Science.gov

Sample records for monsanto uuringukeskus usa-s

  1. Monsanto Gives Washington U. $23.5 Million.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews various provisions of a five-year, $23.5-million research agreement between Washington University and the Monsanto Company. The scientific focus of this venture will be on proteins and peptides which modify cellular behavior. (SK)

  2. 76 FR 6759 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Decision With Respect to the Petition for Partial Deregulation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ...We are advising the public of our decision to ``partially deregulate'' Roundup Ready[supreg] sugar beets developed by the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) and KWS SAAT AG (KWS), designated as event H7-1, in response to a supplemental Monsanto/KWS petition requesting partial deregulation of event H7-1. APHIS has determined that it will, for an interim period of time, grant the petition in part.......

  3. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences.

    PubMed

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W

    1996-01-01

    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures. PMID:9119327

  4. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... time to prepare and submit comments on the Monsanto petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and our... assessment, and plant pest risk assessment are also available on the APHIS Web site at http://www.aphis.usda... petition, draft environmental assessment, or plant pest risk assessment, contact Ms. Cindy Eck at (301)...

  5. "Hoffman v. Monsanto": Courts, Class Actions, and Perceptions of the Problem of GM Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod-Kilmurray, Heather

    2007-01-01

    "Hoffman v. Monsanto" raises questions about the civil litigation system. Are courts appropriate institutions, and are class actions the appropriate procedure, for resolving disputes about genetically modified organisms (GMOs)? After addressing the institutional question, this article focuses on procedure. Although class actions are designed to…

  6. 78 FR 44924 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status of canola designated as MON 88302, which has been genetically engineered for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate with more flexibility in the timing of herbicide application. We......

  7. 76 FR 80871 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has received a petition from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status of soybean designated as MON 87769, which has been genetically engineered to produce stearidonic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid not found in conventional soybean. The petition has been submitted in accordance with our......

  8. 76 FR 63279 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered for Insect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...We are advising the public of our determination that a soybean line developed by the Monsanto Co., designated as event MON 87701, which has been genetically engineered for insect resistance, is no longer considered a regulated article under our regulations governing the introduction of certain genetically engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation of data submitted by......

  9. 78 FR 44926 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ...We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared a preliminary determination regarding a request from the Monsanto Company seeking a determination of nonregulated status of maize designated as MON 87427, which has been genetically engineered with tissue-selective resistance to glyphosate in order to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. We......

  10. 76 FR 80869 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Corn Genetically Engineered for Drought...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...We are advising the public of our determination that a corn line developed by the Monsanto Co., designated as event MON 87460, which has been genetically engineered for drought tolerance, is no longer considered a regulated article under our regulations governing the introduction of certain genetically engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation of data submitted by the......

  11. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 10): Monsanto Chemical Co. (Soda Springs), Soda Springs, ID, April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Monsanto Chemical Company Superfund Site is located in Caribou County, Idaho, approximately one mile north of the City of Soda Springs. After screening using conservative human health and ecological screening values, the contaminants of potential concern in soils and on-Plant source piles include, radionuclides (radium-226, lead-210, and uranium-238) and chemicals (arsenic, beryllium, selenium and zinc). The groundwater contaminants of potential concern include those substances detected at concentrations above primary MCLs, i.e., cadmium, fluoride, nitrate, and selenium, and manganese, which is present above a secondary MCL.

  12. The DuPont, Monsanto, General Electric {open_quotes}Lasagna{close_quotes} Remediation Project - joint R&D and financing

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Lasagna project is the first of what we expect will be several large cooperative projects between industry consortia and government to develop improved remediation technologies. In 1992, Monsanto Company began contacting other major corporations to see if they were experiencing similar difficulties in applying cost-effective, or even workable technologies for industrial site remediation. Both General Electric and DuPont were early participants in the effort to develop a meeting with the EPA to discuss technical problems faced in cleanup, research needs, and ways to accelerate development of more cost-effective techniques. This paper provides some background on how this cooperative process came to reality, what the Lasagna process is and how the cooperative arrangements and financing are structured.

  13. Tourmaline occurrences within the Penamacor-Monsanto granitic pluton and host-rocks (Central Portugal): genetic implications of crystal-chemical and isotopic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, I. Ribeiro; Mourão, C.; Récio, C.; Guimarães, F.; Antunes, I. M.; Ramos, J. Farinha; Barriga, F. J. A. S.; Palmer, M. R.; Milton, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Tourmalinization associated with peraluminous granitic intrusions in metapelitic host-rocks has been widely recorded in the Iberian Peninsula, given the importance of tourmaline as a tracer of granite magma evolution and potential indicator of Sn-W mineralizations. In the Penamacor-Monsanto granite pluton (Central Eastern Portugal, Central Iberian Zone), tourmaline occurs: (1) as accessory phase in two-mica granitic rocks, muscovite-granites and aplites, (2) in quartz (±mica)-tourmaline rocks (tourmalinites) in several exocontact locations, and (3) as a rare detrital phase in contact zone hornfels and metapelitic host-rocks. Electron microprobe and stable isotope (δ18O, δD, δ11B) data provide clear distinctions between tourmaline populations from these different settings: (a) schorl-oxyschorl tourmalines from granitic rocks have variable foititic component (X□ = 17-57 %) and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios (0.19-0.50 in two-mica granitic rocks, and 0.05-0.19 in the more differentiated muscovite-granite and aplites); granitic tourmalines have constant δ18O values (12.1 ± 0.1 ‰), with wider-ranging δD (-78.2 ± 4.7 ‰) and δ11B (-10.7 to -9.0 ‰) values; (b) vein/breccia oxyschorl [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.31-0.44] results from late, B- and Fe-enriched magma-derived fluids and is characterized by δ18O = 12.4 ‰, δD = -29.5 ‰, and δ11B = -9.3 ‰, while replacement tourmalines have more dravitic compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.26-0.64], close to that of detrital tourmaline in the surrounding metapelitic rocks, and yield relatively constant δ18O values (13.1-13.3 ‰), though wider-ranging δD (-58.5 to -36.5 ‰) and δ11B (-10.2 to -8.8 ‰) values; and (c) detrital tourmaline in contact rocks and regional host metasediments is mainly dravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.35-0.78] and oxydravite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.51-0.58], respectively. Boron contents of the granitic rocks are low (<650 ppm) compared to the minimum B contents normally required for tourmaline saturation in

  14. 77 FR 41356 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our... petition, soybean event MON 87708 has been genetically engineered to contain a gene from the...

  15. From Metchnikoff to Monsanto and beyond: the path of microbial control.

    PubMed

    Lord, Jeffrey C

    2005-05-01

    In 125 years since Metchnikoff proposed the use of Metarhizium anisopliae to control the wheat cockchafer and brought about the first field trials, microbial control has progressed from the application of naturalists' observations to biotechnology and precision delivery. This review highlights major milestones in its evolution and presents a perspective on its current direction. Fungal pathogens, the most eye-catching agents, dominated the early period, but major mycological control efforts for chinch bugs and citrus pests in the US had questionable success, and interest waned. The discoveries of Bacillus popilliae and Bacillus thuringiensis began the era of practical and commercially viable microbial control. A program to control the Japanese beetle in the US led to the discovery of both B. popilliae and Steinernema glaseri, the first nematode used as a microbial control agent. Viral insect control became practical in the latter half of the 20th century, and the first registration was obtained with the Heliothis nuclear polyhedrosis virus in 1975. Now strategies are shifting for microbial control. While Bt transgenic crops are now planted on millions of hectares, the successes of more narrowly defined microbial control are mainly in small niches. Commercial enthusiasm for traditional microbial control agents has been unsteady in recent years. The prospects of microbial insecticide use on vast areas of major crops are now viewed more realistically. Regulatory constraints, activist resistance, benign and efficacious chemicals, and limited research funding all drive changes in focus. Emphasis is shifting to monitoring, conservation, integration with chemical pesticides, and selection of favorable venues such as organic agriculture and countries that have low costs, mild regulatory climates, modest chemical inputs, and small scale farming. PMID:16039302

  16. 76 FR 37770 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason To... movement, or release into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such...

  17. 78 FR 23738 - Monsanto Company and Forage Genetics International (FGI); Availability of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No....

  18. 78 FR 66891 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is.... In a notice \\2\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41354-41355, Docket No... (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice describing our public review process...

  19. 77 FR 41354 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is... FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing our process for soliciting public... in 7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through...

  20. 77 FR 41359 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant... into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that... in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice \\1\\ describing...

  1. 75 FR 67945 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is... notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 62365- 62366, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0047) announcing receipt of... beets (Petition 03-323-01). On October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69...

  2. 78 FR 13308 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Dicamba and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant... into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that... determination of nonregulated status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  3. 76 FR 78232 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Soybean Genetically Engineered To Have a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant... the Federal Register on June 28, 2011 (76 FR 37771-37772, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0046), APHIS...

  4. 76 FR 37771 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There... genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests....

  5. 77 FR 41350 - Monsanto Co.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Soybean Genetically Engineered To Produce...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests... environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or...' regulations in 7 CFR part 340. In a notice \\1\\ published in the Federal Register on December 27, 2011 (76...

  6. 76 FR 27303 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to... movement, or release into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant pests. Such...

  7. 78 FR 47272 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment and Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is...\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, ] (77 FR 41354-41355, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0020), APHIS... petition. \\1\\ On March 6, 2012, APHIS published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket...

  8. 77 FR 41357 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Canola...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ..., ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or... produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to believe are plant... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No....

  9. 78 FR 34638 - Monsanto Co.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ..., the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service published in the Federal Register (78 FR 28796-28798... Impact Statement for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Herbicide Resistant Soybeans and Cotton, and... approval of petitions seeking a determination of nonregulated status of cultivars of dicamba...

  10. 77 FR 42693 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which... products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to... published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1) announcing receipt of...

  11. 78 FR 28796 - Monsanto Co.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There Is Reason to Believe..., 2012, 77 FR 41356-41357; Docket No. APHIS-2012-0097 published on February 27, 2013, 78 FR 13308-13309..., or release into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced through...

  12. 75 FR 62365 - Monsanto Company and KWS SAAT AG; Supplemental Request for Partial Deregulation of Roundup Ready...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... October 19, 2004, APHIS published a notice in the Federal Register (69 FR 61466-61467, Docket No. 04-075-1... Register on March 17, 2005 (70 FR 13007-13008, Docket No. 04-075-2), advising the public of our... preparing an EIS, for which we published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register (75 FR 29969-29972, Docket...

  13. Report on inspection of concerns regarding DOE`s evaluation of Chevron USA`s unsolicited proposal for the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-17

    An allegation was made to the Office of Inspector General (OIG) that the integrity of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) unsolicited proposal review process may have been compromised by the actions of a former Deputy Secretary of Energy and his Executive Assistant during the review of an unsolicited proposal received from Chevron U.S.A. Production Company (Chevron) in may 1993. The Chevron unsolicited proposal was for the management and operation of DOE`s Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve (Elk Hills), located near Bakersfield, California. Chevron submitted the unsolicited proposal on May 19, 1993. DOE formally rejected Chevron`s unsolicited proposal in May 1995. Although Chevron`s unsolicited proposal was eventually rejected by DOE, the complainant specifically alleged that the {open_quotes}sanctity, integrity, and sensitivity{close_quotes} of the unsolicited proposal review process had been breached in meetings during the Fall of 1993 between Chevron officials, the Deputy Secretary of Energy (Deputy Secretary), and his Executive Assistant. Based on our review of the allegation, we identified the following issue as the focus of our inspection.

  14. 75 FR 40825 - Clofencet; Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... was published for comment on April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22404) (FRL-8822-1). The comment period closed on... the registrant Monsanto Company to voluntarily cancel all these product registrations. These are the... Company Number Company Name and Address 524 Monsanto Company 1300 I Street N.W. Suite 450 Washington,...

  15. High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Athavale, Ajay

    2012-06-01

    Ajay Athavale (Monsanto) presents "High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  16. Inservice Program for Math/Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsley, Carol W.; Sweet, Helaine D.

    1986-01-01

    A school-business partnership between Monsanto Company and the Springfield Public Schools, Massachusetts, focuses on inservice teacher education. Seminar series equip teachers with current information on the technological revolution. (CJH)

  17. Employment Guidelines Provide Growth Environment for Engineering Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Francis E.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the use of "Guidelines to Professional Employment for Engineers and Scientists" at Monsanto Corporation in such areas as continuing education programs, career planning workshops, career redirection programs, and on-the-job development. (JN)

  18. High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Athavale, Ajay [Monsanto

    2013-01-25

    Ajay Athavale (Monsanto) presents "High Throughput Plasmid Sequencing with Illumina and CLC Bio" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  19. Emergency preparedness and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouvier, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    Monsanto's emergency response plan in dealing with hazardous materials at their facilities is presented. Topics discussed include the following: CPR training; emergency medial training; incident reports; contractor injuries; hazardous materials transport; evacuation; and other industrial safety concerns.

  20. Registration of ‘WB3768’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘WB3768’ (Reg. No. CV-1100, PI 670158) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. An exclusive license for commercialization of WB3768 was granted to Monsanto. WB3768 is of unknown pedigree, derived from...

  1. Improving Nutritional Health in Schools: Gardens in Moldova

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    International activities of FCS professionals take many forms, most often at the grassroots level making a difference in the daily lives of people and their communities, far from their own communities. A 2 1/2-year project, supported by the Monsanto Fund and an International Federation of Home Economics (IFHE) project grant, developed school…

  2. An Industrially Developed Basic Chemistry Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, L. W.; Haws, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a practical, job-related, 3 1/2 month long, basic chemistry course developed by Monsanto Research Corporation to train laboratory technicians and service employees. The course, centered around 31 chemistry topics, is designed to supplement university courses and stresses application of concepts. (BT)

  3. Acrilan Contract Carpet Specification Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsanto Textiles Co., Atlanta, GA.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist specifiers in properly specifying carpet made of Monsanto Acrilan acrylic fiber. As carpet is used in an expanding range of applications, it must meet increasing and varying regulatory requirements. Performance needs vary with the type of environment in which the carpet is installed. Carpet construction must…

  4. Effects of short term growth hormone treatment on the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver and muscle transcriptomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous studies have established that recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST, aka bovine growth hormone) stimulates growth in the rainbow trout. However, the effects of rbST on target tissue gene expression are not well characterized. In the current study, we used Posilac® (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, ...

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  6. New DNA Markers for the Use in Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SSR markers, also known as DNA microsatellite markers, are proving to be very useful for saturation of the large and complex upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum genetic linkage map. Monsanto Company has invested heavily in development of cotton SSRs and has implemented molecular breeding technologies ...

  7. Marker-assisted selection for elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of B-conglycinin and its influence on agronomic and seed traits of soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars with elevated concentrations of the a' subunit of ß-conglycinin (BC) may provide health benefits to soy protein consumers. Two Monsanto single nucleotide polymorphism markers were used to classify F2 plants in four segregating populations as having elevate...

  8. Solar Energy Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A waste water treatment plant in Wilton, Maine, where sludge is converted to methane gas, and Monsanto Company's Environmental Health Laboratory in St. Louis Missouri, where more than 200 solar collectors provide preheating of boiler feed water for laboratory use are representative of Grumman's Sunstream line of solar energy equipment. This equipment was developed with technology from NASA's Apollo lunar module program.

  9. Changes Come as Old Hiring Practices Go.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Career Planning & Employment, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Assembles a number of short takes that describe how some human resource professionals have changed their operations to upgrade their bottom line. Includes: Deloitte & Touche, Andersen Consulting, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Brown & Root, AT&T, Ford Motor Company, and The Monsanto Company. Provides advice and tips. (JBJ)

  10. Ambient curing fire resistant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamermesh, C. L.; Hogenson, P. A.; Tung, C. Y.; Sawko, P. M.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of development of an ambient curing foam is described. The thermal stability and flame spread index of the foams were found to be comparable to those of the high-temperature cured polyimide foams by Monsanto two-foot tunnel test and NASA T-3 Fire test. Adaptation of the material to spray in place applications is described

  11. Fish Farm Challenge Provides STEM Design Experiences for Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton , Robert L.; House, Patty L.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, Monsanto Corporation partnered with National 4-H Council to help inspire and develop professional skills among young agriculturalists. The Ohio State University created Fish Farm Challenge, which engaged more than 8,000 youth across eight states. Youth were taught about worldwide food insecurity and the importance of aquaculture. They…

  12. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  13. 75 FR 22404 - Clofencet; Notice of Receipt of Request to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... products containing the pesticide clofencet. The request would delete clofencet use as a plant growth... registrant, Monsanto Company, to cancel certain clofencet product registrations. Clofencet is a plant growth... specific growth phases in order to suppress pollen development, thereby, forcing fertilization to...

  14. Lift as You Climb: A Profile of President Mary Vosevich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Anita

    2012-01-01

    "My thumb got me into this!" declares the new APPA President Mary Vosevich when asked how she entered the field of educational facilities management. It was 1984, and Vosevich, a Midwest native, was working at Monsanto in St. Louis as a research biologist, having earned her B.S. in horticulture/agriculture from the University of Missouri,…

  15. Carpet Specifiers Guide. Ultron, Advanced Generation Nylon Carpet Fiber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsanto Textiles Co., Atlanta, GA.

    The purpose of this guide is to assist specifiers in properly specifying carpet made of Monsanto Ultron advanced generation nylon fiber. The guide describes a variety of conditions that should be considered in arriving at the proper selection and provides reference information and data, ranging from varying regulatory requirements, performance and…

  16. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  17. A portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, S P; Rusczek, R A; Mickelsen, R L

    1987-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisopropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals: nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however, provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protection clothing for its intended use. PMID:3687741

  18. Intellectual Property Law as an Internal Limit on Intellectual Property Rights and Autonomous Source of Liability for Intellectual Property Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Elizabeth F.

