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Sample records for morinda citrifolia noni

  1. Morinda citrifolia (Noni): a literature review and recent advances in Noni research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; West, Brett J; Jensen, C Jarakae; Nowicki, Diane; Su, Chen; Palu, Afa K; Anderson, Gary

    2002-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia L (Noni) has been used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2000 years, and is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumor, antihelmin, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immune enhancing effects. In order to reveal the nutritional and medicinal value of the Noni plant, and to summarize scientific evidence that supports the Polynesians' claim, a literature review and recent advances in Noni research is given below. PMID:12466051

  2. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia).

    PubMed

    Pazos, Diana C; Jiménez, Fabiola E; Garduño, Leticia; López, V Eric; Cruz, M Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil (NSO) on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice. We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented. PMID:21834246

  3. Antibacterial Constituents of Hainan Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Yu; Hao, Wang-Jun; Huang, Wu-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is an edible and medicinal plant distributed in Hainan, China. The antibacterial activities of the extracts of water (WE), petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), chloroform (CE), and n-butanol (BE) were assayed by the disk diffusion method. The results showed that the extracts from Noni leaves possessed antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among 5 different extracts, the BE produced the best antibacterial activity. The samples were first extracted by ethanol, and the primary compounds in the BE fraction of ethanol extract was further isolated and identified. Six phenolic compounds, including 5, 15-dimethylmorindol, ferulic acid, p-hydroxycinamic acid, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methyl ferulate, and methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate, were identifiedby NMR. The results indicated that the phenolic compounds might significantly contribute to antibacterial activities of Noni leaves. PMID:27074391

  4. Anthraquinone Content in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.)

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W.; Hennig, Lothar; Giannis, Athanassios; Ortwein, Jutta; Kutchan, Toni M.; Feng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our research focused on lucidin, alizarin, and rubiadin, the most important anthraquinones from a health perspective. We found that the production process (fermentation/juice production versus drying/lyophilization) has no effect on the anthraquinone content. The source product, however, does have implications: noni fruit puree from which seeds had been removed as well as consumer products produced from such puree had no detectable amounts of any anthraquinones. Products that did contain seed or leaf material in all cases did contain partly significant amounts of anthraquinones. To alleviate safety concerns, we suggest that noni products, whether fermented or unfermented juice or powder, should be derived only from fully ripe noni fruits, and that any seed material needs to be removed during the production process. PMID:24062780

  5. Anthraquinone Content in Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.).

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Hennig, Lothar; Giannis, Athanassios; Ortwein, Jutta; Kutchan, Toni M; Feng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been used in traditional medicine and as food for thousands of years. While the fruits serve as food and internal medicine, leaves were traditionally used only topically. In recent years, concern regarding the possible content of anthraquinones in noni has led to scrutiny by the European Food Safety Authority. Little research existed on the content of anthraquinones in different noni preparations, with no information about the potential effect of harvest and preparation methods. Our research focused on lucidin, alizarin, and rubiadin, the most important anthraquinones from a health perspective. We found that the production process (fermentation/juice production versus drying/lyophilization) has no effect on the anthraquinone content. The source product, however, does have implications: noni fruit puree from which seeds had been removed as well as consumer products produced from such puree had no detectable amounts of any anthraquinones. Products that did contain seed or leaf material in all cases did contain partly significant amounts of anthraquinones. To alleviate safety concerns, we suggest that noni products, whether fermented or unfermented juice or powder, should be derived only from fully ripe noni fruits, and that any seed material needs to be removed during the production process. PMID:24062780

  6. First report of association of Mucor circinelloides on noni (Morinda citrifolia) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a popular medicinal plant found in tropical or subtropical regions of the world. The fruit and juice extracts have properties that are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer (1,4). In our studies on noni juice produced from ...

  7. Postharvest ripening and fermentation of noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...

  8. Microorganisms and antifungal properties associated with noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit and fermented juice in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia), a medicinal plant grown in Hawaii and other Polynesian regions, is reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Noni fruit often produce fermented juice that differs in chemical, physical and microbial properties. To determine ho...

  9. Postharvest ripening of noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) and the microbial and chemical properties of its fermented juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...

  10. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice and Phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Mrzljak, Anna; Kosuta, Iva; Skrtic, Anita; Kanizaj, Tajana Filipec; Vrhovac, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice is a popular herbal dietary supplement globally used for preventive or therapeutic purposes in a variety of ailments, claiming to exhibit hepatoprotective properties as well. Herein we present the case of a 38-year-old woman who developed acute liver injury associated with noni juice consumption on a long-term (9 months) anticonvulsant therapy. Clinical presentation and liver biopsy were consistent with severe, predominantly hepatocellular type of injury. Both agents were stopped and corticosteroids were initiated. Five months later the patient had fully recovered. Although in the literature the hepatotoxicity of noni juice remains speculative, sporadic but emerging cases of noni juice-associated liver injury address the need to clarify and investigate potential harmful effects associated with this supplement. PMID:23467452

  11. Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni).

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh Kim T; Bacic, Antony; Pettolino, Filomena

    2006-06-01

    An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp, 2-Rhap, 2,4-Rhap), arabinan (5-Araf, 3,5-Araf, t-Araf), type I arabinogalactan (4-Galp, 3,4-Galp, t-Araf) and beta-glucosyl Yariv-binding type II arabinogalactan (3,6-Galp, t-Araf). Low levels of xyloglucan (4-Glcp, 4,6-Glcp, t-Xylp, t-Fucp), heteroxylan (4-Xylp) and heteromannan (4-Manp) are also present. PMID:16777156

  12. Sphingomonas morindae sp. nov., isolated from Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) branch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Yao, Su; Lee, Yong-Jae; Cao, Yanhua; Zhai, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Su, Jiaojiao; Ge, Yuanyuan; Kim, Song-Gun; Cheng, Chi

    2015-09-01

    Two yellow bacterial strains, designated NBD5(T) and NBD8, isolated from Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) branch were investigated using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Cells were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-motile and short rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the strains were members of a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, the seven closest neighbours being Sphingomonas oligoaromativorans SY-6(T) (96.9% similarity), Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans B2-7(T) (95.8%), Sphingomonas yantingensis 1007(T) (94.9%), Sphingomonas sanguinis IFO 13937(T) (94.7%), Sphingomonas ginsenosidimutans Gsoil 1429(T) (94.6%), Sphingomonas wittichii RW1(T) (94.6%) and Sphingomonas formosensis CC-Nfb-2(T) (94.5%). Strains NBD5T and NBD8 had sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine as the major polar lipids, ubiquinone 10 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and sym-homospermidine as the major polyamine. Strains NBD5(T) and NBD8 were clearly distinguished from reference type strains based on phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid composition data analysis, and comparison of a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics. It is evident from the genotypic and phenotypic data that strains NBD5(T) and NBD8 represent a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas morindae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NBD5(T) ( = DSM 29151(T) = KCTC 42183(T) = CICC 10879(T)). PMID:25985831

  13. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to

  14. Induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Banerjee, Ayan; Pathak, Suajta; Sharma, Chandresh; Singh, Neeta

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in women and has a high mortality rate. Cisplatin, an antitumor agent, is generally used for its treatment. However, the administration of cisplatin is associated with side effects and intrinsic resistance. Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a natural plant product, has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, we used Noni, cisplatin, and the two in combination to study their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects in cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines. We demonstrate here, that Noni/Cisplatin by themselves and their combination were able to induce apoptosis in both these cell lines. Cisplatin showed slightly higher cell killing as compared to Noni and their combination showed additive effects. The observed apoptosis appeared to be mediated particularly through the up-regulation of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax proteins, as well as down- regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL proteins and survivin. Augmentation in the activity of caspase-9 and -3 was also observed, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis for both Noni and Cisplatin in HeLa and SiHa cell lines. PMID:23534730

  15. Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fruit Juice on High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shoeb, Ahsan; Alwar, M.C.; Gokul, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The medicinal value of Morinda citrifolia L. (commonly known as Noni) has been explored in ancient folk remedies with a wide range of therapeutic utility, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antitumour, analgesic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and immune enhancing effects. Aim The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Noni fruit juice on serum lipid profile in high fat diet induced murine model of dyslipidemia. Materials and Methods Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding a cholesterol rich high fat diet for 45 days in wistar albino rats of either sex (n=8). Noni fruit juice administered at 50mg/kg/day and 100mg/kg/day, per oral, was compared with the standard drug Atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day, oral) fed for the latter 30 days. The blood samples were then sent for complete blood lipid profile, after 30 days of treatment. The data presented as mean ± SEM was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test. The p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The Noni fruit juice treated group showed a significant decrease in the total cholesterol, triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein - Cholesterol at both the doses when compared to the disease control (p<0.05). However, the decrease in the TC (102.75±9.79 mg/dL) and LDL-C (47.87±7.47 mg/dL) levels observed with the noni fruit juice at the 50mg/kg dose employed, failed to show a statistical significance when compared to atorvastatin. Conclusion The present study provides evidence for the hypolipidemic activity of Noni fruit juice in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:27190827

  16. Anticancer Effects of Extracts from the Fruit of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) in Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, K; Pachauri, S D; Khandelwal, K; Ahmad, H; Arya, A; Biala, P; Agrawal, S; Pandey, R R; Srivastava, A; Srivastav, A; Saxena, J K; Dwivedi, A K

    2016-03-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (NONI) fruits have been used for thousands of years for the treatment of many health problems including cancer, cold, diabetes, flu, hypertension, and pain. Plant extracts have reported several therapeutic benefits, but extraction of individual compound from the extract often exhibits limited clinical utility as the synergistic effect of various natural ingredients gets lost. They generally constitute polyphenols and flavonoids. Studies have suggested that these phytochemicals, especially polyphenols, display high antioxidant properties, which help to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown that Noni fruits have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-dementia, liver-protective, anticancer, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Till date about 7 in vitro cancer studies have been done, but a detailed in vitro study including cell cycle and caspase activation assay on breast cancer cell line has not been done. In the present study different Noni fruit fractions have tested on cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 (breast adenocarcinoma) and one non-cancer cell line HEK-293 (Human embryonic kidney). Out of which ethylacetate extract showed a higher order of in vitro anticancer activity profile. The ethylacetate extract strongly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and HEK-293 cell lines with IC50 values of 25, 35, 60 µg/ml respectively. The extract showed increase in apoptotic cells in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells and arrested the cell cycle in the G1/S phase in MCF-7 and G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-231 cells. Noni extract also decreases the intracellular ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:26158795

  17. First isolation and antinociceptive activity of a lipid transfer protein from noni (Morinda citrifolia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Campos, Dyély C O; Costa, Andrea S; Lima, Amanda D R; Silva, Fredy D A; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Moreira, Renato A; Leal, Luzia K A M; Miron, Diogo; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Oliveira, Hermógenes D

    2016-05-01

    In this study a novel heat-stable lipid transfer protein, designated McLTP1, was purified from noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) seeds, using four purification steps which resulted in a high-purified protein yield (72 mg McLTP1 from 100g of noni seeds). McLTP1 exhibited molecular masses of 9.450 and 9.466 kDa, determined by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The N-terminal sequence of McLTP1 (AVPCGQVSSALSPCMSYLTGGGDDPEARCCAGV), as analysed by NCBI-BLAST database, revealed a high degree of identity with other reported plant lipid transfer proteins. In addition, this protein proved to be resistant to pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion. McLTP1 given intraperitoneally (1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg) and orally (8 mg/kg) caused an inhibition of the writhing response induced by acetic acid in mice. This protein displayed thermostability, retaining 100% of its antinociceptive activity after 30 min incubation at 80 °C. Pretreatment of mice with McLTP1 (8 mg/kg, i.p. and p.o.) also decreased neurogenic and inflammatory phases of nociception in the formalin test. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) antagonised the antinociceptive effect of McLTP1 suggesting that the opioid mechanisms mediate the analgesic properties of this protein. PMID:26783638

  18. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  19. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  20. Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits☆

    PubMed Central

    Köktürk, Sibel; Ceylan, Süreyya; Etus, Volkan; Yasa, Nezih; Ceylan, Savaş

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle. PMID:25206724

  1. Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and memantine attenuate periventricular tissue injury of the fourth ventricle in hydrocephalic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Köktürk, Sibel; Ceylan, Süreyya; Etus, Volkan; Yasa, Nezih; Ceylan, Savaş

    2013-03-25

    This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni, and memantine (a N-methy-D-aspartate receptor inhibitor) on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders. Kaolin was injected into the cistern magna of male adult New Zealand rabbits to establish a hydrocephalus animal model. Memantine (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally; memantine-treated group) or noni (5 mL/kg, intragastrically; noni-treated group) was administered daily for 2 weeks. Microtubule-associated protein-2 and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed to detect neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle of rabbits. Microtubule-associated protein-2 staining density was significantly decreased in the hydrocephalic group, while the staining density was significantly increased in the memantine- and noni-treated groups, especially in the noni-treated group. Noni treatment decreased the number of caspase-3-positive cells in rabbits with hydrocephalus, while memantine had no effect. These findings suggest that noni exhibits more obvious inhibitory effects on hydrocephalus-induced neurodegenerative disorders than memantine in periventricular tissue of the fourth ventricle. PMID:25206724

  2. Do the health claims made for Morinda citrifolia (Noni) harmonize with current scientific knowledge and evaluation of its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Patel, Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia, also known as Great Morinda, Indian Mulberry, or Noni, is a plant belonging to the family Rubiaceae. A number of major chemical compounds have been identified in the leaves, roots, and fruits of Noni plant. The fruit juice is in high demand in alternative medicine for different kinds for illnesses such as arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, muscle ached and pains, menstrual difficulties, headache, heart diseases, AIDS, gastric ulcer, sprains, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, arteriosclerosis, blood vessel problems, and drug addiction. Several studies have also demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and apoptosis-inducing effect of Noni in various cancers. Based on a toxicological assessment, Noni juice was considered as safe. Though a large number of in vitro, and, to a certain extent, in vivo studies demonstrated a range of potentially beneficial effects, clinical data are essentially lacking. To what extent the findings from experimental pharmacological studies are of potential clinical relevance is not clear at present and this question needs to be explored in detail before an recommendations can be made. PMID:24083691

  3. Antiadhesion and anti-inflammation effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit extracts on AGS cells during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Ko, Chien-Hui; Yan, Yeong-Yu; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2014-03-19

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen that adheres to host cells and injects cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) to induce interleukin-8 (IL-8), inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is found to possess antibacteria, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation activities, but its effect on H. pylori infection is still unknown. Ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of noni fruit were used in this study. The inhibitory effect on CagA and H. pylori-induced IL-8, iNOS, and COX-2 were determined. The coculture medium was collected for measuring neutrophil chemotaxis. Both extracts of noni fruit showed weak inhibition on H. pylori. Both ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts provided antiadhesion of H. pylori to AGS cells and down-regulation on the CagA, IL-8, COX-2, and iNOS expressions. Results also indicated both extracts relieved neutrophil chemotaxis. Noni fruit extracts down-regulated inflammatory responses during H. pylori infection, and the phenolic compounds play key role in antiadhesion. PMID:24528133

  4. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Extracts Improve Colon Microflora and Exert Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Lun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu; Chou, Ming-Chih; Ko, Chien-Hui; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal microflora and inflammation are associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel diseases. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) has various bioactivities, but its effect on colon health remains unknown. This study focused on the effects of fermented noni fruit extracts on colon microflora and inflammation of colon epithelial cells. The anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts on Caco-2 cells were evaluated including interleukin-8 (IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The growth of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species was promoted by ethanol extract. Ethyl acetate extract decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species and significantly suppressed COX-2, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 production and neutrophil chemotaxis by suppressing the translocation of the p65 subunit. Quercetin was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory activity. The fermented noni fruit promoted probiotic growths and downregulated the intracellular oxidation and inflammation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that fermented noni fruit might protect against inflammatory diseases of the colon. PMID:25651187

  5. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, B. Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R.; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density = 1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2 ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150 mg/dl ±15.88 and 125 mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS = 360.0 mg/dl ±15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2 g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6 g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320

  6. Studies on antidyslipidemic effects of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) fruit, leaves and root extracts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F), leaves (Mc.Cr.L) and roots (Mc.Cr.R). Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339) and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia. PMID:20727145

  7. Immunostimulant activity of noni (Morinda citrifolia) on T and B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Smita; Mengi, Sushma

    2010-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia Linn (Rubiaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb that has been purported to be beneficial in the treatment of infections due to its immune enhancing properties. However, detailed studies highlighting the effect of different compounds isolated from the plant on the immune system are lacking. In this study, the stimulatory effects of the extracts and fractions of M. citrifolia fruits on important components of the adaptive immune system such as T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes were studied. The effects of the plant extracts on lymphocytes were assessed by in vitro (MTT assay) and in vivo (cell mediated immune response) techniques. Results of the MTT study indicated that the hydroalcoholic (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) and aqueous extracts (0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) increased in vitro splenocyte proliferation to the extent of 43.6, 54.5, 32.7, and 36.4%, respectively. Moreover, the hydroalcoholic (200 mg/kg) and the aqueous (200 mg/kg) extracts significantly (p < 0.05) increased the cell-mediated immune response to the extent of 33.52 and 18.56%, respectively. The fractions F I, F II, and F III failed to elicit a significant stimulatory effect on lymphocytes in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The effect of the extractives of M. citrifolia fruits on B-cells was measured by the delayed type hypersensitivity method. The study revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract (200 mg/kg) and fraction F I (40 mg/kg) significantly increased the humoral response to the extent of 33.33 and 35.12%, respectively. The results of this study confirm the cellular and humoral immunostimulant properties of M. citrifolia fruits and justify its usage in traditional medicine. PMID:20645768

  8. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) as an Anti-Inflammatory Treatment in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhoea: A Randomised Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, H M; Dawkins, J; Rattray, C; Wharfe, G; Reid, M; Gordon-Strachan, G

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been used for many years as an anti-inflammatory agent. We tested the efficacy of Noni in women with dysmenorrhea. Method. We did a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 100 university students of 18 years and older over three menstrual cycles. Patients were invited to participate and randomly assigned to receive 400 mg Noni capsules or placebo. They were assessed for baseline demographic variables such as age, parity, and BMI. They were also assessed before and after treatment, for pain, menstrual blood loss, and laboratory variables: ESR, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume. Results. Of the 1027 women screened, 100 eligible women were randomized. Of the women completing the study, 42 women were randomized to Noni and 38 to placebo. There were no significant differences in any of the variables at randomization. There were also no significant differences in mean bleeding score or pain score at randomization. Both bleeding and pain scores gradually improved in both groups as the women were observed over three menstrual cycles; however, the improvement was not significantly different in the Noni group when compared to the controls. Conclusion. Noni did not show a reduction in menstrual pain or bleeding when compared to placebo. PMID:23431314

  9. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples. PMID:26749805

  10. Biochemistry and Cell Wall Changes Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Coronel, Wendy G; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vélez de la Rocha, Rosabel; Labavitch, John M; Báez-Sañudo, Manuel A; Heredia, José B; Zazueta-Morales, José J; Vega-García, Misael O; Sañudo-Barajas, J Adriana

    2016-01-13

    Quality and compositional changes were determined in noni fruit harvested at five ripening stages, from dark-green to thaslucent-grayish. Fruit ripening was accompanied by acidity and soluble solids accumulation but pH diminution, whereas the softening profile presented three differential steps named early (no significant softening), intermediate (significant softening), and final (dramatic softening). At early step the extensive depolymerization of hydrosoluble pectins and the significantly increment of pectinase activities did not correlate with the slight reduction in firmness. The intermediate step showed an increment of pectinases and hemicellulases activities. The final step was accompanied by the most significant reduction in the yield of alcohol-insoluble solids as well as in the composition of uronic acids and neutral sugars; pectinases increased their activity and depolymerization of hemicellulosic fractions occurred. Noni ripening is a process conducted by the coordinated action of pectinases and hemicellulases that promote the differential dissasembly of cell wall polymers. PMID:26627983

  11. The Role of Endophytic Fungi in the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yougen; Girmay, Sisay; da Silva, Vitor Martins; Perry, Brian; Hu, Xinwen; Tan, Ghee T.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that the fungal endophytes of noni may possibly play a role in its overall pharmacological repertoire, especially since the perceived efficacy of the fruit in ethnomedicinal use is associated with the fermented juice. The foremost goal of this study is to explore the role of endophyte-derived secondary metabolites in the purported anticancer properties of noni. To that end, culturable endophytic fungi resident within the healthy leaves and fruit of the plant were isolated and identified by molecular sequence analysis of the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Purified organisms were subjected to in vitro fermentation in malt extract broth for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions at room temperature (25°C), in order to simulate the conditions under which traditional fermented noni juice is prepared. The cytotoxic potential of organic extracts derived from the fermented broths of individual endophytes was then tested against three major cancers that afflict humans. Twelve distinct endophytic fungal species were obtained from the leaves and 3 from the fruit. Three of the leaf endophytes inhibited the growth of human carcinoma cell lines LU-1 (lung), PC-3 (prostate), and MCF-7 (breast) with IC50 values of ≤10 μg/mL. PMID:26783408

  12. The Role of Endophytic Fungi in the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yougen; Girmay, Sisay; da Silva, Vitor Martins; Perry, Brian; Hu, Xinwen; Tan, Ghee T

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that the fungal endophytes of noni may possibly play a role in its overall pharmacological repertoire, especially since the perceived efficacy of the fruit in ethnomedicinal use is associated with the fermented juice. The foremost goal of this study is to explore the role of endophyte-derived secondary metabolites in the purported anticancer properties of noni. To that end, culturable endophytic fungi resident within the healthy leaves and fruit of the plant were isolated and identified by molecular sequence analysis of the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Purified organisms were subjected to in vitro fermentation in malt extract broth for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions at room temperature (25°C), in order to simulate the conditions under which traditional fermented noni juice is prepared. The cytotoxic potential of organic extracts derived from the fermented broths of individual endophytes was then tested against three major cancers that afflict humans. Twelve distinct endophytic fungal species were obtained from the leaves and 3 from the fruit. Three of the leaf endophytes inhibited the growth of human carcinoma cell lines LU-1 (lung), PC-3 (prostate), and MCF-7 (breast) with IC50 values of ≤10 μg/mL. PMID:26783408

  13. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    PubMed

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines. PMID:19114402

  14. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured. PMID:27106908

  15. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:23578611

  16. Polysaccharide-Rich Fraction of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) as Doxorubicin Co-Chemotherapy: Evaluation of Catalase, Macrophages, and TCD8+ Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sasmito, Ediati; Hertiani, Triana; Novlita Renggani, Tiya; Jaya Laksana, Brata

    2015-01-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) has been acknowledged for its cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity. Our previous results on the immunomodulatory effect of a noni juice polysaccharide-rich fraction encouraged this research to evaluate the potency of the polysaccharide-rich fraction as co-chemotherapy with doxorubicin (DOX) administration. Macrophage activity (MA) was evaluated with the latex bead method. The phagocytic index (PI) was measured as the number of latex beads ingested by 100 macrophages, while the phagocytosis ratio (PR) was indicated by the percentage of macrophages that ingested three or more latex beads. The CEC was evaluated by using a commercial assay kit, while CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated using a flowcytometry method following in vivo administration. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 each). The control group received DOX via i.p. at a concentration of 4.67 mg/kg BW on days 1 and 4; four treatment groups received PF p.o. at a concentration of 25; 50; 100; 200 mg/kg BW daily, respectively, and additionally DOX i.p. 4.67 mg/kg BW (days 1 and 4) for 7 days. The phagocytic activity was not affected significantly by PF administration compared to the Dox control, but PF administration at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg BW has been proven to increase TCD8+ cell proliferation in combination with DOX. The catalase concentration, on the other hand, significantly decreased following PF administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW. The results suggest that the polysaccharide-rich fraction of noni juice might induce immunomodulatory effects via TCD8+ activation, have antioxidant activity, and thus might be a potential candidate to be used as an adjuvant to DOX chemotherapy. PMID:26839832

  17. Polysaccharide-Rich Fraction of Noni Fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) as Doxorubicin Co-Chemotherapy: Evaluation of Catalase, Macrophages, and TCD8+ Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sasmito, Ediati; Hertiani, Triana; Novlita Renggani, Tiya; Jaya Laksana, Brata

    2015-01-01

    Noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.) has been acknowledged for its cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity. Our previous results on the immunomodulatory effect of a noni juice polysaccharide-rich fraction encouraged this research to evaluate the potency of the polysaccharide-rich fraction as co-chemotherapy with doxorubicin (DOX) administration. Macrophage activity (MA) was evaluated with the latex bead method. The phagocytic index (PI) was measured as the number of latex beads ingested by 100 macrophages, while the phagocytosis ratio (PR) was indicated by the percentage of macrophages that ingested three or more latex beads. The CEC was evaluated by using a commercial assay kit, while CD8+ T lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated using a flowcytometry method following in vivo administration. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 each). The control group received DOX via i.p. at a concentration of 4.67 mg/kg BW on days 1 and 4; four treatment groups received PF p.o. at a concentration of 25; 50; 100; 200 mg/kg BW daily, respectively, and additionally DOX i.p. 4.67 mg/kg BW (days 1 and 4) for 7 days. The phagocytic activity was not affected significantly by PF administration compared to the Dox control, but PF administration at a dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg BW has been proven to increase TCD8+ cell proliferation in combination with DOX. The catalase concentration, on the other hand, significantly decreased following PF administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW. The results suggest that the polysaccharide-rich fraction of noni juice might induce immunomodulatory effects via TCD8+ activation, have antioxidant activity, and thus might be a potential candidate to be used as an adjuvant to DOX chemotherapy. PMID:26839832

  18. Noni

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov Key References Morinda. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on August ... 2):310–312. Noni ( Morinda citrifolia ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on August ...

