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Sample records for moon conductivity profiles

  1. Thin highly conducting layer in the moon - Consistent interpretation of dayside and nightside electromagnetic responses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    The vacuum transient response of the moon to a time-varying spatially uniform magnetic field is determined for a lunar electrical conductivity model that was based on the harmonic analysis of Apollo 12 and Explorer 35 dayside magnetometer data. The transient response of the model is found to provide a plausible explanation of the behavior of the local vertical-surface magnetic field for an Apollo 12 magnetometer darkside transient event. A model containing a conducting core and a highly conducting thin subsurface layer is presented, and its transient behavior is discussed.

  2. An Estimation of Electrical Conductivity of the Moon Using Kaguya Magnetometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, H.; Hayashida, A.; Matsushima, M.; Shimizu, H.; Takahashi, F.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    The electrical conductivity structure of the moon can be determined by electromagnetic responses. From the simultaneous Apollo 12 and Explorer 35 magnetometer observations, the electrical conductivity structure of the lunar interior has been estimated (e.g. Sonett et al. 1972, Wiskerchen and Sonett 1977, Hood et al.1982). However, it so far contains significant ambiguity in orders of magnitude for the shallow part. The ambiguity principally comes from low sampling rate of Explorer 35, which is 6.14 sec. In order to restrict the ambiguity, we try to use the Kaguya Lunar MAGnetometer (LMAG) data, which has 32Hz sampling rate (Tsunakawa et al. 2010). Because we use only the magnetic field observation of Kaguya as the output of the response, we suppose that the external input is randomly oriented uniform field. If the moon responds, the magnetic field variation or noise is smaller in the radial component comparing to the horizontal component. The randomness is tested if the variations of north and east components are equal or not. The data used are from the nominal observation (about 100km in altitude) and above the Mare Imbrium (15~45N, 0~45W) where crustal field is minimal on the lunar surface. As the satellite takes about 1000sec passing this area, 1024 of one second averaged data is submitted to Fourier transformation to obtain power spectrum. The results when (1) the moon is in earth's tail lobe and (2) the moon is in the solar wind but Kaguya is in the lunar wake are used for analyses, since otherwise there exists plasma above the lunar surface. The power of radial, north and east component (Pr, Pn and Pe, respectively) are divided by total power (P=Pr+Pn+Pe) are plotted against the frequency. The randomness of input is examined whether Pn/P and Pe/P are equal or not. They are equal only for the frequency of 0.2Hz and lower of lunar wake data. The Pr/P data passed those criteria are compared with those calculated in uniform conductivity model, thus the effective

  3. Method for Identifying Lava Tubes Among Pit Craters Using Brightness Profile Across Pits on the Moon or Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jongil; Hong, Ik-Seon; Cho, Eunjin; Yi, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Caves can serve as major outposts for future human exploration of the Moon and Mars. In addition, caves can protect people and electronic equipment from external hazards such as cosmic ray radiation and meteorites impacts and serve as a shelter. Numerous pit craters have been discovered on the Moon and Mars and are potential entrances to caves; the principal topographic features of pit craters are their visible internal floors and pits with vertical walls. We have devised two topographical models for investigating the relationship between the topographical characteristics and the inner void of pit craters. One of our models is a concave floor void model and the other is a convex floor tube model. For each model, optical photographs have been obtained under conditions similar to those in which optical photographs have been acquired for craters on the Moon and Mars. Brightness profiles were analyzed for determining the profile patterns of the void pit craters. The profile patterns were compared to the brightness profiles of Martian pit craters, because no good-quality images of lunar pit craters were available. In future studies, the model profile patterns will be compared to those of lunar pit craters, and the proposed method will likely become useful for finding lunar caves and consequently for planning lunar bases for manned lunar expeditions.

  4. Moon Rise, Moon Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Points out the potential of the moon as a rich teaching resource for subject areas like astronomy, physics, and biology. Presents historical, scientific, technological, and interesting facts about the moon. Includes suggestions for maximizing student interest and learning about the moon. (YDS)

  5. The influence of the surface conductivity on the local electric fields and the motion of charged dust grains on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, N.; Zakharov, A.

    2015-11-01

    It is investigated how finite regolith conductivity influences the magnitude of strong electric fields required for lofting dust grains above the surface. It is shown that even very weak conductivity typical for the lunar regolith restricts the maximum values of the local electric fields formed near mini-craters or mini-hills on the dark side of the Moon. As a result the lofting of dust grains from the surface of the Moon is suppressed significantly. The effect depends on the regolith conductivity, parameters of the solar wind plasma, and the steepness of the slopes of the mini-crater or mini-hill.

  6. Vertical profile of atmospheric conductivity that matches Schumann resonance observations.

    PubMed

    Nickolaenko, Alexander P; Galuk, Yuri P; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the vertical profile of atmospheric conductivity in the range from 2 to 98 km. The propagation constant of extremely low frequency (ELF) radio waves was computed for this profile by using the full wave solution. A high correspondence is demonstrated of the data thus obtained to the conventional standard heuristic model of ELF propagation constant derived from the Schumann resonance records performed all over the world. We also suggest the conductivity profiles for the ambient day and ambient night conditions. The full wave solution technique was applied for obtaining the corresponding frequency dependence of propagation constant relevant to these profiles. By using these propagation constants, we computed the power spectra of Schumann resonance in the vertical electric field component for the uniform global distribution of thunderstorms and demonstrate their close similarity in all the models. We also demonstrate a strong correspondence between the wave attenuation rate obtained for these conductivity profiles and the measured ones by using the ELF radio transmissions. PMID:26877906

  7. Lunar magnetic field measurements, electrical conductivity calculations and thermal profile inferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    Steady magnetic field measurements of magnitude 30 to 100 gamma on the lunar surface impose problems of interpretation when coupled with the nondetectability of a lunar field at 0.4 lunar radius altitude and the limb induced perturbations of the solar wind at the Explorer orbit. The lunar time-varying magnetic field clearly indicates the presence of eddy currents in the lunar interior and permits calculation of an electrical conductivity profile. The problem is complicated by the day-night asymmetry of the moon's electromagnetic environment, the possible presence of the transverse magnetic mode, and the variable wave directions of the driving function. The electrical conductivity is calculated to be low near the surface, rising to a peak of .006/ohm meter at 250 km, dropping steeply inwards to a value of about .00005/ohm meter, and then rising toward the interior. A transition at 250 km depth from a high conductivity to a low conductivity material is inferred, suggesting an olivine-like core at approximately 800 C, although other models are possible.

  8. Mantle electrical conductivity profile of Niger delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Okeke, Francisca N.; Yumoto, K.; Agha, Stan O.

    2014-06-01

    The mantle electrical conductivity-depth profile of the Niger delta region in Nigeria has been determined using solar quiet day ionospheric current (Sq). The magnetometer data obtained in 2010 from geomagnetic stations installed in Lagos by magnetic dataset (MAGDAS) in 2008 and data from magnetometers installed in some parts of Niger delta by Center for Basic Space Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, were employed in this study. Gauss spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) method was used to separate the internal and external field contributions to Sq current system. The result depicted that the conductivity profile rose steadily from about 0.032 S/m at a depth of 89 km to 0.041 S/m at 100 km and 0.09 S/m at 221 km. This high conductivity region agreed with the global seismic low velocity region, the asthenosphere. The conductivity profile continued increasing downward until it got to 0.157 S/m at a depth of about 373 km (close to the base of upper mantle), 0.201 S/m at 784 km and reached 0.243 S/m at a depth of 1179 km at the lower mantle.

  9. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  10. A Web-GIS for the Kaguya/Spectral Profiler data, "GEKKO" (moonlight in Japanese): toward comprehensive mapping of the surface minerals on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hayashi, Y.; Hirata, N.; Terazono, J.; Demura, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Yokota, Y.; Ohtake, M.; Ootake, H.

    2015-10-01

    The "GEKKO" is a Web -GIS to exhibit the reflectance spectra of the Moon observed by the Spectral Profiler (SP) onboard Kaguya satellite. The client can access the system via a web browser and select any area of the whole Moon. The client can view, plot and download the SP data observed at the corresponding location on the referenced lunar image just by mouse-clicks. The system also provides some basic analysis functions. The operation and service of "GEKKO" started in August 2014 for the Japanese lunar science community. We now plan to cultivate the potential users internationally. We are implementing new functions and extending the system. Our final goal is comprehensive mapping of the surface minerals on the Moon.

  11. Focus: Reaching for the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Emily; Chadha, Kulvinder Singh

    2008-05-01

    The man in the moon. Blue moon. Heavy bombardment era. Black moon. Mechanics of the moon. Perigee/apogee. Blood moon. Harvest moon. Destination moon. Wet moon. Moon Britannia. Moon rocks come down to Earth. Fairy moon.

  12. Thermal conductivity and temperature profiles in carbon electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burheim, Odne S.; Aslan, Mesut; Atchison, Jennifer S.; Presser, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of supercapacitor film electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC), AC with 15 mass% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), AC with 15 mass% onion-like carbon (OLC), and only OLC, all mixed with polymer binder (polytetrafluoroethylene), has been measured. This was done for dry electrodes and after the electrodes have been saturated with an organic electrolyte (1 M tetraethylammonium-tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile, TEA-BF4). The thermal conductivity data was implemented in a simple model of generation and transport of heat in a cylindrical cell supercapacitor systems. Dry electrodes showed a thermal conductivity in the range of 0.09-0.19 W K-1 m-1 and the electrodes soaked with an organic electrolyte yielded values for the thermal conductivity between 0.42 and 0.47 W K-1 m-1. It was seen that the values related strongly to the porosity of the carbon electrode materials. Modeling of the internal temperature profiles of a supercapacitor under conditions corresponding to extreme cycling demonstrated that only a moderate temperature gradient of several degrees Celsius can be expected and which depends on the ohmic resistance of the cell as well as the wetting of the electrode materials.

  13. Cardiovascular profiles of scleroderma patients with arrhythmias and conduction disorders.

    PubMed

    Muresan, L; Petcu, A; Pamfil, C; Muresan, C; Rinzis, M; Mada, R O; Gusetu, G N; Pop, D; Zdrenghea, D; Rednic, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arrhythmias and conduction disorders are common among patients with scleroderma. Their early identification is important, since scleroderma patients with arrhythmias have a higher mortality risk compared with scleroderma patients without arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular profiles of scleroderma patients with different types of arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Methods One hundred and ten consecutive patients with a diagnosis of systemic sclerosis according to the ACR criteria were included in the study. Patients underwent a 12-lead ECG and a 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring for arrhythmias and conduction disorders identification. Blood sample testing, echocardiography, spirometry, chest X-ray and, when considered appropriate, high resolution chest CT were also performed. A subgroup of 21 patients underwent NT-pro BNP level measurements. Patients' clinical and para-clinical characteristics were compared according to the presence or absence of arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Results The prevalence of arrhythmia and conduction disturbances was 60.9%. Patients with such disorders were older (54.4 ± 13.3 vs. 49.7 ± 10.1 years, p=0.05), had a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension (p=0.008), valve disease (p < 0.001), especially mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, chamber enlargement on echocardiography (left atrial and right ventricular, p = 0.012 and 0.005, respectively) as well as higher NT-pro BNP levels: 265.5 ± 399.7 vs. 163 ± 264.3 pg/ml, p=0.04. Conclusion Arrhythmias and conduction disorders are common in patients with scleroderma. Patients with such disorders are older, have a higher prevalence of pulmonary hypertension, more severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation, left atrial and right ventricular dilation on echocardiography. PMID:27115105

  14. Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of astronomical and laboratory sources at 8.5 micron. [absorption line profiles of nitrogen oxide and black body emission from Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M.; Kostiuk, T.; Cohen, S.; Buhl, D.; Vonthuna, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    The first infrared heterodyne spectrometer using tuneable semiconductor (PbSe) diode lasers has been constructed and was used near 8.5 micron to measure absorption line profiles of N2O in the laboratory and black body emission from the Moon and from Mars. Spectral information was recorded over a 200 MHz bandwidth using an 8-channel filter bank. The resolution was 25 MHz and the minimum detectable (black body) power was 1 x 10 to the minus 16th power watts for 8 minutes of integration. The results demonstrate the usefulness of heterodyne spectroscopy for the study of remote and local sources in the infrared.

  15. Moon Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station in May 2012, Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit opened the shutters covering the cupola observation windows in time to watch the moon rise. The time-lapse sce...

  16. Nightside electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Smith, B. F.; Sonett, C. P.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1972-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of the Moon to excitation by the time dependent fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field is given for the dark or antisolar hemisphere of the Moon. Six hours of time series data from the Explorer 35 magnetometer and the lunar surface magnetometer on Apollo 12 are used to obtain the Fourier spectral amplitudes of the surface and interplanetary fields from which transfer functions are calculated for the east-west, north-south, and vertical directions at the Apollo site. A critical discussion of lunar conductivity profiles derived from night side radial magnetic field data and vacuum scattering theory is presented. Limitations are shown that there is no evidence for a lunar core as conducting as 0.01 mhos/m.

  17. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  18. Shepherd Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Shepherd Moons

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter in February 2007. This sequence of pictures from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) shows the well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings; labels point out how these narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons (Metis and Adrastea).

  19. The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic data suggest that there is a genetic relationship between the constituent matter of the Moon and Earth (Wiechert et al., 2001). Yet lunar materials are obviously different from those of the Earth. The Moon has no hydrosphere, virtually no atmosphere, and compared to the Earth, lunar materials uniformly show strong depletions of even mildly volatile constituents such as potassium, in addition to N2, O2, and H2O (e.g., Wolf and Anders, 1980). Oxygen fugacity is uniformly very low ( BVSP, 1981) and even the earliest lunar magmas seem to have been virtually anhydrous. These features have direct and far-reaching implications for mineralogical and geochemical processes. Basically, they imply that mineralogical diversity and thus variety of geochemical processes are subdued; a factor that to some extent offsets the comparative dearth of available data for lunar geochemistry.The Moon's gross physical characteristics play an important role in the more limited range of selenochemical compared to terrestrial geochemical processes. Although exceptionally large (radius=1,738 km) in relation to its parent planet, the Moon is only 0.012 times as massive as Earth. By terrestrial standards, pressures inside the Moon are feeble: the upper mantle gradient is 0.005 GPa km -1 (versus 0.033 GPa km -1 in Earth) and the central pressure is slightly less than 5 GPa. However, lunar interior pressures are sufficient to profoundly influence igneous processes (e.g., Warren and Wasson, 1979b; Longhi, 1992, 2002), and in this sense the Moon more resembles a planet than an asteroid.Another direct consequence of the Moon's comparatively small size was early, rapid decay of its internal heat engine. But the Moon's thermal disadvantage has resulted in one great advantage for planetology. Lunar surface terrains, and many of the rock samples acquired from them, retain for the most part characteristics acquired during the first few hundred million years of solar system existence. The

  20. Effect of asymmetric concentration profile on thermal conductivity in Ge/SiGe superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Konstanze R.; Cecchi, Stefano; Colombo, Luciano

    2016-05-01

    The effect of the chemical composition in Si/Ge-based superlattices on their thermal conductivity has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation cells of Ge/SiGe superlattices have been generated with different concentration profiles such that the Si concentration follows a step-like, a tooth-saw, a Gaussian, and a gamma-type function in direction of the heat flux. The step-like and tooth-saw profiles mimic ideally sharp interfaces, whereas Gaussian and gamma-type profiles are smooth functions imitating atomic diffusion at the interface as obtained experimentally. Symmetry effects have been investigated comparing the symmetric profiles of the step-like and the Gaussian function to the asymmetric profiles of the tooth-saw and the gamma-type function. At longer sample length and similar degree of interdiffusion, the thermal conductivity is found to be lower in asymmetric profiles. Furthermore, it is found that with smooth concentration profiles where atomic diffusion at the interface takes place the thermal conductivity is higher compared to systems with atomically sharp concentration profiles.

  1. Negative differential conductivity in quantum well with complex potential profile for electron-phonon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figarova, S. R.; Hasiyeva, G. N.; Figarov, V. R.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of phonon scattering on electrical conductivity (EC) of 2D electron gas in quantum well (QW) systems with a complicated potential profile is described. Dependence of QW electrical conductivity on QW parameters (such as QW width, Fermi level positions etc.) when phonon scattering is employed has been calculated. NDC in EC when it varies with width of the QW has been found.

  2. Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    From year to year, the moon never seems to change. Craters and other formations appear to be permanent now, but the moon didn't always look like this. Learn about how the moon evolved from its earl...

  3. Conductivity profiles corresponding to the knee model and relevant SR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H. J.; Hayakawa, M.; Galuk, Yu. P.; Nickolaenko, A. P.

    2016-03-01

    There are many models describing ELF radio propagation in the uniform Earth-ionosphere cavity. One of the most popular models is the knee model by Mushtak and Williams (2002). Unfortunately, this model only verbally describes the relevant conductivity profile of atmosphere, which is obligatory in the direct computational techniques. We introduce a conductivity profile based on this description and derive the related frequency dependence of complex propagation constant (f) using the rigorous full wave solution (FWS). Then, for the first time the Schumann resonance (SR) spectra for the same atmospheric conductivity profile are compared to those by different computational techniques. In two of them we use the formal zonal harmonic series representation (ZHSR) for the fields with the propagation constant (f) found either from the knee model formulas or from the FWS for the relevant conductivity profile. The third technique is based on the direct three-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the same conductivity profile. Comparison reveals that the FWS and FDTD results are practically coincident in the whole SR band. The knee model spectra are close to those of FWS and FDTD data in the vicinity of the first SR mode, whereas deviations from the rigorous solutions proportionally increase with the frequency. Special attention is paid to the characteristic heights of ionosphere that provide coincident results for the FDTD spectra and the ZHSR spectra with FWS propagation constant.

  4. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system.

  5. Conductivity Profile Determination by Eddy Current for Shot Peened Superalloy Surfaces Toward Residual Stress Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Lo, C. C. H.; Frishman, A. M.; Lee, C.; Nakagawa, N.

    2007-03-21

    This paper describes an eddy current model-based method for inverting near-surface conductivity deviation profiles of surface treated materials from swept-high frequency eddy current (SHFEC) data. This work forms part of our current research directed towards the development of an electromagnetic nondestructive technique for assessing residual stress of shot-peened superalloy components. The inversion procedure is based on the use of a parameterized function to describe the near-surface conductivity as a function of depth for a shot-peened surface, and the laterally uniform multi-layer theory of Cheng, Dodd and Deeds to calculate the resulting coil impedance deviations. The convergence of the inversion procedure has been tested against synthesized eddy current data. As a demonstration, the conductivity deviation profiles of a series of Inconel 718 specimens, shot peened at various Almen intensities, have been obtained by inversion. Several consistency tests were conducted to examine the reliability of the inverted conductivity profiles. The results show that conductivity deviation profiles can be reliably determined from SHFEC data within the accuracy of the current measurement system.

  6. EUVE survey observations of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, J. S.; Gladstone, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary survey images of the moon obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer and results of data analysis are presented. The preliminary results indicate that the brightness of the moon varies little from observation to observation. Early results also show that the lunar albedo closely matches the relative reflectivity of mineral found on the moon's surface. Further studies are conducted during the spectroscopy phase of the EUVE mission to confirm current results regarding the presence of X-ray fluorescence in the data.

  7. PREDOMINANT PROPERTIES AFFECTING PROFILE SOIL ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN THE US MIDWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercially available sensors for measuring apparent profile soil electrical conductivity (ECa) can provide an indirect indication of a number of soil physical and chemical properties helpful in characterizing within-field variability for precision agriculture. The objective of this research was to...

  8. Development of an angular scanning system for sensing vertical profiles of soil electrical conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC**a**) is typically mapped to define soil spatial variability within an agricultural field. Knowledge of the vertical variability of EC**a** is desired to define site-specific behavior of the soil profile. A Pneumatic Angular Scanning System (PASS) was develo...

  9. Empathy in Children with Autism and Conduct Disorder: Group-Specific Profiles and Developmental Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwenck, Christina; Mergenthaler, Julia; Keller, Katharina; Zech, Julie; Salehi, Sarah; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Schecklmann, Martin; Schneider, Wolfgang; Warnke, Andreas; Freitag, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A deficit in empathy is discussed to underlie difficulties in social interaction of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD). To date, no study has compared children with ASD and different subtypes of CD to describe disorder-specific empathy profiles in clinical samples. Furthermore, little is known about…

  10. Electrical conductivity of the Fennoscandian Shield margin from recent magnetotelluric profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, M. Yu.; Korja, T.; Pedersen, L. B.

    2009-04-01

    During the last decade several magnetotelluric profiles extending from Proterozoic East European Craton into younger domains have been measured. Magnetotelluric TOR profile crosses the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist-Zone (STZ) in the southwestern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. The STZ marks the border between the intact shield in Sweden to the north and the reactivated Danish basin and the Ringkobing-Fyn High (RFH) to the south. The STZ manifests itself electrically very clearly in the lower crust and upper lithospheric mantle as a narrow zone of high conductivity. The thickness of the electric lithosphere decreases across the STZ from about 300 km in the Fennoscandian Shield to about 100 km in the Danish basin. Jämtland-Trondelag magnetotelluric profile crosses the Central Scandinavian Caledonides from Baltic to Norwegian Sea. The results of the data analysis reveal the following main features: (1) An electrically highly conducting layer beneath the Caledonides images alum shales, the autochthonous Cambrian carbon-bearing black shales on top of the Precambrian basement. (2) Beneath the eastern part of the profile in the Fennoscandian Shield, proper, the first upper mantle conductor is detected at the depth of more than 250-300 km. A region of enhanced conductivity is identified at the depth of c.100- 150 km under the Caledonides in the central part of the profile. Further to the west, however, the lithosphere seems to thicken to 150-200 km. A large-scale international electromagnetic experiment has been carried out in northwest Poland and northeast Germany across the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ), which is the most prominent tectonic boundary in Europe and which constitutes a complex transition between the European Paleozoic Platform towards the southeast and the Precambrian Craton towards the northeast. The results show the presence of highly conductive Cenozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary cover reaching depths up to 3 km. The significant conductivity anomaly in the

  11. Analyzing Conductivity Profiles in Stream Waters Influenced by Mine Water Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Teemu; Hämäläinen, Emmy; Hämäläinen, Matias; Turunen, Kaisa; Pajula, Pasi; Backnäs, Soile

    2015-04-01

    Conductivity is useful as a general measure of stream water quality. Each stream inclines to have a quite constant range of conductivity that can be used as a baseline for comparing and detecting influence of contaminant sources. Conductivity in natural streams and rivers is affected primarily by the geology of the watershed. Thus discharges from ditches and streams affect not only the flow rate in the river but also the water quality and conductivity. In natural stream waters, the depth and the shape of the river channel change constantly, which changes also the water flow. Thus, an accurate measuring of conductivity or other water quality indicators is difficult. Reliable measurements are needed in order to have holistic view about amount of contaminants, sources of discharges and seasonal variation in mixing and dilution processes controlling the conductivity changes in river system. We tested the utility of CastAway-CTD measuring device (SonTek Inc) to indicate the influence of mine waters as well as mixing and dilution occurring in the recipient river affected by treated dewatering and process effluent water discharges from a Finnish gold mine. The CastAway-CTD measuring device is a small, rugged and designed for profiling of depths of up to 100m. Device measures temperature, salinity, conductivity and sound of speed using 5 Hz response time. It has also built-in GPS which produces location information. CTD casts are normally used to produce vertical conductivity profile for rather deep waters like seas or lakes. We did seasonal multiple Castaway-CTD measurements during 2013 and 2014 and produced scaled vertical and horizontal profiles of conductivity and water temperature at the river. CastAway-CTD measurement pinpoints how possible contaminants behave and locate in stream waters. The conductivity profiles measured by CastAway-CTD device show the variation in maximum conductivity values vertically in measuring locations and horizontally in measured cross

  12. Modeling the Influence of Conductivity Profiles on Red Sprite Formation and Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, P.; Velinov, P.

    Strong quasi-electrostatic fields generated in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere after a lightning discharge by a succeeding redistribution of the induced spatial charges, are considered to be responsible for red sprite generation. Factors considered here as important for sprite occurrence and size and shape are the discharge parameters and conductivity profile. Thundercloud charges are assumed to be of hundreds of Coulombs distributed within layers with a horizontal extent of tens (or hundreds) of kilometers as typical for big convective multi-cell systems. Cloud- t o -ground positive strokes, characterized by their charge moment change, are considered, and the large continuing currents are taken into account. The thermal breakdown mechanism is considered as responsible for sprite onset. The conditions under which sprites initially occur (i.e. when atmospheric parameters are not disturbed) and their spatial and temporal characteristics are studied in dependence on the conductivity profiles. A self-consistent analytical modeling is proposed for this purpose. Maxwell equations are applied under quasi-electrostatic conditions, when magnetic field component is neglected and the electric field is assumed to be a potential one. The features of a lightning discharge as well as of conductivity profiles (including the slight anisotropy in lower ionosphere) are taken into account in the model. The conductivity profiles are approximated between 0 and 100 km by stepwise profiles, defined on layered atmosphere with ~100 layers. Horizontal conductivity variations occurring at sprite heights (50-90 km) due to electron heating and ionization are represented in the model by a stepped functions in each layer. Continuity of the electrical current density component normal to each sector boundary is required. Results obtained show that for sprite occurrence in daytime conditions larger lightning charge moment change of the parent discharge is needed and sprites are lower localized

  13. Noninvasive Imaging of Head-Brain Conductivity Profiles Using Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Yan, Dandan; Zhu, Shanan; He, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a recently introduced non-invasive conductivity imaging modality, which combines the magnetic resonance current density imaging (CDI) and the traditional electrical impedance tomography (EIT) techniques. MREIT is aimed at providing high spatial resolution images of electrical conductivity, by avoiding solving the well-known ill-posed problem in the traditional EIT. In this paper, we review our research activities in MREIT imaging of head-brain tissue conductivity profiles. We have developed several imaging algorithms and conducted a series of computer simulations for MREIT imaging of the head and brain tissues. Our work suggests MREIT brain imaging may become a useful tool in imaging conductivity distributions of the brain and head. PMID:18799394

  14. Determination of electron and ion thermal conductivities by analysis of Alcator-A profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liewer, P. C.; Pfeiffer, W.; Waltz, R. E.

    1983-02-01

    Profile data from the Alcator-A tokamak are analyzed using the onetwo transport code to study thermal conductivities and power balance. It is found that the observed central ion temperatures can be explained by assuming an ion thermal conductivity equal to the neoclassical value as calculated recently by Bolton and Ware. For low density, n¯=1×1014 cm-3, the possible anomaly in the ion conductivity is small: ±30% of the Bolton-Ware value. The anomalous electron thermal conductivity as deduced from the profile data is = ≂2.5(±1.5)×1017 cm-1 sec-1. The power balance study shows that at low densities, electron energy losses from radiation and thermal conduction are equally important, and both are larger than the exchanges loss to the ions. At higher densities, n¯≥2×1014 cm-3, electron energy losses by thermal conduction and exchange are equally important, and both are larger than the radiation loss. Convective losses, as calculated from measured particle confinement times, are negligible for all densities analyzed.

  15. Moon's Pink Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 2010 remote-sensing discovery of lunar regolith rich in Mg-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of impact craters and inner rings of basins on the Moon, researchers have been designing experiments to better understand the origin and formation history of spinel-rich rocks and what they mean for the construction of the lunar crust. The newly detected rock type is referred to as pink spinel anorthosite, or PSA, due to high plagioclase and low abundance (<5%) of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. Two recent studies tested specific hypotheses of PSA production on the Moon. Juliane Gross (American Museum of Natural History and the Lunar and Planetary Institute, LPI) and colleagues at the LPI, University of Hawaii, and NASA Johnson Space Center conducted experiments to model the crystallization of spinel in impact melts from impact events. Tabb Prissel (Brown University) and colleagues from Brown conducted experiments to model a plutonic formation of spinel from magma-wallrock interactions. In each study, comparisons of the remote sensing data with Apollo lunar samples or lunar meteorites were crucial for testing the PSA formation hypotheses with the experimental results. Definitive answers aren't in yet. PSA could form from impact melting of the right target rocks. Equally likely is PSA formation by reaction of basaltic magma and crust. One big unknown is the effect space weathering has in determining the amount of spinel in the PSA..

  16. Accurate reconstruction of the thermal conductivity depth profile in case hardened steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celorrio, Ricardo; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Salazar, Agustín; Mandelis, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    The problem of retrieving a nonhomogeneous thermal conductivity profile from photothermal radiometry data is addressed from the perspective of a stabilized least square fitting algorithm. We have implemented an inversion method with several improvements: (a) a renormalization of the experimental data which removes not only the instrumental factor, but the constants affecting the amplitude and the phase as well, (b) the introduction of a frequency weighting factor in order to balance the contribution of high and low frequencies in the inversion algorithm, (c) the simultaneous fitting of amplitude and phase data, balanced according to their experimental noises, (d) a modified Tikhonov regularization procedure has been introduced to stabilize the inversion, and (e) the Morozov discrepancy principle has been used to stop the iterative process automatically, according to the experimental noise, to avoid "overfitting" of the experimental data. We have tested this improved method by fitting theoretical data generated from a known conductivity profile. Finally, we have applied our method to real data obtained in a hardened stainless steel plate. The reconstructed in-depth thermal conductivity profile exhibits low dispersion, even at the deepest locations, and is in good anticorrelation with the hardness indentation test.

  17. Pluto's Spinning Moons

    NASA Video Gallery

    Most inner moons in the solar system keep one face pointed toward their central planet; this animation shows that certainly isn’t the case with the small moons of Pluto, which behave like spinning ...

  18. Sun, Moon and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolvankar, V. G.

    2013-12-01

    During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

  19. The Moon's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadogan, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Presents findings and conclusions about the origin of the moon, favoring the capture hypothesis of lunar origin. Advantage of the hypothesis is that it allows the moon to have been formed elsewhere, specifically in a hotter part of the solar nebula, accounting for chemical differences between earth and moon. (JN)

  20. Our Battered Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Most people have probably heard the tale about the Moon being made out of Swiss cheese because, on Earth, the Moon looks like it is full of holes. Those holes are actually impact craters, circular depressions that formed when objects, such as rocks that orbit the Sun, smashed into the surface of the Moon. The activity described in this article,…

  1. Pluto's Intriguing Moons

    NASA Video Gallery

    We talk a lot about Charon, Pluto's largest moon that's about half the size of its host planet. But what about Pluto’s other moons? They're strange, to say the least. Pluto’s four smaller moons —...

  2. Perceptions about Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Presents research on different techniques to determine the level of understanding among middle school students regarding the phases of the moon. Quotes student responses to provide some insight into students' level of understanding of general knowledge about the moon, moon phases, and modeling the phases. Presents implications for teachers. (KHR)

  3. Look to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gerald Wm.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a strategy that helps students visualize and comprehend moon phase changes through activities that use an Earth-centered point of view along with direct observations of the moon. Describes activities that parents can use at home to help children become familiar with observing moon phases. (JRH)

  4. Monitoring stream stage, channel profile, and aqueous conductivity with time domain reflectometry (TDR).

    SciTech Connect

    Brainard, James Robert; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Coplen, Amy K.; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Coombs, Jason R.; Wright, Jerome L.; Roberts, Jesse Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) operates by propagating a radar frequency electromagnetic pulse down a transmission line while monitoring the reflected signal. As the electromagnetic pulse propagates along the transmission line, it is subject to impedance by the dielectric properties of the media along the transmission line (e.g., air, water, sediment), reflection at dielectric discontinuities (e.g., air-water or water-sediment interface), and attenuation by electrically conductive materials (e.g., salts, clays). Taken together, these characteristics provide a basis for integrated stream monitoring; specifically, concurrent measurement of stream stage, channel profile and aqueous conductivity. Here, we make novel application of TDR within the context of stream monitoring. Efforts toward this goal followed three critical phases. First, a means of extracting the desired stream parameters from measured TDR traces was required. Analysis was complicated by the fact that interface location and aqueous conductivity vary concurrently and multiple interfaces may be present at any time. For this reason a physically based multisection model employing the S11 scatter function and Cole-Cole parameters for dielectric dispersion and loss was developed to analyze acquired TDR traces. Second, we explored the capability of this multisection modeling approach for interpreting TDR data acquired from complex environments, such as encountered in stream monitoring. A series of laboratory tank experiments were performed in which the depth of water, depth of sediment, and conductivity were varied systematically. Comparisons between modeled and independently measured data indicate that TDR measurements can be made with an accuracy of {+-}3.4x10{sup -3} m for sensing the location of an air/water or water/sediment interface and {+-}7.4% of actual for the aqueous conductivity. Third, monitoring stations were sited on the Rio Grande and Paria rivers to evaluate performance of the TDR system

  5. Charge Storage, Conductivity and Charge Profiles of Insulators as Related to Spacecraft Charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Frederickson, A. R.

    2004-01-01

    Dissipation of charges built up near the surface of insulators due to space environment interaction is central to understanding spacecraft charging. Conductivity of insulating materials is key to determine how accumulated charge will distribute across the spacecraft and how rapidly charge imbalance will dissipate. To understand these processes requires knowledge of how charge is deposited within the insulator, the mechanisms for charge trapping and charge transport within the insulator, and how the profile of trapped charge affects the transport and emission of charges from insulators. One must consider generation of mobile electrons and holes, their trapping, thermal de-trapping, mobility and recombination. Conductivity is more appropriately measured for spacecraft charging applications as the "decay" of charge deposited on the surface of an insulator, rather than by flow of current across two electrodes around the sample. We have found that conductivity determined from charge storage decay methods is 102 to 104 smaller than values obtained from classical ASTM and IEC methods for a variety of thin film insulating samples. For typical spacecraft charging conditions, classical conductivity predicts decay times on the order of minutes to hours (less than typical orbit periods); however, the higher charge storage conductivities predict decay times on the order of weeks to months leading to accumulation of charge with subsequent orbits. We found experimental evidence that penetration profiles of radiation and light are exceedingly important, and that internal electric fields due to charge profiles and high-field conduction by trapped electrons must be considered for space applications. We have also studied whether the decay constants depend on incident voltage and flux or on internal charge distributions and electric fields; light-activated discharge of surface charge to distinguish among differing charge trapping centers; and radiation-induced conductivity. Our

  6. Magnetospheric influence on the Moon's exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Jody K.; Mendillo, Michael; Spence, Harlan E.

    2006-07-01

    Atoms in the thin lunar exosphere are liberated from the Moon's regolith by some combination of sunlight, plasma, and meteorite impact. We have observed exospheric sodium, a useful tracer species, on five nights of full Moon in order to test the effect of shielding the lunar surface from the solar wind plasma by the Earth's magnetosphere. These observations, conducted under the dark sky conditions of lunar eclipses, have turned out to be tests of the differential effects of energetic particle populations that strike the Moon's surface when it is in the magnetotail. We find that the brightness of the lunar sodium exosphere at full Moon is correlated with the Moon's passage through the Earth's magnetotail plasma sheet. This suggests that omnipresent exospheric sources (sunlight or micrometeors) are augmented by variable plasma impact sources in the solar wind and Earth's magnetotail.

  7. High energy electron processing of icy regoliths on Saturn's moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Micah; Johnson, Robert E.

    2015-11-01

    A unique space weathering phenomenon has been identified on several icy Saturnian moons. Cassini revealed anomalous lens shaped regions in both optical and thermal wavelengths, colloquially known as the 'PacMan' feature, which are centered on the leading hemispheres and approximately symmetric about the equators. In particular, the Cassini InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) measurements of thermal emission in the mid-IR showed that surface temperature variations during a diurnal cycle were smaller inside the anomalous regions. The locations of the anomalies were shown to closely match the expected deposition profile of high energy (~ MeV) electrons moving counter rotational to the moons, suggesting an energetic source to drive their formation. However, the mechanisms by which thermal conductivity enhancement occur lack quantitative comparison with theoretical and experimental results.Electron interactions with the grains can excite molecules, which, if near enough to an intergrain contact, can cause atoms or molecules to migrate into the contact region, thus increasing the contact volume or 'sintering' the grains. Sintering improves the thermal contact between grains, leading to increased effective thermal conductivity of the regolith. Equations previously developed to describe material behavior in nuclear reactor were used to estimate the timescale for the energetic electrons to increase the contact volume sufficiently to describe the enhanced thermal conductivity of the anomalous regions. In order to properly constrain the sintering calculations, the unique electron energy distribution measured in the vicinity of each of the moons was used in the calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations of excited electrons in water ice were carried out to determine the length scale for an average electron excitation or ionization event. This length scale determines the distance from the primary reaction at which electrons can still be mobilized to move into the contact region

  8. Science opportunities in the human exploration of moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilcher, Carl B.; O'Handley, Douglas A.; Nash, Douglas B.

    1989-01-01

    Human exploration of the moon will open up science opportunities not only in lunar science, but also in astronomy and astrophysics, life science, solar and space physics, earth science, and even evolutionary biology. These opportunities may be categorized as those involving study of the moon itself, those in which the moon is used as a platform for investigations, and those conducted in transit between earth and the moon. This paper describes some of these opportunities, and calls on the science community to continue and expand its efforts to define the opportunities, and to work toward their inclusion in plans to return humans permanently to the moon.

  9. Observing the new Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Roy E.

    2003-04-01

    The first appearance of the new Moon has been used throughout history and is still used today to determine religious calendars. Many methods for predicting the Moon's appearance have been proposed throughout history and new models are still being developed. All these models have to be tested against observations to test their validity. To this end, ancient and modern astronomers have collected observations of new and old crescent Moons. Here we present the results of 539 observations of the Moon made over several years by many experienced observers in good weather conditions. In addition to determining whether or not the Moon was seen, the times of its first and last appearance were also carefully recorded. The addition of the appearance time means that even an easily visible Moon, recorded when it can barely be seen, may be compared with a visibility criterion. The observational data base greatly expands on previously published reports.

  10. GPR Profiles of Mirror Lake, NH: Exceptional Signal Penetration in Low Conductivity Water and Subbottom Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Subbottom lake stratification is of interest to hydrology and core site selection, and in delta formation, sediment focusing and periglacial dynamics. Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, within the Hubbard Brook research area, has long been studied, but its subbottom stratification has only been estimated from coring that revealed up to 13 m of gyttja above about 1 m of Late Wisconsin glacial silt. However, the very low water conductivity of 0.002-0.003 S/m allows exceptional penetration of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals. Here we discuss several GPR profiles recorded at pulse center frequencies of 60 and 120 MHz along 300-600 m transects that crossed the entire lake in many directions. With care not to misinterpret multiple reflection horizons, the profiles clearly delineate gyttja, till, bedrock horizons, boulder horizons near shore and deltaic deposition. Hyperbolic backscatter in the well-stratified gyttja may be responses from buried logs because they often occur in nests of close, deepening diffractions and much logging historically occurred. Strong local horizons within the gyttja suggest sediment retransport and focusing, as suggested by Davis and Ford in their1982 interpretation of cores. The generally deeper and underlying till is characterized by sections of dense diffractions. In some profile sections internal till horizons appear draped over the bedrock horizons. In others parallel and deep horizons may be responses to bedrock fractures. Using estimated minimal wave speeds based on maximum possible dielectric permittivities calculated from assumed saturated conditions, and partly verified by diffraction interpretation after statics removal, our 60 MHz profiles show gyttja (permittivity no greater than 53) thicknesses of at least 11 m, till (permittivity no greater than 33) thicknesses of at least 25 m and depths to bedrock (Littleton schist) up to 28 m. This till thickness far exceeds the average 4-5 m on the surrounding slopes of the Hubbard Brook

  11. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  12. Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data

    PubMed Central

    Salvucci, Guido D.; Gentine, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (Csurf). Csurf accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of Csurf to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land–atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid–humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and Csurf can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:23576717

  13. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin

    1994-01-01

    expected to be encountered in observations conducted from the Moon.

  14. Of time and the moon.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1971-07-30

    Considerable information concerning lunar chronology has been obtained by the study of rocks and soil returned by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions. It has been shown that at the time the moon, earth, and solar system were formed, approximately 4.6 approximately 10(9) years ago, a severe chemical fractionation took place, resulting in depletion of relatively volatile elements such as Rb and Pb from the sources of the lunar rocks studied. It is very likely that much of this material was lost to interplanetary space, although some of the loss may be associated with internal chemical differentiation of the moon. It has also been shown that igneous processes have enriched some regions of the moon in lithophile elements such as Rb, U, and Ba, very early in lunar history, within 100 million years of its formation. Subsequent igneous and metamorphic activity occurred over a long period of time; mare volcanism of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 sites occurred at distinctly different times, 3.6 approximately 10(9) and 3.3 approximately 10(9) years ago, respectively. Consequently, lunar magmatism and remanent magnetism cannot be explained in terms of a unique event, such as a close approach to the earth at a time of lunar capture. It is likely that these phenomena will require explanation in terms of internal lunar processes, operative to a considerable depth in the moon, over a long period of time. These data, together with the low present internal temperatures of the moon, inferred from measurements of lunar electrical conductivity, impose severe constraints on acceptable thermal histories of the moon. Progress is being made toward understanding lunar surface properties by use of the effects of particle bombardment of the lunar surface (solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays). It has been shown that the rate of micrometeorite erosion is very low (angstroms per year) and that lunar rocks and soil have been within approximately a meter of the lunar surface

  15. Electrical Conductivity of H2O-CO2 rich-Melt at mantle conditions: interpretation of the LAB using petrology-based 1D conductivity profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifre, D.; Gaillard, F.; Hashim, L.; Massuyeau, M.; Gardés, E.; Hier-Majumder, S.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic data images mantle regions more conductive than that of dry olivine. There is no doubt that melt is thermodynamically stable and present in the LAB, but how they can impact on mantle electrical conductivity remains debated. In addition, gravitational segregation and fast melt upwelling, being expected if melt fraction exceeds 2 vol. %, is thought to seriously restrict the role of partial melting at the level of the LAB. Petrological studies realized some 30 years ago have shown that peridotites exposed at the P-T-fO2 conditions of the LAB produced H2O and CO2 rich-melts. The segregation of such melts is not expected since they constitute only about 0.5 vol. % of the peridotite, but electrical conductivities of these melts are poorly known. Therefore, electrical conductivity experiments have been performed in piston cylinder on H2O-CO2 rich melts. Different melt compositions have been explored, from carbonated melts to basalts. The effects of chemical compositions and volatiles on these melts have been determined. The electrical conductivity measurements have shown that hydrous carbonated melts are very conductive, and the incorporation of basalt decreases the conductivity. With these new data, a semi-empirical law predicting the conductivity as a function of H2O and CO2 contents has been produced. Based on this law and the electrical conductivity of olivine, 1D conductivity profiles were constructed. With these profiles, the effect of volatiles content (partitioned between the melt and in the solids), melt fractions (mixing law and interconnection of the melt) and different temperature regimes on conductivity are discussed. These calculations are conducted on oceanic and continental settings with different ages. The electrical conductivities of the mantle is thus a powerful tool to track the fundamental process of mantle incipient melting, which is in turn narrowly associated to the cycling of H2O and CO2 in the upper mantle.

  16. China targets the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    China has already launched two spacecraft to the Moon and wants to send rovers and astronauts there as well - and to eventually build its own lunar base. Ziuyan Ouyang, chief scientist of China's lunarprogramme, talks about the country's ambitious Moon plans.

  17. Moon: Old and New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This video presents the moon as studied by man for more than 20 centuries. It reviews the history of lunar studies before the first moon landing, the major things learned since Apollo 11, and closes with a resume of lunar investigations scientists would like to undertake in the future.

  18. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  19. Moon Taxi - A European view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacaze, J. H.; Grimard, M.; Fazi, C.; Theillier, F.

    1992-08-01

    A review is conducted of transportation concepts for relatively small transfer vehicles for earth-to-lunar orbits, lunar shuttles, and earth-return vehicles. Attention is given to the use of Ariane-5 derivatives to accomplish these tasks specifically in the areas of propellant supply, and vehicle maintenance/logistics. Launcher optimization is considered for these tasks with orbital and payload considerations taken into account. A 'lunar vicinity shuttle' is proposed that can accomplish both lunar landings and returns to lunar orbit. The combination of the vehicles is named the Moon Taxi transportation system, and a preliminary feasibility study indicates the suitability of Ariane-5 products for the mass and Isp targets. Specific technological areas critical for the Moon Taxi concept are: cryogenic propellant control, restartable 10-t-thrust engines, and capsule reentry technologies.

  20. The Moon Village Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Piero; Foing, Bernard H.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Haignere, Claudie; Schrogl, Kai-Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The "Moon Village" concept Space exploration is anchored in the International Space Station and in the current and future automatic and planetary automatic and robotic missions that pave the way for future long-term exploration objectives. The Moon represents a prime choice for scientific, operational and programmatic reasons and could be the enterprise that federates all interested Nations. On these considerations ESA is currently elaborating the concept of a Moon Village as an ensemble where multiple users can carry out multiple activities. The Moon Village has the ambition to serve a number of objectives that have proven to be of interest (including astronomy, fundamental research, resources management, moon science, etc. ) to the space community and should be the catalyst of new alliances between public and private entities including non-space industries. Additionally the Moon Village should provide a strong inspirational and education tool for the younger generations . The Moon Village will rely both on automatic, robotic and human-tendered structures to achieve sustainable moon surface operations serving multiple purposes on an open-architecture basis. This Europe-inspired initiative should rally all communities (across scientific disciplines, nations, industries) and make it to the top of the political agendas as a the scientific and technological undertaking but also political and inspirational endeavour of the XXI century. The current reflections are of course based on the current activities and plans on board the ISS and the discussion held in international fora such as the ISECG. The paper will present the status of these reflections, also in view of the ESA Council at Ministerial Level 2016, and will give an overview of the on-going activities being carried out to enable the vision of a Moon Village.

  1. Origin of earth's moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The major geochemical properties of the moon are briefly considered along with the significant facts of the moon's geologic history, and then the three current hypotheses regarding the moon's origin, namely, fission, capture, and binary accretion, are reviewed. The individual merits and improbabilities associated with each mechanism are taken into consideration. Special attention is given to the binary accretion model as the most promising one. In the variants of this model, of crucial importance is the nature of the more general hypothesis assumed for planetary formation from the solar nebula. The two main models differ considerably in the amount of chemical fractionation they allow to accompany planetary formation.

  2. Why the Moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, President George W. Bush proposed a new set of goals for NASA which have since been formalized by Congress as the revised United States Space Policy. A major goal is to return humans to the moon by 2020. This prompted a world-wide discussion about what our goals in space ought to be. In 2006 NASA surveyed potential stakeholders asking the question, "Why the Moon?" Responses were received from over 1000 entities including business, industry, academia, and 13 other space agencies. This presentation reports the responses to that questionnaire, as well as current plans for how the return to the moon will be accomplished.