    2007-01-01

    This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto (2005) and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners. The article develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and…

  19. The effects of intragrain defects on the local photoresponse of polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Wilmsen, C. W.; Jones, K. A.

    1981-02-01

    Intragrain defects in Wacker cast and Monsanto zone-refined polycrystalline silicon materials were investigated using the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) technique. The EBIC response maps were compared with etch pit, local diffusion length and local photoresponse measurements. It was determined that the Wacker polycrystalline silicon has a much lower density of defects than does the Monsanto polycrystalline silicon and that most of the defects in the Wacker material are not active recombination sites. A correlation was found between the recombination site density, as determined by EBIC, and the local diffusion length. It is shown that a large density of intragrain recombination sites greatly reduces the minority carrier diffusion length and thus can significantly reduce the photoresponse of solar cells.

  20. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  1. Hero or villain?--Sir Richard Doll and occupational cancer.

    PubMed

    Tweedale, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, the English media broke the story that Sir Richard Doll had for many years been retained on a secret consultancy by Monsanto. Doll's colleagues rushed to his defense, arguing that the story was an unjustified smear on a great man whose work had saved millions of lives. However, Doll's conflicts of interest in his occupational health epidemiology are shown to sit uneasily alongside his more independent smoking/lung cancer studies. PMID:17718181

  2. High temperature polyimide foams for shuttle upper surface thermal insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, G. L., III; Leffingwell, J. W.; Salyer, I. O.; Werkmeister, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    Polyimide foams developed by Monsanto Company were examined for use as upper surface space shuttle thermal insulation. It was found that postcured polyimide foams having a density of 64 kg/cu m (4 lb/cu ft) had acceptable physical properties up to and exceeding 700 K (800 F). Physical tests included cyclic heating and cooling in vacuum, weight and dimensional stability, mechanical strength and impact resistance, acoustic loading and thermal conductivity. Molding and newly developed postcuring procedures were defined.

  3. Focus on C/sub 1/ chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Aquilo, A.

    1983-03-01

    The prospects for the future manufacture of commodity chemicals through the utilisation of coal-based syngas are examined. The processes considered could replace those currently used to produce large volume chemicals from petroleum or natural gas. Examples of commercial or near-commercial processes given are the Monsanto process for acetic acid, and Tennessee-Eastman's acetic anhydride process. Potential processes for ethylene glycol, carbonylation processes and processes for styrene and aromatic acids are explored.

  4. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ...We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service plans to prepare an environmental impact statement in connection with a court-mandated evaluation of the potential impacts on the human environment associated with the Agency's determination of nonregulated status for a Monsanto/KWS SAAT AG sugar beet line, designated as event H7-1. This notice identifies the......

  5. Explosive safety criteria at a Department of Energy contractor facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krach, F.

    1984-08-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC) operates the Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy. Small explosive components are manufactured at MRC, and stringent explosive safety criteria have been developed for their manufacturing. The goals of these standards are to reduce employee injuries and eliminate fenceline impacts resulting from accidental detonations. The manner in which these criteria were developed and what DOD standards were incorporated into MRC's own design criteria are described. These design requirements are applicable to all new construction at MRC. An example of the development of the design of a Component Test Facility is presented to illustrate the application of the criteria.

  6. Source reduction from chemical plants using on-line optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Pike, R.W.; Hertwig, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    An effective approach for source reduction in chemical plants has been demonstrated using on-line optimization with flowsheeting (ASPEN PLUS) for process optimization and parameter estimation and the Tjao-Biegler algorithm implemented in a mathematical programming language (GAMS/MINOS) for data reconciliation and gross error detection. Results for a Monsanto sulfuric acid plant with a Bailey distributed control system showed a 25% reduction in the sulfur dioxide emissions and a 17% improvement in the profit over the current operating conditions. Details of the methods used are described.

  7. Nidus Center for Scientific Enterprise, St. Louis, Missouri; Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-03-01

    This publication is one in an ongoing series of case studies for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program. It is intended for all those who plan, design, and construct public and private-sector laboratory buildings. This study describes how the Nidus Center, a nonprofit incubator for life sciences and plan biotechnology established by Monsanto Company, employs daylighting, an energy-efficient mechanical system featuring energy recovery, and water conservation practices, among others, to save energy and money and help conserve natural resources.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of diallyl phthalate prepolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, G.K.; Parker, B.G.

    1982-12-01

    Methods for the laboratory synthesis of diallyl phthalate prepolymers were evaluated. The chemical, physical, and molecular weight properties of several prepolymers synthesized were also evaluated and compared to those properties exhibited by Dapon 35 and Daiso 35, manufactured by FMC Corporation and Osaka-Soda, respectively. Glass-filled molding compounds from four of the prepolymers having molecular weight distributions ranging from 1.9 to 40.2 were prepared and tested at the Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility. The processing characteristics and physical and electrical properties of two molding compounds were found to be comparable to similar compounds made from Dapon 35 and Daiso 35.

  9. Fieldbus technology passes beta tests at Texas plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-20

    Fieldbus technology has completed beta plant testing at Monsanto Co.`s Chocolate Bayou petrochemical complex at Alvin, Texas. The trial took place in a steam condensate recovery section of the Chocolate Bayou plant, which produces acrylonitrile, linear alkylbenzene, and a number of other petrochemical derivatives. Fieldbus is a plant communications network, or bus, that enables digital instruments to communicate with one another and with supervisory control systems. The fieldbus specification, written by the nonprofit organization Fieldbus Foundation, Austin, Texas, is called Foundation fieldbus. The beta tests at Chocolate Bayou successfully demonstrated fieldbus performance in a process control application.

  10. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

  11. The use of calorimetry in nuclear materials management

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, J.D.; O`Hara, F.A.; Rodenburg, W.W.

    1996-07-01

    A calorimeter is a device to measure evolved or adsorbed heat. For our purposes, the heat measured is that associated with radioactive decay and the unit of measurement is the watt. Each time an atom decays, energy is released and absorbed by the surroundings and heat generated. For each isotope, this heat is a constant related to the energy of the decay particles and the half-life of the isotope. A point which is often overlooked is that calorimetry is one of the oldest techniques known for measuring radioactivity. In 1903, Pierre Curie and A. Laborde used a twin microcalorimeter to determine that one gram of radium generates about 100 calories per hour. Several months later, Curie and Dewar used liquid oxygen and hydrogen to show that the amount of energy developed by radium and other radioactive elements did not depend on temperature. At that time, this observation was extremely important. It indicated that the nature of radioactivity is entirely different and cannot be compared with any known phenomena. In all other thermal processes known in physics and chemistry, the rate at which heat is developed changes with temperature. In 1942, Monsanto was asked by General Leslie Groves, Head of the Manhattan Project, to accept the responsibility for the chemistry and metallurgy of radioactive polonium. Late in 1943, two Monsanto scientists began a study of the half-life of polonium-210 using calorimetry.

  12. TCE treatment pasta-bilities.

    PubMed Central

    Holton, W C

    1999-01-01

    Monsanto's "Lasagna" process uses layers of treatment zones spaced between buried electrodes to remove trichloroethylene (TCE) from contaminated soil and groundwater. TCE is used primarily as a metal degreaser as well as in products such as dyes, printing ink, and paint. TCE can eventually make its way into the environment and is prevalent in the water and soil of industrialized nations. Although TCE breaks down in a few days when released into the atmosphere, it degrades much more slowly in soil, taking months or years. Moreover, it is often broken down by microbes into toxic substances such as vinylidene chloride (a suspected human carcinogen) and vinyl chloride (a known human carcinogen). The Lasagna process is based on the principle of electro-osmosis, in which an electric current draws water from low--permeability soils such as clays, silts, and fine sands. To remove TCE from contaminated soils, Monsanto scientists added layers of filtering media, which attack the contaminant as it is pulled from electrode to electrode. The technology has been tested at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky, where it removed over 98% of TCE from contaminated soil. PMID:10464086

  13. TCE treatment pasta-bilities.

    PubMed

    Holton, W C

    1999-09-01

    Monsanto's "Lasagna" process uses layers of treatment zones spaced between buried electrodes to remove trichloroethylene (TCE) from contaminated soil and groundwater. TCE is used primarily as a metal degreaser as well as in products such as dyes, printing ink, and paint. TCE can eventually make its way into the environment and is prevalent in the water and soil of industrialized nations. Although TCE breaks down in a few days when released into the atmosphere, it degrades much more slowly in soil, taking months or years. Moreover, it is often broken down by microbes into toxic substances such as vinylidene chloride (a suspected human carcinogen) and vinyl chloride (a known human carcinogen). The Lasagna process is based on the principle of electro-osmosis, in which an electric current draws water from low--permeability soils such as clays, silts, and fine sands. To remove TCE from contaminated soils, Monsanto scientists added layers of filtering media, which attack the contaminant as it is pulled from electrode to electrode. The technology has been tested at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky, where it removed over 98% of TCE from contaminated soil. PMID:10464086

  14. Field efficacy and seasonal expression profiles for terminal leaves of single and double Bacillus thuringiensis toxin cotton genotypes.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, J J; Adams, L C; Hardee, D D

    2001-12-01

    Examination of commercial Cry1Ac transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) cotton varieties (Bollgard, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) and an experimental Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab transgenic Bt cotton variety (Bollgard II, Monsanto) for lepidopteran field efficacy was conducted during the 2000 growing season. In addition, a commercially available (Envirologix, Portland, ME) quantification assay (ELISA) was used to measure and profile the expression levels of Cry proteins in two of these varieties ['DP50B, Bollgard'; 'DP50BII, Bollgard II' (Delta & Pine Land, Scott, MS)]. Populations of beet army worms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and soybean loopers, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in Bollgard II plots compared with Bollgard. Population numbers for fall army worms, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and salt marsh caterpillars, Estigmene acrea (Drury), were lower in Bollgard II plots compared with Bollgard but means did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Single and dual-toxin genotypes remained superior (P < 0.05) compared with conventional cotton against the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.). The addition of Cry2Ab had no significant (P > 0.05) impact on Cry1Ac expression in Bollgard II compared with Cry1Ac expression in Bollgard. Furthermore, throughout the season Cry2Ab was present at much higher levels in the plant compared with Cry1Ac for Bollgard II plants. Possible species-specific reasons for increased efficacy of Bollgard II over Bollgard are discussed. PMID:11777069

  15. Field and laboratory evaluations of transgenic cottons expressing one or two Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki Berliner proteins for management of noctuid (Lepidoptera) pests.

    PubMed

    Chitkowski, R L; Turnipseed, S G; Sullivan, M J; Bridges, W C

    2003-06-01

    Field studies were conducted from 1999 to 2001 to evaluate the efficacy of the transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), genotype, Bollgard II (Monsanto 15985), which expresses two Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) proteins (Cry1Ac + Cry2Ab) that are active against lepidopterous pests. Bollgard II was compared with Bollgard (DP50B), which expresses only one Bt protein (Cry1Ac), and, in all tests, the conventional variety, DP50, was used as a non-Bt control. Larval populations of the bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were significantly lower in Bollgard II than in Bollgard and conventional cotton, and the proportion of fruit damaged by H. zea was also lower. Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), populations were lower in Bollgard II than in Bollgard, although not significantly. Field tests were supplemented with laboratory bioassays in 2001 to compare mortality of S. frugiperda, and beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), feeding on these genotypes. Mortality of both species was significantly greater on Bollgard II plant material than on either Bollgard or conventional cotton. This study demonstrated that the dual-toxin Bollgard II genotype is highly effective against lepidopterous pests that are not adequately controlled by the current single-toxin Bollgard varieties. If toxin expression in future Bollgard II varieties remains consistent with that of Monsanto 15985, supplemental insecticides will be reduced, and may be eliminated for lepidopterous pests in South Carolina. PMID:12852613

  16. Composition of grain and forage from insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant corn, MON 89034 × TC1507 × MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7 (SmartStax), is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Lundry, Denise R; Burns, J Austin; Nemeth, Margaret A; Riordan, Susan G

    2013-02-27

    Monsanto Company and Dow AgroSciences LLC have developed the combined-trait corn product MON 89034 × TC1507 × MON 88017 × DAS-59122-7 (SmartStax, a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology LLC). The combination of four biotechnology-derived events into a single corn product (stacking) through conventional breeding provides broad protection against lepidopteran and corn rootworm insect pests as well as tolerance to the glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium herbicide families. The purpose of the work described here was to assess whether the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of the combined-trait product are comparable to those in conventional corn. Compositional analyses were conducted on grain and forage from SmartStax, a near-isogenic conventional corn hybrid (XE6001), and 14 conventional reference hybrids, grown at multiple locations across the United States. No statistically significant differences between SmartStax and conventional corn were observed for the 8 components analyzed in forage and for 46 of the 52 components analyzed in grain. The six significant differences observed in grain components (p < 0.05) were assessed in context of the natural variability for that component. These results demonstrate that the stacked product, SmartStax, produced through conventional breeding of four single-event products containing eight proteins, is compositionally equivalent to conventional corn, as previously demonstrated for the single-event products. PMID:23311749

  17. Shotguns and SNPs: how fast and cheap sequencing is revolutionizing plant biology.

    PubMed

    Rounsley, Steven D; Last, Robert L

    2010-03-01

    In 1998 Cereon Genomics LLC, a subsidiary of Monsanto Co., performed a shotgun sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana Landsberg erecta genome to a depth of twofold coverage using 'classic' Sanger sequencing. This sequence was assembled and aligned to the Columbia ecotype sequence produced by the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. The analysis provided tens of thousands of high-confidence predictions of polymorphisms between these two varieties of A. thaliana, and the predicted polymorphisms and Landsberg erecta sequence were subsequently made available to the not-for-profit research community by Monsanto. These data have been used for a wide variety of published studies, including map-based gene identification from forward genetic screens, studies of recombination and organelle genetics, and gene expression studies. The combination of resequencing approaches with next-generation sequencing technology has led to an increasing number of similar studies of genome-wide genetic diversity in A. thaliana, including the 1001 genomes project (http://1001genomes.org). Similar approaches are becoming possible in any number of crop species as DNA sequencing costs plummet and throughput rapidly increases, promising to lay the groundwork for revolutionizing our understanding of the relationship between genotype and phenotype in plants. PMID:20409267

  18. Sarcocyst development in raccoons (Procyon lotor) inoculated with different strains of Sarcosytis neurona culture-derived merozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sarcocystis neurona is considered the major etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a neurological disease in horses. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) is considered the most important intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona in the USA; S. neurona sarcocysts do mature in raccoon...

  19. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE-INDUCED DYSMORPHOGENESIS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine-induced dysmorphogenesis in the rat.

    Branch S, Chernoff N, Brownie C, Francis BM.

    Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA. S_Branch@ncsu.edu

    5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (d-AZA) causes tem...

  20. Development of design data for graphite reinforced epoxy and polyimide composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheck, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques and design data were characterized for a graphite/epoxy composite system that is useful from 75 K to 450 K, and a graphite/polyimide composite system that is useful from 75 K to 589 K. The Monsanto 710 polyimide resin was selected as the resin to be characterized and used with the graphite fiber reinforcement. Material was purchased using the prepreg specification for the design data generation for both the HT-S/710 and HM-S/710 graphite/polyimide composite system. Lamina and laminate properties were determined at 75 K, 297 K, and 589 K. The test results obtained on the skin-stringer components proved that graphite/polyimide composites can be reliably designed and analyzed much like graphite/epoxy composites. The design data generated in the program includes the standard static mechanical properties, biaxial strain data, creep, fatigue, aging, and thick laminate data.

  1. Modulative influence of lysozyme dimer on defence mechanisms in the carp (Cyprinus carpio) and European sheatfish (Silurus glanis) after suppression induced by herbicide Roundup.

    PubMed

    Terech-Majewska, E; Siwicki, A K; Szweda, W

    2004-01-01

    Immunomodulation is a commonly used method of prophylaxis in humans and animals. Lysozyme dimer (KLP-602) was used at a dose of 50 ug/kg b.w. in order to correct the immunosuppression caused by the action of herbicide glyphosate (Roundup- Monsanto), which was used in a single bath for 10 minutes in a concentration of 100 mg/l of water. The investigations were carried out on 2 species of fish: the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and european catfish (Silurus glanis L.). Herbicide glyphosate caused a decrease in metabolic and phagocytic activity (RBA and PKA) and in proliferative response stimulated by Con A and LPS in carp and european catfish. The immunosuppression sustained for about 2 weeks. The results obtained indicate the possibility of correction of immunosuppression applying lysozyme dimmer (KLP-602) after use of which, the level of the studied indexes increased. PMID:15230544

  2. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. [Medical and biological evaluation of safety of protein concentrate from genetically-modified soybeans. Biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Tutel'ian, V A; Kravchenko, L V; Lashneva, N V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Sorokina, E Iu; Chernysheva, O N

    1999-01-01

    The rats were fed with albuminous concentrate from the genetically modified soybean 40-3-2 ("Monsanto Co", USA) 1.25 g/rat/day for 5 months. Their blood, urea and liver were investigated to measure total protein and glucose levels, aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, pH, relative density and creatinine level in the urea, as well as hepatic enzyme activity of the I and II phases of xenobiotic metabolism, and the whole and non-sedimentated lysosomal enzyme activities. The lasting albuminous concentrate supplementation from the genetically modified soybean to the rat's diet has been shown to modify hepatocyte membrane function and enzymatic activity within physiological standards. It was not harmful to the adaptation systems. PMID:10641273

  4. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae), in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Caetano, Inês; Maniero, Viviane Camara; Fonseca, Isabel Pereira da; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19%) of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus. PMID:27334821

  5. Development of lightweight graphite/polyimide sandwich panels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poesch, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    Lightweight graphite/polyimide composite honeycomb core and sandwich panels were fabricated and tested. Honeycomb cores of 1/4-in. and 3/8-in. cell sizes of hexagonal configuration were produced from thin plus or minus 45 deg cross plied sheets of prepreg producing core weights between 1.8 and 3.6 lb/cu ft. Thin gauge prepreg using Hercules graphite tow and Monsanto Skybond 710 polyimide resin were manufactured to produce cured ply thicknesses of 0.001 to 0.002 in. Graphite core properties measured at temperatures from -150 to 600 F are reported. Core properties which are superior to available materials were obtained. Sandwich panels weighing less than 0.5 lb/sq ft were designed and fabricated which meet the support structure loads for the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system.

