immunoblot assay offers a useful improvement in serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:16081885

  16. Deviation from additivity in mixture toxicity: relevance of nonlinear dose-response relationships and cell line differences in genotoxicity assays with combinations of chemical mutagens and gamma-radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Werner K; Vamvakas, Spyros; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Schlatter, Josef; Stopper, Helga

    2002-01-01

    Sublinear dose-response relationships are often seen in toxicity testing, particularly with bioassays for carcinogenicity. This is the result of a superimposition of various effects that modulate and contribute to the process of cancer formation. Examples are saturation of detoxification pathways or DNA repair with increasing dose, or regenerative hyperplasia and indirect DNA damage as a consequence of high-dose cytotoxicity and cell death. The response to a combination treatment can appear to be supra-additive, although it is in fact dose-additive along a sublinear dose-response curve for the single agents. Because environmental exposure of humans is usually in a low-dose range and deviation from linearity is less likely at the low-dose end, combination effects should be tested at the lowest observable effect levels (LOEL) of the components. This principle has been applied to combinations of genotoxic agents in various cellular models. For statistical analysis, all experiments were analyzed for deviation from additivity with an n-factor analysis of variance with an interaction term, n being the number of components tested in combination. Benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and dibenz[a,c]anthracene were tested at the LOEL, separately and in combination, for the induction of revertants in the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and rat liver S9 fraction. Combined treatment produced no deviation from additivity. The induction of micronuclei in vitro was investigated with ionizing radiation from a 137Cs source and ethyl methanesulfonate. Mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells revealed a significant 40% supra-additive combination effect in an experiment based on three independent replicates for controls and single and combination treatments. On the other hand, two human lymphoblastoid cell lines (TK6 and WTK1) as well as a pilot study with human primary fibroblasts from fetal lung did not show deviation from additivity. Data derived from one cell line should therefore

  17. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  20. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  2. Discovery of a new source of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum, cause of Fusarium wilt in Allium fistulosum, located on chromosome 2 of Allium cepa Aggregatum group.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hoa Q; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Ito, Shin-Ichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal effect of Allium cepa Aggregatum group (shallot) metabolites on Fusarium oxysporum and to determine the shallot chromosome(s) related to Fusarium wilt resistance using a complete set of eight Allium fistulosum - shallot monosomic addition lines. The antifungal effects of hexane, butanol, and water extraction fractions from bulbs of shallot on 35 isolates of F. oxysporum were examined using the disc diffusion method. Only hexane and butanol fractions showed high antifungal activity. Shallot showed no symptom of disease after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cepae. The phenolic content of the roots and the saponin content of root exudates of inoculated shallot increased to much higher levels than those of the control at 3 days after inoculation. Application of freeze-dried shallot root exudates to seeds of A. fistulosum soaked in a spore suspension of F. oxysporum resulted in protection of seedlings against infection. Among eight monosomic addition lines and A. fistulosum, FF+2A showed the highest resistance to Fusarium wilt. This monosomic addition line also showed a specific saponin band derived from shallot on the thin layer chromatography profile of saponins in the eight monosomic addition lines. The chromosome 2A of shallot might possess some of the genes related to Fusarium wilt resistance. PMID:23199574

  3. Addition of rapamycin and hydroxychloroquine to metronomic chemotherapy as a second line treatment results in high salvage rates for refractory metastatic solid tumors: a pilot safety and effectiveness analysis in a small patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Ko, Hui-Ling; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin; Kao, Shang-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autophagy is an important oncotarget that can be modulated during anti-cancer therapy. Enhancing autophagy using chemotherapy and rapamycin (Rapa) treatment and then inhibiting it using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could synergistically improve therapy outcome in cancer patients. It is still unclear whether addition of Rapa and HCQ to chemotherapy could be used for reversing drug resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-five stage IV cancer patients were identified. They had no clinical response to first-line metronomic chemotherapy; the patients were salvaged by adding an autophagy inducer (Rapa, 2 mg/day) and an autophagosome inhibitor (HCQ, 400 mg/day) to their current metronomic chemotherapy for at least 3 months. Patients included 4 prostate, 4 bladder, 4 lung, 4 breast, 2 colon, and 3 head and neck cancer patients as well as 4 sarcoma patients. RESULTS Chemotherapy was administered for a total of 137 months. The median duration of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 months (95% confidence interval, 3–7 months). The overall response rate to this treatment was of 40%, with an 84% disease control rate. The most frequent and clinically significant toxicities were myelotoxicities. Grade ≥3 leucopenia occurred in 6 patients (24%), grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (32%), and anemia in 3 (12%). None of them developed febrile neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were fatigue (total 32%, with 1 patient developing grade 3 fatigue), diarrhea (total 20%, 1 patient developed grade 3 fatigue), reversible grade 3 cardiotoxicity (1 patient), and grade V liver toxicity from hepatitis B reactivation (1 patient). CONCLUSION Our results of Rapa, HCQ and chemotherapy triplet combination suggest autophagy is a promising oncotarget and warrants further investigation in phase II studies. PMID:25944689

  4. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  5. Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Cherbas, Lucy; Gong, Lei

    2014-01-01

    We review the properties and uses of cell lines in Drosophila research, emphasizing the variety of lines, the large body of genomic and transcriptional data available for many of the lines, and the variety of ways the lines have been used to provide tools for and insights into the developmental, molecular, and cell biology of Drosophila and mammals. PMID:24434506

  6. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  7. Identification of cDNA encoding an additional. alpha. subunit of a human GTP-binding protein: Expression of three. alpha. sub i subtypes in human tissues and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Ang, S.L.; Bloch, D.B.; Bloch, K.D.; Kawahara, Y.; Tolman, C.; Lee, R.; Seidman, J.G.; Neer, E.J. )