  3. Applications of High Etendue Line-Profile Spectro-Polarimetry to the Study of the Atmospheric and Magnetospheric Environments of the Jovian Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Walter M.; Roesler, Fred L.; Jaffel, Lotfi Ben; Ballester, Gilda E.; Oliversen, Ronald J.; Morgenthaler, Jeffrey P.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    Electrodynamic effects play a significant, global role in the state and energization of the Earth's ionosphere/magnetosphere, but even more so on Jupiter, where the auroral energy input is four orders of magnitude greater than on Earth. The Jovian magnetosphere is distinguished from Earth's by its rapid rotation rate and contributions from satellite atmospheres and internal plasma sources. The electrodynamic effects of these factors have a key role in the state and energization of the ionosphere-corona- plasmasphere system of the planet and its interaction with Io and the icy satellites. Several large scale interacting processes determine conditions near the icy moons beginning with their tenuous atmospheres produced from sputtering, evaporative, and tectonic/volcanic sources, extending out to exospheres that merge with ions and neutrals in the Jovian magnetosphere. This dynamic environment is dependent on a complex network of magnetospheric currents that act on global scales. Field aligned currents connect the satellites and the middle and tail magnetospheric regions to the Jupiter's poles via flux tubes that produce as bright auroral and satellite footprint emissions in the upper atmosphere. This large scale transfer of mass, momentum, and energy (e.g. waves, currents) means that a combination of complementary diagnostics of the plasma, neutral, and and field network must be obtained near simultaneously to correctly interpret the results. This presentation discusses the applicability of UV spatial heterodyne spectroscopy (SHS) to the broad study of this system on scales from satellite surfaces to Jupiter's aurora and corona.

  4. Profile of postmortem cases conducted at a morgue of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Prabha; Som, Debasish; Nandy, Saswati; Saha, Indranil; Pal, Parag Baran; Ray, Tapobrata Guha; Haldar, Swaraj

    2010-11-01

    A record based cross-sectional study of postmortems performed at the mortuary attached to the forensic medicine and toxicology department of RG Kar Medical College and Hospital from March 2008 to February 2009 comprising 1900 cases was conducted to determine the sociodemographic profile and to assess the nature and cause of such deaths. Bodies of 5 foetuses were decomposed which were excluded from the study. Out of a total of 1895 postmortems analysed, 23 autopsies were performed of limbs where the subjects were alive. Out of 1872 cases in 325 (17.4%) the manner of death was natural, whereas in 1547 cases (82.6%) it was unnatural. Accidents, suicides, homicides and undetermined deaths were 63.1%, 29.8%, 2.8% and 4.3% respectively. Among the natural deaths, evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and coronary heart disease was found in 141 (43.4%) and 124 (38.2%) cases respectively. Burn injuries (22.6%) were the most common cause of unnatural deaths and occurred in 77.4% females. Rail track injuries and road traffic injuries were responsible for 21.9% and 14% of unnatural deaths. Hanging, poisoning and self-immolation were responsible for 48.4%, 28.9% and 19.7% of suicidal deaths respectively. PMID:21510567

  5. Four-month Moon and Mars crew water utilization study conducted at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station, Devon Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Auclair, S.; Battler, M.; Binsted, K.; Bywaters, K.; Harris, J.; Kobrick, R.; McKay, C.

    2009-04-01

    A categorized water usage study was undertaken at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station on Devon Island, Nunavut in the High Canadian Arctic. This study was conducted as part of a long duration four-month Mars mission simulation during the summer of 2007. The study determined that the crew of seven averaged 82.07 L/day over the expedition (standard deviation 22.58 L/day). The study also incorporated a Mars Time Study phase which determined that an average of 12.12 L/sol of water was required for each crewmember. Drinking, food preparation, hand/face, oral, dish wash, clothes wash, shower, shaving, cleaning, engineering, science, plant growth and medical water were each individually monitored throughout the detailed study phases. It was determined that implementing the monitoring program itself resulted in an approximate water savings of 1.5 L/day per crewmember. The seven person crew averaged 202 distinct water draws a day (standard deviation 34) with high water use periods focusing around meal times. No statistically significant correlation was established between total water use and EVA or exercise duration. Study results suggest that current crew water utilization estimates for long duration planetary surface stays are more than two times greater than that required.

  6. What's New on the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This document presents an overview of knowledge gained from the scientific explorations of the moon between 1969 and 1972 in the Apollo Program. Answers are given to questions regarding life on the moon, surface composition of rocks on the moon, the nature of the moon's interior, characteristics of lunar "soil," the age, history and origin of the…

  7. The Moon: Biogenic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Chang, Sherwood

    1992-01-01

    The specific objectives of the organic chemical exploration of the Moon involve the search for molecules of possible biological or prebiological origin. Detailed knowledge of the amount, distribution, and exact structure of organic compounds present on the Moon is extremely important to our understanding of the origin and history of the Moon and to its relationship to the history of the Earth and solar system. Specifically, such knowledge is essential for determining whether life on the Moon exists, ever did exist, or could develop. In the absence of life or organic matter, it is still essential to determine the abundance, distribution, and origin of the biogenic elements (e.g., H, C, O, N, S, P) in order to understand how the planetary environment may have influenced the course of chemical evolution. The history and scope of this effort is presented.

  8. ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's THEMIS spacecraft have completed their mission and are still working perfectly, so NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits around the Moon. Now called ARTEMIS, th...

  9. Full Moon Feeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros Roselló, F.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need to follow a different path to experience it too. Here we will show the process of designing and testing a tactile 3D Moon sphere whose goal is to reproduce on a tactile support the experience of observing the Moon visually. We have used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. This method is also useful to produce other artifacts that can be employed in the communication of astronomy to all kinds of public. The tactile Moon project for the blind has been funded partially by the 2011 Europlanet Outreach Funding Scheme.

  10. Geometry and Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Harrell, Marvin E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity, designed to comply with the National Science Education Standards, that integrates science and mathematics concepts. Mathematical modeling of the moon's phases is employed to show students the role of mathematics in describing scientific phenomena. (DKM)

  11. Robotics and telepresence for moon missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian

    1994-10-01

    An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases. Phase 1 will deal with lunar resource exploration. The goal would be to produce a complete chemical inventory of the moon, including oxygen, water, other volatiles, carbon, silicon, and other resources. Phase 2 will establish a permanent robotic presence on the moon via a number of landers and surface rovers. Phase 3 will extend the second phase and concentrate on the use and exploitation of local lunar resources. Phase 4 will be the establishment of a first human outpost. Some preliminary work such as the building of the outpost and the installation of scientific equipment will be done by unmanned systems before a human crew is sent to the moon.

  12. Robotics and telepresence for moon missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallaberger, Christian

    1994-01-01

    An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases. Phase 1 will deal with lunar resource exploration. The goal would be to produce a complete chemical inventory of the moon, including oxygen, water, other volatiles, carbon, silicon, and other resources. Phase 2 will establish a permanent robotic presence on the moon via a number of landers and surface rovers. Phase 3 will extend the second phase and concentrate on the use and exploitation of local lunar resources. Phase 4 will be the establishment of a first human outpost. Some preliminary work such as the building of the outpost and the installation of scientific equipment will be done by unmanned systems before a human crew is sent to the moon.

  13. Two-tracer spectroscopy diagnostics of temperature profile in the conduction layer of a laser-ablated plastic foil

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiyan; Yang Guohong; Hu Xin; Yang Jiamin; Ding Yaonan; Ding Yongkun; Zhang Baohan; Zheng Zhijian; Xu Yan; Yan Jun; Pei Wenbin

    2010-11-15

    A technique that combines the diagnostics of electron temperature history and the measurements of ablation velocity with two-tracer x-ray spectroscopy has been developed for diagnosing the temperature profiles in the thermal conduction layers of laser-ablated plastic foils. The electron temperature in the plastic ablator was diagnosed using the isoelectronic line ratios of Al Ly{alpha} line to Mg Ly{alpha} line, emitted from a tracer layer of Al/Mg mixture buried under the ablator. The ablation velocity was inferred from the time delay between the onset time of x-ray line emissions from Al and Mg tracer layers buried at two depths in the ablator, respectively. From the measured electron temperatures and ablation velocity, the electron temperature profile in the conduction layer was inferred. The measured temperature profile was compared with the simulated one and reasonable agreement was found.

  14. Forum on Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference primarily discuss instruments and techniques for conducting science on Jupiter's icy moons, and geologic processes on the moons themselves. Remote sensing of satellites, cratering on satellites, and ice on the surface of Europa are given particular attention. Some papers discuss Jupiter's atmosphere, or exobiology.

  15. A study of the properties of beryllium doped silicon with particular emphasis on diffusion mechanisms: Profiles of depth dependent conductivity as determined by electrical surface probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franks, R. K.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Very large diffusion coefficients were encountered and required the determination of impurity profiles for samples approximately 1 cm thick. Since conductivity values are readily converted into concentrations of electrically active impurities, the major problem became that of accurately determining the conductivity profiles of beryllium diffused silicon samples. Four-point probe measurements on samples having depth conductivities are interpreted in terms of conductivity profiles, based on an exact solution of the problem of exponentially depth dependent conductivity. Applications include surface conductivity determination where the form of the conductivity profile is known, and conductivity profile determination from probe measurements taken as the sample surface is progressively lapped away. The application is limited to samples having conductivity monotonically decreasing with depth from the probed surface.

  16. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  17. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  18. Moon (Form-Origin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2016-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  19. Earth - Moon Conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    On December 16, 1992, 8 days after its encounter with Earth, the Galileo spacecraft looked back from a distance of about 6.2 million kilometers (3.9 million miles) to capture this remarkable view of the Moon in orbit about Earth. The composite photograph was constructed from images taken through visible (violet, red) and near-infrared (1.0-micron) filters. The Moon is in the foreground; its orbital path is from left to right. Brightly colored Earth contrasts strongly with the Moon, which reacts only about one-third as much sunlight as our world. To improve the visibility of both bodies, contrast and color have been computer enhanced. At the bottom of Earth's disk, Antarctica is visible through clouds. The Moon's far side can also be seen. The shadowy indentation in the Moon's dawn terminator--the boundary between its dark and lit sides--is the South Pole-Aitken Basin, one of the largest and oldest lunar impact features. This feature was studied extensively by Galileo during the first Earth flyby in December 1990.

  20. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  1. Electromagnetic induction in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The moon constitutes a nonhydromagnetic, but electrically conducting, target for the solar wind whose response reaches a peak as frequency increases and diminishes with further increase in frequency, suggesting the presence of the magnetic quadrupole moment. Magnetometer measurements of induction using Explorer and Apollo instruments are studied from both the harmonic and transient standpoint, and the resulting determination of internal bulk electrical conductivity is discussed. The closeness of the estimated internal temperature to the Ringwood-Essene solidus at 150-250 km depths suggests a layer of enhanced conductivity in lieu of high temperature. A reduced core radius estimate with a one-sigma upper limit of 360 km is reported. The discussion of lunar electrodynamics presented is restricted to the problem of induction, with only passing reference to flow fields and regional electric fields.

  2. Santa and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, P.

    2012-05-01

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The appearance of the Moon in Halloween illustrations is also considered. The lack of either knowledge concerning the physical origin of the Moon's phases, or interest in understanding them, is found to be widespread in the Netherlands, but is also clearly present in the USA, and is quite possibly global. Certainly incomplete, but surely representative, lists that compile occurrences of both scientifically correct and scientifically incorrect gift- wrapping paper and children's books are also presented.

  3. Moon - North Pole Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Moon's north pole is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter as the spacecraft flew by on December 7, 1992. The left part of the Moon is visible from Earth; this region includes the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left); Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region.

  4. Similarity normalization method for thermal conductivity depth profile reconstructions from inhomogeneous cylindrical and flat solids using thermal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwang; Wang, Chinhua; Yuan, Xiao; Mandelis, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    A similarity normalization method for thermal-wave depth profiling of layered and radial continuously varying inhomogeneous thermophysical properties in cylindrical solids is investigated and related to that developed for inhomogeneous flat solids both theoretically and experimentally using photothermal radiometry. The deconvolution of the curvature effect out of the overall thermal-wave field of inhomogeneous cylindrical solids allows conventional rectilinear thermal-wave inverse-problem techniques to be applied to thermal conductivity depth profile reconstructions in layered and inhomogeneous depth-varying cylindrical solids and opens new possibilities for depth profilometry of such solids using existing flat-surface inverse techniques.

  5. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, Roxana Elena; Dubrovolskis, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moonforming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean1,2. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000- 4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down. A 2nd initial condition is a substantial atmosphere, 100-1000 bars of H2O and CO2, supplemented by smaller amounts of CO, H2, N2, various sulfur-containing gases, and a suite of geochemical volatiles evaporated from the magma. Third, we start the Moon with its current mass at the relevant Roche limit. The 4th initial condition is the angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. Canonical models hold this constant, whilst some recent models begin with considerably more angular momentum than is present today. Here we present a ruthlessly simplified model of Earth's cooling magmasphere based on a full-featured atmosphere and including tidal heating by the newborn Moon. Thermal blanketing by H2O-CO2 atmospheres slows cooling of a magma ocean. Geochemical volatiles - chiefly S, Na, and Cl - raise the opacity of the magma ocean's atmosphere and slow cooling still more. We assume a uniform mantle with a single internal (potential) temperature and a global viscosity. The important "freezing point" is the sharp rheological transition between a fluid carrying suspended crystals and a solid matrix through which fluids percolate. Most tidal heating takes place at this "freezing point" in a gel that is both pliable and viscous. Parameterized convection links the cooling rate to the temperature and heat generation inside the Earth. Tidal heating is a major effect. Tidal dissipation in the magma ocean is described by viscosity. The Moon is entwined with Earth by the negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate

  6. Nystagmus in laurence-moon-biedl syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janati, A Bruce; ALGhasab, Naif Saad; Haq, Fazal; Abdullah, Ahmad; Osman, Aboubaker

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Laurence-Moon-Biedl (LMB) syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive ciliopathy with manifold symptomatology. The cardinal clinical features include retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, intellectual delay, polydactyly/syndactyly, and hypogenitalism. In this paper, the authors report on three siblings with Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome associated with a probable pseudocycloid form of congenital nystagmus. Methods. This was a case study conducted at King Khaled Hospital. Results. The authors assert that the nystagmus in Laurence-Moon-Biedl syndrome is essentially similar to idiopathic motor-defect nystagmus and the nystagmus seen in optic nerve hypoplasia, ocular albinism, and bilateral opacities of the ocular media. Conclusion. The data support the previous hypothesis that there is a common brain stem motor abnormality in sensory-defect and motor-defect nystagmus. PMID:25984376

  7. Laser 'Footprints' on the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    As the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) circles the moon, a sophisticated instrument bounces laser light off the moon's surface 28 times per second. An array of five sensors arranged in an X-shap...

  8. 2017 Eclipse and the Moon's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar eclipses can only occur at New Moon, when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun. But not every New Moon produces an eclipse. The Moon's orbit is slightly tilted, and as seen in this anima...

  9. SELENE: The Moon-Orbiting Observatory Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, H.; Kato, M.; Sasaki, S.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Takizawa, Y.

    The Moon-orbiting SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) mission is prepared in Japan for lunar science and technology development. The launch target has been changed from 2005 to 2006 because of the launch failure of H2A rocket in 2003. The spacecraft consists of a main orbiting satellite at about 100 km altitude in the polar orbit and two sub-satellites in the elliptical orbits. The scientific objectives of the mission are; 1) study of the origin and evolution of the Moon, 2) in-situ measurement of the lunar environment, and 3) observation of the solar-terrestrial plasma environment. SELENE carries the instruments for scientific investigation, including mapping of lunar topography and surface composition, measurement of the gravity and magnetic fields, and observation of lunar and solar-terrestrial plasma environment. The total mass of scientific payload is about 300 kg. The mission period will be 1 year. If extra fuel is available, the mission will be extended in a lower orbit around 50 km. The elemental abundances are measured by x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. Alpha particles from the radon gas and polonium are detected by an alpha particle spectrometer. The mineralogical abundance is characterized by a multi-band imager. The mineralogical composition is identified by a spectral profiler which is a continuous spectral analyzer. The surface topographic data are obtained by a high resolution terrain camera and a laser altimeter. The inside structure up to 5 km below the lunar surface is observed by the radar sounder experiment using a 5 MHz radio wave. A magnetometer and an electron reflectometer provides data on the lunar surface magnetic field. Doppler tracking of the orbiter via the sub-satellite when the orbiter is in the far side is used to determine the gravity field of the far side. Radio sources on the two sub-satellites are used to conduct differential VLBI observation from the ground stations. The lunar environment of high energy particles

  10. CONDUCTIVITY PROFILE RATE OF CHANGE FROM FIELD AND LABORATORY DATA WITHIN BIODEGRADING PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present the results of long term (500 days) measurements of the bulk conductivity in a field and laboratory experiment. Our objective was to determine the rate of change in bulk conductivity and whether this rate of change correlated with the petroleum hydrocarbon degradation...

  11. Searching the Sinus Amoris: Using profiles of geological units, impact and volcanic features to characterize a major terrane interface on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P.; Joerg, S.; Dehon, R.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemical profiles of surface units, impact, and volcanic features are studied in detail to determine the underlying structure in an area of extensive mare/highland interface, Sinus Amoris. This study region includes and surrounds the northeastern embayment of Mare Tranquillitatis. The concentrations of two major rock-forming elements (Mg and Al), which were derived from the Apollo 15 orbital geochemical measurements, were used in this study. Mapped units and deposits associated with craters in the northwestern part of the region tend to have correlated low Mg and Al concentrations, indicating the presence of Potassium (K)-Rare Earth Elements (REE)-Phosphorus (P) (KREEP)-enriched basalt. Found along the northeastern rim of Tranquillitatis were areas with correlated high Mg and Al concentration, indicating the presence of troctolite. Distinctive west/east and north/south trends were observed in the concentrations of Mg and Al, and, by implication, in the distribution of major rock components on the surface. Evidence for a systematic geochemical transition in highland or basin-forming units may be observed here in the form of distinctive differences in chemistry in otherwise similar units in the western and eastern portions of the study region.

  12. The Moon Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Willmore, Sandra; Smith, Walter S.

    2006-01-01

    What Australia, Alaska, Qatar, Indiana, and Ohio have in common is the authentic writing More Observations Of Nature (MOON) project. In this unique project, teachers from these disparate geographic locations teamed up to instruct children in grades four through eight via the internet on a nearly universally challenging subject for teachers in the…

  13. Galileo Earth Moon Flyby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This video has five sections. The first is a live discussion of the information that scientists hope to gain by the Galileo flyby of the Moon. This section has no introduction. There is a great deal of the discussion about the lunar craters and lunar volcanism. There is also some discussion of the composition of the far side of the moon. The second section is a short animation that shows the final step to Jupiter with particular emphasis on the gravitational assisted velocity boost, which was planned to give the spacecraft the requisite velocity to make the trip to Jupiter. The next section is an update of the status of the flyby of the Moon, and the Earth, with an explanation of the trajectory around the earth, and the moon. A photograph of the tracking station in Canberra, Australia is included. The next section is a tour of a full-scale model of the spacecraft. The last section is a discussion with the person charged with the procurement of the instrumentation aboard the spacecraft; the importance of the lunar flyby to assist in the calibration of the instruments is discussed.

  14. Does the Moon Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Robert; Simpson, Frances

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the question, "Does the Moon spin?", and show how the question is investigated. They emphasise the importance of the process by which people work out what they know, by "learning from the inside out." They stress that those involved in science education have to challenge current conceptions and ideas, making…

  15. The Chemist's Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes chemical information about the lunar surface on the basis of experiments performed in orbit and analyses of lunar soil and rocks. Indicates that the Apollo program completes chemical mapping of about 20 percent of the Moon with 80 percent remaining to be solved in the future. (CC)

  16. Moon - North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the north polar region of the Moon was obtained by Galileo's camera during the spacecraft's flyby of the Earth-Moon system on December 7 and 8, 1992. The north pole is to the lower right of the image. The view in the upper left is toward the horizon across the volcanic lava plains of Mare Imbrium. The prominent crater with the central peak is Pythagoras, an impact crater some 130 kilometers (80 miles) in diameter. The image was taken at a distance of 121,000 kilometers (75,000 miles) from the Moon through the violet filter of Galileo's imaging system. According to team scientists, the viewing geometry provided by the spacecraft's pass over the north pole and the low sun-angle illumination provide a unique opportunity to assess the geologic relationships among the smooth plains, cratered terrain and impact ejecta deposits in this region of the Moon. JPL manages the Galileo Project for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  17. The tethered Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Lupu, Roxana; Dobrovolskis, Anthony; Sleep, Norman H.

    2015-10-01

    We address the thermal history of the Earth after the Moon-forming impact, taking tidal heating and thermal blanketing by the atmosphere into account. The atmosphere sets an upper bound of ∼100 W/m2 on how quickly the Earth can cool. The liquid magma ocean cools over 2-10 Myr, with longer times corresponding to high angular-momentum events. Tidal heating is focused mostly in mantle materials that are just beginning to freeze. The atmosphere's control over cooling sets up a negative feedback between viscosity-dependent tidal heating and temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. While the feedback holds, evolution of the Moon's orbit is limited by the modest radiative cooling rate of Earth's atmosphere. Orbital evolution is orders of magnitude slower than in conventional constant Q models, which promotes capture by resonances. The evection resonance is encountered early, when the Earth is molten. Capture by the evection resonance appears certain but unlikely to generate much eccentricity because it is encountered early when the Earth is molten and Q⊕ ≫Q☾. Tidal dissipation in the Earth becomes more efficient (Q⊕ ≪Q☾) later when the Moon is between ∼ 20R⊕ and ∼ 40R⊕. If lunar eccentricity grew great, this was when it did so, perhaps setting the table for some other process to leave its mark on the inclination of the Moon.

  18. The Moon Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  19. Crescent Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  20. The Earth & Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. The Galileo spacecraft took the images in 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The image shows a partial view of the Earth centered on the Pacific Ocean about latitude 20 degrees south. The west coast of South America can be observed as well as the Caribbean; swirling white cloud patterns indicate storms in the southeast Pacific. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the Moon is the Tycho impact basin. The lunar dark areas are lava rock filled impact basins. This picture contains same scale and relative color/albedo images of the Earth and Moon. False colors via use of the 1-micron filter as red, 727-nm filter as green, and violet filter as blue. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  1. The Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Earth and Moon. Separate images of the Earth and Moon were combined to generate this view. The Galileo spacecraft took the images in 1992 on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-97. The image shows a partial view of the Earth centered on the Pacific Ocean about latitude 20 degrees south. The west coast of South America can be observed as well as the Caribbean; swirling white cloud patterns indicate storms in the southeast Pacific. The distinct bright ray crater at the bottom of the Moon is the Tycho impact basin. The lunar dark areas are lava rock filled impact basins. This picture contains same scale and relative color/albedo images of the Earth and Moon. False colors via use of the 1-micron filter as red, 727-nm filter as green, and violet filter as blue. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  2. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, Kevin; Lupu, R.; Fegley, B.; Marley, M.; Sleep, N.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2013-10-01

    Cosmic collisions between terrestrial planets resemble somewhat the life cycle of the phoenix: worlds collide, are consumed in flame, and after the debris has cleared, shiny new worlds emerge aglow with possibilities. And glow they do, for they are molten. How brightly they glow, and for how long, is determined by their atmospheres, and by their moons. stop. It is well known that the atmosphere's thermal blanketing effect prevents a magma ocean from cooling rapidly. Several models have considered thick H2O-CO2 atmospheres over cooling magma oceans. These models address how the magma ocean freezes, how long it takes to freeze, and how, when, and what is degassed. stop. The atmosphere over a magmasphere is very hot and so contains the geochemical volatiles that can evaporate from a magma ocean, such as sulfur, alkalis and halogens, in addition to H2O and CO2. We compute 1-D non-gray radiative-convective atmospheric structure models that include all the molecular and atomic opacity sources that would be present in equilibrium over a magma ocean. We use these to compute cooling rates for hot post-giant-impact terrestrial planets. Our model is in excellent asymptotic agreement with two recent independent calculations of the runaway greenhouse limit for H2O-CO2 atmosphere. For cooling of the magma ocean itself, we use parameterizations recommended by Solomatov. stop. Tidal heating of the Earth by the Moon is important, because it is a big term, and because it occurs mostly in mantle materials that are just beginning to freeze, which frustrates freezing. The Moon is entwined with Earth by a negative feedback between thermal blanketing and tidal heating that comes from the temperature-dependent viscosity of the magma ocean. Because of this feedback, the rate that the Moon's orbit evolves is limited by the modest radiative cooling rate of Earth's atmosphere, which in effect tethers the Moon to the Earth. Consequently the Moon's orbit evolves orders of magnitude more slowly

  3. Mathematical modelling of a steady flow of a heat conductive incompressible fluid through the cascade of profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neustupa, T.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical model of a steady flow of a heat-conductive incompressible viscous fluid through a spatially periodic plane profile cascade. The corresponding boundary value problem is reduced to one spatial period. We prove the existence of a weak solution of a coupled problem, with various boundary conditions on the parts of the boundary. Particularly, the condition on the outflow is a variant of the so called "do nothing" boundary condition.

  4. Europe reaches the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-11-01

    A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken

  5. A Lunar Far Side Radio Array As The First Astronomical Observatory On The Moon: Precursor Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    far-side locations. (2) Electrical properties of the Lunar surface, including permittivity and conductivity; their variation with depth and radio wave frequency. (3) The electron density profile above the Lunar surface during the day, the night, and the transition in-between. (4) Magnetic fields at candidate sites. (5) Detailed topology at candidate sites. Some ideas are suggested for inexpensive precursor missions in the very near future with significant scientific returns of their own. To realize the dream of observing the universe from the Moon, it is time for an international team to begin seriously proposing these precursor missions.

  6. Crustal electrical conductivity of the Indian continental subduction zone: New data from the profile in the Garhwal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolova, E. Yu.; Israil, M.; Gupta, P.; Koshurnikov, A. V.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Cherevatova, M. V.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of studying the geoelectrical structure of the zone of continental subduction of the Indian lithospheric plate within the Gahrwal Himalaya. In the framework of the Russian-Indian project, the data of the broadband magnetotelluric soundings conducted by the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee on the regional profile across the structures of the orogen were expanded, processed, and interpreted by the new program tools adapted for the measurements in the mountain conditions and for the presence of industrial noise. The constructed model of the deep electrical conductivity cross section for Garhwal revealed its two-dimensional (2D) features and more accurately delineated the location of the midcrustal conductor associated with the ramp structure of the detachment plane. The correlations with the regional distribution of the earthquake hypocenters and the seismotomographic images suggest a common, fluid-related nature of the seismic and geoelectrical anomalies in the crust of the Garhwal Tectonic Corridor and enabled the identification of the seismogenerating zones. Among the data of the expanded profile set of magnetotelluric and magnetovariational transfer functions, the response of a poorly explored deep conductive body is revealed. This object is located east of the profile and is probably associated with the activation of the ancient trans-Himalayan cratonic structures which prepares the segmentation of the Himalayan arc.

  7. Protecting the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John

    Historically speaking, the Earth's Moon has been subject to a wide variety of protections and cautions associated with space exploration. Early lunar missions (cf., the Ranger series) were initially subjected to sterilization procedures to protect the Moon from biological contamination, and though these were relaxed in later periods (e.g., Surveyor, Apollo), those measures were never entirely abandoned until the mid-1980s. More recent lunar missions (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1) have only been inadvertently concerned with protection of the Moon—Clementine in the attempt to have it leave the vicinity of the Earth entirely, Lunar Prospector in it end-of-mission crash into the lunar south pole (with a resultant outcry by the Navajo population in the US), and SMART-1 because of the keen attention paid by the astronomical community to its end-of-mission location. While operations on the Moon are not constrained by current COSPAR planetary protection restrictions, an increasing interest in the Moon suggests that additional protections should be imposed in the future. For example, if lunar ices exist as a repository of past impact volatiles, then the contamination of lunar ices with non-organically-clean spacecraft and tools presents an initial concern for the potentially lost science, as well as future resource contamination concerns if such ices are found and can be used to as part of a comprehensive life-support strategy for human outposts. Requirements for the protection of this aspect of the lunar environment, as well as others, has been initiated both within COSPAR and by NASA, which (in NPR 8715.6) now requires orbital debris protection for spacecraft in lunar orbit, and prior approval of any future landing (or crashing) sites on the Moon, requiring those to "be chosen (or precluded) with due regard to the planned usage of those sites in future exploration or scientific study and the interests of other spacefaring nations."

  8. Experience the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

  9. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Farrow, Tim; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Arruda, Thomas M.; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-17

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunnelingmore » barriers« less

  10. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, Tim; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Arruda, Thomas M.; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Kumar, Amit

    2015-03-17

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO2. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers

  11. Sub-nA spatially resolved conductivity profiling of surface and interface defects in ceria films

    SciTech Connect

    Farrow, Tim; Kumar, Amit; Yang, Nan; Doria, Sandra; Balestrino, Giuseppe; Belianinov, Alex; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Arruda, Thomas M.

    2015-03-01

    Spatial variability of conductivity in ceria is explored using scanning probe microscopy with galvanostatic control. Ionically blocking electrodes are used to probe the conductivity under opposite polarities to reveal possible differences in the defect structure across a thin film of CeO{sub 2}. Data suggest the existence of a large spatial inhomogeneity that could give rise to constant phase elements during standard electrochemical characterization, potentially affecting the overall conductivity of films on the macroscale. The approach discussed here can also be utilized for other mixed ionic electronic conductor systems including memristors and electroresistors, as well as physical systems such as ferroelectric tunneling barriers.

  12. Thermal conductivity versus depth profiling of inhomogeneous materials using the hot disc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, A.; Cederkrantz, D.; Salmi, L.; Rosén, A.; Jacobson, L.; Gustafsson, S. E.; Gustavsson, M.

    2016-07-01

    Transient measurements of thermal conductivity are performed with hot disc sensors on samples having a thermal conductivity variation adjacent to the sample surface. A modified computational approach is introduced, which provides a method of connecting the time-variable to a corresponding depth-position. This allows highly approximate - yet reproducible - estimations of the thermal conductivity vs. depth. Tests are made on samples incorporating different degrees of sharp structural defects at a certain depth position inside a sample. The proposed methodology opens up new possibilities to perform non-destructive testing; for instance, verifying thermal conductivity homogeneity in a sample, or estimating the thickness of a deviating zone near the sample surface (such as a skin tumor), or testing for presence of other defects.

  13. Thermal conductivity versus depth profiling of inhomogeneous materials using the hot disc technique.

    PubMed

    Sizov, A; Cederkrantz, D; Salmi, L; Rosén, A; Jacobson, L; Gustafsson, S E; Gustavsson, M

    2016-07-01

    Transient measurements of thermal conductivity are performed with hot disc sensors on samples having a thermal conductivity variation adjacent to the sample surface. A modified computational approach is introduced, which provides a method of connecting the time-variable to a corresponding depth-position. This allows highly approximate-yet reproducible-estimations of the thermal conductivity vs. depth. Tests are made on samples incorporating different degrees of sharp structural defects at a certain depth position inside a sample. The proposed methodology opens up new possibilities to perform non-destructive testing; for instance, verifying thermal conductivity homogeneity in a sample, or estimating the thickness of a deviating zone near the sample surface (such as a skin tumor), or testing for presence of other defects. PMID:27475584

  14. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, C.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H.; Ban, H.

    2013-10-01

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ˜52 ± 2 μm deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m-1 K-1 and 26.7 ±1 W m-1 K-1, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10-6 m2 K W-1. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  15. Thermal conductivity profile determination in proton-irradiated ZrC by spatial and frequency scanning thermal wave methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Antoniow, J. S.; Pron, H.; Ban, H.

    2013-10-07

    Using complementary thermal wave methods, the irradiation damaged region of zirconium carbide (ZrC) is characterized by quantifiably profiling the thermophysical property degradation. The ZrC sample was irradiated by a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 600 °C to a dose of 1.75 displacements per atom. Spatial scanning techniques including scanning thermal microscopy (SThM), lock-in infrared thermography (lock-in IRT), and photothermal radiometry (PTR) were used to directly map the in-depth profile of thermal conductivity on a cross section of the ZrC sample. The advantages and limitations of each system are discussed and compared, finding consistent results from all techniques. SThM provides the best resolution finding a very uniform thermal conductivity envelope in the damaged region measuring ∼52 ± 2 μm deep. Frequency-based scanning PTR provides quantification of the thermal parameters of the sample using the SThM measured profile to provide validation of a heating model. Measured irradiated and virgin thermal conductivities are found to be 11.9 ± 0.5 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1} and 26.7 ±1 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively. A thermal resistance evidenced in the frequency spectra of the PTR results was calculated to be (1.58 ± 0.1) × 10{sup −6} m{sup 2} K W{sup −1}. The measured thermal conductivity values compare well with the thermal conductivity extracted from the SThM calibrated signal and the spatially scanned PTR. Combined spatial and frequency scanning techniques are shown to provide a valuable, complementary combination for thermal property characterization of proton-irradiated ZrC. Such methodology could be useful for other studies of ion-irradiated materials.

  16. A 1-D radiative conductive model to study the SOIR/VEx thermal profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahieux, Arnaud; Erwin, Justin T.; Chamberlain, Sarah; Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian; Yelle, Roger V.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    2015-04-01

    SOIR is an infrared spectrometer on board Venus Express that probes the Venus terminator region since 2006. The measurements are taken on the morning and evening sides of the terminator, covering all latitudes from the North Pole to the South Pole. Its wavelength range - 2.2 to 4.3 μm - allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere [1-5], such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO2 and aerosols. CO2 is detected from 70 km up to 165 km, CO from 70 km to 140 km, and the minor species typically below 110 km down to 70 km. Number density profiles of these species are computed from the measured spectra. Temperature profiles are obtained while computing the spectral inversion of the CO2 spectra combined with the hydrostatic law [6]. These temperature measurements show a striking permanent temperature minimum (at 125 km) and a weaker temperature maximum (over 100-115 km). The time variability of the CO2 density profiles spans over two orders of magnitude, and a clear trend is seen with latitude. The temperature variations are also important, of the order of 35 K for a given pressure level, but the latitude variation are small. Miss-RT, a 1D radiative transfer model has been developed to reproduce the SOIR terminator profiles, derived from the Mars thermosphere code presented in [7]. This model has been expanded to better account for the CO2, CO, and O non-LTE radiative heating and cooling processes which have to be considered in the dense atmosphere of Venus. Radiative cooling by minor species detected by SOIR (e.g. HCl, SO2, and H2O) are found to be small in comparison to the 15 μm CO2 cooling. Aerosol cooling in the 60-90km altitude range may be important to the thermal balance. There is a good agreement between the 1D model temperature profile and the mean SOIR temperature profile. Further we can suggest parameters that can be adjusted to improve the agreement between the model and measurements. The remaining differences can be attributed to the atmosphere

  17. Internal conductance under different light conditions along the plant profile of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Brown.).

    PubMed

    Monti, Andrea; Bezzi, Guido; Venturi, Gianpietro

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the internal conductance (g(i)) along the plant profile of Ethiopian mustard under two light conditions: (i) light from the top only (I1); (ii) light from the top integrated by supplementary lateral light along the whole plant profile (I2). Lateral light strongly increased the productivity (e.g. +104% of seed oil) and net photosynthesis (A). The latter appeared more driven by g(i) (r=0.78**) than by stomatal conductance (g(s)) (r=0.51*). Importantly, irradiance also considerably shortened the time from leaf appearance to senescence, which means that corresponding leaves in I1 and I2 had different ages. Therefore, since leaf age and irradiance have counteracting effects on g(i), I1 sometimes showed higher g(i) values than I2. With respect to irradiance, leaf age had clearly higher effects on g(i), which radically declined from the top to the basal leaves, even under constant light conditions. The internal conductance caused a significant drawdown of CO(2) from the sub-stomatal cavity (C(i)) to the site of carboxylation (C(c)) that, in turn, led to a substantial underestimation of V(cmax) calculated using the A/C(i) model. Again, the trends of g(i) and g(s) were not consistent along the plant profile, and so the ratio between stomatal and internal limitations to A changed from top to bottom leaves, accordingly. This study suggests that g(i) may be a valuable trait for increasing photosynthetic capacity and productivity; nonetheless, it suggests caution in selecting leaves for high g(i), as the latter can considerably change along the plant profile due to leaf age and irradiance effects. PMID:19237547

  18. Water on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    2015-08-01

    After years of thinking the Moon is dry, we now know there are three ways in which water appears on the Moon today:1) The hypothesized buried deposits of volatiles at the lunar poles were found at Cabeus crater. There are questions about the origin of such volatiles (i.e., in-falling comets & meteorites, migrating surficial OH/H2O, and accumulated release from the interior), but there is no doubt the water is there. This long suspected polar water was the most recent form to be confirmed on the Moon.2) Widespread, thinly- distributed, surficial OH (or H2O) is the most recently formed lunar water, and its discovery was completely unexpected. It occurs across all types of lunar terrain, but is more difficult to detect in the warmer equatorial terrain where thermal emission is strongest. The consensus is that this OH is indeed derived from solar wind H linked to O from the surface silicate rocks. Although pervasive, we don’t know how quickly it forms, nor how mobile it is.3) The amount of water present when the Moon formed is now documented in lunar materials from Apollo samples (preserved in the lunar mantle material found in volcanic glass beads). Sample analyses made during the Apollo days were not sufficiently precise to distinguish between indigenous lunar water and terrestrial contamination. Measurements with modern equipment are not only more precise (both elemental and isotopic), but can be made in a manner to constrain a host of processes (e.g. diffusion, thermal cycling) that have acted on these samples during their residence on the Moon. The mysteries associated with all these ‘water’ forms are being pursued by teams and scientists around the world. The paradigm-shifting work that reported these discoveries in recent years are from: the NASA LCROSS (lunar impact mission) team (2010), M3 team/ on the Indian Chandrayan Mission (2009), and lunar sample chemists (2008). NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, GRAIL, ESA Smart-1, Japanese Kaguya, and other

  19. The Moon is a Planet Too: Lunar Science and Robotic Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of what is known about the moon, and draws parallels between the moon and any other terrestrial planet. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets The Moon is a terrestrial body, formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids The Moon is a differentiated body, with a layered internal structure (crust, mantle, and core) The Moon is a cratered body, preserving a record of bombardment history in the inner solar system The Moon is an active body, experiencing moonquakes, releasing primordial heat, conducting electricity, sustaining bombardment, and trapping volatile molecules Lunar robotic missions provide early science return to obtain important science and engineering objectives, rebuild a lunar science community, and keep our eyes on the Moon. These lunar missions, both past and future are reviewed.

  20. Global electromagnetic induction in the moon and planets. [poloidal eddy current transient response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments and analyses concerning electromagnetic induction in the moon and other extraterrestrial bodies are summarized. The theory of classical electromagnetic induction in a sphere is first considered, and this treatment is extended to the case of the moon, where poloidal eddy-current response has been found experimentally to dominate other induction modes. Analysis of lunar poloidal induction yields lunar internal electrical conductivity and temperature profiles. Two poloidal-induction analytical techniques are discussed: a transient-response method applied to time-series magnetometer data, and a harmonic-analysis method applied to data numerically Fourier-transformed to the frequency domain, with emphasis on the former technique. Attention is given to complicating effects of the solar wind interaction with both induced poloidal fields and remanent steady fields. The static magnetization field induction mode is described, from which are calculated bulk magnetic permeability profiles. Magnetic field measurements obtained from the moon and from fly-bys of Venus and Mars are studied to determine the feasibility of extending theoretical and experimental induction techniques to other bodies in the solar system.

  1. Dynamic conductivity and plasmon profile of aluminum in the ultra-fast-matter regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharma-wardana, M. W. C.

    2016-06-01

    We use an explicitly isochoric two-temperature theory to analyze recent x-ray laser scattering data for aluminum in the ultra-fast-matter (UFM) regime up to 6 eV. The observed surprisingly low conductivities are explained by including strong electron-ion scattering effects using the phase shifts calculated via the neutral-pseudo-atom model. The difference between the static conductivity for UFM-Al and equilibrium aluminum in the warm-dense matter state is clearly brought out by comparisons with available density-fucntional+molecular-dynamics simulations. Thus the applicability of the Mermin model to UFM is questioned. The static and dynamic conductivity, collision frequency, and the plasmon line shape, evaluated within the simplest Born approximation for UFM aluminum, are in good agreement with experiment.

  2. Depth profiling of electrically non-conductive layered samples by RF-GDOES and HFM plasma SNMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Unger, Wolfgang E. S.; Jenett, Holger; Hoffmann, Volker; Hagenhoff, Birgit; Kayser, Sven; Wetzig, Klaus

    2001-07-01

    The work is intended to compare the capabilities of two similar depth profiling techniques to analyse electrically non-conductive samples. In order to get a better evaluation of the depth resolution, various multilayer sandwiches, such as SiO 2/TiO 2 and Si 3N 4/SiO 2 deposited on glass substrates have been investigated. Optimised depth profiles are presented for both methods, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) and radiofrequency mode (known as "HFM" in the SNMS literature) of plasma secondary neutral mass spectrometry (SNMS). The optimisation procedure, necessary to get the best set of plasma parameters, which result in the optimal depth resolution, is also described for one selected sample. Additionally, sputtering crater profilometry was carried out in order to check out the flatness of the sputtered crater. The influence of the thickness of the sample substrate on the sputtering rate is discussed. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of the use of these two depth profiling methods, especially for the non-conductive samples, are concluded from this comparative study. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of a cross-sectioned sample was carried out in order to get supplementary information.

  3. The Feasibility of Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy for Near-Surface Cold Work Profiling in Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2008-02-01

    The NDE community has been investigating the feasibility of numerous nondestructive inspection methods for residual stress profiling in surface-treated nickel-base superalloys for a couple of years. Because of direct exposure to erosion and foreign body impact damage, nondestructive characterization of low temperature inlet fan and compressor blades, which are usually made of titanium alloys, is even more important than that of high temperature turbine components downstream, which are usually made of nickel-base superalloys. One of the main reasons why titanium alloys were originally thought to be less promising candidates for eddy current inspection is that they dominantly crystallize in hexagonal symmetry, therefore exhibit significant texture induced electric anisotropy on the order of 3-4% relative conductivity variation. On the other hand, although crystallographic anisotropy does not affect the electric conductivity of cubic materials, such as nickel-base superalloys, as-forged Waspaloy and IN718 components were found to exhibit as much as 4-6% relative conductivity variation caused by microstructural inhomogeneities. It has been shown that self-referencing can very effectively eliminate such essentially frequency-independent apparent eddy current conductivity variations so that they do not interfere significantly with near-surface residual stress assessment. On the other hand, it has been illustrated recently by means of measuring the electroelastic coefficient that isotropic plane stress produces negligible electric conductivity variation in titanium alloys, which makes eddy current inspection techniques more suitable for cold work characterization. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of eddy current conductivity spectroscopy for near-surface cold work profiling in shot-peened titanium alloys.

  4. New down-hole TDR method for deep profile soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive irrigation and salinity management both require accurate knowledge of field soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity to depths greater than the root zone depth in agricultural fields. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Conservation & Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, Texas, ...

  5. Ferry to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme

    1987-06-01

    Solar-electric propulsion for a fleet of lunar ferry vehicles may allow the creation of a permanent lunar base not long after the turn of the century with greater cost effectiveness than a fleet of chemically powered spacecraft. After delivery by the Space Shuttle to a 300-km earth orbit, the lunar ferry envisioned would travel in spiral trajectory to the moon under the power of 300-kW solar arrays and ten 30-kW Xe-ion engines; each of the solar arrays would be 12 x 61 m long. Each trip between the earth parking orbit and the moon would take about 1 year, so that a fleet of four ferries operating simultaneously could deliver 20 metric tons to a lunar base every 100 days.

  6. Planetary Moon Cycler Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Ryan P.; Strange, Nathan J.

    2007-01-01

    Free-return cycler trajectories repeatedly shuttle a spacecraft between two bodies using little or no fuel. Here, the cycler architecture is proposed as a complementary and alternative method for designing planetary moon tours. Previously applied enumerative cycler search and optimization techniques are generalized and specifically implemented in the Jovian and Saturnian moon systems. In addition, the algorithms are tested for general use to find non-Earth heliocentric cyclers. Overall, hundreds of ideal model ballistic cycler geometries are found and several representative cases are documented and discussed. Many of the ideal model solutions are found to remain ballistic in a zero radius sphere of influence patched conic ephemeris model, and preliminary work in a high-fidelity fully integrated model demonstrates near-ballistic cycles for several example cases.

  7. Celebrated Moon Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2009-12-01

    The Need for Lunar Samples and Simulants: Where Engineering and Science Meet sums up one of the sessions attracting attention at the annual meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), held November 16-19, 2009 in Houston, Texas. Speakers addressed the question of how the Apollo lunar samples can be used to facilitate NASA's return to the Moon while preserving the collection for scientific investigation. Here is a summary of the LEAG presentations of Dr. Gary Lofgren, Lunar Curator at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and Dr. Meenakshi (Mini) Wadhwa, Professor at Arizona State University and Chair of NASA's advisory committee called CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials). Lofgren gave a status report of the collection of rocks and regolith returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts from six different landing sites on the Moon in 1969-1972. Wadhwa explained the role of CAPTEM in lunar sample allocation.

  8. The Tethered Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.; Lupu, R.; Dobrovolskis, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic collisions between terrestrial planets resemble somewhat the life cycle of the phoenix: worlds collide, are consumed in flame, and after the debris has cleared, shiny new worlds emerge aglow with possibilities. And glow they do, for they are molten. How brightly they glow, and for how long, is determined by their atmospheres and their moons. A reasonable initial condition on Earth after the Moon-forming impact is that it begins as a hot global magma ocean. We therefore begin our study with the mantle as a liquid ocean with a surface temperature on the order of 3000-4000 K at a time some 100-1000 years after the impact, by which point we can hope that early transients have settled down.