  6. The effect of Be and Cr electrode deposition rate on the performance of MIS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moharram, A. H.; Panayotatos, P.; Yeh, J. L.; Lalevic, B.

    1985-07-01

    An experimental study has been performed on MIS solar cells with Be, Cr and layered Cr-Be electrodes on single crystal Si, Wacker and Monsanto poly-Si substrates. Electrical characterization in the dark and under illumination was correlated to X-ray and Auger spectroscopy results. It was found that the electrode deposition rate directly affects the oxygen content of the electrodes for all metal-substrate configurations. This oxygen is believed to originate from the deposition ambient as well as from the SiO2 layer. In the case of cells with Cr and layered Cr-Be electrodes oxygen acts to reduce the electrode work function (thus increasing the open-circuit voltage) in direct proportion to the relative content of oxygen to chromium.

  7. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae), in mainland Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Caetano, Inês; Maniero, Viviane Camara; Fonseca, Isabel Pereira da; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19%) of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus. PMID:27276668

  8. What I've Learned and Unlearned as a Physical Scientist in the Life Science Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, David

    2008-04-01

    I joined Monsanto in 1996 with a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry and a background in photochemistry and supercritical fluids, just as the company was exiting the chemical business. Since then, I experienced a merger into a pharmaceutical company (Pharmacia) and a spinoff into a purely agricultural company, focused on Biotech and Crop Protection. Change of this kind is typical in industrial research. I have found it to be a continuing challenge to decide when to adapt and when to focus on marketing the expertise that I brought into the company. Viewed as a problem in career tactics in a constantly changing technical, business, and organizational landscape, it might seem overwhelmingly difficult. But, as I will discuss, life in industrial research is constantly offering opportunities to provide new answers to the question, ``what should I do with my life?'' Thus, particularly for those who believe that research should serve society, the satisfactions of an industrial research career are deep and varied.

  9. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for Task {number_sign}7.2 entitled ``Field scale test`` (January 10, 1996--December 31, 1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Athmer, C.; Ho, S.V.; Hughes, B.M.

    1997-11-01

    Contamination in low-permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task {number_sign}7.2 summarizes the Field Scale Test conducted by Monsanto Company, DuPont, and General Electric.

  10. Intellectual property rights related to the genetically modified glyphosate tolerant soybeans in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Roberta L; Lage, Celso L S; Vasconcellos, Alexandre G

    2011-06-01

    The present work analyzes the different modalities of protection of the intellectual creations in the biotechnology agricultural field. Regarding the Brazilian legislations related to the theme (the Industrial Property Law - no. 9. 279/96 and the Plant Variety Protection Law - no. 9. 456/97), and based in the international treaties signed by Brazil, the present work points to the inclusions of each of them, as well as to their interfaces using as reference the case study of glyphosate tolerant genetically modified soybean. For this case study, Monsanto's pipelines patents were searched and used to analyze the limits of patent protection in respect to others related to the Intellectual Property (IP) laws. Thus, it was possible to elucidate the complex scenario of the Intellectual Property of the glyphosate tolerant soybeans, since for the farmer it is hard to correlate the royalties payment with the IP enterprise's rights. PMID:21670890

  11. Selecting for efficacy of Bollgard cotton cultivars against various Lepidoptera using forward breeding techniques.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, J J; Meredith, W R

    2006-10-01

    Studies during the past 5 yr have shown that the overall level of protein (Cry1Ac) produced from the cry1Ac transgene (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO) differ among commercial Bollgard cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., cultivars. These differences between cultivars are under genetic control and have been correlated with efficacy of certain lepidopteran pests. Previous studies have shown that the parental background (i.e., non-Cry1Ac conventional cultivar) has a significant influence on the amount of Cry1Ac protein in Bollgard cultivars. Unlike the backcross technique commonly used to acquire commercial Bollgard cultivars, we used forward breeding to obtain cultivars of Bollgard cotton that were selected for various levels of Cry1Ac. These differences in the amount of Cry1Ac were correlated with growth and survival of two lepidopteran pests of cotton. Implications for effective resistance management as well as relative ease of this procedure are discussed. PMID:17066820

  12. Assessment of screening methods for the identification of genetically modified potatoes in raw materials and finished products.

    PubMed

    Jaccaud, Etienne; Höhne, Michaela; Meyer, Rolf

    2003-01-29

    Qualitative polymerase chain reaction methods for the detection of genetically modified potatoes have been investigated that can be used for screening purposes and identification of insect-resistant and virus-resistant potatoes in food. The presence of the nos terminator from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the antibiotic marker gene nptII (neomycin-phosphotransferase II) was demonstrated in three commercialized Bt-potato lines (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO, USA) and one noncommercial GM-potato product (high amylopectin starch, AVEBE, Veendam, The Netherlands) and allows for general screening in foods. For further identification, specific primers for the FMV promoter derived from the figwort mosaic virus, the CryIIIA gene (delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tenebrionis), potato leafroll virus replicase gene, and the potato virus Y coat protein gene, were designed. The methods described were successfully applied to processed potato raw materials (dehydrated potato powders and flakes), starch samples, and finished products. PMID:12537422

  13. Development of an integrated in-situ remediation technology. Draft topical report for Task {number_sign}3.3 entitled, ``Iron dechlorination studies`` (September 26, 1994--August 31, 1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.; Dauda, T.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1997-11-01

    Contamination in low-permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, and pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. The present Topical Report for Task {number_sign}3.3 summarizes the iron dechlorination research conducted by Monsanto Company.

  14. Altering morphology of membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of membranes in industrial gas processing and separation has been on the increase in the last eight years, especially since the successful introduction and commercialization of PRISM separators by Monsanto in 1979. Since that time, a number of gas separation applications have been successfully applied on an industrial scale. Separation of hydrogen from N/sub 2/ and hydrocarbons using membranes have become commonplace, and separation of carbon dioxide from hydrocarbons is gaining increasing acceptance. More recently, the separation of nitrogen from oxygen from air has been gaining considerable attention. The economic benefits of using membranes for on-site generation of N/sub 2/ containing less than 5% O/sub 2/ for inert blanketing such as, product storage, packaging, on board ships, airplanes and oil/gas production platforms, etc., are demonstrated to be significant.

  15. Genetic engineering in agriculture and corporate engineering in public debate: risk, public relations, and public debate over genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits. PMID:16350477

  16. How subchronic and chronic health effects can be neglected for GMOs, pesticides or chemicals.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Sultan, Charles; Buiatti, Marcello; Gallagher, Lou; Antoniou, Michael; Dronamraju, Krishna R

    2009-01-01

    Chronic health effects are increasing in the world such as cancers, hormonal, reproductive, nervous, or immune diseases, even in young people. During regulatory toxicological subchronic tests to prevent these on mammalian health, prior commercialization of chemicals, including pesticides and drugs, or GMOs, some statistically significant findings may be revealed. This discussion is about the need to investigate the relevant criteria to consider those as biologically significant. The sex differences and the non linear dose or time related effects should be considered in contrast to the claims of a Monsanto-supported expert panel about a GMO, the MON 863 Bt maize, but also for pesticides or drugs, in particular to reveal hormone-dependent diseases and first signs of toxicities. PMID:19584953

  17. Superfund policy fight continues

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1992-07-29

    Superfund continues to be embroiled in controversy, as companies contend with cleanup costs and Senate amendments seek to cut back municipality and lender liability. The Environmental Protection Agency announced earlier this month that it is suing seven companies for Superfund costs at the Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services waste oil recycling and disposal facility in Logan Township, NJ. EPA says the companies -- Monsanto, DuPont, Allied Signal, Rohm and Haas, Rollings Environmental Services, International Flavors Fragrances, and Atlantic City Electric Power -- as waste generators, should foot the $29 million-plus cleanup bill. At issue is whether the government should be named a potentially responsible party (PRP). Ten PRPs, including four of the firms named in the EPA case, filed a suit in March seeking government involvement in negotiations. DuPont attorney Bernard Reilly says a study of the site shows that 50 million-70 million gal is military waste oil, pegging only 5 million gal as industry's share.

  18. Attack on centrifugal costs

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.F.

    1986-03-01

    The Monsanto Chocolate Bayou plant has had an aggressive and successful energy conservation program. The combined efforts have resulted in a 80% reduction in unit energy consumption compared to 1972. The approach of using system audits to optimize fluid systems was developed. Since most of the fluid movers are centrifugal, the name Centrifugal Savings Task Force was adopted. There are three tools that are particularly valuable in optimizing fluid systems. First, a working level understanding of the Affinity Laws seems a must. In addition, the performance curves for the fluid movers is needed. The last need is accurate system field data. Systems effectively managed at the Chocolate Bayou plant were process air improvement, feed-water pressure reduction, combustion air blower turbine speed control, and cooling tower pressure reduction. Optimization of centrifugal systems is an often-overlooked opportunity for energy savings. The basic guidelines are to move only the fluid needed, and move it at as low a pressure as possible.

  19. Waste floor covering is an economical alternative fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.W.

    1995-03-01

    This article examines why power plants that can use it call waste carpeting an economical alternative fuel. According to recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data, 1.7 millions tons per year (tpy) of post-consumer carpet (PCC) waste are generated by residential and commercial sources. Monsanto and other major nylon producers responded to the magnitude of this figure and their increased environmental sensitivity by sponsoring a project to assess alternatives to landfill disposal of PCC materials. Many alternatives to landfill disposal exist for waste carpet. These include demonstrated recycling options, such as the reuse of thermoplastic resins for polymer applications and carpet reuse in landfill capping systems. Not all materials can be recycled economically, hence, thermal recycling alternatives to landfills are used, including combustion as a substitute fuel in power plant boilers.

  20. Environmental sampling and analysis in support of NTI-3

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.; Harrar, J.E.; Haas, J.S.; Eagle, R.J.; Andresen, B.D.

    1991-04-06

    The third National Trail Inspection took place at the Monsanto Chemical Plant in Luling, Louisiana. In order to test the effectiveness of environmental sampling (soil, water and air) in determining the nature of the chemical process in a given production plant and to examine the distance from a process building that samples can effectively be taken, we needed to select some materials that constituted components of process streams. Three materials were selected: 1. isopropyl amine for air monitoring, 2. 4-nitrophenol, one of the precursors in the acetaminophen process, and 3. an intermediate in the production of glyphosate for ROUNDUP that is known simply as glyphosate intermediated. LLNL did not participate in the air sampling nor the analysis for isopropyl amine. This paper discussed the steps in this experiment including sample collection, sample workshop, sample analysis the results and discussion and the conclusion. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Gress, Steeve; Hennequin, Didier; Clair, Emilie; Malatesta, Manuela; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux

    2013-03-01

    Our recent work (Séralini et al., 2012) remains to date the most detailed study involving the life-long consumption of an agricultural genetically modified organism (GMO). This is true especially for NK603 maize for which only a 90-day test for commercial release was previously conducted using the same rat strain (Hammond et al., 2004). It is also the first long term detailed research on mammals exposed to a highly diluted pesticide in its total formulation with adjuvants. This may explain why 75% of our first criticisms arising within a week, among publishing authors, come from plant biologists, some developing patents on GMOs, even if it was a toxicological paper on mammals, and from Monsanto Company who owns both the NK603 GM maize and Roundup herbicide (R). Our study has limits like any one, and here we carefully answer to all criticisms from agencies, consultants and scientists, that were sent to the Editor or to ourselves. At this level, a full debate is biased if the toxicity tests on mammals of NK603 and R obtained by Monsanto Company remain confidential and thus unavailable in an electronic format for the whole scientific community to conduct independent scrutiny of the raw data. In our article, the conclusions of long-term NK603 and Roundup toxicities came from the statistically highly discriminant findings at the biochemical level in treated groups in comparison to controls, because these findings do correspond in an blinded analysis to the pathologies observed in organs, that were in turn linked to the deaths by anatomopathologists. GM NK603 and R cannot be regarded as safe to date. PMID:23146697

  2. What is science good for?

    PubMed

    Dawkins, R

    2001-01-01

    A nonbusiness discipline can provide a useful framework for thinking about old problems in new ways. People who study management, for instance, freely borrow from many fields of science to theorize about organizational behavior and business strategy. Evolutionary psychology and biology are especially popular sources of inspiration. But should they be? Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins has spent much of his career explaining science to the public. More than 20 years ago, his book The Selfish Gene shattered the popular belief that evolution necessarily favors altruism and self-sacrifice. In a conversation with HBR senior editor Diane Coutu, Dawkins discusses the role of science in our lives and identifies some of the more glaring public misperceptions of scientific theories. In particular, he disentangles the current notion that certain behaviors are in some way preprogrammed and explodes some contemporary myths about the Human Genome Project. Dawkins says much of the popular fear surrounding genetic manipulation is unfounded. "Humans have been practicing it for thousands of years, to no obvious ill effect," he says. Modern foot-long corncobs, the result of more than 1,000 years of artificial selection, are "quite Frankenstein-like" compared to their half-inch-long progenitors, he points out. He also touches on agriculture giant Monsanto and the media: "Part of the reason for Monsanto's troubles is that the company came up against an extraordinary amount of unfortunate, even malevolent, media hype," he says. "And people were more or less misled, by one scare story after another, into stampeding." A staunch defender of science as a haven of rational thought, Dawkins counsels businesspeople to recognize the limitations--as well as the beauty--of science. PMID:11189460

  3. Comparative production of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from transgenic cotton expressing either one or two Bacillus thuringiensis proteins with and without insecticide oversprays.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R E; Bradley, J R; Van Duyn, J W; Gould, F

    2004-10-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), expressing either one or two Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki Berliner (Bt) proteins was compared with the conventional sister line in field experiments with regard to production of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and bolls damaged by bollworm. The relative numbers of bollworms that developed on Bollgard (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO), Bollgard II (Monsanto Co.), and conventional cotton were estimated under nontreated conditions in 2000 and both insecticide-treated and nontreated conditions in 2001-2002 in North Carolina tests. Averaged across seven field studies under nontreated conditions, Bollgard cotton generated statistically similar numbers of large (L4-L5) bollworm larvae compared with the conventional variety; however, Bollgard cotton produced significantly fewer damaged bolls and bollworm adults than the conventional variety. Production of large larvae, damaged bolls, and adults was decreased dramatically by Bollgard II cotton as compared with Bollgard and conventional varieties. When comparing insecticide-treated and nontreated cotton genotypes, both Bt cotton sustained less boll damage than the conventional variety averaged across insecticide regimes; furthermore, Bollgard II cotton had fewer damaged bolls than the Bollgard variety. When averaged across cotton genotypes, pyrethroid oversprays reduced the numbers of damaged bolls compared with the nontreated cotton. Insecticide-treated Bollgard cotton, along with insecticide-treated and nontreated Bollgard II cotton reduced production of bollworm larvae, pupae, and adults. However, the addition of pyrethroid oversprays to Bollgard II cotton seemed to be the best resistance management strategy available for bollworm because no bollworms were capable of completing development under these conditions. PMID:15568364

  4. Genetically modified crops: Brazilian law and overview.

    PubMed

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; dos Santos, O J A P; Alves, D P; Brasileiro, B P; Peternelli, L A

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the first genetically modified (GM) crop was released in 1998, and it is estimated that 84, 78, and 50% of crop areas containing soybean, corn, and cotton, respectively, were transgenic in 2012. This intense and rapid adoption rate confirms that the choice to use technology has been the main factor in developing national agriculture. Thus, this review focuses on understanding these dynamics in the context of farmers, trade relations, and legislation. To accomplish this goal, a survey was conducted using the database of the National Cultivar Registry and the National Service for Plant Variety Protection of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply [Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA)] between 1998 and October 13, 2013. To date, 36 events have been released: five for soybeans, 18 for corn, 12 for cotton, and one for beans. From these events, 1395 cultivars have been developed and registered: 582 for soybean, 783 for corn and 30 for cotton. Monsanto owns 73.05% of the technologies used to develop these cultivars, while the Dow AgroScience - DuPont partnership and Syngenta have 16.34 and 4.37% ownership, respectively. Thus, the provision of transgenic seeds by these companies is an oligopoly supported by legislation. Moreover, there has been a rapid replacement of conventional crops by GM crops, whose technologies belong almost exclusively to four multinational companies, with the major ownership by Monsanto. These results reflect a warning to the government of the increased dependence on multinational corporations for key agricultural commodities. PMID:25061747

  5. Geophysical and chemical investigations of ground water at five industrial or waste-disposal sites in Logan Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1983-87

    SciTech Connect

    Kzonski, J.; Lacombe, P.J.; Hochreiter, J.J.; Lewis, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Five former or active industrial or waste disposal sites in Logan Township were identified by the Federal government and by the State of New Jersey as potential threats to the quality of groundwater there. The sites are: (1) Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. waste disposal site; (2) Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc.; (3) Chemical Leaman Tank Lines, Inc.; (4) Monsanto Company; and (5) Rollins Environmental Services, Inc. Quality of groundwater was determined by chemical analysis of samples from wells at four of the five sites and elsewhere in the township. Groundwater in the lower aquifer of the Potomac-Raritan-magothy aquifer system in Logan Township and surrounding areas is dominated by sodium and chloride ions and is slightly saline. Calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate are the predominant ions in the upper and middle aquifers; the concentration of dissolved solids is low. Concentrations of iron and manganese in the groundwater range from 6 to 73,000 microgm/L, and from 33 to 1,100 microgm/L. Concentrations of organic carbon range from 0.60 to 4.2 mg/L. Areas of high apparent conductivity were detected east of the waste oil lagoon at the Bridgeport Rental and Oil Services, Inc. site. Inorganic groundwater contamination at the site is characterized by concentrations of cadmium and lead that exceed Federal and State primary drinking water regulations. Groundwater at the Chemical Leaman site also is characterized by elevated concentrations of organic nitrogen, and concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, and Hg that exceed Federal primary drinking water regulations. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 339 to 3,530 mg/L at the Monsanto Site and typically are much higher than background levels, but the cause is unclear. 86 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis; Carpenter, Michael; Brandon, William; Zavala, Bernie

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these

  7. Lasagna{trademark} soil remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna{trademark} is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed by an industrial consortium consisting of Monsanto, E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (DuPont), and General Electric, with participation from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology (EM-50), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (Figure 1). Lasagna{trademark} remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna{trademark} is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured or decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration.