    1988-06-01

    The guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which mediate hormonal regulation of many membrane functions, are composed of {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits. The authors have cloned and characterized cDNA from a human T-cell library encoding a form of {alpha}{sub i} that is different from the human {alpha}{sub i} subtypes previously reported. {alpha}{sub i} is the {alpha} subunit of a class of G proteins that inhibits adenylate cyclase and regulates other enzymes and ion channels. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 354 amino acids and is assigned to encode the {alpha}{sub i-3} subtype of G proteins on the basis of its similarity to other {alpha}{sub i}-like cDNAs and the presence of a predicted site for ADP ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They have determined the expression of mRNA for this and two other subtypes of human {alpha}{sub i} ({alpha}{sub i-1} and {alpha}{sub i-2}) in a variety of human fetal tissues and in human cell lines. All three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes were present in the tissues tested. However, analysis of individual cell types reveals specificity of {alpha}{sub i-1} expression. mRNA for {alpha}{i-1} is absent in T cells, B cells, and monocytes but is present in other cell lines. The finding of differential expression of {alpha}{sub i-1} genes may permit characterization of distinct physiological roles for this {alpha}{sub i} subunit. mRNA for {alpha}{sub i-2} and {alpha}{sub i-3} was found in all the primary and transformed cell lines tested. Thus, some cells contain all three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes. This observation raises the question of how cells prevent cross talk among receptors that are coupled to effectors through such similar {alpha} proteins.

  8. Measure Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  9. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder. PMID:3826294

  10. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  11. Unusual Turner syndrome mosaic with a triple x cell line (47,X/49,XXX) in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol M; Tupa, Lynn; Wiese, Debbie; Hurley, Timothy J; Zimmerman, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    A 29-yr-old female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated for low fertility and a midterm abortion. Laboratory testing included karyotyping, which revealed an unusual mosaicism for Turner syndrome with Triple X (47,X/49,XXX). This appears to be the first report of Turner syndrome in a great ape. In humans, Turner syndrome occurs in approximately 1 in 3,000 females, with half of those monosomic for the X chromosome. A small proportion is mosaic for a triple X cell line (3-4%). In humans, Turner syndrome is associated with characteristic phenotype including short stature, obesity, a broad chest with widely spaced nipples, webbing of the neck, and anteverted ears. This individual gorilla is significantly shorter in stature than conspecifics and is obese despite normal caloric intake. Individuals with Turner syndrome should also be screened for common health issues, including congenital heart defects, obesity, kidney abnormalities, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and diabetes mellitus. Animals with decreased fertility, multiple miscarriages, fetal losses, unusual phenotypes, or a combination of these symptoms should be evaluated for genetic abnormalities. PMID:24450068

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  13. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  14. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  15. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  16. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  20. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  1. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  2. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  4. From Addition to Multiplication ... and Back: The Development of Students' Additive and Multiplicative Reasoning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dooren, Wim; De Bock, Dirk; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    This study builds on two lines of research that have so far developed largely separately: the use of additive methods to solve proportional word problems and the use of proportional methods to solve additive word problems. We investigated the development with age of both kinds of erroneous solution methods. We gave a test containing missing-value…

  5. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is $1,123, as computed in the table below: Year Actual depreciation Straight line Additional... depreciation for the property is $567, as computed in the table below: Years Depreciation Straight line... additional depreciation for the property is $29,000, as computed in the table below: Year Actual...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is $1,123, as computed in the table below: Year Actual depreciation Straight line Additional... depreciation for the property is $567, as computed in the table below: Years Depreciation Straight line... additional depreciation for the property is $29,000, as computed in the table below: Year Actual...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is $1,123, as computed in the table below: Year Actual depreciation Straight line Additional... depreciation for the property is $567, as computed in the table below: Years Depreciation Straight line... additional depreciation for the property is $29,000, as computed in the table below: Year Actual...

  9. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  10. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  11. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  12. Diatomic predissociation line widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Child, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Predissociation by rotation and curve crossing in diatomic molecules is discussed. The pattern of predissociation line widths is seen as providing a highly sensitive yardstick for the determination of unknown potential curves. In addition, the computation of such a pattern for given potential curves is considered a matter of routine, unless the predissociation happens to occur from an adiabatic potential curve. Analytic formulas are used to provide physical insight into the details of the predissociation pattern, to the extent that a direct inversion procedure is developed for determination of the repulsive potential curves for Type 1 predissociations.

  13. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  14. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  15. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  16. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  19. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  20. Line managers as marketers.

    PubMed

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications. PMID:10277616

  1. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  2. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  3. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  4. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  5. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  6. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  7. Checking the Lines for Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Lines of communication are often blurred in early childhood settings and relationships need to be reestablished regularly as children move through a program. In addition, the parent-teacher-child relationship is a triad that is built upon trust and need and not a clear hierarchy. This article discusses the following issues brought up during a…

  8. On-Line Communications Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternick, Barbara R.

    These summaries have been compiled to assist users in selecting terminals for use with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on-line systems. The summaries describe the salient characteristics and approximate prices of a large number of hard copy and display devices. Many of the terminals listed may be modified by the addition of various options…

  9. Electric Field Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, E.; Gallardo, C.; Molina, M.; Sanjosé, V.

    We present the computer program called LINES which is able to calculate and visualize the electric field lines due to seven different discrete configurations of electric point charges. Also we show two examples of the graphic screens generated by LINES.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... additional depreciation for the property is $1,123, as computed in the table below: Year Actual depreciation... January 1, 1970, the additional depreciation for the property is $567, as computed in the table below... computed in the table below: Year Actual depreciation Straight line Additional depreciation (deficit)...