  19. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors from Morinda citrifolia (Noni) and their insulin mimetic activity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Yang, Jun-Li; Uddin, Mohammad N; Park, So-Lim; Lim, Seong-Il; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Oh, Won-Keun

    2013-11-22

    As part of our ongoing search for new antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of Morinda citrifolia showed potential stimulatory effects on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this active extract yielded two new lignans (1 and 2) and three new neolignans (9, 10, and 14), as well as 10 known compounds (3-8, 11-13, and 15). The absolute configurations of compounds 9, 10, and 14 were determined by ECD spectra analysis. Compounds 3, 6, 7, and 15 showed inhibitory effects on PTP1B enzyme with IC50 values of 21.86 ± 0.48, 15.01 ± 0.20, 16.82 ± 0.42, and 4.12 ± 0.09 μM, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 3, 6, 7, and 15 showed strong stimulatory effects on 2-NBDG uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells. This study indicated the potential of compounds 3, 6, 7, and 15 as lead molecules for antidiabetic agents. PMID:24224843

  20. Effect of soaking in noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice on the microbiological and color behavior of Haden minimally processed mango.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, José Armando; González Tapia, Noemí T; Rosas Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa Rangel, Blanca E

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of soaking in noni juice on the microbiological and color behavior of minimally processed mango. Two batches of Haden mango cubes were treated by immersion in noni juice for 2.5 or 5.0 min. Each batch was packed in polypropylene boxes and stored at 6 °C for up to 15 days; in addition, a control group of mango cubes was prepared by immersion in sterile water for the same duration. According to the results, the soaking of mango cubes in noni juice had an antimicrobial effect on mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts during storage at 6 °C for 15 days, without significantly (P < 0.05) affecting the CIE L*, a*, b*, chroma and hue angle values, in comparison with the control after 12 days of storage. The noni juice soaking treatment was demonstrated to be a potentially valuable technology for decontamination of fresh-cut fruit surfaces. PMID:25892812

  1. Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Min; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and amyl-1-O-β-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. PMID:23103531

  2. Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (Noni) juice induces an increase in NO production and death of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-31

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. PMID:27328771

  3. Role of Aqueous Extract of Morinda Citrifolia (Indian Noni) Ripe Fruits in Inhibiting Dental Caries-Causing Streptococcus Mutans and Streptococcus Mitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasamy, Barani; Manipal, Sunayana; Duraisamy, Prabu; Ahmed, Adil; Mohanaganesh, SP; Jeevika, C

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Use of alternative medicine to control oral streptococci is a new topic worthy of further investigation. This study aimed to elucidate the dose-dependent anti-bacterial activity of crude aqueous extract of ripe Morinda citrifolia L. (Family: Rubiaceae) fruits against oral streptococci i.e. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis, that cause dental caries in humans. Methods: Fresh ripe M. citrifolia fruits (750g) were ground in an electronic blender with sterile water (500ml). The crude aqueous extract was lyophilized to yield a brown colored powder. Various concentrations (1000-100μg/ ml) of the extract were tested for its antibacterial activity (Kirby and Bauer method) against whole cells of S. mutans and S. mitis. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined by micro-dilution method, using serially diluted (2 folds) fruit extract, according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). Results: Crude aqueous extract (1000μg/ ml) of ripe M. citrifolia fruits effectively inhibited the growth of S. mutans (19±0.5 mm) and S. mitis (18.6±0.3 mm) compared to the streptomycin control (21.6±0.3 mm). The growth inhibition was clearly evident with “nil” bacteriostasis, even after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. The MIC of the extract for S. mutans and S. mitis was 125 μg and 62.5 μg, respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that phytochemicals naturally synthesized by M. citrifolia have an inhibitory effect on oral streptococci. Furthermore, purification and molecular characterization of the “bioactive principle” would enable us to formulate a sustainable oral hygiene product. PMID:25628701

  4. Activation of cell-mediated immunity by Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masudaa, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia, commonly known as noni, is a traditional natural medicine in French Polynesia and Hawaii. Functional foods derived from M. citrifolia fruit have been marketed to help prevent diseases and promote good health. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of M. citrifolia fruit on cell-mediated immunity. In the picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis test, M. citrifolia fruit extract (Noni-ext) inhibited the suppression of cell-mediated immunity by immunosuppressive substances isolated from freeze-dried ascites of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice (EC-sup). In addition, Noni-ext inhibited reduction of IL-2 production in EC-sup-treated mice and activated natural killer cells in normal mice. These results suggest that Noni-ext has multiple effects on the recovery of cell-mediated immunity. Furthermore, we investigated the active principles of Noni-ext and identified an iridoid glycoside, deacetylasperulosidic acid. Oral administration of deacetylasperulosidic acid inhibited the reduction of ear swelling, and also cancelled the suppression of IL-2 production along with the activation of natural killer cells in the same manner as that of Noni-ext. PMID:24868850

  5. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. PMID:26744024

  6. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  7. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  8. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents.

    PubMed

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-05-20

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal. PMID:26744024

  9. Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa Strain CICC 10580, Isolated from the Fruit of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Grown in the Paracel Islands.

    PubMed

    Xu, Youqiang; Liu, Yang; Yao, Su; Li, Jinxia; Cheng, Chi

    2014-01-01

    Noni is a plant reported to have nutritional and therapeutic properties. Paenibacillus polymyxa CICC 10580 is a strain that was isolated from the fruit of noni and showed comprehensive antagonistic activity against many pathogens. Its genome was sequenced and assembled (6.10 Mb). The coding sequences (CDSs) correlated with antagonistic activity were annotated. PMID:25169860

  10. A new anthraquinone from Morinda citrifolia roots.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Wen, Y P; Sukari, M A; Go, R; Lee, H L

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of Morinda citrifolia roots afforded a new anthraquinone, 2-ethoxy-1-hydroxyanthraquinone (1), along with five other known anthraquinones: 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (2), damnacanthal (3), nordamnacanthal (4), 2-formyl-1-hydroxyanthraquinone (5) and morindone-6-methyl-ether (6). This is the first report on the isolation of morindone-6-methyl-ether (6) from this plant. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses such as NMR, MS and IR. Biological evaluation of five pure compounds and all the extracts against the larvae of Aedes aegypti indicated 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (2) and damnacanthal (3) were the extracts to exhibit promising larvicidal activities. PMID:19735047

  11. Morinda citrifolia leaves enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Suppakpatana, Prapan; Arayapisit, Tawepong; Rodsutthi, Jit-aree; Chunhabundit, Panjit; Boonanuntanasarn, Surintorn; Sripairojthikoon, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    This present study investigated the potential of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract to induce osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured in complete medium, ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate, or Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity compared to culturing in complete medium or ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate. Matrixcontaining mineralized nodules were formed only when the cells were cultured in the presence of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. These nodules showed positive alizarin red S staining and were rich in calcium and phosphorus according to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In conclusion, Morinda citrifolia leaf extract promoted osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells, a clear indication of the therapeutic potential of Morinda citrifolia leaves in bone and periodontal tissue regeneration. PMID:24682022

  12. Anti-allergic activity of the Morinda citrifolia extract and its constituents

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Shinohara, Kaito; Futamura-Masuda, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), commonly known as noni is distributed throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Anti-allergic effects of noni have not been reported despite the clinical usage as an anti-allergic agent. Materials and Methods: To investigate the anti-allergic effects of the 50% ethanolic extract of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves (MCF-ext and MCL-ext), dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction and picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) tests were performed. Results: In DNFB-induced triphasic cutaneous reaction, oral administration of MCF-ext and MCL-ext exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous reaction at 1 h (immediate phase response) after the DNFB challenge. MCF-ext also inhibited ear swelling at 24 h (late phase response) and 8 days (very late phase response) after the DNFB challenge. The effect of MCL-ext on the immediate phase response was attributed to the anti-degranulation from RBL-2H3 cells, while MCF-ext had no significant effect on degranulation. The active components of anti-degranulation activity in MCL-ext were determined to be ursolic acid, rutin and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside. In the PC-CD test, both MCF-ext and MCL-ext showed an anti-swelling effect but the potency of MCF-ext was stronger than MCL-ext. Conclusion: These data suggest that noni fruits and leaves can be a daily consumable material for the prevention of allergic symptoms. PMID:25002809

  13. Transformation of Morinda citrifolia via simple mature seed imbibition method.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Ahmad, S; Roslan, H A

    2013-12-15

    Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia. PMID:24517006

  14. Morinda citrifolia leaf enhanced performance by improving angiogenesis, mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory & stress responses.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Shalan, Nor Aijratul Asikin; Mustapha, Noordin M; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia fruit, (noni), enhanced performances in athletes and post-menopausal women in clinical studies. This report shows the edible noni leaves water extract enhances performance in a weight-loaded swimming animal model better than the fruit or standardized green tea extract. The 4weeks study showed the extract (containing scopoletin and epicatechin) progressively prolonged the time to exhaustion by threefold longer than the control, fruit or tea extract. The extract improved (i) the mammalian antioxidant responses (MDA, GSH and SOD2 levels), (ii) tissue nutrient (glucose) and metabolite (lactate) management, (iii) stress hormone (cortisol) regulation; (iv) neurotransmitter (dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin) expressions, transporter or receptor levels, (v) anti-inflammatory (IL4 & IL10) responses; (v) skeletal muscle angiogenesis (VEGFA) and (v) energy and mitochondrial biogenesis (via PGC, UCP3, NRF2, AMPK, MAPK1, and CAMK4). The ergogenic extract helped delay fatigue by enhancing energy production, regulation and efficiency, which suggests benefits for physical activities and disease recovery. PMID:27374554

  15. Lignans and anthraquinones from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chwan Fwu; Ni, Ching Li; Huang, Yu Ling; Sheu, Shuenn Jyi; Chen, Chien Chih

    2007-11-01

    Two new anthraquinones, 1,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methoxymethylanthraquinone (1) and 1,5,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2-methoxymethylanthraquinone (2), and one new lignan isoamericanoic acid A (3) were isolated from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia along with 11 known compounds scopoletin, luteolin, americanin A, americanin D, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol, p-cresol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamaldehyde, and 2,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. PMID:17987501

  16. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli].

    PubMed

    Brito, Danilo R Barros; Fernandes, Rozeverter Moreno; Fernandes, Maria Zenaide de Lima C M; Ferreira, Marcos Daniel de S; Rolim, Fernanda R L; da Silva Filho, Manoel L

    2009-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL(-1) and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg(-1) of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL(-1)) and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL(-1)) extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and 26.96 mg.mL(-1), the aqueous extract demonstrated mortality of 46.67 and 50%, respectively, there was a significative difference from the negative control (P < 0.05). The ethanolic extract presented statistical difference from the negative control (diluent) (P < 0.05) for the concentrations of 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), expressed by a mortality rate of 66.67 and 76.67%, respectively. In the in vivo test, the aqueous extract of noni fruit showed 27.08% of elimination, deferring statistically from the control group. There was no statistical difference between the ethanolic extract treatments and the control (P > 0.05). It follows that the anthelmintic activity of noni fruit test showed satisfactory results in vitro, there is a need for studies in higher concentrations in the in vivo test. PMID:20040206

  17. Application of chromatography and mass spectrometry to the characterization of cobalt, copper, manganese and molybdenum in Morinda citrifolia.

    PubMed

    Rybak, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2013-03-15

    An analytical procedure was proposed to determine the manganese species and to study the fractionation of microelements such as copper, cobalt and molybdenum in Noni juice. Morinda citrifolia is known as a noni fruit, Indian mulberry, nunaakai, dog dumpling, mengkudu, beach mulberry, vomit fruit and cheese fruit. It is a tropical plant with a long tradition of medicinal use in Polynesia and tropical parts of eastern Asia and Australia. This article covers the determination of manganese species in Noni juice and established by fractionation by size exclusion chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC ICP MS) and next characterization of species by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). Also presented the fractionation analysis of copper, cobalt and molybdenum in Noni juice sample using SEC ICP MS - juice was treated with buffer and enzymatic extraction media and analyzed. For the evaluation of the amounts of the metal fractions distinguished, the ICP MS was used off-line prior to the determination of copper, cobalt, molybdenum and manganese concentrations in the juice. It was established that elements are present in the analyzed samples in different species and their concentration is μg mL(-1) and ng mL(-1) range in fruit. The accuracy of the entire fractionation scheme and sample preparation procedures involved was verified by the performance of the recovery test. For the information about the bioavailability of these elements, in vitro bioavailability investigation was used by SEC ICP MS technique. Two step digestion model simulating gastric (pepsin digestion) and intestinal (pancreatin digestion) juices. In Noni juice, manganese is complexed from flavonoids - rutin, from dye like anthraquinone (alizarin) and glycosides - asperulosidic acid (ESI MS - characterization). The study shows that copper and molybdenum contained in Noni juice are complexed by peptides, and cobalt by organic acids (which are 3.6% of juice). Molybdenum in

  18. Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts modulates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human liposarcoma SW872 cells.

    PubMed

    Ruhomally, Z; Somanah, J; Bahorun, T; Neergheen-Bhujun, V S

    2016-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni is used by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of pharmacological activities of its metabolites. In Mauritius, the fruits of M. citrifolia are used in folk medicine against a number of indications. The present study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe noni fruit at both biochemical and cellular levels. Using an array of established assay systems, the fruit antioxidant propensity was assessed in terms of its radical scavenging, iron reducing and metal chelating potentials. Ascorbic acid, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the fruits were also determined. The ascorbic acid content of ripe noni was 76.24 ± 1.13 mg/100 g while total phenolics of ripe and unripe fruit extracts were 748.40 ± 8.85 μg and 770.34 ± 2.27 μg GAE g(-1) FW respectively. Both the ripe and unripe extracts of M. citrifolia were potent scavengers of nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The ferric reducing capacity ranged from 11.26 ± 0.33 to 11.90 ± 0.20 mM Fe(2+) g(-1) FW while the IC50 values for the iron (II) chelating power were 0.50 ± 0.01 and 1.74 ± 0.01 g FW/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit extracts respectively. Cellular studies additionally demonstrated that noni were able to dose-dependently counteract accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress, a potential obesogenic factor within human liposarcoma SW872 cells as well as significantly restore cell death within the concentration range of 0.106-0.813 g/mL. Results reported herein suggest noni as an interesting source of prophylactic antioxidants modulated by its polyphenol composition. PMID:27419097

  19. Morinda citrifolia Linn. Reduces Parasite Load and Modulates Cytokines and Extracellular Matrix Proteins in C57BL/6 Mice Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Cardoso, Flávia de Oliveira; Souza, Bruno Vinicius da Conceição; do Valle, Tânia Zaverucha; de Sá, Joicy Cortez; Oliveira, Iara Dos Santos da Silva; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Moragas Tellis, Carla Junqueira; Chagas, Maria do Socorro Dos Santos; Behrens, Maria Dutra; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-01

    The absence of an effective vaccine and the debilitating chemotherapy for Leishmaniasis demonstrate the need for developing alternative treatments. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia have shown various biological activities, including antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are unknown. This study aimed to analyze the in vivo activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice (Noni) against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in C57BL/6 mice. M. citrifolia fruit juice from the Brazilian Amazon has shown the same constitution of other juices produced around the world and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified five compounds: deacetylasperulosidic acid, asperulosidic acid, rutin, nonioside B and nonioside C. Daily intragastric treatment with Noni was carried out after 55 days of L. (L.) amazonensis infection in C57BL/6 mice. Parasitic loads, cytokine and extracellular protein matrix expressions of the lesion site were analyzed by qPCR. Histopathology of the lesion site, lymph nodes and liver were performed to evaluate the inflammatory processes. Cytokines and biochemical parameters of toxicity from sera were also evaluated. The Noni treatment at 500 mg.kg-1.day-1 for 60 days decreased the lesion size and parasitic load in the footpad infected with L. (L.) amazonensis. The site of infection also showed decreased inflammatory infiltrates and decreased cytokine expressions for IL-12, TNF-α, TGF-β and IL-10. On the other hand, Noni treatment enhanced the extracellular matrix protein expressions of collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin in the infected footpad as well collagen I and II, fibronectin and laminin in the mock-infected footpads. No toxicity was observed at the end of treatment. These data show the efficacy of Noni treatment. PMID:27579922

  20. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates (fNE) and its fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 years and recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-cancer activities. We recently repor...

  1. Anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic activities of aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Sridharan; Manickam, Shanti; RajaMohammed, Meher Ali

    2014-04-01

    Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry or noni) fruit has been long used as a folk medicine for a wide range of health purposes as it is claimed to have analgesic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, detoxifier, and cell-rejuvenator properties. A recent study has revealed central nervous system suppressant nature of its extract. Hence, the present study has evaluated the anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extracts of Morinda citrifolia in rodents in comparison to diazepam. Anxiety was assessed by 'Isolation-induced aggression' model, sedation by 'Spontaneous locomotor activity using actophotometer' and hypnotic activity by 'Prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time'. Six male mice were used for each of the groups and postdose, all the six that received diazepam had shown an inhibition of aggression, whereas in the test group, five of six mice and none in the control group had shown an inhibition of aggression (P = 0.0007). Similarly, for the sedative activity, the total number of spontaneous locomotor activity at 30 min following drug administration was found to be 364.67 ± 10.74, 123.16 ± 8.33, and 196.67 ± 3.7, while at 60 min it was found to be 209 ± 12.98, 49 ± 5.78, and 92 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) for the control, standard, and test groups of mice respectively (P < 0.001). Hypnotic activity was measured by prolongation of ketamine-induced sleeping time wherein the onset and duration of loss of righting reflex were compared among each group of mice. The time in minutes for the onset in control, standard, and test groups was 4.01 ± 0.22, 1.23 ± 0.05, and 2.23 ± 0.07, respectively. The duration of loss of righting reflex was 44.23 ± 0.59, 56.03 ± 1.34, and 50.57 ± 0.36, respectively. Both these were statistically significant (P < 0.001). However, more clinical studies are needed to assess the long-term effects of the extract in humans. PMID:24948855

  2. Probing occurrence of phenylpropanoids in Morinda citrifolia in relation to foliar diseases.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sudhamoy; Rath, Chiranjibi; Gupta, Chandan Kumar; Nath, Vishal; Singh, Hari Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of phenolic compounds in cell walls of different plant organs leading to increased lignification is an early defence response of plants against biotic stress. The aim of this work was to delineate occurrence of cell wall-bound (CWB) phenolic compounds in Morinda citrifolia leaves. Alkaline hydrolysis of the cell wall material of leaf tissues yielded 4-coumaric acid (4-CA) as the major bulk of the phenolic compounds in all Morinda germplasms. Next in line was 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Other phenolics identified were vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and ferulic acid. Concentrations of all the CWB phenolics were highest in the germplasm CHN-5, followed by the germplasm CHN-1. Incidentally, these two Morinda germplasms recorded lowest incidence of foliar diseases. Significantly higher amounts of 4-CA in combination with other phenolics may be the reasons for lowest incidence of foliar diseases in CHN-5 and CHN-1 germplasms of M. citrifolia. PMID:25184947

  3. Effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its iridoid glycosides on blood fluidity.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masuda, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Deng, Shixin; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit on blood fluidity. M. citrifolia fruit extract (MCF-ext) was investigated for its influence on blood aggregation and fibrinolysis. MCF-ext inhibited polybrene-induced erythrocyte aggregation and thrombin activity. The fibrinolytic activity of MCF-ext, in the euglobulin lysis time test and fibrin plate assay, is reported here for the first time. One of the active compounds was an iridoid glycoside, asperulosidic acid. The results indicated that MCF-ext is a potentially useful health food which is capable of improving blood flow and preventing lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:24604344

  4. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial Salmonella typhimurium to increase productivity of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Retnani, Y; Dan, T M Wardiny; Taryati

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to apply effect of Morinda citrifolia L. citrifolia L. leaf extract as antibacterial of Salmonella typhimurium on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ), egg production and Hen day, hatchability of layer quail. This research was conducted at Laboratory of microbiology and laboratory of poultry nutrition, faculty of animal science, bogor agricultural university and slamet quail farms cilangkap, sukabumi, west java, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Two hundred and forty heads of quail were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (sixty heads of quail/treatment). Experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments consist of level of biscuit Morinda citrifolia L. Citrifolia L. leaf extract i.e R1 = 0%, R2 = 5%, R3 = 10%, R4 = 15%. The results indicated the treatments had significant effect (p < 0.05) on mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf were R1 (4.00%), R2 (1.00%), R3 (1.33%), R4 (0.67%). The average mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) was given 15% extract Morinda citrifolia L. leaf (R4) was lowest than control treatment (R1). The results of the analysis indicated that Morinda citrifolia L. leaf of quail drink had not significant effect (p > 0.05) on egg production, hen day and hatchability. It was concluded that the Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract 15% can reduce mortality of Day Old Quail (DOQ) and can increase its egg production, hen day and hatchability. PMID:25911847

  5. UVA-UVB Photoprotective Activity of Topical Formulations Containing Morinda citrifolia Extract

    PubMed Central

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage. PMID:25133171

  6. UVA-UVB photoprotective activity of topical formulations containing Morinda citrifolia extract.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Detoni, Cassia Britto; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Pereira Filho, Rose Nely; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Vieira, Maria José Fonseca; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaski; Cavalcanti de Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation, particularly its ultraviolet (UV) component, has a variety of harmful effects on human health. Some of these effects include sunburn cell formations, basal and squamous cell cancers, melanoma, cataracts, photoaging of the skin, and immune suppression. The beneficial photoprotective effects of topical formulations with the extract, Morinda citrifolia, have not been investigated. This present study aims to investigate the potential benefits of M. citrifolia topical application on the dorsal skin of mice, exposed to UVA-UVB light. Using 7 days of treatment, [before (baseline values) and 20 h after UV exposure], the thickness, skin barrier damage (TEWL), erythema, and histological alterations were evaluated. The results showed that the formulations containing the extract protected the skin against UV-induced damage. PMID:25133171

  7. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants. PMID:23771061

  8. Antibacterial efficacy and effect of Morinda citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid for dental impressions: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A. Shafath; Charles, P. David; Cholan, R.; Russia, M.; Surya, R.; Jailance, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate whether the extract of Morinda citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid powder decreases microbial contamination during impression making without affecting the resulting casts. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers were randomly divided into two groups (n = 10). Group A 30 ml extract of M. citrifolia L diluted in 30 ml of water was mixed to make the impression with irreversible hydrocolloid material. Group B 30 ml deionized water was mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid material to make the impressions following which the surface roughness and dimensional stability of casts were evaluated. Results: Extract of M. citrifolia L. mixed with irreversible hydrocolloid decreased the percentage of microorganisms when compared with water (P < 0.001) but did not affect the surface quality or dimensional stability of the casts. Conclusion: Mixing the extract of M. citrifolia L. with irreversible hydrocolloid powder is an alternative method to prevent contamination without sacrificing impression quality. PMID:26538926

  9. Recovery of Phytochemical Components from Various Parts of Morinda citrifolia Extracts by Using Membrane Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Sarbatly, Rosalam; Nah, Ng Lee

    In this study, extracts from various Morinda Citrifolia parts (leaf, fruit and root) by methanol was separated into permeate and retentate fractions using a membrane system equipped with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. NF was carried on a ceramic membrane with MWCO of 5 kD. Effect of NF transmembrane pressure at 0.1, 0.12 and 0.17 bar was examined at constant temperature 45EC with constant flow rate. The influence of transmembrane pressure on the efficiency of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of permeate retentate concentration was examined. The antioxidant activities of crude mengkudu extracts, NF permeate and retentate were evaluated by using the DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  10. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.

  11. Biosynthesis, characterization and cytotoxic effect of plant mediated silver nanoparticles using Morinda citrifolia root extract.

    PubMed

    Suman, T Y; Radhika Rajasree, S R; Kanchana, A; Elizabeth, S Beena

    2013-06-01

    Silver has been used since time to control bodily infection, prevent food spoilage and heal wounds by preventing infection. The present study aims at an environmental friendly method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles, from the root of Morinda citrifolia; without involving chemical agents associated with environmental toxicity. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy with an intense surface plasmon resonance band at 413 nm clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanopartilces were capped with plant compounds. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the spherical nature of the silver nanoparticles with a size of 30-55 nm. The X-ray diffraction spectrum XRD pattern clearly indicates that the silver nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis were crystalline in nature. In addition these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on HeLa cell. PMID:23434694

  12. The Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia L.

    PubMed

    Suman, T Y; Rajasree, S R Radhika; Ramkumar, R; Rajthilak, C; Perumal, P

    2014-01-24

    In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size. PMID:24036301

  13. Morinda citrifolia edible leaf extract enhanced immune response against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Goh, Yong-Meng; Noordin, M Mustapha; Rahman, Heshu S; Othman, Hemn H; Abu Bakar, Nurul Ain; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer causes 1.4 million deaths annually. In the search for functional foods as complementary therapies against lung cancer, the immuno-stimulatory properties of the vegetable Morinda citrifolia leaves were investigated and compared with the anti-cancer drug erlotinib. Lung tumour-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 mg kg(-1) or 300 mg kg(-1) body weight of the leaf extract, or erlotinib (50 mg kg(-1) body-weight) for 21 days. The 300 mg kg(-1) body weight extract significantly (and dose-dependently) suppressed lung tumour growth; the extract worked more effectively than the 50 mg kg(-1) body weight erlotinib treatment. The extract significantly increased blood lymphocyte counts, and spleen tissue B cells, T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) which is a lung adenocarcinoma biomarker. The extract also suppressed the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) inflammatory markers, and enhanced the tumour suppressor gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog, PTEN). It inhibited tumour growth cellular gene (transformed mouse 3T3 cell double minute 2 (MDM2), V-raf-leukemia viral oncogene 1 (RAF1), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR)) mRNA expression in the tumours. The extract is rich in scopoletin and epicatechin, which are the main phenolic compounds. The 300 mg kg(-1)Morinda citrifolia leaf 50% ethanolic extract showed promising potential as a complementary therapeutic dietary supplement which was more effective than the 50 mg kg(-1) erlotinib in suppressing lung adenocarcinoma. Part of the mechanisms involved enhancing immune responses, suppressing proliferation and interfering with various tumour growth signalling pathways. PMID:26765787

  14. Anti-Diabetic Potential of Noni: The Yin and the Yang.

    PubMed

    Nerurkar, Pratibha V; Hwang, Phoebe W; Saksa, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Escalating trends of chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes (T2D) have sparked a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal products. Morinda citrifolia (noni) has been used for centuries by Pacific Islanders to treat various ailments. Commercial noni fruit juice has been marketed as a dietary supplement since 1996. In 2003, the European Commission approved Tahitian noni juice as a novel food by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. Among noni's several health benefits, others and we have demonstrated the anti-diabetic effects of fermented noni fruit juice in animal models. Unfortunately, noni's exciting journey from Polynesian medicine to the research bench does not reach its final destination of successful clinical outcomes when translated into commercial products. Noni products are perceived to be safe due to their "natural" origin. However, inadequate evidence regarding bioactive compounds, molecular targets, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, long-term safety, effective dosages, and/or unanticipated side effects are major roadblocks to successful translation "from bench side to bedside". In this review we summarize the anti-diabetic potential of noni, differences between traditional and modern use of noni, along with beneficial clinical studies of noni products and challenges in clinical translation of noni's health benefits. PMID:26404212

  15. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper points and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cleaning and shaping were completed with irrigation by 10 mL of respective irrigants and 5 mL of final rinse. The patients were recalled after 3 days and canals were rinsed again with 5 mL of the test irrigants. This was followed by obtaining a posttreatment root canal culture sample and culturing and analyzed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs). Results: Six percentage MCJ, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria between baseline and 3 days. Conclusion: There was no difference in the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% M. citrifolia, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl as root canal irrigants. PMID:26929692

  16. Antiviral activity of extracts from Morinda citrifolia leaves and chlorophyll catabolites, pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a, against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Ratnoglik, Suratno Lulut; Aoki, Chie; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; Komoto, Mari; Deng, Lin; Shoji, Ikuo; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Hotta, Hak

    2014-03-01

    The development of complementary and/or alternative drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is still needed. Antiviral compounds in medicinal plants are potentially good targets to study. Morinda citrifolia is a common plant distributed widely in Indo-Pacific region; its fruits and leaves are food sources and are also used as a treatment in traditional medicine. In this study, using a HCV cell culture system, it was demonstrated that a methanol extract, its n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions from M. citrifolia leaves possess anti-HCV activities with 50%-inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 20.6, 6.1, and 6.6 μg/mL, respectively. Bioactivity-guided purification and structural analysis led to isolation and identification of pheophorbide a, the major catabolite of chlorophyll a, as an anti-HCV compound present in the extracts (IC(50) = 0.3 μg/mL). It was also found that pyropheophorbide a possesses anti-HCV activity (IC(50) = 0.2 μg/mL). The 50%-cytotoxic concentrations (CC(50)) of pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a were 10.0 and 7.2 μg/mL, respectively, their selectivity indexes being 33 and 36, respectively. On the other hand, chlorophyll a, sodium copper chlorophyllin, and pheophytin a barely, or only marginally, exhibited anti-HCV activities. Time-of-addition analysis revealed that pheophorbide a and pyropheophorbide a act at both entry and the post-entry steps. The present results suggest that pheophorbide a and its related compounds would be good candidates for seed compounds for developing antivirals against HCV. PMID:24438164

  17. In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Deacetylasperulosidic Acid in Noni

    PubMed Central

    Ma, De-Lu; Chen, Mai; Su, Chen X.; West, Brett J.