  8. Case study: Biofiltration of styrene and butylacetate at a dashboard manufacturer

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, M.S.; Nieuwland, J.C.; Lith, C. van

    1999-09-30

    Holzindustie Bruchsal (HIB) was required to treat moderate levels of styrene emissions from their plastic dashboard manufacturing process. After evaluating many types of control technologies, HIB decided to install a Bioton biofiltration system from Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Inc. (MEC). After the installation of the Bioton biofilter, HIB and MEC learned that large amounts of butylacetate were also present in the off-gas stream. The presence of butylacetate was found to have inhibitory effects on the removal of styrene. Therefore, MEC performed a series of pilot and laboratory studies to determine if a bacteria strain could be identified that would be capable of removing styrene in the presence of butylacetate. It was found that a specific bacteria strain was capable of achieving high levels of styrene removal without inhibition from butylacetate in laboratory and pilot testing. This strain was inoculated into the full scale system. After acclimation, the full scale inoculation produced a consortium of bacteria that biologically removed the styrene from the dashboard manufacturing process in the presence of butylacetate.

  9. Vapor compression evaporator concentrates, recovers alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.N.; Robe, K.; Bacchetti, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    This article focuses on presenting a solution to the high energy cost of operating a steam heated, single effect evaporator used by Monsanto Industrial Chemical Company at a plant in Seattle, Wash., to produce vanillin from pulp and paper mill sulfite. Use of the single effect flash evaporator resulted in high energy usage due not only to the ''single effect'' use of steam, but also because energy consumption was reduced only slightly at low operating rates. The solution to this problem was the replacement of the single effect evaporator with a vapor recompression evaporator. Operating for over 1 1/2 years, the vapor recompression evaporator system has had no significant maintenance problems. The system operates with only 1/60th the steam consumption and 15% of the total energy consumption of the previous evaporator and has had no tube fouling. Also, since the distillate is condensed within the evaporator, less cooling water is required, allowing two heat exchangers to be taken out of service. When operating at less than design capacity, the energy consumption drops almost linearly with the feed rate. At low feed rates, a by-pass valve unloads the compressor to reduce energy consumption. Total energy consumption, now 15% of the previous level, results in an estimated pay-back of less than three years.

  10. One more hurdle for biotech

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1991-06-07

    On 20 March, the Monsanto Company received a long-awaited approval from the European Community's (EC) Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products (CVMP) for its version of recombinant bovine somatotropin (BST), a growth hormone that, when injected into cows, can increase milk production up to 20%. Under normal circumstances, the generally positive recommendation would have meant BST was headed for market. But BST is no ordinary drug. Controversies have raged on both sides of the Atlantic, not only about its safety but whether it is needed at all during a time of surplus milk production - and whether its use would drive many small farmers out of business when cheap, hormone-induced milk from agribusiness floods the market. That concern led the EC's Council of Agricultural Ministers in April 1990 to declare a moratorium on the marketing of BST. The ban, recently extended to the end of this year, is designed to allow completion of several studies - including a look at the effect BST would have on European agriculture.

  11. Discovery of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a Lake Michigan waterway and original commercial Aroclors

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Rachel F.; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or co-eluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated by mono- to penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs. Interestingly, most of the samples strongly resembled the OH-PCB profiles of Aroclors 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254, yet 25% of OH-PCBs measured in the sediment were not detected in Aroclors. A strong positive correlation was found between ΣOH-PCB and ΣPCB (p < 0.0001) and also between many individual OH-PCB:PCB pairs (p < 0.05). Analysis of OH-PCB:PCB pairs suggest PCB degradation is unlikely as a source of OH-PCBs in IHSC sediment. We are the first to report levels of OH-PCBs in sediment and Aroclors, and our discovery is significant because it is likely that OH-PCB contamination exists in sediment anywhere that PCB contamination from Aroclors is present. PMID:23862721

  12. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  13. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Milliwatt Generator Project

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, T.W.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1992-05-01

    This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTGs. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTGs). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

  15. Prefreshman and cooperative education for minorities in engineering: Preface. Final report, October 20, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, N.C.

    1980-10-31

    The University of Dayton (UD) and Wilberforce University (WU) Preface Program provides a key component in a comprehensive and successful strategy for increasing minority group members and women students entering and graduating in engineering and engineering technology. The high school level includes programs for minority and women students, teachers, and counselors. The University level includes a Dual Degree Program (DDP) between Wilberforce University and the University of Dayton; freshman academic assistance and support programs and schlorships (PREFACE/INSTEP) for the critical freshman year; and, co-op employment to provide motivation and financial resources for students in upper classes. In the past five years, UD and WU have awarded 89 PREFACE/INSTEP scholarships to students entering UD or DDP and 75 are still in engineering or engineering technology for an outstanding retention rate of 84.27%. Thirty-seven scholarships have been funded by the DOE and its predecessor, the ERDA with a retention rate in engineering and engineering technology of 81.1%. There will be ten PREFACE students graduating in engineering and engineering technology in 1980-1981. The first ERDA Preface Scholar graduated in August 1980 and currently works for a DOE contractor - Monsanto Research Corporation.

  16. Bonebrake Theological Seminary - Most Secret A-Bomb Project Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopka, Katherine R.; Sopka, Elisabeth M.

    2004-05-01

    In late 1943, a small number of nuclear scientists was urgently assembled in Dayton, Ohio by the U.S. Army Manhattan District Engineers and Monsanto Chemical Company Research Division to set up a top secret research project essential to counteract the German atomic bomb threat. The site chosen was an old stone building built in 1879 by the United Brethren Church in a residential area known locally as the Bonebrake Seminary. Centered on a sizeable open plot, the austere three story building was surrounded by a tall cyclone fence with a narrow gate and a minimal guard post - nothing revealed the site's intense research activity then or even in the post-WWII Cold War period. Bonebrake scientists would produce the highly radioactive polonium sources for the plutonium (Pu-239) bomb igniter used in August over Nagasaki just before the end of WWII against Japan. The existence of Bonebrake and its research/production work remained classified top secret throughout the Cold War. Only in recent times can any reference be found even to the existence of this project (unlike , for example, Los Alamos or Oak Ridge) and few, if any details, have ever been published. The primary source of information for this paper is Dr. John J. Sopka who was recruited from Princeton University by the Manhattan District in 1943 as physicist for this project.

  17. The DuPont Conference: Implications for the Chemical Technology Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkel, John; Rutledge, Sue; Kelter, Paul B.

    1998-05-01

    Southeast Community College (SCC) hosted the first DuPont Conference for Chemical Technology Education at its Lincoln, Nebraska campus October 4-6, 1997. The conference brought together fourteen practicing chemists and chemistry technicians and five college and university faculty members for the express purpose of suggesting new laboratory activities that would help relate the real world of work to the education of chemical laboratory technicians in community colleges. Participants included seven men and seven women from DuPont, Procter & Gamble, Eastman Chemical, Eastman Kodak, Dow Chemical, Air Products and Chemicals, Monsanto, Union Carbide, the Nebraska Agriculture Laboratory, and the University of Nebraska Biological Process Development Facility, Department of Food Science. The conference, sponsored by the E. I. DuPont DeNemours & Company through a grant awarded to SCC in June 1997, was intended to help further the goals of the two major projects underway at SCC, funded by the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. These projects, dubbed "Assignment: Chemical Technology I and II", or ACT-I and ACT-II, are curriculum and materials development projects. The invited scientists had between 2 and 32 years of experience that ranged from bench work to management levels. Many are or have been active on the national scene as members and officers of the American Chemical Society's Division of Chemical Technicians and the ACS Committee on Technician Activities.

  18. Milliwatt Generator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, T. W.; Rinehart, G. H.

    1992-05-01

    This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTG's. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTG's). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

  19. Rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber filled with electron beam modified surface treated dual phase fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugharaj, A. M.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2004-01-01

    The rheological properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with dual phase filler were measured using Monsanto Processability Tester (MPT) at three different temperatures (100°C, 110°C and 130°C) and four different shear rates (61.3, 306.3, 613, and 1004.5 s -1). The effect of electron beam modification of dual phase filler in absence and presence of trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) or triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulphide (Si-69) on melt flow properties of SBR was also studied. The viscosity of all the systems decreases with shear rate indicating their pseudoplastic or shear thinning nature. The higher shear viscosity for the SBR loaded with the electron beam modified filler is explained in terms of variation in structure of the filler upon electron beam irradiation. Die swell of the modified filler loaded SBR is slightly higher than that of the unmodified filler loaded rubber, which is explained by calculating normal stress difference for the systems. Activation energy of the modified filler loaded SBR systems is also slightly higher than that of the control filler loaded SBR system.

  20. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

  1. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  2. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, R. L.; Goebel, C. J.; Amos, W. R.

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al., (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met.

  3. Heat transfer and hydrodynamic investigations of a baffled slurry bubble column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S. C.; Chen, Z. D.

    1992-09-01

    Heat transfer and hydrodynamic investigations have been conducted in a 0.108 m internal diameter bubble column at ambient conditions. The column is equipped with seven 19mm diameter tubes arranged in an equilateral triangular pitch of 36.5 mm. A Monsanto synthetic heat transfer fluid, Therminol-66 having a viscosity of 39.8 cP at 303 K, is used as a liquid medium. Magnetite powders, average diameters 27.7 and 36.6 µm, in five concentrations up to 50 weight percent in the slurry, are used. As a gas phase, industrial grade nitrogen of purity 99.6 percent is employed. Gas holdup in different operating modes and regimes have been measured for the two- and three-phase systems over a superficial gas velocity range up to 0.20 m/s in the semi-batch mode. Heat transfer coefficients are measured at different tube locations in the bundle at different radial and vertical locations over a range of operating conditions. All these data are compared with the existing literature correlations and models. New correlations are proposed.

  4. Overview on the biotechnological production of L-DOPA.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoungseon; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Don-Hee; Yoo, Young Je

    2015-01-01

    L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine) has been widely used as a drug for Parkinson's disease caused by deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Since Monsanto developed the commercial process for L-DOPA synthesis for the first time, most of currently supplied L-DOPA has been produced by the asymmetric method, especially asymmetric hydrogenation. However, the asymmetric synthesis shows critical limitations such as a poor conversion rate and a low enantioselectivity. Accordingly, alternative biotechnological approaches have been researched for overcoming the shortcomings: microbial fermentation using microorganisms with tyrosinase, tyrosine phenol-lyase, or p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase activity and enzymatic conversion by immobilized tyrosinase. Actually, Ajinomoto Co. Ltd commercialized Erwinia herbicola fermentation to produce L-DOPA from catechol. In addition, the electroenzymatic conversion system was recently introduced as a newly emerging scheme. In this review, we aim to not only overview the biotechnological L-DOPA production methods, but also to briefly compare and analyze their advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, we suggest the future potential of biotechnological L-DOPA production as an industrial process. PMID:25432672

  5. Ostrinia nubilalis parasitism and the field abundance of non-target insects in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed. PMID:15612256

  6. Preliminary survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic habitats and Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Site. [Ardea herodias

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Bean, R.M.; Fitzner, R.E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), constituents of insulating fluids used in electrical transformers and capacitors, were identified during a preliminary survey of waters, sediments, and fish from five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State: Gable Mountain Pond, B Pond, West Pond, White Bluffs Slough on the Columbia River, and a pond on the Wahluke Slope. These aquatic areas are all within the foraging range of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) that nest on the Hanford Site. Of those waters that contained PCBs, concentrations were found to be somewhat over 1 ng/L, but less than 20 ng/L, and equal to or less than concentrations reported for other freshwater regions of the United States. The PCBs in sediments and fish closely resembled the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture produced in the United States by the Monsanto Company. Concentrations of PCBs detected in the sediments were 10 to 100 times lower than those found in soils and sediments from other areas of the nation. Concentrations of PCBs in fat from Hanford great blue herons ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 ppM, while PCB concentrations in herons from other areas of the Pacific Northwest ranged from 0.6 to 15.6 ppM. Great blue herons at Hanford contained PCB isomer distributions closely matching that of Aroclor 1260; great blue herons from other locations contained isomer distributions indicating the presence of a mixture of aroclors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Roundup effects on oxidative stress parameters and recovery pattern of Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Charlene Cavalheiro; da Fonseca, Milene Braga; Loro, Vânia Lúcia; Santi, Adriana; Cattaneo, Roberta; Clasen, Bárbara; Pretto, Alexandra; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2011-05-01

    Antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress indicators were evaluated in fish exposed to different concentrations of the herbicide Roundup 48% (Monsanto, St. Louis, MO): control (none), 0.45, or 0.95 mg/l. After exposure for 8 days to herbicide, fish were transferred to clean water for a recovery response period (also 8 days). Herbicide increased thiobarbituric acid reactive species in liver and muscle at the higher concentration and in the brain at both concentrations. Protein carbonyl in liver increased after exposure. Catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and ascorbic acid levels in liver did not change in fish exposed to both concentrations. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels decreased at both concentrations. The nonprotein thiol levels decreased at the 0.95 mg/l concentration. During the recovery period, some of the parameters that had altered, such as protein carbonyl content, later recovered. However, some enzymes reacted during this period, e.g., GST increased its activity, possibly indicating a compensatory response against the toxic conditions. In contrast, CAT and SOD activities decreased during the recovery period, indicating herbicide toxicity. Oxidative stress that occurred during the exposure period was likely due to the increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. The results concerning oxidative and antioxidant profiles indicate that short-term exposure to herbicide is capable of causing oxidative stress in fish tissues. PMID:20680259

  8. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality. PMID:25764285

  9. Susceptibilities of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations to Cry1Ac insecticidal protein.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G; Young, S Y

    2006-02-01

    Susceptibilities of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) to Cry1Ac were measured via a diet-incorporated assay with MPV II at the University of Arkansas during 2002-2004. Lethal concentration-mortality (LC50) estimates of five laboratory, seven laboratory-cross, and 10 field populations of H. virescens varied 12-fold. Pooled susceptibilities of H. virescens across all laboratory and field populations varied five-fold. The LC50 estimates for H. virescens were higher than those reported by previous research before the introduction of transgenic crops. However, the ratio of susceptibility of laboratory and field populations was similar, suggesting no change in overall species susceptibility. Individual LC50 estimates of five laboratory, nine laboratory-cross, and 57 field populations of H. zea varied over 130-fold. Pooled susceptibilities across laboratory and field populations varied widely. Among the field populations, colonies from non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops were generally more susceptible than those from Bt crops. Across the Bt crops expressing Cry protein, colonies from Bollgard (Monsanto Company) cotton had lower susceptibility to CrylAc than those from Bt corn and those from non-Bt crops. PMID:16573337

  10. Development of the integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for tasks No. 8 and No. 10 entitled: Laboratory and pilot scale experiments of Lasagna{trademark} process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Sa V.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated W and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the lab and pilot sized Lasagna{trademark} experiments conducted at Monsanto. Experiments were conducted with kaofinite and an actual Paducah soil in units ranging from bench-scale containing kg-quantity of soil to pilot-scale containing about half a ton of soil having various treatment zone configurations. The obtained data support the feasibility of scaling up this technology with respect to electrokinetic parameters as well as removal of organic contaminants. A mathematical model was developed that was successful in predicting the temperature rises in the soil. The information and experience gained from these experiments along with the modeling effort enabled us to successfully design and operate a larger field experiment at a DOE TCE-contaminated clay site.