  11. Abstract Line Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevinskas, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a unit on the exploration of line. The unit was composed of two individual line lessons. In the first lesson, students were introduced to line as an element of design. They were asked to describe different types of lines, and look for them in art reproductions. The second lesson in the unit involved painting…

  12. The Language of Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breig-Allen, Cheryl; Hill, Janet; Geismar-Ryan, Lori; Cadwell, Louise Boyd

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project about lines in the environment used with 2- and 3-year olds and based on the Reggio Emilia approach. Activities included making tracks with riding toys, drawing lines on papers, seeing cloud lines, and making lines with yarn and Cuisenaire rods. Shows how young children's observations and ongoing discoveries can uncover their…

  13. 21. Southeast corner of switch house addition, including exterior transformers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Southeast corner of switch house addition, including exterior transformers and start of power transmission line. Employee House No. 1 is in the background. - Rock Creek Hydroelectric Project, Rock Creek, Baker County, OR

  14. Line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collange, Sylvain; Daumas, Marc; Defour, David

    2008-01-01

    We report here on software that performs line-by-line spectroscopic simulations on gases. Elaborate models (such as narrow band and correlated-K) are accurate and efficient for bands where various components are not simultaneously and significantly active. Line-by-line is probably the most accurate model in the infrared for blends of gases that contain high proportions of H 2O and CO 2 as this was the case for our prototype simulation. Our implementation on graphics processing units sustains a speedup close to 330 on computation-intensive tasks and 12 on memory intensive tasks compared to implementations on one core of high-end processors. This speedup is due to data parallelism, efficient memory access for specific patterns and some dedicated hardware operators only available in graphics processing units. It is obtained leaving most of processor resources available and it would scale linearly with the number of graphics processing units in parallel machines. Line-by-line simulation coupled with simulation of fluid dynamics was long believed to be economically intractable but our work shows that it could be done with some affordable additional resources compared to what is necessary to perform simulations on fluid dynamics alone. Program summaryProgram title: GPU4RE Catalogue identifier: ADZY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 62 776 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 513 247 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: x86 PC Operating system: Linux, Microsoft Windows. Compilation requires either gcc/g++ under Linux or Visual C++ 2003/2005 and Cygwin under Windows. It has been tested using gcc 4.1.2 under Ubuntu Linux 7.04 and using Visual C

  15. Packaging and Transportation of Additional Neptunium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Jordan, J.; Hensel, S.

    2010-05-05

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a second neptunium oxide production campaign in which nine (9) additional cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. These additional cans were from a different feed solution than the first fifty (50) cans of neptunium oxide that were previously produced and shipped via a Letter of Amendment to the 9975 Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) content table. This paper will address the challenges associated with demonstrating the neptunium oxide produced from the additional feed solution was equivalent to the original neptunium oxide and within the content description of the Letter of Amendment.

  16. Reconnection of vorticity lines and magnetic lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic field and fluid vorticity share many features. First, as divergence-free vector fields they are conveniently visualized in terms of their field lines, curves that are everywhere tangent to the field. The lines indicate direction and their density indicates field strength. The question arises of the extent to which the evolution of the fields can be treated in terms of the evolution of their field lines. Newcomb (1958) derived the general conditions on the evolution of vector fields that permit the identification of field lines from one instant to the next. The equations of evolution of the vorticity field and the magnetic field fall within Newcomb's analysis. The dynamics of the flows differ between these two systems, so that geometrically similar phenomena happen in different ways in the two systems. In this paper the geometrical similarities are emphasized. Reconnection will be defined here as evolution in which it is not possible to preserve the global identification of some field lines. There is a close relation between reconnection and the topology of the vector field lines. Nontrivial topology occurs where the field has null points or there are field lines that are closed loops.

  17. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  18. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  19. Peripheral arterial line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PAL - infants; Art line - infants ... an "art line." This article addresses PALs in babies. Why is a PAL used? Doctors and nurses use a PAL to watch your baby's blood pressure. A PAL can also be use ...

  20. Gamma ray line astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1984-01-01

    The interpretations and implications of the astrophysical observations of gamma-ray lines are reviewed. At the Galactic Center e(+)-e(-) pairs from a compact object produce an annihilation line that shows no redshift, indicating an annihilation site far removed from this object. In the jets of SS433, gamma-ray lines are produced by inelastic excitations, probably in dust grains, although line emission from fusion reactions has also been considered. Observations of diffuse galactic line emission reveal recently synthesized radioactive aluminum in the interstellar medium. In gamma-ray bursts, redshifted pair annihilation lines are consistent with a neutron star origin for the bursts. In solar flares, gamma-ray line emission reveals the prompt acceleration of protons and nuclei, in close association with the flare energy release mechanism.

  1. Stand-off transmission lines and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    Standoff transmission lines in an integrated circuit structure are formed by etching away or removing the portion of the dielectric layer separating the microstrip metal lines and the ground plane from the regions that are not under the lines. The microstrip lines can be fabricated by a subtractive process of etching a metal layer, an additive process of direct laser writing fine lines followed by plating up the lines or a subtractive/additive process in which a trench is etched over a nucleation layer and the wire is electrolytically deposited. Microstrip lines supported on freestanding posts of dielectric material surrounded by air gaps are produced. The average dielectric constant between the lines and ground plane is reduced, resulting in higher characteristic impedance, less crosstalk between lines, increased signal propagation velocities, and reduced wafer stress.