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials. PMID:24371540

  18. In vivo antioxidant activity of deacetylasperulosidic Acid in noni.

    PubMed

    Ma, De-Lu; Chen, Mai; Su, Chen X; West, Brett J

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials. PMID:24371540

  19. Chrysin, Abundant in Morinda citrifolia Fruit Water-EtOAc Extracts, Combined with Apigenin Synergistically Induced Apoptosis and Inhibited Migration in Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Ma-Ching; Tu, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-06-01

    The composition of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the anticancer effects of M. citrifolia extract evaluated in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. M. citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-EtOAc extracts from M. citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in water-EtOAc extracts of M. citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of cotreatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through down-regulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through down-regulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation and cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard. PMID:27137679

  20. Amelioration of apoptotic events in the skeletal muscle of intra-nigrally rotenone-infused Parkinsonian rats by Morinda citrifolia--up-regulation of Bcl-2 and blockage of cytochrome c release.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Kishore Kumar S; Paul, Liya; Sathyamoorthy, Yogesh Kanna; Srinivasan, Ashokkumar; Chakrapani, Lakshmi Narasimhan; Singh, Abhilasha; Ravi, Divya Bhavani; Krishnan, Thulasi Raman; Velusamy, Prema; Kaliappan, Kathiravan; Radhakrishnan, Rameshkumar; Periandavan, Kalaiselvi

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder with the cardinal symptoms of bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, which lead to abnormal movements and lack of activity, which in turn cause muscular damage. Even though studies have been carried out to elucidate the causative factors that lead to muscular damage in Parkinson's disease, apoptotic events that occur in the skeletal muscle and a therapeutical approach to culminate the muscular damage have not been extensively studied. Thus, this study evaluates the impact of rotenone-induced SNPc lesions on skeletal muscle apoptosis and the efficacy of an ethyl acetate extract of Morinda citrifolia in safeguarding the myocytes. Biochemical assays along with apoptotic markers studied by immunoblot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in the current study revealed that the supplementation of Morinda citrifolia significantly reverted alterations in both biochemical and histological parameters in rotenone-infused PD rats. Treatment with Morinda citrifolia also reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and blocked the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria induced by rotenone. In addition, it augmented the expression of Bcl2 both transcriptionally and translationally. Thus, this preliminary study paves a way to show that the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities of Morinda citrifolia can be exploited to alleviate skeletal muscle damage induced by Parkinsonism. PMID:26697948

  1. Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5 mL to 188 mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

  2. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  3. Ameliorative effect of Noni fruit extract on streptozotocin-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Shakti D; Verma, Priya Ranjan P; Dwivedi, Anil K; Tota, Santoshkumar; Khandelwal, Kiran; Saxena, Jitendra K; Nath, Chandishwar

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a standardized ethyl acetate extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) fruit on impairment of memory, brain energy metabolism, and cholinergic function in intracerebral streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice. STZ (0.5 mg/kg) was administered twice at an interval of 48 h. Noni (50 and 100 mg/kg, postoperatively) was administered for 21 days following STZ administration. Memory function was evaluated using Morris Water Maze and passive avoidance tests, and brain levels of cholinergic function, oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were estimated. STZ caused memory impairment in Morris Water Maze and passive avoidance tests along with reduced brain levels of ATP, BDNF, and acetylcholine and increased acetylcholinesterase activity and oxidative stress. Treatment with Noni extract (100 mg/kg) prevented the STZ-induced memory impairment in both behavioral tests along with reduced oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity, and increased brain levels of BDNF, acetylcholine, and ATP level. The study shows the beneficial effects of Noni fruit against STZ-induced memory impairment, which may be attributed to improved brain energy metabolism, cholinergic neurotransmission, BDNF, and antioxidative action. PMID:23838966

  4. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a 1H NMR Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Najla; Saari, Nazamid; Ismail, Amin; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a 1H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment. PMID:26798649

  5. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a (1)H NMR Metabolomics Approach.

    PubMed

    Gooda Sahib Jambocus, Najla; Saari, Nazamid; Ismail, Amin; Khatib, Alfi; Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Abdul Hamid, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment. PMID:26798649

  6. Antioxidant activity of noni juice in heavy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Lutfiyya, M Nawal; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Anderson, Gary; Su, Chen X; West, Brett J

    2009-01-01

    Background Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate this activity in humans, noni juice from Tahiti (TNJ) was evaluated in a 30 day, double-blind, and placebo controlled clinical trial with 285 current heavy smokers. Research participants were randomly assigned to three daily treatment groups: 118 mL placebo, 29.5 mL TNJ, and 118 mL TNJ. Plasma superoxide anion radicals (SAR) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels were measured pre and post-intervention. Results After 30 days, mean SAR decreased from 0.26 ± 0.14 to 0.19 ± 0.10 μmol/mL in the 29.5 mL dose group (P < 0.01) and from 0.26 ± 0.22 to 0.18 ± 0.11 μmol/mL in the 118 mL dose group (P < 0.001). LOOH levels decreased from 0.53 ± 0.19 to 0.40 ± 0.10 μmol/mL in the 29.5 mL dose group (P < 0.001) and from 0.55 ± 0.21 to 0.40 ± 0.14 μmol/mL in the 118 mL dose group (P < 0.001). No significant reductions in SAR or LOOH levels were observed in the placebo group. Conclusion The results suggest an antioxidant activity from noni juice in humans exposed to tobacco smoke, thereby replicating the results found previous chemical and in vivo tests. PMID:19807926

  7. Antimutagenic and antirecombinagenic activities of noni fruit juice in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Leonardo P; Guimarães, Nilza N; De Andrade, Laise R; De Andrade, Heloísa H R; Lehmann, Maurício; Dihl, Rafael R; Cunha, Kênya S

    2013-01-01

    Noni, a Hawaiian name for the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L., is a traditional medicinal plant from Polynesia widely used for the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. Here, a commercial noni juice (TNJ) was evaluated for its protective activities against the lesions induced by mitomycin C (MMC) and doxorrubicin (DXR) using the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers (mwh and flr3 ), were co-treated with TNJ plus MMC or DXR. We have observed a reduction in genotoxic effects of MMC and DXR caused by the juice. TNJ provoked a marked decrease in all kinds of MMC- and DXR-induced mutant spots, mainly due to its antirecombinagenic activity. The TNJ protective effects were concentration-dependent, indicating a dose-response correlation, that can be attributed to a powerful antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger ability of TNJ. PMID:23828338

  8. Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

  9. Generation of Reactive Oxygen and Anti-Oxidant Species by Hydrodynamically-Stressed Suspensions of Morinda citrofolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by plant cell suspension cultures, in response to the imposition of both biotic and abiotic stress, is well-documented. This study investigated the generation of hydrogen peroxide by hydrodynamically-stressed cultures of Morinda citrifolia, over a 5-ho...

  10. The Genetics of Resistance to Morinda Fruit Toxin During the Postembryonic Stages in Drosophila sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Erezyilmaz, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Although a great deal has been learned regarding the genetic changes that give rise to adaptation in bacteria and yeast, an understanding of how new complex traits arise in multicellular organisms is far less complete. Many phytophagous insect species are ecological specialists that have adapted to utilize a single host plant. Drosophila sechellia is a specialist that utilizes the ripe fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to its sibling species, D. simulans. Here we apply multiplexed shotgun genotyping and QTL analysis to examine the genetic basis of resistance to M. citrifolia fruit toxin in interspecific hybrids. We identify a locus of large effect on the third chromosome (QTL-IIIsima) in the D. simulans backcross that was not detected in previous analyses. We also identify a highly significant QTL of large effect on the X chromosome, QTL-Xsim. Additional smaller-effect loci were also identified in the D. simulans and D. sechellia backcrosses. We did not detect significant epistasis between loci. Instead, our analysis reveals large and smaller-effect loci that contribute to M. citrifolia resistance additively. The additive effect of each locus suggests that partial resistance to lower levels of M. citrifolia toxin could be passed through introgression from D. sechellia to D. simulans in nature. The identification of the major effect loci, QTL-IIIsima and QTL-Xsim, is an important step toward identifying the molecular basis of adaptation in a multicellular organism. PMID:26224784

  11. The Genetics of Resistance to Morinda Fruit Toxin During the Postembryonic Stages in Drosophila sechellia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Erezyilmaz, Deniz

    2015-10-01

    Although a great deal has been learned regarding the genetic changes that give rise to adaptation in bacteria and yeast, an understanding of how new complex traits arise in multicellular organisms is far less complete. Many phytophagous insect species are ecological specialists that have adapted to utilize a single host plant. Drosophila sechellia is a specialist that utilizes the ripe fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to its sibling species, D. simulans. Here we apply multiplexed shotgun genotyping and QTL analysis to examine the genetic basis of resistance to M. citrifolia fruit toxin in interspecific hybrids. We identify a locus of large effect on the third chromosome (QTL-IIIsima) in the D. simulans backcross that was not detected in previous analyses. We also identify a highly significant QTL of large effect on the X chromosome, QTL-Xsim. Additional smaller-effect loci were also identified in the D. simulans and D. sechellia backcrosses. We did not detect significant epistasis between loci. Instead, our analysis reveals large and smaller-effect loci that contribute to M. citrifolia resistance additively. The additive effect of each locus suggests that partial resistance to lower levels of M. citrifolia toxin could be passed through introgression from D. sechellia to D. simulans in nature. The identification of the major effect loci, QTL-IIIsima and QTL-Xsim, is an important step toward identifying the molecular basis of adaptation in a multicellular organism. PMID:26224784

  12. [Chemical constituents of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Ouyang, Q; Tan, X; Shi, S; Yao, Z

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the identification of four compounds isolated from the cortex of Morinda officinalis growing in Guangdong Province. These compounds are beta-sitosterol (I), 2-methyl-anthraquinone(II), rubiadin-1-methyl ether(III) and 24-ethylcholesterol(VI). Compounds II and VI are isolated from Morinda Genus for the first time. PMID:1804172

  13. [Experimental studies on growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Pang, F; He, M; Hu, T

    1992-10-01

    By using the techniques of growing seedlings in bowshaped shed covered with plastic sheeting plus treatment with plant growth regulator, vegetative and generative propagation tests have been made of Morinda officinalis. Scientific evidences have thus been provided for growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis. PMID:1294174

  14. Interaction of ultraviolet photons with {NO}/{Ni(111) }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.; Song, Moon-Bong; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Murata, Yoshitada

    1996-08-01

    The properties of the {NO}/{Ni(111) } system under exposure to ultraviolet photons of three different energies (6.4, 5.0, and 3.5 eV) generated by nanosecond pulsed excimer laser, have been studied by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy and thermal desorption spectroscopy. It was found that the photoinduced process depends on the adsorbed temperature of NO on Ni(111). In adsorption at 80 K for submonolayer NO coverage the dominant laser light-induced effect is dissociation of NO molecules, whereas for saturation coverage UV photons do not change the properties of the system. However, when a saturated layer is formed at a substrate temperature of 300 K, laser irradiation causes dramatic changes of RAIR spectra which can be attributed to the chemical changes in {NO}/{Ni(111) }. Different photoinduced behaviors at 80 and 300 K originate from the different initial states of {NO}/{Ni(111) } formed at different substrate temperatures. The photoinduced process is essentially the same for all photon energies used, although the cross section becomes lower as the photon energy decreases.

  15. In vitro effects of Tabernaemontana citrifolia extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Mahieu, M; D'Alexis, S; Philibert, L; Archimede, H

    2010-08-01

    Tabernaemontana citrifolia (Apocynaceae) is traditionally used as an anthelmintic preparation for ruminants in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of this plant against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of T. citrifolia fruit, leaf and root were tested on four developmental stages of the parasite, using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition assay (LMI), and adult worm motility assay (AWM). Compared to the negative control, significant effects were observed for the different parts of T. citrifolia but with differences depending on the parasitic stage; efficacies on the larval development of H. contortus from 88.9% to 99.8% for fruit, from 72.1% to 83.8% for root and from 33.5% to 85% for leaf with dose-dependent effect for the methanolic extract. The root gave the best result on EHA (22.7% efficacy for dichloromethane extract) and AWM (56% efficacy, with dose-dependent effect for dichloromethane extract) and the leaf on LMI (49.4% efficacy). These results suggest that T. citrifolia possess anthelmintic activity against H. contortus. The active ingredients responsible for the activity could be the alkaloid compounds present in the plant parts of the plant. PMID:20117808

  16. [Antidepressant active constituents in the roots of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Cui, C; Yang, M; Yao, Z; Cao, B; Luo, Z; Xu, Y; Chen, Y

    1995-01-01

    Five compounds having antidepressant activities have been isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis, a Chinese traditional Yang-tonic drug. These compounds were identified as succinic acid (1), nystose (2), 1F-fructofuranosylnystose (3), inulin-type hexasaccharide (4) and heptasaccharide (5) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. All of the compounds are isolated from the species of genus Morinda for the first time. PMID:7626209

  17. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Chang, Leng-Chee; Wall, Marisa; Wong, D K W; Yu, Xianzhong; Wei, Yanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 year. Recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-cancer activities. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of fermented noni exudates (fNE) were previously found to induce significant tumor rejection in a S180 mouse sarcoma tumor model, while natural killer (NK) cells were demonstrated to be markedly involved in fNE-induced antitumor activity. In this study, fNE was partitioned into three fractions and their antitumor effects were examined using i.p. injection or as water supplement. The in vivo animal study results showed that when delivered by i.p. injection, n-butanol fraction of fNE (BuOH) effectively rejected (100%) tumor challenge and eradicated existing tumors (75%). When delivered as a water supplement, 62.5% of the mice receiving the n-butanol or ethyl acetate fractions resisted tumor cells. The tumor-resistant mice effectively rejected more and higher doses of tumor challenge, indicating that the immune system was activated. The findings confirm those of an earlier study showing fNE to have anti-tumor activity and demonstrating that the n-butanol fraction of fNE contains active antitumor components, to be further identified. More importantly, the antitumor effect of fNE and its fractions as water supplements renders a significant potential for identifying novel and powerful new dietary products for cancer prevention. PMID:24649140

  18. Chemical constituents of Chinese natural medicine, morindae radix, the dried roots of morinda officinalis how.: structures of morindolide and morofficinaloside.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Yamaguchi, S; Nishisaka, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1995-09-01

    A new iridoid lactone, morindolide, and a new iridoid glucoside, morofficinaloside, have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Morindae Radix, the dried root of Morinda officinalis How. together with a number of known compounds: five anthraquinones, four iridoid glucosides, a monoterpene glycoside, two sterols, an ursane-type triterpene, and a lactone compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:7586069

  19. Noni juice reduces lipid peroxidation-derived DNA adducts in heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Jensen, Claude J; Deng, Shixin; West, Brett J

    2013-03-01

    Food plants provide important phytochemicals which help improve or maintain health through various biological activities, including antioxidant effects. Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and their decomposition product malondialdehyde (MDA), both of which cause oxidative damage to DNA. Two hundred forty-five heavy cigarette smokers completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on LOOH- and MDA-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo every day for 1 month. DNA adducts were measured by (32)P postlabeling analysis. Drinking 29.5-118 mL of noni juice significantly reduced adducts by 44.6-57.4%. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence LOOH- and MDA-DNA adduct levels in current smokers. Noni juice was able to mitigate oxidative damage of DNA in current heavy smokers, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:24804023

  20. Noni juice reduces lipid peroxidation–derived DNA adducts in heavy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Jensen, Claude J; Deng, Shixin; West, Brett J

    2013-01-01

    Food plants provide important phytochemicals which help improve or maintain health through various biological activities, including antioxidant effects. Cigarette smoke–induced oxidative stress leads to the formation of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs) and their decomposition product malondialdehyde (MDA), both of which cause oxidative damage to DNA. Two hundred forty-five heavy cigarette smokers completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on LOOH- and MDA-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo every day for 1 month. DNA adducts were measured by 32P postlabeling analysis. Drinking 29.5–118 mL of noni juice significantly reduced adducts by 44.6–57.4%. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence LOOH- and MDA-DNA adduct levels in current smokers. Noni juice was able to mitigate oxidative damage of DNA in current heavy smokers, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:24804023

  1. Docking studies of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Damnacanthal and Scopoletin with human lens gamma D-crystalline.

    PubMed

    Rentala, Satyanarayana; Konada, Sudhakar; Chintala, Ramakrishna; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu; Upadhyayula, Suryanarayana Murthy; Dhurjeti, Sarva Mangala

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C, Vitamin E, scopoletin and damnacanthal are the major constituents of Noni (Morinda citrifolia). These compounds are known to have good medicinal properties and they are known to act as antioxidants. Loss of vision in elderly is due to opaqueness of the lens proteins such as gamma-D-crystallin during oxidative stress conditions. Therefore, it is of importance to find the potential interaction of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Scopoletin and Damnacanthal with the lens protein gamma-D-crystallin. Hence, their physical binding to gamma-D crystallin (PDB ID: 2G98) was evaluated using molecular and structural docking procedures. Results show the potential binding of all the above anti-oxidants to gamma-D-crystalline with equal affinity. Thus, the role of cumulative anti-oxidant effect in Noni fruit juice through their potential yet predicted interaction with the lens protein gamma-D-crystallin is implied for cataract treatment. PMID:23976828

  2. [Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it. PMID:16544510

  3. [Determination of antioxidation of the extract from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis How by flow injection chemiluminescence and spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Shi, Jie; Qu, Ling-Bo; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Yi-Ming

    2006-09-01

    Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis was used to determine the antioxidation activity of extract from Morinda officinalis How. The determination was based on the inhibition effect of Morinda officinalis How extraction in the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol - H2O2-CuSO4 system, and vitamin C was used as positive control. It was showed that Morinda officinalis How original liquid has obvious anti-radical activity. Spectroscopy was applied to determine the inhibition ratio of Morinda officinalis How extraction for the superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals in the special system. It was shown that the extraction from Morinda officinalis How could obviously scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals. It is suggested that the Chinese Medicine Morinda Officinalis How is a potential antioxidation activity medicine. PMID:17112048

  4. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  5. Recurrent specialization on a toxic fruit in an island Drosophila population.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Amir; Debat, Vincent; Bastide, Héloïse; Gidaszewski, Nelly; David, Jean R; Pool, John E

    2016-04-26

    Recurrent specialization on similar host plants offers a unique opportunity to unravel the evolutionary and genetic mechanisms underlying dietary shifts. Recent studies have focused on ecological races belonging to the same species, but it is hard in many cases to untangle the role of adaptive introgression versus distinct mutations in facilitating recurrent evolution. We discovered on the island of Mayotte a population of the generalist fly Drosophila yakuba that is strictly associated with noni (Morinda citrifolia). This case strongly resembles Drosophila sechellia, a genetically isolated insular relative of D. yakuba whose intensely studied specialization on toxic noni fruits has always been considered a unique event in insect evolution. Experiments revealed that unlike mainland D. yakuba strains, Mayotte flies showed strong olfactory attraction and significant toxin tolerance to noni. Island females strongly discriminated against mainland males, suggesting that dietary adaptation has been accompanied by partial reproductive isolation. Population genomic analysis indicated a recent colonization (∼29 kya), at a time when year-round noni fruits may have presented a predictable resource on the small island, with ongoing migration after colonization. This relatively recent time scale allowed us to search for putatively adaptive loci based on genetic variation. Strong signals of genetic differentiation were found for several detoxification genes, including a major toxin tolerance locus in D. sechellia Our results suggest that recurrent evolution on a toxic resource can involve similar historical events and common genetic bases, and they establish an important genetic system for the study of early stages of ecological specialization and speciation. PMID:27044093

  6. [Comparative study on kidney tonifying and yang supporting effects of different processed products of Morinda officinalis].

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Shi, Ji; Jia, Tian-Zhu

    2013-11-01

    To compare the pharmacological effects for tonifying kidney and supporting Yang of different processed products of Morinda officinalis. The oral administration of adenine was performed to establish the kidney-Yang deficiency mice model. Four different processed products, namely M. officinalis, morinda pulp, salt-steamed M. officinalis and licorice-processed M. officinalis, were administered, with Guifu Dihuang pills as the control drug, and mice signs, weight, testicular coefficient, seminal vesicle coefficient, serum testosterone, serum cortisol and serum creatinine as evaluation indexes. The results showed that all of the four processed products of M. officinalis could improve the symptoms of the kidney-Yang deficient mice. Among them, salt-steamed M. officinalis had the most significant effect, which was followed by licorice-processed M. officinalis, morinda pulp and M. officinalis. PMID:24558872

  7. Natural Antioxidants: Piper sarmentosum (Kadok) and Morinda elliptica (Mengkudu).

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Vimala; Adenan, Mohd Ilham; Ahmad, Abdull Rashih; Sahdan, Rohana

    2003-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of two edible medicinal plants commonly used in Malaysian traditional medicine i.e. Piper sarmentosum (kadok) and Morinda elliptica (mengkudu) were tested for antioxidant activity. The methanolic leave extracts of kadok and mengkudu, at 250ug/ml, were tested using the Xanthine/Xanthine Oxidase (X/XOD) Superoxide Scavenging assay. Both extracts showed high superoxide scavenging assay, 88% and 80% respectively compared to superoxide dismutase (SOD) standard. The crude extracts were further fractionated using column chromatography and tested for superoxide scavenging activity, to obtain antioxidant active fractions. Two active fractions were obtained from kadok, PsFr6-71.3%, PsFr7-71.3%, and one active fraction from mengkudu, MeFr3-86.6%. These active fractions were compared against 14 phenolic compound standards. After a series of HPLC analysis of samples and standards, a natural antioxidant compound was identified in kadok and mengkudu i.e. Naringenin (4',5,7-Trihydroxyflavanone) with 75.7% superoxide scavenging activity. Naringenin is a highly potent natural antioxidant that has been reported in the raw materials of larch and grapefruit extracts. Thus, kadok and mengkudu which contain Naringenin, could be used as antioxidant dietary supplements. PMID:22692531

  8. [Influence of the blight of Morinda officinalis How on microscopic structure and constituents of the host].

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Xu, H H; Yao, Y L; Wang, S Y; Deng, P F; Zhen, Y E; Lu, W Q

    1993-07-01

    The results showed that microscopic structure in biennial roots, the contents of B and Mn in nutritive organ and beta-sitosterol content in roots, stems of Morinda officinalis were affected markedly. The total sugar content in the roots and aerial stems was decreased by 5.42%-15.29%. PMID:8267851

  9. [Genuineness of Morinda officinalis How germplasm inferred from ITS sequences variation of nuclear ribosomal DNA].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ping; Liu, Jin; Qiu, Jin-Ying; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2012-04-01

    PCR sequencing ITS genes methods were used to assess the genetic diversity of Morinda officinalis How different populations. The sequence of Morinda officinalis ITS gene was 567 bp in length, and the content of G/C was 64.5%. In this study, 17 haplotypes were obtained, which were at a high level of branching, and the haplotypes of Guangdong population showed to be the expansion origin. The result of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) also showed that the percentage of variation among populations (56.65%) was greater than that within a population (43.35%). The F(ST) value was 0.566 5, and the genetic divergence among populations was significant. Mantel test results also indicated that the level of geneflow was positively correlated with geographic distances (R2 = 0.721 1). The result showed a good correlation between genotype and geographic distribution of Morinda officinalis, and ITS gene sequencing could be useful molecular method for the genuineness and phylogeography of Morinda officinalis. PMID:22799040

  10. The classical drug discovery approach to defining bioactive constituents of botanicals.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, A Douglas; Chai, Hee-byung; Sung, Chung Ki; Keller, William J

    2011-01-01

    In this review, several recently identified biologically active principles of selected botanical dietary supplement ingredients are described, and were isolated using classical phytochemical chromatographic methods, with various spectroscopic procedures used for their isolation and structure elucidation. A central component of such an approach is "activity-guided fractionation" to monitor the compound purification process. In vitro assays germane to cancer chemoprevention were used to facilitate the work performed. Bioactive compounds, including several new substances, were characterized from açai (Euterpe oleracea), baobab (Adansonia digitata), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), and noni (Morinda citrifolia). Many of these compounds exhibited quite potent biological activity, but tended to be present in their plant of origin only at low concentration levels. PMID:20804827

  11. Inhibitory effects of morinda officinalis extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Wu, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO) on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findings demonstrated that RMO extract reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats, probably via the inhibition of bone resorption, but was not involved with bone formation. Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Morinda officinals could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity, and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, RMO has the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:19513005

  12. Protective effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    MengYong, Zhu; CaiJiao, Wang; HuSheng, Zhang; XianWu, Pei; JianMin, Fen

    2008-10-01

    In order to examine the effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis (MOP) on bone quality of osteoporosis rats. The osteoporosis in rats was induced by ovariectomy, and MOP (100 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated once daily. The animals were assessed 30 days after the operation for bone mineral density, serum cytokines level and mineral element concentration. MOP administration in rats resulted in an increase in bone mineral density and mineral element concentration, a decrease in serum cytokines level, which indicated that MOP administration may play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. PMID:18638500

  13. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hualin; Li, Jun; Xia, Jingmin; Lin, Sanqing

    2013-07-01

    An acidic polysaccharide APMO was isolated from Morinda officinalis by alkaline solvent extraction followed by fractionation treatments. Its antioxidant activities were evaluated by various methods in vitro, APMO presented excellent capability in scavenging DPPH radicals, chelating ferrous ions and inhibiting hemolysis of rats erythrocyte induced by H2O2, which was stronger than those of Vc at high concentration. Moreover, APMO displayed moderate reducing power. Physicochemical characteristics of APMO were observed by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis. APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1→4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. PMID:23511058

  14. Antinociceptive anti-inflammatory effect of Monotropein isolated from the root of Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongwon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Moo-Young; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Sun-Kyu; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2005-10-01

    The root of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and impotence in the traditional Oriental medicine. To identify the antinociceptive anti-inflammatory components of this crude drug, we adopted an activity-directed fractionation approach. The active fraction of the BuOH extract of M. officinalis root was subjected to silica gel and ODS column chromatography to yield two diterpenes, compounds 1 and 2 and these were identified as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid, respectively. The iridoid glycoside, monotropein, was tested for its anti-inflammatory antinociceptive effects using hot plate- and writhing antinociceptive assays and by using carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory assays in mice and rats. Pretreatment with monotropein (at 20, 30 mg/kg/d, p.o.) significantly reduced stretching episodes and prolonged action time in mice. It also significantly reduced acute paw edema by carrageenan in rats. These results indicate that monotropein contributes to the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of Morinda officinalis root. PMID:16204945