  11. Triple point of e-deuterium as an accurate thermometric fixed point

    SciTech Connect

    Pavese, F.; McConville, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    The triple point of deuterium (18.7/sup 0/K) is the only possibility for excluding vapor pressure measurements in the definition of a temperature scale based on fixed points between 13.81 and 24.562/sup 0/K. This paper reports an investigation made at the Istituto di Metrologia and Mound Laboratory, using extremely pure deuterium directly sealed at the production plant into small metal cells. The large contamination by HD of commercially available gas, that cannot be accounted and corrected for due to its increase in handling, was found to be very stable with time after sealing in IMGC cells. HD contamination can be limited to less than 100 ppM in Monsanto cells, both with n-D/sub 2/ and e-D/sub 2/, when filled directly from the thermal diffusion column and sealed at the factory. e-D/sub 2/ requires a special deuterated catalyst. The triple point temperature of e-D/sub 2/ has been determined to be: T(NPL-IPTS-68) = 18.7011 +- 0.002/sup 0/K. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated. PMID:18838261

  13. Tube wall temperature monitoring technique

    SciTech Connect

    Granton, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    In 1977, Monsanto and Conoco undertook the construction of a new, modern technology ethylene plant at Chocolate Bayou, near Alvin, Texas. This plant included high severity cracking furnaces with potential tube wall temperatures considerably higher than any we had previously experienced. Furnace on-stream time between decokes, a factor in the economics of plant operation, was limited by tube wall temperature, thus requiring its accurate knowledge. Earlier work with other ethylene furnaces had also demonstrated our lack of knowledge concerning high temperature measurements in a furnace firebox environment. This had to change. An outside consultant was called upon to provide a threeday workshop on radiant tube temperature sensing. The workshop consisted of two days of formal training in the theory and practice of temperature measurement and one day of field training. This workshop was conducted at a site away from the plant. Approximately 20 engineers (manufacturing and technical groups) attended. The major topics covered by this workshop are as follows: radiant tube temperature sensing, radiation situation of radiant tubes, g.a. method: sample calculations, noncontact sensors: methods of specifying and purchasing, thermal imager strategies, calibration of noncontact sensors, avoiding problems with noncontact sensors, optical aids to radiant tube viewing, tube temperature management and its environmental implications, and contact temperature sensors.

  14. Investigation of extrusion failures of PTFE-based gaskets in chemical plant service

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.R.; Keywood, S.S.

    1996-12-01

    PTFE-based gaskets in chemical plant service typically fail in an extrusion mode, sometimes referred to as blowout. Test work previously published by Monsanto indicated that correctly installed PTFE-based gaskets have pressure performance far exceeding system pressure ratings. These results have since been confirmed by extensive testing at the Montreal based Ecole Polytechnique Tightness Testing and Research Laboratory (TTRL), funded by a consortium of gasket users and manufacturers. With the knowledge that properly installed gaskets can withstand system pressures in excess of 1,000 psig [6,894 kPa], failures at two chemical plants were re-examined. This analysis indicates that extrusion type failures can be caused by excessive internal pressures, associated with sections of pipe having an external source of heat coincident with a blocked flow condition. This results in high system pressures which explain the extrusion type failures observed. The paper discusses details of individual failures and examines methods to prevent them. Other causes for extrusion failures are reviewed, with a recommendation that stronger gasket materials not be utilized to correct problems until it is verified that excessive pressure build-up is not the problem. Also summarized are the requirements for proper installation to achieve the potential blowout resistance found in these gaskets.

  15. High throughput imaging and analysis for biological interpretation of agricultural plants and environmental interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Hyundae; Benac, Jasenka; Riggsbee, Daniel; Koutsky, Keith

    2014-03-01

    High throughput (HT) phenotyping of crops is essential to increase yield in environments deteriorated by climate change. The controlled environment of a greenhouse offers an ideal platform to study the genotype to phenotype linkages for crop screening. Advanced imaging technologies are used to study plants' responses to resource limitations such as water and nutrient deficiency. Advanced imaging technologies coupled with automation make HT phenotyping in the greenhouse not only feasible, but practical. Monsanto has a state of the art automated greenhouse (AGH) facility. Handling of the soil, pots water and nutrients are all completely automated. Images of the plants are acquired by multiple hyperspectral and broadband cameras. The hyperspectral cameras cover wavelengths from visible light through short wave infra-red (SWIR). Inhouse developed software analyzes the images to measure plant morphological and biochemical properties. We measure phenotypic metrics like plant area, height, and width as well as biomass. Hyperspectral imaging allows us to measure biochemcical metrics such as chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and foliar water content. The last 4 years of AGH operations on crops like corn, soybean, and cotton have demonstrated successful application of imaging and analysis technologies for high throughput plant phenotyping. Using HT phenotyping, scientists have been showing strong correlations to environmental conditions, such as water and nutrient deficits, as well as the ability to tease apart distinct differences in the genetic backgrounds of crops.

  16. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  17. Tritium analysis at TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, D.R.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Zimmer, G.

    1995-04-01

    The tritium analytical system at TFRR is used to determine the purity of tritium bearing gas streams in order to provide inventory and accountability measurements. The system includes a quadrupole mass spectrometer and beta scintillator originally configured at Monsanto Mound Research Laboratory in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. The system was commissioned and tested between 1991 and 1992 and is used daily for analysis of calibration standards, incoming tritium shipments, gases evolved from uranium storage beds and measurement of gases returned to gas holding tanks. The low resolution mass spectrometer is enhanced by the use of a metal getter pump to aid in resolving the mass 3 and 4 species. The beta scintillator complements the analysis as it detects tritium bearing species that often are not easily detected by mass spectrometry such as condensable species or hydrocarbons containing tritium. The instruments are controlled by a personal computer with customized software written with a graphical programming system designed for data acquisition and control. A discussion of the instrumentation, control systems, system parameters, procedural methods, algorithms, and operational issues will be presented. Measurements of gas holding tanks and tritiated water waste streams using ion chamber instrumentation are discussed elsewhere.

  18. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A type A packaging. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D L

    1997-08-04

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program. This document supersedes DOE Evaluation Document for DOT-7A Type A Packaging (Edling 1987), originally issued in 1987 by Monsanto Research Corporation Mound Laboratory (MLM), Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy, Security Evaluation Program (I)P-4. Mound Laboratory issued four revisions to the document between November 1988 and December 1989. In September 1989, the program was transferred to Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) in Richland, Washington. One additional revision was issued in March 1990 by Westinghouse Hanford. This revision reflects the earlier material and incorporates a number of changes. Evaluation and testing activities on 1208 three DOT-7A Program Dockets resulted in the qualification of three new packaging configurations, which are incorporated herein and summarized. This document presents approximately 300 different packagings that have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT-7A, type A packaging per 49 CFR 178.350.

  19. Sound isolation performance of interior acoustical sash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocci, Gregory

    2002-05-01

    In existing, as well as new buildings, an interior light of glass mounted on the inside of a prime window is used to improve the sound transmission loss otherwise obtained by the prime window alone. Interior acoustical sash is most often 1/4 in. (6 mm) monolithic or laminated glass, and is typically spaced 3 in. to 6 in. from the glass of the prime window. This paper presents TL data measured at Riverbank Acoustical Laboratories by Solutia (formerly Monsanto) for lightweight prime windows of various types, with and without interior acoustical sash glazed with 1/4 in. laminated glass. The TL data are used to estimate the A-weighted insertion loss of interior acoustical sash when applied to prime windows glazed with lightweight glass for four transportation noise source types-highway traffic, aircraft, electric rail, and diesel rail. The analysis also has been extended to determine the insertion loss expressed as a change in OITC. The data also exhibit the reductions in insertion loss that can result from short-circuiting the interior acoustical sash with the prime window. [Work supported by Solutia, Inc.

  20. Effects of herbicide-treated host plants on the development of Mamestra brassicae L. caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Geisthardt, Martin; Brühl, Carsten A

    2014-11-01

    Herbicides are widely used pesticides that affect plants by changing their chemistry. In doing so, herbicides might also influence the quality of plants as food for herbivores. To study the effects of herbicides on host plant quality, 3 plant species (Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L., and Ranunculus acris L.) were treated with sublethal rates of either a sulfonylurea (Atlantis WG, Bayer CropScience) or a glyphosate (Roundup LB Plus, Monsanto) herbicide, and the development of caterpillars of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae L. that fed on these plants was observed. Of the 6 tested plant-herbicide combinations, 1 combination (R. acris + sulfonylurea herbicide) resulted in significantly lower caterpillar weight, increased time to pupation, and increased overall development time compared with larvae that were fed unsprayed plants. These results might be caused by a lower nutritional value of these host plants or increased concentrations of secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense. The results of the present and other studies suggest potential risks to herbivores that feed on host plants treated with sublethal rates of herbicides. However, as the effects of herbicides on host plant quality appear to be species-specific and as there are numerous plant-herbicide-herbivore relationships in agricultural landscapes, a general reduction in herbicide contamination of nontarget habitats (e.g., field margins) might mitigate the negative effects of herbicides on host plant quality. PMID:25143001

  1. Interview. The story of Advanced BioHealing: commercializing bioengineered tissue products. Mr Tozer speaks to Emily Culme-Seymour, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Dean

    2011-03-01

    Dean Tozer is Senior Vice President at Advanced BioHealing, Inc. (ABH), overseeing marketing, corporate development, government affairs, product development, various regulatory functions and international expansion. After completing his Bachelor of Commerce from Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Canada, Mr Tozer spent 10 years in the global pharmaceutical industry, primarily with G.D. Searle (a division of Monsanto) where he had a wide variety of roles in Global Marketing, Sales, Business Redesign, and Accounting and Finance. Mr Tozer then worked as a consultant to the biopharmaceutical industry, assisting start-up organizations in developing commercial strategies for both pharmaceutical products and biomedical devices, prior to joining ABH in March 2006 as Vice President of Marketing & Corporate Development. In addition to his leadership role at ABH, Mr Tozer currently serves as an officer and board member for the Alliance for Regenerative Medicine, a Washington DC-based organization formed to advance regenerative medicine by representing and supporting the community of companies, academic research institutions, patient advocacy groups, foundations, and other organizations before the Congress, federal agencies and the general public. PMID:21391848

  2. Unexpected Diversity of Feral Genetically Modified Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Despite a Cultivation and Import Ban in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  3. Development of non-petroleum feedstocks: The role of catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, D.

    1993-09-01

    The utilization of natural gas and coal feedstocks was initiated in the 1970s` in response to volatility in availability and price of petroleum. This concerted effort led to the development of processes based on C{sub 1}, chemistry (2) through which synthesis gas (a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}) could be catalytically converted to hydrocarbons and oxygenates. The catalytic conversion to hydrocarbons via the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction continues to be of commercial interest (1) but further improvements in reaction rates and product selectivity are sought. To this effect, recently a liquid phase Fe (slurry) F-T catalyst has replaced the traditional solid Fe. For oxygenates synthesis the utilization of organometallic complexes is established. Examples include homogeneously catalyzed commercial synthesis of acetic acid (Monsanto process) and acetic anhydride (Eastman Kodak process) catalyzed presumably by Rh(CO){sub 2}I{sub 2}{sup {minus}} species at {approximately}180{degrees}C and {degrees}50 atm. These examples indicate that organometallic complexes will find increasing applications as catalysts in new and improved processes. Since economical processes for direct conversions of coal (direct liquefaction) and natural gas (direct methane conversion) are yet to be targeted for commercial applications, synthesis of oxygenates via the ``Indirect Route,`` i.e. through synthesis gas, is carried out. The stoichiometry of synthesis gas produced from these two sources is of interest. Thus, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio varies from < 1 for coal-derived syngas to 3 for syngas from steam-reforming of natural gas. In order to maximize C utilization, the Catalyst-By-Design (CBD) approach for synthesis of methanol and higher oxygenates is ongoing under the ``BNL Catalyst Development`` program.

  4. Use of the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal constituents in Soda Creek, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.; Simpson, J.; Kovats, Z.; Geddes, B.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from Soda Creek were evaluated using the Sediment Quality Triad as part of investigations being conducted at the Monsanto Company plant in Soda Springs, Idaho. Information collected by an ecological assessment included metal concentrations (arsenic, cadmium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, and vanadium), benthic fauna community structure, and sediment toxicity. The collected sediments were composed of sandy-silt sized particles, with 2.4% to 9.1% organic carbon. Metal concentrations at sample stations were elevated relative to sediments collected from reference stations. For example, average cadmium concentrations ranged from 13 to 48 mg/kg at sample stations and 0.72 to 3.2 mg/kg at reference stations; selenium concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 91 mg/kg at sample stations and 0.82 to 2.7 mg/kg at reference stations. Soda Creek has a relatively low flow gradient and the benthic fauna at both reference and sample stations was dominated by oligochaete worms and chironomid midge larvae. Taxonomic richness at individual sites ranged from 4.3 to 6.7 and 6 to 10.3 at reference and sample sites, respectively. There was no significant evidence of toxicity at any location sampled. Cluster analysis showed that the benthic community structure of many of the sample stations could not be distinguished from the reference stations. Canonical correlation analysis showed there was a significant relationship between benthic fauna and metal concentration, but there was not a consistent difference between sample and reference stations. For Soda Creek, local phenomena were more significant to benthic community structure than large-scale patterns of metal accumulation. Using the Triad approach, the authors concluded there has been no adverse effect of metal concentrations on the benthic community of Soda Creek.

  5. Detection methods for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913 by PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young

    2007-05-01

    Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913. PMID:17402745

  6. Changes in rhizosphere bacterial gene expression following glyphosate treatment.

    PubMed

    Newman, Molli M; Lorenz, Nicola; Hoilett, Nigel; Lee, Nathan R; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-05-15

    In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20-28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria. PMID:26901800

  7. Effects of high source flow and high pumping speed on gas source molecular beam epitaxy / chemical beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, M. J.; Jackson, S. L.; Szafranek, I.; Stillman, G. E.

    1990-10-01

    We report the growth of GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE), and chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) in an epitaxial III-V reactor which features high pumping speed. The system is comprised of a modified Perkin-Elmer 430P molecular beam epitaxy system and a custom gas source panel from Emcore. The growth chamber is pumped with a 7000 1/s (He) diffusion pump (Varian VHS-10 with Monsanto Santovac 5 oil). The gas source panel includes pressure based flow controllers (MKS 1150) allowing triethylaluminum (TEA), triethylgallium (TEG), and trimethylindium (TMI) to be supplied without the use of hydrogen. All source lines, including arsine and phosphine, are maintained below atmospheric pressure. The high pumping speed allows total system flow rates as high as 100 SCCM and V/III ratios as high as 100. The purity of GaAs grown by MBE in this system increases with pumping speed. GaAs layers grown by GSMBE with arsine flows of 10 and 20 SCCM have electron concentrations of 1 × 10 15 cm -3 (μ 77=48,000 cm 2/V·) and 2 × 10 14 cm -3 (μ 77=78,000 cm 2/V·s) respectively. El ectron concentration varies with hydride injector temperature such that the minimum in electron concentration occurs for less than complete cracking. The effect of V/III ratio and the use of a metal eutectic bubbler on residual carrier concentration in GaAs grown by CBE is presented. Intentional Si and Be doping of CBE grown GaAs is demonstrated at a high growth rate of 5.4 μm/h.

  8. Experimental determination of the effects of annealing on the micro-structures and mechanical properties of cold-worked alpha-brass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward, Aghogho Bright; Izelu, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Experimental determination of the effect of annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a cold work 70 - 30 brass, was carried out by subjecting specimens of the material to various degrees of cold-work (20%, 40% and 60%), by straining using a tensile machine. The specimens for each degree of cold work were then annealed at 250°C, 350°C, 450°C and 600°C, for 30 minutes. The approach involves the use of metallographic techniques: grinding, polishing and etching to reveal the microstructure while tensile test was carried out on the specimen using a Monsanto tensometer so as to obtain the load/extension graph from which the tensile strength and hardness values were obtained. From the results obtained, it was conclusive that annealing produced finer grains and eliminates prior cold work whereby the material becomes ductile. However, there should be an appreciable deformation for this effect to be noticed. One important aspect of re-crystallization in structural materials is that there is a loss of strength which accompanies disappearance of the cold-worked grains when subjected to high temperature applications. Yet, it is often difficult to establish the exact range of permissible temperature. This work establishes a range for the re-crystallization of alpha brass as 350°C < TC < 450°C, where TC is the re-crystallization temperature. Thus, it will be safe to apply this material at temperatures below 350°C, without fear of structural changes with accompanying lost in strength.

  9. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds. PMID:25464509

  10. Metabolic Engineering of Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates): From DNA to Plastic

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Lara L.; Huisman, Gjalt W.