  2. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  3. Acidic stream mitigation by limestone sand addition

    SciTech Connect

    Brant, D.L.; Marich, A.J. Jr.; Largent, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Town Line Run watershed comprises an area of 3,600 wooded acres. The tributaries feeding the stream consist of sandstone springs that do not contribute alkalinity to the watershed, leaving the stream susceptible to acid precipitation. This has a negative affect on Iser`s Run, a native brook trout fishery above the confluence with Town Line Run. The objective in stream liming is to improve water chemistry by increasing pH, alkalinity, and reducing acidity, aluminum, and iron. Introducing crushed limestone directly into a stream from a dump truck is an inexpensive but temporary solution to accomplish this objective. In this type of liming operation, a bed of limestone is spread down the stream channel by the momentum of the stream from the introduction point, rather than manually. Water moving across this bed dissolves the limestone, increasing the pH, alkalinity, and calcium while decreasing the acidity, iron, and aluminum concentrations of the water. The size of the limestone particles is important for this purpose because particles that are too small (<150 microns) will carried away, while particles that are too large (>1000 microns) will remain at the introduction point. Our study placed 80 tons of sand-sized limestone (85% calcite) in the stream channel at a single point. Water samples were collected monthly at the following sites (1) directly upstream of the addition site, (2) 100 yards downstream of the site, and (3) 2500 yards downstream of the site. Other sample locations include (4) upstream and (5) downstream of the Town Line Run- Iser`s Run confluence and the Casselman River upstream (6) and downstream (7) of Town Line Run. The samples were analyzed for pH. Specific conductivity, Alkalinity, Acidity, Iron, Manganese, Aluminum, and Sulfate.

  4. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  5. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  6. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  7. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  8. AgeLine: a database of social gerontology literature.

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily; Linares, Brenda M

    2013-01-01

    AgeLine, an EBSCO host database, focuses on literature on topics relating to people over the age of 50. AgeLine is geared to professionals in aging-related fields, such as health care professionals, social workers, and caregivers, as well as consumers. This column includes a sample search and a discussion of additional AgeLine features. PMID:23869638

  9. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  10. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  11. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated output voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.

  12. Soliton production with nonlinear homogeneous lines

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Coleman, Phillip D.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Petney, Sharon Joy Victor; Dudley, Evan C.; Youngman, Kevin; Penner, Tim Dwight; Fang, Lu; Myers, Katherine M.

    2015-11-24

    Low- and high-voltage Soliton waves were produced and used to demonstrate collision and compression using diode-based nonlinear transmission lines. Experiments demonstrate soliton addition and compression using homogeneous nonlinear lines. We built the nonlinear lines using commercially available diodes. These diodes are chosen after their capacitance versus voltage dependence is used in a model and the line design characteristics are calculated and simulated. Nonlinear ceramic capacitors are then used to demonstrate high-voltage pulse amplification and compression. The line is designed such that a simple capacitor discharge, input signal, develops soliton trains in as few as 12 stages. We also demonstrated outputmore » voltages in excess of 40 kV using Y5V-based commercial capacitors. The results show some key features that determine efficient production of trains of solitons in the kilovolt range.« less

  13. Dewetting films with inclined contact lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Li, Lei; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2015-02-01

    A partially wetting plate withdrawn from a liquid reservoir causes the deposition of a liquid film that is characterized by inclined contact lines. It has been experimentally indicated that the normal component of the contact-line velocity relative to the plate remains constant and is independent of the inclination angles, a fact that has never theoretically been justified. We demonstrate, in the framework of lubrication theory, that the speed-angle independence is only approximate and the normal velocity actually exhibits a weak decrease with the inclination angle of the contact line. This correlation is attributed to the variation of the effective separation of microscopic and macroscopic length scales. In addition, the inclination of the contact line results in a tangential flux of the liquid, which is confined in the vicinity of the contact line. Simple scaling relations are provided for both the normal velocity and the tangential flux.

  14. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Birds on power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaldo Redinz, José

    2014-07-01

    Why can a bird safely rest on a high-voltage power line? We discuss three effects that can lead to the development of voltages and currents in the bird's body. To explain the absence of electric shocks, we give numerical estimates of these voltages and currents obtained from the standard solution for the voltage along a two-wire transmission line.

  16. Structuring a service line.

    PubMed

    Zablocki, E

    1997-05-01

    In 1993, Community Hospitals Indianapolis created 10 service lines--each unique to the needs of the patients it serves. Two service line leaders talk about the factors critical to successful restructuring, the working relationships established, and the importance of clear communication to ensure understanding and get buy-in to the process. PMID:10167712

  17. Tangent Lines without Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a problem that can help high school students develop the concept of instantaneous velocity and connect it with the slope of a tangent line to the graph of position versus time. It also gives a method for determining the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial function at any point without using calculus. (Contains 1 figure.)

  18. Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, F. C.; Markle, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Airborne Fraunhofer Line Discriminator enables prospecting for fluorescent materials, hydrography with fluorescent dyes, and plant studies based on fluorescence of chlorophyll. Optical unit design is the coincidence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum occurring at the characteristic wavelengths of some fluorescent materials.

  19. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Database of emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binette, L.; Ortiz, P.; Joguet, B.; Rola, C.

    1998-11-01

    A widely accessible data bank (available through Netscape) and consiting of all (or most) of the emission lines reported in the litterature is being built. It will comprise objects as diverse as HII regions, PN, AGN, HHO. One of its use will be to define/refine existing diagnostic emission line diagrams.