  15. Using Quality of Life Measures in a Phase I Clinical Trial of Noni in Patients with Advanced Cancer to Select a Phase II Dose

    PubMed Central

    Issell, Brian F.; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, A. Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a Phase I study of noni in patients with advanced cancer. Quality of life measures were examined as an alternate way to select a Phase II dose of this popular dietary supplement. Patients and Methods Starting at two capsules twice daily (2 grams), the dose suggested for marketed products, dose levels were escalated by 2 grams daily in cohorts of at least five patients until a maximum tolerated dose was found. Patients completed QLQ-C30 Quality of Life, and the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), questionnaires at baseline and at four week intervals. Scopoletin was measured in blood and urine collected at baseline and at approximately four week intervals. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled at seven dose levels. Seven capsules four times daily (14 grams) was the maximum tolerated dose. No dose limiting toxicity was found but four of eight patients at this level withdrew from the study due to the challenges of ingesting so many capsules. There was a dose response for self reported physical functioning and the control of pain and fatigue. Patients taking four capsules four times daily experienced less fatigue than patients taking lower or higher doses. A relationship between noni dose and blood and urinary scopoletin concentrations was found. Conclusion Measuring quality of life to determine a dose for subsequent Phase II testing is feasible. A noni dose of four capsules four times daily (8 grams) is recommended for Phase II testing where controlling fatigue and maintaining physical function is the efficacy of interest. Scopoletin is a measurable noni ingredient for pharmacokinetic studies in patients with cancer. PMID:22435516

  16. Damnacanthal is a potent inducer of apoptosis with anticancer activity by stimulating p53 and p21 genes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Muhammad Yusran Abdul; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Subramani, Tamilselvan; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ho, Wan Yong; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Ahmad, Syahida; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-05-01

    Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone compound, is isolated from the roots of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), which has been used for traditional therapy in several chronic diseases, including cancer. Although noni has long been consumed in Asian and Polynesian countries, the molecular mechanisms by which it exerts several benefits are starting to emerge. In the present study, the effect of damnacanthal on MCF-7 cell growth regulation was investigated. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with damnacanthal for 72 h indicated an antiproliferative activity. The MTT method confirmed that damnacanthal inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 8.2 μg/ml for 72 h. In addition, the drug was found to induce cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint in MCF-7 cells by cell cycle analysis. Damnacanthal induced apoptosis, determined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) dual-labeling, acridine-orange/PI dyeing and caspase-7 expression. Furthermore, damnacanthal-mediated apoptosis involves the sustained activation of p21, leading to the transcription of p53 and the Bax gene. Overall, the present study provided significant evidence demonstrating that p53-mediated damnacanthal induced apoptosis through the activation of p21 and caspase-7. PMID:24765160

  17. Anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis roots enhance adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    To search for anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitising natural products, the effect on adipocyte differentiation was investigated by assessing fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using Oil Red O staining. Fractionation and separation of n-hexane and CHCl₃ fractions of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) using several chromatographic methods led to the isolation of three anthraquinones, 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1), alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3). Among them, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) showed the strongest enhancing activity, followed by rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3) and 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1). At a concentration of 100 µM, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) enhanced adipocyte differentiation by up to 131% (compared to insulin-treated cells). Thus, these compounds could be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22008000

  18. Antiosteoporotic activity of anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Bin; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Qin, Lu-Ping; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Jiao, Lei; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i.e. physicion (1), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy- anthraquinone (3), 1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (4), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy- anthraquinone (5), 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyanthraquinone (6), 2-methoxyanthraquinone (7) and scopoletin (8) from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis. Compounds 4-8 are isolated for the first time from M. officinalis. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 promoted osteoblast proliferation, while compounds 4, 5 increased osteoblast ALP activity. All of the isolated compounds inhibited osteoclast TRAP activity and bone resorption, and the inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption of compounds 1 and 5 were stronger than that of other compounds. Taken together, antiosteoporotic activity of M. officinalis and its anthraquinones suggest therapeutic potential against osteoporosis. PMID:19169204

  19. Structural characterization and anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides from the roots of Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Lin; Li, Jun; Li, George; Wang, Dong-mei; Zhu, Long-ping; Yang, De-po

    2009-04-01

    Three polysaccharides MP-1, MP-2, and MP-3 were isolated from hot water extract of Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis through 95% ethanol precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column and Sephadex G-75 or G-100 column). MP-1 was identified as an inulin-type fructan with simple linear (2-->1)-linked structure. Both MP-2 and MP-3 were acidic polysaccharides which consisted predominantly of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Partial structure characterization of MP-3 was carried out by partial acid hydrolysis and periodate oxidation. The total polysaccharides of the herb were tested in mice weight-loaded swimming model and were found to have anti-fatigue activity. PMID:19150459

  20. [Relation between root structure and accumulation of anthraquinones of Morinda officinalis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Wu, Hong; Feng, Cheng Hao; Zhao, Sheng; Liang, She Jian

    2004-04-01

    The histological structures of the roots of Morinda officinalis How of different ages were observed, the distribution and accumulation of anthraquinones in the root were studied with the help of paraffin section, fluorescent microscope and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the mature structures of the roots of M. officinalis were similar to those of common perennial herbs, and that the anthraquinones in the root of M. officinalis distributed in parenchymatous cells and the content of anthraquinones in the root gradually increased in number with age. Based on above mentioned investigation, we came to the conclusion that the root of M. officinalis should be collected after four years of growing and the top grade root should have well developed phloem and thin xylem. PMID:15259981

  1. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, M. I.; Adamson, J. O.; Ogunwande, I. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99%) of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts) and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL) and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL). Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract. PMID:24455701

  2. [Comparison with the pharmacological actions of Morinda officinalis, Damnacanthus officinarum and Schisandra propinqua].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Z S; Wu, H; Su, Z W

    1991-07-01

    There are three kinds of plants, Morinda officinalis (1), Damnacanthus officinarum (2), and Schisandra propinqua (3) whose roots have been used since the ancient time. In this paper, some of their pharmacological actions that are related to tonifying and invigorating Yang were examined and compared. The body weight, the thymus weight, the amount of leukocyte in the blood, and the continuing swimming times of the young mice could be increased with the oral administration of the water extractions of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05-0.001). The Rt of M-receptor in the brains of the hypothyroidism mice were decreased after administration of the water extracts of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05). (1) could also increased the amount of leukocyte in the blood of leukocytopenia mice caused by radiation of gamma-ray (P less than 0.01). (3) has not shown the obvious effects (P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that (1) and (2) have the ability of anti-fatigue, improving the immunological action of the young mice, and reducing the excitability of the para-sympathetic nervous system of the hypothyroidism mice through decreasing the Rt of M-receptor in their brains. All of them did not show acute toxicity, inducing mutation, and sexual hormone like actions. PMID:1914038

  3. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum. PMID:25993803

  4. [Urine metabonomic study of intervention effects of Morinda officinalis how. on 'kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong-jie; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Gong, Meng-juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the intervention effects of Morinda officinalis How. on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' induced by hydrocortisone in rats, the metabolic profiles of rat urine were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the trajectory of urinary metabolic phenotype of rats with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' under administration of M. officinalis at different time points. Meanwhile, the intervention effects of M. officinalis on urinary metabolic potential biomarkers associated with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' were also discussed. The experimental results showed that in accordance to the increased time of administration, an obvious tendency was observed that clustering of the treatment group moved gradually closed to that of the control group. Eight potential biomarkers including citrate, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lactate, betaine, sarcosine, alanine and taurine were definitely up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, the effectiveness of M. oficinalis on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' is proved using the established metabonomic method and the regulated metabolic pathways involve energy metabolism, transmethylation and transportation of amine. Meanwhile, the administration of M. officinalis can alleviate the kidney impairment induced by 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'. PMID:24475714

  5. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed Central

    Kwofie, Kofi D.; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M.; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Anyan, William K.; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A.; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A.; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. PMID:26953191

  6. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed

    Kwofie, Kofi D; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Suzuki-Ohashi, Mitsuko; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Adegle, Richard; Sakyiamah, Maxwell M; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo K; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred A; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo A; Yamaoka, Shoji; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ayi, Irene

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma brucei parasites are kinetoplastid protozoa that devastate the health and economic well-being of millions of people in Africa through the disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). New chemotherapy has been eagerly awaited due to severe side effects and the drug resistance issues plaguing current drugs. Recently, there has been an emphasis on the use of medicinal plants worldwide. Morinda lucida Benth. is a popular medicinal plant widely distributed in Africa, and several research groups have reported on the antiprotozoal activities of this plant. In this study, we identified three novel tetracyclic iridoids, molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52, from the CHCl3 fraction of M. lucida leaves, which possess activity against the GUTat 3.1 strain of T. brucei brucei The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of molucidin, ML-2-3, and ML-F52 were 1.27 μM, 3.75 μM, and 0.43 μM, respectively. ML-2-3 and ML-F52 suppressed the expression of paraflagellum rod protein subunit 2, PFR-2, and caused cell cycle alteration, which preceded apoptosis induction in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma parasites. Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. PMID:26953191

  7. Hepatoprotection of noni juice against chronic alcohol consumption: lipid homeostasis, antioxidation, alcohol clearance, and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yang, Deng-Jye; Liu, Chen-Wei; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-11-20

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:24152092

  8. Damnacanthal, a noni anthraquinone, inhibits c-Met and is a potent antitumor compound against Hep G2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    García-Vilas, Javier A.; Quesada, Ana R.; Medina, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone present in noni plants, targets several tyrosine kinases and has antitumoral effects. This study aims at getting additional insight on the potential of damnacanthal as a natural antitumor compound. The direct effect of damnacanthal on c-Met was tested by in vitro activity assays. Additionally, Western blots of c-Met phosphorylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells were performed. The antitumor effects of damnacanthal were tested by using cell growth, soft agar clonogenic, migration and invasion assays. Their mechanisms were studied by Western blot, and cell cycle, apoptosis and zymographic assays. Results show that damnacanthal targets c-Met both in vitro and in cell culture. On the other hand, damnacanthal also decreases the phosphorylation levels of Akt and targets matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion in Hep G2 cells. These molecular effects are accompanied by inhibition of the growth and clonogenic potential of Hep G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, as well as induction of Hep G2 apoptosis. Since c-Met has been identified as a new potential therapeutical target for personalized treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, damnacanthal and noni extract supplements containing it could be potentially interesting for the treatment and/or chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma through its inhibitory effects on the HGF/c-Met axis. PMID:25620570

  9. Damnacanthal, a noni anthraquinone, inhibits c-Met and is a potent antitumor compound against Hep G2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    García-Vilas, Javier A; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone present in noni plants, targets several tyrosine kinases and has antitumoral effects. This study aims at getting additional insight on the potential of damnacanthal as a natural antitumor compound. The direct effect of damnacanthal on c-Met was tested by in vitro activity assays. Additionally, Western blots of c-Met phosphorylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells were performed. The antitumor effects of damnacanthal were tested by using cell growth, soft agar clonogenic, migration and invasion assays. Their mechanisms were studied by Western blot, and cell cycle, apoptosis and zymographic assays. Results show that damnacanthal targets c-Met both in vitro and in cell culture. On the other hand, damnacanthal also decreases the phosphorylation levels of Akt and targets matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion in Hep G2 cells. These molecular effects are accompanied by inhibition of the growth and clonogenic potential of Hep G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, as well as induction of Hep G2 apoptosis. Since c-Met has been identified as a new potential therapeutical target for personalized treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, damnacanthal and noni extract supplements containing it could be potentially interesting for the treatment and/or chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma through its inhibitory effects on the HGF/c-Met axis. PMID:25620570

  10. Insecticidal Activity and Chemical Composition of the Morinda lucida Essential Oil against Pulse Beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Owolabi, Moses S.; Ogundajo, Akintayo L.; Ogunwande, Isiaka A.; Yusuff, Olaniyi K.; Flores-Fernandez, Karen Isabel; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Insecticidal activity of essential oil extracted from Morinda lucida was tested on pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, which is a pest that causes serious damage to several pulses. The insecticidal activity was compared with two pesticides, Phostoxin and Primo-ban-20. 120 mixed sex adult C. maculatus were introduced, along with 30 g of cowpeas. Four concentrations (0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 μg/mL) of the M. lucida essential oil, Phostoxin, and Primo-ban-20 were tested. Essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS. M. lucida essential oil showed a high toxicological effect, producing 100% mortality after 72 hours at a dose of 0.20 μg/mL. M. lucida essential oil had a potent insecticidal activity (LC90 = 0.629 μg/mL) compared to both pesticides, Phostoxin (LC90 = 0.652 μg/mL) and Primo-ban-20 (LC90 = 0.726 μg/mL), at 24 h. The main compounds of the essential oil were the oxygenated monoterpenoids, 1,8-cineole (43.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (14.5%), and the monoterpene hydrocarbons, mostly sabinene (8.2%) and β-pinene (4.0%). Results clearly indicate that M. lucida essential oil can be used as an effective alternative for pulse beetle C. maculatus control, and it could be tested against other pulse beetles affecting Asia and Africa and throughout the world, thereby reducing use of synthetic pesticides. PMID:25143991

  11. Anthraquinone compounds from Morinda officinalis inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bao, Leilei; Qin, Luping; Liu, Lei; Wu, Yanbin; Han, Ting; Xue, Liming; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2011-11-15

    The root of Morinda officinalis has been claimed to have a protective effect against bone loss in sciatic neurectomized and ovariectomized osteoporotic rats, and this protective effect is supposed to be attributed to anthraquinone compounds in the plant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three anthraquinones isolated from M. officinalis, including 1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (1), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-anthraquinone (2) and rubiadin (3) on bone resorption activity in vitro and the mechanism on osteoclasts derived from rat bone marrow cells. Compound 1, 2 and 3 decreased the formation of bone resorption pits, the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, and the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphates (TRAP) and cathepsin K in the coculture system of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells in the presence of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamine D(3) and dexamethasone. They also enhanced the apoptosis of osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, Compound 1, 2 and 3 improved the ratio of mRNA and protein expression of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts, interfered with the JNK and NF-κB signal pathway, and reduced the expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase/II (CA II) in osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. These findings indicate that the anthraquinone compounds from M. officinalis are potential inhibitors of bone resorption, and may also serve as evidence to explain the mechanism of the inhibitory effects of some other reported anthraquinones on bone loss. PMID:21945525

  12. New anti-trypanosomal active tetracyclic iridoid isolated from Morinda lucida Benth.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mitsuko; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Adegle, Richard; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sakyiamah, Maxwell; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffour-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Frempong, Kwadwo Kyereme; Anyan, William K; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Yamashita, Taizo; Aboagye, Frederic; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yamaoka, Shoji; Yamaguchi, Yasuchika; Edoh, Dominic; Koram, Kwadwo; Ohta, Nobuo; Boakye, Daniel A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2015-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), commonly known as sleeping sickness has remained a serious health problem in many African countries with thousands of new infected cases annually. Chemotherapy, which is the main form of control against HAT has been characterized lately by the viewpoints of toxicity and drug resistance issues. Recently, there have been a lot of emphases on the use of medicinal plants world-wide. Morinda lucida Benth. is one of the most popular medicinal plants widely distributed in Africa and several groups have reported on its anti-protozoa activities. In this study, we have isolated one novel tetracyclic iridoid, named as molucidin, from the CHCl3 fraction of the M. lucida leaves by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification. Molucidin was structurally elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR including HMQC, HMBC, H-H COSY and NOESY resulting in tetracyclic iridoid skeleton, and its absolute configuration was determined. We have further demonstrated that molucidin presented a strong anti-trypanosomal activity, indicating an IC50 value of 1.27 μM. The cytotoxicity study using human normal and cancer cell lines indicated that molucidin exhibited selectivity index (SI) against two normal fibroblasts greater than 4.73. Furthermore, structure-activity relationship (SAR) study was undertaken with molucidin and oregonin, which is identical to anti-trypanosomal active components of Alnus japonica. Overlapping analysis of the lowest energy conformation of molucidin with oregonin suggested a certain similarities of aromatic rings of both oregonin and molucidin. These results contribute to the future drug design studies for HAT. PMID:26048790

  13. Damnacanthal inhibits the NF-κB/RIP-2/caspase-1 signal pathway by inhibiting p56lck tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-10-01

    Damnacanthal is a major constituent of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) and exhibits anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effects of damnacanthal on allergic diseases have not been determined. In this study, we investigated the effect of damnacanthal on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory responses. Damnacanthal significantly and dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock, histamine release and intracellular calcium levels. In particular, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was significantly inhibited by the oral administration of damnacanthal. In addition, we report for the first time that p56lck tyrosine kinase was expressed in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated mast cells. Furthermore, damnacanthal inhibited the up-regulation of p56lck tyrosine kinase activity by PMACI and repressed PMACI-induced histidine decarboxylase expression and activity. Damnacanthal also inhibited PMACI-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α expressions by suppressing nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation and suppressed the activation of caspase-1 and the expression of receptor interacting protein-2. This study shows damnacanthal inhibits the NF-κB/receptor-interacting protein-2/caspase-1 signal pathway by inhibiting p56lck tyrosine kinase and suggests that damnacanthal has potential for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic disorders. PMID:25139491

  14. Damnacanthal inhibits IgE receptor-mediated activation of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vilas, Javier A; Medina, Miguel A; Melo, Fabio R; Pejler, Gunnar; Garcia-Faroldi, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    Damnacanthal, an anthraquinone obtained from the noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia L.), has been described to possess anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Since mast cells are key players in various inflammatory conditions as well as in cancer, we considered the possibility that the biological actions of damnacanthal, at least partly, could be due to effects on mast cells. Many of the biological activities of mast cells are mediated by IgE receptor cross-linking, which results in degranulation with release of preformed granule mediators, as well as de novo synthesis and release of additional compounds. Here we show that damnacanthal has profound inhibitory activity on mast cell activation through this pathway. The release of the granule compounds beta-hexosaminidase and tryptase release was completely abrogated by damnacanthal at doses that were non-toxic to mast cells. In addition, damnacanthal inhibited activation-dependent pro-inflammatory gene induction, as well as cytokine/chemokine release in response to mast cell stimulation. The mechanism underlying damnacanthal inhibition was linked to impaired phosphorylation of Syk and Akt. Furthermore, damnacanthal inhibited mast cell activation in response to calcium ionophore A23187. Altogether, the data presented here demonstrate that damnacanthal inhibits mast cell activation induced by different stimuli and open a new window for the use of this compound as a mast cell stabilizer. PMID:25656801

  15. Damnacanthal: a promising compound as a medicinal anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Abu, Nadiah; Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Ho, Wan Yong; Yeap, Swee Keong; Aziz, Muhammad Yusran Abdul; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu

    2014-06-01

    The Noni fruit, or scientifically known as Morinda citrifolia can be found in various parts of the world, especially in the pacific region. It is a small evergreen bushy-like tree originated from the Rubiaceae family. The plant has been used by polynesians as a medicinal herb for more than 2000 years. A substantial amount of phytochemicals can be found in the roots of this plant. Among all, damnacanthal has been found to be the most interesting, versatile and potent compound. Damnacanthal or chemically known as,3- hydroxy-1-methoxyanthraquinone-2-caboxaldehyde (C16H10O5), appears as pale yellow crystals with a melting point of 210-211 °C. This compound is of particular interest due to its striking pharmacological properties. Damnacanthal was shown to inhibit the oncogene Ras, p56lck tyrosine kinase, NF-KB pathway and induce apoptosis in vitro. This review aims to discuss the biological properties of damnacanthal, specifically on its anti-cancer activity that has been reported. PMID:24164045

  16. Synthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles from Morinda tinctoria leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Ramesh; Nattuthurai, N; Gopinath, Ponraj; Mariappan, Tirupathi

    2015-02-01

    Mosquitoes are the major vector for the transmission of malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, filariasis, chikungunya and Japanese encephalitis, and they accounted for global mortality and morbidity with increased resistance to common insecticides. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the acetone leaf extracts of Morinda tinctoria and synthesized silver nanoparticles against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have also been tested against the third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The leaf extract and the AgNPs high mortality values were 50 % lethal concentration (LC50) = 8.088 and 1.442 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results recorded from ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. These results suggest that the leaf extract of M. tinctoria and synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of C. quinquefasciatus. By this approach, it is suggestive that this rapid synthesis of nanoparticles would be proper for developing a biological process for mosquito control. PMID:25373452

  17. Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis increases osteoblastic bone formation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Yang, Hua; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Naidan; Qin, Luping; Xin, Hailiang

    2016-04-01

    Monotropein is a natural iridoid glycoside enriched in Morinda officinalis and has been used for medicinal purposes in China. In the present study, we systematically examined its effects on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in mice and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells for the first time. Eight-week-old female C57/BL6 mice were used to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of monotropein. Results showed that administration of monotropein (40 or 80mg/kg/day) for four weeks exerted good bone protective effects as evidenced by the increase of bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BVF) and improvement of bone microstructure. Monotropein also enhanced the parameters of biomechanical properties, including maximum load, maximum stress and elastic modulus of femur in OVX mice. In addition, monotropein treatment decreased the serum levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) in OVX mice. In this study, we also assessed the effects of monotropein on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. After incubation for 48h, the cell proliferation was increased at the concentration of 10μM, 25μM, 50μM and 100μM. ALP activities were significantly increased after treatment with monotropein for 72h. Quantitative analyses with alizarin red staining showed significantly increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment with monotropein for 28days. Based on these results, monotropein may serve as a new candidate or a leading compound for antiosteoporosis. PMID:26996879

  18. [Low calorie diet influence optimization on body composition at obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, A R; Derbeneva, S A; Bogdanova, A A; Feofanova, T B; Panfilova, N V; Nesierova, V E

    2015-01-01

    In open prospective monocentric study in 3 parallel groups we studied the effectiveness of correction of body composition using low calorie diet therapy with inclusion of specialized food products (SFP)--sources of polyphenols and iridoids made on the basis of the juice of Morinda citrifolia L. fruits. We studied 90 patients aged from 30 to 50 years old with grade III obesity and clinically expressed secondary diastolic heart failure. The duration of diet therapy was 42 days. It was shown that low-calorie diet has non-optimal effect on the body composition in morbidly obese patients with secondary diastolic heart failure, namely leading to the expressed loss of body fatless (7.2%, p=0.00008) and muscle mass (by 16.6%, p=0.00004); at the same time the reduction of total body weight is noted only by 2.3% (p=0.053), reduction of waist measurement by 1.3% (p=0.028) and reduction of hips measurement by 1.3% (p=0.09), accompanied by the reduction of body fat by 8.5% (p=0.000017) and of liquid by 7.3% (p=0.0018). The introduction of the SFP into the diet optimizes the effect of low calorie diet therapy on the anthropometric parameters and body composition. The most important effect of the SFP is the ability to prevent the excess loss of muscle mass in patients, and this effect is being dose-dependent. The loss of muscle mass in two groups of patients was 3.1-4.1% after 6 weeks of diet therapy, while in the control group it was 8.5% (p=0.0051). We have concluded that the inclusion of the SFP, manufactured on the basis Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) juice to the low calorie diet allows to initiate mainly the loss of the body fat with the simultaneous protection of active cellular mass, which is without doubt can be considered as the advantage compared to the standard low calorie diet. PMID:26852530

  19. Endothelial cytoprotection from oxidized LDL by some crude Melanesian plant extracts is not related to their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Owen, Patrick L; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Sirois, Martin; Johns, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Habitual consumption of some Melanesian medicinal and food plants may influence atherosclerosis development via their antioxidant capacity at the endothelial level. Areca nut (AN; Areca catechu), piper inflorescence (PBI; Piper betle), betel quid (BQ), guava buds (GB; Psidium guajava), the leaves (NL), juice (NJ), fruit (NF), and root (NR) of noni (Morinda citrifolia), the propagules of raw (MBR), and cooked (MBC) mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyle (DPPH) radical, to protect human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation and to protect cultured bovine aortal endothelial cells (BAEC) from oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-induced cytotoxicity. Polyphenol-rich extracts AN, PBI, and BQ were potent DPPH scavengers, having similar activity to quercetin and able to protect LDL from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations higher than 10 microg/mL, but were pro-oxidants at lower concentrations. These extracts were cytotoxic to BAEC at concentrations above 10 microg/mL and were unable to prevent oxLDL endotheliopathy. GB and NR at 10 mug/mL displayed both the ability to delay LDL oxidation and prevent oxLDL cytotoxicity, although the latter lacked the ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. At higher concentrations, however, both were cytotoxic in themselves. The remaining noni extracts NF, NJ, NL, and both mangrove extracts MBC and MBR were unable to protect LDL from oxidation at all tested concentrations, but were effective cytoprotective agents at 50 microg/mL. All extracts were able to prevent an oxLDL-mediated increase in intracellular aldehyde generation but had little effect on extracellular peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). On the basis of this model system, we conclude that the antioxidant benefits of AN, PBI, and BQ may be offset by their enhancement of their cytotoxic effects of oxLDL toward BAEC, whereas GB and low

  20. LC/MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of iridoid glycosides monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid isomers in rat plasma after oral administration of Morinda officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmin; Dong, Jian; Tian, Jingchang; Deng, Zhipeng; Song, Xiujing

    2016-02-01

    Morinda officinalis is a famous traditional Chinese medicine containing iridoid glycoside compounds, such as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid. The aim of the study was to develop a novel and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of the two isomeric iridoid glycosides and then evaluate their pharmacokinetic properties in rats. Selected-reaction monitoring mode was employed for quantification of two analytes in rat plasma. The calibration curves were linear over their respective concentration range with correlation coefficient >0.995 for both analytes. Precision for monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid ranged from 2.5 to 11.9% relative standard deviation, and the accuracy of two analytes was -2.0-3.7 and -6.4-10.7% relative error, respectively. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of M. officinalis extract in rats. The results provided a basis for further research on the bioactivity of M. officinalis. PMID:26053360

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on Microwave-Induced Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testis Axis Impairment in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bin; Wang, Fengjuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the protective effects of aqueous extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on microwave-induced reproductive impairment in male rats. Microwave exposure injury was induced by exposure of 900 MHz microwaves at 218 μm/cm2radiation densities, 24 hours/day for 10 days. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to: normal control, microwave exposure model, or water layer or ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, sexual performance, serum levels of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone, morphological analysis of testis and epididymis, and GnRH protein expression in the hypothalamus were measured. Pretreatment with water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg significantly improved sexual performance, increased serum testosterone level, and decreased LH and GnRH level compared with microwave exposed model rats (all P < 0.05). Water layer of aqueous extract treatment significantly increased seminiferous cell or sperm number in testis and epididymis. Protein expression of GnRH in the hypothalamus significantly decreased in the water layer of aqueous extract treated group (P < 0.05). Ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract did not show obvious effects on the measured parameters. These findings suggest that water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg ameliorates microwave-reduced reproductive impairment. PMID:26435724