  9. The New Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle

    After an extended drought, new data about the Moon are finally made available to a hungry planetary science community. SMART-1 [ESA] led the way with an innovative technology demonstration mission to the Moon. An international armada of more complex missions with advanced sensors followed in rapid succession: SELENE1Kaguya [JAXA], ChangE [CNSA], Chandrayaan-1 [ISRO], and LRO1LCROSS [NASA]. The data from these modern robotic mis-sions are being calibrated, validated, and distributed and new results and insights are appearing throughout the peer-reviewed scientific literature. With these new data, the Moon indeed con-tinues to surprise us. We now know hydrated materials exist far more abundantly in the interior than ever suspected, water and hydrated materials are currently widespread across the surface of the Moon, and some polar areas appear to be locations where hydrous materials are con-centrated. We recognize that the large basins provide windows into early crustal processes and we have identified direct compositional products of the Magma Ocean. We have uncovered secondary deep magmatic products of the lunar crust and characterized basin impact melt that was possibly derived from the mantle. Basaltic volcanism has been documented to have oc-curred over extended periods of time (perhaps in pulses) on both the nearside as ell as farside, and some of the youngest basalts are highly picritic (olivine rich) in nature. We are probing Earth's nearest neighbor to build an understanding of the earliest events of planet evolution. The harvesting of this wealth of data has just begun.

  10. Babies and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toepker, Terrence P.

    2000-02-01

    ``More babies are born under a full moon than at any other time.'' Many of us have heard this assertion, and a few years ago I tried to get data that would support it. The note ``A Lesson in Curve Fitting'' by Scott Calvin (Phys. Teach. 37, 340, Sept. 1999) provoked me to pass some of the data on to readers of The Physics Teacher.

  11. Astrophysics from the moon.

    PubMed

    Burke, B F

    1990-12-01

    The surface of the moon would be an excellent location for astronomical telescopes, and, if a lunar base were to be established, the construction and maintenance of instruments would become feasible. The prospects are reviewed, with particular attention given to large optical aperturesynthesis instruments analogous to the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Typical parameters for a particular system are presented. PMID:17754981

  12. Moon's North Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Mariner 10 was launched on November 3, 1973, 12:45 am PST, from Cape Canaveral on an Atlas/Centaur rocket (a reconditioned Intercontinental Ballistic Missile - ICBM). Within 12 hours of launch the twin cameras were turned on and several hundred pictures of both the Earth and the Moon were acquired over the following days.

    In this unusual view eastern Mare Frigor is near the center of the disc, while Mare Crisiumis the large circular feature near the lower right limb. The heavily cratered region shown in the top of the mosaic shows portions of the Moon not seen from the Earth.

    This mosaic is composed of 22 frames acquired in orange (15), clear (4), UV (2), and UV-polarized (1) wavelengths by the Mariner 10 Spacecraft.

    The Mariner 10 mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  13. Jupiter's Moons: Family Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This montage shows the best views of Jupiter's four large and diverse 'Galilean' satellites as seen by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on the New Horizons spacecraft during its flyby of Jupiter in late February 2007. The four moons are, from left to right: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The images have been scaled to represent the true relative sizes of the four moons and are arranged in their order from Jupiter.

    Io, 3,640 kilometers (2,260 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 03:50 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 2.7 million kilometers (1.7 million miles). The original image scale was 13 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 6 degrees south, 22 degrees west. Io is notable for its active volcanism, which New Horizons has studied extensively.

    Europa, 3,120 kilometers (1,938 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 01:28 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles). The original image scale was 15 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Europa coordinates 6 degrees south, 347 degrees west. Europa's smooth, icy surface likely conceals an ocean of liquid water. New Horizons obtained data on Europa's surface composition and imaged subtle surface features, and analysis of these data may provide new information about the ocean and the icy shell that covers it.

    New Horizons spied Ganymede, 5,262 kilometers (3,268 miles) in diameter, at 10:01 Universal Time on February 27 from 3.5 million kilometers (2.2 million miles) away. The original scale was 17 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Ganymede coordinates 6 degrees south, 38 degrees west. Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, has a dirty ice surface cut by fractures and peppered by impact craters. New Horizons' infrared observations may provide insight into the composition of the moon's surface and interior.

    Callisto, 4,820 kilometers (2,995 miles) in diameter, was imaged

  14. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated. PMID:27435687

  15. Spacesuit Cooling on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is planning to return to the moon and then explore Mars. A permanent base at the south pole of the moon will be the test bed for Mars. At the moon base, two crewmembers are expected to conduct Extravehicular Activity (EVA) six days every week. Current spacesuits are cooled by the sublimation of water ice into vacuum. A single 7 hour EVA near the lunar equator in daylight can expend up to 5 kilograms of water. Because of the high cost of transporting spacesuit cooling water to the moon, the water for one EVA could cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The lunar south pole and Mars have low surface temperatures that make cooling much easier than at the lunar equator. Alternate cooling methods and keeping to cool environments can reduce or eliminate the loss of water for spacesuit cooling. If cooling water is not needed, a recycling life support system can provide all the required crew water and oxygen without transporting additional water from Earth.

  16. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  17. The Moon Project: 1994 - 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.

    2013-04-01

    For over ten years I've been looking for the Moon and marking down my observations in my journals. One of my goals has been to see what I can teach myself, strictly by looking. I don't research the Moon. The following is a glimpse into the development of the Moon Project and also a hint of where it is heading next.

  18. Observing the Moon by Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grego, P.; Murdin, P.

    2003-04-01

    Before the invention of the telescope, nothing was known about the nature of the Moon's surface, apart from the fact that it was a patchwork of bright and dark areas. In 1609 Galileo Galilei turned a tiny telescope towards the Moon and discerned the true nature of its surface. Galileo observed and sketched lunar mountain ranges, smooth plains and craters. Notable mid-17th century maps of the Moon ...

  19. Impact origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  20. Conductive heating and microwave hydrolysis under identical heating profiles for advanced anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Seyedeh Neda; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Bobowski, Jake; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-09-15

    Microwave (2.45 GHz, 1200 W) and conventional heating (custom pressure vessel) pretreatments were applied to dewatered municipal waste sludge (18% total solids) using identical heating profiles that span a wide range of temperatures (80-160 °C). Fourteen lab-scale semi-continuous digesters were set up to optimize the energy (methane) output and sludge retention time (SRT) requirements of untreated (control) and thermally pretreated anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Both pretreatment methods indicated that in the pretreatment range of 80-160 °C, temperature was a statistically significant factor (p-value < 0.05) for increasing solubilization of chemical oxygen demand and biopolymers (proteins, sugars, humic acids) of the waste sludge. However, the type of pretreatment method, i.e. microwave versus conventional heating, had no statistically significant effect (p-value >0.05) on sludge solubilization. With the exception of the control digesters at a 5-d SRT, all control and pretreated digesters achieved steady state at all three SRTs, corresponding to volumetric organic loading rates of 1.74-6.96 g chemical oxygen demand/L/d. At an SRT of 5 d, both mesophilic and thermophilic controls stopped producing biogas after 20 d of operation with total volatile fatty acids concentrations exceeding 1818 mg/L at pH <5.64 for mesophilic and 2853 mg/L at pH <7.02 for thermophilic controls, while the pretreated digesters continued producing biogas. Furthermore, relative (to control) organic removal efficiencies dramatically increased as SRT was shortened from 20 to 10 and then 5 d, indicating that the control digesters were challenged as the organic loading rate was increased. Energy analysis showed that, at an elevated temperature of 160 °C, the amount of methane recovered was not enough to compensate for the energy input. Among the digesters with positive net energy productions, control and pretreated digesters at 80 °C were more

  1. Depth profiling of Stratum corneum hydration in vivo: a comparison between conductance and confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements.

    PubMed

    Boncheva, Mila; de Sterke, Johanna; Caspers, Peter J; Puppels, Gerwin J

    2009-10-01

    The high-frequency electrical conductance of tape-stripped human skin in vivo can be used to evaluate the hydration profile of Stratum corneum (SC). Tape-stripping provides access to the underlying SC layers, and the conductance of these layers (as measured by the Skicon instrument) correlates well with their water content, as demonstrated by independent confocal Raman spectroscopic measurements. The correlation shows high inter-individual variance and is not linear over the full measurement range of the instrument, but is helpful to discriminate between dry, normal and highly hydrated SC. The depth profile of hydration in tape-stripped SC corresponds to the one in intact SC only if the barrier function of the skin is not impaired. Thus, conductometry of tape-stripped skin must be used in conjunction with a method that allows to estimate the barrier damage inflicted to SC during the tape-stripping procedure, for example, measurement of the trans-epidermal water loss. The methodology described here is simple, rapid and minimally invasive, and it employs commercially available instrumentation that is cheap, portable and easy to use. This approach is applicable to in vivo estimation of the SC hydration in studies in the areas of dermatology, skin care and transdermal drug delivery. PMID:19469890

  2. Moon model - An offset core.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransford, G.; Sjogren, W.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar model proposed helps to account for the offset of the center of gravity from the center of the optical figure, the moments of inertia of the Moon, the 'mascons,' the localization of the maria basins on the near side of the Moon, the igneous nature of rocks, and the remanent magnetism. In the proposed model the Moon has a core whose center is offset from the center of the outside spheroid towards the earth. Such a core will be formed if the Moon were entirely molten at some time in its past, and on solidification was synchronous with the earth.

  3. The origin of the moon.

    PubMed

    Boss, A P

    1986-01-24

    The origin of the moon is considered within the theory of formation of the terrestrial planets by accumulation of planetesimals. The theory predicts the occurrence of giant impacts, suggesting that the moon formed after a roughly Mars-sized body impacted on the protoearth. The impact blasted portions of the protoearth and the impacting body into geocentric orbit, forming a prelunar disk from which the moon later accreted. Although other mechanisms for formation of the moon appear to be dynamically impossible or implausible, fundamental questions must be answered before a giant impact origin can be considered both possible and probable. PMID:17735007

  4. Moon Color Visualizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    These color visualizations of the Moon were obtained by the Galileo spacecraft as it left the Earth after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. The image on the right was acquired at 6:47 p.m. PST Dec. 8, 1990, from a distance of almost 220,000 miles, while that on the left was obtained at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, at a range of more than 350,000 miles. On the right, the nearside of the Moon and about 30 degrees of the far side (left edge) are visible. In the full disk on the left, a little less than half the nearside and more than half the far side (to the right) are visible. The color composites used images taken through the violet and two near infrared filters. The visualizations depict spectral properties of the lunar surface known from analysis of returned samples to be related to composition or weathering of surface materials. The greenish-blue region at the upper right in the full disk and the upper part of the right hand picture is Oceanus Procellarum. The deeper blue mare regions here and elsewhere are relatively rich in titanium, while the greens, yellows and light oranges indicate basalts low in titanium but rich in iron and magnesium. The reds (deep orange in the right hand picture) are typically cratered highlands relatively poor in titanium, iron and magnesium. In the full disk picture on the left, the yellowish area to the south is part of the newly confirmed South Pole Aitken basin, a large circular depression some 1,200 miles across, perhaps rich in iron and magnesium. Analysis of Apollo lunar samples provided the basis for calibration of this spectral map; Galileo data, in turn, permit broad extrapolation of the Apollo based composition information, reaching ultimately to the far side of the Moon.

  5. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  6. Magmatism on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaut, Chloé; Thorey, Clément; Pinel, Virginie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism on the Moon is dominated by large fissure eruptions of mare basalt and seems to lack large, central vent, shield volcanoes as observed on all the other terrestrial planets. Large shield volcanoes are constructed over millions to several hundreds of millions of years. On the Moon, magmas might not have been buoyant enough to allow for a prolonged activity at the same place over such lengths of time. The lunar crust was indeed formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean, resulting in a particularly light and relatively thick crust. This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the denser primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basins where at least part of the crust was removed by the impact process. Thus, the ascent of lunar magmas might have been limited by their reduced buoyancy, leading to storage zone formation deep in the lunar crust. Further magma ascent to shallower depths might have required local or regional tensional stresses. Here, we first review evidences of shallow magmatic intrusions within the lunar crust of the Moon that consist in surface deformations presenting morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. We then study the preferential zones of magma storage in the lunar crust as a function of the local and regional state of stress. Evidences of shallow intrusions are often contained within complex impact craters suggesting that the local depression caused by the impact exerted a strong control on magma ascent. The depression is felt over a depth equivalent to the crater radius. Because many of these craters have a radius less than 30km, the minimum crust thickness, this suggests that the magma was already stored in deeper intrusions before ascending at shallower depth. All the evidences for intrusions are also preferentially located in the internal

  7. More Saturnian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Saturn takes the lead Following the discovery of at least four additional moons of that planet, Saturn has again taken the lead as the planet with the greatest number of known natural satellites. A corresponding announcement was made today by an international team of astronomers [1] at a meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena (California, USA). The four new faint bodies were spotted during observations in August-September 2000 at several astronomical telescopes around the world. Subsequent orbital calculations have indicated that these objects are almost certainly new satellites of the giant planet. Two Saturnian moons found at La Silla ESO PR Photo 29a/00 ESO PR Photo 29a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 263 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 525 x 800 pix - 93k] ESO PR Photo 29b/00 ESO PR Photo 29b/00 [Preview - JPG: 289 x 400 pix - 43k] [Normal - JPG: 578 x 800 pix - 432k] ESO PR Photo 29c/00 ESO PR Photo 29c/00 [Animated GIF: 330 x 400 pix - 208k] Captions : The photos show the discovery images of two new Saturnian moons, as registered on August 7, 2000, with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) camera at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Photo PR 29a/00 displays the faint image of the newly discovered moon S/2000 S 1 in the lower right corner of the field. A spiral galaxy is seen in the upper left corner of this photo. The other objects are (background) stars in the Milky Way. Photo PR 29b/00 is a combination of three successive WFI exposures of the second moon, S/2000 S 2 . Because of its motion, there are three images (to the left). Photo PR 29c/00 is an animated GIF image of the same three exposures that demonstrates this motion. Technical details are found below. The observations of the first two objects are described on a Circular of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that was issued today [2]. The images of these new moons were first registered on exposures made on August 7, 2000

  8. Does Vesta Have Moons?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFadden, L. A.; Sykes, M.; Joy, S.; Tricarico, P.; O'Brien, D.; Li, J. Y.; Mutchler, M.; Memarsadeghi, N.; Safavi, H.; Gutierrez-Marques, P.; Nathues, A.; Sierks, H.; Schroder, S.; Polansky, C.; Jacobson, R.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Rayman, M.; Weinstein-Weiss, S.; Palmer, E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous searches for moons around Vesta have found nothing to an upper limit of 22.5 magnitude, that corresponds to 44 +/- 4 m diameter assuming the same albedo as Vesta. The Dawn mission's approach phase has dedicated satellite search observations consisting of two mosaic sequences bracketing the first observations of a complete rotation of Vesta scheduled for early July, 2011. In addition, we use the approach optical navigation image sequences for initial satellite searches. We will report any findings from these observations, and upper limits of magnitude and size.

  9. Determinants of symptom profile and severity of conduct disorder in a tertiary level pediatric care set up: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Rajamohanan, K.; Anil, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorders (CDs) are one of the most common causes for referral to child and adolescent mental health centers. CD varies in its environmental factors, symptom profile, severity, co-morbidity, and functional impairment. Aims: The aim was to analyze the determinants of symptom profile and severity among childhood and adolescent onset CD. Settings and Design: Clinic based study with 60 consecutive children between 6 and 18 years of age satisfying International Classification of Disease-10 Development Control Rules guidelines for CD, attending behavioral pediatrics unit outpatient. Materials and Methods: The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and functional level were assessed using parent interview schedule, revised behavioral problem checklist and Children's Global Assessment Scale. Statistical Analysis: The correlation and predictive power of the variables were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Results: There was significant male dominance (88.3%) with boy girl ratio 7.5:1. Most common comorbidity noticed was hyperkinetic disorders (45%). Childhood onset group was more predominant (70%). Prevalence of comorbidity was more among early onset group (66.7%) than the late-onset group (33.3%). The family psychopathology, symptom severity, and the functional impairment were significantly higher in the childhood onset group. Conclusion: The determinants of symptom profile and severity are early onset (childhood onset CD), nature, and quantity of family psychopathology, prevalence, and type of comorbidity and nature of symptom profile itself. The family psychopathology is positively correlated with the symptom severity and negatively correlated with the functional level of the children with CD. The symptom severity was negatively correlated with the functional level of the child with CD. PMID:25568472

  10. Strong electrolyte continuum theory solution for equilibrium profiles, diffusion limitation, and conductance in charged ion channels.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, D G

    1985-01-01

    The solution for the ion flux through a membrane channel that incorporates the electrolyte nature of the aqueous solution is a difficult theoretical problem that, until now, has not been properly formulated. The difficulty arises from the complicated electrostatic problem presented by a high dielectric aqueous channel piercing a low dielectric lipid membrane. The problem is greatly simplified by assuming that the ratio of the dielectric constant of the water to that of the lipid is infinite. It is shown that this is a good approximation for most channels of biological interest. This assumption allows one to derive simple analytical expressions for the Born image potential and the potential from a fixed charge in the channel, and it leads to a differential equation for the potential from the background electrolyte. This leads to a rigorous solution for the ion flux or the equilibrium potential based on a combination of the Nernst-Planck equation and strong electrolyte theory (i.e., Gouy-Chapman or Debye-Huckel). This approach is illustrated by solving the system of equations for the specific case of a large channel containing fixed negative charges. The following characteristics of this channels are discussed: anion and mono- and divalent cation conductance, saturation of current with increasing concentration, current-voltage relationship, influence of location and valence of fixed charge, and interaction between ions. The qualitative behavior of this channel is similar to that of the acetylcholine receptor channel. PMID:2410048

  11. Clinical Profiles of Children with Disruptive Behaviors Based on the Severity of Their Conduct Problems, Callous-Unemotional Traits and Emotional Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Brendan F; Sorge, Geoff B; Na, Jennifer Jiwon; Wharton-Shukster, Erika

    2015-08-01

    This study identified clinical profiles of referred children based on the severity of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, emotional difficulties, and conduct problems. Parents of 166 children (132 males) aged 6-12 years referred to a hospital clinic because of disruptive behavior completed measures to assess these key indicators, and person-centered analysis was used to identify profiles. Four distinct profiles were identified that include: (1) Children low in severity on the three domains, (2) Children high in severity on the three domains, (3) Children high in severity in conduct problems and CU traits with minimal emotional difficulties, and (4) Children high in severity in conduct problems and emotional difficulties with minimal CU traits. Profiles differed in degree of aggression and behavioral impairment. Findings show that clinic-referred children with disruptive behaviors can be grouped based on these important indicators into profiles that have important implications for assessment and treatment selection. PMID:25257946

  12. More Saturnian Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    Saturn takes the lead Following the discovery of at least four additional moons of that planet, Saturn has again taken the lead as the planet with the greatest number of known natural satellites. A corresponding announcement was made today by an international team of astronomers [1] at a meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Pasadena (California, USA). The four new faint bodies were spotted during observations in August-September 2000 at several astronomical telescopes around the world. Subsequent orbital calculations have indicated that these objects are almost certainly new satellites of the giant planet. Two Saturnian moons found at La Silla ESO PR Photo 29a/00 ESO PR Photo 29a/00 [Preview - JPEG: 263 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 525 x 800 pix - 93k] ESO PR Photo 29b/00 ESO PR Photo 29b/00 [Preview - JPG: 289 x 400 pix - 43k] [Normal - JPG: 578 x 800 pix - 432k] ESO PR Photo 29c/00 ESO PR Photo 29c/00 [Animated GIF: 330 x 400 pix - 208k] Captions : The photos show the discovery images of two new Saturnian moons, as registered on August 7, 2000, with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) camera at the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Photo PR 29a/00 displays the faint image of the newly discovered moon S/2000 S 1 in the lower right corner of the field. A spiral galaxy is seen in the upper left corner of this photo. The other objects are (background) stars in the Milky Way. Photo PR 29b/00 is a combination of three successive WFI exposures of the second moon, S/2000 S 2 . Because of its motion, there are three images (to the left). Photo PR 29c/00 is an animated GIF image of the same three exposures that demonstrates this motion. Technical details are found below. The observations of the first two objects are described on a Circular of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) that was issued today [2]. The images of these new moons were first registered on exposures made on August 7, 2000

  13. Moon-Mars Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    On 27 May, the AGU Council unanimously adopted a position statement on NASA's strategic plan released in February 2005:: "A New Age of Exploration: NASA's Direction for 2005 and Beyond". This strategy incorporates U.S. President Bush's vision for manned space flight to Moon and Mars as described in "A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President's Vision for U.S. Space Exploration" announced in January 2004. The statement was drafted by a panel chaired by Eric Barron of Penn State University. AGU calls for the U.S. Administration, Congress, and NASA to continue their commitment to innovative Earth and space science programs. This commitment has placed the U.S. in an international leadership position. It enables environmental stewardship, promotes economic vitality, engages the next generation of scientists and engineers, protects life and property, and fosters exploration. It is, however, threatened by new financial demands placed on NASA by the return to human space flight using the space shuttle, finishing the space station, and launching the Moon-Mars initiative.

  14. Field Trip to the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

  15. How High Is the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Robert S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents background information on the method used by Hipparchus to determine the distance between the earth and the moon. Describes student activities that employ Hipparchus's Method and Aristarchus's Method for determining the relative distance of the sun and the moon from the earth and Eratosthenes's Method for finding the circumference of the…

  16. The Moon in Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Troland, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The Moon's cycle of phases is one of the most familiar natural phenomena, yet also one of the most misunderstood. This probably comes as no surprise, but research has found that a significant segment of the population, including both elementary students and teachers, mistakenly believes that the Moon's phases are caused by the shadow of the Earth.…

  17. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  18. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  19. The Brick Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction writers, like Jules Verne in France and Edward Everett Hale in America, had discovered one of the most vital elements in the formula for space travel-a fertile imagination. The first known proposal for a marned-satellite appears in a story by Hale entitled 'The Brick Moon' published in 1899. The story involved a group of young Bostonians who planned to put an artificial satellite into polar orbit for sailors to use to determine longitude accurately and easily. They planned to send a brick satellite into orbit because the satellite would have to withstand fire very well. The Satellite's 37 inhabitants signaled the Earth in morse code by jumping up and down on the outside of the satellite.

  20. Shooting the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This story is about an unlikely NASA mission to the Moon. It was unlikely because it was started with far too little time and too-little money to complete. It was unlikely because it was able to take chances to accept risk of failure. It was unlikely because it was searching for the unthinkable: water-ice on the moon... Figure 1-1: LCROSS Mission. The mission of the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to investigate the possibility of water ice in craters on the Moon s poles. This is certainly an interesting scientific topic in itself, but I intend to focus on the compelling experience of managing the LCROSS Project in the context of this storied Agency. Perhaps most interesting are the implications this story has for managing any development effort, lunar or not, and working a balance to achieve success. NASA is by design a risk-taking agency within the US Government. It could be argued that NASA s purpose in the aerospace community is to take on the really big challenges that either the corporate world can t afford, are not yet profitable endeavors, or are just too risky for private corporations to entertain. However, expectations of the Agency have evolved. A combination of grim human tragedies and some very public cost and schedule overruns have challenged the public s and Congress s tolerance for risk-taking within the Agency. NASA, which is supposed to be in the business of taking risks to do bold, difficult things, has become less and less able to do so within its cost framework. Yet effectively replacing prudent risk management with attempts to "risk-eliminate" is completely unaffordable. So where does risk-taking fit within the Agency, or within private/corporate organizations for that matter? Where astronauts play there is clearly concern about risk. When an organization puts humans in harm s way, it is understandably going to take extra effort to assure nobody gets hurt. Doing so, of course, costs money - a lot of money to pay for

  1. Moon shots for management.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Gary

    2009-02-01

    In May 2008, a group of management scholars and senior executives worked to define an agenda for management during the next 100 years. The so-called renegade brigade, led by Gary Hamel, included academics, such as C.K. Prahalad, Peter Senge, and Jeffrey Pfeffer; new-age thinkers, like James Surowiecki; and progressive CEOs, such as Whole Foods' John Mackey, W.L. Gore's Terri Kelly, and IDEO's Tim Brown. What drew them together was a set of shared beliefs about the importance of management and a sense of urgency about reinventing it for a new era. The group's first task was to compile a roster of challenges that would focus the energies of management innovators around the world. Accordingly, in this article, Hamel (who has set up the Management Lab, a research organization devoted to management innovation) outlines 25 "moon shots"--ambitious goals that managers should strive to achieve and in the process create Management 2.0. Topping the list is the imperative of extending management's responsibilities beyond just creating shareholder value. To do so will require both reconstructing the field's philosophical foundations so that work serves a higher purpose and fully embedding the ideas of community and citizenship into organizations. A number of challenges focus on ameliorating the toxic effects of hierarchy. Others focus on better ways to unleash creativity and capitalize on employees' passions. Still others seek to transcend the limitations of traditional patterns of management thinking. Not all the moon shots are new, but many tackle issues that are endemic in large organizations. Their purpose is to inspire new solutions to long-simmering problems by making every company as genuinely human as the people who work there. PMID:19266704

  2. Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Unlocking the Mysteries of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyon, Cassandra

    2006-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is a state-of-the-art high spectral resolution imaging spectrometer that will characterize and map the mineral composition of the Moon. The M3 instrument will be flown on Chandrayaan-I, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) mission to be launched in March 2008. The Moon is a cornerstone to understanding early solar system processes. M3 high-resolution compositional maps will dramatically improve our understanding about the early evolution of the terrestrial planets and will provide an assessment of lunar resources at high spatial resolution.

  3. MPST Software: MoonKommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, John H.; Call, Jared A.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2012-01-01

    This software automatically processes Sally Ride Science (SRS) delivered MoonKAM camera control files (ccf) into uplink products for the GRAIL-A and GRAIL-B spacecraft as part of an education and public outreach (EPO) extension to the Grail Mission. Once properly validated and deemed safe for execution onboard the spacecraft, MoonKommand generates the command products via the Automated Sequence Processor (ASP) and generates uplink (.scmf) files for radiation to the Grail-A and/or Grail-B spacecraft. Any errors detected along the way are reported back to SRS via email. With Moon Kommand, SRS can control their EPO instrument as part of a fully automated process. Inputs are received from SRS as either image capture files (.ccficd) for new image requests, or downlink/delete files (.ccfdl) for requesting image downlink from the instrument and on-board memory management. The Moon - Kommand outputs are command and file-load (.scmf) files that will be uplinked by the Deep Space Network (DSN). Without MoonKommand software, uplink product generation for the MoonKAM instrument would be a manual process. The software is specific to the Moon - KAM instrument on the GRAIL mission. At the time of this writing, the GRAIL mission was making final preparations to begin the science phase, which was scheduled to continue until June 2012.

  4. Report of the Terrestrial Bodies Science Working Group. Volume 4: The moon. [lunar polar orbiter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Duke, M. B.; Hubbard, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Malin, M. C.; Minear, J.

    1977-01-01

    A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.

  5. The moon as a high temperature condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The accretion during condensation mechanism is used to explain the differences in composition of the terrestrial planets and the moon. Many of the properties of the moon, including the enrichment in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr and the REE and the depletion in Fe, Rb, K, Na and other volatiles can be understood if the moon represents a high temperature condensate from the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ca, Al and Ti rich compounds condense first in a cooling nebula. The high temperature mineralogy is gehlenite, spinel perovskite, Ca-Al-rich pyroxenes and anorthite. The model is consistent with extensive early melting, shallow melting at 3 A.E. and with presently high speed internal temperatures. It is predicted that the outer 250 km is rich in plagioclase and FeO. The low iron content of the interior in this model raises the interior temperatures estimated from electrical conductivity by some 800 C. The lunar crust is 80 percent gabbroic anorthosite, 20 percent basalt and is about 250-270 km thick. The lunar mantle is probably composed of spinel, merwinite and diopside with a density of 3.4 g/cu cm.

  6. Formation and composition of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the properties of the Moon, including the enrichment in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr, and the REE and the depletion in Fe, Rb, K, Na, and other volatiles can be understood if the Moon represents a high-temperature condensate from the solar nebula. Thermodynamic calculations show that Ca-, Al-, and Ti-rich compounds condense first in a cooling nebula. The initial high temperature mineralogy is gehlenite, spinel, perovskite, Ca-Al-rich pyroxenes, and anorthite. Inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites such as the Allende meteorite are composed primarily of these minerals and, in addition, are highly enriched in refractories such as REE relative to carbonaceous chondrites. These inclusions can yield basalt and anorthosite in the proportions required to eliminate the europium anomaly, leaving a residual spinel-melilite interior. A deep interior high in Ca-Al does not imply an unacceptable mean density or moment of inertia for the Moon. The inferred high-U content of the lunar interior, both from the Allende analog and the high heat flow, indicates a high-temperature interior. The model is consistent with extensive early melting, with shallow melting at 3 AE, and with presently high deep internal temperatures. It is predicted that the outer 250 km is rich in plagioclase and FeO. The low iron content of the interior in this model raises the interior temperatures estimated from electrical conductivity by some 800 C.

  7. Space Science in Action: Moon [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording answers key questions about the Moon such as, What keeps it revolving around the Earth?, Why do we see only one side of the Moon?, and What is the origin of the Moon? Students learn about how the Moon has been studied throughout history, including recent lunar missions, its phases, eclipses, and how it causes tides on…

  8. Hints of a Shrinking Moon?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's...

  9. How Is Your Moon Geography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlathery, Glenn

    1971-01-01

    Describes geography of the moon. A brief history of selenographic history is given and basic features including lunar seas, mountains, craters, rays, and faults are described. Lunar photographs are included. (JM)

  10. Topographic mapping of the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. S. C.

    1985-04-01

    Contour maps of the moon have been compiled by photogrammetric methods that use stereoscopic combinations of all available metric photographs from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. The maps utilize the same format as the existing NASA shaded-relief Lunar Planning Charts (LOC-1, -2, -3, and -4), which have a scale of 1:2,750,000. The map contour interval is 500 m. A control net derived from Apollo photographs by Doyle and others was used for the compilation. Contour lines and elevations are referred to the new topographic datum of the moon, which is defined in terms of spherical harmonics from the lunar gravity field. Compilation of all four LOC charts was completed on analytical plotters from 566 stereo models of Apollo metric photographs that cover approximately 20 percent of the moon. This is the first step toward compiling a global topographic map of the moon at a scale of 1:5,000,000.

  11. Lunar Orbiter: Moon and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The worlds first view of the Earth taken by a spacecraft from the vicinity of the Moon. The photo was transmitted to Earth by the United States Lunar Orbiter I and recieved at the NASA tracking station at Robledo de Chavela near Madrid, Spain. This crescent of the Earth was photographed August 23 at 16:35 GMT when the spacecraft was on its 16th orbit and just about to pass behind the Moon. This is the view the astronauts will have when they come around the backside of the Moon and face the Earth. The Earth is shown on the left of the photo with the U.S. east coast in the upper left, southern Europe toward the dark or night side of the Earth, and Antartica at the bottom of the Earth crescent. The surface of the Moon is shown on the right side of the photograph.

  12. The Next 'Moon Shot' Moment

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the 50th anniversary of President Kennedy's speech to Congress, when he challenged our nation to land a man on the moon and return him safely to Earth, five NASA Langley employees answered the ...

  13. The Moon Beams on Westlake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jeanne E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a community's experience with a lunar sample education kit containing actual pieces of moon rocks and soil on loan from NASA. School and community activities including mini-labs, seminars, and lunar sample viewing sessions, are described. (SA)

  14. Felsic Volcanics on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Clegg-Watkins, R. N.; Zanetti, M. R.; Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Shirley, K. A.; Glitch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2016-05-01

    LRO data sets have been used to characterize sites of red-spot volcanism on the Moon, confirming that they are composed of silica-rich materials and establishing key morphometric parameters including shape, slopes, boulder contents, and photometry.

  15. LRO Takes the Moon's Temperature

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the June 2011 lunar eclipse, scientists will be able to get a unique view of the moon. While the sun is blocked by the Earth, LRO's Diviner instrument will take the temperature on the lunar ...

  16. Physical structure of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    The moon has a much thicker lithosphere than the earth, as predicted by thermal models and as evidenced by the support of mascons, lack of surface folding, etc. More in question is whether the moon has a core (more properly, asthenosphere) of high temperature, as suggested by the volcanism 1.0-1.3 b.y. after origin and by the large low-degree harmonics in the gravity field. The moon is like the earth in having a large offset of center-of-mass from center-of-volume, apparently the residue of an early convective overturn associated with large-scale differentiation. The moon differs significantly from the earth in its lower iron content, gross homogeneity, much slower rate-of-change, and closer approach to isostatic equilibrium in the sense of stress-difference magnitudes.

  17. Where Is the Moon Tonight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susann M.; Cornell, Kevin F.; Basista, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the activities that fifth-grade students experienced when learning about the moon, its phases, and eclipses. It illustrates how mathematics and science can be integrated to enhance the learning of both. (Contains 3 figures.)

  18. More Surprises from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Even with the naked eye, the dark, extensive plains of the lunar maria can be clearly seen on the surface of the Moon. The maria formed after meteorite impacts created large craters that later filled with lava flows. Mare volcanism is the dominant type of volcanic activity on the Moon and the lavas are made up of basaltic rocks. However, non-mare volcanic deposits, though rare, have been observed on the lunar nearside. The deposits are distinguished from the maria because they are compositionally more evolved rich in silica, potassium and thorium. The deposits are limited in surface extent and it was unknown whether similar non-mare volcanism occurred at all on the Moon s farside. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Jolliff et al. report using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and compositional data to identify the rare occurrence of more compositionally evolved volcanic deposits in an isolated area on the Moon s farside. In the 1960s and 1970s, rock and soil samples were collected by the Apollo and Luna missions, by the USA and USSR respectively. This material represents a geologic treasure trove that continues to provide a wealth of information about the Moon and its evolution, and it was a very small fraction of these samples that gave the first hint that non-mare volcanic activity might have occurred. The samples contained fragments of complex volcanic rocks that were unrelated to the maria basalts. Violent bombardment of the Moon by meteorite impacts has caused significant mixing of the rocks at its surface, so the fragments could have had a source hundreds or thousands of kilometres away. The origin of the fragments was unknown. Several decades later, the Lunar Prospector mission used a gamma-ray spectrometer to map the distribution and abundance of various elements, including thorium, on the Moon s surface. The maps identified a distinct and large area of high thorium concentration, as well as several smaller, but equally peculiar areas of high thorium

  19. Moon - 18 Image Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This mosaic picture of the Moon was compiled from 18 images taken with a green filter by Galileo's imaging system during the spacecraft's flyby on December 7, 1992, some 11 hours before its Earth flyby at 1509 UTC (7:09 a.m. Pacific Standard Time) December 8. The north polar region is near the top part of the mosaic, which also shows Mare Imbrium, the dark area on the left; Mare Serenitatis at center; and Mare Crisium, the circular dark area to the right. Bright crater rim and ray deposits are from Copernicus, an impact crater 96 kilometers (60 miles) in diameter. Computer processing has exaggerated the brightness of poorly illuminated features near the day/night terminator in the polar regions, giving a false impression of high reflectivity there. The digital image processing was done by DLR the German aerospace research establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  1. Lunar Orbiter I - Moon & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    First view of the earth and moon from space. Published in: Spaceflight Revolution: Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen. NASA History Series. NASA SP ; 4308. p ii. Caption: 'The picture of the century was this first view of the earth from space. Lunar Orbiter I took the photo on 23 August 1966 on its 16th orbit just before it passed behind the moon. The photo also provided a spectacular dimensional view of the lunar surface.'

  2. Characterizing the Moon's radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    The radiation environment near the Moon could be damaging to humans and electronics on future missions. To characterize this potentially hazardous environment, the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission, which orbits at 50 kilometers above the Moon's surface, measures the radiation that would be absorbed by either electronic parts or human tissue behind the shielding of a spacecraft.

  3. Infrared astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Moon offers some remarkable opportunities for performing infrared astronomy. Although the transportation overhead can be expected to be very large compared with that for facilities in Earth orbit, certain aspects of the lunar environment should allow significant simplifications in the design of telescopes with background limited performance, at least in some parts of the thermal infrared spectrum. Why leave the Earth to perform infrared astronomy is addressed as is the reasons for going all the way to the Moon for its environment.

  4. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles

  5. The Inside of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    2008-09-01

    Fundamental questions remain regarding the lunar interior, e.g.: Why did the Moon apparently cool so early? Why does the Moon have an asymmetric structure (nearside/farside)? What is the thickness of the lunar crust? How much of crustal variability is due to variable melting vs. impact redistribution? How big are impact basins and how deep did they excavate and thermally perturb the mantle? What was the temporal evolution of magmatism and brecciation? Did the mantle overturn subsequent to magma ocean solidification? How laterally heterogeneous is the lunar mantle? Does the Moon have a seismic discontinuity in the mantle? Does the Moon have a core? Does the Moon have a liquid outer core? Did the Moon have a core dynamo? Some of these questions will be at least partially answered in the next several years through new spacecraft investigations such as the GRAIL mission, which will map the lunar gravity field to unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, a long-lived, multi-station seismic network is also essential for understanding interior structure. Recent analyses of Apollo seismic data call into question the existence of the mantle discontinuity at 500-km depth, and the thickness of the lunar crust beneath the Apollo 12 and 14 landing sites now has multiple estimates. However, there is still a great deal that can be learned from existing lunar data sets. One productive approach would construct a set of self-consistent models that describe the coupled petrological-thermal evolution of the Moon. Such an investigation involves the high-level marriage of detailed petrological information from samples of the lunar crust and possibly mantle; of models that can predict accurately lunar solidi, liquidi, and equilibrium compositions; and of sophisticated thermal models that accurately incorporate the physics of melting and melt migration.

  6. A goal and strategy for human exploration of the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pivirotto, Donna Shirley

    1990-01-01

    Eventual settlement of the solar system, beginning with the moon and Mars, is proposed, and a strategy for the exploration of and initial settlement of the moon and Mars, based on the model of European settlement of the Americas, is discussed. Strategies suggest an allocation of functions between humans and telerobots to conduct the exploration and initial settlement.

  7. The Impact of Stereo Display on Student Understanding of Phases of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cid, Ximena C.; Lopez, Ramon E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding lunar phases requires three-dimensional information about the relative positions of the Moon, Earth, and Sun, thus using a stereo display in instruction might improve student comprehension of lunar phases or other topics in basic astronomy. We conducted a laboratory (15 sections) on phases of the Moon as part of the introductory…

  8. The Moon in Close-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, John

    The Moon is the nearest member of the Solar system to Earth. Humans from the earliest times have found the Moon to be an object of great interest and a source of speculation as to the meaning of the light and dark markings on its surface. The discovery of the telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 to observe the Moon set these speculations at rest by revealing the true nature of the Moons surface. As telescopes improved so did our knowledge of the Moons features. The Moon is also the only body in the Solar system (apart from Earth itself) on which humans have visited and actually walked on.

  9. Conductivity and mobility profiles at 300 and 77 K of epitaxial Cd/sub chi/Hg/sub 1-chi/Te layers

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, S.P.S.; Thompson, J.; Nicholls, R.E.; Smith, L.M. )

    1989-05-01

    The authors report the results of conductivity and mobility profiles of expitaxial layers of Cd/sub chi/Hg/sub 1-chi/Te at 300 and 77 {Kappa} obtained using the step and etch technique. In this technique, layers are sequentially stripped through chemical etching and differential Hall measurements are performed in the van der Pauw configuration.

  10. Impact Origin of the Moon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Earth formed in a series of giant impacts, and the last one made the Moon. This idea, an edifice of post-Apollo science, can explain the Moon's globally melted silicate composition, its lack of water and iron, and its anomalously large mass and angular momentum. But the theory is seriously called to question by increasingly detailed geochemical analysis of lunar rocks. Lunar samples should be easily distinguishable from Earth, because the Moon derives mostly from the impacting planet, in standard models of the theory. But lunar rocks are the same as Earth in O, Ti, Cr, W, K, and other species, to measurement precision. Some regard this as a repudiation of the theory; others say it wants a reformation. Ideas put forward to salvage or revise it are evaluated, alongside their relationships to past models and their implications for planet formation and Earth.

  11. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  12. Young Children's Knowledge about the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…

  13. Rings Around the Sun and Moon: Coronae and Diffraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Les; Laven, Philip; Vollmer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric optical effects can teach much about physics and especially optics. Coronae--coloured rings around the sun or moon--are large-scale consequences of diffraction, which is often thought of as only a small effect confined to the laboratory. We describe coronae, how they are formed and experiments that can be conducted on ones in the sky.…

  14. The Moon; twenty years later

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The 20th anniversary of the first landing on the Moon occurred on July 21, 1989. The vast majority of the Moon rocks collected by the Apollo mission astronauts await further study in the continuing effort to unravel the origin and evolution of Earth's nearest neighbor. Not that the 382-kilogram treasure trove of lunar samples has been gathering dust in the Planetary Materials Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center in Houston. It is just that lunar scientists are being very sparing in their use of the rocks. 

  15. What's new on the moon?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the Apollo program and other lunar probes, questions that remained unsolved during centuries of speculation and scientific study can now be answered concerning the composition, core, surface, age, and history of the moon. Data obtained from lunar samples and instruments on the lunar surface are being used to gain insight into the history of the earth and the other planets, planetary evolution, the development of planetary magnetic fields, the nature of the solar wind, and how the Sun operates. Projects suggested for using the moon to increase understanding of geophysics are described.

  16. Buzz Aldrin on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the Moon near the leg of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' during the Apollo 11 exravehicular activity (EVA). Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the Moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) 'Columbia' in lunar orbit.

  17. Resource Production on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    A self-sustaining settlement on the moon, or on other airless bodies such as asteroids, will require the ability to refine desired raw materials from available resources, such as lunar or asteroidal regolith. This work will focus on the example case of pro-duction from lunar regolith. The same process sequences could be used at other locations. Stony asteroids typically have regolith similar to that of the moon, and refining of asteroidal material could use the same techniques, adapted for microgravity. Likewise, Martian rock and soil could also be processed by the techniques discussed here.

  18. On the origin of the ionosphere at Moon : a study using results from Chandrayaan-I S-band radio occultation experiment and a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasam Madathil, Ambili; Bhardwaj, Anil; Choudhary, Raj Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Using Chandrayaan-1 communication link between orbiter and ground (S-band frequency), the presence of ionosphere at Moon has been explored using Radio Occultation technique. Results obtained from the observations conducted between July 30 and August 14, 2009 show evidence for a possible existence of the Ionosphere at Moon. A few seconds before the occultation of Chandrayaan-1 radio signals, extra fluctuation in the rate of change of difference between the theoretically estimated Doppler and observed Doppler was observed. The fluctuation was more pronounced when the probing radio waves were crossing through the day-night terminator. Using standard onion-peeling technique to invert the phase changes in radio signals to the refractivity of the medium, we estimated the bending angle and hence the electron density profiles for the Lunar medium. The estimated electron density near the Lunar surface was of the order of 400 - 1000 cm ^{-3} which decreased monotonically with increasing altitude till about 40 km above the surface where it became negligible. The observed electron density was compared with the results from a model which was developed based on CHACE measurements abroad Moon Impact Probe of Chandrayaan-I. The model included the photo chemical reactions and solar wind interactions of the lunar plasma. We propose that the ionosphere over Moon could have molecular origin with H _{2}O ^{+},CO_{2} ^{+} and H_{3}O ^{+} as dominant ions.

  19. NEXT GENERATION OF TELESCOPES OR DYNAMICS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE IF EXO-MOONS HAVE PROGRADE OR RETROGRADE ORBITS

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Karen M.; Fujii, Yuka

    2014-08-20

    We survey the methods proposed in the literature for detecting moons of extrasolar planets in terms of their ability to distinguish between prograde and retrograde moon orbits, an important tracer of the moon formation channel. We find that most moon detection methods, in particular, sensitive methods for detecting moons of transiting planets, cannot observationally distinguishing prograde and retrograde moon orbits. The prograde and retrograde cases can only be distinguished where the dynamical evolution of the orbit due to, e.g., three body effects is detectable, where one of the two cases is dynamically unstable, or where new observational facilities, which can implement a technique capable of differentiating the two cases, come online. In particular, directly imaged planets are promising targets because repeated spectral and photometric measurements, which are required to determine moon orbit direction, could also be conducted with the primary interest of characterizing the planet itself.

  20. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    . More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry

  1. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability,and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate and electrical conductivity profile for the moon, and those profiles were used to calculate the lunar temperature for an assumed lunar material of olivine. Simultaneous measurements by magnetometers on the lunar surface and in orbit around the moon were use to construct a whole-moon hysteresis curve, from which the global lunar magnetic permeability is determined. Total iron abundance (sum of iron in the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic states) was calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior. Other lunar models with an iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer also discussed in light of the measured global lunar permeability. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Velocities and thicknesses of the earth's magnetopause and bow shock were also estimated from simultaneous magnetometer measurements.

  2. Geminid Meteors Impact the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Earth wasn’t the only celestial body to be treated to a Geminid showin December -- the moon also got in on the action! This video shows aGeminid impact flash in the upper right corner. The ...

  3. The Moon and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urey, Harold C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the origin of the Moon on the basis of the Apollo expeditions as an accumulated gas sphere at its very beginning and, later, a satellite captured by the Earth. Indicates that the model would be substantially believable if further observations should be proved to exist as estimated. (CC)

  4. Topographic mapping of the Moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Contour maps of the Moon have been compiled by photogrammetric methods that use stereoscopic combinations of all available metric photographs from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions. The maps utilize the same format as the existing NASA shaded-relief Lunar Planning Charts (LOC-1, -2, -3, and -4), which have a scale of 1:2 750 000. The map contour interval is 500m. A control net derived from Apollo photographs by Doyle and others was used for the compilation. Contour lines and elevations are referred to the new topographic datum of the Moon, which is defined in terms of spherical harmonics from the lunar gravity field. Compilation of all four LOC charts was completed on analytical plotters from 566 stereo models of Apollo metric photographs that cover approximately 20% of the Moon. This is the first step toward compiling a global topographic map of the Moon at a scale of 1:5 000 000. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  5. The Moon Festival Is Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Gordon

    This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English and designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. This booklet describes the celebration of the harvest-time holiday called the Moon Festival. (CLK)

  6. Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Isidore

    1984-01-01

    Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo…

  7. Backyard Astronomy: Observing Moon Phases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandou, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity involving the observation of moon phases that can provide a one-on-one learning experience and stimulate interaction between a child and an adult family member. This activity can also be initiated by teachers and outcomes can be integrated into the classroom science curriculum. (JRH)

  8. Moon Park: A research and educational facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi; Saito, Takao; Ogawa, Yukimasa

    1992-01-01

    Moon Park has been proposed as an International Space Year (ISY) event for international cooperative efforts. Moon Park will serve as a terrestrial demonstration of a prototype lunar base and provide research and educational opportunities. The kind of data that can be obtained in the Moon Park facilities is examined taking the minimum number of lunar base residents as an example.

  9. The Moon: Been there, done that?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Lunar science is planetary science. Lunar samples teach us about the formation and evolution of the Moon, and the history of all the planets. The Moon is a cornerstone for all rocky planets, since it formed and evolved similarly to Earth, Mars, Mercury, Venus, and large asteroids. Lunar robotic missions provide important science and engineering objectives, and keep our eyes on the Moon.