  1. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  2. TRANSPORT OF WASTE SIMULANTS IN PJM VENT LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, Z

    2007-02-21

    The experimental work was conducted to determine whether there is a potential for waste simulant to transport or 'creep' up the air link line and contaminate the pulse jet vent system, and possibly cause long term restriction of the air link line. Additionally, if simulant creep occurred, establish operating parameters for washing down the line. The amount of the addition of flush fluids and mixer downtime must be quantified.

  3. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  4. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  5. Flow line sampler

    DOEpatents

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  6. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  8. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  9. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  10. Line, Shape, Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project used with beginning high school art students that teaches them about continuous line drawing. Explains that the students create portraits of themselves, or another student, using glue, black construction paper, and chalk. (CMK)

  11. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  12. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  13. IRIS Spectrum Line Plot

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows a line plot of the spectrum. The spectra here are shown for various locations on the Sun. The changes in the movie are caused by differing physical conditions in the locations. Cre...

  14. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk is higher if you: Are in the intensive care unit (ICU) Have a weakened immune system or serious ... unless you have washed your hands. Tell your nurse if your central line: Gets dirty Is coming ...

  15. Veterans Crisis Line

    MedlinePlus

    ... also access and download the Veterans Crisis Line Branding Guidelines for guidance on how to consistently apply ... Program ADMINISTRATION Veterans Health Administration Veterans Benefits Administration National Cemetery Administration U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs | 810 ...

  16. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  17. PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PORTION OF A LINE (AT LEFT) AND B LINE (AT RIGHT) ON GENTLE TERRACE SLOPE. A LINE POLE 75A (LEFT FOREGROUND) HAS ORIGINAL GLASS PIN-TYPE INSULATORS AND INTACT COMMUNICATION LINE CROSS ARM. VIEW TO WEST-SOUTHWEST. - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Electric Transmission A Line, Along West Rosebud Creek, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  19. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  20. Nasca Lines, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nasca Lines are located in the Pampa region of Peru, the desolate plain of the Peruvian coast 400 km south of Lima. The Lines were first spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's. Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below. The Lines were made by removing the iron-oxide coated pebbles which cover the surface of the desert. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the light color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color. On the pampa, south of the Nasca Lines, archaeologists have now uncovered the lost city of the line-builders, Cahuachi. It was built nearly two thousand years ago and was mysteriously abandoned 500 years later. This ASTER sub-image covers an area of 14 x 18 km, was acquired on December 22, 2000, and is located at 14.7 degrees south latitude and 75.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. 46 CFR 45.195 - Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route. 45.195 Section 45.195 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.195 Additional...

  2. 46 CFR 45.195 - Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route. 45.195 Section 45.195 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.195 Additional...

  3. 46 CFR 45.195 - Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route. 45.195 Section 45.195 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.195 Additional...

  4. 46 CFR 45.195 - Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route. 45.195 Section 45.195 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.195 Additional...

  5. 46 CFR 45.195 - Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional equipment requirements for the Muskegon route. 45.195 Section 45.195 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.195 Additional...

  6. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  7. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  8. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  9. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  10. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  11. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  12. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  13. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  15. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  16. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  17. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  18. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  19. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  20. Blasted Cell Line Names

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Byers, Lauren A.; Yordy, John S.; Liu, Wenbin; Shen, Li; Baggerly, Keith A.; Giri, Uma; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Ang, K. Kian; Story, Michael D.; Girard, Luc; Minna, John D.; Heymach, John V.; Coombes, Kevin R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: While trying to integrate multiple data sets collected by different researchers, we noticed that the sample names were frequently entered inconsistently. Most of the variations appeared to involve punctuation, white space, or their absence, at the juncture between alphabetic and numeric portions of the cell line name. Results: Reasoning that the variant names could be described in terms of mutations or deletions of character strings, we implemented a simple version of the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment algorithm and applied it to the cell line names. All correct matches were found by this procedure. Incorrect matches only occured when a cell line was present in one data set but not in the other. The raw match scores tended to be substantially worse for the incorrect matches. Conclusions: A simple application of the Needleman-Wunsch global sequence alignment algorithm provides a useful first pass at matching sample names from different data sets. PMID:21082038

  1. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  2. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  3. Circumstellar radio molecular lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NGUYEN-QUANG-RIEU

    1987-01-01

    Radio molecular lines appear to be useful probes into the stellar environment. Silicon oxide masers provide information on the physical conditions in the immediate vicinity of the stellar photosphere. Valuable information on the physics operating in the envelope of IRC + 10216 was recently obtained by high sensitivity observations and detailed theoretical analyses. Infrared speckle interferometry in the molecular lines and in the continuum is helpful in the investigation of the inner region of the envelope. These techniques are discussed in terms of late-type star mass loss.

  4. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  5. Additional evidence of Mercurian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, N.J.; Strom, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence concerned with (1) the character and distribution of terrain surrounding fresh basins, (2) albedo, color and temporal differences between a basin rim and smooth plains on its floor, and (3) the stratigraphic relations and local distribution of smooth plains in the hilly and lineated terrain are cited as additional evidence for an internal origin of much of the Mercurian smooth plains. Altough the question of Mercurian volcanism should be kept open, this evidence together with that presented in an earlier paper suggests that volcanism occurred on Mercury early in its history. ?? 1976.

  6. Individualized additional instruction for calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Ken

    2010-10-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the student's performance. Our study compares two calculus classes, one taught with mandatory remedial IAI and the other without. The class with mandatory remedial IAI did significantly better on comprehensive multiple-choice exams, participated more frequently in classroom discussion and showed greater interest in theorem-proving and other advanced topics.