    1999-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are a class of microbially produced polyesters that have potential applications as conventional plastics, specifically thermoplastic elastomers. A wealth of biological diversity in PHA formation exists, with at least 100 different PHA constituents and at least five different dedicated PHA biosynthetic pathways. This diversity, in combination with classical microbial physiology and modern molecular biology, has now opened up this area for genetic and metabolic engineering to develop optimal PHA-producing organisms. Commercial processes for PHA production were initially developed by W. R. Grace in the 1960s and later developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., in the United Kingdom in the 1970s and 1980s. Since the early 1990s, Metabolix Inc. and Monsanto have been the driving forces behind the commercial exploitation of PHA polymers in the United States. The gram-negative bacterium Ralstonia eutropha, formerly known as Alcaligenes eutrophus, has generally been used as the production organism of choice, and intracellular accumulation of PHA of over 90% of the cell dry weight have been reported. The advent of molecular biological techniques and a developing environmental awareness initiated a renewed scientific interest in PHAs, and the biosynthetic machinery for PHA metabolism has been studied in great detail over the last two decades. Because the structure and monomeric composition of PHAs determine the applications for each type of polymer, a variety of polymers have been synthesized by cofeeding of various substrates or by metabolic engineering of the production organism. Classical microbiology and modern molecular bacterial physiology have been brought together to decipher the intricacies of PHA metabolism both for production purposes and for the unraveling of the natural role of PHAs. This review provides an overview of the different PHA biosynthetic systems and their genetic background, followed by a detailed summation of

  11. Report on DOE - industry workshop on Computer-Aided Catalyst Design (CACD)

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    Representatives from industry, national laboratories, and the DOE met to review the status of the DOE-sponsored Computer-Aided Catalyst Design (CACD) program and to assess current industrial needs in CACD. Of the 40 participants at the workshop, nearly half were from industry representing 12 companies--Arco Chemical, Amoco Chemical, Biosym, Dow, DuPont, Exxon, Ford, General Motors, Mobil, Monsanto, W.R. Grace and Union Carbide--that included nine of the largest chemical producers in the U.S. representing $61 billion in chemical sales in 1993. An overview of developments in catalyst modeling at the national laboratories was presented, and current CACD-related activities at each of the companies were described by the industrial participants. The CACD program is addressing important industry needs and is having a significant impact despite the current limited scope and budget. The industrial participants urged the program to continue to target specific areas and to encourage collaborative work among the national labs. Industrial participants expressed strong interest in increased interactions with CACD activities at the national labs, where competencies in theory, modeling, and simulation complement the traditional strengths of catalysis expertise in industry. The chemical, refining and automotive industries face continual economic and environmental pressures for now or improved catalytic processes that are more efficient and produce fewer undesirable byproducts. CACD is viewed as an effective means to enhance experimental catalysis research. The industrial participants attested to the importance of developing and applying catalysis modeling capabilities. The companies represented at the meeting had varying degrees of activity in this area, and many already had significant interactions with national labs. As potential users of this technology, they strongly endorsed the work in the CACD program in the development of modeling capabilities.

  12. Horseweed with reduced susceptibility to glyphosate found in the czech republic.

    PubMed

    Chodová, Daniela; Salava, Jaroslav; Martincová, Olga; Cvikrová, Milena

    2009-08-12

    The physiological and molecular basis of apparent resistance to glyphosate in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) plants that had survived being sprayed with the herbicide at Prague-Bubny railway station in the Czech Republic was investigated. For the sake of comparison, plants expected to be susceptible were collected in areas where no herbicides had been used. Plants of both sets were treated, at the rosette stage (10-25 leaves, diameter of 3-5 cm), with herbicide at the rate recommended for use in the Czech Republic to control horseweed (960 g of glyphosate-IPA/ha; Roundup Klasik, Monsanto, 480 g of glyphosate-IPA ae L(-1)). Phytotoxic symptoms of the treated plants varied substantially, both between and within these sets of plants. Leaves of susceptible (S) plants wilted and turned yellow, and the plants subsequently died; leaves of plants with reduced susceptibility (RS) remained green, or new leaves were created in the center of their rosettes a few weeks after glyphosate application. There were no significant differences in the accumulation of shikimate between S and RS plants 3 days after treatment (DAT). However, the time course of changes in shikimic acid contents differed between the two biotypes; from 3 to 10 DAT, they decreased more than 4-fold in RS plants, while in S plants, they increased (3-fold, on average) from 3 to 7 DAT. A conserved region of the epsps gene, in which mutations are known to confer resistance in several plant species, was amplified from samples of both S and RS plants and sequenced, but no changes in the encoded amino acid sequence were found, indicating that mutations at another epsps site were responsible for the observed resistance, or that the mechanism may be at least partially non-target-based. Our results suggest that the reduced susceptibility to glyphosate may be due to impaired herbicide translocation, as previously found in studies of horseweed in the United States. PMID:19722578

  13. Use of transgenic plants to measure insect herbivore movement.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Joseph L; Mabry, Timothy R; Vaughn, Ty T

    2003-12-01

    Use of ingested transgenic corn tissue as a marker for measuring movement of adult Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; western corn rootworm) was investigated. Laboratory observations of beetles feeding on corn foliage, pollen, silks, or soybean foliage provided background on feeding patterns. The interval between food consumption and its appearance in feces (gut passage time) ranged from 102.7 +/- 11 min for soybean foliage to 56.7 +/- 2.9 min for corn silks. In a laboratory assay, protein expression tests identified the presence of Cry3Bb1 protein inside 50% of adult D. virgifera for up to 16 h after they had last consumed Cry3Bb1 protein-expressing corn silks from 'YieldGard Rootworm' corn plants (Monsanto Co.). Cry3Bb1 protein could not be detected by 32 h postfeeding. The proportion of Cry3Bb1 protein-positive beetles declined linearly with increasing time since feeding on 'YieldGard Rootworm' tissue. Approximately 20% of adult D. virgifera collected near 'YieldGard Rootworm' corn plots tested positive for Cry3Bb1 protein, indicating 'YieldGard Rootworm' tissue consumption within the last 16-32 h. Based on a 16- to 32-h postfeeding detection interval for Cry3Bb1 protein and the distance between 'YieldGard Rootworm' sources and sites where Cry3Bb1-positive insects were collected, 85.3% of males and females moved < or = 4.6-9.1 m/d through R2-R3 stage corn. Among Cry3Bb1-positive adults that left corn and were captured in an adjacent soybean field, 86.4% of males and 93.1% of females moved < or = 4.6-9.1 m/d through soybean. Detection of transgenic plant tissues in mobile insect herbivores is a novel application of biotechnology to the study of insect movement. PMID:14977111

  14. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. PMID:17356802

  15. Phosphovanadylite: a new vanadium phosphate mineral with a zeolite-type structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medrano, M.D.; Evans, H.T., Jr.; Wenk, H.-R.; Piper, D.Z.

    1998-01-01

    Phosphovanadylite, whose simplified formula is (Ba,Ca,K,Na)x([(Va,Al)4P2(P,OH)16].12H2), is a new vanadium phosphate zeolite mineral found in the Phosphoria Formation at Monsanto's Enoch Valley Mine, Soda Springs, Idaho. Its formula in more detail is (Ba0.38Ca0.20K0.006Na0.02)??0.66 [P2(V3.44Al0.046)??3.90O10.34(OH)5.66] .12H2O. The drusy mineral occurs as pale greenish-blue euhedral cubes (20-50 ??m edge) coating phosphatic, organic-rich mudstone. The chemical composition determined by electron microprobe is (in weight percent) V-28.02, P-9.91, Al-1.97, Ca-1.31, Ba-8.28, Cd-0.09, Zn-0.34, Na-0.15, K-0.73, O-46.57, and F-0.03. The index of refraction is nD = 1.566 (4) and specific gravity is 2.16 (3). The X-ray powder pattern shows strong reflections at 3.16 A (422), 2.58 (600), 2.44 (620), and 7.73 (200), which are indexed on the basis of a cubic body-centered unit cell with a = 15.470 (4) A. From the single-crystal structure analysis, its space group was determined to be I43m, Z = 6, and its structure consists of V4O18 16 octahedral clusters linked to each other by P atoms to form a cubic lattice, creating cavities 7.0 and 5.5 A in diameter where mainly H2O resides. Final residual indexes are R = 0.066, Rw = 0.061, goodness-of-fit = 0.75, and 93 observations and 24 parameters.

  16. Monitoring of Sparta Aquifer Recovery in Southern Arkansas and Northern Louisiana, 2003-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freiwald, David A.; Johnson, Sherrel F.

    2007-01-01

    Prior to 2004, the Sparta aquifer supplied all water for industrial and municipal uses in Union County, Arkansas, and continues to provide the majority of water for industrial and municipal purposes in the surrounding southern Arkansas counties and northern Louisiana parishes. In Union County, the Sparta aquifer has been used increasingly since development began in the early 1920s, resulting in water-level declines of more than 360 feet (ft) near El Dorado, Arkansas. In addition, water quality in some areas of the Sparta aquifer has degraded with increased withdrawals. In 2002 a study began that measures, through monitoring and reporting of water levels in Sparta aquifer wells throughout the study area in southern Arkansas and northern Louisiana, the impact of conservation and alternative water efforts on water level and water quality. This study provides continuous real-time water-level data at eight USGS wells that are part of a network of 29 monitoring wells and periodically reports results of semi-annual water-quality sampling. Water levels have risen in all eight real-time wells since monitoring began in the summer of 2003, and the Ouachita River Alternative Water Supply Project was completed in September 2004. The largest water-level rises occurred between October 2004 and April 2007 in the Monsanto well (49.0 ft rise) just north of El Dorado, and the Welcome Center well (36.1 ft rise) southeast of El Dorado. Twelve wells were sampled semi-annually for specific conductance and chloride concentration. Average specific conductance from individual wells ranges from 216 in the northwest to 1,157 uS/cm in the southeast and average chloride concentration ranges from 3.2 to 214 mg/L.

  17. Methanol synthesis studies using in situ FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.F.; Schrader, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    Future demand for methanol could expand multifold as coal assumes a greater proportion of energy needs. Although methanol is presently economically unattractive as a substitute for gasoline, the State of California has begun a program to operate 550 vehicles with methanol because it produces fewer pollutants than gasoline. More than 300 privately-owned vehicles, converted by Future Fuels of America, Inc., are running on methanol in the Sacramento, San Francisco, and Los Angeles areas. Even if gasoline remains the major automotive fuel into the next century, methanol production could increase significantly if technology such as Mobil Oil's M-Gasoline process is used to produce gasoline. This process uses a zeolite catalyst (ZSM-5) to convert methanol into a blend of paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics with a research octane number of 93, i.e., an unleaded premium gasoline. New Zealand will use this technology to convert natural gas into approximately 12,500 bbl/d of gasoline. Utilities using coal gasification technology for power generation will probably also manufacture methanol. During off-peak hours, part of the syngas would be converted to methanol and stored; during peak hours, the methanol would be used as fuel in gas turbines to meet the high electrical demand. And finally, there is great potential for future development of methanol as a primary feedstock in the chemical industry, especially as supplies of ethylene and propylene decrease. An example is the manufacture of acetic acid, where methanol has replaced ethylene as the primary feedstock in new technologies by BASF and Monsanto.

  18. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition. PMID:24397242

  19. Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Wraight, C L; Zangerl, A R; Carroll, M J; Berenbaum, M R

    2000-07-01

    A single laboratory study on monarch butterflies has prompted widespread concern that corn pollen, engineered to express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxin, might travel beyond corn fields and cause mortality in nontarget lepidopterans. Among the lepidopterans at high potential risk from this technology is the black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, whose host plants in the midwestern U. S. are located principally in narrow strips between roads and crop fields. A field study was performed to assess whether mortality of early instar black swallowtails was associated either with proximity to a field of Bt corn or by levels of Bt pollen deposition on host plants. Potted host plants were infested with first instar black swallowtails and placed at intervals from the edge of a field of Bt corn (Pioneer 34R07 containing Monsanto event 810) at the beginning of anthesis. We confirmed by ELISA that pollen from these plants contained Cry1Ab endotoxin (2.125 +/- 0.289 ng/g). Although many of the larvae died during the 7 days that the experiments were run, there was no relationship between mortality and proximity to the field or pollen deposition on host plants. Moreover, pollen from these same plants failed to cause mortality in the laboratory at the highest pollen dose tested (10,000 grains/cm(2)), a level that far exceeded the highest pollen density observed in the field (200 grains/cm(2)). We conclude that Bt pollen of the variety tested is unlikely to affect wild populations of black swallowtails. Thus, our results suggest that at least some potential nontarget effects of the use of transgenic plants may be manageable. PMID:10840067

  20. Data-Based Performance Assessments for the DOE Hydropower Advancement Project

    SciTech Connect

    March, Patrick; Wolff, Dr. Paul; Smith, Brennan T; Zhang, Qin Fen; Dham, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy s Hydropower Advancement Project (HAP) was initiated to characterize and trend hydropower asset conditions across the U.S.A. s existing hydropower fleet and to identify and evaluate the upgrading opportunities. Although HAP includes both detailed performance assessments and condition assessments of existing hydropower plants, this paper focuses on the performance assessments. Plant performance assessments provide a set of statistics and indices that characterize the historical extent to which each plant has converted the potential energy at a site into electrical energy for the power system. The performance metrics enable benchmarking and trending of performance across many projects in a variety contexts (e.g., river systems, power systems, and water availability). During FY2011 and FY2012, assessments will be performed on ten plants, with an additional fifty plants scheduled for FY2013. This paper focuses on the performance assessments completed to date, details the performance assessment process, and describes results from the performance assessments.

  1. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    PubMed

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    into Hexsyn, melt rheology by Monsanto Rheometer, resistance to acids, and typical mold shrinkage for Hexsyn are reported. Mechanical testing of Hexsyn includes tensile strength, elongation, and tensile stress (modulus) at 23 and 37 degrees C and after conditions including exposure to blood, pseudoextracellular fluid, polyethylene glycol, oxygen, 100% relative humidity, and fatigue testing. Stress/strain calibration curves, flexural rigidity after aging in blood, tension set, compression set, stress relaxation, and the effect of repeated cycling on the elastic modulus are presented along with the results of Pico abrasion, skid resistance tests on wet concrete.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3504971

  2. Transition-metal-catalyzed carbonylation reactions of olefins and alkynes: a personal account.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Feng; Fang, Xianjie; Wu, Lipeng; Jackstell, Ralf; Neumann, Helfried; Beller, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Carbon monoxide was discovered and identified in the 18th century. Since the first applications in industry 80 years ago, academic and industrial laboratories have broadly explored CO's use in chemical reactions. Today organic chemists routinely employ CO in organic chemistry to synthesize all kinds of carbonyl compounds. Despite all these achievements and a century of carbonylation catalysis, many important research questions and challenges remain. Notably, apart from academic developments, industry applies carbonylation reactions with CO on bulk scale. In fact, today the largest applications of homogeneous catalysis (regarding scale) are carbonylation reactions, especially hydroformylations. In addition, the vast majority of acetic acid is produced via carbonylation of methanol (Monsanto or Cativa process). The carbonylation of olefins/alkynes with nucleophiles, such as alcohols and amines, represent another important type of such reactions. In this Account, we discuss our work on various carbonylations of unsaturated compounds and related reactions. Rhodium-catalyzed isomerization and hydroformylation reactions of internal olefins provide straightforward access to higher value aldehydes. Catalytic hydroaminomethylations offer an ideal way to synthesize substituted amines and even heterocycles directly. More recently, our group has also developed so-called alternative metal catalysts based on iridium, ruthenium, and iron. What about the future of carbonylation reactions? CO is already one of the most versatile C1 building blocks for organic synthesis and is widely used in industry. However, because of CO's high toxicity and gaseous nature, organic chemists are often reluctant to apply carbonylations more frequently. In addition, new regulations have recently made the transportation of carbon monoxide more difficult. Hence, researchers will need to develop and more frequently use practical and benign CO-generating reagents. Apart from formates, alcohols, and metal

  3. Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

  4. Environmental Fate of Double-Stranded RNA in Agricultural Soils

    PubMed Central

    Dubelman, Samuel; Fischer, Joshua; Zapata, Fatima; Huizinga, Kristin; Jiang, Changjian; Uffman, Joshua; Levine, Steven; Carson, David

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory soil degradation study was conducted to determine the biodegradation potential of a DvSnf7 dsRNA transcript derived from a Monsanto genetically modified (GM) maize product that confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.). This study provides new information to improve the environmental assessment of dsRNAs that become pesticidal through an RNAi process. Three agricultural soils differing in their physicochemical characteristics were obtained from the U.S., Illinois (IL; silt loam), Missouri (MO; loamy sand) and North Dakota (ND; clay loam), and exposed to the target dsRNA by incorporating insect-protected maize biomass and purified (in vitro-transcribed) DvSnf7 RNA into soil. The GM and control (non-GM maize) materials were added to each soil and incubated at ca. 22°C for 48 hours (h). Samples were collected at 12 time intervals during the incubation period, extracted, and analyzed using QuantiGene molecular analysis and insect bioassay methods. The DT50 (half-life) values for DvSnf7 RNA in IL, MO, and ND soils were 19, 28, and 15 h based on QuantiGene, and 18, 29, and 14 h based on insect bioassay, respectively. Furthermore, the DT90 (time to 90% degradation) values for DvSnf7 RNA in all three soils were <35 h. These results indicate that DvSnf7 RNA was degraded and biological activity was undetectable within approximately 2 days after application to soil, regardless of texture, pH, clay content and other soil differences. Furthermore, soil-incorporated DvSnf7 RNA was non-detectable in soil after 48 h, as measured by QuantiGene, at levels ranging more than two orders of magnitude (0.3, 1.5, 7.5 and 37.5 µg RNA/g soil). Results from this study indicate that the DvSnf7 dsRNA is unlikely to persist or accumulate in the environment. Furthermore, the rapid degradation of DvSnf7 dsRNA provides a basis to define relevant exposure scenarios for future RNA-based agricultural products. PMID:24676387

  5. Response and resilience of Spartina alterniflora to sudden dieback

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsh, Amanda; Blum, Linda K.; Christian, Robert R.; Ramsey III, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina

    2016-01-01

    We measured an array of biophysical and spectral variables to evaluate the response and recovery of Spartina alterniflora to a sudden dieback event in spring and summer 2004 within a low marsh in coastal Virginia, USA. S. alterniflora is a foundation species, whose loss decreases ecosystem services and potentiates ecosystem state change. Long-term records of the potential environmental drivers of dieback such as precipitation and tidal inundation did not evidence any particular anomalies, although Hurricane Isabel in fall 2003 may have been related to dieback. Transects were established across the interface between the dieback area and apparently healthy areas of marsh. Plant condition was classified based on ground cover within transects as dieback, intermediate and healthy. Numerous characteristics of S. alterniflora culms within each condition class were assessed including biomass, morphology and spectral attributes associated with photosynthetic pigments. Plants demonstrated evidence of stress in 2004 and 2005 beyond areas of obvious dieback and resilience at a multi-year scale. Resilience of the plants was evident in recovery of ground cover and biomass largely within 3 y, although a small remnant of dieback persisted for 8 y. Culms surviving within the dieback and areas of intermediate impact had modified morphological traits and spectral response that reflected stress. These morphometric and spectral differences among plant cover condition classes serve as guidelines for monitoring of dieback initiation, effects and subsequent recovery. Although a number of environmental and biotic parameters were assessed relative to causation, the reason for this particular dieback remains largely unknown, however.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subspecies arizonae str. RKS2983.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Xiao; Zhu, Song-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Feng, Ye; Li, Bailiang; Li, Yong-Guo; Johnston, Randal N; Liu, Gui-Rong; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae (also called Salmonella subgroup IIIa) is a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, motile, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. S. arizonae strain RKS2983 was isolated from a human in California, USA. S. arizonae lies somewhere between Salmonella subgroups I (human pathogens) and V (also called S. bongori; usually non-pathogenic to humans) and so is an ideal model organism for studies of bacterial evolution from non-human pathogen to human pathogens. We hence sequenced the genome of RKS2983 for clues of genomic events that might have led to the divergence and speciation of Salmonella into distinct lineages with diverse host ranges and pathogenic features. The 4,574,836 bp complete genome contains 4,203 protein-coding genes, 82 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome contains several characteristics not reported to date in Salmonella subgroup I or V and may provide information about the genetic divergence of Salmonella pathogens. PMID:26203341

  7. Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Mutua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it’s microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq) and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks. PMID:26571115

  8. Wireless Command-and-Control of UAV-Based Imaging LANs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herwitz, Stanley; Dunagan, S. E.; Sullivan, D. V.; Slye, R. E.; Leung, J. G.; Johnson, L. F.