  10. Planetary Scientist Profile: Noah Petro

    NASA Video Gallery

    Noah Petro is a NASA planetary geologist who studies the surface of airless bodies in space, primarily focusing on the moon. In this video profile, Noah talks about how he was inspired to become a ...

  11. GRAIL Mission Constraints on the Thermal Structure and Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, W. S.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Evans, A. J.; Head, J. W.; Matsuyama, I.; McGovern, P. J.; Nimmo, F.; Soderblom, J. M.; Sori, M. M.; Taylor, G. J.; Weber, R. C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Williams, J. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    The GRAIL mission provided new constraints on the Moon's thermal evolution, including the abundance of radioactive elements, the extent of early lunar radius change, volume of early cryptomagmatism, and thickness of a low conductivity megaregolith.

  12. Searching for alien artifacts on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. C. W.; Wagner, R. V.

    2013-08-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has a low probability of success, but it would have a high impact if successful. Therefore it makes sense to widen the search as much as possible within the confines of the modest budget and limited resources currently available. To date, SETI has been dominated by the paradigm of seeking deliberately beamed radio messages. However, indirect evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence could come from any incontrovertible signatures of non-human technology. Existing searchable databases from astronomy, biology, earth and planetary sciences all offer low-cost opportunities to seek a footprint of extraterrestrial technology. In this paper we take as a case study one particular new and rapidly-expanding database: the photographic mapping of the Moon's surface by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to 0.5 m resolution. Although there is only a tiny probability that alien technology would have left traces on the moon in the form of an artifact or surface modification of lunar features, this location has the virtue of being close, and of preserving traces for an immense duration. Systematic scrutiny of the LRO photographic images is being routinely conducted anyway for planetary science purposes, and this program could readily be expanded and outsourced at little extra cost to accommodate SETI goals, after the fashion of the SETI@home and Galaxy Zoo projects.

  13. Environment Challenges for Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Cooke, William B.; Howard, James W.; Parker, Linda N.; Sharp, John; Schunck, Greg; Suggs. Robert W.; Wang, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is designing a new generation of human rated launch and space transportation vehicles to first replace the Space Shuttle fleet, then support develop of a permanent human habitat on the Moon, and ultimately prepare for human exploration of Mars. The ambitious first step beyond low Earth orbit is to develop the infrastructure required for conducting missions to a variety of locations on the lunar surface for periods of a week and establishment of a permanent settlement at one of the lunar poles where crews will serve for periods on the order of approx.200 days. We present an overview of the most challenging aspects of the lunar environment that will need to be addressed when developing transport and habitat infrastructure for long term human presence on the Moon including low temperatures and dusty regolith surfaces, radiation environments due to galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles, charging of lunar infrastructure when exposed to lunar plasma environments, and secondary meteor environments generated by primary impacts on the lunar surface.

  14. Seismic While Drilling (SWD) methodology in support to Moon subsurface stratigraphy investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Flavio; Magnani, Piergiovanni; Gelmi, Rolando; Corubolo, Piero; Re, Edoardo; Schleifer, Andrea; Perrone, Antonio; Salonico, Antonio; Coste, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    The knowledge of the Moon subsoil geophysical properties is of great importance, for scientific reasons for the development of the Lunar exploration activities and the envisaged exploitation of its planetary resources. The Moon surface is characterized by the presence of regolith, a powdered material made up of unconsolidated, porous and highly brecciated rock fragments of several different grain sizes and lithologies. Beneath the regolith, a transition zone showing higher acoustic velocities may be present down to the solid bedrock. The bedrock consists of basaltic layers characterized by high seismic velocity and low seismic attenuation. In these conditions, human civil engineering and rover activities, including drilling may be subject to risk due to the lack of knowledge of the complex subsoil properties. Seismic While Drilling is a method used on Earth to support from geophysical point of view the drilling for oil and gas and geothermal exploration. In this application, the characterization of the stratigraphy by vertical seismic profiles in the drilled section, providing seismic images of the to-be-drilled substructures, is obtained using the drill-bit radiated energy. We present the result of a project that studies the adaptation of the method for Lunar drilling purposes, taking into account the specific issues related to the Moon environment and remote communication aspects. The results of a laboratory test conducted in the framework of a European Space Agency project (completed in 2009) with a planetary drill prototype and a simulator of a complete remote system are presented and discussed together with the perspectives for the seismic-while-drilling application for planetary missions.

  15. Below and above boiling point comparison of microwave irradiation and conductive heating for municipal sludge digestion under identical heating/cooling profiles.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Koupaie, E; Eskicioglu, C

    2015-01-01

    This research provides a comprehensive comparison between microwave (MW) and conductive heating (CH) sludge pretreatments under identical heating/cooling profiles at below and above boiling point temperatures. Previous comparison studies were constrained to an uncontrolled or a single heating rate due to lack of a CH equipment simulating MW under identical thermal profiles. In this research, a novel custom-built pressure-sealed vessel which could simulate MW pretreatment under identical heating/cooling profiles was used for CH pretreatment. No statistically significant difference was proven between MW and CH pretreatments in terms of sludge solubilization, anaerobic biogas yield and organics biodegradation rate (p-value>0.05), while statistically significant effects of temperature and heating rate were observed (p-value<0.05). These results explain the contradictory results of previous studies in which only the final temperature (not heating/cooling rates) was controlled. PMID:25863200

  16. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  17. Moon Zoo: a Citizen Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiolacchi, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Joy, K. H.

    2013-09-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review images from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO)[1] spacecraft and perform tasks such as measuring impact crater sizes and identifying morphologically interesting features. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. In addition to its potential in delivering high quality science outputs, Moon Zoo is also an important educator resource, providing information about the geology of the Moon and geophysical processes in the inner solar system.

  18. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. The measured lunar remanent fields range from 3 gammas minimum at the Apollo 15 site to 327 gammas maximum at the Apollo 16 site. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Remanent fields at Apollo 12 and Apollo 16 are increased 16 gammas and 32 gammas, respectively, by a solar plasma bulk pressure increase of 1.5 X 10 to the -7th power dynes/sq cm. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon. From nightside magnetometer data in the solar wind it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon the conductivity rises from .0003 mhos/m to .10 mhos/m at 100 km depth. Recent analysis of data obtained in the geomagnetic tail, in regions free of complicating plasma effects, yields results consistent with nightside values.

  19. Interpretations of optical observations of Mercury and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.

    1977-01-01

    Optical, thermal and radar remote-sensing measurements indicate that Mercury is covered with a relatively thick layer of soil similar in texture and thickness to lunar regolith. Photometric limb profiles measured by Mariner 10 imply that the small-scale slopes on Mercury are about half those on the moon, probably because of differing gravity. The differential photometric functions of Mercury and the moon have a latitudinal dependence which can be completely accounted for by shadowing in craters. The lack of polar darkening on Mercury in spite of the presence of a magnetic field implies that the dominant soil-darkening process on Mercury, and by extension, on the moon is not dependent on the solar wind, but probably is deposition of material evaporated by meteorite impacts. Recent measurements of Mercury's spectral reflectivity in the IR and vacuum UV are both consistent with the surface rocks of Mercury being lower in FeO than those of the moon. Based on laboratory experiments the average FeO content on the surface of Mercury is estimated to be between 3 and 6%.

  20. Astrophysics from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Bernard F.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted for the concept of a lunar base supporting astronomical instruments of power comparable to the VLA, giving attention to aperture-synthesis arrays which could improve angular resolution to the level of a few microarcsec. The only conceivable mode of catastrophic instrument failure envisioned would be a meteorite strike, although the probability for this is small and comparable to that encountered in orbital instruments. Nevertheless, lunar dust may pose problems, lunar soil may be inadequate for support of instrument structures, moonquakes may disturb instruments, gravitational deflection may distort them, and heat radiation and scattered light may exert troublesome influences on observations. Representative parameters for a specific system are presented.

  1. Motivation of Citizen Scientists Participating in Moon Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shanique; Gay, P. L.; Daus, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Zoo is an online citizen science project with the aim of providing detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible. In addition to focusing on craters, volunteers are encouraged to remain vigilant for sightings of atypical features which may lead to new discoveries. Volunteers accomplish these tasks by exploring images captured by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) which has a resolution of 50cm per pixel. To be successful, Moon Zoo needs to attract and retain a large population of citizen scientists. In this study, we examine the factors motivating Moon Zoo participants who invest many hours exploring these images. In this, the first of a two-phased study, we conducted a qualitative analysis using semi-structured interviews as a means of data collection. A stratified sample of participants was used in an attempt to uncover the driving forces behind decisions to participate from a wide-range of participants. Inquiring and probing questions were asked about factors which led volunteers to Moon Zoo as well as reasons which kept them committed to exploring the Moon's surface through this online portal. Responses were then categorized using a grounded theory approach, and frequency distributions are calculated where appropriate. Aggregate results from these interviews are presented here including the demographics of the sample and motivators as per the content analysis. The information gathered from this phase will be used to guide the development of an online survey to further explore volunteers’ motivation based on the presented classification schemes. The survey will then be used to guide future research and development in the area of citizen science in the field of astronomy. These findings will also be useful in charting new boundaries for future research.

  2. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutzi, M.; Asphaug, E.

    2011-08-01

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin1 or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ~1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ~2-3 km s-1, well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (~0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere, explaining

  3. Materials refining on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2007-05-01

    Oxygen, metals, silicon, and glass are raw materials that will be required for long-term habitation and production of structural materials and solar arrays on the Moon. A process sequence is proposed for refining these materials from lunar regolith, consisting of separating the required materials from lunar rock with fluorine. The fluorine is brought to the Moon in the form of potassium fluoride, and is liberated from the salt by electrolysis in a eutectic salt melt. Tetrafluorosilane produced by this process is reduced to silicon by a plasma reduction stage; the fluorine salts are reduced to metals by reaction with metallic potassium. Fluorine is recovered from residual MgF and CaF2 by reaction with K2O.

  4. Map of Jupiter's moon Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-04-01

    Map of Jupiter's moon Io The first global geologic map of the Jovian satellite Io has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the agency announced on 19 March. “More than 130 years after the USGS first began producing quality geologic maps here on Earth, it is exciting to have the reach of our science extend across 400 million miles to this volcanically active moon of Jupiter,” said USGS director Marcia McNutt. “Somehow it makes the vast expanse of space seem less forbidding to know that similar geologic processes which have shaped our planet are active elsewhere.” The map illustrates the geologic character of the unique and active volcanoes on Io, a planetary body that has about 25 times more volcanic activity than Earth does, according to USGS.

  5. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the early intense bombardment, and debris of recent, crater-forming projectiles are discussed and their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distrubuted over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils whereas, the ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. A few properties of the basin-forming objects are inferred from the trace element data. An attempt is made to reconstruct the bombardment history of the moon from the observation that only basin-forming objects fell on the moon after crustal differentiation. The apparent half-life of basin-forming bodies is close to the calculated value for earth-crossing planetesimals. It is shown that a gap in radiometric ages is expected between the Imbrium and Nectaris impacts, because all 7 basins formed in this interval lie on the farside or east limb.

  6. Impact ejecta on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The partitioning of energy and the distribution of the resultant ejecta on the moon is numerically modeled using a Eulerian finite difference grid. The impact of an iron meteoroid at 15 km/sec on a gabbroic anorthosite lunar crust is examined. The high speed impact induced flow is described over the entire hydrodynamic regime from a time where the peak pressures are 6 Mbar until the stresses everywhere in the flow are linearly elastic, and less than 5 kbar. Shock-induced polymorphic phase changes, (plagioclase and pyroxene to hollandite and perovskite), and the subsequent reversion to low pressure phases are demonstrated to enhance shock wave attenuation. A rate-dependent equation of state is used for describing the hysteretic effect of the phase change. Ballistic equations for a spherical planet are then applied to material with net velocity away from the moon.

  7. Smart-1 Moon Impact Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala, Andres; Rigger, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the operations to control the Moon impact of the 3-axis stabilized spacecraft SMART-1 in September 2006. SMART-1 was launched on 27/09/2003. It was the first ESA mission to use an Electric Propulsion (EP) engine as the main motor to spiral out of the Earth gravity field and reach a scientific moon orbit [1]. During September 2005 the last EP maneuvers were performed using the remaining Xenon, in order to compensate for the 3rd body perturbations of the Sun and Earth. These operations extended the mission for an additional year. Afterwards the EP performance became unpredictable and low, so that no meaningful operation for the moon impact could be done. To move the predicted impact point on the 16/8/2006 into visibility from Earth an alternative Delta-V strategy was designed. Due to their alignment, the attitude thrusters could not be used directly to generate the Delta-V, so this strategy was based on controlled angular momentum biasing. Firing along the velocity vector around apolune, the remaining Hydrazine left from the attitude control budget was used, to shift the impact to the required coordinates.

  8. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation. PMID:24663457

  9. Photon Luminescence of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Lee, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    Luminescence is typically described as light emitted by objects at low temperatures, induced by chemical reactions, electrical energy, atomic interactions, or acoustical and mechanical stress. An example is photoluminescence created when photons (electromagnetic radiation) strike a substance and are absorbed, resulting in the emission of a resonant fluorescent or phosphorescent albedo. In planetary science, there exists X-ray fluorescence induced by sunlight absorbed by a regolith a property used to measure some of the chemical composition of the Moon s surface during the Apollo program. However, there exists an equally important phenomenon in planetary science which will be designated here as photon luminescence. It is not conventional photoluminescence because the incoming radiation that strikes the planetary surface is not photons but rather cosmic rays (CRs). Nevertheless, the result is the same: the generation of a photon albedo. In particular, Galactic CRs (GCRs) and solar energetic particles (SEPs) both induce a photon albedo that radiates from the surface of the Moon. Other particle albedos are generated as well, most of which are hazardous (e.g. neutrons). The photon luminescence or albedo of the lunar surface induced by GCRs and SEPs will be derived here, demonstrating that the Moon literally glows in the dark (when there is no sunlight or Earthshine). This extends earlier work on the same subject [1-4]. A side-by-side comparison of these two albedos and related mitigation measures will also be discussed.

  10. Moon - North Polar Mosaic, Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its flight, the Galileo spacecraft returned images of the Moon. The Galileo spacecraft surveyed the Moon on December 7, 1992, on its way to explore the Jupiter system in 1995-1997. The left part of this north pole view is visible from Earth. This color picture is a mosaic assembled from 18 images taken by Galileo's imaging system through a green filter. The left part of this picture shows the dark, lava-filled Mare Imbrium (upper left); Mare Serenitatis (middle left), Mare Tranquillitatis (lower left), and Mare Crisium, the dark circular feature toward the bottom of the mosaic. Also visible in this view are the dark lava plains of the Marginis and Smythii Basins at the lower right. The Humboldtianum Basin, a 650-kilometer (400-mile) impact structure partly filled with dark volcanic deposits, is seen at the center of the image. The Moon's north pole is located just inside the shadow zone, about a third of the way from the top left of the illuminated region. The Galileo project is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  11. Russian Planetary Program: Phobos and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimov, E. M.; Marov, M. Ya.; Politshuk, G. M.; Zeleniy, L. M.

    2006-08-01

    Planetary exploration is a cornerstone of space science and technology development. Russia has a great legacy of the world recognized former space missions to the Moon and planets. Strategy of the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Russian Academy of Sciences planetary program for the coming decade is focused on space vehicle of new generation. The basic concept of this spacecraft development is the modern technology utilization, significant cost reduction and meeting objectives of the important science return. The bottom line is the use of middle class Soyuz-type launcher, which places the principal constraint on mass of the vehicle and mission profile. Flexibility in the design of space vehicle, including a possibility of SEP technology utilization, facilitates its adaptability for extended program of the solar system exploration. As the first step, the project is optimized around sample return mission from satellite of Mars Phobos ("Phobos-Grunt" or PSR) which is in the list of the Russian Federal Space Program for 2006 to 2015. It is to be launched in 2009 and completed in 2012. The experience gained from the former Russian "Phobos 88" serves as a clue to provide an important basis for the mission concept enabling solution of many problems of the project design and its implementation. There is a challenge to return relic matter from such small body like Phobos for the ground labs comprehensive study. The payload is also targeted for in-flight and extended remote sensing and in situ measurements using the capable instrument packages. The project is addressed as a milestone in the Russian program of the solar system study, with a potential for future ambitious missions to asteroids and comets pooling international efforts. Also endorsed by the Russian Federal Space Program is "Luna-Glob" mission to the Moon tentatively scheduled for 2011. The goal is to advance lunar science with the well instrumented orbiter, lander, and the network of penetrators. Return back

  12. Polarized electromagnetic response of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1974-01-01

    The strong anisotropy in Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) signals resulting from electromagnetic induction in the moon, forced by fluctuations of the interplanetary magnetic field, is shown to result from intense polarization of the induced field. Arguments are given to show that the anisotropy cannot be explained wholly by asymmetric lunar induction in the presence of the diamagnetic cavity, but must be related to a regional influence. The weaker Apollo 12 anisotropy may also be associated with a regional influence. The site of Apollo 15 LSM at the edge of the Imbrium Basin suggests a preliminary model for calculations based on the possibility that Imbrium and perhaps Serenitatis are sources of the regional effect. Lastly, since the very low frequency induction seems free of the anisotropy, our earlier estimate of deep conductivity remains unchanged.

  13. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    spiralling journey accounted for more than 100 million kilometres, while the Moon - if you wanted to go there in a straight line - is only between 350,000 and 400,000 kilometres away from the Earth. As SMART-1 neared its destination, it began using the gravity of the Moon to bring it into a position where it was captured by the Moon’s gravitational field. This occurred in November 2004. After being captured by the Moon, in January 2005, SMART-1 started to spiral down to its final operational polar elliptical orbit with a perilune (closest point to the lunar surface) altitude of 300 km and apolune (farthest point) altitude of 3000 km. to conduct its scientific exploration mission. What was there to know that we didn’t know already? Despite the number of spacecraft that have visited the Moon, many scientific questions concerning our natural satellite remained unanswered, notably to do with the origin and evolution of the Moon, and the processes that shape rocky planetary bodies (such as tectonics, volcanism, impacts and erosion). Thanks to SMART-1, scientists all over Europe and around the world now have the best resolution surface images ever from lunar orbit, as well as a better knowledge of the Moon’s minerals. For the first time from orbit, they have detected calcium and magnesium using an X-ray instrument. They have measured compositional changes from the central peaks of craters, volcanic plains and giant impact basins. SMART-1 has also studied impact craters, volcanic features and lava tubes, and monitored the polar regions. In addition, it found an area near the north pole where the Sun always shines, even in winter. SMART-1 has roamed over the lunar poles, enabling it to map the whole Moon, including its lesser known far side. The poles are particularly interesting to scientists because they are relatively unexplored. Moreover, some features in the polar regions have a geological history which is distinct from the more closely studied equatorial regions where

  14. Surface radiation environment of Saturn's icy moon Mimas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordheim, T.; Hand, K. P.; Paranicas, C.; Kollmann, P.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.; Krupp, N.

    2012-09-01

    The majority of the large icy satellites that orbit Jupiter and Saturn are embedded within the magnetospheres of their respective parent bodies. The inner regions of these magnetospheric environments are characterized by populations of trapped charged particles, from thermal plasma to high energy energetic ions and electrons. Moons orbiting within these magnetospheres are therefore often subject to continuous bombardment by multiple particle species over a wide range of energies. It is known that such bombardment may induce chemical alterations within icy surfaces through the process of radiolysis, an effect which has the potential to significantly change surface and near-surface composition over typical geological timescales. In order to make quantifiable predictions on the surface composition of these moons, it is therefore critical to have a detailed measure of deposited dose into the surface from the relevant magnetospheric particle species. Saturn's innermost large moon Mimas orbits within one of the harshest radiation environments of the Saturnian magnetosphere and remote sensing observations of the moon have revealed a surface that displays strong signs of magnetospheric weathering. It is therefore of great interest to further quantify the interaction of magnetospheric particles with the Mimantean surface, particularly with regards to determining which bombarding species dominate at different moon surface locations and surface depths and to compare this with remote sensing observations. We will present dose-depth profiles for the nearsurface which have been computed using a Monte Carlo particle transport code and representative energetic electron and proton spectra derived from measurements made by the MIMI-LEMMS particle instrument on the Cassini spacecraft.

  15. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    . More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry

  16. Preliminary data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area 3, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, S.C.; Goering, T.J.; McVey, M.D.; Strong, W.R.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents data from an instantaneous profile test conducted near the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area 3. The test was performed from December 1993 through 1995 as part of the environmental Restoration Project`s Phase 2 RCRA Facility Investigation of the Mixed Waste Landfill. The purpose of the test was to measure the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils near the Mixed Waste Landfill. The instantaneous profile test and instrumentation are described, and the pressure and moisture content data from the test are presented. These data may be useful for understanding the unsaturated hydraulic properties of soils in Technical Area 3 and for model validation, verification, and calibration.

  17. Rietveld neutron powder profile analysis and electrical conductivity of the fast silver-ion conductor (LaO)AgS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmer, D.; Wuensch, B. J.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    1999-11-18

    Lanthanum silver oxysulfide, (LaO)AgS, exhibits a predominantly ionic conductivity of 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}1} S/cm between 300 K and 770 K. The tetragonal structure consists of alternating (LaO) and (AgS) sheets, their sequence being O-La-S-Ag-S-La-O. The structure suggests that ionic transport arises from migration of silver ions within the AgS layers analogous to sodium ion transport in Na-{beta}-alumina. Neutron powder diffraction data measured at five temperatures between 300 K and 770 K are analyzed using the Rietveld method to determine the distribution and thermal vibration parameters of the mobile silver ions. The structural investigation is accompanied by measurements of the total conductivity in the same temperature range in order to resolve severe discrepancies in the literature data.

  18. The Early Years: Seeing the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    Spotting the Moon in the sky is like finding a treasure--unexpected and beautiful. When children look for the Moon in the sky, they don't know where to look. The Moon is far away and most easily observed at a time when most young children are sleeping. Because direct contact isn't possible, adults have to be creative in how they help children…

  19. Admittance–voltage profiling of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN heterostructures: Frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance

    SciTech Connect

    Köhler, K.; Pletschen, W.; Godejohann, B.; Müller, S.; Menner, H. P.; Ambacher, O.

    2015-11-28

    Admittance–voltage profiling of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN heterostructures was used to determine the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of FET devices in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. The nominally undoped low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy structures were grown with an Al-content of 30%. An additional 1 nm thick AlN interlayer was placed in one structure before the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N layer growth. For frequencies below 10{sup 8} Hz it is convenient to use equivalent circuits to represent electric or dielectric properties of a material, a method widely used, for example, in impedance spectroscopy. We want to emphasize the relation between frequency dependent admittance–voltage profiling and the corresponding equivalent circuits to the complex dielectric function. Debye and Drude models are used for the description of the frequency dependent admittance profiles in a range of depletion onset of the two-dimensional electron gas. Capacitance- and conductance-frequency profiles are fitted in the entire measured range by combining both models. Based on our results, we see contributions to the two-dimensional electron gas for our samples from surface states (80%) as well as from background doping in the Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}N barriers (20%). The specific resistance of the layers below the gate is above 10{sup 5} Ω cm for both samples and increases with increasing negative bias, i.e., the layers below the gate are essentially depleted. We propose that the resistance due to free charge carriers, determined by the Drude model, is located between gate and drain and, because of the AlN interlayer, the resistance is lowered by a factor of about 30 if compared to the sample without an AlN layer.

  20. Admittance-voltage profiling of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures: Frequency dependence of capacitance and conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, K.; Pletschen, W.; Godejohann, B.; Müller, S.; Menner, H. P.; Ambacher, O.

    2015-11-01

    Admittance-voltage profiling of AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures was used to determine the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of FET devices in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz. The nominally undoped low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy structures were grown with an Al-content of 30%. An additional 1 nm thick AlN interlayer was placed in one structure before the Al0.3Ga0.7N layer growth. For frequencies below 108 Hz it is convenient to use equivalent circuits to represent electric or dielectric properties of a material, a method widely used, for example, in impedance spectroscopy. We want to emphasize the relation between frequency dependent admittance-voltage profiling and the corresponding equivalent circuits to the complex dielectric function. Debye and Drude models are used for the description of the frequency dependent admittance profiles in a range of depletion onset of the two-dimensional electron gas. Capacitance- and conductance-frequency profiles are fitted in the entire measured range by combining both models. Based on our results, we see contributions to the two-dimensional electron gas for our samples from surface states (80%) as well as from background doping in the Al0.3Ga0.7N barriers (20%). The specific resistance of the layers below the gate is above 105 Ω cm for both samples and increases with increasing negative bias, i.e., the layers below the gate are essentially depleted. We propose that the resistance due to free charge carriers, determined by the Drude model, is located between gate and drain and, because of the AlN interlayer, the resistance is lowered by a factor of about 30 if compared to the sample without an AlN layer.

  1. Night side electromagnetic response of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Smith, B. F.; Sonett, C. P.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1973-01-01

    The inductive response of the moon to interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations has been measured by the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer. The dependence of the night side lunar response on frequency in the band from about 0.001 to 0.01 Hz is reported. It is shown that the night side response of the moon is not that of a sphere in vacuum. Instead, hydromagnetic radiation scattered from the moon is strongly confined to the interior of the cavity formed downstream from the moon in the solar wind.

  2. Different ways of viewing the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C.; Shipp, S.; Guimond, K.; Atkinson, C.; Balch, K.; Tuthill, G.

    When the first astronauts landed on the Moon in 1969 they left a plaque which noted that the efforts of exploration were for all mankind That same spirit still guides NASA and is an important part of their education public outreach E PO programs In 2008 India will launch a mission to the Moon Chandrayaan-1 with a NASA funded instrument onboard Moon Mineralogy Mapper M3 The E PO resources being developed for M3 and Chandrayaan-1 share the cultural significance of the moon around the world as well its scientific history Additionally by employing the strategies of universal design the E PO materials will be accessible to diverse audiences

  3. ISA accelerometer and Moon science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Peron, Roberto; Santoli, Francesco; Fiorenza, Emiliano; Lefevre, Carlo; Nozzoli, Sergio; Reale, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    In recent years the Moon has become again a target for exploration activities, as shown by many performed, ongoing or foreseen missions. The reason for this new wave are manifold. The knowledge of formation and evolution of the Moon to current state is important in order to trace the overall history of Solar System. An effective driving factor is the possibility of building a human settlement on its surface, with all the related issues of environment characterization, safety, resources, communication and navigation. Our natural satellite is also an important laboratory for fundamental physics: Lunar Laser Ranging is continuing to provide important data that constrain possible theories of gravitation. All these topics are providing stimulus and inspirations for new experiments. ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) can provide an important tool for lunar studies. Thanks to its structure (three one-dimensional sensors assembled in a composite structure) it works both in-orbit and on-ground, with the same configuration. It therefore can be used onboard a spacecraft, as a support to a radio science mission, and on the surface of the Moon, as a seismometer. The first option has been explorated in the context of MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Gravimetrica geochImica lunAre), a proposal for an exploration mission with a noteworthy part dedicated to gravimetry and fundamental physics. The second option is candidate to be hosted on NASA ILN (International Lunar Network) and ESA First Lunar Lander. After a description of the instrument, both of them will be described and discussed, giving emphasis on the integration of the instrument with the other components of the respective experiments.

  4. Moon As Seen By NIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    These four images of the Moon are from data acquired by the Galileo spacecraft's Near-Earth Mapping Spectrometer during Galileo's December 1992 Earth/Moon flyby. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is toward the left, and the lunar north pole is near the terminator, upper right. The dark regions to left and below in the black-and-white image at upper left, are lunar Maria, including Mare Imbrium at upper left, Serenitatis and Tranquillitatis, lower left center, and the circular basin to the right is Crisium. The bright areas ringing Crisium and dominating the center of the images are the heavily cratered and mountainous lunar highlands. The black-and-white image used infrared wavelengths just beyond the visible deep red. The false-color map images (upper right and lower right) show the relative strength of silicate-rock absorption of near-infrared sunlight, at about 1-micron wavelength. Blue areas show stronger absorption and generally indicate materials with more pyroxene and olivine (iron-bearing silicate materials), while yellow indicates less absorption, due to original compositional variations. In young fresh craters, absorptions are also stronger due to the absence of meteorite-impact effects. Outlines of previously defined geological units are superimposed in the lower right image. Note correlation with the Maria/highlands features in the black-and-white image. The preliminary mineralogical map at lower left uses infrared band shape and intensity to visualize variations in pyroxene and olivine. Blue is related to low-calcium pyroxene, while green and red indicate high calcium and the iron/magnesium content of pyroxene, as well as olivine. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. Uranus rings and two moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Voyager 2 has discovered two 'shepherd' satellites associated with the rings of Uranus. The two moons -- designated 1986U7 and 1986U8 -- are seen here on either side of the bright epsilon ring; all nine of the known Uranian rings are visible. The image was taken Jan. 21, 1986, at a distance of 4.1 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) and resolution of about 36 km (22 mi). The image was processed to enhance narrow features. The epsilon ring appears surrounded by a dark halo as a result of this processing; occasional blips seen on the ring are also artifacts. Lying inward from the epsilon ring are the delta, gamma and eta rings; then the beta and alpha rings; and finally the barely visible 4, 5 and 6 rings. The rings have been studied since their discovery in 1977, through observations of how they diminish the light of stars they pass in front of. This image is the first direct observation of all nine rings in reflected sunlight. They range in width from about 100 km (60 mi) at the widest part of the epsilon ring to only a few kilometers for most of the others. The discovery of the two ring moons 1986U7 and 1986U8 is a major advance in our understanding of the structure of the Uranian rings and is in good agreement with theoretical predictions of how these narrow rings are kept from spreading out. Based on likely surface brightness properties, the moons are of roughly 2O- and 3O-km diameter, respectively. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  6. Live from the Moon - Impact!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On March 24, 1965, a nationwide TV audience watched live video from Ranger 9 as it purposefully crashed into the Moon within the crater Alphonsus. Ranger's six cameras sent back more than 5800 video images during the last 18 minutes of its 3-day journey, the last of the Ranger Project. The last few images show the lunar surface in detail from a few hundred meters above.

    This sequence of images from Camera A was converted from video to film to laser disc to digital files.

  7. Moon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... between image center and the left edge of the disk is the crater Copernicus, with the large Mare Imbrium to its north. Near the bottom is the crater Tycho, with bright rays of ejecta extending in many directions. ...

  8. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductance and oxygen concentration in Lake Powell, Arizona-Utah, 1992-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzolf, G. Richard; Hart, Robert J.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1998-01-01

    The depth distribution of temperature in lakes and reservoirs establishes vertical-density gradients that regulate the distribution of a wide array of chemical and biological features. In Lake Powell, the depth at which inflowing river water enters the reservoir is controlled by the water temperature of the river compared to the vertical-thermal structure of the reservoir in late spring and early summer. The measurements reported here document the longitudinal and vertical pattern of temperature, specific conductance, and oxygen concentration on several dates in 1992, 1994, and 1995.

  9. Apollo 17 petrology and experimental determination of differentiation sequences in model moon compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, F. N.; Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies of model moon compositions are discussed, taking into account questions related to the differentiation of the outer layer of the moon. Phase relations for a series of proposed lunar compositions have been determined and a petrographic and electron microprobe study was conducted on four Apollo 17 samples. Two of the samples consist of high-titanium mare basalts, one includes crushed anorthosite and gabbro, and another contains blue-gray breccia.

  10. Evaluation of ground penetrating radar and resistivity profilings for characterizing lithology and moisture content changes: a case study of the high-conductivity United Kingdom Triassic sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Delwar

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution geophysical techniques can be employed as a means of characterizing the lithological changes within materials frequently known to be variable. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiling using 50, 100, 200, and 400 MHz antennae and electrical resistivity imaging have been used to investigate high-conductivity United Kingdom Triassic sandstone lithology and moisture content changes. The investigation site is located outside the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Birmingham on a gentle grassy slope. Three GPR and electrical imaging lines were completed over this site. The results of the observations reveal a higher degree of both vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the highly conductive sandstones. The results obtained using these two high-resolution geophysical tools agree reasonably well with each other. These techniques appear to be useful for high resolution and continuous mapping of the subsurface sediments.

  11. Introducing the Moon's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    I present a novel way to introduce the lunar orbital eccentricity in introductory astronomy courses. The Moon is perhaps the clearest illustration of the general orbital elements such as inclination, ascending node, eccentricity, perigee, and so on. Furthermore, I like the students to discover astronomical phenomena for themselves, by means of a guided exercise, rather than just telling them the facts.1 The inclination and nodes may be found by direct observation, monitoring carefully the position of the Moon among the stars. Even the regression of the nodes may be discovered in this way2 To find the eccentricity from students' observations is also possible,3 but that requires considerable time and effort. if a whole class should discover it in a short time, here is a method more suitable for a one-day class or home assignment. The level I aim at is, more or less, advanced high school or first-year college students. I assume them to be acquainted with celestial coordinates and the lunar phases, and to be able to use algebra and trigonometry.

  12. Meteoritic material on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of meteoritic material are found on the moon: micrometeorites, ancient planetesimal debris from the "early intense bombardment," and debris of recent, craterforming projectiles. Their amounts and compositions have been determined from trace element studies. The micrometeorite component is uniformly distributed over the entire lunar surface, but is seen most clearly in mare soils. It has a primitive, C1-chondrite-like composition, and comprises 1 to 1.5 percent of mature soils. Apparently it represents cometary debris. The ancient component is seen in highland breccias and soils. Six varieties have been recognized, differing in their proportions of refractories (Ir, Re), volatiles (Ge, Sb), and Au. All have a fractionated composition, with volatiles depleted relative to siderophiles. The abundance patterns do not match those of the known meteorite classes. These ancient meteoritic components seem to represent the debris of an extinct population of bodies (planetisimals, moonlets) that produced the mare basins during the first 700 Myr of the moon's history. On the basis of their stratigraphy and geographic distribution, five of the six groups are tentatively assigned to specific mare basins: Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum or Nubium.

  13. HST Observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, A. D.; Garner, C. J.; McIntosh, C. M.; Landis, R. R.; Schultz, A. B.

    2005-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed the Moon in August 2005, using the High Resolution Camera (HRC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) (proposal ID 10719, PI Garvin). Three sites were observed: the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites, and Aristarchus crater. Four filters were used: the F658N in the red, the F502N in the visible, the F344N in the UV, and the F250W in the vacuum UV. HST affords spatial resolution of about 100m on the Moon, as well as access to the vacuum UV, which are impossible from ground based observations. Tracking was necessarily done under gyro control and so some image drift occurred between and during exposures. We present HST data that has been processed to remove instrumental distortion and drift during the exposures. We use the MISTRAL image restoration algorithm (Mugnier et al. 2004) and a trailed point spread function to minimize the effects of image motion. We will make mosaics of data in individual filters and where there is spatial overlap between the mosaics, present maps showing both the relative age of the surface material, as well as its overall composition. Mugnier et al. (2004): "MISTRAL: a myopic edge-preserving image restoration method, with application to astronomical adaptive-optics-corrected long-exposure images", JOSA A, vol 21 no. 10, pp. 1841-1854

  14. LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

    2013-04-01

    The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite

  15. Space Debris Hazards from Fragmentations in Collinear Earth-Moon Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Priyankar; Sharma, Ram Krishan; Tewari, Ashish

    2009-03-01

    The collinear Lagrange points of the Earth-Moon system provide an ideal environment for future missions. L1 point, which lies between the Earth and the Moon, has potential for a manned space station to transport cargo and personnel to the Moon and back. Similarly, L2 point can be a candidate location for communication satellites covering the far side of Moon. Because, Lagrange Points promise to be the hub of future space operations, it has become important to study effect of a spacecraft fragmentation at these points. In this context, Stumpff/Weiss four-body algorithm, which is an extension of the Encke method of orbit propagation, provides a very attractive proposition for the simulation of fragment evolution. The method is 10 to 15 times faster than the other similar techniques and hence permits Monte-Carlo (MC) analysis of fragmentation velocity. Following a fragmentation at Earth-Moon collinear point about 2% of the total number of debris pieces can come within GSO altitude (~ 3.6×104 km). Fragmentation at any one of the Earth-Moon collinear points poses small yet perceptible risk to space operation around the Earth. It is emphasized that there is a genuine need to conduct more detailed study on fragmentation at collinear Earth- Moon points.

  16. Supporting Crewed Missions using LiAISON Navigation in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Jason M.

    Crewed navigation in certain regions of the Earth-Moon system provides a unique challenge due to the unstable dynamics and observation geometry relative to standard Earth-based tracking systems. The focus of this thesis is to advance the understanding of navigation precision in the Earth-Moon system, analyzing the observability of navigation data types frequently used to navigate spacecraft, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of a crewed vehicle disturbance model for future manned missions in the Earth-Moon system. In this research, a baseline for navigation performance of a spacecraft in a Lagrange point orbit in the Earth-Moon system is analyzed. Using operational ARTEMIS tracking data, an overlap analysis of the reconstructed ARTEMIS trajectory states is conducted. This analysis provides insight into the navigation precision of a spacecraft traversing a Lissajous orbit about the Earth-Moon L1 point. While the ARTEMIS analysis provides insight into the navigation precision using ground based tracking methods, an examination of the benefits of introducing Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON) is investigated. This examination provides insight into the benefits and disadvantages of LiAISON range and range-rate measurements for trajectories in the Earth-Moon system. In addition to the characterization of navigation precision for spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system, an analysis of the uncertainty propagation for noisy crewed vehicles and quiet robotic spacecraft is given. Insight is provided on the characteristics of uncertainty propagation and how it is correlated to the instability of the Lagrange point orbit. A crewed vehicle disturbance model is provided based on either Gaussian or Poisson assumptions. The natural tendency for the uncertainty distribution in a Lagrange point orbit is to align with the unstable manifold after a certain period of propagation. This behavior is influenced directly by the unstable

  17. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Moon from ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, R. E.; Delory, G. T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemis Team

    2011-12-01

    ARTEMIS is a twin-satellite, two-year lunar orbital mission, formed by retasking two of the THEMIS constellation (Angelopoulos, Space Sci. Rev.2010). The two spacecraft achieved lunar orbit in summer 2011. Although conceived for heliospheric science, investigations of the exosphere, crustal magnetic fields, and interior are enabled by the electromagnetic (EM) instruments of ARTEMIS (Sibeck et al., Space Sci. Rev, 2011). EM sounding of the interior will be improved over Apollo-era investigations due to the larger bandwidth, longer mission duration, and geographic coverage. Science objectives include (1) structure and heterogeneity of the outermost 500 km (crust and upper mantle), a region that may contain key information on the lunar magma ocean and the origin of the anomalous Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT); (2) tighter bounds on the conductivity of the lower mantle (500-1400 km depth), in order to constrain the temperature and nature of trace elements that control electrical conduction, particularly water; and (3) size of the metallic core, and whether a surrounding layer of molten silicate is present. EM sounding from ARTEMIS can be performed in at least two ways. In the transfer-function (TF) method derived during Apollo, the magnetic fields at a distant platform are compared to a (near) surface sensor to derive the source and sum of source and induced fields, respectively. From these data the internal conductivity structure giving rise to the induced field can be derived. However, source-field heterogeneity disturbs TF responses > 0.01 Hz. These high frequencies are necessary to resolve the crust and upper mantle. In contrast, the magnetotelluric (MT) method derives internal structure from the horizontal components of electric and magnetic fields at a single near-surface sensor, and therefore does not depend strongly on source-field geometry. MT has been used for more than a half-century in terrestrial exploration, but ARTEMIS marks its first planetary

  18. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  19. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

  20. Origin and Evolution of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Cuixiang

    2014-01-01

    Since the Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth, the research on the formation of the Moon can not only find out the formation mechanism of the satellites of Solar System planets but also reveal the evolution law of galaxies in the universe. Hence many hypotheses have been proposed for the Moon's formation, including fission,capture,condensation,and impact event hypothesis, but they all have problems. Recently, the author of this abstract discovered the formation mechanism of the Moon, which can be called ``evolution theory'', and described as follows: During some violent volcanic eruptions of the Earth, some rock debris such as pumice through deep rock hole could achieve a velocity no less than the first cosmic velocity (7.9 km/s) to enter an orbit around the Earth, one of the biggest debris is the young Moon. The orbit of the young Moon might be much closer to the Earth than it is today. There were a lot of ejecta from the Earth in the space. Hence, the Moon has merged these ejecta to become larger and larger, and farther and farther away from the Earth.This can be proved as follows: When the Moon moved around the Earth normally, the centrifugal force produced by the Moon's rotation around the Earth and the Earth's gravitation pull on the Moon had the same size. Let M be the mass of the Earth, m 1 be the mass of the Moon, r m be the radius of the Moon, r be the centroid distance between the Earth and the Moon, v be the tangential velocity of the Moon around the Earth, then Gm 1 M/r 2=m 1 v 2/r, therefore $v=\\sqrt{GM/r}$ . Near the orbit of the Moon, there were also many smaller prograde planetesimals moving around the Earth in circular orbits of radius r x (r-r m \\sqrt{GM/r}$ , which implies v x > v, these planetesimals would finally catch and merge with the Moon.Especially,if a planetesimals was large enough, it would impact the Moon forcefully, making the Moon's velocity increase to a larger

  1. The Moon's Phases and the Self Shadow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Timothy; Guy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a new way of teaching the phases of the Moon. Through the introduction of a "self shadow" (an idea of a shadow that is not well-known), they illuminate students' understanding of the phases of the Moon and help them understand the distinction between the shadows that cause eclipses and the shadows that relate…

  2. Rise and fall of the Martian moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphaug, Erik

    2016-08-01

    The two small satellites of Mars are thought to have accreted from a debris disk formed in a giant impact. Simulations suggest the moons were shepherded into formation by the dynamical influence of one or more short-lived massive inner moons.

  3. Formative Assessment Probes: The Daytime Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2012-01-01

    The familiar adage "seeing is believing" implies that children will recall a particular phenomenon if they had the experience of seeing it with their own eyes. If this were true, then most children would believe that one could see the Moon in both daytime and at night. However, when children are asked, "Can you see the Moon in the daytime?" many…

  4. Aperture synthesis imaging from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1991-01-01

    Four candidate imaging aperture synthesis concepts are described for possible emplacement on the moon beginning in the next decade. These include an optical interferometer with 10 microarcsec resolution, a submillimeter array with 6 milliarcsec resolution, a moon-earth VLBI experiment, and a very low frequency interferometer in lunar orbit.

  5. NASAs Evolvable Mars Campaign: Mars Moons Robotic Precursor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Abell, Paul A.; Love, Stanley G.; Lee, David E.; Chappell, Steven P.; Howe, A. Scott; Friedensen, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Human exploration missions to the moons of Mars are being considered within NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) as an intermediate step for eventual human exploration and pioneering of the surface of Mars. A range of mission architectures is being evaluated in which human crews would explore one or both moons for as little as 14 days or for as long as 500 days with a variety of orbital and surface habitation and mobility options being considered. Relatively little is known about the orbital, surface, or subsurface characteristics of either moon. This makes them interesting but challenging destinations for human exploration missions during which crewmembers must be able to effectively conduct scientific exploration without being exposed to undue risks due to radiation, dust, micrometeoroids, or other hazards. A robotic precursor mission to one or both moons will be required to provide data necessary for the design and operation of subsequent human systems and for the identification and prioritization of scientific exploration objectives. This paper identifies and discusses considerations for the design of such a precursor mission based on current human mission architectures. Objectives of a Mars' moon precursor in support of human missions are expected to include: 1) identifying hazards on the surface and the orbital environment at up to 50-km distant retrograde orbits; 2) collecting data on physical characteristics for planning of detailed human proximity and surface operations; 3) performing remote sensing and in situ science investigations to refine and focus future human scientific activities; and 4) prospecting for in situ resource utilization. These precursor objectives can be met through a combination or remote sensing (orbital) and in-situ (surface) measurements. Analysis of spacecraft downlink signals using radio science techniques would measure the moon's mass, mass distribution, and gravity field, which will be necessary to enable trajectory planning

  6. The squint Moon and the witch ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.

    2015-06-01

    A witch ball is a reflecting sphere of glass. Looking into the disk that it subtends, the whole sky can be seen at one glance. This feature can be exploited to see and photograph the squint Moon illusion, in which the direction normal to the illuminated face of the Moon—its ‘attitude vector’—does not appear to point towards the Sun. The images of the Sun and Moon in the disk, the geodesic connecting them, the Moon’s attitude, and the squint angle (distinct from the tilt), can be calculated and simulated, for all celestial configurations and viewing inclinations. The Moon direction antipodal to the Sun, corresponding to full Moon, is a singularity of the attitude vector field, with index +1. The main features of the witch ball images also occur in other ways of imaging the squint Moon.

  7. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  8. Russian Scientific Project: "The Moon - 2012+"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A.; Petrova, N.

    2006-08-01

    The realization of the modern long-time programs of comprehensive investigation of the Moon in the framework: "SMART-1" (ESA, 2003+), "SELENE" (JAXA, 2007), "Chandrayaan" (India, 2007), "CHANG'E-I" (CNSA, 2007), "LRO" (NASA, 2008), and "Luna Glob" (Russia, 2012) are aimed at obtaining of broad information about lunar gravity field, precision position in the inertial coordinate system, geometrical and dynamical figure and lunar interior: qualitative parameter Q, Love number k[2], core's radius R[c], core's density etc. Russian scientific project "The Moon - 2012+" is directed on the decision of fundamental problems of celestial mechanics, selenodesy and geophysics of the Moon connected to carrying out of complex theoretical researches and computer modelling: 1. Spin-orbital long-time evolution and physical librations the multilayered Moon: ?) construction of the analytical theory of rotation of the two/ three-layer Moon and reception on its basis of physical libration tables for their application at processing precision supervisions; construction of a lunar annual book. b) The analysis of spin-orbital evolution of the early Moon, an estimation of internal energy dissipation, modelling of the long-term mechanism of maintenance free librations the Moon. 2. Geodynamics of a lunar core: the analysis of differentiation of a lunar core, detailed elaboration of plume-tectonics of a mantle and a core of the early Moon, evolution of a boundary layer a core - mantle, reconstruction of gravitational and viscous - mechanical interaction of a lunar core and a mantle, resonant dissipation of internal energy, calculation free and forced nutations a lunar core, free fluctuations of system a core - mantle. 3. Selenodesy of lunar far - side: the decision of a return problem lunar gravimetry, construction of geodynamic model of a lunar crust, a mantle and a core, border Moho, reconstruction initial mascons on the Moon, creation precision topographical and gravitational models of the

  9. Young Children's Knowledge About the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.

  10. The Moon in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    While the Moon has been observed in the UV for decades, the real utility of this spectral region for unlocking some of the Moon’s secrets has only recently been understood. Previously the domain of atmospheric studies, the UV has now emerged as an important spectral region for studying surfaces. The ultraviolet regime is very sensitive to both space weathering effects and composition, including hydration. This presentation will cover a review of early UV lunar observations (e.g., Apollo 17, International Ultraviolet Explorer), as well as early laboratory studies that first shone a light on the importance of this spectral region. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument, currently in orbit on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, is providing critical mapping capabilities of UV signatures, including signals from the permanently shadowed regions of the poles. I will discuss some of these exciting results, and extend these to implications for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  11. Impact ejecta on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The response of a lunar-sized object to the impact of meteoroids no more than about 100 km in radius is studied by means of a numerical model. The partitioning of impact energy into the kinetic and internal energy of the ejecta is obtained by using the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations in finite-difference form within an Eulerian framework with approximate equations of state. The calculations are performed for a 15 km/sec impact of an iron object 5 cm in radius on a gabbroic anorthosite surface. Ejecta ballistic analysis is then performed. Most of the material lost escaping the moon is lunar crust material. Only 0.2% of the meteoroid escapes, all in the vapor phase.