  7. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  8. Forbidden lines of np/q/ ions. I - Detailed balance and line intensity ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Lynch, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed balance equations are solved in the ground state terms of 37 ions of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S and Fe; atomic data for 235 transitions of these ions are tabulated, and 14 line ratios of q = 2,4 ions and eight line ratios of q = 3 ions are graphed. Forbidden emission lines of these ions are in the far and near UV, visible, and near and far IR regions of the spectrum. In addition, detailed calculations of the relative populations of the levels of the ground state are presented as a function of temperature and density.

  9. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Comprehensive report, February 1, 1977-May 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, D. F.

    1980-02-01

    Progress is reported in research on the cytogenetics of maize. The study has identified genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool. It has also been determined that distributive pairing, gene compensation, and gene magnification do not occur in maize. (ACR)

  10. Control line sealing connection

    SciTech Connect

    Tohill, H.O.

    1984-07-10

    A sealing connection for the passage of a fluid control line through adjoining members is claimed. The connection comprises a metallic tubular sealing element provided with tapered end portions, each end having internal frusto-conical surfaces and external frusto-conical surfaces in coaxial alignment with the bore through the element. The external frusto-conical surfaceas provide metal-to-metal sealing with aligned frusto-conical seating surfaces in opposed pockets formed in aligned portions of the control line at their respective openings at the adjoining surfaces of the adjoined member. The tubular sealing element is subjected to axial compression between the frusto-conical pocket seating surfaces when the adjoined members are bolted tightly together which results in deformation of its tapered end portions to provide metal-to-metal sealing with the adjoined members which is effective to seal against both internal and external fluid pressurization of the control line and without internally obstructing or restricting the control line. Secondary sealing is provided by elastomeric O-ring seals mounted in circumferential annular grooves formed in the exterior of the tubular sealing element.

  11. Microwave spectral line listing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The frequency, intensity, and identification of 9615 spectral lines belonging to 75 molecules are tabulated in order of increasing frequency. Measurements for all 75 molecules were made in the frequency range from 26500 to 40000 MHz by a computer controlled spectrometer. Measurements were also made in the 18000 to 26500 MHz range for some of the molecules.

  12. Straight Line Graphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares one effective lesson idea on straight line graphs that he applied in his lower ability Y9 class. The author wanted something interesting for his class to do, something that was fun and engaging with direct feedback, and something that worked because someone else had tried it before. In a word, the author admits…

  13. Cracks and Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    6 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an odd area of the south polar region that has sets of fine, nearly parallel lines running from the northeast (upper right) toward southwest (lower left) and a darker, wider set of cracks with a major trend running almost perpendicular to the finer lines. The appearance of these features is enhanced by seasonal frost. Dark areas have no frost, bright areas still have frozen carbon dioxide ice. In summer, the ice would be gone and the cracks and lines less obvious when viewed from orbit. Although unknown, wind might be responsible for forming the fine set of lines, and perhaps freeze-thaw cycles of ground ice or structural deformation would have contributed to formation of the wider cracks. The image is located near 85.0oS, 324.0oW, and covers an area about 1.5 km (nearly 1 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  14. Building with a Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbert, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Architecture is a versatile, multifaceted area to study in the artroom with multiple age levels. It can easily stimulate a study of basic line, shape, and various other art elements and principles. It can then be extended into a more extensive study of architectural elements, styles, specific architects, architecture of different cultures, and…

  15. The Front Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unks, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    The author draws an analogy between today's school system and an assembly line, deploring the notion that all children are taught the same thing at the same time, ending in humiliation, disgrace, and failure for some, and nonchallenging academic activities for others. (KC)

  16. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  17. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  18. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  19. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  20. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  1. Neutron Drip-Line Topography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, E. Minaya; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Naimi, S.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, C.; George, S.; Kellerbauer, A.; Boehm, Ch.; Neidherr, D.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S.; Herlert, A.; Kowalska, M.; Pearson, J. M.

    2009-08-26

    The development of microscopic mass models is a crucial ingredient for the understanding of how most of the elements of our world were fabricated. Confidence in drip-line predictions of such models requires their comparison with new mass data for nuclides far from stability. We combine theory and experiment using results that are state of the art: the latest mass measurements from the Penning-trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE are used to confront the predictions of the latest Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) microscopic mass models. In addition, we compare the new data to predictions of other types of mass models and the extrapolative behavior of the various models is analyzed to highlight topographical trends along the shores of the nuclear chart.

  2. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  3. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  4. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  5. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  6. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  7. COMPARATIVE TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF SALT-TOLERANT WHEAT GERMPLASM LINES USING GENOME ARRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salt-tolerant wheat lines W4909 and W4910 were derived from a cross between AJDAj5 (a disomic addition line carrying a pair of Eb chromosomes from Thinopyrum junceum) and Ph1 (a line having the Ph1 allele from Aegilops speltoides, which promotes homoeologous recombination). Both lines have greater ...

  8. Adverse reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1986-01-01

    There are thousands of agents that are intentionally added to the food that we consume. These include preservatives, stabilizers, conditioners, thickeners, colorings, flavorings, sweeteners, antioxidants, etc. etc. Yet only a surprisingly small number have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Amongst all the additives, FD&C dyes have been most frequently associated with adverse reactions. Tartrazine is the most notorious of them all; however, critical review of the medical literature and current Scripps Clinic studies would indicate that tartrazine has been confirmed to be at best only occasionally associated with flares of urticaria or asthma. There is no convincing evidence in the literature of reactivity to the other azo or nonazo dyes. This can also be said of BHA/BHT, nitrites/nitrates and sorbates. Parabens have been shown to elicit IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions when used as pharmaceutical preservatives; however, as with the other additives noted above, ingested parabens have only occasionally been associated with adverse reactions. MSG, the cause of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' has only been linked to asthma in one report. Sulfiting agents used primarily as food fresheners and to control microbial growth in fermented beverages have been established as the cause of any where from mild to severe and even fatal reactions in at least 5% of the asthmatic population. Other reactions reported to follow sulfite ingestion include anaphylaxis, gastro intestinal complaints and dermatological eruptions. The prevalence of these non asthmatic reactions is unknown. The mechanism of sulfite sensitive asthma is also unknown but most likely involves hyperreactivity to inhale SO2 in the great majority of cases; however, there are reports of IgE mediated reactions and other sulfite sensitive asthmatics have been found with low levels of sulfite oxidase; necessary to oxidize endogenous sulfite to sulfate. PMID:3302664