  2. Effect of Aqueous Extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on Microwave-Induced Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testis Axis Impairment in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Wang, Fengjuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the protective effects of aqueous extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on microwave-induced reproductive impairment in male rats. Microwave exposure injury was induced by exposure of 900 MHz microwaves at 218 μm/cm(2)radiation densities, 24 hours/day for 10 days. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to: normal control, microwave exposure model, or water layer or ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, sexual performance, serum levels of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone, morphological analysis of testis and epididymis, and GnRH protein expression in the hypothalamus were measured. Pretreatment with water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg significantly improved sexual performance, increased serum testosterone level, and decreased LH and GnRH level compared with microwave exposed model rats (all P < 0.05). Water layer of aqueous extract treatment significantly increased seminiferous cell or sperm number in testis and epididymis. Protein expression of GnRH in the hypothalamus significantly decreased in the water layer of aqueous extract treated group (P < 0.05). Ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract did not show obvious effects on the measured parameters. These findings suggest that water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg ameliorates microwave-reduced reproductive impairment. PMID:26435724

  3. The cytoprotective effect of inulin-type hexasaccharide extracted from Morinda officinalis on PC12 cells against the lesion induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Ming; Wang, Heng-Lin; Huang, Wen-Chao; Zhao, Yi-Min; Luo, Zhi-Pu

    2004-08-13

    High concentration of corticosterone (Cort) 0.2 mM was incubated with PC12 cells to simulate the lesion state of brain neurons in depressive illness, it was found that the inulin-type oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis, inulin-type hexasaccharide (IHS) at the doses of 0.625, 1.25 microM or desipramine (DIM) 0.25, 1 microM protected the PC12 cells from the lesion induced by Cort. With Fura-2/AM labeling assay, DIM 0.25, 1 microM or IHS 2.5, 10 microM attenuated the intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h in PC12 cells. Using RT-PCR, treatment with Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h decreased the nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA level in PC12 cells, IHS 5, 10 microM reversed this change. In summary, IHS attenuate the intracellular Ca2+ overloading and thereby up-regulate the NGF mRNA expression in Cort-treated PC12 cells, which may be consisted at least part of the cytopretective effect of IHS. These results also extend evidence for our hypothesis that neuroprotective action is one of the common mechanisms for antidepressants. PMID:15261759

  4. The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Qi; Yuan, Li; Yang, Ming; Luo, Zhi-Pu; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2002-05-01

    The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25-50 mg/kg), similar to clinically effective antidepressant drug desipramine (5-10 mg/kg), significantly reduced response rate and efficiency ratio while at the same time increasing reinforcement rate. In the forced swimming test in mice, the plant extract (50 mg/kg), like the effect of desipramine (20 mg/kg), also elicited a significant reduction in the duration of immobility. A tendency to this phenomenon could be seen at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the plant extract, in the effective doses for the forced swimming test, had no effects on spontaneous motor activity in mice. These findings provide further support for the conclusion that M. officinalis extract possesses the antidepressant effect. PMID:11900767

  5. Inhibition of the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on the corticosterone induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun Feng; Gong, Zheng Hua; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Yi Min; Luo, Zhi Pu

    2003-01-10

    The mechanisms of the antidepressant action of the oligosaccharides (P(6)) extracted from Morinda Officinalis were studied. By flow cytometry analysis, treatment of PC12 cells with corticosterone (Cort) induced apoptosis in a concentration and time dependent manner. The highest percentage of apoptotic cells accumulated to 27.85 +/- 9.2% following pretreatment with Cort 10 microM for 5 d. In agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, the sample obtained from PC12 cells pretreated with Cort 10 microM for 5 d showed a typical ladder pattern suggesting that Cort increased the DNA fragmentation significantly. Furthermore, the ultrastructure of Cort-treated cells displayed typical apoptosis-like morphological changes including fragmented chromatin accumulation to the inside of nucleolus membrane with a shape like crescent moon or ring, nuclear fragmentation or apoptotic body. In the presence of P(6), or tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DIM), the apoptosis induced by Cort in the three measurements above was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that DIM or P(6) antagonize the apoptosis induced by Cort in PC12 cells, which may be one of the cellular mechanisms of their antidepressant effects. PMID:12493574

  6. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Hee-Juhn; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Choi, Jongwon; Choe, Bong-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis (MEMO) (Rubiaceae) were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. The effects of MEMO on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)induced responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were examined. MEMO potently inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these results, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level, and of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha at the mRNA level, was also inhibited by MEMO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEMO inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with the prevention of degradation of the inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB), and subsequently with attenuated p65 protein in the nucleus. The anti-inflammatory effect of MEMO was examined in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema model. The antinociceptive effects of MEMO were assessed in mice using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and the hot-plate test. MEMO (100, 200 mg kg-1 per day, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in these animal models. Taken together, the data demonstrate that MEMO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, inhibiting iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha expression by down-regulating NF-kappaB binding activity. PMID:15901350

  7. Preventive (myoglobin, transferrin) and scavenging (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) anti-oxidative properties of raw liquid extract of Morinda lucida leaf in the traditional treatment of Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyan, Mathew Folaranmi; Babatunde, Elizabeth Moyinoluwa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liquid extract of Morinda lucida leaf has been demonstrated to have antiplasmodial activities. Some phytochemicals act as preventive and or scavenging antioxidants. This study aimed to investigate the preventative and scavenging properties of the raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf using plasma myoglobin, transferrin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) peroxidase. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight Plasmodium-infected patients aged 29-47 years that have not been treated with any antimalaria medication but have decided to be treated traditionally using M. lucida leaf extract were recruited from 15 traditional homes in ATISBO, Saki-East, and Saki-West local government areas of Oke-Ogun — the Northern part of Oyo State-Nigeria. Identification of Plasmodium in the blood of the test and normal control subjects were carried out by Giemsha thick film technique. Packed cell volume, total bile acids, blood glucose, blood pressure, plasma myoglobin, transferrin, SOD, and GSH peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated in the normal control subjects and in the Plasmodium-infected patients before and after the treatment with raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf. Results: A significant (P < 0.05) biochemical alterations were observed in the plasma values of transferrin, SOD, and GPx in the Plasmodium-infected patients when compared with the normal control subjects and after treatment with the raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf. Conclusion: Our study supports the possible preventative and scavenging antioxidative effect of the raw liquid extract of M. lucida leaf in the traditional treatment of Plasmodium infection. PMID:27003969

  8. Green synthesis of the Cu/Fe3O4 nanoparticles using Morinda morindoides leaf aqueous extract: A highly efficient magnetically separable catalyst for the reduction of organic dyes in aqueous medium at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Atarod, Monireh; Sajadi, S. Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the green and in-situ preparation of the Cu/Fe3O4 magnetic nanocatalyst synthesized using Morinda morindoides leaf extract without stabilizers or surfactants. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, UV-visible, TEM, VSM and TGA-DTA. The catalytic performance of the resulting nanocatalyst was examined for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR) and Rhodamine B (RhB) in an environmental friendly medium at room temperature. The catalyst was recovered using an external magnet and reused several times without appreciable loss of its catalytic activity. In addition, the stability of the recycled catalyst has been proved by SEM and EDS techniques.

  9. Host-plant specialization in the Drosophila melanogaster species complex: a physiological, behavioral, and genetical analysis.

    PubMed

    R'Kha, S; Capy, P; David, J R

    1991-03-01

    Drosophila sechellia, endemic to the Seychelles, breeds in a single resource, Morinda citrifolia, whereas its close sympatric relative, Drosophila simulans, is a cosmopolitan generalist breeding in a great variety of resources. The effects of morinda on various fitness traits of these two species, their F1 hybrids, and reciprocal backcrosses were analyzed. Morinda fruit is highly toxic to Drosophila species, except D. sechellia. The toxicity is expressed in adults, embryos, and larvae. In embryos, early mortality is a maternally inherited trait, depending only on mother's genotype. The tolerance of D. sechellia to morinda is fully dominant in F1 hybrids. Egg production is stimulated by morinda in D. sechellia but inhibited in D. simulans; in hybrids, the inhibition observed in D. simulans is dominant. Morinda is an oviposition attractant for D. sechellia but a repellent for D. simulans; F1 hybrids and backcross individuals exhibit intermediate, approximately additive, behavior. In the field, adult flies of the two species exhibit opposite behavior in that D. sechellia is attracted to morinda and D. simulans is attracted to banana; hybrids have an intermediate behavior. These differences between the species explain why they do not hybridize in nature although living in sympatry. The various traits have different genetic bases: three or four different genes, or groups of genes, differentiate the ecological niches of the two species. PMID:1900368

  10. Dopamine drives Drosophila sechellia adaptation to its toxic host.

    PubMed

    Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Svatoš, Aleš; Kai, Marco; Riemensperger, Thomas; Birman, Serge; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-01-01

    Many insect species are host-obligate specialists. The evolutionary mechanism driving the adaptation of a species to a toxic host is, however, intriguing. We analyzed the tight association of Drosophila sechellia to its sole host, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to other members of the melanogaster species group. Molecular polymorphisms in the dopamine regulatory protein Catsup cause infertility in D. sechellia due to maternal arrest of oogenesis. In its natural host, the fruit compensates for the impaired maternal dopamine metabolism with the precursor l-DOPA, resuming oogenesis and stimulating egg production. l-DOPA present in morinda additionally increases the size of D. sechellia eggs, what in turn enhances early fitness. We argue that the need of l-DOPA for successful reproduction has driven D. sechellia to become an M. citrifolia obligate specialist. This study illustrates how an insect's dopaminergic system can sustain ecological adaptations by modulating ontogenesis and development. PMID:25487989

  11. Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis ameliorates proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis via NF-κB inactivation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Sun; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Park, Hee-Juhn; Cho, Young-Wuk; Baek, Nam-In; Jang, Daesik; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of monotropein in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Monotropein was found to inhibit the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Treatment with monotropein decreased the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Consistent with these findings, monotropein also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α), and consequently the translocations of NF-κB. In the DSS-induced colitis model, monotropein reduced disease activity index (DAI), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and inflammation-related protein expressions by suppressing NF-κB activation in colon mucosa. Taken together, these findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of monotropein are mainly related to the inhibition of the expressions of inflammatory mediators via NF-κB inactivation, and support its possible therapeutic role in colitis. PMID:23261679

  12. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticides in Morinda officinalis by GC-ECD with accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and positive confirmation by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Miao, Qing; Qi, Yun; Yang, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    In this work, 33 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 9 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Morinda officinalis were effectively and selectively extracted and cleaned up by accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (ASE/MSPD) method, followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbophenothion was selected as the internal standard and added into the final extracts to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Parameters for ASE/MSPD procedure including ratio of acetone to n-hexane, temperature and amount of Florisil were optimized to improve the performance of the method through orthogonal experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the average recoveries (six replicates) for all pesticides (spiked at 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 69.3% to 112% with RSD less than 14.14%. A wide linear range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) was observed with r values of 0.9963-0.9999. Meanwhile, the method gave high selectivity and sensitivity (LODs<3 μg kg(-1) and LOQs<8.0 μg kg (-1)), good repeatability (RSD of 9.64%, on average) and precision (RSD of 5.48%, averagely) and excellent stability (RSD <9.47%). The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by applying it for preconcentration and determination of OCPs and PYPs in 40 batches of real samples. Four kinds of pesticides (beta-endosulfan, tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-BHC) were detected in three batches of samples, which were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. The results indicated that ASE/MSPD is a reliable and half-automated extraction and purification technique, with many advantages over traditional techniques. The combination of ASE/MSPD and GC-ECD could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:25463199

  13. Dopamine drives Drosophila sechellia adaptation to its toxic host

    PubMed Central

    Lavista-Llanos, Sofía; Svatoš, Aleš; Kai, Marco; Riemensperger, Thomas; Birman, Serge; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-01-01

    Many insect species are host-obligate specialists. The evolutionary mechanism driving the adaptation of a species to a toxic host is, however, intriguing. We analyzed the tight association of Drosophila sechellia to its sole host, the fruit of Morinda citrifolia, which is toxic to other members of the melanogaster species group. Molecular polymorphisms in the dopamine regulatory protein Catsup cause infertility in D. sechellia due to maternal arrest of oogenesis. In its natural host, the fruit compensates for the impaired maternal dopamine metabolism with the precursor l-DOPA, resuming oogenesis and stimulating egg production. l-DOPA present in morinda additionally increases the size of D. sechellia eggs, what in turn enhances early fitness. We argue that the need of l-DOPA for successful reproduction has driven D. sechellia to become an M. citrifolia obligate specialist. This study illustrates how an insect's dopaminergic system can sustain ecological adaptations by modulating ontogenesis and development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03785.001 PMID:25487989

  14. Hybridization occurs between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia in the Seychelles archipelago.

    PubMed

    Matute, D R; Ayroles, J F

    2014-06-01

    Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia are sister species that serve as a model to study the evolution of reproductive isolation. While D. simulans is a human commensal that has spread all over the world, D. sechellia is restricted to the Seychelles archipelago and is found to breed exclusively on the toxic fruit of Morinda citrifolia. We surveyed the relative frequency of males from these two species in a variety of substrates found on five islands of the Seychelles archipelago. We sampled different fruits and found that putative D. simulans can be found in a variety of substrates, including, surprisingly, M. citrifolia. Putative D. sechellia was found preferentially on M. citrifolia fruits, but a small proportion was found in other substrates. Our survey also shows the existence of putative hybrid males in areas where D. simulans is present in Seychelles. The results from this field survey support the hypothesis of current interbreeding between these species in the central islands of Seychelles and open the possibility for fine measurements of admixture between these two Drosophila species to be made. PMID:24773151

  15. A locus in Drosophila sechellia affecting tolerance of a host plant toxin.

    PubMed

    Hungate, Eric A; Earley, Eric J; Boussy, Ian A; Turissini, David A; Ting, Chau-Ti; Moran, Jennifer R; Wu, Mao-Lien; Wu, Chung-I; Jones, Corbin D

    2013-11-01

    Many insects feed on only one or a few types of host. These host specialists often evolve a preference for chemical cues emanating from their host and develop mechanisms for circumventing their host's defenses. Adaptations like these are central to evolutionary biology, yet our understanding of their genetics remains incomplete. Drosophila sechellia, an emerging model for the genetics of host specialization, is an island endemic that has adapted to chemical toxins present in the fruit of its host plant, Morinda citrifolia. Its sibling species, D. simulans, and many other Drosophila species do not tolerate these toxins and avoid the fruit. Earlier work found a region with a strong effect on tolerance to the major toxin, octanoic acid, on chromosome arm 3R. Using a novel assay, we narrowed this region to a small span near the centromere containing 18 genes, including three odorant binding proteins. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of host specialization is facilitated by genetic linkage between alleles contributing to host preference and alleles contributing to host usage, such as tolerance to secondary compounds. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of this tolerance locus on host preference behavior. Our data were inconsistent with the linkage hypothesis, as flies bearing this tolerance region showed no increase in preference for media containing M. citrifolia toxins, which D. sechellia prefers. Thus, in contrast to some models for host preference, preference and tolerance are not tightly linked at this locus nor is increased tolerance per se sufficient to change preference. Our data are consistent with the previously proposed model that the evolution of D. sechellia as a M. citrifolia specialist occurred through a stepwise loss of aversion and gain of tolerance to M. citrifolia's toxins. PMID:24037270

  16. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  17. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  18. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    PubMed

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  19. Microwave-Assisted Organocatalyzed Rearrangement of Propargyl Vinyl Ethers to Salicylaldehyde Derivatives: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, David; Cotos, Leandro; Márquez-Arce, Daniel; Odriozola-Gimeno, Mikel; Torrent-Sucarrat, Miquel; Cossío, Fernando P; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The microwave-assisted imidazole-catalyzed transformation of propargyl vinyl ethers (PVEs) into multisubstituted salicylaldehydes is described. The reaction is instrumentally simple, scalable, and tolerates a diverse degree of substitution at the propargylic position of the starting PVE. The generated salicylaldehyde motifs incorporate a broad range of topologies, spanning from simple aromatic monocycles to complex fused polycyclic systems. The reaction is highly regioselective and takes place under symmetry-breaking conditions. The preparative power of this reaction was demonstrated in the first total synthesis of morintrifolin B, a benzophenone metabolite isolated from the small tree Morinda citrifolia L. A DFT study of the reaction was performed with full agreement between calculated values and experimental results. The theoretically calculated values support a domino mechanism comprising a propargyl Claisen rearrangement, a [1,3]-H shift, a [1,7]-H shift (enolization), a 6π electrocyclization, and an aromatization reaction. PMID:26515241

  20. A Locus in Drosophila sechellia Affecting Tolerance of a Host Plant Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Hungate, Eric A.; Earley, Eric J.; Boussy, Ian A.; Turissini, David A.; Ting, Chau-Ti; Moran, Jennifer R.; Wu, Mao-Lien; Wu, Chung-I; Jones, Corbin D.

    2013-01-01

    Many insects feed on only one or a few types of host. These host specialists often evolve a preference for chemical cues emanating from their host and develop mechanisms for circumventing their host’s defenses. Adaptations like these are central to evolutionary biology, yet our understanding of their genetics remains incomplete. Drosophila sechellia, an emerging model for the genetics of host specialization, is an island endemic that has adapted to chemical toxins present in the fruit of its host plant, Morinda citrifolia. Its sibling species, D. simulans, and many other Drosophila species do not tolerate these toxins and avoid the fruit. Earlier work found a region with a strong effect on tolerance to the major toxin, octanoic acid, on chromosome arm 3R. Using a novel assay, we narrowed this region to a small span near the centromere containing 18 genes, including three odorant binding proteins. It has been hypothesized that the evolution of host specialization is facilitated by genetic linkage between alleles contributing to host preference and alleles contributing to host usage, such as tolerance to secondary compounds. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effect of this tolerance locus on host preference behavior. Our data were inconsistent with the linkage hypothesis, as flies bearing this tolerance region showed no increase in preference for media containing M. citrifolia toxins, which D. sechellia prefers. Thus, in contrast to some models for host preference, preference and tolerance are not tightly linked at this locus nor is increased tolerance per se sufficient to change preference. Our data are consistent with the previously proposed model that the evolution of D. sechellia as a M. citrifolia specialist occurred through a stepwise loss of aversion and gain of tolerance to M. citrifolia’s toxins. PMID:24037270

  1. Evolution of the olfactory code in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup.

    PubMed Central

    Stensmyr, Marcus C; Dekker, Teun; Hansson, Bill S

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster subgroup has been the focus of numerous studies about evolution. We address the question of how the olfactory code has evolved among the nine sister species. By using in vivo electrophysiological measurements, so called single-cell recordings, we have established the ligand affinity of a defined subset of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) across all nine species. We show that the olfactory code as relayed by the investigated subset of ORNs is conserved to a striking degree. Distinct shifts in the code have occurred only within the simulans clade. However, these shifts are restricted to an altered tuning profile of the same single ORN type in all three of the simulans siblings and a more drastic change unique to D. sechellia, involving a complete loss of one sensillum type in favour of another. The alterations observed in D. sechellia may represent a novel host-specific adaptation to its sole host, morinda fruit (Morinda citrifolia). The overall high degree of similarity of the code within the subgroup is intriguing when considering the great variety in distributions as well as in habitat and host choice of the siblings, factors that could greatly affect the olfactory system. PMID:14667348

  2. Macroglomeruli for fruit odors change blend preference in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibba, Irene; Angioy, Anna Maria; Hansson, Bill S.; Dekker, Teun

    2010-12-01

    The olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster is becoming increasingly clear. However, how olfactory processing translates into appropriate behavioral responses is still poorly understood. Using a sibling species approach, we tested how a perturbation in the olfactory circuitry affects odor preference. In a previous study, we found that the sibling species of D. melanogaster, the specialist D. sechellia, overrepresents a sensillum, ab3, the A neuron of which is sensitive to hexanoate esters, characteristic of the species' sole host, the Morinda citrifolia fruit. Concordantly, the corresponding glomerulus, DM2, is enlarged. In this study, we found that the ab3B neuron, the expansion of which was previously assumed to be pleiotropic and of no ecological significance, is in fact tuned to another morinda fruit volatile, 2-heptanone (HP). Axons of this neuron type arborize in a second enlarged glomerulus. In behavioral experiments we tested how this has affected the fly's odor preference. We demonstrate that D. sechellia has a reversed preference for the key ligands of these macroglomeruli, especially at high concentrations. Whereas D. melanogaster was repelled by high concentrations of these odors, D. sechellia was highly attracted. This was the case for odors presented singly, but more notably for blends thereof. Our study indicates that relatively simple changes, such as a shift in sensillar abundance, and concordant shifts in glomerular size, can distort the resulting olfactory code, and can lead to saltatory shifts in odor preference. D. sechellia has exploited this to align its olfactory preference with its ecological niche.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and quinone reductase inducing compounds from fermented noni exudates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new fatty acid ester disaccharide, 2-O-(ß-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-O- (2E,4Z,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoyl-ß-D-glucopyranose (1), a new ascorbic acid derivative, 2-caffeyl-3-ketohexulofuranosonic acid '-lactone (2), and a new iridoid glycoside, 10-dimethoxyfermiloside (5), were isolated along with thirteen k...

  4. Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 μg/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug. PMID:23886123

  5. Metabolomic Analysis of Diapausing and Noni-diapausing Larvae of the European Corn Borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hbn.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Purać, Jelena; Kojić, Danijela; Popović, Željko D; Vukašinović, Elvira; Tiziani, Stefano; Günther, Ulrich L; Grubor-Lajšić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an (1)H-NMR -based metabolomic approach was used to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of diapause and cold hardiness in diapausing larvae of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis. Metabolomic patterns in polar hemolymph extracts from non-diapausing and diapausing larvae of O. nubilalis were compared. Analysis indicated 13 metabolites: 7 amino acids, glycerol, acetate, citrate, succinate, lactate and putrescine. Results show that diapausing larvae display different metabolomic patterns compared to active non-diapausing larvae, with predominant metabolites identified as glycerol, proline and alanine. In specific diapausing larvae initially kept at 5 °C then gradually chilled to –3 °C and –16 °C, alanine , glycerol and acetate were predominant metabolites. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy provides new insight into the metabolomic patterns associated with cold resistance and diapause in O. nubilalis larvae, suggesting distinct metabolomes function in actively developing and diapausing larvae. PMID:26680702

  6. In vitro anti-Leishmania activity of tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida, benth.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Ohashi, Mitsuko; Mosore, Mba-Tihssommah; Agyapong, Jeffrey; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Kwofie, Kofi D; Ayertey, Frederick; Owusu, Kofi Baffuor-Awuah; Tuffour, Isaac; Atchoglo, Philip; Djameh, Georgina I; Azerigyik, Faustus A; Botchie, Senyo K; Anyan, William K; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Uto, Takuhiro; Morinaga, Osamu; Appiah, Alfred A; Ayi, Irene; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Boakye, Daniel A; Ohta, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease transmitted by the sand fly. It is caused by over 20 different species of Leishmania and has affected over 14 million people worldwide. One of the main forms of control of leishmaniasis is chemotherapy, but this is limited by the high cost and/or toxicity of available drugs. We previously found three novel compounds with an iridoid tetracyclic skeleton to have activity against trypanosome parasites. In this study, we determined the activity of the three anti-trypanosome compounds against Leishmania using field strain, 010, and the lab strain Leishmania hertigi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds against 010 was determined by microscopy while the IC50 of compounds against L. hertigi was determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting with Guava viacount analysis. We found two of the three compounds, molucidin and ML-F52, to have anti-Leishmania activity against both strains. The fluor-microscope observation with DAPI stain revealed that both Molucidin and ML-F52 induced abnormal parasites with two sets of nucleus and kinetoplast in a cell, suggesting that compounds might inhibit cytokinesis in Leishmania parasites. Molucidin and ML-F52 might be good lead compounds for the development of new anti-Leishmania chemotherapy. PMID:27536194

  7. Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cláudio Rodrigues Rezende; Amorim, Bruna Rabelo; de Magalhães, Pérola; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments. PMID:26822584

  8. A cross-cultural study: anti-inflammatory activity of Australian and Chinese plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Rachel W; Myers, Stephen P; Leach, David N; Lin, G David; Leach, Greg

    2003-03-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 33 ethanol extracts obtained from 24 plant species (representing 11 different families) on cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) were evaluated. The plant materials selected for this study have been used in aboriginal medicine in Australia and traditional medicine in China for the treatment of various diseases that are considered as inflammation in nature, e.g. asthma, arthritis, rheumatism, fever, edema, infections, snakebite and related inflammatory diseases. All of the selected plants, with one exception, showed inhibitory activity against COX-1, which supports their traditional uses. The most potent COX-1 inhibition were observed from the extracts of Acacia ancistrocarpa leaves (IC(50)=23 microg/ml). Ficus racemosa bark, Clematis pickeringii stem, Acacia adsurgens leaves, Tinospora smilacina stem and Morinda citrifolia fruit powder exhibited inhibition of COX-1 with the IC(50) of 100, 141, 144, 158 and 163 microg/ml, respectively. Aspirin and indomethacin used as the reference COX-1 inhibitors in this study inhibited COX-1 with IC(50) of 241 and 1.2 microg/ml, respectively. The findings of this study may explain at least in part why these plants have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Australian aboriginal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12576199

  9. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2004-01-01

    The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230

  10. Characteristic of flotation deinking using bio and synthetic surfactant at different air flow rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trismawati, Wardana, I. N. G.; Hamidi, Nurkholis; Sasongko, Mega Nur

    2016-03-01

    Flotation deinking has industrially applied but several problems keep unsolved because limitations have to compete with several variables present. Flotation deinking is multi variables process, so studying flotation deinking is still interesting. In this research, the amount of variables was reduced and focused to the performance comparison between flotation deinking of old newspaper (ONP) using biodegradable fatty acid of morinda citrifolia as the raw bio surfactant (RBS) and biodegradable fatty acid of palm oil that had been converted to be commercial surfactant (CS). The flotation was done at laboratory flotation cell equipped with orifice at different diameter (orifice number 20, 40 and 60) with adjustable airflow rate. Brightness and Effective Residual Ink Concentration (ERIC) of the deinked pulp were measured. The best results were achieved on orifice number 40 with the highest brightness of 41.96 °ISO and 40.96 °ISO when using CS and RBS respectively, and lowest ERIC of 896.82 ppm and 1001.72 ppm when using CS and RBS respectively. The percentage delta of deinking power characteristic between CS and RBS was 2.36% and 11.70% for brightness and ERIC, respectively.