  12. One Moon, many measurements 2: Photometric corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, S.; Yokota, Y.; Boardman, J.; Green, R.; Haruyama, J.; Isaacson, P.; Mall, U.; Matsunaga, T.; Ohtake, M.; Pieters, C.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Yamamoto, S.

    2013-09-01

    Observations of the lunar surface within the past 10 years have been made with various lunar remote sensing instruments, the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard the Chandrayaan-1 mission, the Spectral Profiler (SP), the Multiband Imager (MI), the Terrain Camera (TC) onboard the SELENE mission, and the ground based USGS Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) for some of them. The lunar phase functions derived from these datasets, which are used in the photometric modeling to correct for the various illumination conditions of the data, are compared to assess their differences and similarity in order to improve interpretations of lunar surface spectra. The phase functions are found to be similar across various phase angles except in the 0-20° range. Differences across the 0-20° range likely result from two different inputs in the photometric modeling of the M3 and SP data: (1) M3 has larger emission angles due to the characteristics of the instrument and the attitude of the spacecraft, and (2) M3 viewing geometry was derived from the local topography whereas SP used a spherical Moon (no topography). The combination of these two different inputs affects the phase function at small phase angles where shadows play a more substantial role, with spatial resolution differences between M3 and SP being another possible source for the differences. SP data are found to be redder (i.e., steeper slope with increasing wavelengths) than MI, M3 and ROLO. Finally, the M3 overall reflectance is also found to be lower than that the other instruments (i.e., MI, SP, and ROLO), generally at least 10% darker than MI. These differences can be observed at local scales in specific examples at hundreds of meters resolutions. At regional and global scales, the same differences are found, which demonstrates the overall stability of the various datasets. The observations from M3, TC, SP and MI are very stable and agree well; however caution should be used when making interpretations based on the

  13. Constraints on the moon's origin from the partitioning behaviour of tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Drake, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of the parameters which control the partitioning of W between metal and silicate in the moon, taking into account information on the possible magnitudes of the lunar W depletion and the possible lunar metal content. A major question regarding depletion of W during partial melting is found to be related to the very homogeneous W/La ratios in lunar samples. It is concluded that a metal content consistent with present geophysical constraints on the size of a metallic lunar core could account for the depletion of W observed in lunar rocks. The low W/La ratio of the moon cannot be used as evidence for the formation of the moon from the earth's mantle by fission following terrestrial core formation. The approximate coincidence of W/La ratios in the earth, moon, and eucrite parent body may only reflect the operation of the same depletion mechanism in similar conditions on several parent bodies.

  14. Constraints on the moon's origin from the partitioning behaviour of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newson, H. E.; Drake, M. J.

    1982-05-01

    An evaluation is conducted of the parameters which control the partitioning of W between metal and silicate in the moon, taking into account information on the possible magnitudes of the lunar W depletion and the possible lunar metal content. A major question regarding depletion of W during partial melting is found to be related to the very homogeneous W/La ratios in lunar samples. It is concluded that a metal content consistent with present geophysical constraints on the size of a metallic lunar core could account for the depletion of W observed in lunar rocks. The low W/La ratio of the moon cannot be used as evidence for the formation of the moon from the earth's mantle by fission following terrestrial core formation. The approximate coincidence of W/La ratios in the earth, moon, and eucrite parent body may only reflect the operation of the same depletion mechanism in similar conditions on several parent bodies.

  15. Life sciences on the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life. These include the analysis of lunar samples and meteorites in relatively pristine conditions, radioastronomical search for other planetary systems or Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), and studies on the role of radiation in evolutionary processes and on the environmental limits for life. For radiation biology, the Moon provides an unique laboratory with built-in sources for optical as well as ionising radiation to investigate the biological importance of the various components of cosmic and solar radiation. Before establishing a lunar base, precursor missions will provide a characterisation of the radiation field, determination of depth dose distributions in different absorbers, the installation of a solar flare alert system, and a qualification of the biological efficiency of the mixed radiation environment. One of the most challenging projects falls into the domain of ecology with the establishment for the first time of an artificial ecosystem on a celestial body beyond the Earth. From this venture, a better understanding of the dynamics regulating our terrestrial biosphere is expected. It will also serve as a precursor of bioregenerative life support systems for a lunar base. The establishment of a lunar base with eventually long-term human presence will raise various problems in the fields of human physiology and health care, psychology and sociology. Protection guidelines for living in this hostile environment have to be established.

  16. Asteroid Ida and Its Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the first full picture showing both asteroid 243 Ida and its newly discovered moon to be transmitted to Earth from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Galileo spacecraft--the first conclusive evidence that natural satellites of asteroids exist. Ida, the large object, is about 56 kilometers (35 miles) long. Ida's natural satellite is the small object to the right. This portrait was taken by Galileo's charge-coupled device (CCD) camera on August 28, 1993, about 14 minutes before the Jupiter-bound spacecraft's closest approach to the asteroid, from a range of 10,870 kilometers (6,755 miles). Ida is a heavily cratered, irregularly shaped asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter--the 243rd asteroid to be discovered since the first was found at the beginning of the 19th century. Ida is a member of a group of asteroids called the Koronis family. The small satellite, which is about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile) across in this view, has yet to be given a name by astronomers. It has been provisionally designated '1993 (243) 1' by the International Astronomical Union. ('1993' denotes the year the picture was taken, '243' the asteroid number and '1' the fact that it is the first moon of Ida to be found.) Although appearing to be 'next' to Ida, the satellite is actually in the foreground, slightly closer to the spacecraft than Ida is. Combining this image with data from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, the science team estimates that the satellite is about 100 kilometers (60 miles) away from the center of Ida. This image, which was taken through a green filter, is one of a six-frame series using different color filters. The spatial resolution in this image is about 100 meters (330 feet) per pixel.

  17. Environmental Change in Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong evidence that subsurface oceans could exist within several of the outer solar system's ice-rich moons, at Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), Saturn (Enceladus and Titan), and Neptune (Triton). If liquid water is indeed available in these subsurface environments, then the availability of chemical energy becomes the greatest limitation on whether icy worlds could harbor life. Of these moons, the largest (Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are expected to harbor oceans deep within, and high-pressure H2O ice phases are expected farther beneath those deep oceans. In contrast, the oceans of smaller icy worlds—Europa, Enceladus, and Triton—are plausibly in direct contact with rock below. Given that serpentinization or other water-rock geochemical activity could supply reductants directly to their oceans, these icy worlds have the greatest chance to support present-day microbial life. Each of these three icy worlds displays spectacular resurfaced terrains that are very young (crater retention ages ~10s Myr and younger), with their internal activity linked to extremes in tidal heating today and/or in the geologically recent past. However, the degree of their tidal heating may have changed greatly over time. Europa is believed to experience cyclical tidal heating and activity; Enceladus may have experienced cyclical activity or a geologically recent pulse of activity; Triton may have experienced extreme tidal heating upon its capture and orbital circularization. Such dynamic pasts would pose challenges for any life within. We consider the possible effects of severe swings in the activity level of icy worlds, specifically the implications for delivery of chemical energy to their subsurface oceans.

  18. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, Will M.; Noll, Keith S.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 ± 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0.″57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis ≳21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake’s moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This “dark moon hypothesis” can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  19. Taking Europe To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    The first step in this ESA initiated programme is a unique project called 'Euromoon 2000' which is currently being studied by ESA engineers/ scientists and key European Space Industries. The project is intended to celebrate Europe's entry into the New Millennium; and to promote public awareness and interest in science, technology and space exploration. Euromoon 2000 has an innovative and ambitious implementation plan. This includes a 'partnership with industry' and a financing scheme based on raising part of the mission's budget from sponsorship through a dynamic public relations strategy and marketing programme. The mission begins in earnest with the small (approx. 100 kg) LunarSat orbiter satellite, to be designed and built by 50 young scientists and engineers from across Europe. Scheduled for launch in 2000 as a secondary payload on a European Ariane 5 rocket, it will then orbit the Moon, mapping the planned landing area in greater detail in preparation of the EuroMoon Lander in 2001. The Lander's 40 kg payload allocation will accommodate amongst others scientific instrumentation for in-situ investigation of the unique site. Elements of specific support to the publicity and fund-raising campaign will also be considered. The Lander will aim for the 'Peak of Eternal Light' on the rim of the 20 km-diameter, 3 km-deep Shackleton South Pole crater - a site uniquely suited for establishing a future outpost. This location enjoys almost continuous sunlight thus missions can rely on solar power instead of bulky batteries or costly and potentially hazardous nuclear power generation. As a consequence of the undulating South Pole terrain there are also permanently shadowed areas - amongst the coldest in the Solar System resulting in conditions highly favourable for the formation of frozen volatiles (as suggested by the Clementine mission in 1994). Earlier this year (7th January 1998), NASA launched its Lunar Prospector satellite which is currently performing polar lunar

  20. Detection to the DepositFan Occurring in the Sun Moon Lake Using Geophysical Sonar Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimi, L.

    2014-12-01

    Located in central Taiwan, the Sun Moon Lake is an U-shaped basin with the waters capacity for 138.68 × 106m³. The water is input through two underground tunnels from the Wu-Jie dam in the upstream of the Zhuo-shui river. Although the Wu-Jie dam has been trying to keep the tunnels transporting clean water into the lake, the water is still mixed with muds. The silty water brings the deposits accumulating outwards from positions of the tunnel outlets resulting in a deposit fan formed in the lake. To monitor how the fan is accumulated is then very important in terms of environmental issue, tourism and electric power resources. Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University therefore conducted projects to use the multi-beam echo sounders to collect bathymetric data, and used the Chirp sub-bottom profiler to explore silted pattern inside the deposit fan. With these data, underwater topographic maps were plotted to observe the shape and internal structure of the fan. Moreover, two sets of data obtained in 2006 and 2012 were used to estimate the siltation magnitude and pattern in the six years period.The multi-beam sounder is Resons Seabat 9001s model; it collects 60 values in each of the swaths positioned by the DGPS method.The sub-bottom profiler is the EdgeTech 3100P Chirp Sonar, its acoustic wave frequency is in 2 ~ 16kHz. The data give the siltation amount in the Sun Moon Lake was around 3× 106 m³, which gives annual siltation rate at 5× 105 m³. The leading edge of the deposit fan has been expanded westwards 2 km from the water outlet since the tunnel was built 70 years ago; however, outside the deposit fan, the siltation shows insignificant amount on the water bottom.In the past few years the siltation mainly occurs outside in the east side of lake, more closer to the water outlets, the terrain had been increased from 744 m to 746 m (748.5 meters is stranded level of the lake).Observing sub-bottom profiler data, we can clearly see the location of the

  1. Apollo astronaut supports return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    Nearly 40 years after the Apollo 17 Moon launch on 7 December 1972, former NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt said there is "no question" that the Moon is still worth going to, "whether you think about the science of the Moon or the resources of the Moon, or its relationship to accelerating our progress toward Mars." Schmitt, a geologist and the lunar module pilot for that final Apollo mission, was speaking at a 6 December news briefing about lunar science at the AGU Fall Meeting. "By going back to the Moon, you accelerate your ability to go anywhere else," Schmitt said, because of the ability to gain experience on a solar system body just a 3-day journey from Earth; test new hardware and navigation and communication techniques; and utilize lunar resources such as water, hydrogen, methane, and helium-3. He said lunar missions also would be a way "to develop new generations of people who know how to work in deep space. The people who know how to work [there] are my age, if not older, and we need young people to get that kind of experience." Schmitt, 77, said that a particularly interesting single location to explore would be the Aitken Basin at the Moon's south pole, where a crater may have reached into the Moon's upper mantle. He also said a longer duration exploration program might be able to explore multiple sites.

  2. MIGRATION OF SMALL MOONS IN SATURN's RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, Benjamin C.; Kenyon, Scott J. E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-02-20

    The motions of small moons through Saturn's rings provide excellent tests of radial migration models. In theory, torque exchange between these moons and ring particles leads to radial drift. We predict that moons with Hill radii r {sub H} {approx} 2-24 km should migrate through the A ring in 1000 yr. In this size range, moons orbiting in an empty gap or in a full ring eventually migrate at the same rate. Smaller moons or moonlets-such as the propellers-are trapped by diffusion of disk material into corotating orbits, creating inertial drag. Larger moons-such as Pan or Atlas-do not migrate because of their own inertia. Fast migration of 2-24 km moons should eliminate intermediate-size bodies from the A ring and may be responsible for the observed large-radius cutoff of r {sub H} {approx} 1-2 km in the size distribution of the A ring's propeller moonlets. Although the presence of Daphnis (r {sub H} Almost-Equal-To 5 km) inside the Keeler gap challenges this scenario, numerical simulations demonstrate that orbital resonances and stirring by distant, larger moons (e.g., Mimas) may be important factors. For Daphnis, stirring by distant moons seems the most promising mechanism to halt fast migration. Alternatively, Daphnis may be a recent addition to the ring that is settling into a low inclination orbit in {approx}10{sup 3} yr prior to a phase of rapid migration. We provide predictions of observational constraints required to discriminate among possible scenarios for Daphnis.

  3. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The new DG of ESA, Jan Wörner, has expressed from the very beginning of his duty a clear ambition towards a Moon Village, where Europe could have a lead role. The concept of Moon Village is basically to start with a robotic lunar village and then develop a permanent station on the Moon with different countries and partners that can participate and contribute with different elements, experiments, technologies, and overall support. ESA's DG has communicated about this programme and invited inputs from all the potential stakeholders, especially member states, engineers, industry, scientists, innovators and diverse representatives from the society. In order to fulfill this task, a series of Moon Village workshops have been organized first internally at ESA and then at international community events, and are also planned for the coming months, to gather stakeholders to present their ideas, their developments and their recommendations on how to put Moon Village into the minds of Europeans, international partners and prepare relevant actions for upcoming International Lunar Decade. Moon Village Workshop: The Moon Village Workshop in ESTEC on the 14th December was organized by ILEWG & ESTEC Staff Association in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered people coming from all around the world, with many young professionals involved, as well as senior experts and representatives, with a very well gender balanced and multidisciplinary group. Engineers, business experts, managers, scientists, architects, artists, students presented their views and work done in the field of Lunar Exploration. Participants included colleagues from ESA, SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council, NASA, and industries such as OHB SE, TAS, Airbus DS, CGI, etc… and researchers or students from various Universities in Europe, America, and Asia. Working groups include: Moon Habitat Design, Science and Technology potentials on the Moon Village, and Engaging Stakeholders. The Moon

  4. Lunar magnetism and an early cold moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H. A.

    1974-01-01

    Models of lunar magnetism have involved dynamo action in a fluid core in an early hot moon; an early cold moon magnetized some time before 4 billion years ago, which has subsequently heated up; and local field sources which, in some models, are related to impact. The present work examines the second possibility and shows that, provided the moon contained a few percent of metallic iron and was exposed to an extra-lunar field of about 10 or 20 oersted while much of it was still below the Curie point of iron, a restricted class of thermal evolution models, which satisfy the known constraints, can be derived.

  5. Towards A Moon Village: Vision and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The new DG of ESA, Jan Wörner, has expressed from the very beginning of his duty a clear ambition towards a Moon Village, where Europe could have a lead role. The concept of Moon Village is basically to start with a robotic lunar village and then develop a permanent station on the Moon with different countries and partners that can participate and contribute with different elements, experiments, technologies, and overall support. ESA's DG has communicated about this programme and invited inputs from all the potential stakeholders, especially member states, engineers, industry, scientists, innovators and diverse representatives from the society. In order to fulfill this task, a series of Moon Village workshops have been organized first internally at ESA and then at international community events, and are also planned for the coming months, to gather stakeholders to present their ideas, their developments and their recommendations on how to put Moon Village into the minds of Europeans, international partners and prepare relevant actions for upcoming International Lunar Decade. Moon Village Workshop: The Moon Village Workshop in ESTEC on the 14th December was organized by ILEWG & ESTEC Staff Association in conjunction with the Moon 2020-2030 Symposium. It gathered people coming from all around the world, with many young professionals involved, as well as senior experts and representatives, with a very well gender balanced and multidisciplinary group. Engineers, business experts, managers, scientists, architects, artists, students presented their views and work done in the field of Lunar Exploration. Participants included colleagues from ESA, SGAC Space Generation Advisory Council, NASA, and industries such as OHB SE, TAS, Airbus DS, CGI, etc… and researchers or students from various Universities in Europe, America, and Asia. Working groups include: Moon Habitat Design, Science and Technology potentials on the Moon Village, and Engaging Stakeholders. The Moon

  6. Seeing the Moon: A Series of Inquiry Activities Using Light to Investigate the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, Christine; Runyon, C.; Shipp, S.; Tremain, A. H.

    2007-12-01

    Seeing the Moon: Using Light to Investigate the Moon is a series of educational activity modules created for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument aboard the Chandrayaan-1. In these modules, classroom students investigate light and the geologic history of the Moon. Through the hands-on inquiry based activities, 5th to 8th grade students experiment with light and color, collect and analyze authentic data from rock samples using an ALTA reflectance spectrometer, map the rock types of the Moon, and develop theories of the Moon's history. This poster will describe the activities and share the location of the modules. This poster will also share information on the availability of loaner kits which including rock samples and sets of the ALTA reflectance spectrometer.

  7. A manned exobiology laboratory based on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Ponnamperuma, Cyril; Kuo, Kenneth C.; Mcentire, John E.; Stalling, David L.; Zumwalt, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Establishment of an exobiology laboratory on the Moon would provide a unique opportunity for exploration of extraterrestrial materials on a long-term, ongoing basis, for elucidation of exobiological processes and chemical evolution. A major function of the lunar exobiology laboratory would be to examine samples collected from other planets (e.g., Mars) for the presence of extant or extinct life. By establishing a laboratory on the Moon, preliminary analyses could be conducted away from Earth, thus establishing that extraterrestrial materials are benign before their return to Earth for more extensive investigations. The Moon-based exobiology laboratory would have three major components for study of samples returned from other planets: (1) the search for extant life - this component would focus on the detection and identification of life forms using biological, physical, and chemical methods; (2) the search for extinct life - this component would concentrate on identification of extinct life using micropaleontological physical and chemical means; and (3) the search and evidence of chemical evolution - this component would be devoted to the detection and identification of molecules revealing prebiotic chemical evolution.

  8. Dynamo Driven By Inertial Instabilities, Application to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Hollerbach, R.; Vantieghem, S.; Noir, J.; Schaeffer, N.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale planetary or stellar magnetic fields generated by a dynamo effect are mostly attributed to flows forced by buoyancy forces in electrically conducting fluid layers. However, large-scale, turbulent flows may also be driven by the combined action of boundary topography (i.e. departure from spherical geometry), and mechanical forcings (e.g. libration, tides). This has been previously proposed to explain the magnetic data we have on the star τ-boo, Mars, or the early Moon. In this work, we use theoretical analysis and global magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to show, for the first time, that: (i) the tidal forcing can generate a (dipole-dominated) large-scale magnetic field in global simulations, an hypothesis previously assumed by Le Bars et al. (2011) in their model of lunar magnetic history. (ii) latitudinal libration (i.e. an oscillation of the figure axis with respect to the mean rotation axis) can excite inertial instabilities, which may have driven dynamos in telluric bodies such as the Early Moon. We discuss our results in the light of magnetic observations. In particular, we propose here a new possible mechanism for the early Moon dynamo, based on latitudinal libration driven instabilities. This new scenario is evaluated by comparing the associated estimates of the surface magnetic field strength with the recent paleo-magnetic lunar measurements.

  9. Mission to the Moon: Europe's priorities for the scientific exploration and utilisation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battrick, Bruce; Barron, C.

    1992-06-01

    A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefitting from a lunar base (Moon studies, astronomy, fusion, life sciences, etc.). Scientific issues were divided into three main areas: science of the Moon, including all investigations concerning the Moon as a planetary body; science from the Moon, using the Moon as a platform and therefore including observatories in the broadest sense; science on the Moon, including not only questions relating to human activities in space, but also the development of artificial ecosystems beyond the Earth. Science of the Moon focuses on geographical, geochemical and geological observations of the Earth-Moon system. Science from the Moon takes advantage of the stable lunar ground, its atmosphere free sky and, on the far side, its radio quiet environment. The Moon provides an attractive platform for the observation and study of the Universe. Two techniques that can make unique cause of the lunar platform are ultraviolet to submillimeter interferometric imaging, and very low frequency astronomy. One of the goals of life sciences studies (Science on the Moon) is obviously to provide the prerequisite information for establishing a manned lunar base. This includes studies of human physiology under reduced gravity, radiation protection and life support systems, and feasibility studies based on existing hardware. The overall recommendations are essentially to set up specific study teams for those fields judged to be the most promising for Europe, with the aim of providing more detailed scientific and technological specifications. It is also suggested that the scope of the overall study activities be expanded in order to derive mission scenarios for a viable ESA lunar exploration program and to consider economic, legal and policy matters

  10. Exploration of the Moon:Chandrayaan1 and Chandrayaan-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, J. N.

    The Indian mission to Moon, Chandrayaan-1, has discovered signatures of water (H2O) molecule and hydroxyl (OH) on surface layers of exposed lunar surface (rocks and soils) that is more prominent near the cooler lunar polar regions. Several new and some unexpected results obtained in this mission are:(i)Possible presence of water and carbon-di-oxide molecules in the tenuous lunar atmosphere, an unexpected result, (ii)Sub-surface ice in permanently shadowed crater in the polar region confirming previous indication from the Clementine mission,(iii)Detection of reflected solar wind component as well as presence of solar wind on night side, unexpected new results, (iv)localized mini-magnetosphere, confirmation of earlier result using a new improved approach,(v)Presence of “refractory” rock-types not identified earlier (also reported by “Kaguya” mission), (vi)Elemental (Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe) composition of several areas of lunar surface by X-ray fluorescence technique, a new result,(vii)Three dimensional high resolution map of the lunar surface revealing new features,(viii)Radiation environment in the earth-moon and lunar space, and (ix) High energy X-ray continuum background on moon due to cosmic ray interactions with lunar surface. These results coupled with those obtained by Kaguya (Japan) and LRO and LCROSS (USA) missions have revealed a new face of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 mission, that will have a Orbiter-Lander-Rover configuration, will carry close to a dozen payloads. The instruments on the Orbiter will extend studies conducted by Chandrayyan-1 mission with higher sensitivity. This will be supplemented by in-depth investigations of lunar surface properties in the polar region using several instruments in the lander and the rover. The present status of the mission and expected scientific results will be presented.

  11. A Narrated Tour of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    Although the moon has remained largely unchanged during human history, our understanding of it and how it has evolved over time has evolved dramatically. Thanks to new measurements, we have new and...

  12. NASA Camera Catches Moon 'Photobombing' Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    On July 5, 2016, the moon passed between NOAA's DSCOVR satellite and Earth. NASA's EPIC camera aboard DSCOVR snapped these images over a period of about four hours. In this set, the far side of the...

  13. Upstream Waves and Particles at the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Y.; Halekas, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter presents an up-to-date catalog of Moon-related particle populations and lunar upstream waves obtained from in situ measurements at low (<˜100 km) and high altitudes, aimed at organizing and clarifying the currently available information on this complex region, where multiple categories of waves and particles coexist. It then briefly outlines the observed properties of a variety of classes of lunar upstream waves, as well as their generation mechanisms currently proposed, in association with the lunar upstream particle distributions. The lunar upstream region magnetically connected to the Moon and its wake, the fore-moon, represents a remarkably rich zoo of different classes of waves and different types of particles. Although recent observations have substantially enhanced our knowledge by revealing a number of new categories of upstream particles and waves at the Moon, many fundamental questions remain unanswered, and these are outlined in the chapter.

  14. Moon Phase & Libration 2013: Additional Graphics

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows the phase and libration of the Moon throughout the year 2013, at hourly intervals. Each frame represents one hour. In addition, this version of the visualization shows addi...

  15. NASA Developing Mining Robot for Moon, Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is developing the RASSOR mining robot to collect soil, or regolith, on the moon or Mars so it can be processed into rocket fuel, breathable air and other commodities. By using materials availa...

  16. EPIC View of Moon Transiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation features actual satellite images of the far side of the moon, illuminated by the sun, as it crosses between the DSCOVR spacecraft's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and tele...

  17. Our World: NASA's New Moon Robot

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA plans to use a six-legged, wheeled robot for missions to the moon and Mars called the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer, or Athlete. Athlete will be used to move the astronauts...

  18. The economics of mining the Martian moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.; Blacic, James D.; Vaniman, David T.

    1987-01-01

    The costs for extracting and shipping volatiles such as water, carbon, and nitrogen that might be found on Phobos and Deimos are estimated. The costs are compared to the cost of shipping the same volatiles from earth, assuming the use of nuclear powered mining facilities and freighters. Mineral resources and possible products from the Martian moons, possible markets for these products, and the costs of transporting these resources to LEO or GEO or to transportation nodal points are examined. Most of the technology needed to mine the moons has already been developed. The need for extraterrestrial sources of propellants for ion propulsion systems and ways in which the mining of the moons would reduce the cost of space operations near earth are discussed. It is concluded that it would be commercially viable to mine the Martian moons, making a profit of at least a 10 percent return on capital.

  19. Genetic relations between the moon and meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    The moon is shown to have an oxygen isotope distribution similar to that of the earth and the differentiated meteorites (achondrites, mesosiderites, pallasites, irons) but, according to the same criterion, the moon is unrelated to the ordinary chondrites or carbonaceous chondrites. The principal differences between the inferred chemical composition of the moon and that of chondritic meteorites is the depletion of volatile and semivolatile elements, the enrichment of uranium by a factor of 10-15, and the enrichment of the source regions of mare basalts in LIL elements by a factor of 5-10. The reported data support the theory that the moon was formed by the capture of differentiated meteorites. Volatile-element depletion and 'refractory' element enrichment are considered.

  20. Release of radiogenic gases from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of escape of Ar-40 from the moon is calculated from mass-spectrometer data obtained at the Apollo-17 landing site. It is shown that the rate of loss of Ar from the moon varies significantly over periods the order of one lunation and that the average loss rate is about 3 t/a, corresponding to about 6% of the present rate of Ar production by K decay within the moon. These features of the Ar loss-rate data are interpreted as evidence that this gas originates in the partially molten asthenosphere, which in turn requires that early differentiation only affected the outer 600 to 1,000 km of the moon, trapping significant amounts of radioactive materials in the present asthenosphere. The relationship between the venting of Ar and other radiogenic gases in the lunar atmosphere is discussed.

  1. Effective Methods of Teaching Moon Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Heather; Hintz, E. G.; Lawler, M. J.; Jones, M.; Mangrubang, F. R.; Neeley, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the effectiveness of several commonly used methods for teaching the causes of moon phases to sixth grade students. Common teaching methods being investigated are the use of diagrams, animations, modeling/kinesthetics and direct observations of moon phases using a planetarium. Data for each method will be measured by a pre and post assessment of students understanding of moon phases taught using one of the methods. The data will then be used to evaluate the effectiveness of each teaching method individually and comparatively, as well as the method's ability to discourage common misconceptions about moon phases. Results from this research will provide foundational data for the development of educational planetarium shows for the deaf or other linguistically disadvantage children.

  2. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  3. Yes, there was a moon race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberg, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of newly disclosed evidence confirms that the Soviets were indeed striving to reach the moon before the U.S. in 1969. It is noted that a Soviet unmanned lunar probe crashed on the moon's surface only hours before the U.S. Apollo landing. Now confirmed openly are moon-exploration schedules that were competitive with Apollo plans, the names and histories of Soviet lunar boosters and landers, identities of the lunar cosmonauts; and even photos of manned lunar craft are available. Additional details on the troubled moon-probe program are presented: technical problems, continuous changes in goals, schedules, and planning, vehicle and personnel disasters, transfer of authority between ministries, and political power struggles in the scientific community.

  4. In the Shadow of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A description of the moon's total eclipse indicating the path, traveling speed and duration, followed by a concise description of how a total eclipse happens and what scientists actually study with relations to an eclipse. (EB)

  5. The Moons of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert Hamilton; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1985-01-01

    In preparation for the Voyager flybys in 1989, the pace of ground-based investigations of the moons of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto has quickened considerably. Information derived from these investigations is presented. (JN)

  6. Earth and Moon as viewed from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-368, 22 May 2003

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Globe diagram illustrates the Earth's orientation as viewed from Mars (North and South America were in view).

    Earth/Moon: This is the first image of Earth ever taken from another planet that actually shows our home as a planetary disk. Because Earth and the Moon are closer to the Sun than Mars, they exhibit phases, just as the Moon, Venus, and Mercury do when viewed from Earth. As seen from Mars by MGS on 8 May 2003 at 13:00 GMT (6:00 AM PDT), Earth and the Moon appeared in the evening sky. The MOC Earth/Moon image has been specially processed to allow both Earth (with an apparent magnitude of -2.5) and the much darker Moon (with an apparent magnitude of +0.9) to be visible together. The bright area at the top of the image of Earth is cloud cover over central and eastern North America. Below that, a darker area includes Central America and the Gulf of Mexico. The bright feature near the center-right of the crescent Earth consists of clouds over northern South America. The image also shows the Earth-facing hemisphere of the Moon, since the Moon was on the far side of Earth as viewed from Mars. The slightly lighter tone of the lower portion of the image of the Moon results from the large and conspicuous ray system associated with the crater Tycho.

    A note about the coloring process: The MGS MOC high resolution camera only takes grayscale (black-and-white) images. To 'colorize' the image, a Mariner 10 Earth/Moon image taken in 1973 was used to color the MOC Earth and Moon picture. The procedure used was as follows: the Mariner 10 image was converted from 24-bit color to 8-bit color using a JPEG to GIF conversion program. The 8-bit color image was converted to 8-bit grayscale and an associated lookup table mapping each gray value of the image to a red-green-blue color triplet (RGB). Each color triplet was root-sum-squared (RSS), and sorted in increasing RSS

  7. International Lunar Observatory Association Advancing 21st Century Astronomy from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, Steve

    2015-08-01

    Long considered a prime location to conduct astronomical observations, the Moon is beginning to prove its value in 21st Century astronomy through the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope aboard China’s Chang’e-3 Moon lander and through the developing missions of the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA). With 24 hours / Earth day of potential operability facilitating long-duration observations, the stable platform of the lunar surface and extremely thin exosphere guaranteeing superior observation conditions, zones of radio-quiet for radio astronomy, and the resources and thermal stability at the lunar South Pole, the Moon provides several pioneering advantages for astronomy. ILOA, through MOUs with NAOC and CNSA, has been collaborating with China to make historic Galaxy observations with the Chang’e-3 LUT, including imaging Galaxy M101 in December 2014. LUT has an aperture of 150mm, covers a wavelength range of 245 to 340 nanometers and is capable of detecting objects at a brightness down to 14 mag. The success of China’s mission has provided support and momentum for ILOA’s mission to place a 2-meter dish, multifunctional observatory at the South Pole of the Moon NET 2017. ILOA also has plans to send a precursor observatory instrument (ILO-X) on the inaugural mission of GLXP contestant Moon Express. Advancing astronomy and astrophysics from the Moon through public-private and International partnerships will provide many valuable research opportunities while also helping to secure humanity’s position as multi world species.

  8. The prospect of diking on the Moon and Mercury (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimczak, C.; Byrne, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Both Mercury and the Moon host extensional graben that have previously been suggested to be the surface expressions of dikes at depth. Whereas on the Moon graben occur globally, with a denser concentration of structures near or within mare units, graben on Mercury are exclusively confined to smooth plains units within impact craters and basins. Observed surface displacements associated with these graben, obtained from detailed along-track topographic profiles recorded by the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), can be fit to modeled displacements to test the inference that dikes are present beneath these graben. Topographic profiles across graben usually show characteristic concave-upward graben flanks with topographic maxima directly at the graben rim on one or both sides of the structure. In contrast, profiles across dike-induced graben show generally concave-downward profiles at their flanks that lack pronounced topographic highs at graben rims. On the Moon, the formation of some graben has been attributed to extensional flexural stresses within and around mare-filled basins, such as those graben concentric to the mare-filled Serenitatis and Humorum basins. Other graben are superposed by volcanic pits and so an origin due to diking was invoked. Surface displacement models fit to LOLA topography measurements across 11 selected large lunar graben show that their topographic signatures are consistent with dike intrusions at depth. Importantly, graben in the Schrödinger crater, as well as Rima Hyginus, and Rimae Daniell specifically require surface displacements from dikes at depth to account for their observed topographic signatures. Mercury experienced a substantial amount of global contraction due to interior cooling, the onset of which caused unfavorable conditions for graben formation and dike intrusions in its lithosphere. Large impacts can reset stresses imposed by global contraction, which likely allowed for the formation

  9. Nuclear technologies for Moon and Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear technologies are essential to successful Moon and Mars exploration and settlements. Applications can take the form of nuclear propulsion for transport of crews and cargo to Mars and the Moon; surface power for habitats and base power; power for human spacecraft to Mars; shielding and life science understanding for protection against natural solar and cosmic radiations; radioisotopes for sterilization, medicine, testing, and power; and resources for the benefits of Earth. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's mission to launch to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond. The following questions will be answered: 1) What is NASA's mission? 2) Why do we explore? 3) What is our timeline? 4) Why the Moon first? 5) What will the vehicles look like? 5) What progress have we made? 6) Who will be doing the work? and 7) What are the benefits of space exploration?

  11. The origin of the Martian moons revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, Pascal

    2011-08-01

    The origin of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, is still an open issue: either they are asteroids captured by Mars or they formed in situ from a circum-Mars debris disk. The capture scenario mainly relies on the remote-sensing observations of their surfaces, which suggest that the moon material is similar to outer-belt asteroid material. This scenario, however, requires high tidal dissipation rates inside the moons to account for their current orbits around Mars. Although the in situ formation scenarios have not been studied in great details, no observational constraints argue against them. Little attention has been paid to the internal structure of the moons, yet it is pertinent for explaining their origin. The low density of the moons indicates that their interior contains significant amounts of porous material and/or water ice. The porous content is estimated to be in the range of 30-60% of the volume for both moons. This high porosity enhances the tidal dissipation rate but not sufficiently to meet the requirement of the capture scenario. On the other hand, a large porosity is a natural consequence of re-accretion of debris at Mars' orbit, thus providing support to the in situ formation scenarios. The low density also allows for abundant water ice inside the moons, which might significantly increase the tidal dissipation rate in their interiors, possibly to a sufficient level for the capture scenario. Precise measurements of the rotation and gravity field of the moons are needed to tightly constrain their internal structure in order to help answering the question of the origin.

  12. The Moon: Resources, Future Development and Colonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrunk, David; Sharpe, Burton; Cooper, Bonnie; Thangavelu, Madhu

    1999-07-01

    This unique, visionary and innovative book describes how the Moon could be colonised and developed as a platform for science, industrialization and exploration of our Solar System and beyond. Thirty years ago, the world waited with baited breath to watch history in the making, as man finally stepped onto the moon's surface. In the last few years, there has been growing interest in the idea of a return to the moon. This book describes the reasons why we should now start lunar development and settlement, and how this goal may be accomplished. The authors, all of whom are hugely experienced space scientists, consider the rationale and steps necessary for establishing permanent bases on the Moon. Their innovative and scientific-based analysis concludes that the Moon has sufficient resources for large-scale human development. Their case for development includes arguments for a solar-powered electric grid and railroad, creation of a utilities infrastructure, habitable facilities, scientific operations and the involvement of private enterprise with the public sector in the macroproject. By transferring and adapting existing technologies to the lunar environment, the authors argue that it will be possible to use lunar resources and solar power to build a global lunar infrastructure embracing power, communication, transportation, and manufacturing. This will support the migration of increasing numbers of people from Earth, and realization of the Moon's scientific potential. As an inhabited world, the Moon is an ideal site for scientific laboratories dedicated to geosciences, astronomy and life sciences, and most importantly, it would fulfil a role as a proving ground and launch pad for future Solar System exploration. The ten chapters in this book go beyond the theoretical and conceptual. With vision and foresight, the authors offer practical means for establishing permanent bases on the Moon. The book will make fascinating and stimulating reading for students in

  13. 2010 National Observe the Moon Night!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daou, Doris; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L. V.; Day, B.; Jones, A.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.

    2010-05-01

    We are creating a nation-wide, annual public outreach event called "National Observe the Moon Night” (NOMN) that provides opportunities for involving new partners in engaging the public in lunar science and exploration. The 2010 NOMN events will occur at our partner institutions - Ames Research Center (ARC; Moffett Field, CA), Goddard Space Flight Center (GFSC; Greenbelt, MD), Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI; Houston, TX), and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC; Huntsville, AL). The goal of National Observe the Moon Night is to engage the lunar science and education community, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. National Observe the Moon Night events will use NASA's "Tweet-ups" model and partners' dissemination networks to promote and recruit participation in the events. All information about NOMN will be supplied on a central website, accessible to the public (http://mymoon.lpi.usra.edu/nationalobservethemoonnight). Members of the public are encouraged to host their own NOMN events, and there will be a place for local astronomy clubs, schools, or other groups to post information about NOMN events they are organizing. To assist with their efforts, the website will contain downloadable documents of templates of advertising fliers, Moon maps, and activities that will be distributed at the national events, such as Moon calendar journals. After the events, participants will be able to continue using the website to follow links for more information about sites indicated on their Moon maps.

  14. The Impact History Of The Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.

    2010-01-01

    The bombardment history of the Earth-Moon system has been debated since the first recognition that the circular features on the Moon may be impact craters. Because the lunar impact record is the only planetary impact record to be calibrated with absolute ages, it underpins our understanding of geologic ages on every other terrestrial planet. One of the more remarkable results to come out of lunar sample analyses is the hypothesis that a large number of impact events occurred on the Moon during a narrow window in time approximately 3.8 to 4.1 billion years ago (the lunar cataclysm ). Subsequent work on the lunar and martian meteorite suites; remote sensing of the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and icy satellites; improved dynamical modeling; and investigation of terrestrial zircons extend the cataclysm hypothesis to the Earth, other terrestrial planets, and possibly the entire solar system. Renewed US and international interest in exploring the Moon offers new potential to constrain the Earth-Moon bombardment history. This paper will review the lunar bombardment record, timing and mechanisms for cataclysmic bombardment, and questions that may be answered in a new age of exploration.

  15. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nick

    2009-10-01

    Eos readers who were even young children in the summer of 1969 probably will remember the first Moon landing vividly. If, like myself, they went on to develop a lifelong interest in manned spaceflight, they will have read many accounts in the intervening years, as diverse as Norman Mailer's, Andrew Chaikin's, and the first-person reminiscences of NASA astronaut Michael Collins. The prospect of another book about the Moon landing at first may seem uninspiring, and I confess this was my original reaction to the prospect of reading this book. Additionally, in the intervening 40 years since Apollo 11, there have been some superb films including For All Mankind (1989) and In the Shadow of the Moon (2006). The Internet has brought new possibilities for space documentation. The best known Web site on the Apollo missions is the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, which now is hosted by NASA at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/. The Web site includes commentary from all of the surviving Moon walkers. Scottish space enthusiast W. David Woods created the companion Apollo Flight Journal, found at http://history.nasa.gov/afj//, which focuses on how the missions actually got to the Moon and back. Now Woods has distilled the information into the book How Apollo Flew to the Moon.

  16. New approaches to the Moon's isotopic crisis

    PubMed Central

    Melosh, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent comparisons of the isotopic compositions of the Earth and the Moon show that, unlike nearly every other body known in the Solar System, our satellite's isotopic ratios are nearly identical to the Earth's for nearly every isotopic system. The Moon's chemical make-up, however, differs from the Earth's in its low volatile content and perhaps in the elevated abundance of oxidized iron. This surprising situation is not readily explained by current impact models of the Moon's origin and offers a major clue to the Moon's formation, if we only could understand it properly. Current ideas to explain this similarity range from assuming an impactor with the same isotopic composition as the Earth to postulating a pure ice impactor that completely vaporized upon impact. Several recent proposals follow from the suggestion that the Earth–Moon system may have lost a great deal of angular momentum during early resonant interactions. The isotopic constraint may be the most stringent test yet for theories of the Moon's origin. PMID:25114301

  17. New approaches to the Moon's isotopic crisis.

    PubMed

    Melosh, H J

    2014-09-13

    Recent comparisons of the isotopic compositions of the Earth and the Moon show that, unlike nearly every other body known in the Solar System, our satellite's isotopic ratios are nearly identical to the Earth's for nearly every isotopic system. The Moon's chemical make-up, however, differs from the Earth's in its low volatile content and perhaps in the elevated abundance of oxidized iron. This surprising situation is not readily explained by current impact models of the Moon's origin and offers a major clue to the Moon's formation, if we only could understand it properly. Current ideas to explain this similarity range from assuming an impactor with the same isotopic composition as the Earth to postulating a pure ice impactor that completely vaporized upon impact. Several recent proposals follow from the suggestion that the Earth-Moon system may have lost a great deal of angular momentum during early resonant interactions. The isotopic constraint may be the most stringent test yet for theories of the Moon's origin. PMID:25114301

  18. 76 FR 37641 - Safety Zone; Independence Day Fireworks Celebration for the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... the City of Half Moon Bay, Half Moon Bay, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of Half Moon Bay, off of Pillar Point Harbor beach, Half Moon Bay, CA in support of the Independence Day...

  19. Space Science for Children: All about the Moon [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This 23-minute videotape gives children, grades K-4, a close-up look at the moon in order to answer the following questions: (1) Why does the moon appear different every night? (2) What does the moon look like up close? (3) What is it like to walk on the moon? and (4) Could we live on the moon someday? A hands-on activity designed to demonstrate…

  20. Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon.

    PubMed

    Jutzi, M; Asphaug, E

    2011-08-01

    The most striking geological feature of the Moon is the terrain and elevation dichotomy between the hemispheres: the nearside is low and flat, dominated by volcanic maria, whereas the farside is mountainous and deeply cratered. Associated with this geological dichotomy is a compositional and thermal variation, with the nearside Procellarum KREEP (potassium/rare-earth element/phosphorus) Terrane and environs interpreted as having thin, compositionally evolved crust in comparison with the massive feldspathic highlands. The lunar dichotomy may have been caused by internal effects (for example spatial variations in tidal heating, asymmetric convective processes or asymmetric crystallization of the magma ocean) or external effects (such as the event that formed the South Pole/Aitken basin or asymmetric cratering). Here we consider its origin as a late carapace added by the accretion of a companion moon. Companion moons are a common outcome of simulations of Moon formation from a protolunar disk resulting from a giant impact, and although most coplanar configurations are unstable, a ∼1,200-km-diameter moon located at one of the Trojan points could be dynamically stable for tens of millions of years after the giant impact. Most of the Moon's magma ocean would solidify on this timescale, whereas the companion moon would evolve more quickly into a crust and a solid mantle derived from similar disk material, and would presumably have little or no core. Its likely fate would be to collide with the Moon at ∼2-3 km s(-1), well below the speed of sound in silicates. According to our simulations, a large moon/Moon size ratio (∼0.3) and a subsonic impact velocity lead to an accretionary pile rather than a crater, contributing a hemispheric layer of extent and thickness consistent with the dimensions of the farside highlands and in agreement with the degree-two crustal thickness profile. The collision furthermore displaces the KREEP-rich layer to the opposite hemisphere

  1. Polarization of Saturn's moon Iapetus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejeta, C. T.; Boehnhardt, H.; Bagnulo, S.; Muinonen, K.; Kolokolova, L.; Tozzi, G.