  9. Synthesis of an FHB-Resistant Durum Alien Addition Line with a Pair of Grass Chromosomes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is an important cereal crop widely used for human consumption. Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a serious disease of durum wheat. Current durum cultivars have very little or no F...

  10. Seedling tolerance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium in wheat chromosome group 4 addition lines from Thinopyrum spp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chromosome 4 from Thinopyrum spp. confers regrowth after a sexual cycle and senescence in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), and is associated with resistance to the necrotrophic eyespot pathogen, Tapesia yallundae. We sought to determine whether robust root growth or other traits expressed in ch...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of advanced durum wheat hybrids and addition lines with thinopyrum chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) is a natural hybrid – an allotetraploid between two wild species, Triticum urartu Tumanian (AA genome) and Aegilops speltoides Tausch (BB genome). As shown earlier, even at the allotetraploid level, durum wheat can tolerate chromosomal ...

  12. Synthesis of FHB-Tolerant Hybrid Derivatives and Durum Alien Addition Lines Involving Wheatgrass Chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is one of the most serious diseases of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB). Depending on environmental conditions favoring the spread of pathogen, the disease greatly reduces grain y...

  13. DGE-1, a durum alien disomic addition line with resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scab or Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe., is a serious disease of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28; AABB genomes) and current durum cultivars have almost no FHB resistance. Because diploid wheatgrass, Lophopyrum elongatum (2n = 2x = 14; EE...

  14. Identification of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien disomic addition lines conferring resistance to stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thinopyrum intermedium carries many useful traits for wheat genetic improvement. To identify genes conferring resistance to stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Zhong 4 (Z4) derived from a cross between common wheat and Th. intermedium, a cross was made between Z4 and a ‘Chin...

  15. EVOLUTION OF [O III] {lambda}5007 EMISSION-LINE PROFILES IN NARROW EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Mao, Y. F.; Wei, J. Y.

    2011-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus (AGN)-host co-evolution issue is investigated here by focusing on the evolution of the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission-line profile. A large sample of narrow emission-line galaxies is selected from the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog to simultaneously measure both the [O III] line profile and circumnuclear stellar population in an individual spectrum. By requiring that (1) the [O III] line signal-to-noise ratio is larger than 30 and (2) the [O III] line width is larger than the instrumental resolution by a factor of two, our sample is narrowed down to 2333 Seyfert galaxies/LINERs (AGNs), 793 transition galaxies, and 190 star-forming galaxies. In addition to the commonly used profile parameters (i.e., line centroid, relative velocity shift, and velocity dispersion), two dimensionless shape parameters, skewness and kurtosis, are used to quantify the line shape deviation from a pure Gaussian function. We show that the transition galaxies are systematically associated with narrower line widths and weaker [O III] broad wings than the AGNs, which implies that the kinematics of emission-line gas are different in the two kinds of objects. By combining the measured host properties and line shape parameters, we find that the AGNs with stronger blue asymmetries tend to be associated with younger stellar populations. However, a similar trend is not identified in the transition galaxies. The failure likely results from a selection effect in which the transition galaxies are systematically associated with younger stellar populations than the AGNs. The evolutionary significance revealed here suggests that both narrow-line region kinematics and outflow feedback in AGNs co-evolve with their host galaxies.

  16. Evolution of [O III] λ5007 Emission-line Profiles in Narrow Emission-line Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Mao, Y. F.; Wei, J. Y.

    2011-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus (AGN)-host co-evolution issue is investigated here by focusing on the evolution of the [O III] λ5007 emission-line profile. A large sample of narrow emission-line galaxies is selected from the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics/Johns Hopkins University Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 catalog to simultaneously measure both the [O III] line profile and circumnuclear stellar population in an individual spectrum. By requiring that (1) the [O III] line signal-to-noise ratio is larger than 30 and (2) the [O III] line width is larger than the instrumental resolution by a factor of two, our sample is narrowed down to 2333 Seyfert galaxies/LINERs (AGNs), 793 transition galaxies, and 190 star-forming galaxies. In addition to the commonly used profile parameters (i.e., line centroid, relative velocity shift, and velocity dispersion), two dimensionless shape parameters, skewness and kurtosis, are used to quantify the line shape deviation from a pure Gaussian function. We show that the transition galaxies are systematically associated with narrower line widths and weaker [O III] broad wings than the AGNs, which implies that the kinematics of emission-line gas are different in the two kinds of objects. By combining the measured host properties and line shape parameters, we find that the AGNs with stronger blue asymmetries tend to be associated with younger stellar populations. However, a similar trend is not identified in the transition galaxies. The failure likely results from a selection effect in which the transition galaxies are systematically associated with younger stellar populations than the AGNs. The evolutionary significance revealed here suggests that both narrow-line region kinematics and outflow feedback in AGNs co-evolve with their host galaxies.