  11. Traditional Therapies Used to Manage Diabetes and Related Complications in Mauritius: A Comparative Ethnoreligious Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi; Mootoosamy, A.; Wambugu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT) for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC). This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n = 95) and traditional healers (n = 5) were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n = 36). Leaves (45.2%) and juice (36%) were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55) and Morinda citrifolia (0.54). The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8). Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites. PMID:27200100

  12. The comparison of the effect of endodontic irrigation on cell adherence to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Ring, Karla C; Murray, Peter E; Namerow, Kenneth N; Kuttler, Sergio; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 10 different endodontic irrigation and chelating treatments on dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) attachment to root canal surfaces. Thirty-eight extracted human nondiseased single-canal teeth were cleaned and shaped using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation (Tulsa Dentsply, Tulsa, OK). The irrigation treatments investigated were 6% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser, and Morinda citrifolia juice. The irrigation treatments were used in conjunction with EDTA or MTAD. The instrumented teeth were immediately placed in cell culture with confluent DPSCs for 1 week. The number of attached DPSCs appeared to be correlated with the cytotoxicity of the root canal irrigating solution (analysis of variance, p < 0.0001). The presence or absence of the smear layer had little influence on DPSC activity (chi-square, p > 0.05). The results suggest that biocompatible irrigants are needed to promote DPSC attachment to root canal dentin, which is essential to accomplish some regenerative endodontic therapies. PMID:19026877

  13. Antioxidative activity, polyphenolic content and anti-glycation effect of some Thai medicinal plants traditionally used in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Kusirisin, W; Srichairatanakool, S; Lerttrakarnnon, P; Lailerd, N; Suttajit, M; Jaikang, C; Chaiyasut, C

    2009-03-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 30 Thai medicinal plants, traditionally used as alternative treatments in diabetes, were evaluated for antioxidative activity by the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method. They were evaluated in vitro for oxidative stress by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) assay in pooled plasma of diabetic patients compared to without treatment of the extracts (control). The extracts were also assayed for protein glycation. The results showed that five plants had strong antioxidant activity: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE), Terminalia chebula Retz. (TC), Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MC), Kaempferia parviflora Wall. (KP) and Houttuynia cordata Thunb.(HC), respectively. Thirty plant extracts were good correlation between total antioxidant activity and antiradical activity by TBARS as well as by glycation (r = 0.856, p<0.01 and r = 0.810, p<0.01). PE had stronger antioxidative activity as well as inhibition of TBARS and glycation than the other plants. The investigation showed that total polyphenol and tannin content of PE and the flavonoid content of HC were the highest. The results imply that these plants are potential sources of natural antioxidants which have free radical scavenging activity and might be used for reducing oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:19275712

  14. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

  15. Traditional Therapies Used to Manage Diabetes and Related Complications in Mauritius: A Comparative Ethnoreligious Study.

    PubMed

    Mahomoodally, M Fawzi; Mootoosamy, A; Wambugu, S

    2016-01-01

    Religious communities from Mauritius still rely on traditional therapies (TT) for primary healthcare. Nonetheless, there is still a dearth of scientific information on TT used by the different religious groups to manage diabetes and related complications (DRC). This study aimed to gather ethnomedicinal knowledge on TT used by the different religious groups against DRC. Diabetic patients (n = 95) and traditional healers (n = 5) were interviewed. Fifty-two plant species belonging to 33 families and 26 polyherbal formulations were documented to manage DRC. The most reported DRC was hypertension (n = 36). Leaves (45.2%) and juice (36%) were the most cited mode of preparation of herbal recipes. Plants which scored high relative frequency of citation were Citrus aurantifolia (0.55) and Morinda citrifolia (0.54). The cultural importance index showed that Ocimum tenuiflorum, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Camellia sinensis, and Ophiopogon japonicas were the most culturally important plants among Hindu, Muslim, Christian, and Buddhist community, respectively. Hindu and Muslim community showed the highest similarity of medicinal plants usage (Jaccard index = 95.8). Seven animal species distributed over 4 classes were recorded for the management of DRC. Plants and animals recorded as TT should be submitted to scientific studies to confirm safety and efficacy in clinical practice and to identify pharmacologically active metabolites. PMID:27200100

  16. Production of biomass and useful compounds from adventitious roots of high-value added medicinal plants using bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Baque, Md Abdullahil; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    The increasing global demand for biomass of medicinal plant resources reflects the issues and crisis created by diminishing renewable resources and increasing consumer populations. Moreover, diverse usage of plants and reduced land for cultivation in the world accelerated the deficiency of plant resources. In addition, the preparation of safety of plant based medicine whips up demand for biomass of valuable medicinal plants. As one of alternative approach to upswing the productivity of plant-based pharmaceutical compounds, automation of adventitious root culture system in air-lift bioreactor was adopted to produce cosmic amount of root biomass along with enriched diverse bioactive molecules. In this review, various physiological, engineering parameters, and selection of proper cultivation strategy (fed-batch, two-stage etc.) affecting the biomass production and secondary metabolite accumulation have been discussed. In addition, advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up as well as recent research aimed at maximizing automation of the bioreactor production processes are also highlighted. Examples of the scale-up of cultures of adventitious roots of Morinda citrifolia, Echinacea purpurea and angustifolia, Hypericum perforatum and Panax ginseng by applying 20 L to 10,000 L bioreactors in our lab were demonstrated with a view of commercial application. PMID:22123438

  17. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant α-amylase in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup: is there an effect of specialization on digestive enzyme?

    PubMed

    Commin, Céline; Aumont-Nicaise, Magali; Claisse, Gaëlle; Feller, Georges; Da Lage, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    We performed a comparative study on the enzymological features of purified recombinant α-amylase of three species belonging to the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup: D. melanogaster, D. erecta and D. sechellia. D. erecta and D. sechellia are specialist species, with host plant Pandanus candelabrum (Pandanaceae) and Morinda citrifolia (Rubiaceae), respectively. The temperature optima were around 57-60℃ for the three species. The pH optima were 7.2 for D. melanogaster, 8.2 for D. erecta and 8.5 for D. sechellia. The kcat and Km were also estimated for each species with different substrates. The specialist species D. erecta and D. sechellia display a higher affinity for starch than D. melanogaster. α-Amylase activity is higher on starch than on glycogen in all species. α-Amylases of D. erecta and D. sechellia have a higher activity on maltooligosaccharides (G6 and G7) than on starch, contrary to D. melanogaster. Such differences in the enzymological features between the species might reflect adaptation to different ecological niches and feeding habits. PMID:24463528

  18. Pupariation site preference within and between Drosophila sibling species.

    PubMed

    Erezyilmaz, Deniz F; Stern, David L

    2013-09-01

    Holometabolous insects pass through a sedentary pupal stage and often choose a location for pupation that is different from the site of larval feeding. We have characterized a difference in pupariation site choice within and between sibling species of Drosophila. We found that, in nature, Drosophila sechellia pupariate within their host fruit, Morinda citrifolia, and that they perform this behavior in laboratory assays. In contrast, in the laboratory, geographically diverse strains of Drosophila simulans vary in their pupariation site preference; D. simulans lines from the ancestral range in southeast Africa pupariate on fruit, or a fruit substitute, whereas populations from Europe or the New World select sites off of fruit. We explored the genetic basis for the evolved preference in puariation site preference by performing quantitative trait locus mapping within and between species. We found that the interspecific difference is controlled largely by loci on chromosomes X and II. In contrast, variation between two strains of D. simulans appears to be highly polygenic, with the majority of phenotypic effects due to loci on chromosome III. These data address the genetic basis of how new traits arise as species diverge and populations disperse. PMID:24033178

  19. Estimation of phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, D R; Singh, Shrawan; Salim, K M; Srivastava, R C

    2012-06-01

    The present study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in 10 underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands (India) namely Malpighia glabra L., Mangifera andamanica L., Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f) Alst., Annona squamosa L., Averrhoa carambola L., Averrhoa bilimbi L., Dillenia indica L., Annona muricata L. and Ficus racemosa L. The antioxidant activity varied from 74.27% to 98.77%, and the methanol extract of M. glabra showed the highest antioxidant activity (98.77%; inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 262.46 μg/ml). Methanol was found to be a better solvent than acetone and aqueous for estimating the antioxidant activity. M. glabra was found to be rich in phytochemicals viz. polyphenol (355.74 mg/100 g), anthocyanin (91.31 mg/100 g), carotenoids (109.16 mg/100 g), tannin (24.39 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (394.23 mg/100 g). Carbohydrate content was estimated to be highest in M. glabra (548 mg/100 g). Phenols, tannins, anthocyanins and carotenoids contents showed positive correlation (r² = 0.846, r² = 0.864, r² = 0.915 and r² = 0.806, respectively) with antioxidant activity. The information generated in present study will be useful for bioprospecting of underutilized fruits of Andaman Islands. PMID:22080844

  20. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of seven oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis using double-development HPTLC and scanning densitometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Chang, Jun; Wang, Ping; Li, Jie; Cheng, Dan; Zheng, Peng-Wu

    2014-01-01

    The quality of Morindaofficinalis, which has been used as a Yang-tonic agent for a long time in China, can be evaluated. A double-development high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method has been established to simultaneously analyze quality and quantity of seven inulin-type oligosaccharides (DP=3-9) in Morindaofficinalis. The chromatography was performed on a silica gel 60 plate with the 7:5:2:1 proportion (v/v) of n-butanol-isopropanol-water-acetic acid for the first and second developments, respectively. The bands were visualized by the reaction with aniline-diphenylamine-phosphoric acid solution and analyzed by densitometric TLC at 540 nm. Quantification of seven oligosaccharides was achieved by densitometry at 540 nm. The investigated standard sugar had good linearity (R2>0.99) within test ranges. The amounts of seven oligosaccharides were calculated by the relative correction factor (RCF). Therefore, the developed TLC method could be used for quality control of Morindaofficinalis. PMID:24211984

  1. Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12-30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2-methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68 μg/cm(3)) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3-dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79 μg/cm(3)), 2,4-dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95 μg/cm(3)), 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88 μg/cm(3)), 2-methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28 μg/cm(3)), 3-methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38 μg/cm(3)), 4-methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67 μg/cm(3)), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70 μg/cm(3)). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2-methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

  2. Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12–30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5–trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68 μg/cm3) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79 μg/cm3), 2,4–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95 μg/cm3), 2,5–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88 μg/cm3), 2–methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28 μg/cm3), 3–methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38 μg/cm3), 4–methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67 μg/cm3), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70 μg/cm3). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3–dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

  3. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Morinda lucida stem bark extract in streptozotocin intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Domekouo, Ulrich L F; Longo, Frida; Tarkang, Protus A; Tchinda, Alembert T; Tsabang, Nole; Donfagsiteli, Nehemie T; Tamze, Victorine; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2016-05-01

    The present research evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida stem bark (50 and 500mg/kg) and glibenclamide (25mg/kg, standard drug) in acute (Oral glucose tolerance test) and sub-acute (Streptozotocin 60mg/kg, i.p. diabetic model) administration. A group of healthy rats constituted the normal control. The sub-acute experiment lasted 28 days during which water, food intake and weight gain were measured and biochemical parameters analyzed in both plasma and erythrocytes at the end of the experiment. The chemical substances present in M. lucida bark extract were determined. In the Oral glucose tolerance test, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant for both M. lucida extracts and glibenclamide. However, in the diabetic rats acute administration of 500mg/kg extract had better blood sugar lowering effect than glibenclamide, which was better than 50mg/kg extract. Streptozotocin diabetic animal model was characterized by a decrease in weight gain, erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities and an increase in water and food consumption, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and transaminases activities. M. lucida extract and glibenclamide significantly prevented the alteration of these parameters, thus indicating a corrective effect on diabetes and its complications. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of M. lucida to treat diabetes. Its antioxidant properties may serve to curb oxidative stress and hence prevent the diabetic complications related to oxidative stress. Chemical substances, which may be accountable for the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida were detected in the aqueous extract of M. lucida bark. PMID:27166555

  4. Attenuation of cyclophosphamide-induced neurotoxicity in rat by yellow dye extract from root of Brimstone tree (Morinda lucida).

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akomolafe, Toyin L; Adefegha, Stephen A; Adetuyi, Abayomi O

    2012-09-01

    Cyclophosphamide is an anticancer and immunosuppressant drug that induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, so causing malondialdehyde (MDA) production, which is toxic to cells. This study therefore sought to assess the antioxidant and the protective effect of dietary inclusion (0.5 and 1.0%) of yellow dye from root of Brimstone tree (used to enhance the sensory quality of foods and in folk medicine) on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in brain. Wistar strain albino rats were placed on diet containing 0.5 and 1.0% yellow dye preparation from root of Brimstone tree for 14 days. Intraperitoneal administration of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg of body weight) 24 h before the termination of the experiment caused a significant (P<0.05) increase in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content (147.2%) and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (21.7 UI/l), alanine amino-transferase (ALT) (29.6 UI/l), alkaline phosphatase (43.8 UI/l) and total bilirubin (1.7 mg/dl). However, there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the MDA of content of the brain and serum enzyme activities, in those rats fed diet containing the yellow dye in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition of oxidative stress in brain and serum enzymes and metabolites by the dye could be attributed to its high total phenol content and antioxidant activity as typified by its reducing power, free-radical scavenging ability, Fe(II) chelating ability and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, dietary inclusion of the yellow dye from root of Brimstone tree could prevent cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress in brain and the associated toxicity to the liver. PMID:21227669

  5. Influence of various herbal irrigants as a final rinse on the adherence of Enterococcus faecalis by fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope

    PubMed Central

    Rosaline, Hannah; Kandaswamy, D; Gogulnath, D; Rubin, MI

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of three different herbal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods: Single rooted teeth were extracted due to orthodontic and periodontal reasons. The teeth were then inoculated with E. faecalis. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups and two control groups of six samples each. Group 1 specimens were treated with 5.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL) for 30 min followed by 5 mmol/L Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 5 min and saline as final irrigant. Group 2 specimens were treated with and 5.2% NaOCl for 30 min as final irrigant. Group 3 were treated with Morinda citrifolia (MC) for 30 min as final irrigant. Group 4 were treated with Azadiracta indica (AI) as final irrigant. Group 5 were treated with green tea (GT) for 30 min as final irrigant. The dentin specimens were carefully spread onto a microscope slide and stained with BacLight and examined in a confocal laser scanning microscope set to monitor fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide. A total of nine fields were examined for each treatment and the bacteria presented were counted. Statistical Analysis: Using the one-way ANOVA with multiple comparison, significantly less bacteria were found adhering to the samples treated with Neem followed by NaOCL, GT, MC, Saline. Results: AI treatment produced the maximum reduction in adherence of E. faecalis to dentin (9.30%) followed by NaOCl (12.50%), GT (27.30%), MC (44.20%) and saline (86.70%). Conclusion: Neem is effective in preventing adhesion of E. faecalis to dentin. PMID:23956540

  6. Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct.

    PubMed

    Limyati, D A; Juniar, B L

    1998-12-01

    An examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of Jamu Gendong (JG) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the Department of Health of Indonesia in 1986. Samples of JG and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of Surabaya. The samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (TPC), MPN coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the presence or absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio. Each time the JG samples were taken from different producers together with their raw materials. The results of this investigation showed that most of the JG samples were heavily contaminated with bacteria, yeasts and molds. For bacteria, taken from the TPC results, their numbers were ranging from 7.7 x 10(2) microorganisms/ml to too many to count (TMTC). For yeasts and molds the numbers showed variations from 0 microorganisms/ml to TMTC. Contamination with Coliform in 1 ml of JG were ranged from 0 to > 2.4 x 10(6) microorganisms. In most of the samples pathogenic Staphylococci, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were not detected, so that a conclusion can be drawn that most of the contamination in JG are saprophytic, only a few pathogenic. The results also show that it is possible to have JG which fulfill the government's requirements. Similar results were obtained with the plant material constituents of JG such as rhizomes, leaves, herbs and fruits of Piper nigrum and Piper retrofractum, with the exception of Piper betle leaves and P. retrofractum fruits, both showing low contamination of Coliform bacteria. However, the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Morinda citrifolia were less contaminated, just like seeds of Oryza sativa, Parkia roxburghii, bulbs of Allium sativum and the pulp of Tamarindus indica. With these plant constituents of JG, it might be of interest to screen their antibacterial and antifungal

  7. Expression Divergence of Chemosensory Genes between Drosophila sechellia and Its Sibling Species and Its Implications for Host Shift

    PubMed Central

    Shiao, Meng-Shin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Fan, Wen-Lang; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Notredame, Cedric; Fang, Shu; Kondo, Rumi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila sechellia relies exclusively on the fruits of Morinda citrifolia, which are toxic to most insects, including its sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Although several odorant binding protein (Obp) genes and olfactory receptor (Or) genes have been suggested to be associated with the D. sechellia host shift, a broad view of how chemosensory genes have contributed to this shift is still lacking. We therefore studied the transcriptomes of antennae, the main organ responsible for detecting food resource and oviposition, of D. sechellia and its two sibling species. We wanted to know whether gene expression, particularly chemosensory genes, has diverged between D. sechellia and its two sibling species. Using a very stringent definition of differential gene expression, we found a higher percentage of chemosensory genes differentially expressed in the D. sechellia lineage (7.8%) than in the D. simulans lineage (5.4%); for upregulated chemosensory genes, the percentages were 8.8% in D. sechellia and 5.2% in D. simulans. Interestingly, Obp50a exhibited the highest upregulation, an approximately 100-fold increase, and Or85c—previously reported to be a larva-specific gene—showed approximately 20-fold upregulation in D. sechellia. Furthermore, Ir84a (ionotropic receptor 84a), which has been proposed to be associated with male courtship behavior, was significantly upregulated in D. sechellia. We also found expression divergence in most of the chemosensory gene families between D. sechellia and the two sibling species. Our observations suggest that the host shift of D. sechellia was associated with the enrichment of differentially expressed, particularly upregulated, chemosensory genes. PMID:26430061

  8. Expression Divergence of Chemosensory Genes between Drosophila sechellia and Its Sibling Species and Its Implications for Host Shift.

    PubMed

    Shiao, Meng-Shin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Fan, Wen-Lang; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Notredame, Cedric; Fang, Shu; Kondo, Rumi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila sechellia relies exclusively on the fruits of Morinda citrifolia, which are toxic to most insects, including its sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Although several odorant binding protein (Obp) genes and olfactory receptor (Or) genes have been suggested to be associated with the D. sechellia host shift, a broad view of how chemosensory genes have contributed to this shift is still lacking. We therefore studied the transcriptomes of antennae, the main organ responsible for detecting food resource and oviposition, of D. sechellia and its two sibling species. We wanted to know whether gene expression, particularly chemosensory genes, has diverged between D. sechellia and its two sibling species. Using a very stringent definition of differential gene expression, we found a higher percentage of chemosensory genes differentially expressed in the D. sechellia lineage (7.8%) than in the D. simulans lineage (5.4%); for upregulated chemosensory genes, the percentages were 8.8% in D. sechellia and 5.2% in D. simulans. Interestingly, Obp50a exhibited the highest upregulation, an approximately 100-fold increase, and Or85c--previously reported to be a larva-specific gene--showed approximately 20-fold upregulation in D. sechellia. Furthermore, Ir84a (ionotropic receptor 84a), which has been proposed to be associated with male courtship behavior, was significantly upregulated in D. sechellia. We also found expression divergence in most of the chemosensory gene families between D. sechellia and the two sibling species. Our observations suggest that the host shift of D. sechellia was associated with the enrichment of differentially expressed, particularly upregulated, chemosensory genes. PMID:26430061

  9. Separation system suitability (3S): a new criterion of chromatogram classification in HPLC based on cross-evaluation of separation capacity/peak symmetry and its application to complex mixtures of anthraquinones.

    PubMed

    Nowik, Witold; Héron, Sylvie; Bonose, Myriam; Tchapla, Alain

    2013-10-01

    A comparison of chromatograms obtained in a series of separation conditions for a given complex mixture may be done with a series of chromatographic descriptors. In this study, we used two descriptors: the number of critical pairs and symmetry of peaks, further rescaled and converted to the corresponding critical pairs' coefficient (CPc) and symmetry coefficient (Sc). Considering the difficulty of appreciating global separation quality using CPc and Sc criteria separately, as their respective values are usually uncorrelated, a double-criteria cross-evaluation system was required. For that purpose we tested the commonly used multi-criteria decision-making method - Derringer's desirability function (D) - as well as the recently introduced sum of ranking differences (SRD). To facilitate the graphical comparison of both approaches, the desirability function (D) was used in the inverse form (Dinv). The advantages and drawbacks of both evaluation methods, especially the respective under- or over-evaluation of outliers, caused us to introduce a new ranking approach, separation system suitability (3S). The obtained suitability rankings for the three tested approaches (Dinv, SRD and 3S) are different; nevertheless, 3S appears to be the most balanced and the easiest to interpret as well. The approach developed for selection of suitable systems was applied to the problem of separation of complex mixtures through the analysis of a series of standards of anthraquinone derivatives. To judge the pertinence of this evaluation, a sample containing a number of natural anthraquinones extracted from the bark of Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) was analysed. In conclusion, the proposed methodology for the cross-evaluation of the series of chromatograms using single specific descriptors (CPc and Sc) through a global composite descriptor (3S) significantly simplifies the decision that separation systems are the most suitable for the separation of complex target mixtures of compounds

  10. Cytoplasmic Acidification and Secondary Metabolite Production in Different Plant Cell Suspensions (A Comparative Study).

    PubMed Central

    Hagendoorn, MJM.; Wagner, A. M.; Segers, G.; Van Der Plas, LHW.; Oostdam, A.; Van Walraven, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, a correlation is described between low cytoplasmic pH, measured with the fluorescent probes 2[prime],7[prime]-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (acetoxymethyl ester) and bis- [3-propyl-5-oxoisoxazol-4-yl]pentamethine oxonol, and the production of secondary metabolites for several plant cell-suspension systems. Anthraquinone production in Morinda citrifolia suspensions is negligible in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), whereas with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) a significant accumulation is realized. NAA-grown cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than did 2,4-D-grown cells. Addition of 2,4-D or parachlorophenoxy acetic acid to NAA-grown cells resulted in an inhibition of anthraquinone production and an increase of the cytoplasmic pH, whereas addition of parachlorophenyl acetic acid had no effect on either parameter. Lignin production in Petunia hybrida cells could be induced by subculturing them in a medium without iron. These cells showed a lower cytoplasmic pH than control cells. Addition of Fe3+ led to a decreased lignin content and an increased cytoplasmic pH. Two cell lines of Linum flavum showed a different level of coniferin and lignin concentration in their cells. Cells that accumulated coniferin and lignin had a lower cytoplasmic pH than cells that did not accumulate these secondary metabolites. Apparently, in different species and after different kinds of treatment there is a correlation between acidification of the cytoplasm and the production of different secondary metabolites. The possible role of this acidification in secondary metabolite production is discussed. PMID:12232364

  11. Isolation of inulin-type oligosaccharides from Chinese traditional medicine: Morinda officinalis How and their characterization using ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenmin; Yi, Yongtao; Gao, Chuanchuan; Hou, Dengke; Hu, Jun; Zhao, Mingyue

    2010-01-01

    Inulin-type oligosaccharides with different DP were prepared by size-exclusion chromatography and purity of each oligosaccharide was determined by HPLC equipped with cyclodextrin-bond column. The purities of obtained inulin-type oligosaccharides with different DP were more than 98% by one-step process. The DP and molecular weight were obtained through ESI-MS in negative mode. The characterization of the inulin-type oligosaccharides with different DP was studied by MS/MS spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation of molecular ions ([M-H](-)). When the DP was lower, the fragment ions were formed through cross-ring cleavages of two bonds within the sugar ring and glycosidic cleavages. However, with the increase of DP, the ions resulting from glycosidic cleavages between two sugar residues were predominant. PMID:20091714

  12. Six centuries of anthropogenic forest change on a Polynesian high island: Archaeological charcoal records from the Marquesas Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, Jennifer M.; Allen, Melinda S.

    2016-04-01

    established and cultivation intensified. Mimicking natural forests, these arboricultural systems helped protect the island's fragile soils and landscapes from recurring climate extremes. Intriguingly, some translocated taxa, including Tahitian chestnut, Casuarina equisetifolia (ironwood), and Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberry), may have been post-settlement introductions. This analysis demonstrates the potential of archaeological wood charcoal assemblages to inform on Pacific Island vegetation histories, anthropogenic processes, and the evolution of arboricultural economies.

  13. Investigation on Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities, Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Some Thai Edible Plants as an Alternative for Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. H.; Cho, S.; Paik, H. D.; Choi, C. W.; Nam, K. T.; Hwang, S. G.; Kim, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8

  14. Investigation on antibacterial and antioxidant activities, phenolic and flavonoid contents of some thai edible plants as an alternative for antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Cho, S; Paik, H D; Choi, C W; Nam, K T; Hwang, S G; Kim, S K

    2014-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine the antibacterial and antioxidative properties of seven edible plants from Thailand to develop alternative antibiotics as feed additives. The plants include Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (Lime) fruits and its leaves, Sesbania grandiflora L. (Agati sesbania) leaves, Piper sarmentosum Roxb (Wild betal) leaves, Curcuma domestica Valeton (Turmeric) roots, Morinda citrifolia L. (Beach mulberry) leaves, Cassia siamea britt (Siamea cassia) leaves, and Cocos nucifera L. (Coconut) peels. The plants were extracted by methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Antibacterial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by agar diffusion assay against Escherichia coli, Burkholderia sp., Haemopilus somnus, Haemopilus parasuis, and Clostridium perfringens that were considered pathogenic strains in livestock infection. Methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and leaves showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activities except for C. perfringens. Butanol extract of S. grandiflora L. leaves showed the strongest activity against Burkholderia sp. with MIC, 135 μg/mL. P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed antibacterial activities against E. coli, Burkholderia sp. and H. parasuis. Ethyl acetate and water extracts from C. domesitca Valeton roots showed MIC of 306 μg/mL and 183 μg/mL, respectively against only C. perfringens. Antioxidative activity was determined by 2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl photometric assay. The methanol extracts of C. aurantifolia Swingle fruits and P. sarmentosum Roxb leaves showed the highest antioxidant activity among all the extracts with 3.46 mg/mL and 2.70 mg/mL effective concentration 50% (EC50) values, respectively. Total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were measured from the plant extracts. Methanol extracts of S. grandiflora L. and chloroform extracts of C. domestica Valeton were found to have the highest amount of total phenolics, 41.7 and 47.8

  15. Transferability and characterization of microsatellite markers in two Neotropical Ficus species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were transferred and characterized for two Neotropical fig tree species, Ficus citrifolia and Ficus eximia. Our study demonstrated that microsatellite markers developed from different subgenera of Ficus can be transferred to related species. In the present case, 12 of the 15 primer pairs tested (80%) were successfully transferred to both of the above species. Eleven loci were polymorphic when tested across 60 F. citrifolia and 60 F. eximia individuals. For F. citrifolia, there were 4 to 15 alleles per locus, whereas expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.31 to 0.91. In the case of F. eximia, this was 2 to 12 alleles per locus and expected heterozygosities from 0.42 to 0.87. PMID:21637521

  16. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.515, see the List of CFR Sections... Millet, flour 0.80 Mustard, seed 0.10 Noni 0.10 Nut, tree, group 14 0.10 Oat, flour 0.80 Okra 0.10...

  17. GROUND-WATER SAMPLING AND GEOPHYSICAL METHODS DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inadequate site characterization and a lack of knowledge of subsurface contaminant distributions (particularly Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids [NAPLs]) hinder our ability to make good decisions on remediation options and to conduct adequate cleanup efforts at contaminated sites. Non-i...