    2012-12-01

    One way to constrain the surface properties of atmosphereless solar system objects is to investigate the properties of the polarized light scattered from their surfaces. Using FORS2 instrument of the ESO VLT, we have carried out a series of polarization measurements of Saturn's moon Iapetus, with an accuracy of ~0.1%, over the maximum phase angle range accessible from the ground (~ 6.0 deg), and over a broad spectral range (400 - 900 nm); thereby identifying the polarimetric characteristics of the bright surface material on its trailing side and, that of the dark material on its leading side. While our linear polarizatiom measurements of Iapetus' two hemispheres show an opposite trend of phase angle dependence, the polarization values measured for the two hemispheres around similar phase angles (between ~3 - 6.0deg) differ by a factor of three. Aimed at providing a quantitative assessment of the polarization observed for Iapetus, we have also carried out simulation of the scattering and absorption properties of light by a medium consisting of spherical volume of randomly positioned monodisperse particles. For this purpose, we used the numerically exact solutions of the Maxwell equations employing the multiple sphere T-matrix method [1]. The modeling entails physical characteristics of the particulate surface such as, porosity of the particulate medium; the number of constituent particles; the size, and optical properties of the scatterers. Our model has retrived, a particle size of ~ 0.10 ≤ r ≤ 0.20μm is dominating both the dark and bright material of Iapetus. Moreover, utilizing the scattering matrix parametrization for single-particle scattering with double Henyey-Greenstein (2HG) scattering phase function, to characterize the resulting multiple scattering, we have carried out coherent backscattering simulations for a spherical random media of scatterers [2], with the goal to obtain polarimetric phase function of Iapetus. The geometric albedo values of

  2. Recent Impacts on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, M. S.; Bowles, Z. R.; Daubar, I.; Povilaitis, R.; Thompson, S. D.; Thompson, T. J.; Wagner, R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior to Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) observations, an understanding of impact rates of meteoroids <1 m in size was based on extrapolation techniques from near-Earth object (NEO) knowledge [1,2,3], meteors in Earth's atmosphere [4], recent impacts recorded on Mars [5,6,7], and lunar 'flashes' (likely impacts) observed by teams such as those at Marshall Space Flight Center [8]. Since July of 2009, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) collects meter scale Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, with repeat coverage in areas of high interest. Planned and serendipitous re-imaging with similar illumination conditions provides the means to detect temporal surface changes with the ultimate goal of measuring the current flux of impacts on the Moon. To easily detect a change at the surface, NAC-pairs separated in time (temporal pair), with similar illumination geometries are compared. Overlapping regions in a temporal pair are map projected and co-registered and a ratio is computed (second observation / first observation) and examined for temporal anomalies. Some changes are clearly distinguished as newly formed craters with rims and ejecta, while others are simply small (a few pixels) reflectance changes (crater not resolved). Detections are categorized as relatively high reflectance changes (HRC) or low reflectance changes (LRC) relative to the surrounding substrate. To date the LRCs outnumber the HRCs by a factor of ten. Clusters (>3) of changes were discovered in 48 temporal pairs. So far, we have identified 599 individual changes, with 547 LRCs and 48 HRCs. Of the 599 detections, sixteen represent resolved craters, and of these diameters range up to 20 m, suggesting bolide sizes up to ~1 m diameter. The total surface area examined to date is ~25,000 square km and the maximum time window between repeat images is 2.5 years, yielding an estimated minimum 364,000 new lunar craters per year (or one crater per year for every 104 square km) detectable at the scale

  3. The Icy Moons of Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    The Galilean satellites formed in a nebula of dust and gas that surrounded Jupiter toward the end of the formation of the giant planet itself. Their diverse initial compositions were determined by conditions in the circum-jovian nebula, just as the planets' initial properties were governed by their formation within the circum-solar nebula. The Galilean satellites subsequently evolved under the complex interplay of orbital and geophysical processes, which included the effects of orbital resonances, tides, internal differentiation, and heat. The history and character of the satellites can be inferred from consideration of the formation of planets and the satellites, from studies of their plausible orbital evolution, from measurements of geophysical properties, especially gravitational and magnetic fields, from observations of the compositions and geological structure of their surfaces, and from geophysical modeling of the processes that can relate these lines of evidence. The three satellites with large water-ice components, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are very different from one another as a result of the ways that these processes have played out in each case. Europa has a deep liquid-water ocean with a thin layer of surface ice, Ganymede and Callisto likely have relatively thin liquid water layers deep below their surfaces, and Callisto remains only partially differentiated, with rock and ice mixed through much of its interior. A tiny inner satellite, Amalthea, also appears to be largely composed of ice. Each of these moons is fascinating in its own right, and the ensemble provides a powerful set of constraints on the processes that led to their formation and evolution.

  4. Radio Science Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Castillo, J. C.; Folkner, W. M.; Konopliv, A. S.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schubert, G.; Spilker, T. R.; Tyler, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    Radio Science experiments have been conducted on most deep space missions leading to numerous scientific discoveries. A set of concepts and approaches are proposed for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) to apply Radio Science tools to investigate the interior structures of the Galilean Satellites and address key questions on their thermal and dynamical evolution. Measurements are identified that utilize the spacecraft's telecommunication system. Additional instruments can augment these measurements in order to leverage observational synergies. Experiments are also offered for the purpose of investigating the atmospheres and surfaces of the satellites.

  5. College MOON Project Australia: Preservice Teachers Learning about the Moon's Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Judith; Ginns, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a report of the Australian segment of an international multi-campus project centred on improving understanding of the Moon's phases for preservice teachers. Instructional strategies adopted for a science education subject enabled Australian participants to make extended observations of the Moon's phases and keep observational data…

  6. Condensing the Moon from a MAD Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, S. J.; Stewart, S. T.; Petaev, M. I.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Mace, M.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Cuk, M.

    2015-12-01

    The favored theory for lunar origin is the giant impact hypothesis, where a protoplanet collides with the growing Earth and creates an orbiting disk of material that forms the Moon. However, the astonishing isotopic similarity between the Earth and Moon cannot be explained by current giant impact models without appealing to highly specific circumstances. Here, we demonstrate that a condensation model for lunar origin, achieved via a previously unrecognized class of post-impact states, produces the Moon's major characteristics. The required class of post-impact states is defined by (i) a high degree of vaporization and (ii) rapid rotation. When these two criteria are met, the mantle, atmosphere and disk (MAD) form a dynamically and thermodynamically continuous structure that quickly mixes, thereby diluting initial compositional heterogeneities. Then, partial condensation from the pressure-supported mass beyond the Roche limit produces a Moon that is isotopically similar to the bulk silicate Earth and depleted in volatile and moderately volatile elements. Initially, the condensed liquid is composed of silicates. As the structure cools, metal exsolves in the accreting Moon and moonlets. We calculate ~2wt% metal is exsolved from a bulk silicate Earth composition, which is consistent with estimates of the mass of the lunar core. Thus, similar tungsten isotopes are established in the Earth and Moon as metal is exsolved in both bodies after mixing. In our model, the criterion for lunar origin shifts, away from specific impact parameters that inject terrestrial material into orbit, to any collision that transforms the Earth into a rapidly rotating and substantially vaporized MAD planet. Impacts that can transform the Earth are common during the end stages of planet formation. Therefore, the characteristics of our Moon are a natural consequence of forming the Earth.

  7. Teaching Future Teachers Basic Astronomy Concepts--Sun-Earth-Moon Relative Movements--at a Time of Reform in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumper, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    In view of students' alternative conceptions about basic concepts in astronomy, we conducted a series of constructivist activities with future elementary and junior high school teachers aimed at changing their conceptions about the cause of seasonal changes, and of several characteristics of the Sun-Earth-Moon relative movements like Moon phases,…

  8. Vertical profiles of specific surface area, thermal conductivity and density of mid-latitude, Arctic and Antarctic snow: relationships between snow physics and climat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domine, F.; Arnaud, L.; Bock, J.; Carmagnola, C.; Champollion, N.; Gallet, J.; Lesaffre, B.; Morin, S.; Picard, G.

    2011-12-01

    We have measured vertical profiles of specific surface area (SSA), thermal conductivity (TC) and density in snow from 12 different climatic regions featuring seasonal snowpacks of maritime, Alpine, taiga and tundra types, on Arctic sea ice, and from ice caps in Greenland and Antarctica. We attempt to relate snow physical properties to climatic variables including precipitation, temperature and its yearly variation, wind speed and its short scale temporal variations. As expected, temperature is a key variable that determines snow properties, mostly by determining the metamorphic regime (temperature gradient or equi-temperature) in conjunction with precipitation. However, wind speed and wind speed distribution also seem to have an at least as important role. For example high wind speeds determine the formation of windpacks of high SSA and high TC instead of depth hoar with lower values of these variables. The distribution of wind speed also strongly affects properties, as for example frequent moderate winds result in frequent snow remobilization, producing snow with higher SSA and lower TC than regions with the same average wind speeds, but with less frequent and more intense wind episodes. These strong effects of climate on snow properties imply that climate change will greatly modify snow properties, which in turn will affect climate, as for example changes in snow SSA modify albedo and changes in TC affect permafrost and the release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost. Some of these climate-snow feedbacks will be discussed.

  9. "A Nightmare Land, a Place of Death": An Exploration of the Moon as a Motif in Herge's "Destination Moon" (1953) and "Explorers on the Moon" (1954)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the symbolic meaning of the Moon in two "bande dessinee" books from the Tintin series, Herge's "Destination Moon" ("Objectif Lune," 1953) and its sequel "Explorers on the Moon" ("On a Marche sur la Lune," 1954). It argues that these two volumes stand out in the series for their graphic, narrative and philosophical emphasis on…

  10. Moon formation coupled with the protolular disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnoz, Sebastien; Bugnet, Lisa; Michaut, Chloé

    2015-11-01

    It is thought that the Moon accreted from the protolunar disk that was assembled after the last giant impact on Earth. Due to its high temperature, the protolunar disk may act as a thermochemical reactor in which the material is processed before being incorporated into the Moon. Outstanding issues like devolatilisation and istotopic evolution are tied to the disk evolution, however its lifetime, dynamics and thermodynamics are unknown. Here, we numerically explore the long term viscous evolution of the protolunar disk using a one dimensional model where the different phases (vapor and condensed) are vertically stratified.Our major innovation is that we compute at the same time the proto-moon growth along with the disk evolution, and calculate the thermodynamical equilibrium of the proto-lunar seed as it grows.We will discuss the long term dynamics, thermodynamics, cooling timescale and possibility for volatile depletion. We will show that due to different effective viscosities substantial fractionation of volatiles and refractory material is possible.Finally we will compare different scenarios of moon impacts (standard, sub-earths, fast spinning Earth) and their different advantages for explaining today’s moon material content.

  11. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration, announced in 2004, calls on NASA to finish constructing the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return to the Moon and go on the Mars. By exploring space, America continues the tradition of great nations who mastered the Earth, air, and sea, and who then enjoyed the benefits of increased commerce and technological advances. The progress being made today is part of the next chapter in America's history of leadership in space. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within the planned timeline and also within the allowable budget, NASA is building upon the best of proven space transportation systems. Journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. What America learns in reaching for the Moon will teach astronauts how to prepare for the first human footprints on Mars. While robotic science may reveal information about the nature of hydrogen on the Moon, it will most likely tale a human being with a rock hammer to find the real truth about the presence of water, a precious natural resource that opens many possibilities for explorers. In this way, the combination of astronauts using a variety of tools and machines provides a special synergy that will vastly improve our understanding of Earth's cosmic neighborhood.

  12. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  13. Declaring the Republic of the Moon - Some artistic strategies for re-imagining the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais., R.

    2014-04-01

    Sooner or later, humans are going back to the Moonwhether to mine it, to rehearse for a Mars mission or to just live there. But how will human activity there reflect what has happened on Earth since the last moon mission, to reflect the diversity and political and social changes that have happened since? Can artists imagine what it would be like to live on the Moon? Artists are already taking part in many scientific endeavours, becoming involved in emerging fields such as synthetic bioloogy, nanotechology, ecological remediation and enthusiastically participating in citizen science. There are already artists in Antarctica. It should be inevitable that artists will sooner or later accompany the next visit by humans to the Moon. But why wait? Artists are already imagining how it would be to live on the Moon, whether in their imaginations or though rehearsals in lunar analogues. In the recent exhibition 'Republic of the Moon' a number of visionary strategies were employed, from the use of earth-moon-earth 'moonbouncing' (Katie Paterson) to the breeding and imprinting of real geese as imagined astronauts. (Agnes Meyer-Brandis). The Outer Space Treaty and the (unsigned) Moon treaty were re-analysed and debates and even small demonstrations were organised protesting (or demanding) the industrial exploitation of the Moon. Fortuitously, China's Chang-e mission landed during the exhibition and the life and death of the rover Jade Rabbit brought a real life drama to the Republic of the Moon. There have been other artistic interventions into lunar exploration, including Aleksandra Mir's First Woman on the Moon, Alicia Framis's Moonlife project and of course the historic inclusion of two artistic artefacts into the Apollo missions, Monument to the Fallen Astronaut (still on the Moon) and the Moon Museum, reportedly inserted by an engineer into the leg of the Lunar Exploration Module. With the worldwide race by the Global Lunar X Prize teams to land a rover independently of any

  14. Solar sail trajectory design in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ashwati

    The quest to explore the Moon has helped resolve scientific questions, has spurred leaps in technology development, and has revealed Earth's celestial companion to be a gateway to other destinations. With a renewed focus on returning to the Moon in this decade, alternatives to chemical propulsion systems are becoming attractive methods to efficiently use scarce resources and support extended mission durations. Thus, an investigation is conducted to develop a general framework, that facilitates propellant-free Earth-Moon transfers by exploiting sail dynamics in combination with advantageous transfer options offered in the Earth-Moon circular restricted multi-body dynamical model. Both periodic orbits in the vicinity of the Earth-Moon libration points, and lunar-centric long-term capture orbits are incorporated as target destinations to demonstrate the applicability of the general framework to varied design scanarios, each incorporating a variety of complexities and challenges. The transfers are comprised of three phases - a spiral Earth escape, a transit period, and, finally, the capture into a desirable orbit in the vicinity of the Moon. The Earth-escape phase consists of spiral trajectories constructed using three different sail steering strategies - locally optimal, on/off and velocity tangent. In the case of the Earth-libration point transfers, naturally occurring flow structures (e.g., invariant manifolds) arising from the mutual gravitational interaction of the Earth and Moon are exploited to link an Earth departure spiral with a destination orbit. In contrast, sail steering alone is employed to establish a link between the Earth-escape phase and capture orbits about the Moon due to a lack of applicable natural structures for the required connection. Metrics associated with the transfers including flight-time and the influence of operational constraints, such as occultation events, are investigated to determine the available capabilities for Earth-Moon

  15. Moon Zoo: Educating side-by-side with Doing Science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, P. L.; Moon Zoo Team

    2010-12-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project (http://www.moonzoo.org) engages individuals - primarily members of the public - in identifying geological (and sometimes technological) features on the lunar surface. Using a flash-based interface that runs in a web browser, users can mark craters, linear features, and even left-behind lunar landers on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images. These science tools are embedded in an environment designed to encourage learning and collaboration. On the main Moon Zoo site users can explore educational content, including video tutorials, articles, glossary terms, and flash interactive activities. Additionally, there is a blog and a forum to encourage collaboration and social learning, and a twitter feed for general communications. Through this suite of software Moon Zoo users can contribute to science while learning about the Moon and geology. The Moon Zoo educational content is designed with one purpose in mind: To make sure that a curious user can find information quickly, easily, and on (or within 1-click of) the Moon Zoo site. The Internet is filled with many excellent lunar educational products, and many high-quality digital products exist in offline archives. Finding desired resources, however, can sometimes be a challenge even for professional educators. In order to make finding content easier, we developed a glossary list and a basic concept map for our website that addresses geology, lunar exploration, observing, and the moon in history and culture, and then we populated these terms and concepts with already available materials. We also do things in a way that encourages both doing science tasks and learning at the same time! Specifically, we use pop-out audio and video players that allow users to listen, learn, and classify the lunar surface all at once. To try and understand our users better we are conducting both learning and motivations studies while also monitoring site usage. Our learning assessments use an assessment tool

  16. HUBBLE OBSERVES THE MOONS AND RINGS OF THE PLANET URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the planet Uranus reveals the planet's rings, at least five of the inner moons, and bright clouds in the planet's southern hemisphere. Hubble now allows astronomers to revisit the planet at a level of detail not possible since the Voyager 2 spacecraft flew by the planet briefly, nearly a decade ago. Hubble's new view was obtained on August 14, 1994, when Uranus was 1.7 billion miles (2.8 billion kilometers) from Earth. Similar details, as imaged by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, were only previously seen by the Voyager 2 spacecraft that flew by Uranus in 1986 (the rings were discovered by stellar occultation experiments in 1977, but not seen directly until Voyager flew to Uranus). Since the flyby, none of these inner satellites has been observed further, and detailed observations of the rings and Uranus' atmosphere have not been possible, because the rings are lost in the planet's glare as seen through ground-based optical telescopes. Each of the inner moons appears as a string of three dots in this picture because it is a composite of three images, taken about six minutes apart. When these images are combined, they show the motion of the moons compared with the sky background. Because the moons move much more rapidly than our own Moon, they change position noticeably over only a few minutes. (These multiple images also help to distinguish the moons from stars and imaging detector artifacts, i.e., cosmic rays and electronic noise). Thanks to Hubble's capabilities, astronomers will now be able to determine the orbits more precisely. With this increase in accuracy, astronomers can better probe the unusual dynamics of Uranus' complicated satellite system. Measuring the moons' brightness in several colors might offer clues to the satellites' origin by providing new information on their mineralogical composition. Similar measurements of the rings should yield new insights into their composition and origin. One of the four

  17. Lunar Volatiles: An Earth-Moon Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, John H.

    2011-01-01

    It has generally been accepted that the Moon is depleted in volatile elements. However, the recent discovery of measurable water in lunar glasses and apatites suggests that volatiles are not as depleted as was once thought. And, in fact, some authors have claimed that water contents of the lunar and terrestrial mantles are similar. Moderately volatile alkali elements may have a bearing on this issue. In general, bulk Moon alkalis are depleted relative to the bulk silicate Earth. Although the bulk lunar chemical composition is difficult to reconstruct, good correlations of alkali elements with refractory lithophile incompatible trace elements make this conclusion robust. These observations have been taken to mean that the Moon overall is depleted in volatiles relative to the Earth. Since water is more volatile than any of the alkali elements, presumably this conclusion is true for water, or even more so.

  18. Magnetism and the history of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Gose, W. A.; Pearce, G. W.; Carnes, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    All lunar samples measured to date contain a weak but stable remanent magnetization of lunar origin. The magnetization is carried by metallic iron and is considered to be caused by cooling from above the Curie point in the presence of a magnetic field. Although at present the moon does not have a global field, the remanent magnetization of the rock samples and the presence of magnetic anomalies, both on the near and far side of the moon, imply that the moon experienced a magnetic field during some portion of its history. The field could have been generated in a liquid iron core sustaining a self-exciting dynamo, but there are some basic thermal and geochemical objections that need to be resolved.

  19. Global Moon Coverage via Hyperbolic Flybys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent; Strange, Nathan; Campagnola, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The scientific desire for global coverage of moons such as Jupiter's Galilean moons or Saturn's Titan has invariably led to the design of orbiter missions. These orbiter missions require a large amount of propellant needed to insert into orbit around such small bodies, and for a given launch vehicle, the additional propellant mass takes away from mass that could otherwise be used for scientific instrumentation on a multiple flyby-only mission. This paper will present methods--expanding upon techniques developed for the design of the Cassini prime and extended missions--to obtain near global moon coverage through multiple flybys. Furthermore we will show with proper instrument suite selection, a flyby-only mission can provide science return similar (and in some cases greater) to that of an orbiter mission.

  20. Citizen Science: Mapping the Moon and Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracey, G.; Costello, K.; Gay, P.; Reilly, E.

    2012-08-01

    The familiar face of our Moon is brought even closer to home by experiencing "Moon Zoo," an engaging online citizen science project from the creators of Galaxy Zoo. Using high-resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Moon Zoo lets the public explore the lunar surface in breathtaking detail, mapping craters and discovering new features as they go. The maps that they generate will be used by scientists to understand solar system ages and to comparatively study geology across worlds. The less-familiar face of Mercury is also being explored and mapped through Mercury Zoo, thanks to images from MESSENGER, the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury. As citizen science projects, both of these Zoos let the public participate in authentic scientific research. This workshop offers participants the opportunity to make new and stronger connections to both of these solar system objects while getting a glimpse of the process and nature of science.

  1. Internal constitution and evolution of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    The composition, structure and evolution of the moon's interior are narrowly constrained by a large assortment of physical and chemical data. Models of the thermal evolution of the moon that fit the chronology of igneous activity on the lunar surface, the stress history of the lunar lithosphere implied by the presence of mascons, and the surface concentrations of radioactive elements, involve extensive differentiation early in lunar history. This differentiation may be the result of rapid accretion and large-scale melting or of primary chemical layering during accretion; differences in present-day temperatures for these two possibilities are significant only in the inner 1000 km of the moon and may not be resolvable.

  2. A Case Study of Three Children's Original Interpretations of the Moon's Changing Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    A case study of three children was conducted to shed light on the process that children undergo in developing their understanding of physical phenomena. Using the notion of spontaneous construction and its relationship with school learning of scientific concepts, children's early thoughts of the moon's appearance were explored. Research questions…

  3. Tungsten Isotopes, Formation of the Moon, and Lopsided Addition to Earth and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-06-01

    Two studies use vast improvements in measuring tungsten (W) isotopic composition to show that the Moon has a higher 182W/184W ratio than does the modern terrestrial mantle. The studies, done by Mathieu Touboul and colleagues at the University of Maryland, USA and Thomas Kruijer and colleagues at Westfalische Wilhelms University, Munster, Germany, required developing improved isotope separation and measurement techniques in order to make the measurements accurate and precise enough to see the small difference between lunar and terrestrial samples. The Moon has 182W/184W about 25 parts per million higher than the Earth. This is consistent with an interesting story told in both papers: the Moon and Earth both had the same W isotopic composition after the giant impact that formed the Moon, but the Earth acquired a disproportionate amount of chondritic material afterwards, which decreased the terrestrial 182W/184W value. The idea is consistent with current models of the numbers of projectiles that could have intersected the Earth-Moon system as planetary accretion was winding down. The implication is that immediately after the Moon formed it had the same tungsten isotopic composition as the Earth, an important fact that models for the giant impact origin of the Moon must explain.

  4. Lunar electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1975-01-01

    Improved analytical techniques are applied to a large Apollo magnetometer data set to yield values of electroconductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance. Average bulk electroconductivity of the moon is calculated to be .0007 mho/m; a rapid increase with depth to about .003 mho/m within 250 km is indicated. The temperature profile, obtained from the electroconductivity profile for olivine, indicates high lunar temperatures at relatively shallow depths. Magnetic permeability of the moon relative to its environment is calculated to be 1.008 plus or minus .005; a permeability relative to free space of 1.012 plus 0.011, minus 0.008 is obtained. Lunar iron abundances corresponding to this permeability value are 2.5 plus 2.3, minus 1.7 wt% free iron and 5.0-13.5 wt% total iron for a moon composed of a combination of free iron, olivine, and orthopyroxene.

  5. Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, V.; Wilson, T. L.; Pinsky, L. S.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of conducting fundamental physics and astronomy experiments on the lunar surface continues to be of interest in the planetary science community. Such an inquiry necessarily requires an analysis of the backscatter albedos produced by Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) when they directly impact the lunar regolith. Unlike the Earth, this happens because the Moon has only a tenuous exosphere. Such secondary radiation constitutes a background that obscures and interferes with measurements conducted in the normal sense of laboratory physics on Earth. Our previous investigations using recent enhancements in the Monte Carlo program known as FLUKA included the production of charged particles, neutrons, photons, and neutrinos by the impact of Galactic protons. That investigation is extended here to include the effect of ionized helium, He-4, or a particles. Because high-energy GCRs excite planetary regoliths into giving rise to charmed mesons, neutrinos are produced. Thus a connection is established for the GCR helium production of prompt neutrinos on the Moon using the physics of charm.

  6. Martian Moon Eclipses Sun, in Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panel illustrates the transit of the martian moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  7. Evolution of the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touma, Jihad; Wisdom, Jack

    1994-01-01

    The tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system is reexamined. Several models of tidal friction are first compared in an averaged Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics. With one of these models, full integrations of the tidally evolving Earth-Moon system are carried out in the complete, fully interacting, and chaotically evolving planetary system. Classic results on the history of the lunar orbit are confirmed by our more general model. A detailed history of the obliquity of the Earth which takes into account the evolving lunar orbit is presented.

  8. Two former faces of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilhelms, D.E.; Davis, D.E.

    1971-01-01

    Systematic geologic mapping of the lunar near side has resulted in the assignment of relative ages to most visible features. As a derivative of this work, geologic and artistic interpretations have been combined to produce reconstructions of the Moon's appearance at two significant points in its history. The reconstructions, although generalized, show the Moon (1) as it probably appeared about 3.3 billion years ago after most of the mare materials had accumulated, and (2) about 4.0 billion years ago after formation of the youngest of the large multiringed basins, but prior to appreciable flooding by mare material.

  9. The carbon chemistry of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Maxwell, J. R.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis of lunar samples has shown that the carbon chemistry of the moon is entirely different from the carbon chemistry of the earth. Lunar carbon chemistry is more closely related to cosmic physics than to conventional organic chemistry. Sources of carbon on the moon are considered, giving attention to meteorites and the solar wind. The approaches used in the analysis of the samples are discussed, taking into account the method of gas chromatography employed and procedures used by bioscience investigators in the study of the lunar fines. The presence of indigenous methane and carbide in the lunar fines was established. Reactions and processes taking place on the lunar surface are discussed.

  10. Magnetospheric Sputtering Source of the Moon's Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, L. E.; Wilson, J. K.; Mendillo, M.

    2002-09-01

    Observations of lunar eclipses over the past decade have revealed that the Moon's transient sodium atmosphere at full Moon is both denser and more extended near equinox than it is near solstice. This fact suggests the presence of a variable magnetospheric source of sodium. An investigation of this source is carried out by modeling combinations of two sources: a constant source from micrometeor sputtering and photon-stimulated desorption, and a variable source (presumably plasma sputtering), which is higher during equinox conditions and lower during solstice conditions.

  11. Protecting the Moon for research: ILEWG report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations with emphasis on environment protection, and since last COSPAR from ILEWG International conferences Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon on held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration, as debated at ILEWG. ILEWG Science task group has listed priorities for scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life; sciences from a biology lunar laboratory. We discuss how to preserve Moon research potential in these areas while operating with instruments, landers, rover during a cooperative robotic village, and during the transition form lunar human outpost to permanent sustainable human base. We discuss how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development with the trade-off of In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental and planetary protection aspects and lessons for Mars; Life sciences laboratories, and support to human exploration. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Technology and Human Lunar Bases ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-PSace Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -The Moon and Near Earth Objects (P. Ehrenfreund , B.H. Foing, A

  12. The geologic evolution of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    A synthesis of pre- and post-Apollo 11 studies is presented to produce an outline of the moon's geologic evolution from three lines of evidence: (1) relative ages of lunar landforms and rock types, (2) absolute ages of returned lunar samples, and (3) petrography, chemistry, and isotopic ratios of lunar rocks and soils. It is assumed that the ray craters, circular mare basins, and most intermediate circular landforms are primarily of impact origin, although many other landforms are volcanic or of hybrid origin. The moon's evolution is divided into four main stages, each including several distinct but overlapping events or processes.

  13. Moon Zoo - Examples of Interesting Lunar Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, A. C.; Wilkinson, J.

    2012-09-01

    The MoonMappers citizen science project is part of CosmoQuest, a virtual research facility designed for the public. CosmoQuest seeks to take the best aspects of a research center - research, seminars, journal clubs, and community discussions - and provide them to a community of citizen scientists through a virtual facility. MoonMappers was the first citizen science project within CosmoQuest, and is being used to define best practices in getting the public to effectively learn and do science.

  14. Impact of improved meteorological forcing, profile of soil hydraulic conductivity and data assimilation on an operational Hydrological Ensemble Forecast System over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustau, Mathieu; Rousset-Regimbeau, Fabienne; Thirel, Guillaume; Habets, Florence; Janet, Bruno; Martin, Eric; de Saint-Aubin, Céline; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel

    2015-06-01

    A Hydrological Ensemble Forecasting System (HEFS) known as SIMPE has been run over France in real time by Météo-France since 2004. The system combines the 51-member, 10-day ECMWF EPS atmospheric forcing at a 1.5° resolution with the ISBA-MODCOU physically-based distributed hydrological model to provide streamflow forecasts over France. The initial conditions for all the HEFS runs are provided by SIM; i.e., the ISBA-MODCOU model forced by the outputs of the mesoscale meteorological analysis system SAFRAN. A previous study introduced and tested two improvements of this system over a past period. These modifications consisted of an improved representation of the profile of hydraulic conductivity and the implementation of a data assimilation subsystem. The purpose of the present study was to test the HEFS and its two modifications in operational mode, with the new higher-resolution ECMWF EPS atmospheric forcing at 0.25° resolution, available in real time on the Météo-France database, and with less observed discharge available for the data assimilation subsystem. The new ISBA physics scheme led to a notable improvement in the discharge simulation in western and northeastern France, where no aquifers were simulated by the MODCOU model. This improvement was not impacted by real-time conditions. Likewise, the improvement resulting from the data assimilation system applied over France was not significantly affected by real-time conditions. The propagation of the data assimilation correction to gauging stations located upstream or downstream of the assimilated stations limited the deterioration of forecasted streamflow due to real-time conditions. Finally, the ECMWF EPS high-resolution atmospheric forcing had a significant impact on the streamflow forecasts for small catchments, which increased with lead time.

  15. Two Moons Meet over Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This beautiful image of the crescents of volcanic Io and more sedate Europa was snapped by New Horizons' color Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC) at 10:34 UT on March 2, 2007, about two days after New Horizons made its closest approach to Jupiter.

    The picture was one of a handful of the Jupiter system that New Horizons took primarily for their artistic, rather than scientific value. This particular scene was suggested by space enthusiast Richard Hendricks of Austin, Texas, in response to an Internet request by New Horizons scientists for evocative, artistic imaging opportunities at Jupiter.

    This image was taken from a range of 4.6 million kilometers (2.8 million miles) from Io and 3.8 million kilometers (2.4 million miles) from Europa. Although the moons appear close in this view, a gulf of 790,000 kilometers (490,000 miles) separates them. The night side of Io is illuminated here by light reflected from Jupiter, which is out of the frame to the right. Europa's night side is completely dark, in contrast to Io, because that side of Europa faces away from Jupiter.

    Here, Io steals the show with its beautiful display of volcanic activity. Three volcanic plumes are visible. Most conspicuous is the enormous 300-kilometer (190-mile) -high plume from the Tvashtar volcano at the 11 o'clock position on Io's disk. Two much smaller plumes are barely visible: one from the volcano Prometheus, at the 9 o'clock position on the edge of Io's disk, and one from the volcano Amirani, seen between Prometheus and Tvashtar along Io's terminator (the line dividing day and night). The plumes appear blue because of the scattering of light by tiny dust particles ejected by the volcanoes, similar to the blue appearance of smoke. In addition, the contrasting red glow of hot lava can be seen at the source of the Tvashtar plume.

    The images are centered at 1 degree north, 60 degrees west on Io, and 0 degrees north, 149 degrees west on Europa. The color in this

  16. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  17. Escape dynamics and fractal basins boundaries in the three-dimensional Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2016-03-01

    The orbital dynamics of a spacecraft, or a comet, or an asteroid in the Earth-Moon system in a scattering region around the Moon using the three dimensional version of the circular restricted three-body problem is numerically investigated. The test particle can move in bounded orbits around the Moon or escape through the openings around the Lagrange points L1 and L2 or even collide with the surface of the Moon. We explore in detail the first four of the five possible Hill's regions configurations depending on the value of the Jacobi constant which is of course related with the total orbital energy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on the phase space mixing by classifying initial conditions of orbits in several two-dimensional types of planes and distinguishing between four types of motion: (i) ordered bounded, (ii) trapped chaotic, (iii) escaping and (iv) collisional. In particular, we locate the different basins and we relate them with the corresponding spatial distributions of the escape and collision times. Our outcomes reveal the high complexity of this planetary system. Furthermore, the numerical analysis suggests a strong dependence of the properties of the considered basins with both the total orbital energy and the initial value of the z coordinate, with a remarkable presence of fractal basin boundaries along all the regimes. Our results are compared with earlier ones regarding the planar version of the Earth-Moon system.

  18. Exploration of the Galilean Moons using Electrodynamic Tethers for Propellantless Maneuvers and Self-Powering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, E. C.; Curreli, D.; Zanutto, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of using electrodynamic tethers (EDT) for the exploration of the inner region of the Jovian system. Intense planetary magnetic field and reasonable environmental plasma density make the electrodynamic interaction of the conductive tether with the plasmasphere strong. The interaction is responsible for a Lorentz force that can be conveniently used for propellantless maneuvers and extraction of electrical power for on board use. Jupiter and the four Galilean Moons represent an exceptional gravitational environment for the study of the orbital dynamics of an EDT. The dynamics of such a system was analyzed using a 3-body model, consisting of the planet plus one of its moons (Io in this work) and the EDT itself. New and interesting features appear, like for example the possibility to place the tether in equilibrium with respect to a frame co-rotating with the moon at points that do not coincide with the classical Lagrangian points for non-null electrodynamic forces.

  19. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion

    PubMed Central

    Nordheim, T A; Jones, G H; Roussos, E; Leisner, J S; Coates, A J; Kurth, W S; Khurana, K K; Krupp, N; Dougherty, M K; Waite, J H

    2014-01-01

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (∼ −200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator. PMID:26074639

  20. Detection of a strongly negative surface potential at Saturn's moon Hyperion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordheim, T. A.; Jones, G. H.; Roussos, E.; Leisner, J. S.; Coates, A. J.; Kurth, W. S.; Khurana, K. K.; Krupp, N.; Dougherty, M. K.; Waite, J. H.

    2014-10-01

    On 26 September 2005, Cassini conducted its only close targeted flyby of Saturn's small, irregularly shaped moon Hyperion. Approximately 6 min before the closest approach, the electron spectrometer (ELS), part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) detected a field-aligned electron population originating from the direction of the moon's surface. Plasma wave activity detected by the Radio and Plasma Wave instrument suggests electron beam activity. A dropout in energetic electrons was observed by both CAPS-ELS and the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument Low-Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System, indicating that the moon and the spacecraft were magnetically connected when the field-aligned electron population was observed. We show that this constitutes a remote detection of a strongly negative (~ -200 V) surface potential on Hyperion, consistent with the predicted surface potential in regions near the solar terminator.

  1. NASA Now Minute: Geology: Structure of the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    This program shows how re-examining moon data from the Apollo days withmodern technology helps scientists determine the structure of the moon’sinterior. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a wee...

  2. Don't Blame Kids' Behavior on Full Moon

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158814.html Don't Blame Kids' Behavior on Full Moon International study puts common myth ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many parents swear their children's behavior changes when the moon is full, but new ...

  3. Odyssey Moon - An Entrepreneurial Model for Sustainable Commercial Lunar Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, R. D.; Khadem, R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper outlines how a carefully planned private Moon mission could set in motion the technological, political, legal and regulatory precedents that will enable humanity to embrace the Moon into the world's economic sphere.

  4. The Apollo Missions and the Chemistry of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacer, Richard A.; Ehmann, William D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the principle chemical features of the moon obtained by analyzing lunar samples gathered on the Apollo missions. Outlines the general physical features of the moon and presents theories on its origin. (GS)

  5. Don't Blame Kids' Behavior on Full Moon

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Don't Blame Kids' Behavior on Full Moon International study puts common myth to rest To ... parents swear their children's behavior changes when the moon is full, but new research suggests otherwise. "Our ...

  6. To the Moon and Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hobson, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Introducing science inquiry early in young children's education is imperative, and providing opportunities for conducting investigations that develop process skills can lay a foundation for later learning. Combining inquiry-based instruction with appropriate technology allows the students to explore, reason, test, and revise their ideas about…

  7. Clementine observations of the Aristarchus region of the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, A.S.; Robinson, M.S.; Eliason, E.M.; Lucey, P.G.; Duxbury, T.C.; Spudis, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    Multispectral and topographic data acquired by the Clementine spacecraft provide information on the composition and geologic history of the Aristarchus region of the moon. Altimetry profiles show the Aristarchus plateau dipping about 1?? to the north-northwest and rising about 2 kilometers above the surrounding lavas of Oceanus Procellarum to the south. Dark, reddish pyroclastic glass covers the plateau to average depths of 10 to 30 meters, as determined from the estimated excavation depths of 100- to 1000-meter-diameter craters that have exposed materials below the pyroclastics. These craters and the wall of sinuous rilles also show that mare basalts underlie the pyroclastics across much of the plateau. Near-infrared images of Aristarchus crater reveal oilvine-rich materials and two kilometer-sized outcrops of anorthosite in the central peaks. The anorthosite could be either a derivative of local magnesium-suite magmatism or a remnant of the ferroan anorthosite crust that formed over the primordial magma ocean.

  8. Measuring the Moon's orbit using a hand-held camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a way to measure the Moon's distance and orbital eccentricity using a digital camera. The method consists of taking photographs of the Moon and measuring the size of the lunar disk in each picture. On a series of images taken on the same night, the effect of the Earth's size is evident and thus the distance to the Moon can be computed. A larger series of images, covering several weeks, demonstrates that the Moon's orbit is not perfectly circular.

  9. Simulating the Phases of the Moon Shortly after Its Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordeh, Emil; Hall, Patrick; Cuk, Matija

    2014-01-01

    The leading theory for the origin of the Moon is the giant impact hypothesis, in which the Moon was formed out of the debris left over from the collision of a Mars sized body with the Earth. Soon after its formation, the orbit of the Moon may have been very different than it is today. We have simulated the phases of the Moon in a model for its…

  10. The moon as a high temperature condensate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The accretion during condensation mechanism, if it occurs during the early over-luminous stage of the sun, can explain the differences in composition of the terrestrial planets and the moon. An important factor is the variation of pressure and temperature with distance from the sun, and in the case of the moon and captured satellites of other planets, with distance from the median plane. Current estimates of the temperature and pressure in the solar nebula suggest that condensation will not be complete in the vicinity of the terrestrial planets, and that depending on location, iron, magnesium silicates and the volatiles will be at least partially held in the gaseous phase and subject to separation from the dust by solar wind and magnetic effects associated with the transfer of angular momentum just before the sun joins the Main Sequence. Many of the properties of the moon, including the 'enrichment' in Ca, Al, Ti, U, Th, Ba, Sr and the REE and the 'depletion' in Fe, Rb, K, Na and other volatiles can be understood if the moon represents a high temperature condensate from the solar nebula.

  11. Differentiation of the matter of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.

    1977-01-01

    The following facts were uncovered in comparing the basaltic surface rocks of the moon with terrestrial tholeiitic basalts and ordinary chondrites: (1) there is an excess of the so-called refractory chemical elements, including the group of truly refractory elements, the rare earths, U, and Th, in comparison with their content in primitive terrestrial basalts and chondrites; (2) the so-called siderophilic elements have lower contents in the lunar surface rocks than in terrestrial rocks; (3) the low alkali content (Na, K, Rb) in lunar rocks is established; (4) there is a low content of H2O and the ordinary gases CO2, halides, etc.; (5) the low content of metals with high vapor pressure, (In, Tl, etc.) has been established. It is proposed that U and Th were carried from the internal areas to the peripheral rocks of the moon during magmatic activity, i.e., up to 3 billion years ago. This redistribution of U and Th lead to their concentration in surface layers of the moon, and the heat which they generated was lost into surrounding space. The conclusion is then reached that in order to understand processes on the moon, the chondritic model cannot be used.

  12. Morphologic studies of the Moon and planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    The impact, volcanic, and tectonic history of the Moon and planets were investigated over an eight year period. Research on the following topics is discussed: lunar craters, lunar basins, lunar volcanoes, correlation of Apollo geochemical data, lunar geology, Mars desert landforms, and Mars impact basins.

  13. Using Moon Phases to Measure Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Janet; Lutz, Tracie; LaLonde, Donna E.

    2015-01-01

    Cultures need to accurately record dates and times for various societal purposes, ranging from knowing when to plant crops to planning travel. In ancient times, the sun and moon were used as measurement devices because of the scientific understanding of the physical world at that time. Ancient timekeepers monitored celestial events and either used…

  14. Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, Francis M; Steele, Andrew; Hauri, Erik H; Nekvasil, Hanna; Yamashita, Shigeru; Hemley, Russell J

    2010-06-22

    For the past 40 years, the Moon has been described as nearly devoid of indigenous water; however, evidence for water both on the lunar surface and within the lunar interior have recently emerged, calling into question this long-standing lunar dogma. In the present study, hydroxyl (as well as fluoride and chloride) was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry in apatite [Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)(F,Cl,OH)] from three different lunar samples in order to obtain quantitative constraints on the abundance of water in the lunar interior. This work confirms that hundreds to thousands of ppm water (of the structural form hydroxyl) is present in apatite from the Moon. Moreover, two of the studied samples likely had water preserved from magmatic processes, which would qualify the water as being indigenous to the Moon. The presence of hydroxyl in apatite from a number of different types of lunar rocks indicates that water may be ubiquitous within the lunar interior, potentially as early as the time of lunar formation. The water contents analyzed for the lunar apatite indicate minimum water contents of their lunar source region to range from 64 ppb to 5 ppm H(2)O. This lower limit range of water contents is at least two orders of magnitude greater than the previously reported value for the bulk Moon, and the actual source region water contents could be significantly higher. PMID:20547878

  15. Malapert Mountain: Gateway to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrunk, D.; Sharpe, B.

    The long lunar nights at the equatorial and mid-latitude regions of the Moon place severe limitations on the solar power and thermal management requirements of an unmanned lunar base. A solution to this problem is to locate sunlight-dependent facilities in polar regions, where nights can be very short due to chance interactions of lunar topography and orbital mechanics. Based on analyses of Clementine and Earth-based radar imaging of the Moon, the authors conclude that the summit of Malapert Mountain near the South Pole has the best combination of factors for a sunlight-dependent lunar base. Using a commercial software product, they determined that the Mountain summit receives full or partial sunlight for 93% of the lunar year and always has the Earth in view for direct Earth-Moon communications. By exploiting these optimum conditions, a remotely operated base at the summit could coordinate the scientific exploration of the entire south polar region. The base could also expedite the development of a permanent utility infrastructure and of facilities for human settlement. The authors conclude that the fortuitous and highly advantageous combination of physical factors of Malapert Mountain makes it the optimum site for beginning the human exploration and settlement of the Moon.

  16. Malapert mountain: Gateway to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Burton L.; Schrunk, David G.

    2003-06-01

    The long lunar nights at the equatorial and mid-latitude regions of the Moon place severe limitations on the solar power and thermal management requirements of an unmanned lunar base. A solution to this problem is to locate sunlight-dependent facilities in polar regions where nights can be very short due to chance interactions of lunar topography and orbital mechanics. Based on analyses of Clementine and Earth-based radar imaging of the Moon, the authors conclude that the summit of Malapert Mountain near the South Pole has the best combination of factors for a sunlight-dependent lunar base. Using a commercial software product, they determined that the Mountain summit receives full or partial sunlight for 93% of the lunar year and always has the Earth in view for direct Earth-Moon communications. By exploiting these optimum conditions, a remotely operated base at the summit could coordinate the scientific exploration of the entire south polar region. The base could also expedite the development of a permanent utility infrastructure and facilities for human settlement. The authors conclude that the fortuitous and highly advantageous combination of physical factors of Malapert Mountain makes it the optimum site for beginning the human exploration and settlement of the Moon.

  17. The new race to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Sue

    2014-10-01

    Private companies are vying to be the first to land on the Moon and win the $20m Google Lunar XPRIZE. Sue Bowler reports on how and why they are doing it, and what success in 2015 could mean for the future of space exploration.

  18. Early History of the Moon: Zircon Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grange, M.L.; Nemchin, A.A.; Pidgeon, R.T.; Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon is believed to have formed from debris produced by a giant impact of a Mars sized body with the Earth (at around 4.51 Ga), forming a primitive body with a thick global layer of melt referred to as the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO). The crystallization of LMO created internal stratification of the Moon forming main geochemical reservoirs. The surface features on the Moon were shaped by the subsequent collision with several large impactors during a short period of time (3.9-4.0 Ga). This process known as the Late Heavy Bombardment is supported by models of planetary motion, suggesting that rapid migration of giant planets could have triggered a massive delivery of planetesimals from the asteroid belt into the inner Solar System at about 3.9 Ga. Although, general chronology of LMO and LHB is well established using both long lived (U-Pb, Rb-Sr, Sm-147-Nd-143 and Ar-Ar) and extinct (Hf-182-W-182 and 146Sm-142Nd) isotope systems, some of these systems such as Ar-Ar are known to reset easily during secondary thermal overprints. As a result important details in the timing of LMO and LHB remain unresolved. In addition, the relative weakness of these systems under high T conditions can potentially bias the chronological information towards later events in the history of the Moon.

  19. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses NASA's mission and addresses the following questions: 1) What is NASA's mission? 2) Why do we explore? 3) What is out timeline? 4) why the Moon first? 5) What will the vehicles look like? 6) What progress have we made? who will be doing the work? and 7) What are the benefits of space exploration?

  20. Radioactivity of the moon and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surkov, Iu. A.

    The major results of studies of the radioactivity of the moon and terrestrial planets are reviewed. Measurements of the cosmogenic and natural radioactivity of the moon and Mars were obtained from planetary orbiter measurements, and those of Venus by in situ measurements, in addition to measurements of lunar samples brought back to earth. For the case of the moon, the Western maria on the near side are found to be the most radioactive areas, with highlands on both sides of the moon exhibiting lower radioactivity than the maria and lunar radioactivity levels in general less than those of the earth, which is correlated with different chemical compositions of the two bodies. The potassium, uranium and thorium contents of the landing sites of Veneras 8, 9 and 10 are shown to differ from each other, but be similar to those of terrestrial basalts, which they also resemble in density. Gamma-radiation and X-ray fluorescence measurements of Mars indicate the content of natural radioelements to be similar to that of the eruptive rocks of the earth crust, with Martian rocks of volcanic formations similar to terrestrial and lunar basalts, and those of the ancient terra formations more closely resembling the anorthosite-norite-troctolite association of the lunar highlands. It is pointed out that natural radioelements contents of all the bodies examined indicate a single chemical differentiation process, while cosmogenic radiation contents can aid in determining cosmic ray intensities as well as the sequences of geological events.

  1. Concrete structure construction on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shinji; Namba, Haruyuki; Kai, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Tetsuji

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes a precast prestressed concrete structure system on the Moon and erection methods for this system. The horizontal section of the structural module is hexagonal so that various layouts of the modules are possible by connecting the adjacent modules to each other. For erection of the modules, specially designed mobile cranes are used.

  2. Heliophysics From the Surface of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Justin C.

    2012-05-01

    Heliophysics, a combination of the disciplines of solar physics, space physics, and space weather, is the study of the system composed of the Sun’s heliosphere and the objects that interact with it, including the moon. Heliophysics science has been tightly coupled with exploration since the beginning of the space program, as scientists work to both understand the physics of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and to develop predictive capabilities that enable operational planning for lunar, deep space, and eventually Mars missions. Renewed robotic and human exploration of the moon creates opportunities for several new classes of experiments on the lunar surface and in lunar orbit that will both provide real-time awareness of space weather conditions during manned missions and advance the field of heliophysics science. The purpose of this talk is to summarize the scientific motivations and exploration benefits of heliophysics science experiments described in the 2007 NASA report “Heliophysics Science and the Moon: Potential Solar and Space Physics Science for Lunar Exploration”. A series of potential experiments will be discussed, ranging from small dust and particle sensors to sophisticated radio and optical telescopes.