    2006-01-01

    Dual airborne imaging system networks were operated using a wireless line-of-sight telemetry system developed as part of a 2002 unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging mission over the USA s largest coffee plantation on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. A primary mission objective was the evaluation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) 802.11b wireless technology for reduction of payload telemetry costs associated with UAV remote sensing missions. Predeployment tests with a conventional aircraft demonstrated successful wireless broadband connectivity between a rapidly moving airborne imaging local area network (LAN) and a fixed ground station LAN. Subsequently, two separate LANs with imaging payloads, packaged in exterior-mounted pressure pods attached to the underwing of NASA's Pathfinder-Plus UAV, were operated wirelessly by ground-based LANs over independent Ethernet bridges. Digital images were downlinked from the solar-powered aircraft at data rates of 2-6 megabits per second (Mbps) over a range of 6.5 9.5 km. An integrated wide area network enabled payload monitoring and control through the Internet from a range of ca. 4000 km during parts of the mission. The recent advent of 802.11g technology is expected to boost the system data rate by about a factor of five.

  9. Application of chlorine dioxide as an oilfield facilities treatment fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Romaine, J.; Strawser, T.G.; Knippers, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    Both mechanical and chemical treatments are used to clean water flood injection distribution systems whose efficiency has been reduced as a result of plugging material such as iron sulfide sludge. Most mechanical treatments rely on uniform line diameter to be effective, while chemical treatments require good contact with the plugging material for efficient removal. This paper describes the design and operation of a new innovative application using chlorine dioxide for the removal of iron sulfide sludge from water flood injection distribution systems. This technology has evolved from the use of chlorine dioxide in well stimulation applications. The use of chlorine dioxide for continuous treatment of injection brines will also be discussed. Exxon USA`s Hartzog Draw facility in Gillette, Wyoming was the site for the application described. 4,500 barrels of chlorine dioxide was pumped in three phases to clean sixty-six miles of the water flood distribution system. Results indicate that chlorine dioxide was effective in cleaning the well guard screens, the injection lines, frac tanks used to collect the treatment fluids and the injection wells.

  10. APPLICATION OF THE LASAGNA{trademark} SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY AT THE DOE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Barry D.; Tarantino, Joseph J., P. E.

    2003-02-27

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), has been enriching uranium since the early 1950s. The enrichment process involves electrical and mechanical components that require periodic cleaning. The primary cleaning agent was trichloroethene (TCE) until the late 1980s. Historical documentation indicates that a mixture of TCE and dry ice were used at PGDP for testing the integrity of steel cylinders, which stored depleted uranium. TCE and dry ice were contained in a below-ground pit and used during the integrity testing. TCE seeped from the pit and contaminated the surrounding soil. The Lasagna{trademark} technology was identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) as the selected alternative for remediation of the cylinder testing site. A public-private consortium formed in 1992 (including DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Monsanto, DuPont, and General Electric) developed the Lasagna{trademark} technology. This innovative technology employs electrokinetics to remediate soil contaminated with organics and is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils. This technology uses direct current to move water through the soil faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods. Electrokinetics moves contaminants in soil pore water through treatment zones comprised of iron filings, where the contaminants are decomposed to basic chemical compounds such as ethane. After three years of development in the laboratory, the consortium field tested the Lasagna{trademark} process in several phases. CDM installed and operated Phase I, the trial installation and field test of a 150-square-foot area selected for a 120-day run in 1995. Approximately 98 percent of the TCE was removed. CDM then installed and operated the next phase (IIa), a year-long test on a 600-square-foot site. Completed in July 1997, this test removed 75 percent of the total volume of TCE down to a

  11. PREFACE: Eurotherm Conference No. 95: Computational Thermal Radiation in Participating Media IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulet, Pascal; Lacroix, David; Lemonnier, Denis; Lybaert, Paul; Selçuk, Nevin

    2012-06-01

    Scientific Committee R BialeckiSTU Gliwice, Poland P CoehloInstituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa, Portugal L A DombrovskyIHT, Moscow, Russia M El HafiENSTIMAC, Albi, France J HowellUniversity of Texas, Austin, USA S KumarPolytechnic University of New York, USA W LipinskiUniversity of Minnesota, USA F LiuInstitute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, Canada W MalalasekeraLoughborough University, UK S MaruyamaInstitute of Fluid Science, Tohoku, Japan M P MengüçOzyeğin University, Istanbul, Turkey M MishchenkoNASA Goddard Institute, USA M F ModestUniversity of California, USA L PilonUniversity of California, Los Angeles, USA S RukolaineIoffe Institute, St Petersburg, Russia C SalinasUniversity of Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil A SoufianiÉcole Centrale, Paris, France R VaillonCETHIL INSA, Lyon, France B WebbBrigham Young University, USA Z ZhangGeorgia Institute of Technology, USA H C ZhouHuazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China Guest Editors P Boulet Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, CNRS, France pascal.boulet@univ-lorraine.fr D Lacroix Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, CNRS, France david.lacroix@univ-lorraine.fr D Lemonnier PPrime Institute, CNRS -- ENSMA, University of Poitiers, France denis.lemonnier@ensma.fr P Lybaert UMONS, Thermal Engineering and Combustion Laboratory, Belgium paul.lybaert@umons.ac.be N Selçuk Middle East Technical University, Turkey selcuk@metu.edu.tr

  12. Visions for a sustainable world: A conference on science, technology and social responsibility. Conference report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report summarizes the organization, activities, and outcomes of Student Pugwash USA`s 1992 International Conference, Visions for a Sustainable World: A Conference on Science, Technology and Social Responsibility. The conference was held June 14--20, 1992 at Emory University, and brought together 94 students and over 65 experts from industry, academe, and government. The conference addressed issues ranging from global environmental cooperation to the social impacts of the Human Genome Project to minority concerns in the sciences. It provided a valuable forum for talented students and professionals to engage in critical dialogue on many interdisciplinary issues at the juncture of science, technology and society. The conference challenged students -- the world`s future scientists, engineers, and political leaders -- to think broadly about global problems and to devise policy options that are viable and innovative. The success of the conference in stimulating interest, understanding, and enthusiasm about interdisciplinary global issues is clearly evident from both the participants` feedback and their continued involvement in Student Pugwash USA programs. Six working groups met each morning. The working group themes included: environmental challenges for developing countries; energy options: their social and environmental impact; health care in developing countries; changing dynamics of peace and global security; educating for the socially responsible use of technology; ethics and the use of genetic information. The conference was specifically designed to include mechanisms for ensuring its long-term impact. Participants were encouraged to focus on their individual role in helping resolve global issues. This was achieved through each participant`s development of a Personal Plan of Action, a plan which mapped out activities the student could undertake after the conference to continue the dialogue and work towards the resolution of global and local problems.

  13. Increasing Springtime Ozone Mixing Ratios in the Free Troposphere Over Western North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, O. R.; Parrish, D. D.; Stohl, A.; Trainer, M.; Nedelec, P.; Thouret, V.; Cammas, J. P.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Tarasick, D.; Leblanc, T.; McDermid, I. S.; Jaffe, D.; Gao, R.; Stith, J.; Ryerson, T.; Aikin, K.; Campos, T.; Weinheimer, A.; Avery, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the lowermost layer of the atmosphere - the troposphere - ozone is an important source of the hydroxyl radical, an oxidant that breaks down most pollutants and some greenhouse gases. High concentrations of tropospheric ozone are toxic, however, and have a detrimental effect on human health and ecosystem productivity1. Moreover, tropospheric ozone itself acts as an effective greenhouse gas. Much of the present tropospheric ozone burden is a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors resulting in widespread increases in ozone concentrations since the late 1800s. At present, east Asia has the fastest-growing ozone precursor emissions. Much of the springtime east Asian pollution is exported eastwards towards western North America. Despite evidence that the exported Asian pollution produces ozone, no previous study has found a significant increase in free tropospheric ozone concentrations above the western USA since measurements began in the late 1970s. Here we compile springtime ozone measurements from many different platforms across western North America. We show a strong increase in springtime ozone mixing ratios during 1995-2008 and we have some additional evidence that a similar rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio has occurred since 1984. We find that the rate of increase in ozone mixing ratio is greatest when measurements are more heavily influenced by direct transport from Asia. Our result agrees with previous modelling studies, which indicate that global ozone concentrations should be increasing during the early part of the twenty-first century as a result of increasing precursor emissions, especially at northern mid-latitudes, with western North America being particularly sensitive to rising Asian emissions. We suggest that the observed increase in springtime background ozone mixing ratio may hinder the USA s compliance with its ozone air quality standard.

  14. Composting in cold climates: Results from two field trials

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, S.J.; Kerr, J.M.; Davis, P.S.; Bruney, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Two composting field trials have been successfully completed at Exxon Company USA`s Big Stick Madison Unit (BSMU) in Billings, North Dakota and Imperial Oil`s (Exxon`s Canadian affiliate) Willesden Green producing field in the Province of Alberta, Canada. Composting is a bioremediation method in which bulking agents such as manure, wood chips, and straw are added to oily soil/sludge to improve the soil texture, tilth, air permeability, water holding capacity, and organic matter content. The compost mixture is placed in windrows or static piles where heat is generated by microbial breakdown of hydrocarbons and organic matter. Because composting conserves heat generated by biodegradation, it is well suited for bioremediating wastes in cold climates. In addition, the temperature in the piles increases the rate of the biochemical processes responsible for oil degradation and can significantly reduce the time required to achieve a remediation target. Elevated temperatures were observed in both field trials, and in Canada the compost piles remained warm throughout the winter months thereby expanding the normal bioremediation season. Hydrocarbon loss data indicate that clean-up criteria for both sites was met within a few months. Extensive hydrocarbon characterization confirmed that the total petroleum hydrocarbon losses were due to biodegradation. At the BSMU site 71 cubic yards (54 m{sup 3}) of oily soil were composted in five windrows that were aerated by periodic tilling, and at Willesden Green 1700 cubic yards (1300 m{sup 3}) of oily soil were composted in three static, passively aerated piles.

  15. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    L Velikovich (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) and the Local Organizing Committee at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy Joseph J Niemela Katepalli R Sreenivasan with the assistance of Suzie Radosic (administrator and assistant, ICTP) Daniil Ilyin (web-master, University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, Chicago, USA) The Conference and the School were sponsored by several Agencies and Institutions in the USA, Europe and Japan. The Organizing Committee of TMB-2009 gratefully acknowledges the support of International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy National Science Foundation (NSF), USA Programs: Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Computational Mathematics; Applied Mathematics; Fluid Dynamics; Combustion, Fire and Plasma Systems; Cyber-Physical Systems; Computer and Network Systems Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), US Programs: Hypersonics and Turbulence; Flow Control and Aeroelasticity European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD) of the AFOSR, UK Programs: Aeronautical Sciences Department of Energy (DOE), USA, DOE Office of Science US Department of Energy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), USA Programs: National Ignition Facility; Fusion Energy US Department of Energy Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), USA US Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), USA Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), France Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE), Japan The University of Chicago, USA ASC Alliance Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes, USA Photron (Europe) Ltd, UK and thank them for making this event possible. We express our gratitude for the help with the Conference Program to the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee: S I Abarzhi (University of Chicago, USA) Y Aglitskiy (Science Applications International Corporation, USA) H Azechi (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) M J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) S I Anisimov (Landau Institute

  16. Seismic and Geodetic Unrest at Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Pritchard, M. E.

    2003-12-01

    A large-scale concentric pattern of deformation has been observed between 1992 and 2000 centered on Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia from satellite geodetic surveys (Pritchard and Simons, 2002). A reconnaissance investigation by a team composed of scientists from Bolivia (M. Sunagua and R. Muranca), Chile (J. Clavero), the USA (S. McNutt and M. Pritchard) and the UK (C Annen, M Humphreys, A le Friant, and R.S.J. Sparks) took place from 1-6 April 2003 to see if there were any other signs of volcanic unrest at Uturuncu. A single component vertical, one-second seismometer, was placed at five locations for periods up to 14 hours. Data were recorded at 100 samples per second on a laptop PC. Persistent low level seismicity was observed at all locations. The events were very similar to each other and most had a distinct P wave with a period of 0.1 sec and a clear S wave with longer period and higher amplitude. Nearly all the events at each station had similar S-P times, suggesting that the events came from mainly one source. Using bootstrapping methods we determine this to be from a source location on the north-west flank close to the center of deformation observed by satellite surveys. Several events with different S-P times and different waveforms suggest that two other sources exist within the volcanic edifice, but these cannot be located with the available data. The rate of volcanic earthquakes was up to 15 per hour; this is a surprisingly high rate for a dormant stratovolcano. The magnitudes were in the range 0.5 to 1.5 based on coda length. The sources were considered to be shallow within 3 - 4 km of the surface, although information on the velocity structure is not known. The summit region of Uturuncu (6,008 m) has an active fumarole field with substantial sulphur production and areas of silification. Temperatures in four fumaroles were measured at 79 - 80° C. A hot water spring on the NW flanks had a temperature of 20° C. The recent unrest manifested by substantial

  17. CONFERENCE NOTE: Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les grandeurs apparentées (CCM), High Pressure and Medium Pressure Working Groups, Second International Seminar on Pressure Metrology from 1 kPa to 1 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-01-01

    ) 1 40433700; fax (33) 1 40433737. Scientific Committee The following are responsible for the preparation of the seminar programme: J Bonhoure, BIPM, France V Borovkov, VNIIFTRI, Russia C Ehrlich, NIST, USA J Jäger, PTB, Germany J C Legras, LNE, France G F Molinar, IMGC, Italy P Stuart, NPL, UK C Tilford, NIST, USA S Yamamoto, NRLM, Japan R Wisniewski, Warsaw Univ. of Tech., Poland

  18. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    Upjohn Company under the name of Pharmacia & Upjohn. In 2000 this company was merged with the chemical group Monsanto under a new name, Pharmacia Corporation. Pharmacia Corporation was taken over by Pfizer in 2003. The early activities of A/S Pharmacia included not only the import of raw materials and ready-made articles, such as medicinal products, but also the manufacture of own medicinal products. This is not surprising considering the founder Edward Jacobsen's pharmaceutical career. Pharmacia's early manufacture of own medicinal products consisted mainly of generics, however, not only the expensive foreign medicinal products, but also any available Danish generics such as easily manufactured pharmacopeia products. It is thus worth mentioning that Pharmacia's own technological production capacity at that time was limited and required a cooperation with other (Danish) pharmaceutical companies. Pharmacia was able to produce tablet cores, but the sugarcoating had to be made by external business partners. Pharmacia was able to produce digitalis preparations, but the standardization of these had to be effected elsewhere. The total production of one of Pharmacia's products took place at an external business partner. Pharmacia was established at a time where the increasing use of industrially manufactured medicinal products, both Danish and foreign ones, had resulted in a considerable decrease in sales of pharmacy produced medicinal products. This had for a long time worried The Danish Association of Pharmacies, and this resulted in a reaction from the association, namely the DAK-products which by nature were produced in Denmark and thus became the most essential element in the fight against the industrially manufactured products--a fight which according to the association had to be fought with all legal means. Therefore The Danish Association of Pharmacies obviously reacted precipitated when in 1926 the association in writing stated that Pharmacia's products were not