  18. Is On-Line Distance Education a Viable Alternative for Undergraduates? An Experiment with the Students in Georgia, the Professor in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Geoffrey N.; Hanna, Mark

    This paper reports the results of a study conducted with non-IS undergraduate students undertaking an online distance education class. Although the sample size is small and there is some self-selection, it provides some preliminary answers to what such students see as the advantages and disadvantages of online education, whether these perceptions…

  19. Information Systems Security and Computer Crime in the IS Curriculum: A Detailed Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, C. Bryan; Renwick, Janet S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which information systems (IS) security and computer crime are covered in information systems programs. Results suggest that IS faculty believe security coverage should be increased in required, elective, and non-IS courses. However, respondent faculty members are concerned that existing curricula leave little…

  20. Reading and Reading Instruction for Children from Low-Income and Non-English-Speaking Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is…

  1. Middle Jurassic Radiolaria from a siliceous argillite block in a structural melange zone near Viqueque, Timor Leste: Paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David W.; Bandini, Alexandre Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Thin-bedded siliceous argillite forming a large block within a structural melange zone at Viqueque, Timor Leste, has yielded a Middle Jurassic (late Bathonian-early Callovian) radiolarian assemblage belonging to Unitary Association Zone 7. Fifty-five species are recognized and illustrated, forming the most diverse radiolarian fauna yet documented from the Jurassic of Timor. The fauna shows little similarity in species content to the few other assemblages previously listed from the Middle or Late Jurassic of Timor, and also has few species in common with faunas known elsewhere in the region from Rotti, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Sula. Based on lithofacies similarities and age, the siliceous argillite succession in the melange block at Viqueque is included in the Noni Group originally described as the lower part of the Palelo Series in West Timor. In terms of lithofacies, the Noni Group is distinct from other stratigraphic units known in Timor. It may be associated with volcanic rocks but age relationships are uncertain, although some of the radiolarian cherts in the Noni Group in West Timor have been reported to include tuffaceous sediment. The deep-water character of the siliceous hemipelagite-pelagite facies, the probable volcanic association, and an age close to that of continental breakup in the region suggest deposition in a newly rifted Indian Ocean. In Timor's tectonostratigraphic classification scheme, the Noni Group is here placed in the "Indian Ocean Megasequence".

  2. RAIRS observation of photoinduced dissociation of NO on Ni(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magkoev, Tamerlan T.; Song, Moon-Bong; Fukutani, Katsuyuki; Murata, Yoshitada

    1995-06-01

    The properties of the {NO}/{Ni(111) } system under nanosecond ultraviolet laser light irradiation are studied by reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy. It is found that adsorbed NO molecules are dissociated by laser light. Dissociation proceeds effectively in a dilute NO layer, whereas it is suppressed in a saturated overlayer.

  3. HIF-1α in heart: Protective mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Joe; Chen, Ping; Li, Ying; Ardell, Chris; Der, Tatyana; Shohet, Ralph; Chen, Minghua

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription factor that directs many of the cellular responses to hypoxia. In these studies, we have used a mouse model containing a cardiac-specific, oxygen-stabilized, doxycycline (Dox)-off regulated HIF-1α transgene to probe the role of HIF-1α in cardioprotection. Hearts used in these studies were derived from wild-type (WT), noninduced (Non-I), and 2 day (2D) and 6 day (6D) Dox-deprived mice. Whereas HIF-1α protein is undetectable in WT mice, it is present in heart tissue of “noninduced” transgenic mice, presumably because of leakiness of the promoter construct. In mice denied Dox for 2 or 6 days, HIF-1α is overexpressed to a much greater extent than Non-I or WT animals, as expected. WT and HIF-1α-expressing hearts (Non-I, 2D and 6D induced) were subjected to 30 min of ischemia, and functional recovery was measured upon reperfusion. Recovery of preischemic left ventricular developed pressure was 14% for WT, 67% for Non-I hearts, 64% for 2D-induced, and 62% for 6D-induced hearts. 6D-induced HIF hearts have increased preischemic glycogen reserves, higher glycogen synthase protein levels, and significantly higher lactic acid release during ischemia. 6D-induced HIF hearts were also better able to maintain ATP levels during ischemia compared with WT and Non-I hearts. Interestingly, Non-I hearts showed no significant increase in glycogen reserves, glycolytic flux, or greater ATP preservation during ischemia and yet were protected to a similar extent as the 6D-induced hearts. Finally, the mitochondrial membrane potential of isolated adult myocytes was monitored during anoxia or treatments with cyanide and 2-deoxyglucose. HIF-1α expression was shown to protect mitochondrial polarization during both stress treatments. Taken together these data indicate that, while HIF-1α expression in heart does induce increases in compensatory glycolytic capacity, these changes are not necessarily required for cardioprotection

  4. 40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.364, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... 0.2 Ginger, white, flower 0.2 Gourd, buffalo, seed 0.1 Governor's plum 0.2 Gow kee, leaves 0.2 Grain... Mamey apple 0.2 Mango 0.2 Mangosteen 0.2 Marmaladebox 0.2 Mioga, flower 0.2 Noni 0.20 Nut, pine 1.0...

  5. 40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... citations affecting § 180.364, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids..., white, flower 0.2 Gourd, buffalo, seed 0.1 Governor's plum 0.2 Gow kee, leaves 0.2 Grain, cereal, forage... Mangosteen 0.2 Marmaladebox 0.2 Meadowfoam, seed 0.1 Mioga, flower 0.2 Mustard, seed 0.1 Noni 0.20 Nut,...

  6. 40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... citations affecting § 180.364, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids..., white, flower 0.2 Gourd, buffalo, seed 0.1 Governor's plum 0.2 Gow kee, leaves 0.2 Grain, cereal, forage... Mangosteen 0.2 Marmaladebox 0.2 Meadowfoam, seed 0.1 Mioga, flower 0.2 Mustard, seed 0.1 Noni 0.20 Nut,...

  7. 40 CFR 180.364 - Glyphosate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues. Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 180.364, see the List of CFR Sections... Galangal, roots 0.2 Ginger, white, flower 0.2 Gourd, buffalo, seed 0.1 Governor's plum 0.2 Gow kee, leaves... Longan 0.2 Lychee 0.2 Mamey apple 0.2 Mango 0.2 Mangosteen 0.2 Marmaladebox 0.2 Mioga, flower 0.2 Noni...

  8. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 by herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engdal, Silje; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-07-01

    The herbal remedies Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic, frequently used by cancer patients, were investigated for their in vitro inhibition potential of cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolism. To our knowledge, only garlic and green tea had available data on the possible inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism. Metabolic studies were performed with human c-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4. Testosterone was used as a substrate and ketoconazole as a positive quantitative inhibition control. The formation of 6-beta-OH-testosterone was quantified by a validated HPLC methodology. Green tea was the most potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 metabolism (IC(50): 73 microg/mL), followed by Agaricus, mistletoe and noni juice (1324, 3594, >10 000 microg/mL, respectively). All IC(50) values were high compared with those determined for crude extracts of other herbal remedies. The IC(50)/IC(25) ratios for the inhibiting herbal remedies ranged from 2.15 to 2.67, indicating similar inhibition profiles of the herbal inhibitors of CYP3A4. Garlic and Natto K2 were classified as non-inhibitors. Although Agaricus, noni juice, mistletoe and green tea inhibited CYP3A4 metabolism in vitro, clinically relevant systemic or intestinal interactions with CYP3A4 were considered unlikely, except for a probable inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 by the green tea product. PMID:19170155

  9. 2-Hydr-oxy-1-methoxy-anthraquinone monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Meng; Jiao, Yuan-Qi

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C(15)H(10)O(4)·H(2)O, also known as alizarin 1-methyl ether monohydrate, was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two outer benzene rings being 3.07 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the organic mol-ecules and the water mol-ecules, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21582814

  10. Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Garg, ML.; Kumar, Manoj Sharma; Khan, Asif Ali; Thakur, Jarnail S.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town ‘Mandi Gobindgarh’ and a non-industrial town ‘Morinda’ were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with ≤ 10μm aerodynamic diameter) levels in Morinda were 99.54 μg/m3 and in Mandi Gobindgarh 161.20 μg/m3. As per NAAQS the permitted levels of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 taken as annual average (arithmetic mean). Elemental analysis of the aerosol samples found the concentration levels to be higher in Mandi- Gobindgarh than Morinda. The population in Gobindgarh shows a higher prevalence of symptoms of angina and cardiovascular disease considered in the study as compared to Morinda. When the same data is viewed in terms of male and female population, the female population is found to show these symptoms marginally higher than their counterparts. Considering the results of present study it can be stated that the increased levels of different pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town) than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town) is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant. PMID:18180537

  11. In vitro antidrepanocytary actvity (anti-sickle cell anemia) of some congolese plants.

    PubMed

    Mpiana, P T; Tshibangu, D S T; Shetonde, O M; Ngbolua, K N

    2007-02-01

    Thirty aqueous and ethanolic extracts from 13 congolese plants were evaluated for their antidrepanocytary activity. Twelve of these plants, Alchornea cordifolia, Afromomum albo violaceum, Annona senegalensis, Cymbopogon densiflorus, Bridelia ferruginea, Ceiba pentandra, Morinda lucida, Hymenocardia acida, Coleus kilimandcharis, Dacryodes edulis, Caloncoba welwithsii, and Vinga unguiculata exhibited significant activities, thus, supporting the claims of the traditional healers and suggesting a possible correlation between the chemical composition of these plants and their uses in traditional medicine. PMID:17113273

  12. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina, Honduras, and Mexico: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi has been divided into Discrete Typing Units I and non-I (II-VI). T. cruzi I is predominant in Mexico and Central America, while non-I is predominant in most of South America, including Argentina. Little is known about congenital transmission of T. cruzi I. The specific aim of this study is to determine the rate of congenital transmission of T. cruzi I compared to non-I. Methods/design We are conducting a prospective study to enroll at delivery, 10,000 women in Argentina, 7,500 women in Honduras, and 13,000 women in Mexico. We are measuring transmitted maternal T. cruzi antibodies by performing two rapid tests in cord blood (Stat-Pak, Chembio, Medford, New York, and Trypanosoma Detect, InBios, Seattle, Washington). If at least one of the results is positive, we are identifying infants who are congenitally infected by performing parasitological examinations on cord blood and at 4–8 weeks, and serological follow-up at 10 months. Serological confirmation by ELISA (Wiener, Rosario, Argentina) is performed in cord and maternal blood, and at 10 months. We also are performing T. cruzi standard PCR, real-time quantitative PCR and genotyping on maternal venous blood and on cord blood, and serological examinations on siblings. Data are managed by a Data Center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Data are entered online at the sites in an OpenClinica data management system, and digital pictures of data forms are sent to the Data Center for quality control. Weekly reports allow for rapid feedback to the sites. Trial registration Observational study with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01787968 PMID:24119247

  13. Asteroid lightcurve analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: July-September 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2006-06-01

    Lightcurves for the following asteroids and one comet originally designated as an asteroid were obtained and then analyzed to determine the synodic period and amplitude: 643 Scheherezade, 663 Gerlinde, 696 Leonora, 2199 Klet, 2214 Carol, 2346 Lilio, 2382 Nonie, 2957 Tatsuo, 4116 Elachi, 4368 Pillmore, 5968 Trauger, (6065) 1987 OC, (8180) 1992 PY2, (28610) 2000 EM158, (49385) 1998 XA12, P/2002 EX12 (NEAT). Two asteroids were observed for which no definitive solution could be found: 6271 Farmer and 6911 Nancygreen.

  14. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with intracranial extension in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy: case-control study using propensity score matching method.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cai-Neng; Luo, Jing-Wei; Gao, Li; Xu, Guo-Zhen; Yi, Jun-Lin; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Li, Su-Yan; Xiao, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate long-term survival outcomes and toxicity of T4 classification nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with intracranial extension (IE group) or without intracranial extension (non-IE group) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the propensity score matching method. After generating propensity scores given the covariates of age, sex, N classification, and concurrent chemotherapy, 132 patients in each group were matched. The 5-year local failure-free survival rate and the 5-year overall survival rate in the IE group were lower than the patients in the non-IE group (74.6 vs. 88.9 %, p = .008; 51.1 vs. 71.9 %, p = .005). Grade 2 hypothyroidism was more common in the IE group (13.2 vs. 3.4 %, p = .029). For patients with T4 classification NPC after IMRT, patients with intracranial extension need more attention to the thyroid gland function and are more likely to experience local failure and death than patients without intracranial extension. PMID:26282900

  15. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells: effects of herbal remedies frequently used by cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Engdal, S; Nilsen, O G

    2008-06-01

    1. The herbal products Natto K2, Agaricus, mistletoe, noni juice, green tea and garlic were investigated for in vitro inhibitory potential on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport of digoxin (30 nM) in differentiated and polarized Caco-2 cells. 2. Satisfactory cell functionality was demonstrated through measurements of assay linearity, transepithelial electric resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, mannitol permeability, and inclusion of the positive inhibition control verapamil. 3. The most potent inhibitors of the net digoxin flux (IC(50)) were mistletoe > Natto K2 > Agaricus > green tea (0.022, 0.62, 3.81, >4.5 mg ml(-1), respectively). Mistletoe also showed the lowest IC(25) value, close to that obtained by verapamil (1.0 and 0.5 microg ml(-1), respectively). The IC(50)/IC(25) ratio was found to be a good parameter for the determination of inhibition profiles. Garlic and noni juice were classified as non-inhibitors. 4. This study shows that mistletoe, Natto K2, Agaricus and green tea inhibit P-gp in vitro. Special attention should be paid to mistletoe due to very low IC(50) and IC(25) values and to Natto K2 due to a low IC(50) value and a low IC(50)/IC(25) ratio. PMID:18570158

  16. Different ontogenetic processes promote dicliny in Ficus L. (Moraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso-Alves, João Paulo; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Peng, Yang-Qiong; Teixeira, Simone Pádua

    2014-05-01

    The absence of reproductive organs in flowers may ontogenetically arise from inception or by abortion during development. Ficus L., a species-rich genus of angiosperms, is an interesting model for floral developmental studies because of the diversity of sexual systems it contains. This study compares the floral morphology of Ficus citrifolia (monoecious), Ficus religiosa (monoecious), Ficus racemosa (secondarily monoecious), and Ficus hispida (gynodioecious) across development to establish the ontogenetic pathways that result in diclinous flowers. Figs were collected at various developmental stages and were prepared for surface (scanning electron microscopy) and histological (light microscopy) analyses. Dicliny in Ficus is defined by stamen absence from inception in pistillate flowers and either pistil absence from inception (F. citrifolia, F. racemosa and F. religiosa) or by abortion (F. hispida) in staminate flowers. The perianth is formed by a single whorl of sepals, as found in other families related to Moraceae. The gynoecium is tubular during development, a condition that may be related with pseudomonomery. The staminate and neutral flowers in F. hispida develop by similar mechanisms. The diversity in the sexual systems in Ficus results from combinations of different floral morphs (dicliny), which originate from both previously established ontogenetic mechanisms (loss of reproductive organ function by abortion or from inception). These mechanisms act independently of phylogenetic proximity or mechanisms of sex system evolution in Ficus. Other aspects of floral development observed in Ficus are discussed in relation to their systematic position and reproductive biology.

  17. [Diagnosis and integrative evaluation on soil fertility of three Chinese medicinal materials in GAP plots].

    PubMed

    Pan, Chaomei; Huang, Haibo; Zhan, Ruoting; Xu, Honghua; Liao, Guanrong

    2002-03-01

    The fertility of soil was diagnosed and integratively evaluated by modified Nemoro Index with eight indexes, i.e. pH, organic matter, total N, P, K and available N, P, K on three national Chinese medicinal materials GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) experimental plots of Pogostemon cablin, Citrus medica and Morinda officinalis in Guangdong. The results showed that the pH, organic matter and other major nutrient contents were low and imbalance. There are lots of nutritive disturbance factors. The level of soil integrative fertility in any of the plots was poor. PMID:12583155

  18. 3-Hydr-oxy-1,2-dimethoxy-anthraquinone.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Jun; Yang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hong-Bin

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C(16)H(12)O(5), was isolated from Morinda officinalis How. The anthraquinone ring system is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two benzene rings being 1.12 (4)°. In the crystal structure, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-eculesin the crystallographic a-axis direction. Weak π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance between symmetry-related benzene rings of 3.699 (4) Å] are also present. PMID:21582815

  19. Science in Liquid Dietary Supplement Promotion: The Misleading Case of Mangosteen Juice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Liquid dietary supplements represent a fast growing market segment, including botanically-based beverages containing mangosteen, acai, and noni. These products often resemble fruit juice in packaging and appearance, but may contain pharmacologically active ingredients. While little is known about the human health effects or safety of consuming such products, manufacturers make extensive use of low-quality published research to promote their products. This report analyzes the science-based marketing claims of two of the most widely consumed mangosteen liquid dietary supplements, and compares them to the findings of the research being cited. The reviewer found that analyzed marketing claims overstate the significance of findings, and fail to disclose severe methodological weaknesses of the research they cite. If this trend extends to other related products that are similarly widely consumed, it may pose a public health threat by misleading consumers into assuming that product safety and effectiveness are backed by rigorous scientific data. PMID:22454810

  20. [Can meta-medicine bridge the gap between para-medicine and so-called school medicine?].

    PubMed

    Spitzy, K H

    1990-02-28

    The concept of metamedicine is analogous to the concept of metaphysics. According to Kants perception, medicine has its origin in the human mind ("Gemüt") which is the source of all kinds of arts. Controversally to Kant, Fichte established I and non-I as a subject-object relationship. School philosophy, psychology and biology tend to banish the "subject" into mysticism but it comes up again in modern physics. Medicine as "art of healing" can only happen between subjects (physician and patient). Considering "metamedical" points of view, it cannot exist without the I/you respectively the you/I relationship. Following Plato, this means "loving-science" and is common to all kinds of medicine. PMID:2183474

  1. The Kura files: qualitative social survey.

    PubMed

    Pande, Madhukar; Naiker, Mani; Mills, Graham; Singh, Narendra; Voro, Tevita

    2005-09-01

    The widespread use of Kura/Noni came to the attention of researchers from both the University of the South Pacific and the Fiji School of Medicine. Amongst other associated research undertakings to better understand the use and potential benefits of this herbal medicine, a nationwide qualitative research was undertaken from September 2002-February 2004. Interviews, participant observation and participatory activities involved over 400 respondents. These research activities showed Kura is thought to be beneficial for a large number of ailments that ranged from skin conditions to high blood pressure. In total Kura has been reported to be useful for 66 medical conditions and 1 spiritual application. Based on the findings of the Research Team, it is concluded that there is sufficient grounds to proceed further with the next two phases of this research project: biochemical analysis to identify the active ingredients in the different parts of the plant, and later clinical trials to determine opportunities for developing pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:18181498

  2. Science in liquid dietary supplement promotion: the misleading case of mangosteen juice.

    PubMed

    Lobb, Ano L

    2012-02-01

    Liquid dietary supplements represent a fast growing market segment, including botanically-based beverages containing mangosteen, acai, and noni. These products often resemble fruit juice in packaging and appearance, but may contain pharmacologically active ingredients. While little is known about the human health effects or safety of consuming such products, manufacturers make extensive use of low-quality published research to promote their products. This report analyzes the science-based marketing claims of two of the most widely consumed mangosteen liquid dietary supplements, and compares them to the findings of the research being cited. The reviewer found that analyzed marketing claims overstate the significance of findings, and fail to disclose severe methodological weaknesses of the research they cite. If this trend extends to other related products that are similarly widely consumed, it may pose a public health threat by misleading consumers into assuming that product safety and effectiveness are backed by rigorous scientific data. PMID:22454810

  3. Euforia-induced acute hepatitis in a patient with scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Encarnación, Esther; Ríos, Grissel; Muñoz-Mirabal, Angel; Vilá, Luis M

    2012-01-01

    Euforia, a supplement containing a variety of natural ingredients, is widely used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory formula. It is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and its side effects are unknown. We report a 45-year-old woman with limited systemic sclerosis who presented with jaundice and marked elevation of serum transaminases. One month before, she started taking Euforia juice. A liver biopsy disclosed submassive hepatocellular necrosis with histopathological changes consistent with toxic hepatitis. The patient's symptoms resolved with cessation of Euforia. Six months later, she persisted with abnormal liver function tests, but these resolved 18 months after discontinuation of Euforia. The mechanism by which Euforia causes liver injury is unknown. Some ingredients contained in this supplement (green tea, Aloe vera, noni and goji) are linked to hepatic injury. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatotoxicity associated with Euforia. PMID:23257938

  4. Cytokine Signature in Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Izabella Rodrigues; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Luan Vieira; Guimarães Júnior, Milton Henriques; Barros, Thais Lins Souza; Gelape, Cláudio Léo; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality rate. Cytokines participate in its pathogenesis and may contribute to early diagnosis improving the outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile in IE. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) at diagnosis in 81 IE patients, and compared with 34 healthy subjects and 30 patients with non-IE infections, matched to the IE patients by age and gender. Mean age of the IE patients was 47±17 years (range, 15–80 years), and 40 (50%) were male. The IE patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α as compared to the healthy individuals. The median levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 were higher in the IE than in the non-IE infections group. TNF-α and IL-12 levels were higher in staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. There was a higher proportion of both low IL-10 producers and high producers of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 in the staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. This study reinforces a relationship between the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α, and the pathogenesis of IE. A lower production of IL-10 and impairment in cytokine network may reflect the severity of IE and may be useful for risk stratification. PMID:26225421

  5. Pregnancy Outcome After I-131 Therapy for Patients With Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kuan-Yin; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lin, Cheng-Li; Cheng, Mei-Fang; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of I-131 therapy on pregnancy outcome in patients that received therapeutic I-131 doses for thyroid cancer in Taiwan. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. We identified 11,708 women with thyroid cancer (≥15 and ≤50 years of age) by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: I-131 therapy cohort and non-I-131 therapy cohort. The mean follow-up period was 6.08 years for the I-131 cohort and 6.87 years for the non-I-131 cohort. The case cohort and the control cohort comprised 775 and 716 pregnant patients, respectively. The overall incidence of pregnancy was significantly lower in the I-131 cohort (adjusted HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.70–0.86) and it was also observed when the patients were stratified according to age (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.64–0.83 in 25–34 years; HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.49–0.82 in 35–44 years). Patients in the I-131 cohort had a lower successful delivery rate, particularly among patients in 25 to 34 years (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45–0.80). No significant difference was observed for adverse pregnancy conditions between 2 cohorts. I-131 therapy is associated with decreased pregnancy and successful delivery rates. The underlying mechanism likely involves physician recommendation, patient's psychological issue, and potential impact of I-131 treatment on reproductive health. Further investigation is needed. PMID:26844507

  6. Cytokine Signature in Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Izabella Rodrigues; Ferrari, Teresa Cristina Abreu; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues, Luan Vieira; Guimarães Júnior, Milton Henriques; Barros, Thais Lins Souza; Gelape, Cláudio Léo; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease with high mortality rate. Cytokines participate in its pathogenesis and may contribute to early diagnosis improving the outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the cytokine profile in IE. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured by cytometric bead array (CBA) at diagnosis in 81 IE patients, and compared with 34 healthy subjects and 30 patients with non-IE infections, matched to the IE patients by age and gender. Mean age of the IE patients was 47±17 years (range, 15-80 years), and 40 (50%) were male. The IE patients had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α as compared to the healthy individuals. The median levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 were higher in the IE than in the non-IE infections group. TNF-α and IL-12 levels were higher in staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. There was a higher proportion of both low IL-10 producers and high producers of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-12 in the staphylococcal IE than in the non-staphylococcal IE subgroup. This study reinforces a relationship between the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α, and the pathogenesis of IE. A lower production of IL-10 and impairment in cytokine network may reflect the severity of IE and may be useful for risk stratification. PMID:26225421

  7. Detection of Intracranial Signatures of Interictal Epileptiform Discharges from Concurrent Scalp EEG.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, Loukianos; Martín-Lopez, David; Valentín, Antonio; Alarcón, Gonzalo; Sanei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) are transient neural electrical activities that occur in the brain of patients with epilepsy. A problem with the inspection of IEDs from the scalp electroencephalogram (sEEG) is that for a subset of epileptic patients, there are no visually discernible IEDs on the scalp, rendering the above procedures ineffective, both for detection purposes and algorithm evaluation. On the other hand, intracranially placed electrodes yield a much higher incidence of visible IEDs as compared to concurrent scalp electrodes. In this work, we utilize concurrent scalp and intracranial EEG (iEEG) from a group of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with low number of scalp-visible IEDs. The aim is to determine whether by considering the timing information of the IEDs from iEEG, the resulting concurrent sEEG contains enough information for the IEDs to be reliably distinguished from non-IED segments. We develop an automatic detection algorithm which is tested in a leave-subject-out fashion, where each test subject's detection algorithm is based on the other patients' data. The algorithm obtained a [Formula: see text] accuracy in recognizing scalp IED from non-IED segments with [Formula: see text] accuracy when trained and tested on the same subject. Also, it was able to identify nonscalp-visible IED events for most patients with a low number of false positive detections. Our results represent a proof of concept that IED information for TLE patients is contained in scalp EEG even if they are not visually identifiable and also that between subject differences in the IED topology and shape are small enough such that a generic algorithm can be used. PMID:27052034

  8. Antimycobacterial activity of chemically defined natural substances from the Caribbean flora in Guadeloupe.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, N; Abaul, J; Goh, K S; Devallois, A; Philogène, E; Bourgeois, P

    1998-04-01

    Eight chemically defined, naturally occurring compounds were extracted from the tropical flora of the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe: pilocarpine, an alkaloid from Pilocarpus racemosus; heraclenol and isomeranzin, coumarins from Triphasia trifolia; lochnerin, an indole alkaloid from Rauwolfia biauriculata; ibogaine and voacangine, indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana citrifolia; texalin, an oxazole from Amyris elemifera; and canellal, a sesquiterpene dialdehyde from Canella winterana. An essential oil fraction from Canella winterana was also tested. The antimycobacterial activity of these substances was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium and M. kansasii using the Middlebrook 7H11 agar medium, the Bactec 460-TB radiometric methodology, and determination of bacterial viable counts. Three compounds, namely ibogaine, voacangine and texalin, showed antimycobacterial activity. Investigations on the structure-modification and structure-activity relationships of these compounds may help determine new targets for future drug development. PMID:9626931

  9. Evaluation of the flora of Puerto Rico for in vitro antiplasmodial and antimycobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Antoun, M D; Ramos, Z; Vazques, J; Oquendo, I; Proctor, G R; Gerena, L; Franzblau, S G

    2001-11-01

    The emergence of resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis underscores the need for novel drugs that are effective against these microorganisms. As part of our screening programme of the flora of Puerto Rico, we tested a number of ethanol extracts of higher plants for antiplasmodial and antimycobacterial activities. A total of 40 extracts belonging to 23 plant families and 37 species were tested for antiplasmodial activity. Five extracts demonstrated activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (50%-100% parasite suppression at 5 microg/mL). Another 63 extracts belonging to 30 plant families and 50 species were tested in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two extracts were found to be active, Ficus citrifolia and Pisonia borinquena (85% or more inhibition of microbial growth at 100 microg/mL of extract). PMID:11746852

  10. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-12-15

    Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

  11. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC < 100 microg/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

  12. Selection of suitable lichen bioindicator species for monitoring climatic variability in the Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Rajesh; Shukla, Vertika; Upreti, D K; Semwal, Manoj

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific comparison in metals and PAHs profile in three lichen species, Flavoparmelia caperata, Phaeophyscia hispidula and Pyxine sorediata, were studied in different altitudinal gradients of the Western Himalayas. The species collected from 14 sites, enroute from Dehradun to Morinda (243 Km) including the trekking route 42 Km from Taluka to Morinda having an altitudinal gradient between 850-3,750 m, were analysed for their metals and PAHs. The species showed similar metal as well as PAHs profile under similar altitudinal gradients in the sequence of F. caperata > P. hispidula > P. sorediata. The difference in pollutant concentrations within each lichen species may be related to intrinsic attributes of the species, such as thallus morphology and the presence of lichen substances which are responsible for the sensitivity and accumulation potential of a particular species. Novelty of the present study lies on the fact that all the species show a similar efficiency of reflecting the environmental condition of the area, albeit the coefficient values of individual species for individual pollutant obtained by three-factor ANOVA revealed that the bioaccumulation affinity of F. caperata is significantly higher than P. hispidula and P. sorediata. For individual metals, F. caperata has a higher affinity for Al, Cr, Fe, Pb and Zn while P. hispidula has a significant positive affinity for Fe and Pb. PCA analysis of sites with respect to pollutant revealed the segregation of sites based on source and distance. Combining the bioaccumulation potential parameters along with geostatistical (GIS) techniques establishes that F. caperata species is a better accumulator of metals and PAHs in comparison to P. hispidula and P. sorediata in the temperate regions of the Himalaya. PMID:24888615

  13. Effect of Y Addition on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Zn-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyang; Lu, Shujing; Long, Fang; Sheng, Meng; Geng, Haoran; Liu, Wendi

    2015-05-01

    This article will discuss the influence of the rare earth Y on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn-Al alloys (ZA27, ZA35, and ZA40), and it will provide reference to rare-earth microalloying through the cast ingot metallurgy process. The results also suggest that the microstructure can be refined and mechanical properties can be improved obviously when adding the right amount of Y, and its tensile strength and brinell hardness increased by 9.1% and 11.7% compared with the unmodified ZA27 alloys, respectively. Compared with non-Y addition, the alloys will form dispersed YZn12 phase, which can strongly pin dislocations and subgrain boundary, inhibiting further recrystallization. On this basis, the impacts of Y on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ZA27, ZA35, and ZA40 have been explored. After adding Y, the microstructures of as-cast Zn-Al alloys are refined at different degree. However, with the increase of Al content, the microstructure shows a certain coarsening and the segregation and shrinkage porosity occur. The most effective refining appears in ZA27-0.4%Y.