  3. Nominally hydrous magmatism on the Moon

    PubMed Central

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Steele, Andrew; Hauri, Erik H.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Yamashita, Shigeru; Hemley, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    For the past 40 years, the Moon has been described as nearly devoid of indigenous water; however, evidence for water both on the lunar surface and within the lunar interior have recently emerged, calling into question this long-standing lunar dogma. In the present study, hydroxyl (as well as fluoride and chloride) was analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry in apatite [Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)] from three different lunar samples in order to obtain quantitative constraints on the abundance of water in the lunar interior. This work confirms that hundreds to thousands of ppm water (of the structural form hydroxyl) is present in apatite from the Moon. Moreover, two of the studied samples likely had water preserved from magmatic processes, which would qualify the water as being indigenous to the Moon. The presence of hydroxyl in apatite from a number of different types of lunar rocks indicates that water may be ubiquitous within the lunar interior, potentially as early as the time of lunar formation. The water contents analyzed for the lunar apatite indicate minimum water contents of their lunar source region to range from 64 ppb to 5 ppm H2O. This lower limit range of water contents is at least two orders of magnitude greater than the previously reported value for the bulk Moon, and the actual source region water contents could be significantly higher. PMID:20547878

  4. Assessing the Dangers of Moon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the sources, problems and some solutions to dust on the moon. While there appeared to be no long term effects from Lunar Dust in Apollo astronauts, the future lunar missions will be longer in duration, and therefore more problems may present themselves. Some of the se problems are reviewed, and plans to deal with them are reviewed.

  5. Morphologic studies of the Moon and planets

    SciTech Connect

    El-Baz, F.; Maxwell, T.A.

    1984-09-01

    The impact, volcanic, and tectonic history of the Moon and planets were investigated over an eight year period. Research on the following topics is discussed: lunar craters, lunar basins, lunar volcanoes, correlation of Apollo geochemical data, lunar geology, Mars desert landforms, and Mars impact basins.

  6. Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-06-14

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Since it is the only (almost) black spot in the gamma-ray sky, it provides a unique opportunity for calibration of gamma-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). The albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo gamma-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo -rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the GLAST LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of PAMELA.

  7. The sodium tail of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-12-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  8. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  9. Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.; Hughes, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    A selection of the reconstructed photographs taken during 1966 and 1967 by five Lunar Orbiters is presented. The selection provides essentially complete coverage of the near and far sides of the moon in detail. The photographs were reprocessed from the original video data tapes.

  10. Concrete structure construction on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, Shinji; Namba, Haruyuki; Kai, Yoshiro; Yoshida, Tetsuji

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a precast prestressed concrete structure system on the Moon and erection methods for this system. The horizontal section of the structural module is hexagonal so that various layouts of the modules are possible by connecting the adjacent modules to each other. For erection of the modules, specially designed mobile cranes are used.

  11. Apollo 8, Man Around the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents a series of photographs depicting the story of the Apollo 8 mission around the moon and includes a brief description as well as quotes from the astronauts. The photographs show scenes of the astronauts training, the Saturn V rocket, pre-flight preparation, blast off, the earth from space, the lunar surface, the earth-based…

  12. Elementary Education: Elementary Students Simulate Moon Walk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes the project of a fourth- and fifth-grade class in simulating a moon walk. Teams consisted of the astronauts, the life support team, the flight program team, the communications team, the scientific team, and the construction team. Their visit to the Marshall Space Flight Center is also described. (SA)

  13. Using Persuasion to Plan a Moon Walk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Muriel

    1977-01-01

    Describes an exercise in learning about persuasion using a NASA exercise in group decision-making centered on a theoretical crash landing on the moon. Students experience the power of the authoritative voice, the persuasive power of facts, the bandwagon approach, and group manipulation. (TJ)

  14. Conference on the Origin of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Various topics relating to lunar evolution are discussed. The Moon's ancient orbital history, geophysical and geochemical constraints favoring the capture hypothesis, the site of the lunar core, chemical and petrological constraints, dynamical constraints, and mathematical models are among the topics discussed.

  15. Precession of the Earth-Moon System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2009-01-01

    The precession rate of the Earth-Moon system by the gravitational influence of the Sun is derived. Attention is focussed on a physically transparent but complete presentation accessible to first- or second-year physics students. Both a shortcut and a full analysis are given, which allows the inclusion of this material as an example of the physics…

  16. Changing Perspectives on Mercury and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, Brett W.

    2015-11-01

    Airless, cratered, and not so different in size, the Moon and Mercury form a natural pair in the inner Solar System. For decades after the 1974 and 1975 Mariner 10 flybys of Mercury, with little compositional information, no concrete evidence for volcanism, and images of less than half of the planet, it was thought that Mercury’s surface may be similar to the lunar highlands: an ancient anorthositic flotation crust subsequently shaped mainly by impact cratering. However, observations from the recently completed MESSENGER mission to Mercury have upended our view of the innermost planet, revealing, for example, a crust that may be rich in graphite and that has been extensively resurfaced by volcanic activity, and geologic activity that may continue today to produce enigmatic “hollows” - a crust very different from that of the Moon. Meanwhile, the Moon has undergone its own revolution, as data from recent spacecraft such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal sites of silicic volcanism indicative of complex differentiation in the mantle, tectonic activity that may be ongoing, recent volcanic activity that alters the paradigm that volcanism died on the Moon over a billion years ago, and evidence that the early chronology of the inner Solar System may not be as well known as once thought. As our views of these two bodies evolve, a new understanding of their differences informs our knowledge of the variety of processes and styles of planetary evolution, and their similarities point to commonalities among all airless bodies.

  17. Crescent-shaped Earth and Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This picture of a crescent-shaped Earth and Moon -- the first of its kind ever taken by a spacecraft -- was recorded Sept. 18, 1977, by NASA's Voyager 1 when it was 7.25 million miles (11.66 million kilometers) from Earth. The Moon is at the top of the picture and beyond the Earth as viewed by Voyager. In the picture are eastern Asia, the western Pacific Ocean and part of the Arctic. Voyager 1 was directly above Mt. Everest (on the night side of the planet at 25 degrees north latitude) when the picture was taken. The photo was made from three images taken through color filters, then processed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Lab. Because the Earth is many times brighter than the Moon, the Moon was artificially brightened by a factor of three relative to the Earth by computer enhancement so that both bodies would show clearly in the print. Voyager 2 was launched Aug. 20, 1977, followed by Voyager 1 on Sept. 5, 1977, en route to encounters at Jupiter in 1979 and Saturn in 1980 and 1981. JPL manages the Voyager mission for NASA.

  18. The Moon System Adapted for Musical Notation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Michael

    1987-01-01

    A means is presented for using William Moon's embossed symbols to represent musical notation for blind individuals, as an alternative to braille notation. The proposed system includes pitch symbols, octave indicators, duration symbols, accidentals, key signatures, rests, stress symbols, ornaments, and other symbols. (Author/JDD)

  19. The Moon as a Science Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, J.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J.; MacDowall, R.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon offers a valuable platform for space sciences studies: (1) No atmosphere, (2) Farside is radio quiet. There is a compelling science program: (1) Cosmic dawn and the dark ages, (2) Particle acceleration and space weather. The technology and engineering development are making good progress. A staged roadmap with science and technology development at every step is presented.

  20. Towards a Moon Village : Community Workshops Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    A series of Moon Village Workshops were organised at ESTEC and at ILEWG community events in 2015 and 2016. They gathered a multi-disciplinary group of professionals from all around the world to discuss their ideas about the concept of a Moon Village, the vision of ESA's Director General (DG) Jan Woerner of a permanent lunar base within the next decades [1]. Three working groups focused on 1) Moon Habitat Design; 2) science and technology potentials of the Moon Village, and 3) engaging stake-holders [2-3]. Their results and recommendations are presented in this abstract. The Moon Habitat Design group identified that the lunar base design is strongly driven by the lunar environment, which is characterized by high radiation, meteoroids, abrasive dust particles, low gravity and vacuum. The base location is recommended to be near the poles to provide optimized illumination conditions for power generation, permanent communication to Earth, moderate temperature gradients at the surface and interesting subjects to scientific investigations. The abundance of nearby available resources, especially ice at the dark bottoms of craters, can be exploited in terms of In-Situ Resources Utilization (ISRU). The identified infrastructural requirements include a navigation, data- & commlink network, storage facilities and sustainable use of resources. This involves a high degree of recycling, closed-loop life support and use of 3D-printing technology, which are all technologies with great potential for terrestrial spin-off applications. For the site planning of the Moon Village, proven ideas from urban planning on Earth should be taken into account. A couple of principles, which could improve the quality of a long-term living milieu on the Moon, are creating spacious environments, visibility between interior and exterior spaces, areas with flora, such as gardens and greenhouses, establishing a sustainable community and creating social places for astronauts to interact and relax. The

  1. Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Inverted image of two moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. In this view, the Pleiades, a star cluster also known as the 'Seven Sisters,' is visible in the lower left corner. The bright star Aldebaran and some of the stars in the constellation Taurus are visible on the right. Spirit acquired this image the evening of martian day, or sol, 590 (Aug. 30, 2005). The image on the right provides an enhanced-contrast view with annotation. Within the enhanced halo of light is an insert of an unsaturated view of Phobos taken a few images later in the same sequence.

    On Mars, Phobos would be easily visible to the naked eye at night, but would be only about one-third as large as the full Moon appears from Earth. Astronauts staring at Phobos from the surface of Mars would notice its oblong, potato-like shape and that it moves quickly against the background stars. Phobos takes only 7 hours, 39 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That is so fast, relative to the 24-hour-and-39-minute sol on Mars (the length of time it takes for Mars to complete one rotation), that Phobos rises in the west and sets in the east. Earth's moon, by comparison, rises in the east and sets in the west. The smaller martian moon, Deimos, takes 30 hours, 12 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That orbital period is longer than a martian sol, and so Deimos rises, like most solar system moons, in the east and sets in the west.

    Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the five images that make up this composite with the panoramic camera, using the camera's broadband filter, which

  2. Moon Journals: Writing, Art, and Inquiry through Focused Nature Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chancer, Joni; Rester-Zodrow, Gina

    One of the greatest sources of wonder, the moon, becomes the focus of a classroom inquiry in this book which gives an illustration of integrated curriculum. Two teachers recount how their students observed the moon's transit for 28 days, recording their impressions in written and illustrated records called "Moon Journals." The book describes how…

  3. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole.

  4. 27 CFR 9.231 - Moon Mountain District Sonoma County.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Moon Mountain District... Viticultural Areas § 9.231 Moon Mountain District Sonoma County. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Moon Mountain District Sonoma County”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  5. Moon Phase as a Context for Teaching Scale Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ann; Dickerson, Daniel; Hopkins, Sara

    2007-01-01

    The Sun and the Moon are our most visible neighbors in space, yet their distance and size relative to the Earth are often misunderstood. Science textbooks fuel this misconception because they regularly depict linear images of Moon phases without respect to the actual sizes of the Sun, Earth, and Moon, nor their correlated distances from one…

  6. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  7. Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Inverted animation of PIA06340 Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars Annotated animation of PIA06340 Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars

    Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. In this view, the Pleiades, a star cluster also known as the 'Seven Sisters,' is visible in the lower left corner. The bright star Aldebaran and some of the stars in the constellation Taurus are visible on the right. Spirit acquired this image the evening of martian day, or sol, 590 (Aug. 30, 2005). The image on the right provides an enhanced-contrast view with annotation. Within the enhanced halo of light is an insert of an unsaturated view of Phobos taken a few images later in the same sequence.

    'It is incredibly cool to be running an observatory on another planet,' said planetary scientist Jim Bell of Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., lead scientist for the panoramic cameras on Spirit and Opportunity. In the annotated animation (figure 2), both martian moons, Deimos on the left and Phobos on the right, travel across the night sky in front of the constellation Sagittarius. Part of Sagittarius resembles an upside-down teapot. In this view, Phobos moves toward the handle and Deimos moves toward the lid. Phobos is the brighter object on the right; Deimos is on the left. Each of the stars in Sagittarius is labeled with its formal name. The inset shows an enlarged, enhanced view of Phobos, shaped rather like a potato with a hole near one end. The hole is the large impact creater Stickney, visible on the moon's upper right limb.

    On Mars, Phobos would be easily visible to the naked eye at night, but would be only about one-third as large as the full Moon appears from Earth. Astronauts staring at Phobos from

  8. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission today, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. Unlike the Apollo program of the 1960s, this phase of exploration will be a journey, not a race. In 1966, the NASA's budget was 4 percent of federal spending. Today, with 6/10 of 1 percent of the budget, NASA must incrementally develop the vehicles, infrastructure, technology, and organization to accomplish this goal. Fortunately, our knowledge and experience are greater than they were 40 years ago. NASA's goal is a return to the Moon by 2020. The Moon is the first step to America's exploration of Mars. Many questions about the Moon's history and how its history is linked to that of Earth remain even after the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment. The Moon also will serve as a training ground in several respects before embarking on the longer, more perilous trip to Mars. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit on the Ares I and a second launch to orbit the lunar lander and the Earth Departure Stage to send the lander and crew vehicle to the Moon. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on proven hardware and decades of experience derived from

  9. A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

    In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

  10. Galileo's Medicean Moons (IAU S269)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Cesare; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Coradini, Marcello; Lazzarin, Monica

    2010-11-01

    Preface; 1. Galileo's telescopic observations: the marvel and meaning of discovery George V. Coyne, S. J.; 2. Popular perceptions of Galileo Dava Sobel; 3. The slow growth of humility Tobias Owen and Scott Bolton; 4. A new physics to support the Copernican system. Gleanings from Galileo's works Giulio Peruzzi; 5. The telescope in the making, the Galileo first telescopic observations Alberto Righini; 6. The appearance of the Medicean Moons in 17th century charts and books. How long did it take? Michael Mendillo; 7. Navigation, world mapping and astrometry with Galileo's moons Kaare Aksnes; 8. Modern exploration of Galileo's new worlds Torrence V. Johnson; 9. Medicean Moons sailing through plasma seas: challenges in establishing magnetic properties Margaret G. Kivelson, Xianzhe Jia and Krishan K. Khurana; 10. Aurora on Jupiter: a magnetic connection with the Sun and the Medicean Moons Supriya Chakrabarti and Marina Galand; 11. Io's escaping atmosphere: continuing the legacy of surprise Nicholas M. Schneider; 12. The Jovian Rings Wing-Huen Ip; 13. The Juno mission Scott J. Bolton and the Juno Science Team; 14. Seeking Europa's ocean Robert T. Pappalardo; 15. Europa lander mission: a challenge to find traces of alien life Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Elena Vorobyova, Maxim Martynov, Efraim L. Akim and Alexander Zakahrov; 16. Atmospheric moons Galileo would have loved Sushil K. Atreya; 17. The study of Mercury Louise M. Prockter and Peter D. Bedini; 18. Jupiter and the other giants: a comparative study Thérèse Encrenaz; 19. Spectroscopic and spectrometric differentiation between abiotic and biogenic material on icy worlds Kevin P. Hand, Chris McKay and Carl Pilcher; 20. Other worlds, other civilizations? Guy Consolmagno, S. J.; 21. Concluding remarks Roger M. Bonnet; Posters; Author index; Object index.

  11. Learning the moon's phases through CL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Maria

    2013-04-01

    This work is a CLIL experience for a class of 14-year-old students, a first grade of a Secondary school, level B1/B2. It is presented an Astronomy lesson whose topic is about the Moon's phases, a quite difficult phenomenon to visualize. Students' attention is attracted by presenting them songs and a short documentary; comprehension is made easier using both Internet-based materials and a card game using Cooperative Learning strategies through Johnsons' ' Learning Together'. The lesson consists of three steps for a total length of three hours. The teacher assigns a time limit for each activity. During the pre-task step, students' interest for present-day music is used to catch their attention and make them aware of the importance of the Moon as an inspiring subject for artistic expression such as popular or rock music. Then the students are requested to brainstorm some simple ideas of ther own about the moon. In the task step, a clear short BBC video is shown in order to stimulate students' listening and comprehension skills and an animation is proposed to help them view the moon cycle. In the post-task step, students are engaged in a card game through Johnsons' 'Learning Together'.Learners are divided into pairs and they have to cooperate to rebuild the moon's cicle as fast as they can. Then the two pairs join together to form groups of four and check their answers. The Assessor shares the group's keys with the whole class. The teacher gives feedback. The groups celebrate their success by clapping their hands and saying what they appreciated regarding their way of working together as pairs and groups.

  12. Determination of embryonic temperature profiles and eggshell water vapor conductance constants in incubating Ross x Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs using temperature transponders.

    PubMed

    Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D; Zhai, W; Gerard, P D

    2012-01-01

    The comprehensive profiles of the internal and external temperatures of embryonated Ross × Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs during incubation were determined using temperature transponders, and eggshell water vapor conductance (G(H2O)), specific G(H2O) (g(H2O); G(H2O) adjusted to a 100 g set egg weight basis), and G(H2O) constants (K(H2O)) were calculated. On each of 8 replicate tray levels of an incubator, 2 nonembryonated and 4 embryonated eggs were each implanted with a transponder on d 10.5 of incubation for the determination of internal (air cell) temperatures of nonembryonated (T(nem)) and embryonated (T(emb)) eggs, respectively. In addition, 2 water-filled vials, each containing a transponder, were used on each tray level for the determination of the external microenvironment temperatures (T(ext)) of the embryonated and nonembryonated eggs. Between 10.5 and 18 d of incubation, incubator data logger temperatures were determined every 5 min; and incubator dry bulb temperature, T(ext), T(nem), T(emb), and the difference between T(emb) and T(nem) (T) were determined every 12 h. Over the days of incubation, regression coefficients for T(emb) and T were positive, whereas the regression coefficient for T(nem) was negative. There was a significant day of incubation × type of temperature measurement (T(ext), T(nem), and T(emb)) interaction for temperature. Between 13 and 18 d of incubation, mean values of T(emb) readings that were recorded every 12 h were consistently higher than those of T(ext) and T(nem), indicating the importance of air cell transponder implantation for the efficient estimation of broiler embryo temperature. Furthermore, mean values of the percentage of daily incubational egg weight loss, G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O) of the embryonated eggs were 0.54 ± 0.019%, 14.4 ± 0.56 mg of H₂O/d per Torr, 25.0 ± 0.96 mg of H₂O/d per Torr per 100 g, and 5.20 ± 0.205, respectively. The results suggest that transponders may be implanted in the air cells of

  13. Protecting the Moon for research: ILEWG report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give a report on recommendations with emphasis on environment protection, and since last COSPAR from ILEWG International conferences Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon on held at Cape Canaveral in 2008 (ICEUM10), and in Beijing in May 2010 with IAF (GLUC -ICEUM11). We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration, as debated at ILEWG. ILEWG Science task group has listed priorities for scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life; sciences from a biology lunar laboratory. We discuss how to preserve Moon research potential in these areas while operating with instruments, landers, rover during a cooperative robotic village, and during the transition form lunar human outpost to permanent sustainable human base. We discuss how Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development with the trade-off of In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental and planetary protection aspects and lessons for Mars; Life sciences laboratories, and support to human exploration. Co-authors: ILEWG Task Groups on Science, Technology and Human Lunar Bases ILEWG Reference documents: http://sci.esa.int/ilewg -10th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, NASA Lunar Ex-ploration Analysis Group-PSace Resources Roundtable, Cape Canaveral October 2008, pro-gramme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -9th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, ICEUM9 Sorrento 2007, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -8th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, Beijing July 2006, programme online at http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ -The Moon and Near Earth Objects (P. Ehrenfreund , B.H. Foing, A

  14. Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murchie, S. L.; Chabot, N. L.; Buczkowski, D.; Arvidson, R. E.; Castillo, J. C.; Peplowski, P. N.; Ernst, C. M.; Rivkin, A.; Eng, D.; Chmielewski, A. B.; Maki, J.; trebi-Ollenu, A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Spence, H. E.; Horanyi, M.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Christian, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Mars-Moons Exploration, Reconnaissance and Landed Investigation (MERLIN) is a NASA Discovery mission proposal to explore the moons of Mars. Previous Mars-focused spacecraft have raised fundamental questions about Mars' moons: What are their origins and compositions? Why do the moons resemble primitive outer solar system D-type objects? How do geologic processes modify their surfaces? MERLIN answers these questions through a combination of orbital and landed measurements, beginning with reconnaissance of Deimos and investigation of the hypothesized Martian dust belts. Orbital reconnaissance of Phobos occurs, followed by low flyovers to characterize a landing site. MERLIN lands on Phobos, conducting a 90-day investigation. Radiation measurements are acquired throughout all mission phases. Phobos' size and mass provide a low-risk landing environment: controlled descent is so slow that the landing is rehearsed, but gravity is high enough that surface operations do not require anchoring. Existing imaging of Phobos reveals low regional slope regions suitable for landing, and provides knowledge for planning orbital and landed investigations. The payload leverages past NASA investments. Orbital imaging is accomplished by a dual multispectral/high-resolution imager rebuilt from MESSENGER/MDIS. Mars' dust environment is measured by the refurbished engineering model of LADEE/LDEX, and the radiation environment by the flight spare of LRO/CRaTER. The landed workspace is characterized by a color stereo imager updated from MER/HazCam. MERLIN's arm deploys landed instrumentation using proven designs from MER, Phoenix, and MSL. Elemental measurements are acquired by a modified version of Rosetta/APXS, and an uncooled gamma-ray spectrometer. Mineralogical measurements are acquired by a microscopic imaging spectrometer developed under MatISSE. MERLIN delivers seminal science traceable to NASA's Strategic Goals and Objectives, Science Plan, and the Decadal Survey. MERLIN's science

  15. Project Columbiad: Reestablishment of human presence on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shea, Joseph; Weiss, Stanley; Alexander, Harold; Belobaba, Peter; Loboda, Greg; Berry, Maresi; Bower, Mark; Bruen, Charles; Cazeau, Patrick; Clarke, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted missions have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mecanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  16. A Power Conversion Concept for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission is currently under study by the Office of Space Science under the Project Prometheus Program. JIMO is examining the use of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) to carry scientific payloads to three Jovian moons. A potential power system concept includes dual 100 kWe Brayton converters, a deployable pumped loop heat rejection subsystem, and a 400 Vac Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) bus. Many trades were performed in aniving at this candidate power system concept. System-level studies examined design and off-design operating modes, determined startup requirements, evaluated subsystem redundancy options, and quantified the mass and radiator area of reactor power systems from 20 to 200 kWe. In the Brayton converter subsystem, studies were performed to investigate converter packaging options, and assess the induced torque effects on spacecraft dynamics due to rotating machinery. In the heat rejection subsystem, design trades were conducted on heat transport approaches, material and fluid options, and deployed radiator geometries. In the PMAD subsystem, the overall electrical architecture was defined and trade studies examined distribution approaches, voltage levels, and cabling options.

  17. Project "Phobos-Soil": A complex sounding of the Phobos moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, A.; Ozorovich, Yu; Linkin, V.; Lukomsky, A.; Skalsky, A.; Klimov, S.; Manukin, A.; Khavroshkin, O.; Smirnov, V.

    based on measurements of electric and magnetic fields carried out by the PhPMS plasma-magnetic system flown onboard the "Phobos-Soil" spacecraft. The advantage of the "Phobos-Soil" mission is simultaneous observation of various physical parameters: dust and solar wind flux, interplanetary magnetic field, electric field fluctuations and seismic activity at the surface of the Martian moon et etc. Further statistical and correlation studies will allow to reveal their mutual interconnection and to illuminate the peculiarities of the Phobos internal structure. Measurements of velocity distributions 1 of ions sputtered from the Phobos surface will provide information on the composition variation across the surface thus complementing other measurements of Phobos properties. In situ measurements of a magnetic susceptibility and conductivity of rocks from the surface layer of Phobos is performed directly in the GZU probing channel. It allows to obtain an aprioristic information about the top layer of Phobos rocks (down to 0.5m) which facilitates, then, an interpretation of data recorded with the electromagnetic sounding by means the long wave radar. The complex sounding of the Phobos moon provides not only the information about its structure (important for understanding of the origin of the Mars -Phobos - Deimos system) but also an outstanding experience of sounding at surface of celestial body. This experience is of particular importance for further investigation of subsurface structures of Mars and its paleoclimatic history which will be carried out in the future space missions. References: [1] Clifford S.M. (1993) JGR, 98, 10973-1016. [2] Fanale F.P. (1986) Icarus, 67,1-18.[3] Ozorovich Y.R., Linkin V.M., Smythe W., " Mars Electromagnetic Sounding Experiment - MARSES ", Proceedings of LPI Conference, Houston, 1999. [4] Skalsky A., E. Dubinin, M. Delva, R. Grard, S. Klimov, K. Sauer, and J.-G. Trotignon, Wave observations at the foreshock boundary in the near mars space, Earth

  18. Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2002-12-01

    Human exploration during Apollo began the documentation of the evolution of the Moon and of its importance in understanding the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets. This revolution in planetary geology continues as a vigorous and vibrant arena for discovery and debate for new generations of geoscientists. Although much has been learned and, indeed, resolved in lunar science, we are left with major questions unresolved. One fundamental question is that of the origin of the Moon. A large consensus has developed in the planetary science community that the Moon was created by the "giant impact" of a Mars-sized asteroid on the Earth after the accretion of the Earth was largely complete and differentiation had begun. A minority, however, questions this consensus hypothesis because of increasing indications that the lower mantle of the Moon may be largely undifferentiated. If the issue of the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system can be resolved through new modeling studies, then capture of a co-orbiting planetesimal may be an important alternative to a "giant impact". Another important question, particularly in consideration of the terrestrial and Martian surface environments during the first 0.8 billion years of Earth history, is the impact record of that period as recorded on the Moon. Again, a large consensus has developed that the 50 or so large and very large impact basins identified on the Moon were created over a very short "cataclysm" between about 3.9 and 3.8 billion years ago. Here also, a minority suggests that this period of large basin formation, although distinct in lunar history, took place over several hundred million years and that the apparent cataclysm is an artifact of sampling the effects of the last few basin-forming impacts. Either way, a previously unavailable source of impactors appeared somewhere in the solar system and greatly affected terrestrial environments at the time the precursors to life were appearing on Earth

  19. Simulating the Phases of the Moon Shortly After Its Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordeh, Emil; Hall, Patrick; Cuk, Matija

    2014-04-01

    The leading theory for the origin of the Moon is the giant impact hypothesis, in which the Moon was formed out of the debris left over from the collision of a Marssized body with the Earth. Soon after its formation, the orbit of the Moon may have been very different than it is today. We have simulated the phases of the Moon in a model for its formation wherein the Moon develops a highly elliptical orbit with its major axis tangential to the Earth's orbit. This note describes these simulations and their pedagogical value.

  20. Riddles about the origin and thermal history of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, B. Y.; Mayeva, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    Magmatic differentiation of the moon's interior, confirmed through calculations of thermal history, was studied. It appears that differentiation was a result of the moon's initial temperature whose origin remains unknown. In solving this problem, convective models of the moon were considered as well as a two layered differentiated model of the moon, operative over the past 3.5 billion years. The high content of long lived radioactive elements present was investigated in explaining the moon's current thermal properties. The controversy concerning the true nature of magmatic differentiation continues to be unsolved.

  1. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  2. The Motion of a Satellite of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lass, Harry

    1960-01-01

    The motion of a satellite of the Moon depends on the potential field due to the Moon as well as the gravitational effects of the Earth and Sun. If one chooses a frame of reference attached to the Moon, it can be shown that the force field resulting from the Sun can be neglected when compared with the perturbing field of the Moon resulting from its oblateness. The effect of the Earth's field on the satellite is of the some order of magnitude as the Moon's perturbing field and must be included in an analysis of the motion of a satellite of the Moon. We will assume that the distance between Earth and Moon remains constant, and we will consider satellite orbits of small eccentricity. It will be shown that a nearly circular polar orbit will digress less than 1 deg from a polar orbit and that the change in eccentricity is less than a factor of e in one year.

  3. The moon as a stepping stone for a spacefaring civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multhaup, K.

    2008-09-01

    the moon. Robotic spacecraft deliver science for a fraction of the costs of manned exploration. Is this reason enough to question the presence of man in space? Image: NASA. But even among those who basically support the concept of manned exploration, the decision to use the moon as our next destination and stepping stone is challenged. It is feared by some that manned lunar exploration in particular will bog down the space program for decades to come and eventually inhibit human exploration of Mars. Refutation of arguments Both science and exploration have their roots in the human desire to evolve and expand. But if the virtue of human spaceflight is assessed in view of scientific return only, then the question must also be allowed what purpose planetary science has. What do we, the community of planetary scientists, do to benefit mankind? I see two tiers in planetary science. One of them—the well established approach—is to learn about the planets in order to understand our own homeworld and the place that it takes in the solar system. A great many basic questions from this research theme can be answered by theorizing, by observing from the ground, and by sending unmanned spacecraft. But robots can only do so much … In this tier, human spaceflight admittedly is not required, but more than acutely helpful. A geologist EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-xxxx, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00023, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 walking around on the surface of Mars will possibly learn more about the planet in a day's work than an automated rover slowly crawling from rock to rock in a couple of years. Nonetheless, the billions and billions of dollars that are required to conduct such programs can hardly be justified exclusively by science. Technology will evolve and the quality and quantity of science return from robotic missions will increase. Fig. 3 The proposed Altair lander

  4. Helping the Moon take a selfie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, William H.

    2014-09-01

    It is a fundamental result of introductory optics that a plane mirror must be at least one half of your height if you want to see your entire body. Students are commonly confused about whether this is still true as you back very far away from the mirror. An interesting student question proposed that we observe the Moon’s image in a small makeup mirror. If someone on the Moon had a telescope large enough to see you and your surroundings clearly, would that person also be able to peer over your shoulder and see the entire Moon in your mirror, as you do? The answer provides a useful ‘view’ on mirror reflections.

  5. Water: Communicator In Moon-Earth Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Joan S.

    The Moon's myriad effects upon Earth have been objects of fascination, and subjects for literary works and scientific speculation throughout history. Although many of Moon's influences upon Earth involve water, tidal movement is clearly the most readily associated effect. While very obvious, it however represents only one of a multitude of ways in which lunar forces effect this planet, and all life upon it. Much less apparent, though essential for all of life, is the wide spectrum of subtle fluctuating influences upon the water in the cells of living systems. Water's capacity to respond to extremely subtle changes in physical influences (such as gravitational fields), as associated with Moon phases (N.B. also with planetary constellations and sunspot activity), enables it to communicate such inputs to living systems. The periodicity of changes in natural systems has been of interest to man throughout history. However, only in more recent times has insight into water's behaviour led to its being recognised as a link between the periodicities seen in abiotic (Moon and other planetary) systems and biotic systems. Particular attention has long been paid to systematic fluctuations in agriculture and forestry: Different growth patterns are observed in connection with the Moon phases (and zodiac constellations) at planting time; different characteristics (e.g., fire resistance, pliability, firmness, etc.) of wood are seen in trees harvested at different phases and constellations. . The usefulness of such correlations has influenced planting and harvesting patterns in more traditional-oriented agriculture and forestry. Its acceptance by science has, however, been long in coming. The case similar, as regards physiological fluctuations observed in the medical field. A documented case in point is the correlation between the Moon-phase and risk of hemorrhage during surgery: This is one of many observations on periodicity in body functions, which deserve more research attention

  6. Multispectral Mapping of the Moon by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, Paul G.; Duxbury, T.; Malaret, E.; Pieters, Carle; Becker, T.; Isbell, C.; Lee, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the chief scientific objectives of the Clementine mission at the Moon was to acquire global multispectral mapping. A global digital map of the Moon in 11 spectral bandpasses and at a scale of 100 m/pixel is being produced at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff Arizona Near-global coverage was acquired with the UVVIS camera (central wavelengths of 415, 750, 900, 950, and 1000 nm) and the NIR camera (1102, 1248, 1499, 1996, 2620, and 2792 nary). We expect to complete processing of the UVVIS mosaics before the fall of 1998, and to complete the NIR mosaics a year later. The purpose of this poster is to provide an update on the processing and to show examples of the products or perhaps even a wall-sized display of color products from the UVVIS mosaics.

  7. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned launching to the Moon, and Mars. It is important to build beyond the capacity to ferry astronauts and cargo to low Earth orbit. NASA is starting to design new vehicles using the past lessons to minimize cost, and technical risks. The training and education of engineers that will continue the work of designing, testing and flying the vehicles is important to NASA. The following questions were addressed: 1) What is NASA's mission? 2) Why do we explore? 3) What is our timeline? 4) Why the Moon first? 5) What will the vehicles look like? 5) What progress have we made? 6) Who will be doing the work? and 7) What are the benefits of space exploration?

  8. To the Moon on a Shoestring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, T. F.; Rasmussen, S.

    2013-09-01

    The Euroluna Team is one of the around 30 teams competing in the Google Lunar X PRIZE Competition. The goal of the competition is to be the first team to successfully land a vehicle on the Moon, drive 500 m, and send video of the drive back to Earth. The Euroluna Team was formed in 2007, and the first flight hardware was acquired in 2010. Euroluna is financed privately with small funds. We have not received any external financial support. Therefore we have made an effort to keep all investments low. This has resulted in a design that uses new technologies and old technologies in a new way. Components are largely based on the Cubesat family and an ion thruster is being used for propulsion. A special strategy for landing on the Moon is under development. Special software of own design is being used for simulation of trajectories and energy consumption.

  9. Economic Geology of the Moon: Some Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillett, Stephen L.

    1992-01-01

    Supporting any but the smallest lunar facility will require indigenous resources due to the extremely high cost of bringing material from Earth. The Moon has also attracted interest as a resource base to help support near-Earth space activities, because of the potential lower cost once the necessary infrastructure has been amortized. Obviously, initial lunar products will be high-volume, bulk commodities, as they are the only ones for which the economics of lunar production are conceivably attractive. Certain rarer elements, such as the halogens, C, and H, would also be extremely useful (for propellant, life support, and/or reagents), and indeed local sources of such elements would vastly improve the economics of lunar resource extraction. The economic geology of the Moon is discussed.

  10. Highly silicic compositions on the Moon.

    PubMed

    Glotch, Timothy D; Lucey, Paul G; Bandfield, Joshua L; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Thomas, Ian R; Elphic, Richard C; Bowles, Neil; Wyatt, Michael B; Allen, Carlton C; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Paige, David A

    2010-09-17

    Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we show that four regions of the Moon previously described as "red spots" exhibit mid-infrared spectra best explained by quartz, silica-rich glass, or alkali feldspar. These lithologies are consistent with evolved rocks similar to lunar granites in the Apollo samples. The spectral character of these spots is distinct from surrounding mare and highlands material and from regions composed of pure plagioclase feldspar. The variety of landforms associated with the silicic spectral character suggests that both extrusive and intrusive silicic magmatism occurred on the Moon. Basaltic underplating is the preferred mechanism for silicic magma generation, leading to the formation of extrusive landforms. This mechanism or silicate liquid immiscibility could lead to the formation of intrusive bodies. PMID:20847267

  11. A Picture of the Moon's Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Flynn, B; Mendillo, M

    1993-07-01

    Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D(1) (5896 angstroms) and D(2) (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumiunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment. PMID:17829272

  12. A picture of the moon's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Brian; Mendillo, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D1 (5896 angstroms) and D2 (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumlunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment.

  13. A picture of the moon's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, B.; Mendillo, M.

    1993-07-01

    Atomic sodium is a useful tracer of the tenuous lunar atmosphere because of its high efficiency in scattering sunlight at the D1 (5896 angstroms) and D2 (5890 angstroms) wavelengths. In 1988, Earth-based instruments revealed the presence of sodium at a density of less than 50 atoms per cubic centimeter at lunar altitudes below 100 kilometers. Telescopic observations that are made with a coronograph technique to block out the disk of the moon allow a true picture of the circumlunar atmosphere to be obtained and show the presence of sodium out to a distance of several lunar radii. The distribution of sodium has a solar zenith angle dependence, suggesting that most of the sodium that reaches great altitudes is liberated from the moon's surface by solar photons (by heating or sputtering) or by solar wind impact, in contrast to a source driven by uniform micrometeor bombardment.

  14. Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O. (Editor); Mendell, Wendell W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers at a workshop which consider the topic astronomical observations from a lunar base are presented. In part 1, the rationale for performing astronomy on the Moon is established and economic factors are considered. Part 2 includes concepts for individual lunar based telescopes at the shortest X-ray and gamma ray wavelengths, for high energy cosmic rays, and at optical and infrared wavelengths. Lunar radio frequency telescopes are considered in part 3, and engineering considerations for lunar base observatories are discussed in part 4. Throughout, advantages and disadvantages of lunar basing compared to terrestrial and orbital basing of observatories are weighted. The participants concluded that the Moon is very possibly the best location within the inner solar system from which to perform front-line astronomical research.

  15. Thermal history and evolution of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Solomon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    In this work, theoretical lunar temperature models are computed taking into account different initial conditions to represent possible accretion models and various abundances of heat sources to correspond to different compositions. Differentiation and convection are simulated in the numerical computational scheme. Models of the thermal evolution of the moon that fit the chronology of igneous activity on the lunar surface, the stress history of the lunar lithosphere implied by the presence of mascons, and the surface concentrations of radioactive elements, involve extensive differentiation early in lunar history. This differentiation may be the result of rapid accretion and large-scale melting or of primary chemical layering during accretion. Differences in present-day temperatures for these two possibilities are significant only in the inner 1000 km of the moon and are not resolvable with presently available data.

  16. Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

  17. Tidal deceleration of the moon's mean motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, M. K.; Eanes, R. J.; Tapley, B. D.

    1992-01-01

    The secular change in the mean motion of the moon, n, caused by the tidal dissipation in the ocean and solid earth is due primarily to the effect of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. The long-period ocean tides produce an increase in n, but the effects are only 1 percent of the diurnal and semidiurnal ocean tides. In this investigation, expressions for these effects are obtained by developing the tidal potential in the ecliptic reference system. The computation of the amplitude of equilibrium tide and the phase corrections is also discussed. The averaged tidal deceleration of the moon's mean motion, n, from the most recent satellite ocean tide solutions is -25.25 +/- 0.4 arcseconds/sq century. The value for n inferred from the satellite-determined ocean-tide solution is in good agreement with the value obtained from the analysis of 20 years of lunar laser-ranging observations.

  18. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter reference trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.; Lam, Try

    2006-01-01

    The proposed NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would have used a single spacecraft to orbit Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa in succession. The enormous Delta-Velocity required for this mission (nearly [25 km/s]) would necessitate the use of very high efficiency electric propulsion. The trajectory created for the proposed baseline JIMO mission may be the most complex trajectory ever designed. This paper describes the current reference trajectory in detail and describes the processes that were used to construct it.

  19. The New Face of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, J. N.

    2012-07-01

    The beginning of this century ushered a new era in lunar exploration. It started with the Smart-1 mission, launched in 2003, that was followed in quick succession by Kaguya, Change-1, Chandrayaan-1, LRO, LCROSS, Change-2 and the most recent GRAIL mission, launched in late 2011. Results obtained by these missions have strengthened some of the existing postulates of lunar evolution, such as the global magma hypothesis, questioned many of our earlier views on moon and generated renewed interest in laboratory studies of lunar samples. Moon can no longer be considered as a bone-dry object. Signatures of hydroxyl and water molecules were found at high latitude lunar regions by Chandrayaan-1 mission and LCROSS mission detected water in the plume generated by a planned impact on a permanently shadowed lunar polar site. Laboratory studies confirmed presence of hydroxyl as a structural component in minerals present in lunar rocks. The permanently shadowed regions turned out to be some of the coldest place in the solar system and could potentially host surface/sub-surface water ice and frozen volatiles. New results obtained by these missions suggest the presence of previously unidentified lunar rock types, young volcanic and tectonic activities, layering within the top kilometre of the lunar surface and the possibility that moon host a very tenuous exosphere. Interesting new features of solar wind interactions with the lunar surface and localized lunar magnetic field have also been delineated. The ongoing effort to reconstruct the new face of the moon will get a boost from results from the GRAIL mission on gravity anomalies and from other upcoming missions, LADEE, Chandrayaan-2, Luna Resource and Luna Glob. A general overview of our current ideas of lunar evolution will be presented along with a preview of upcoming efforts to better understand our closest neighbour in space.

  20. Germany's Option for a Moon Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantius, Dominik

    The German non-profit amateur satellite organisation AMSAT-Deutschland successfully de-signed, built and launched four HEO satellites in the last three decades. Now they are going to build a satellite to leave the Earth orbit based on their flight-proven P3-D satellite design. Due to energetic constraints the most suitable launch date for the planned P5-A satellite to Mars will be in 2018. To efficiently use the relatively long time gap until launch a possible prior Moon mission came into mind. In co-operation with the DLR-Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, two studies on systems level for a first P5 satellite towards Moon and a following one towards Mars have been performed. By using the DLR's Concurrent Engineering Facility (CEF) two consistent satellite concepts were designed including mission analysis, configuration, propulsion, subsystem dimensioning, payload selection, budgeting and cost. The present paper gives an insight in the accomplished design process and the results of the performed study towards Moon. The developed Moon orbiter is designed to carry the following four main instruments besides flexible communication abilities: • slewable HDTV camera combined with a high gain antenna that allows receiving lunar television using a commercially available satellite TV dish on Earth • sensor imaging infrared spectrometer for mineralogy of lunar silicates and lunar surface temperature measurements • camera for detection and monitoring of impact flashes in visible light (VIS) on lunar night side caused by meteoroid impact events • camera technology test for interplanetary navigation and planetary approach navigation. This study presents a non-industrial satellite concept that could be launched as piggyback load on Ariane 5 into GTO. Due to the fact, that the satellite would be built by the private sector, the mission costs would remain low. Otherwise the scientific and public output would be high using that satellite bus for the instruments

  1. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the planned launching to the Moon, and Mars. It is important to build beyond the capacity to ferry astronauts and cargo to low Earth orbit. NASA is starting to design new vehicles using the past lessons to minimize cost, and technical risks. The training and education of engineers that will continue the work of designing, testing and flying the vehicles is important to NASA.

  2. Moon phase effects and timing of emerging macrobenthic assemblages in a sheltered soft-bottom sublittoral habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Aldo S.; Gómez, Gonzalo E.; Santoro, Pablo A.; Malebran, Maritza; Cortés, Cynthia; Riascos, José M.

    2014-02-01

    Several species of benthic macro and meio-invertebrates actively emerge from the seabed to the water column during the night. Such diel vertical migrations have important consequences for benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal, connectivity and recovery after disturbance of benthic assemblages. However, this process has never been studied in the coast of the Humboldt Current ecosystem. Herein we examined the relationship between the emerging assemblage and moon phases (and co-variables) and the timing of emergence during the day/night cycle, in a sublittoral soft-bottom habitat. Sampling using emergence traps was conducted at 7 m depth in the zone of Bolsico, a sheltered cove with low bottom hydrodynamics in northern Chile. Multivariable analysis showed that changes in the dissimilarity of the emerging assemblage were related to each moon phase. The percentage of moon illumination, bottom illumination and tide amplitude explained most of the variation of the emerging assemblage. Species showed differential responses to each moon phase; some were abundant at intermediate phases (e.g., harpacticoids), or peaked at full moon (e.g. ostracods) and others such as mysids emerged in equal abundances at all moon phases. The timing of assemblage emergence followed a consecutive sequence through the night/day period. Most of the studies dealing with the emergence processes have described species-specific responses. Our research shows that the examination at assemblage level may reveal new and distinct patterns of emergence in sublittoral soft-bottom habitats.

  3. A new moon-induced structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, N.; Sremcevic, M.; Esposito, L. W.

    2015-10-01

    Embedded moons are known to create an observable propeller-shaped structure in the surrounding ring which consists of a gap and kinematic wake. In the cases of Pan and Daphnis, the moons are sufficiently massive to open a circumferential gap - the Encke and Keeler gap, respectively. New results, however, reveal the existence of a previously unknown moonassociated structure found at the Encke and Keeler gap edges. By analyzing Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) and Voyager 2 Photopolarimeter (PPS) occultations we found a few kilometer wide gaps located within a few kilometers of the ring edges. These transparent regions feature sharp edges and have so far been found exclusively downstream of the respective embedded moon. Gap characteristics for features found near the inner and outer Encke gap edges are consistent with each other. Two occultations with special observing geometries, one tracking and one double-star, allow to investigate spatial and temporal morphology of these gaps. Our preliminary results suggest that these structures are individual gaps with an aspect ratio of about 1:5 and may thus be about 10km long. Their existence offers another avenue in searching for embedded objects although our preliminary search did not produce examples apart from those reported here for Pan and Daphnis.

  4. Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Darren; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1–0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology. Key Words: Astrobiology—Extrasolar planets—Habitability—Planetary science—Tides. Astrobiology 14, 798–835. PMID:25147963

  5. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. M.; Kasting, J. F.; Wade, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere.

  6. Gravitational radiation observations on the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbins, R.T. ); Armstrong, J.W. ); Bender, P.L. Quantum Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology ); Drever, R.W.P. ); Hellings, R.W. ); Saulson, P.R. )

    1990-07-05

    A Laser-Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is planned for operation in the United States, with two antennas separated by several thousand kilometers. Each antenna would incorporate laser interferometers with 4 km arm lengths, operating in vacuum. The frequency range covered initially would be from a few tens of Hz to a few kHz, with possible extension to lower frequencies later. Similar systems are likely to be constructed in Europe, and there is a possibility of at least one system in Asia or Australia. It will be possible to determine the direction to a gravitational wave source by measuring the difference in the arrival times at the various antennas for burst signals or the phase difference for short duration nearly periodic signals. The addition of an antenna on the Moon, operating in support of the Earth-based antennas, would improve the angular resolution for burst signals by about a factor 50 in the plane containing the source, the Moon, and the Earth. This would be of major importance in studies of gravitational wave sources. There is also a possibility of somewhat lower noise at frequencies near 1 Hz for a lunar gravitational wave antenna, because of lower gravity gradient noise and microseismic noise on the Moon. However, for frequencies near 0.1 Hz and below, a 10{sup 7} km laser gravitational wave antenna in solar orbit would be much more sensitive.

  7. ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Marini, Andrea; Grande, Manuel; Huovelin, Juhani; Josset, Jean-Luc; Keller, Horst Uwe; Nathues, Andreas; Koschny, Detlef; Malkki, Ansi

    SMART-1 is the first of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology. Its objective is to demonstrate Primary Solar Electric Propulsion for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The 370 kg spacecraft is to be launched in summer 2003 as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger and after a 15 month cruise is to orbit the Moon for 6 months with possible extension. SMART-1 will carry out observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit with a science and technology payload (19 kg total mass): a miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) mapping surface elemental composition a Deep Space Communication experiment (KaTE) a radio-science investigations (RSIS) a Laser-Link Experiment an On Board Autonomous Navigation experiment (OBAN) and plasma sensors (SPEDE). SMART-1 will study accretional and bombardment processes that led to the formation of rocky planets and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Its science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon of geophysical processes (volcanism tectonics cratering erosion deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology and the preparation for future lunar and planetary exploration.

  8. EUVE photometric observations of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; McDonald, J. S.; Boyd, W. T.; Bowyer, S.