  19. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear Science and Technologies 6. Nuclear Reactions and Structure of Unstable Nuclei 7. Equation of State of Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter, Clusters in Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions 8. Fusion and Fission 9. Nuclear Astrophysics 10. New Facilities and Detectors We would like to thank Texas A&M University and Texas A&M University-Commerce for their organizational support and for providing financial support for many students and postdocs and those who had special need. This support helped assure the success of NN2012. Special thanks also go to all members of the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee (listed below) for their great work in advising upon, preparing and executing the NN2012 scientific program as well as the social events that all together made the NN2012 an enjoyable experience for both the participants and their companions. NN2012 International Advisory Committee N Auerbach (Israel) J Aysto (Finland) C Beck (France) S Cherubini (Italy) L Ferreira (Portugal) C Gagliardi (USA) S Gales (France) C Gale (Canada) W Gelletly (Great Britain) Paulo R S Gomes (Brazil) W Greiner (Germany) W Henning (USA) D Hinde (Australia) S Hofmann (Germany) M Hussein (Brazil) B Jacak (USA) S Kailas (India) W G Lynch (USA) Z Majka (Poland) L McLerran (USA) V Metag (Germany) K Morita (Japan) B Mueller (USA) D G Mueller (France) T Motobayashi (Japan) W Nazarewicz (USA) Y Oganessian (Russia) J Nolen (USA) E K Rehm (USA) N Rowley (France) B Sherrill (USA) J Schukraft (Switzerland) W Q Shen (China) A Stefanini (Italy) H Stoecker (Germany) A Szanto de Toledo (Brazil) U van Kolck (USA) W von Oertzen (Germany) M Wiescher (USA) N Xu (USA) N V Zamfir (Romania) W L Zhan (China) H Q Zhang (China) NN2012 Local Organizing Committee Marina Barbui Carlos Bertulani Robert Burch Jr Cheri Davis Cody Folden Kris Hagel John Hardy Bao-An Li (Co-Chair and Scientific Secretary) Joseph Natowitz (Co-Chair) Ralf Rapp Livius Trache Sherry Yennello Editors of NN2012 Proceedings Bao

  20. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    ) Institute for Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka, Japan (Division Head: Dr K Nishihara) Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, USA (College of Science and Letters, Department of Applied Mathematics: Dr S I Abarji) and thanks them for making this event possible. The Organizing Committee appreciates the assistance of Suzie Radosic (administrator and assistant, ICTP) Daniil Ilyin (web-master, Chicago) Elena Magnus (assistant, Chicago) We express our gratitude for the help with the Conference Program to the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee S I Abarzhi (The University of Chicago, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA) G Ahlers (University of California at Santa Barbara, USA) M J Andrews (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Texas A & M University, USA) S I Anisimov (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia) E Bodenschatz (Max Plank Institute, Gottingen, Germany) S Dalziel (DAMTP, University of Cambridge, UK) R Ecke (Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA) H J Fernando (Arizona State University, USA) S Gauthier (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, France) G A Glatzmaier (University of California at Santa Cruz, USA) W A Goddard III (California Institute of Technology, USA) L P Kadanoff (The University of Chicago, USA) D Q Lamb (The University of Chicago, USA) D P Lathrop (University of Maryland, USA) S Lebedev (Imperial College, UK) P Manneville (Ecole Polytechnique, France) D I Meiron (California Institute of Technology, USA) H Nagib (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, USA) J Niemela (International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy) K Nishihara (Institute for Laser Engineering, Osaka, Japan) S A Orszag (Yale University, USA) E Ott (University of Maryland, USA) N Peters (RWTS, Aachen, Germany) S B Pope (Cornell, USA) B A Remington (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA) R Rosner (Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago, USA) A Schmidt (Naval Research Laboratory, USA) K R Sreenivasan (International Centre for Theoretical Physics

  1. "DOBREfraction'99" - Velocity models of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Donbas Foldbelt (SE Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, R. A.; Dobrefraction'00 Working Group,.

    2002-12-01

    the earlier rifting processes. Velocities in the crust below the Azov Massif, south of the DF, are in general higher than beneath the Voronezh Massif to the north. The Moho displays some topography but lies at a depth of about 40-km along the profile. *The DOBREfraction'99 Working Group, alphabetically: M. Grad, Institute of Geophysics, University of Warsaw, Poland; D. Gryn, Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; A. Guterch, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; T. Janik, Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, G. R. Keller, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, USA; R. Lang, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, USA; S.B. Lyngsie, Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, Denmark; V. Omelchenko(2), V.I. Starostenko, Institute of Geophysics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine; R.A. Stephenson, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands; S.M. Stovba, Ukrgeofisika, Technology Centre, Kyiv, Ukraine; H. Thybo, Geological Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen K, Denmark; A. Tolkunov, Ukrgeofisika, Technology Centre, Kyiv, Ukraine.

  2. The Gobbling Dwarf that Exploded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    100 is available as ESO Press Photo 08a/06. More Information These results are reported in a paper in Science Express published on 12 July 2007 ("Detection of circumstellar material in a normal Type Ia Supernova", by F. Patat et al.). The team is composed of F. Patat and L. Pasquini (ESO), P. Chandra and R. Chevalier (University of Virginia, USA), S. Justham, Ph. Podsiadlowski , and C. Wolf (University of Oxford, UK), A. Gal-Yam and J.D. Simon (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA), I.A. Crawford (Birkbeck College London, UK), P.A. Mazzali, W. Hillebrandt, and N. Elias-Rosa (Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, Germany), A.W.A. Pauldrach (Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany), K. Nomoto (University of Tokyo, Japan), S. Benetti, E. Cappellaro, A. Renzini , F. Sabbadin, and M. Turatto (INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico, Padova, Italy), D.C. Leonard (San Diego State University, USA), and A. Pastorello (Queen's University Belfast, UK). P.A. Mazzali is also associated with INAF/Trieste, Italy.

  3. Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organisms' First Orbital Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashenkov, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    the "Object D", the Soviet Government set a new term of start in the end of 1956 - April, 1958. However, owing to the widely advertised program of launch of the first Earth's artificial satellite "Vanguard" in the USA, S. Korolev pressed in February 1957 for the Government regulation about anticipated launches of two light unrecoverable satellites in April-May, 1957 before the International geophysical year. But, according to this regulation, the launch of the satellite was permitted only after one or two successful test flights of a rocket -7. The first successful test of a rocket -7 was held only in August, 1957. The successful launch of the Earth's first artificial satellite in October 4, 1957 has made stunning influence on all the world. To continue this success, N. Khrushzev in October 10 1957 stated to launch the second satellite with an animal onboard till November 7 (40 years of October Revolution). The level of complexity of forthcoming tasks was much higher. Tightness of a cabin and the systems of life-support of the satellite should provide considerably large duration of flight under previous dimensions and power consumption. The research equipment should also ensure long uninterrupted registration of the scientific data and their transfer on ground stations. At last, the realization of additional training and special preparation of dogs was required. O. Gazenko, A. Genin, A. Seryapin, A. Gurdjian, . Petrova and other researchers carried out these works in laboratory of V. Yazdovsky. Less than one month remained for realization of this very difficult experiment with dog onboard. For preparation of experiments with dogs the experience of high-altitude rocket flights was taken. The cycles of step-by-step training of dogs for forthcoming flight have allowed to select the steadiest dogs and to receive the necessary initial data for design of the life-support systems. As a result of these works, a hermetic cabin with life-support systems and research equipment

  4. PREFACE: Specical issue on reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüller, F. C.

    2006-09-01

    (CIEMAT, Spain) P. McNeely (IPP-Garching, Germany) V. Mukhovatov (ITER, Japan) T. Oikawa (JAEA, Japan) S. E. Sharapov (JET/UKAEA, UK) T. Takizuka (JAEA, Japan) D.G. Whyte (Wisconsin/UCSD, USA) S. Wukitch (MIT, USA) In addition to this top ten there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past years to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2005. Page charges and waivers Seemingly not all members of the fusion community have noted the modification of the page charge waiver policy for Nuclear Fusion that was agreed upon and took effect from 1 Janaury 2005. We still get requests that are not in accordance with the new rules. Let us repeat what was stated last year. All IAEA Member States that are classed by the World Bank as ' developing ' can now ask for a 75 % waiver. This opens the scheme to several additional countries in South America, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. However the granting is not an automatic procedure: requests have to be made in writing and submitted to the Editorial Office which will advise the management of the two co-publishers (IAEA and IOP Publishing Ltd). In very exceptional cases a 100 % waiver can be granted but only after convincing evidence of hardship is given by the leader/director of the requesting institute. Review articles Only review articles commissioned by the Editorial Board should be submitted to the journal. In the case of unsolicited review-type articles, these can only be taken into consideration for publication with the specific consent of the Editorial Board. Authors considering submitting a review article should send a proposal to the Editor in advance for consideration by the Editorial Board. Letters the faster procedure for publishing letters has raised the enthusiasm for submission. In 2005 Nuclear Fusion published nine letters instead of two, which was the average for the previous years. This is good news. We would

  5. PREFACE: Fourteenth International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2010-04-01

    Akazaki of Kyushu University, who was the first Chairman of LAPD from 1983 through 1989. The Akazaki lecture of LAPD14 was given by John Sheffield, who presented his work for the new edition of his worldwide known book Plasma Scattering of Electromagnetic Radiation. The site of LAPD14 was chosen for its comfortable environment and the superb location: Castelbrando is an ancient castle whose origin goes back to the Roman age, a fortress built to watch over one of the ancient routes crossing the Alps. Completely restored 10 years ago it is now a high class resort for business meetings and residential holidays, with conference and meeting rooms, restaurants, shops, spa and a beauty farm. The quality of the location and the quietness and beauty of the surroundings made Castelbrando an ideal site for LAPD14 and contributed to the success of the Symposium. I hope that this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series will serve as a valuable record of the Symposium to all workers in the field. On behalf of the Local Organizing Committee, I would like to thank all participants for their contributions to this Symposium. I also acknowledge all members of the international scientific committee and Professor Francesco Gnesotto, director of Consorzio RFX, for their support and cooperation. Leonardo Giudicotti (Chairman of the Local Organizer Commitee) Conference photograph INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: A. J. H. Donné, FOM-Institute voor Plasmafysica, The Netherlands (Chairman) U. Czarnetzki, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany B. Graham, The Queen's University, Belfast, UK G. Hebner, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, USA K. Kawahata, National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan N. C. Luhmann, Jr., University of California, Davis, USA S. Sasaki, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan H. Soltwisch, Ruhr University, Bochum, Germany P. P. Woskov, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA FORMER LAPD CHAIRMEN: M. Akazaki (1983 - 1989) D. E. Evans (1989 - 1993) H. F

  6. FOREWORD: CCM Second International Seminar: Pressure Metrology from 1 kPa to 1 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinar, G. F.

    1994-01-01

    , it was at a high level. This special issue of Metrologia brings together all the seminar papers accepted for publication after a careful review process controlled directly by the organizing committee of the seminar and the Metrologia editor. I feel that we have succeeded reasonably well. The papers published here focus on important achievements in pressure measurements and the main problems which the scientific community is working to resolve in the future. Various achievements are reported, ranging from a general improvement in accuracy to new devices and techniques. I would like to thank all those who helped with this seminar. First, the members of the organizing committee: Chairman of the CCM Medium Pressure Work ing Group, P Stuart, (NPL, UK); J Bonhoure (BIPM); V Borovkov (VNIIFTRI, Russia); C Ehrlich (NIST, USA); J Jager (PTB, Germany); J C Legras (LNE); Chairman of the CCM Low Pressure Working Group, C Tilford (NIST, USA); S Yamamoto (NRLM, Japan); R Wirniewski (WUT, Poland); not forgetting the institutions that allowed them to spend considerable time on the preparation and organization of the seminar. I extend my thanks to V E Bean (NIST, USA), A Ooiwa (NRLM, Japan), and A J Rostocki (WUT, Poland), who joined the organizing committee as guest editors and helped to see the papers presented at the seminar through the review process and into print. Many thanks are also due to A Bryden, Director of the Laboratoire National d'Essais, and to J C Legras of the LNE Pressure Laboratory, for hosting the seminar and for taking care of all practical problems. A special thanks to T J Quinn, Director of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, for his continuous support and encouragement in the preparation of the seminar. Grateful thanks to Desgranges et Huot, France, for their hospitality in Paris; and to D-H Instruments Co., USA, and Ruska Co., USA, which sponsored the seminar through their fmancial support for the publication of these Proceedings. A special

  7. A Look into the Hellish Cradles of Suns and Solar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    Rose, T.L. Bourke, R.A. Gutermuth and S.J. Wolk (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, USA), S.T. Megeath (Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, USA), J. Alves (Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán, Almeria, Spain), and D. Nürnberger (ESO). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  8. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Dobacewski (Warsaw, Poland) G Dracoulis (ANU, Australia) S J Freedman (LBL, USA) M Hass (Weizmann Institute, Israel) M Huyse (Leuven, Belgium) P Jones (Birmingham, UK) D Khao (Hanoi, Vietnam) R Krücken (Munich, Germany) K Langanke (Darmstadt, Germany) C Lister (Argonne, USA) G A Miller (University of Washington, USA) D Morrissey (MSU, USA) T Motobayashi (RIKEN, Japan) S Nagamiya (J-PARC, Japan) W Nazarewicz (ORNL, USA) S Mullins (iThemba, South Africa) T Nakamura (Tokyo, Japan) P Roussel Chomaz (GANIL, France) R Ribas (Sao Paolo, Brazil) M Vanderhaeghen (Mainz, Germany) U Wiedner (Uppsala, Sweden) F Xu (Peking University, China) Q Zhao (IHEP, Bejing) W Zajc (Columbia, USA)

  9. Some Unknown Pages of the Living Organisms' First Orbital Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashenkov, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    the "Object D", the Soviet Government set a new term of start in the end of 1956 - April, 1958. However, owing to the widely advertised program of launch of the first Earth's artificial satellite "Vanguard" in the USA, S. Korolev pressed in February 1957 for the Government regulation about anticipated launches of two light unrecoverable satellites in April-May, 1957 before the International geophysical year. But, according to this regulation, the launch of the satellite was permitted only after one or two successful test flights of a rocket -7. The first successful test of a rocket -7 was held only in August, 1957. The successful launch of the Earth's first artificial satellite in October 4, 1957 has made stunning influence on all the world. To continue this success, N. Khrushzev in October 10 1957 stated to launch the second satellite with an animal onboard till November 7 (40 years of October Revolution). The level of complexity of forthcoming tasks was much higher. Tightness of a cabin and the systems of life-support of the satellite should provide considerably large duration of flight under previous dimensions and power consumption. The research equipment should also ensure long uninterrupted registration of the scientific data and their transfer on ground stations. At last, the realization of additional training and special preparation of dogs was required. O. Gazenko, A. Genin, A. Seryapin, A. Gurdjian, . Petrova and other researchers carried out these works in laboratory of V. Yazdovsky. Less than one month remained for realization of this very difficult experiment with dog onboard. For preparation of experiments with dogs the experience of high-altitude rocket flights was taken. The cycles of step-by-step training of dogs for forthcoming flight have allowed to select the steadiest dogs and to receive the necessary initial data for design of the life-support systems. As a result of these works, a hermetic cabin with life-support systems and research equipment

  10. PREFACE: 6th International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Marc

    2008-07-01

    . Lionheart (U. Manchester, UK) M. Bertero (U. Genova, Italy) D. Maillet (Nancy-U., France) J. Blum (U. Nice, France) W. Marquardt (RWTH Aachen, Germany) H. D. Bui (Ecole Polytech., France) P. A. Martin (Col. School of Mines, USA) T. Burczynski (Silesian Tech. U., Gliwice, Poland) A. Michalak (U. of Michigan, USA) G. Dassios (U. Patras, Greece) A. Nenarokomov (Moscow Aviation Inst., Russia) D. Delaunay (U. Nantes, France) D. Murio (U. Cincinnati, USA) H. Dinh Nho (Hanoi Inst. Maths, Vietnam) A. J. Nowak (Silesian Tech. U. Gliwice, Poland) A. El Badia (U. Tech. Compiègne, France) H. R. B. Orlande (Federal U. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) J. Frankel (U. Tennessee, USA) L. Päivärinta (U. Helsinki, Finland) O. Ghattas (Carnegie Mellon U., USA) D. Petit (U. Poitiers, France) B. Guzina (U. Minnesota, USA) L. Pronzato (U. Nice, France) A. Hasanov (Kocaeli U., Turkey) M. Prud'homme (Ecole Polytech. Montréal, Canada) F. Hild (ENS Cachan, France) O. Scherzer (U. Innsbruck, Austria) C.-H. Huang (National Cheng Kung U., Taiwan) V. Shutyaev (Inst. Num. Maths, Russia) M. Ikehata (Gunma U., Japan) A. J. Silva Neto (U. Estado Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) M. Jaoua (Ecole Nat. Ingé. Tunis, Tunisia) V. Steffen Jr (U. Federal Uberlandia, Brazil) Y. Jarny (U. Nantes, France) G. Uhlmann (U. Washington, USA) S. Kabanikhin (Sobolev Inst. Maths., Russia) K. A. Woodbury (U. Alabama, USA) J. Kaipio (U. Kuopio, Finland) A. Yagola (Moscow State U., Russia) Kyung Youn Kim (Cheju National U., South Korea) E. Zuazua (U. Complutense Madrid, Spain) Additional Reviewers H. Ammari (ESPCI and Ecole Polytech., France) Y. Favennec (U. Poitiers, France) S. Avril (Ecole Mines St. Etienne, France) O. Fudym (Ecole Mines Albi, France) G. Bal (U. Columbia, USA) M. Girault (U. Poitiers, France) J.-L. Battaglia (U. Bordeaux, France) F. Hemez (Los Alamos Natl. Lab., USA) F. Bauer (Johannes Kepler U., Linz, Austria) M. Janicki (RICAM, Linz, Austria & T.U. Lodz, Poland) C. Bissieux (U. Reims, France) N. Laraqi (U. Paris X, France