  17. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  18. The Bicycle Assembly Line Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    "The Bicycle Assembly Line Game" is a team-based, in-class activity that helps students develop a basic understanding of continuously operating processes. Each team of 7-10 students selects one of seven prefigured bicycle assembly lines to operate. The lines are run in real-time, and the team that operates the line that yields the…

  19. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  20. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  1. Recent Discoveries in Nuclear Line Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boggs, Steven E.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear gamma-ray lines provide a unique probe of supernovae and nuclear astrophysics. The potential for significant contributions to the understanding supernovae, as well as the large potential for new discoveries, has long been recognized. I will review several major discoveries in the past few years from the NuSTAR and INTEGRAL missions, including observations of SN 1987A, Cas A, and SN 2014J. In addition, I will look forward to the next generation of gamma-ray line instruments currently under development, including wide-field Compton telescopes and focusing lens telescopes.

  2. Exotic structures near the drip lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M. M.; Saldanha, A. A.; Sharma, J. K.

    2011-10-28

    In our recent study of the isotope shifts of Kr isotopes near rp-process path in the framework of the RMF theory, we have found that due to large shell gaps in the deformed space, several N = Z nuclei exhibit the double magicity of protons and neutrons. These nuclei are known to contribute to large abundances in the rp-process nucleosynthesis and have been shown to be the waiting-point nuclei. In another study of the shell effects at N = 126 near the neutron drip line, we have found that nuclei exhibit additional stability beyond the neutron drip line.

  3. Using pipe line GIS tools for regulatory activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    US government regulators in increasing numbers are turning to GIS technology as a tool to help oversee pipe line regulatory activities. In some fashion, the pipe line industry is scrutinized by practically every federal agency responsible for monitoring pipe line safety, integrity, and public welfare, in addition to transportation, defense, environmental protection, health, tax revenue, royalties, energy regulations, parks and wildlife management, Indian affairs, occupational safety and others. This paper discusses the use of GIS to help meet these various regulatory concerns.

  4. Central line complications

    PubMed Central

    Kornbau, Craig; Lee, Kathryn C; Hughes, Gwendolyn D; Firstenberg, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Central venous access is a common procedure performed in many clinical settings for a variety of indications. Central lines are not without risk, and there are a multitude of complications that are associated with their placement. Complications can present in an immediate or delayed fashion and vary based on type of central venous access. Significant morbidity and mortality can result from complications related to central venous access. These complications can cause a significant healthcare burden in cost, hospital days, and patient quality of life. Advances in imaging, access technique, and medical devices have reduced and altered the types of complications encountered in clinical practice; but most complications still center around vascular injury, infection, and misplacement. Recognition and management of central line complications is important when caring for patients with vascular access, but prevention is the ultimate goal. This article discusses common and rare complications associated with central venous access, as well as techniques to recognize, manage, and prevent complications. PMID:26557487

  5. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  6. Cryoresistive gas insulated line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Kouno, T.

    An insulation strength of more than 16 kV mm -1 has been realized using nitrogen gas at 133 K and 0.4 MPa with the application of a.c. and impulse voltages. A cryoresistive gas insulated line (CRGIL) using nitrogen gas is proposed on the basis of the measured insulation strength. An efficient method for use of the cooling heat of liquefied natural gas is also proposed so that no refrigerator is required and the cost of cooling is reduced. The CRGIL has the advantages of having a large current carrying capacity, small power loss and small capacitance. Moreover, a given transmission capacity is achieved by a CRGIL whose rated voltage is about half that in a conventional gas insulated line.

  7. Coolant line hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

  8. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  9. Emission Lines and the High Energy Continuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Paul

    1998-01-01

    Quasars show many striking relationships between line and continuum radiation whose origins remain a mystery. FeII, [OIII], Hbeta, and HeII emission line properties correlate with high energy continuum properties such as the relative strength of X-ray emission, and X-ray continuum slope. At the same time, the shape of the high energy continuum may vary with luminosity. An important tool for studying global properties of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs) is the co-addition of data for samples of QSOS. We use this to show that X-ray bright (XB) QSOs show stronger emission lines in general, but particularly from the narrow line region. The difference in the [OIII]/Hbeta ratio is particularly striking, and even more so when blended FeII emission is properly subtracted. Weaker narrow forbidden lines ([OII] and NeV) are enhanced by factors of 2 to 3 in both UV and optical XB composite spectra. The physical origin of these diverse and interrelated correlations has yet to be determined. Unfortunately, many physically informative trends intrinsic to QSOs may be masked by dispersion in the data due to either low signal-to-noise or variability. An important tool for studying global properties of QSOs is the co-addition of data for samples of QSOS. We use this to show that X-ray bright (XB) QSOs show stronger emission lines in general, but particularly from the narrow line region. The difference in the [OIII]/Hbeta ratio is particularly striking, and even more so when blended Fell emission is properly subtracted. Weaker narrow forbidden lines ([OII] and NeV) are enhanced by factors of 2 to 3 in both UV and optical XB composite spectra. We describe a large-scale effort now underway to probe these effects in large samples, using both data and analysis as homogeneous as possible. Using an HST FOS Atlas of QSO spectra, with primary comparison to ROSAT PSPC spectral constraints, we will model the Big Blue Bump, its relationship to luminosity and QSO type, and we will analyze and

  10. A comparison of fluoropolymer linings

    SciTech Connect

    Khaladkar, P.R. )

    1994-02-01

    Five established methods of applying fluoropolymer to metallic and fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) substrates of barrier or lining applications include: (1) loose linings; (2) rotolining; (3) adhesively bonded linings; (4) spray and baked linings; and (5) dual laminate with FRP linings. With their low strength and high creep rates, fluoropolymers most often are used as barriers on substrates. The article offers some guidelines on the selection of suitable options for given applications.