    1994-03-01

    During its all-sky survey, the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite observed the Moon several times at first and last quarters, and once immediately following the Dec. 10 1992 lunar eclipse. We present here a portion of this data, in the form of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Moon and derived geometric albedos. From the EUVE photometer data we obtain average geometric albedos of 0.15% (+/- 0.03%), 3.1% (+/- 0.3%), and 3.5% (+/- 0.3%), over wavelength intervals of 150-240 A, 400-580 A, and 550-650 A, respectively. An upper limit geometric albedo of 0.13% is obtained for the wavelength interval 75-180 A. Also, using previously published ROSAT data, we estimate a lunar geometric albedo of 0.014% (+/- 0.002%) over the wavelength interval 50-80 A. These EUV albedos (and previously published far-ultraviolet albedos) are well fit by the scaled reflectivities of SiO2 and Al2O3. Over the wavelength ranges of the EUVE photometers, the observed brightness of the Moon seems to be largely consistent with reflected sunlight rather than X-ray fluorescence. Since the L- and M-shell fluorescence signal is expected to be carried by only small number of emission lines, however, it will require EUV observations of higher spectral resolution (approximately less than 5 A) to determine their exact contribution, if any, to the lunar EUV spectrum.

  9. Rationale and Roadmap for Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; ILEWG Team

    We discuss the different rationale for Moon exploration. This starts with areas of scientific investigations: clues on the formation and evolution of rocky planets, accretion and bombardment in the inner solar system, comparative planetology processes (tectonic, volcanic, impact cratering, volatile delivery), records astrobiology, survival of organics; past, present and future life. The rationale includes also the advancement of instrumentation: Remote sensing miniaturised instruments; Surface geophysical and geochemistry package; Instrument deployment and robotic arm, nano-rover, sampling, drilling; Sample finder and collector. There are technologies in robotic and human exploration that are a drive for the creativity and economical competitivity of our industries: Mecha-electronics-sensors; Tele control, telepresence, virtual reality; Regional mobility rover; Autonomy and Navigation; Artificially intelligent robots, Complex systems, Man-Machine interface and performances. Moon-Mars Exploration can inspire solutions to global Earth sustained development: In-Situ Utilisation of resources; Establishment of permanent robotic infrastructures, Environmental protection aspects; Life sciences laboratories; Support to human exploration. We also report on the IAA Cosmic Study on Next Steps In Exploring Deep Space, and ongoing IAA Cosmic Studies, ILEWG/IMEWG ongoing activities, and we finally discuss possible roadmaps for robotic and human exploration, starting with the Moon-Mars missions for the coming decade, and building effectively on joint technology developments.

  10. Remote Nuclear Spectrometer for Martian Moon Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Okada, Tatsuaki; Kameda, Shingo; Karouji, Yuzuru; Amano, Yoshiharu; Shibamura, Eido; Cho, Yuichiro; Ohta, Toru; Naito, Masayuki; Kusano, Hiroki; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kohei; Adachi, Takuto; Kuno, Haruyoshi; Martínez-Frías, Jesus; Nakamura, Tomoki; Takashi, Mikouchi; Shimizu, Sota; Shirai, Naoki; Fagan, Timothy J.; Hitachi, Akira; Matias Lopes, José A.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Niihara, Takafumi; Kim, Kyeong

    2016-07-01

    The Gamma-ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GNS) on the Mars Moon eXploration (MMX) forms part of the geochemistry investigation. The remote observation from spacecraft orbit provides us global information of the Moons showing evidence of their origin. The Gamma-Ray Sensor (GS) detects gamma-ray emissions in the 0.2- to 10-MeV energy range with an energy resolution of <5.5 keV (fwhm) 60Co (1332 keV). The GS consists of a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector as a main detector and a thin plastic scintillation detector surrounding the main detector as an anticoincidence detector. The HPGe crystal is cooled by a compact mechanical cooler below 90K. The Neutron Sensor (NS) consists of a Li-glass scintillator to measure thermal neutrons, and a borated plastic scintillator to measure epithermal and fast neutrons. The GNS measures elements such as O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, K, Th and volatile elements such as H, S and Cl. The GNS shows distinct features of light weight, low power, excellent energy resolution and high hydrogen-sensitivity. The high concentration of such volatile elements as H and S in their Moons shows the evidence that they are primordial bodies in the solar system and low values of Ca/F and Si/Fe-ratios also suggest the primordial origin. The present status of the GNS development will be reviewed.

  11. Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René; Williams, Darren; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I.

    2014-09-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1-0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology.

  12. Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Kasting, J F; Wade, R A

    1997-01-16

    Possible planetary objects have now been discovered orbiting nine different main-sequence stars. These companion objects (some of which might actually be brown dwarfs) all have a mass at least half that of Jupiter, and are therefore unlikely to be hospitable to Earth-like life: jovian planets and brown dwarfs support neither a solid nor a liquid surface near which organisms might dwell. Here we argue that rocky moons orbiting these companions could be habitable if the planet-moon system orbits the parent star within the so-called 'habitable zone', where life-supporting liquid water could be present. The companions to the stars 16 Cygni B and 47 Ursae Majoris might satisfy this criterion. Such a moon would, however, need to be large enough (>0.12 Earth masses) to retain a substantial and long-lived atmosphere, and would also need to possess a strong magnetic field in order to prevent its atmosphere from being sputtered away by the constant bombardment of energetic ions from the planet's magnetosphere. PMID:9000072

  13. Formation, habitability, and detection of extrasolar moons.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Williams, Darren; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Emeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2014-09-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1-0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the circumplanetary debris and gas disk or via capture from a binary, and (iii) are detectable with current technology. PMID:25147963

  14. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme

  15. Morphometric analysis of a fresh simple crater on the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldi, V.; Ninfo, A.; Massironi, M.; Martellato, E.; Cremonese, G.

    In this research we are proposing an innovative method to determine and quantify the morphology of a simple fresh impact crater. Linné is a well preserved impact crater of 2.2 km in diameter, located at 27.7oN 11.8oE, near the western edge of Mare Serenitatis on the Moon. The crater was photographed by the Lunar Orbiter and the Apollo space missions. Its particular morphology may place Linné as the most striking example of small fresh simple crater. Morphometric analysis, conducted on recent high resolution DTM from LROC (NASA), quantitatively confirmed the pristine morphology of the crater, revealing a clear inner layering which highlight a sequence of lava emplacement events.

  16. Are There Oceans Under the Ice of Small Saturnian and Uranian Moons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, C.

    2003-05-01

    Thermal analysis of the large outer-planetary moons (Titan, Callisto, Ganymede) argue strongly for substantial subsurface oceans if they are made up mostly of rock and ice, and if the rock exhibits radioactivity not too different from that of meteoric and lunar material [1]. For Titania, Rhea, Oberon and Iapetus (the TROI moons) with radii just over 700 km, the existence of oceans is less clear. In these bodies, a subsurface ocean may be likely if the rock has sunk to the center of the moon (i.e., the moon is differentiated) and (1) the radiogenic heating rate is on the higher end of that of lunar samples, (2) the bodies experience tidal heating, or (3) the oceans contain compounds such as ammonia that reduce the freezing point of the aqueous environment. A combination of these occurrences would weigh for a subsurface ocean, perhaps of substantial size. That outer-planetary moons with radii larger than about 200 km (e.g.; Enceladus at 250 km) are spherical argues for separation of light and heavy materials, especially in the larger bodies. Otherwise, the moon exhibits an irregular shape (e.g.; Hyperion at 133 km). Primordial radioactivity and collision events may have aided separation. If present-day radiogenicity is that of lunar samples, natural heating is available to maintain global aqueous environments on all of the TROI moons. The ammonia-water eutectics suggested for Titan [2] provide additional margin. The maintenance of oceans in smaller bodies depends on a balance of internal heat generation and thermal isolation by ice or other insulating material. The more important parameter may be the insulating ice, without which an outer-planetary ocean is not possible. The reduced thermal conductivity for impure ice [3] provides even more likelihood for oceans. Calculations for tidal heating within Europa due to orbital resonances [4] suggest that tidal heating amounts to over 40 times its internal radiogenic heating. A value equal only to natural radiogenic

  17. Is the Composition of the Moon Consistent with the Giant Impact Hypothesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Current versions of the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the Moon call for the impact to occur when the Earth is about two thirds of its present size. The material in the Moon is derived mostly from the mantle of the impactor, although <10% of the impactor finishes up in the Moon. The metallic core of the impactor accretes to the Earth. Accretion of the last third of the Earth occurs subsequently to lunar formation. The Moon suffers net erosion rather than accumulation during this stage, consistent with the observation that there is no sign on the Moon of a late veneer that is postulated to have contributed water, volatile elements, and the excess siderophile signature to the terrestrial mantle. Relative to the Earth or the primitive solar nebula, the Moon has a strong depletion of volatile elements, water, and a probable enrichment of refractory elements (e.g., Ca, Al, Ti, REE, U, and Th), the latter observation based on heat-flow data, seismic velocity profiles, high near-surface concentrations, and the presence of a thick aluminous crust. The bulk lunar REE patterns show no Eu, Yb, or Ce anomalies based on volatility in contrast to those in CAI. The volatile elements are depleted in order of their condensation temperatures, but the refractory elements are present in the bulk Moon in solar nebular ratios, indicating that the material now in the Moon was not subjected to temperatures in excess of -1500 K. The lunar composition shows little terrestrial mantle. For the major elements, there is no correlation based on volatility between the composition of the terrestrial mantle and that of the Moon (both volatile FeO and refractory CaO are enriched). The absence of K isotopes rules out evaporative loss of K by Rayleigh type distillation processes. Magnesium isotopes likewise are normal. When did the loss of volatile elements occur? hat involve Rayleigh-type condensation from vapor are ruled out by the lack of fractionation in the REE and the absence of K

  18. Trauma and the full moon: a waning theory.

    PubMed

    Coates, W; Jehle, D; Cottington, E

    1989-07-01

    There exists a popular belief in the causal relationship between the moon's phase and the incidence of major trauma. In this retrospective study we reviewed 1,444 trauma victims admitted to the hospital during one calendar year. Full moons were defined as three-day periods in the 29.531-day lunar cycle, with the middle day being described in the world almanac as the full moon. Victims of violence included those patients sustaining blunt assault, gunshot wounds, and stabbings. There was no statistical difference in number of trauma admissions between the full moon, 129 patients per 36 days (mean, 3.58), and nonfull moon days, 1,315 patients per 330 days (mean, 3.98). Mortality rate, 5.4% versus 10.3%; mean Injury Severity Score, 13 versus 15; and mean length of stay, ten versus 12 days, were not significantly different during the full moon and nonfull moon days. Victims of violence were admitted at a similar frequency on full moon, 16 patients per 36 days (mean, 0.444), and nonfull moon days, 183 patients per 330 days (mean, 0.555). We conclude that the belief in the deleterious effects of the full moon on major trauma is statistically unfounded. PMID:2735596

  19. Determining the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit without a telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2010-08-01

    Prior to the invention of the telescope many astronomers worked out models of the motion of the Moon to predict the position of the Moon in the sky. These geometrical models implied a certain range of distances of the Moon from Earth. Ptolemy's most quoted model predicted that the Moon was nearly twice as far away at apogee than at perigee. Measurements of the angular size of the Moon were within the capabilities of pretelescopic astronomers. Such measurements could have helped refine the models of the motion of the Moon, but hardly anyone seems to have made any measurements that have come down to us. We use a piece of cardboard with a small hole in it which slides up and down a yardstick to show that it is possible to determine the eccentricity ɛ~0.039+/-0.006 of the Moon's orbit. A typical measurement uncertainty of the Moon's angular size is +/-0.8 arc min. Because the Moon's angular size ranges from 29.4 to 33.5 arc min, carefully taken naked eye data are accurate enough to demonstrate periodic variations of the Moon's angular size.

  20. The Moon as a unifying sociological attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, C.; Pachera, S.; Ciucci, A.

    We propose to develop an economic, fully automated telescope to equip a variety of public and private buildings, such as disco dancings, pubs, resting houses, hospitals, schools etc., optimized to image and project the Moon, both in daylight and nightime. We strongly believe that the wide spread conscience of being part of a common Universe, by imaging the real Moon ( not a series of computer files) and following its changing course, distributed in places where the soul is usually taken in a wave of loneliness, can have a profound effect. In fact, living such an experience of observation in places where people of all ages usually meet, can help them to mix up socially and have fun and acquire new interests and fulfillment. They could confront their doubts, opinions, curiosity. The Moon is the natural choice, being visible even in polluted cities, it comes to the Zenith of a large band on the Earth encompassing each emisphere, it has deeply rooted meanings in all civilizations, and it is therefore the perfect astronomical object towards which humanity should direct its view above the ground. The possibility of the instrument to zoom in and out and to move across the surface of the Moon or to observe in real time the slowly moving line of the terminator, is intended just for the sheer wonder of it. No didactic use is meant to begin with, although interest is sure to be stimulated and may be followed up in many ways. Our object is indeed to make young and older people throughout the world feel our satellite nearer and more familiar in the shapes and names of its features, truly a constant presence in our everyday natural surroundings. When the time will come for human coloniz ation, the Moon could no longer be considered such an extraneous, exotic and faraway new home. The telescope can be built in very large quantities by a variety of firms practically even in underdeveloped countries, easily automated and connected to the world wide web.

  1. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by

  2. The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) on the JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, L.; Plaut, J.; Alberti, G.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bovolo, F.; Campbell, B. A.; Castelletti, D.; Gim, Y.; Ilisei, A. M.; Kofman, W. W.; Komatsu, G.; McKinnon, W. B.; Mitri, G.; Moussessian, A.; Notarnicola, C.; Orosei, R.; Patterson, G. W.; Pettinelli, E.; Plettemeier, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) is one of the main instruments included in the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) ESA mission. It is a radar sounder designed for studying the subsurface geology and geophysics of Galilean icy moons (i.e., Ganymede, Europa and Callisto) and for detecting possible subsurface water. RIME is designed for penetration of the icy moons up to a depth of 9 km. Two main operation scenarios are foreseen for RIME: i) flyby observations of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (from a distance of 1000 km to the closest approach of about 400 km); and ii) circular orbital observations around Ganymede at 500 km of altitude. According to these scenarios, RIME is designed to explore the icy shell of the Galilean icy satellites by characterizing the wide range of compositional, thermal, and structural variation found in the subsurface of these moons. RIME observations will profile the ice shells of the Galilean icy satellites with specific focus on Ganymede given the circular orbital phase. The acquired measures will provide geological context on hemispheric (thousands of km), regional (hundreds of km with multiple overlaps), and targeted (tens of km) scales appropriate for a variety of hypothesis tests. RIME will operate in a single frequency band, centred at 9 MHz. The frequency was selected as the result of extensive study of penetration capabilities, surface roughness of the moons, Jovian radio noise, antenna accommodation, and system design. The 9 MHz frequency provides penetration capabilities and mitigation of surface scattering (which can cause signal loss and clutter issues), at the expense of mapping coverage, as it is likely to obtain high SNR observations only on the anti-Jovian side of the target moons. The RIME antenna is a 16 m dipole. The chirp pulse bandwidth is up to 3 MHz, which provides vertical resolution of about 50 m in ice after side lobe weighting. RIME will also operate with 1 MHz bandwidth to reduce data volume when

  3. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  4. Lunar Science: Using the Moon as a Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Moon is an excellent test bed for innovative instruments and spacecraft. Excellent science can be done, the Moon has a convenient location, and previous measurements have calibrated many parts of it. I summarize these attributes and give some suggestions for the types of future measurements. The Lunar Scout missions planned by NASA's Office of Exploration will not make all the measurements needed. Thus, test missions to the Moon can also return significant scientific results, making them more than technology demonstrations. The Moon is close to Earth, so cruise time is insignificant, tracking is precise, and some operations can be controlled from Earth, but it is in the deep space environment, allowing full tests of instruments and spacecraft components. The existing database on the Moon allows tests of new instruments against known information. The most precise data come from lunar samples, where detailed analyses of samples from a few places on the Moon provide data on chemical and mineralogical composition and physical properties.

  5. Using the moon to probe the geomagnetic tail lobe plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Sonett, C. P.; Smith, B. F.; Colburn, D. S.; Schwartz, K.

    1975-01-01

    We have detected the presence of plasma in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail from observations of magnetic induction in the moon forced by time variations of the earth's magnetotail lobe field. The magnitude of the moon's tangential electromagnetic transfer function when the moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail is less than that when the moon is in the solar wind or geomagnetic tail plasma sheet. The tangential transfer function when the moon is in the magnetotail lobes decreases at frequencies above about 8 mHz due to finite wavelength effects. This shows that the waves in the magnetotail lobes which drive the lunar magnetic induction must have speeds far less than the speed of light and wavelengths comparable to the size of the moon.

  6. An asteroidal origin for water in the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Kring, David A.; Tartèse, Romain; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh; Russell, Sara S.

    2016-05-01

    The Apollo-derived tenet of an anhydrous Moon has been contested following measurement of water in several lunar samples that require water to be present in the lunar interior. However, significant uncertainties exist regarding the flux, sources and timing of water delivery to the Moon. Here we address those fundamental issues by constraining the mass of water accreted to the Moon and modelling the relative proportions of asteroidal and cometary sources for water that are consistent with measured isotopic compositions of lunar samples. We determine that a combination of carbonaceous chondrite-type materials were responsible for the majority of water (and nitrogen) delivered to the Earth-Moon system. Crucially, we conclude that comets containing water enriched in deuterium contributed significantly <20% of the water in the Moon. Therefore, our work places important constraints on the types of objects impacting the Moon ~4.5-4.3 billion years ago and on the origin of water in the inner Solar System.

  7. Astronomy and Space Science from the Moon: Proceedings of Symposium E4 of the COSPAR 29th Plenary Meeting held in Washington, DC, 28 Aug.-5 Sep., 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foing, B. H. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the conference was to assess the moon as a base for conducting astronomy, solar system observations, and space sciences. The lunar vacuum allows a complete opening of the electromagnetic window and distortion-free measurements at the highest angular resolution, precision, and temporal stability. The moon is perfect for continuous monitoring of the Sun, Solar System targets, and for deep observations of galactic and extragalactic objects. It is an in-situ laboratory for selenophysics, chemistry, and exobiology. The moon contains useful resources and is accessible from Earth for installation, operations maintenance, robotics, and human activities.

  8. High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy for Near-Surface Residual Stress Profiling in Surface-Treated Nickel-Base Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2007-03-01

    Recent research indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements can be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stress in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistive effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. Previous experimental studies were conducted on excessively peened (Almen 10-16A peening intensity levels) nickel-base superalloy specimens that exhibited harmful cold work in excess of 30% plastic strain. The main reason for choosing peening intensities above recommended normal levels was that the eddy current penetration depth could not be decreased below 0.2 mm without conducting accurate measurements above 10 MHz, which is beyond the operational range of most commercially available eddy current instruments. In this paper we report the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz with a single probe coil. In addition, the new system offers better reproducibility, accuracy, and measurement speed than the previously used conventional system.

  9. High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy for Near-Surface Residual Stress Profiling in Surface-Treated Nickel-Base Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2007-03-21

    Recent research indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements can be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stress in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistive effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. Previous experimental studies were conducted on excessively peened (Almen 10-16A peening intensity levels) nickel-base superalloy specimens that exhibited harmful cold work in excess of 30% plastic strain. The main reason for choosing peening intensities above recommended normal levels was that the eddy current penetration depth could not be decreased below 0.2 mm without conducting accurate measurements above 10 MHz, which is beyond the operational range of most commercially available eddy current instruments. In this paper we report the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz with a single probe coil. In addition, the new system offers better reproducibility, accuracy, and measurement speed than the previously used conventional system.

  10. Mars Moons Prospector Mission with CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Bogdan; Nayak, Mikey; Allen, Brett; Bourke, Justin; Casariego, Gabriela; Gosselin, Steven; Hiester, Evan; Maier, Margaret; Melchert, Jeanmarie; Patel, Chitrang; Reis, Leslie; Smith, Gregory; Snow, Travis; Williams, Sarah; Franquiz, Francsico

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary design of a low-cost Discovery class mission for prospecting Mars moons Phobos and Deimos is undertaken as capstone senior design class in spacecraft design. The mission design is centred on a mothership that carries a dozen of 12U CubeSats, each of 22x22x34cm in size and 24kg in mass. The mothership is equipped with a set of instruments for the investigation of regolith samples, similar to those with identical functions on the Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rovers. The mothership also serves as a telecommunication hub with Earth. Six of the CubeSats have the role of touching down and picking up soil samples for delivery to the mothership for analysis and the six have the role of visually inspecting the moon at close proximity in visible and near and mid infrared light and deploying instruments on the surface of the moons. A suite of miniaturized instruments are investigated for deployment on the CubeSats. The CubeSats are designed to dock with the mothership to be refueled and they heavily leverage the design of the ARAPAIMA (www.eraucubesat.org) proximity operations 6U CubeSat currently in development at ERAU for the Air Force University Nanosatellite Program. The concept of operations envisions the launch of the mothership as a primary payload on a Mars transfer trajectory. After performing a Mars capture maneuver the mothership undertakes autonomous aerobraking to achieve a highly elliptic orbit with the apoapsis at Deimos altitude of 23,460km. Further maneuvering places the mothership in a relative orbit about Deimos from which the CubeSats are deployed. Once the investigation of Deimos is completed the mothership retrieves its CubeSats and maneuver to achieve a relative orbit about Phobos. An investigation similar to that of Deimos is performed. If the mass margins allow it then an extended mission will attempt to confirm the presence of a dust ring between Phobos and Deimos and conduct multi-point atmospheric investigations with supplemental 3U

  11. Numerical Results of 3-D Modeling of Moon Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachay, Yurie; Anfilogov, Vsevolod; Antipin, Alexandr

    2014-05-01

    For the last time for the model of the Moon usually had been used the model of mega impact in which the forming of the Earth and its sputnik had been the consequence of the Earth's collision with the body of Mercurial mass. But all dynamical models of the Earth's accumulation and the estimations after the Pb-Pb system, lead to the conclusion that the duration of the planet accumulation was about 1 milliard years. But isotopic results after the W-Hf system testify about a very early (5-10) million years, dividing of the geochemical reservoirs of the core and mantle. In [1,2] it is shown, that the account of energy dissipating by the decay of short living radioactive elements and first of all Al26,it is sufficient for heating even small bodies with dimensions about (50-100) km up to the iron melting temperature and can be realized a principal new differentiation mechanism. The inner parts of the melted preplanets can join and they are mainly of iron content, but the cold silicate fragments return to the supply zone and additionally change the content of Moon forming to silicates. Only after the increasing of the gravitational radius of the Earth, the growing area of the future Earth's core can save also the silicate envelope fragments [3]. For understanding the further system Earth-Moon evolution it is significant to trace the origin and evolution of heterogeneities, which occur on its accumulation stage.In that paper we are modeling the changing of temperature,pressure,velocity of matter flowing in a block of 3d spherical body with a growing radius. The boundary problem is solved by the finite-difference method for the system of equations, which include equations which describe the process of accumulation, the Safronov equation, the equation of impulse balance, equation Navier-Stocks, equation for above litho static pressure and heat conductivity in velocity-pressure variables using the Businesque approach.The numerical algorithm of the problem solution in velocity

  12. Moon-based Earth Observation for Large Scale Geoscience Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huadong; Liu, Guang; Ding, Yixing

    2016-07-01

    The capability of Earth observation for large-global-scale natural phenomena needs to be improved and new observing platform are expected. We have studied the concept of Moon as an Earth observation in these years. Comparing with manmade satellite platform, Moon-based Earth observation can obtain multi-spherical, full-band, active and passive information,which is of following advantages: large observation range, variable view angle, long-term continuous observation, extra-long life cycle, with the characteristics of longevity ,consistency, integrity, stability and uniqueness. Moon-based Earth observation is suitable for monitoring the large scale geoscience phenomena including large scale atmosphere change, large scale ocean change,large scale land surface dynamic change,solid earth dynamic change,etc. For the purpose of establishing a Moon-based Earth observation platform, we already have a plan to study the five aspects as follows: mechanism and models of moon-based observing earth sciences macroscopic phenomena; sensors' parameters optimization and methods of moon-based Earth observation; site selection and environment of moon-based Earth observation; Moon-based Earth observation platform; and Moon-based Earth observation fundamental scientific framework.

  13. Earth and Moon encounters by the Galileo Jupiter orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, T. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo Venus-Earth-Earth-Gravity-Assist trajectory to Jupiter is discussed. It includes two encounters from deep space with the Earth and the Earth-Moon system. Fortuitous and unique opportunities therefore exist to observe and study the Earth and Earth's moon during both of these encounters. Given the Galileo science payload, a candidate set of Earth and Moon science objectives is presented. The conditions and constraints of the Earth and Moon encounters, which define the observing opportunity, and which bound the objectives, are reviewed.

  14. Moon-Based INSAR Geolocation and Baseline Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang; Ren, Yuanzhen; Ye, Hanlin; Guo, Huadong; Ding, Yixing; Ruan, Zhixing; Lv, Mingyang; Dou, Changyong; Chen, Zhaoning

    2016-07-01

    Earth observation platform is a host, the characteristics of the platform in some extent determines the ability for earth observation. Currently most developing platforms are satellite, in contrast carry out systematic observations with moon based Earth observation platform is still a new concept. The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and is the only one which human has reached, it will give people different perspectives when observe the earth with sensors from the moon. Moon-based InSAR (SAR Interferometry), one of the important earth observation technology, has all-day, all-weather observation ability, but its uniqueness is still a need for analysis. This article will discuss key issues of geometric positioning and baseline parameters of moon-based InSAR. Based on the ephemeris data, the position, liberation and attitude of earth and moon will be obtained, and the position of the moon-base SAR sensor can be obtained by coordinate transformation from fixed seleno-centric coordinate systems to terrestrial coordinate systems, together with the Distance-Doppler equation, the positioning model will be analyzed; after establish of moon-based InSAR baseline equation, the different baseline error will be analyzed, the influence of the moon-based InSAR baseline to earth observation application will be obtained.

  15. Evidence for magma oceans on asteroids, the moon, and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Norman, Marc D.

    1992-01-01

    There are sound theoretical reasons to suspect that the terrestrial planets melted when they formed. For Earth, the reasons stem largely from the hypothesis that the moon formed as a result of the impact of a Mars-sized planetesimal with the still accreting Earth. Such a monumental event would have led to widespread heating of the Earth and the materials from which the moon was made. In addition, formation of a dense atmosphere on the Earth (and possibly the Moon) would have led to retention of accretional heat and, thus, widespread melting. In other words, contemporary theory suggests that the primitive Moon and terrestrial planets had magma oceans.

  16. Vicarious calibration of GOES imager visible channel using the moon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, X.; Stone, T.C.; Yu, F.; Han, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the feasibility of a method for vicarious calibration of the GOES Imager visible channel using the Moon. The measured Moon irradiance from 26 undipped moon imagers exhausted all the potential Moon appearances between July 1998 and December 2005, together with the seven scheduled Moon observation data obtained after November 2005, were compared with the USGS lunar model results to estimate the degradation rate of the GOES-10 Imager visible channel. A total of nine methods of determining the space count and identifying lunar pixels were employed in this study to measure the GOES-10 Moon irradiance. Our results show that the selected mean and the masking Moon appears the best method. Eight of the nine resulting degradation rates range from 4.5%/year to 5.0%/year during the nearly nine years of data, which are consistent with most other degradation rates obtained for GOES-10 based on different references. In particular, the degradation rate from the Moon-based calibration (4.5%/year) agrees very well with the MODIS-based calibration (4.4%/year) over the same period, confirming the capability of relative and absolute calibration based on the Moon. Finally, our estimate of lunar calibration precision as applied to GOES-10 is 3.5%.

  17. A soft X-ray image of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Aschenbach, B.; Hasinger, G.; Pfeffermann, E.; Snowden, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    A soft X-ray image of the moon obtained by the Roentgen Observatory Satellite ROSAT clearly shows a sunlit crescent, demonstrating that the moon's X-ray luminosity arises from backscattering of solar X-rays. The moon's optically dark side is also X-ray dark, and casts a distinct shadow on the diffuse cosmic X-ray background. Unexpectedly, the dark side seems to emit X-rays at a level about one percent of that of the bright side; this emission very probably results from energetic solar-wind electrons striking the moon's surface.

  18. GRAIL Webcast: Twin Spacecraft Bound for the Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    The moon has captivated humanity's collective imagination for hundreds of years, but despite study with telescopes, astronauts and robotic probes, our nearest neighbor remains a mystery. NASA's Gra...

  19. The Origin of the Moon and Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, F. M.

    2004-12-01

    In 1879, George Darwin(1) had proposed that the moon originated from a rapidly spinning Earth on which equatorial gravitative attraction was nearly overcome by centrifical force. During a 1964 conference, D.U. Wise(2) and others analyzed this hypothesis in greater detail. However, recent studies warranted a fundamentally new approach with regards to the origin of the solar system. A re-examination of the spin-off (fission) hypothesis of the moon from the earth, using slightly different assumptions than scientists had previously used (allowing for a more extreme version of an expanding earth), provided the earth's original radius (357 km), density (3.13 x 104 g/cc) and spin rate (0.132 radians/sec.). It was found that Neptune underwent a similar development with the fission of Triton. The remarkably large initial densities, of both Earth and Neptune (7.2 x 105 gm/cc) are consistent with the overall theory(3,4) previously discussed regarding the evolution of the solar system from a neutron star type proto-sun's dense core. The primary calculations involve conservation of angular momentum of each of the rotating and revolving planetary systems. (1) Darwin, G. H. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (London) 170, 1 (1879) (2) D.U. Wise, ``The Earth-Moon System" p. 213, Marsden and Cameron Eds. Plenum Press (1966) (3) Fred M. Johnson, ``Voyage Into Astronomy", Kendall/ Hunt Publ., (1977) (4) Fred M. Johnson, Mem. Soc. Roy. des Sciences de Liége, 6th series, vol. III, p. 609-627 (1972).

  20. Earth after the Moon-forming Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The Hadean Earth is widely and enduringly pictured as a world of exuberant volcanism, exploding meteors, huge craters, infernal heat, and billowing sulfurous steams; i.e., a world of fire and brimstone punctuated with blows to the head. In the background the Moon looms gigantic in the sky. The popular image has given it a name that celebrates our mythic roots. A hot early Earth is an inevitable consequence of accretion. The Moon-forming impact ensured that Earth as we know it emerged from a fog of silicate vapor. The impact separated the volatiles from the silicates. It took approx. 100 years to condense and rain out the bulk of the vaporized silicates, although relatively volatile elements may have remained present in the atmosphere throughout the magma ocena stage. The magma ocean lasted approx. 2 Myr, its lifetime prolonged by tidal heating and thermal blanketing by a thick CO2-rich steam atmosphere. Water oceans condensed quickly after the mantle solidified, but for some 10-100 Myr the surface would have stayed warm (approx. 500 K) until the CO2 was removed into the mantle. Thereafter the faint young Sun suggests that a lifeless Earth would always have been evolving toward a bitterly cold ice world, but the cooling trend was fiequently interrupted by volcanic or impact induced thaws. A cartoon history of water, temperature, and carbon dioxide in the aftermath of the moon-formining-impact is shown. How long it stays hot depends on how long it takes to scrub the C02 out of the atmosphere.

  1. Evidence for a "Wet" Early Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Neal, Clive R.

    2013-01-01

    The Moon was thought to have lost its volatiles during impact(s) of a Mars-size planetesimal with the proto Earth [1] and during degassing of an early planet-wide magma ocean [2]. This view of an anhydrous Moon, however, has been challenged by recent discoveries of water on its surface [3-5] and in lunar volcanics [6-10] and regoliths [11]. Indigenous water is suggested to be heterogeneously distributed in the lunar interior and some parts of lunar mantle may contain as much water as Earth's upper mantle [6,10]. This water is thought to have been brought in part through solar wind implantation [3-5,8,11] and meteorite/cometary impacts [3,4,8,12] after the formation of the primary crust. Here we measured water in primary products of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) thereby by-passing the processes of later addition of water to the Moon through impact events or during mantle overturn as suggested by previous studies (e.g., [8,12]). So far, ferroan anorthosite (FAN) is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the LMO [2]. It is generally accepted that plagioclase, after crystallization, floated in the LMO and formed FAN as the original crust [2]. Therefore, any indigenous water preserved in FAN was partitioned from the LMO. These data can be used to estimate the water content of the magma ocean at the time of plagioclase crystallization, as well as that of the mare magma source regions.

  2. Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture: The MARTA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, R.; Bechtel, R.; Chen, T.; Cormier, T.; Kalaver, S.; Kirtas, M.; Lewe, J.-H.; Marcus, L.; Marshall, D.; Medlin, M.; McIntire, J.; Nelson, D.; Remolina, D.; Scott, A.; Weglian, J.; Olds, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Moon-based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture (MARTA) Project conducted an in-depth investigation of possible Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to lunar surface transportation systems capable of sending both astronauts and large masses of cargo to the Moon and back. This investigation was conducted from the perspective of a private company operating the transportation system for a profit. The goal of this company was to provide an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 25% to its shareholders. The technical aspect of the study began with a wide open design space that included nuclear rockets and tether systems as possible propulsion systems. Based on technical, political, and business considerations, the architecture was quickly narrowed down to a traditional chemical rocket using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. However, three additional technologies were identified for further investigation: aerobraking, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and a mass driver on the lunar surface. These three technologies were identified because they reduce the mass of propellant used. Operational costs are the largest expense with propellant cost the largest contributor. ISRU, the production of materials using resources on the Moon, was considered because an Earth to Orbit (ETO) launch cost of 1600 per kilogram made taking propellant from the Earth's surface an expensive proposition. The use of an aerobrake to circularize the orbit of a vehicle coming from the Moon towards Earth eliminated 3, 100 meters per second of velocity change (Delta V), eliminating almost 30% of the 11,200 m/s required for one complete round trip. The use of a mass driver on the lunar surface, in conjunction with an ISRU production facility, would reduce the amount of propellant required by eliminating using propellant to take additional propellant from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). However, developing and operating such a system required further study to identify if it was cost effective. The

  3. Measuring the Apparent Size of the Moon with a Digital Camera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellery, Adam; Hughes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Moon appears to be much larger closer to the horizon than when higher in the sky. This is called the "Moon illusion" since the observed size of the Moon is not actually larger when the Moon is just above the horizon. This paper describes a technique for verifying that the observed size of the Moon is not larger on the horizon. The technique…

  4. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  5. Logical steps to moon, Mars and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuriki, Kyoichi

    1993-10-01

    A scenario of the space activities aimed at exploration of moon, Mars, and other planets is proposed. The scenario uses motivations based on the fundamental human instinct, i.e. intellectual curiosity and survival of the humankind. It is shown how these key drivers are threading through the known programs including Space Shuttle and Space Station, Space Energy Exploitation and Space Factory, Lunar Base, and Mars Base. It is concluded that an eventual goal of the mission from planet earth is to set Noah's Arc off into space in the next millenium.

  6. Europe rediscovers the Moon with SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-08-01

    The whole story began in September 2003, when an Ariane 5 launcher blasted off from Kourou, French Guiana, to deliver the European Space Agency’s lunar spacecraft SMART-1 into Earth orbit. SMART-1 is a small unmanned satellite weighing 366 kilograms and roughly fitting into a cube just 1 metre across, excluding its 14-metre solar panels (which were folded during launch). After launch and injection into an elliptical orbit around the Earth, the gentle but steady push provided by the spacecraft’s highly innovative electric propulsion engine forcefully expelling xenon gas ions caused SMART-1 to spiral around the Earth, increasing its distance from our planet until, after a long journey of about 14 months, it was “captured” by the Moon’s gravity. To cover the 385,000 km distance that separates the Earth from the Moon if one travelled in a straight line, this remarkably efficient engine brought the spacecraft on a 100 million km long spiralling journey on only 60 litres of fuel! The spacecraft was captured by the Moon in November 2004 and started its scientific mission in March 2005 in an elliptical orbit around its poles. ESA’s SMART-1 is currently the only spacecraft around the Moon, paving the way for the fleet of international lunar orbiters that will be launched from 2007 onwards. The story is now close to ending. On the night of Saturday 2 to Sunday 3 September, looking at the Moon with a powerful telescope, one may be able to see something special happening. Like most of its lunar predecessors, SMART-1 will end its journey and exploration of the Moon by landing in a relatively abrupt way. It will impact the lunar surface in an area called the “Lake of Excellence”, situated in the mid-southern region of the Moon’s visible disc at 07:41 CEST (05:41 UTC), or five hours before if it finds an unknown peak on the way. The story is close to ending After 16 months harvesting scientific results in an elliptical orbit around the Moon’s poles (at

  7. Tidally Heated ExoMoons (THEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, V.

    2014-04-01

    More than a thousand exoplanets have been identified to date (Schneider 2014); however, moons orbiting exoplanets have not been discovered, yet. Nevertheless, it is probable that exomoons will be detected in the near future if they are not much more rare in exoplanetary systems than they are in the Solar System (Heller & Barnes 2013, Peters & Turner 2013, Kaltenegger 2010). For this reason it is important to begin to develop basic theoretical models of exomoons in advance of the first detections. Habitability is a particularly important aspect, since life might well develop on a non-planetary body if it has suitable characteristics and environmentals. Tidal forces produced by the planet which the moon orbits can induce friction inside the satellite that will have a warming effect (Peale et al. 1979). In the Solar System there are several examples for moons that have significant heating due to tidal forces. On exomoons that are too far from their central star to have habitable surface temperatures due to radiative heating, it is possible that warmth area of the surface produced by tidal heating could allow the emergence of life (Scharf 2006). This investigation focuses on tidal heating, studying the surface temperature of hypothetical exomoons for different orbital and interior parameters of the body. The aim of our research is to describe the conditions that allow the existence of water reservoirs in the liquid phase state on or near the surface. We modified and extended the public code of Heller & Barnes (2013) for the purposes of this investigation. References Heller, R., Barnes, R. 2013 Exomoon Habitability Constrained by Illumination and Tidal Heating, Astrobiology 13, 18 Kaltenegger, L. 2010 Characterizing habitable exomoons, The Astrophysical Journal Letters 712, 125 Peale, S. J., Cassen, P., Reynolds, R. T. 1979 Melting of Io by Tidal Dissipation, Science 203, 892 Peters, M. A., Turner, E. L. 2013 On the direct imaging of tidally heated exomoons, The

  8. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.

    2013-01-01

    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Some of the research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  9. Low-frequency cosmology from the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein Wolt, M.; Aminaei, A.; Pourshaghaghi, H.; Koopmans, L.; Falcke, H.

    2013-09-01

    From a low-frequency point of view, the moon provides excess to the virtually unexplored radio frequency domain below 30 MHz that is not accessible from Earth due to the atmospheric cutoff and interference from man-made RFI. We show that with a single low-frequency radio antenna the detection of the 21-cm Dark Ages signal is possible within integration times of months, and address the size and integration times required for a future low-frequency array to perform detailed tomography and power spectral analysis of the Dark Ages signal.

  10. Moon Technology For A New Artform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The keystone of the density slicing process is an instrument called a densitometer, which can "see" many subtle gradations not visible to the human eye. This instrument was integrated into a computerized system which analyzed the tonal density of a moon photo, assigned a color code to each of the various shades, and created on a video monitor a new picture in which each color represented a particular measurement, such as height or depth. Density slicing, applied to telescopic photos and later to close-up views acquired by unmanned spacecraft, provided the foundation for NASA's extensive study and selection of safe Apollo landing sites.

  11. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, P. T.; Lane, J. E.

    2013-01-01

    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  12. Lunar Flashlight: Illuminating the Moon's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayne, P. O.; Cohen, B. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Camacho, J. M.; Sellar, R. G.; Reiter, J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reflectance data from LRO instruments suggest water ice and other volatiles may be present on the surface in lunar permanently shadowed regions, though the detection is not yet definitive. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water and other volatiles associated with lunar permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits are also scientifically interesting, having the potential to reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth-Moon system.

  13. Approaching Moons from Resonance via Invariant Manifolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Rodney L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the approach phase from the final resonance of the endgame scenario in a tour design is examined within the context of invariant manifolds. Previous analyses have typically solved this problem either by using numerical techniques or by computing a catalog of suitable trajectories. The invariant manifolds of a selected set of libration orbits and unstable resonant orbits are computed here to serve as guides for desirable approach trajectories. The analysis focuses on designing an approach phase that may be tied into the final resonance in the endgame sequence while also targeting desired conditions at the moon.

  14. Photograph of surface of moon showing Sinus Medii near center of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Ellipse II-P-8, located in Sinus Medii near the center of the moon. The center coordinates for the ellipse are 0 degrees 25 minutes north longitude and 1 degree 20 minutes west latitude. It was the eighth primary site photographed by Lunar Orbiter II. Surveyor VI landed approximately five kilometers to the northwest from the center of the ellipse.

  15. Using MMPI-A Profiles to Predict Success in a Military-Style Residential Treatment Program for Adolescents with Academic and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Crockett, Thomas E.; Vieth, Sasha

    2004-01-01

    Military-style residential treatment for adolescents with academic and conduct problems is an increasingly popular alternative to traditional school-based services. However, dropout from "boot camp" programs is a primary reason for their high cost. Social-emotional functioning before referral may differentiate adolescents who successfully complete…

  16. The origin of the moon and the early history of the earth - A chemical model. Part 1: The moon

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, H. St.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The chemical implications of a giant impact model for the origin of the moon are examined, both for the moon and for the earth. The Impactor is taken to be an approximately Mars-sized body. It is argued that the likeliest bulk chemical composition of the moon is quite similar to that of the earth's mantle, and that this composition may be explained in detail if about 80{percent} of the moon came from the primitive earth's mantle after segregation of the earth's core. The other 20{percent} of the moon is modelled as coming from (a) the Impactor, which is constrained to be an oxidized, probably undifferentiated body of roughly CI chondritic composition (on a volatile free basis) and (b) a late stage veneer, with a composition and oxidation state similar to that of the H-group ordinary chondrites. This latter component is the source of all the volatile elements in the moon, which failed to condense from the earth-and Impactor-derived materials; this component constitutes about 4{percent} of the moon. It is argued that Mo may behave as a volatile element under the relatively oxidising conditions necessary for the condensation of the proto-moon. The model accounts satisfactorily for most of the siderophile elements, including Fe, Ni, Co, W, P, and Cu. The relatively well-constrained lunar abundances of V, Cr, and Mn are also accounted for; their depletion in the moon is inherited from the earth's mantle.

  17. Project “The Moon 2012+”: Spin-orbital evolution, geophysics and selenodesy of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Alexander; Petrova, Natalia

    2008-07-01

    The Russian scientific project "The Moon - 2012+" is directed at solving fundamental problems of celestial mechanics, selenodesy and geophysics of the Moon through the pursuance of theoretical research and computer simulations of the following fields. 1. Spin-orbital longtime evolution and physical librations of the multilayered Moon: (a) development of the analytical theory of rotation of the two- /three-layer Moon and construction of the physical libration's tables for processing accurate observations and for constructing a lunar annual book; and (b) analysis of the spin-orbital evolution of the early Moon, an estimation of internal energy dissipation, and modeling of the long-term mechanism maintaining the free librations of the Moon. 2. Geodynamics of a lunar core: analysis of differentiation of a lunar core, detailed elaboration of plume-tectonics of mantle and a core of the early Moon, evolution of a boundary layer of a core-mantle boundary, reconstruction of the gravitational and viscous-mechanical interactions of a lunar core and mantle, research on resonant dissipation of internal energy, and calculation of free and forced nutations of a lunar core and of free fluctuations of a core-mantle system. 3. Selenodesy of lunar far-side: solution of an inverse problem in lunar gravimetry, construction of a geodynamic model of the lunar crust and of a Moho's boundary, reconstruction of initial mascons on the far-side of the Moon, and creation of accurate topographical and gravitational models of the Moon on the basis of modern observations.

  18. The moon as a stepping stone for a spacefaring civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multhaup, K.

    2008-09-01

    the moon. Robotic spacecraft deliver science for a fraction of the costs of manned exploration. Is this reason enough to question the presence of man in space? Image: NASA. But even among those who basically support the concept of manned exploration, the decision to use the moon as our next destination and stepping stone is challenged. It is feared by some that manned lunar exploration in particular will bog down the space program for decades to come and eventually inhibit human exploration of Mars. Refutation of arguments Both science and exploration have their roots in the human desire to evolve and expand. But if the virtue of human spaceflight is assessed in view of scientific return only, then the question must also be allowed what purpose planetary science has. What do we, the community of planetary scientists, do to benefit mankind? I see two tiers in planetary science. One of them—the well established approach—is to learn about the planets in order to understand our own homeworld and the place that it takes in the solar system. A great many basic questions from this research theme can be answered by theorizing, by observing from the ground, and by sending unmanned spacecraft. But robots can only do so much … In this tier, human spaceflight admittedly is not required, but more than acutely helpful. A geologist EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-xxxx, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00023, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 walking around on the surface of Mars will possibly learn more about the planet in a day's work than an automated rover slowly crawling from rock to rock in a couple of years. Nonetheless, the billions and billions of dollars that are required to conduct such programs can hardly be justified exclusively by science. Technology will evolve and the quality and quantity of science return from robotic missions will increase. Fig. 3 The proposed Altair lander

  19. Why and according to what consultation profiles do female sex workers consult health care professionals? A study conducted in Laval, Québec.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh-Nguyet; Venne, Thérèse; Rodrigues, Isabel; Jacques, Julie

    2008-02-01

    We carried out a study to understand help-seeking behavior among female sex workers in order to bring adequate health care and services to this population at risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, focus groups, and in-depth individual interviews. Analysis reveals that the respondents are familiar with and have access to the health care system. Over 80% claimed to have consulted a health professional during the preceding 12 months. Gynecological, psychosocial, respiratory, digestive, and drug addiction problems were the most frequent. Only a third of the respondents received care and services related to STIs. Data are displayed as three consultation profiles, one of which only tends to foster continuity and comprehensive health care, including screening and treatment of STIs. PMID:18350422

  20. Exobiology and Planetary Protection of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, François; Hand, Kevin P.; McKay, Christopher P.; Viso, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The outer solar system is an important area of investigation for exobiology, the study of life in the universe. Several moons of the outer planets involve processes and structures comparable to those thought to have played an important role in the emergence of life on Earth, such as the formation and exchange of organic materials between different reservoirs. The study of these prebiotic processes on, and in, outer solar system moons is a key goal for exobiology, together with the question of habitability and the search for evidence of past or even present life. This chapter reviews the aspects of prebiotic chemistry and potential presence of life on Europa, Enceladus and Titan, based on the most recent data obtained from space missions as well as theoretical and experimental laboratory models. The habitability of these extraterrestrial environments, which are likely to include large reservoirs of liquid water in their internal structure, is discussed as well as the particular case of Titan’s hydrocarbon lakes. The question of planetary protection, especially in the case of Europa, is also presented.