  14. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    SciTech Connect

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R.

    2015-05-22

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  15. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS ISOLATED FROM INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Mihaela; Patriche, David Sebastian; Străuţ, Monica; Antohe, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the heart endothelium and valves and is frequently a consequence of a sanguine flow turbulence and injury of endocardium. Recent studies revealed an increase of Staphylococcus aureus strains involved in IE, but no evident correlations between the genetic background of this bacterium and IE involvement of certain strains have been found yet. In this study we analyzed the virulence profile, including adhesins, exotoxins, superantigens and biofilm determinants, along with agr type detection, for S. aureus strains isolated from IE, versus non-IE originating strains. We performed also bacterial typing (SCCmec typing, spa-typing and MLST typing), in order to compare our strains with international databases repositories. Although the study was carried out on a reduced number of isolates, our observations confirm the previous works, showing that no major differences were observed between the genetic backgrounds of the two groups of strains analyzed. Notably, the added value of this study was optimization of two new multiplex PCR protocols, and the enrichment of international databases with three new spa-types, three new MLST alleles and four new MLST sequence types. PMID:26201122

  16. Detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in milk powders by cross-priming amplification combined with immunoblotting analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Shaolong; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-12-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is frequently isolated from a wide variety of foods and can cause human yersiniosis. Biochemical and culture-based assays are common detection methods, but require a long incubation time and easily misidentify Y. enterocolitica as other non-pathogenic Yersinia species. Alternatively, cross-priming amplification (CPA) under isothermal conditions combined with immunoblotting analysis enables a more sensitive detection in a relatively short time period. A set of specific displacement primers, cross primers and testing primers was designed on the basis of six specific sequences in Y. enterocolitica 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer. Under isothermal condition, amplification and hybridization were conducted simultaneously at 63°C for 60 min. The specificity of CPA was tested for 96 different bacterial strains and 165 commercial milk powder samples. Two red lines were developed on BioHelix Express strip for all of the Y. enterocolitica strains, and one red line was shown for non-Y. enterocolitica strains. The limit of detection of CPA was 10(0)fg for genomic DNA (1000 times more sensitive than PCR assay), 10(1) CFU/ml for pure bacterial culture, and 10(0) CFU per 100 g milk powder with pre-enrichment at 37°C for 24 h. CPA combined with immunoblotting analysis can achieve highly specific and sensitive detection of Y. enterocolitica in milk powder in 90 min after pre-enrichment. PMID:26253307

  17. Host plant-driven sensory specialization in Drosophila erecta

    PubMed Central

    Linz, Jeanine; Baschwitz, Amelie; Strutz, Antonia; Dweck, Hany K. M.; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S.; Stensmyr, Marcus C.

    2013-01-01

    Finding appropriate feeding and breeding sites is crucial for all insects. To fulfil this vital task, many insects rely on their sense of smell. Alterations in the habitat—or in lifestyle—should accordingly also be reflected in the olfactory system. Solid functional evidence for direct adaptations in the olfactory system is however scarce. We have, therefore, examined the sense of smell of Drosophila erecta, a close relative of Drosophila melanogaster and specialist on screw pine fruits (Pandanus spp.). In comparison with three sympatric sibling species, D. erecta shows specific alterations in its olfactory system towards detection and processing of a characteristic Pandanus volatile (3-methyl-2-butenyl acetate, 3M2BA). We show that D. erecta is more sensitive towards this substance, and that the increased sensitivity derives from a numerical increase of one olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) class. We also show that axons from these OSNs form a complex of enlarged glomeruli in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory brain centre, of D. erecta. Finally, we show that 3M2BA induces oviposition in D. erecta, but not in D. melanogaster. The presumed adaptations observed here follow to a remarkable degree those found in Drosophila sechellia, a specialist upon noni fruit, and suggest a general principle for how specialization affects the sense of smell. PMID:23595274

  18. In Situ Gene Mapping of Two Genes Supports Independent Evolution of Sex Chromosomes in Cold-Adapted Antarctic Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ghigliotti, Laura; Cheng, C.-H. Christina; Bonillo, Céline; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Pisano, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Two genes, that is, 5S ribosomal sequences and antifreeze glycoprotein (AFGP) genes, were mapped onto chromosomes of eight Antarctic notothenioid fish possessing a X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system, namely, Chionodraco hamatus and Pagetopsis macropterus (family Channichthyidae), Trematomus hansoni, T. newnesi, T. nicolai, T. lepidorhinus, and Pagothenia borchgrevinki (family Nototheniidae), and Artedidraco skottsbergi (family Artedidraconidae). Through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we uncovered distinct differences in the gene content of the Y chromosomes in the eight species, with C. hamatus and P. macropterus standing out among others in bearing 5S rDNA and AFGP sequences on their Y chromosomes, respectively. Both genes were absent from the Y chromosomes of any analyzed species. The distinct patterns of Y and non-Y chromosome association of the 5S rDNA and AFGP genes in species representing different Antarctic fish families support an independent origin of the sex heterochromosomes in notothenioids with interesting implications for the evolutionary/adaptational history of these fishes living in a cold-stable environment. PMID:23509694

  19. Portopulmonary Hypertension and Liver Transplant: Recent Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cosarderelioglu, Caglar; Cosar, Arif M; Gurakar, Merve; Pustavoitau, Aliaksei; Russell, Stuart D; Dagher, Nabil N; Gurakar, Ahmet

    2016-04-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension is one of the main pulmonary conditions affecting patients with liver disease and/or portal hypertension. Other conditions include hepatopulmonary syndrome and hepatic hydrothorax. Portopulmonary hypertension is caused by pulmonary vasoconstriction and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. It develops as a result of portal hypertension with or without liver disease and is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. However, portopulmonary hypertension is usually asymptomatic; the most common symptoms are dyspnea, fatigue, and peripheral edema. All liver transplant candidates should be screened for potential portopulmonary hypertension because its coexistence can affect survival rates after transplant. All patients with cirrhosis who present with dyspnea should also be screened. Transthoracic echocardiography is a noni nvasive, useful method for screening, but right heart-sided catheterization remains the criterion standard for diagnosis. Portopulmonary hypertension carries a poor prognosis without liver transplant, and its severe form is considered to be a contraindication for liver transplant. Treating patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific therapies before liver transplant for moderate and severe portopulmonary hypertension appears to be beneficial. PMID:27015528

  20. Host plant-driven sensory specialization in Drosophila erecta.

    PubMed

    Linz, Jeanine; Baschwitz, Amelie; Strutz, Antonia; Dweck, Hany K M; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S; Stensmyr, Marcus C

    2013-06-01

    Finding appropriate feeding and breeding sites is crucial for all insects. To fulfil this vital task, many insects rely on their sense of smell. Alterations in the habitat--or in lifestyle--should accordingly also be reflected in the olfactory system. Solid functional evidence for direct adaptations in the olfactory system is however scarce. We have, therefore, examined the sense of smell of Drosophila erecta, a close relative of Drosophila melanogaster and specialist on screw pine fruits (Pandanus spp.). In comparison with three sympatric sibling species, D. erecta shows specific alterations in its olfactory system towards detection and processing of a characteristic Pandanus volatile (3-methyl-2-butenyl acetate, 3M2BA). We show that D. erecta is more sensitive towards this substance, and that the increased sensitivity derives from a numerical increase of one olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) class. We also show that axons from these OSNs form a complex of enlarged glomeruli in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory brain centre, of D. erecta. Finally, we show that 3M2BA induces oviposition in D. erecta, but not in D. melanogaster. The presumed adaptations observed here follow to a remarkable degree those found in Drosophila sechellia, a specialist upon noni fruit, and suggest a general principle for how specialization affects the sense of smell. PMID:23595274

  1. HERBAL THERAPY USE BY CANCER PATIENTS: A LITERATURE REVIEW ON CASE REPORTS

    PubMed Central

    Olaku, Oluwadamilola; White, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine use is common among cancer patients. In many surveys, herbal medicines are among the most commonly used group of treatments. Herbal remedies are believed by the general public to be safe, cause less side effects and less likely to cause dependency. The authors performed a literature review to assess which herbal approaches have had associated cancer case reports and determine which of these have been studied in prospective research. Eighteen case reports of patients having apparent antitumour effects from herbal therapy and 21 case reports of toxic effects of herbs used by cancer patients were identified. Clinicaltrials.gov and MEDLINE (via PubMed) were searched for each of the herbal products identified in these reports. Clinical trials in cancer populations were identified for green tea extracts or compounds (n = 34), phytoestrogens (n=27), mistletoe (n =8), Ganoderma lucidum (n=1), Noni (n = 1) and Silymarin (n = 1). Daikenchuto, PC-SPES, Nyoshinsan/TJ and Saw palmetto have also been studied prospectively. In conclusion, some of the herbs with promising case report findings have undergone prospective clinical investigations but many others have either not yet been explored or the results have not been reported in English. Unconventional therapies, such as herbs and minerals, used in ancient medical traditions have led to the identification of active anticancer agents. Mechanisms to support prospective research with such approaches are discussed. PMID:21185719

  2. Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners.

    PubMed

    Senchina, David S; Hallam, Justus E; Kohut, Marian L; Nguyen, Norah A; Perera, M Ann d N

    2014-01-01

    Plant alkaloids are found in foods, beverages, and supplements consumed by athletes for daily nutrition, performance enhancement, and immune function improvement. This paper examined possible immunomodulatory roles of alkaloids in exercise contexts, with a focus on human studies. Four representative groups were scrutinized: (a) caffeine (guaranine, mateine); (b) theophylline and its isomers, theobromine and paraxanthine; (c) ginger alkaloids including gingerols and shogaol; and (d) ephedra alkaloids such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Emerging or prospective alkaloid sources (Goji berry, Noni berry, and bloodroot) were also considered. Human in vitro and in vivo studies on alkaloids and immune function were often conflicting. Caffeine may be immunomodulatory in vivo depending on subject characteristics, exercise characteristics, and immune parameters measured. Caffeine may exhibit antioxidant capacities. Ginger may exert in vivo anti-inflammatory effects in certain populations, but it is unclear whether these effects are due to alkaloids or other biochemicals. Evidence for an immunomodulatory role of alkaloids in energy drinks, cocoa, or ephedra products in vivo is weak to nonexistent. For alkaloid sources derived from plants, variability in the reviewed studies may be due to the presence of unrecognized alkaloids or non-alkaloid compounds (which may themselves be immunomodulatory), and pre-experimental factors such as agricultural or manufacturing differences. Athletes should not look to alkaloids or alkaloid-rich sources as a means of improving immune function given their inconsistent activities, safety concerns, and lack of commercial regulation. PMID:24974722

  3. Co-sensitization of ZnO by CdS quantum dots in natural dye-sensitized solar cells with polymeric electrolytes to improve the cell stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junhom, W.; Magaraphan, R.

    2015-05-01

    The CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on ZnO layer by chemical bath deposition method to absorb light in the shorter wavelength region and used as photoanode in the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) with natural dye extracted from Noni leaves. Microstructures of CdS-ZnO from various dipping time were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX. The results showed that the CdS is hexagonal structure and the amount of CdS increases when the dipping time increases. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.292% was achieved by the DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film obtained from 9 min-dipping time. Furthermore, the stability of DSSCs was improved by using polymeric electrolyte. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and Polyacrylamide (PAM) were introduced to CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film from 9 min-dipping time. Each polymeric electrolyte was prepared by swelling from 0.1-2.0 %w in H2O. The maximal conversion efficiency of 0.207% was achieved for DSSCs based on CdS QDs-sensitized ZnO film with PAM 1.0% and the conversion efficiency was decreased 25% when it was left for1 hr.

  4. Same but different: Larval development and gall-inducing process of a non-pollinating fig wasp compared to that of pollinating fig-wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-González, Sergio; Teixeira, Simone de Padua; Kjellberg, Finn; Pereira, Rodrigo A. Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The receptacles of fig trees (Ficus spp.) can harbor a highly diversified and complex community of chalcid wasps. Functional groups of fig wasps (e.g. gallers, cleptoparasites and parasitoids) oviposit into the fig at different developmental stages, reflecting different feeding regimes for these insect larvae. There are few direct data available on larval feeding regimes and access to resources. We studied the gall induction and larval feeding strategy of an Idarnes (group flavicollis) species, a non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) associated to Ficus citrifolia P. Miller in Brazil. This Idarnes species shares with the pollinator characteristics such as time of oviposition, ovipositor insertion through flower and location of the egg inside plant ovaries. Nevertheless, we show that the gall induction differs considerably from that of the pollinating species. This Idarnes species relies on the induction of nucellus cell proliferation for gall formation and as the main larval resource. This strategy enables it to develop in both pollinated and unpollinated figs. The large differences between this NPFW and other fig wasps in how ovules are galled suggest that there are different ways to be a galler. A functional analysis of NPFW community structure may require descriptions of the histological processes associated with larval development.

  5. Photocatalytic action of AgCl nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, Deenadayalan; Palanichamy, V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2014-09-01

    The scientific community is searching for biosynthetic methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles. Biogenic pathway has now become a vast developing area of research. A novel route biological synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCI-NPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Morindacitrifolia under ambient conditions were evaluated. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of pH on biosynthesis of AgCI-NPs were investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. TEM images showed that the diameter of stable AgCI-NPs were approximately 12 nm. FTIR spectra provide the evidence for the presence of protein as possible biomolecules responsible for reduction and capping of nanoparticles. The synthesized AgCI-NPs were observed to have a good catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue (MB) dye by M.citrifolia extract which has been confirmed by decrease in absorbance maximum values of methylene blue with respect to time using UV-vis spectroscopy and was attributed to the electron relay effect. PMID:25022464

  6. Isolation of colour components from native dye-bearing plants in northeastern India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Ranjana; Saikia, C N

    2005-02-01

    Recently dyes derived from natural sources have emerged as important alternatives to synthetic dyes. A study was initiated in the year 2000 at the RRL (CSIR), Jorhat to extract dyes from parts of five different plant species indigenous to northeastern India. The colour components responsible for dyeing were isolated and their chemical constituents were established based on chemical and spectroscopic investigations. The principal colour components from the species Morinda angustifolia Roxb., Rubia cordifolia Linn. and Tectona grandis Linn. were found to contain mainly anthraquinone moieties in their molecules. Those from the species Mimusops elengi Linn. and Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. contained flavonoid moieties in their molecules. The absorption of dye (%) on fibres increased with increasing concentrations of dye in the dye-bath. Maximum absorption of dyes on fibres was obtained at 3% concentration of dyes obtained from R. cordfolia (35.350%), M. angustifolia (31.580%) and T. grandis (25.888%) and at 4% concentration of the dyes from M. elengi (31.917%) and T. arjuna (12.246%). The K/S values were found to increase with the increase in concentration of mordants. The colour co-ordinates of dyed samples were found to lie in the yellow-red quadrant of the colour space diagram. The dyes obtained from the native plants may be alternative sources to synthetic dyes for the dyeing of natural silk and cotton. PMID:15474939

  7. In vitro effects of four tropical plants on three life-cycle stages of the parasitic nematode, Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Hounzangbe-Adote, M S; Paolini, V; Fouraste, I; Moutairou, K; Hoste, H

    2005-04-01

    Alcoholic extracts of four tropical plants (Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides, Newbouldia laevis, Morinda lucida and Carica papaya) were screened in vitro for potential anti-parasitic effects against eggs, infective larvae and adult Haemonchus contortus. Significant effects were obtained with all four plants but differences were observed depending on the parasitic stage. The effects of the four plant extracts were similar on egg hatching and were dose dependent. In contrast, no dose-response relationship was found for infective larvae and adult worms, although more potent effects were usually observed with the highest concentrations. Using a larval inhibition migration test, extracts of fagara (Z. zanthoxyloides) were found to be less active against Haemonchus infective larvae than were the other plants. N. laevis was found to be highly and rapidly effective against adult worms. Overall, these in vitro results suggest that these four plants, traditionally used by small farmers in Western Africa, do possess anti-parasitic properties. These effects remain to be confirmed through in vivo studies. PMID:15563923

  8. Monotropein exerts protective effects against IL-1β-induced apoptosis and catabolic responses on osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Longhuo; Li, Linfu; Chen, Siyi

    2014-12-01

    Osteoarthritis, characterized by a loss of articular cartilage accompanied with inflammation, is the most common age-associated degenerative disease. Monotropein, an iridoids glycoside isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis How, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, monotropein was firstly to exhibit cartilage protective activity by down regulating the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the knee synovial fluid in vivo. The anti-apoptotic and anti-catabolic effects of monotropein on rat OA chondrocytes treated by IL-1β were investigated in vitro. In cultured chondrocytes, monotropein attenuated apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in response to IL-1β stimulation. Moreover, treatment with monotropein, the expressions of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased, the expression of COL2A1 was increased. Taken together, these findings suggested that monotropein exerted anti-apoptosis and anti-catabolic activity in chondrocytes, which might support its possible therapeutic role in OA. PMID:25466264

  9. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Lu, Lina; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348

  10. Metabolic Signatures of Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome and Protective Effects of Two Herbal Extracts in Rats Using GC/TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linjing; Wu, Hongbing; Qiu, Mingfeng; Sun, Wei; Wei, Runmin; Zheng, Xiaojiao; Yang, Yiting; Xin, Xue; Zou, Haimiao; Chen, Tianlu; Liu, Jiajian; Su, Jing; Ma, Chungwah; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Kidney Yang Deficiency Syndrome (KDS-Yang), a typical condition in Chinese medicine, shares similar clinical signs of the glucocorticoid withdrawal syndrome. To date, the underlying mechanism of KDS-Yang has been remained unclear, especially at the metabolic level. In this study, we report a metabolomic profiling study on a classical model of KDS-Yang in rats induced by hydrocortisone injection to characterize the metabolic transformation using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. WKY1, a polysaccharide extract from Astragalus membranaceus and Lycium barbarum, and WKY2, an aqueous extract from a similar formula containing Astragalus membranaceus, Lycium barbarum, Morinda officinalis, Taraxacum mongolicum, and Cinnamomum cassia presl, were used separately for protective treatments of KDS-Yang. The changes of serum metabolic profiles indicated that significant alterations of key metabolic pathways in response to abrupt hydrocortisone perturbation, including decreased energy metabolism (lactic acid, acetylcarnitine), lipid metabolism (free fatty acids, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol, and cholesterol), gut microbiota metabolism (indole-3-propionic acid), biosynthesis of catecholamine (norepinephrine), and elevated alanine metabolism, were attenuated or normalized with different degrees by the pretreatment of WKY1 or WKY2, which is consistent with the observations in which the two herbal agents could ameliorate biochemical markers of serum cortisone, adrenocorticotropic (ACTH), and urine 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS). PMID:24159348

  11. Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bagavan, A; Rahuman, A A; Kamaraj, C; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-06-01

    The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Leucas aspera, Morinda tinctoria and Ocimum sanctum were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. aspera led to the separation and identification ofa saponin as a potential mosquito larvicidal compound, with LC50 value of 18.20 and 27.24 ppm against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the saponin from the ethyl acetate extract of A. aspera. This study investigates the potential of crude extracts from commonly used medical herbs in India as an environmentally safe measure to control the vector of dengue and lymphatic filariasis. PMID:18392726

  12. Toxicity and mutagenic activity of some selected Nigerian plants.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, A A; Fakoya, F A; Awopetu, I; Omobuwajo, O R; Adesanya, S A

    2007-09-25

    The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic. PMID:17707603

  13. Sub-Saharan Rubiaceae: a review of their traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Karou, Simplice D; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Ilboudo, Denise P; Simpore, Jacques

    2011-02-01

    Rubiaceae family is a large family of 630 genera and about 13000 species found worldwide, especially in tropical and warm regions. These plants are not only ornamental but they are also used in African folk medicine to treat several diseases. Based on online published data and library bibliographic research, we herein reported accumulated information related to their traditional usages in sub-Saharan traditional medicine, their chemical composition and the screened pharmacological activities. Indeed, more than 60 species are used for more than 70 medicinal indications including malaria, hepatitis, eczema, oedema, cough, hypertension, diabetes and sexual weakness. Through biological screening following leads supplied with traditional healers, many of these plants exhibited antimalarial, antimicrobial, antihypertension, antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Bioactive compounds including indole alkaloids, terpenoids and anthraquinones have been isolated from these bioguided fractionation studies. It is evidence that great attention has been paid to species such as Nauclea latifolia, Morinda lucida, Mitragyna inermis and Crossopteryx febrifuga; however, several compounds should be waiting to be discovered since none of these plants has been systematically investigated for its biochemical composition. According the current global health context with the recrudescence of HIV, much effort should be oriented towards this virus when screening Rubiaceae. PMID:21870639

  14. Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vanaja, M.; Paulkumar, K.; Baburaja, M.; Rajeshkumar, S.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Malarkodi, C.; Sivakavinesan, M.; Annadurai, G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72 h of exposure time. PMID:24772055

  15. Secondary metabolites from Rubiaceae species.

    PubMed

    Martins, Daiane; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica

    2015-01-01

    This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psychotria, Hedyotis, Ophiorrhiza and Morinda. The occurrence and distribution of iridoids, alkaloids and anthraquinones point out their chemotaxonomic correlation among tribes and subfamilies. From an evolutionary point of view, Rubioideae is the most ancient subfamily, followed by Ixoroideae and finally Cinchonoideae. The chemical biosynthetic pathway, which is not so specific in Rubioideae, can explain this and large amounts of both iridoids and indole alkaloids are produced. In Ixoroideae, the most active biosysthetic pathway is the one that produces iridoids; while in Cinchonoideae, it produces indole alkaloids together with other alkaloids. The chemical biosynthetic pathway now supports this botanical conclusion. PMID:26205062

  16. Reading and reading instruction for children from low-income and non-English-speaking households.

    PubMed

    Lesaux, Nonie K

    2012-01-01

    Although most young children seem to master reading skills in the early grades of elementary school, many struggle with texts as they move through middle school and high school. Why do children who seem to be proficient readers in third grade have trouble comprehending texts in later grades? To answer this question, Nonie Lesaux describes what is known about reading development and instruction, homing in on research conducted with children from low-income and non-English-speaking homes. Using key insights from this research base, she offers two explanations. The first is that reading is a dynamic and multifaceted process that requires continued development if students are to keep pace with the increasing demands of school texts and tasks. The second lies in the role of reading assessment and instruction in U.S. schools. Lesaux draws a distinction between the "skills-based competencies" that readers need to sound out and recognize words and the "knowledge-based competencies" that include the conceptual and vocabulary knowledge necessary to comprehend a text's meaning. Although U.S. schools have made considerable progress in teaching skills-based reading competencies that are the focus of the early grades, most have made much less progress in teaching the knowledge-based competencies students need to support reading comprehension in middle and high school. These knowledge-based competencies are key sources of lasting individual differences in reading outcomes, particularly among children growing up in low-income and non-English-speaking households. Augmenting literacy rates, Lesaux explains, will require considerable shifts in the way reading is assessed and taught in elementary and secondary schools. First, schools must conduct comprehensive reading assessments that discern learners' (potential) sources of reading difficulties--in both skills-based and knowledge-based competencies. Second, educators must implement instructional approaches that offer promise for

  17. Impact of Funding Source on Clinical Trial Results Including Cardiovascular Outcome Trials.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Haris; Raza, Sajjad; Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Krasuski, Richard A

    2015-12-15

    Previous authors have suggested a higher likelihood for industry-sponsored (IS) studies to have positive outcomes than non-IS studies, though the influence of publication bias was believed to be a likely confounder. We attempted to control for the latter using a prepublication database to compare the primary outcome of recent trials based on sponsorship. We used the "advanced search" feature in the clinicaltrials.gov website to identify recently completed phase III studies involving the implementation of a pharmaceutical agent or device for which primary data were available. Studies were categorized as either National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored or IS. Results were labeled "favorable" if the results favored the intervention under investigation or "unfavorable" if the intervention fared worse than standard medical treatment. We also performed an independent literature search to identify the cardiovascular trials as a case example and again categorized them into IS versus NIH sponsored. A total of 226 studies sponsored by NIH were found. When these were compared with the latest 226 IS studies, it was found that IS studies were almost 4 times more likely to report a positive outcome (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6087 to 5.9680, p <0.0001). As a case example of a specialty, we also identified 25 NIH-sponsored and 215 IS cardiovascular trials, with most focusing on hypertension therapy (31.6%) and anticoagulation (17.9%). IS studies were 7 times more likely to report favorable outcomes (OR 7.54, 95% CI 2.19 to 25.94, p = 0.0014). They were also considerably less likely to report unfavorable outcomes (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.26, p <0.0001). In conclusion, the outcomes of large clinical studies especially cardiovascular differ considerably on the basis of their funding source, and publication bias appears to have limited influence on these findings. PMID:26611124

  18. Frequent, unconventional structural changes of the human Y chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.R.

    1994-09-01

    Six human cell lines in which the Y/autosome translocations were suspected by the conventional chromosome banding study exhibited unconventional, complex structural rearrangements of the Y chromosome. These translocations included Yqter{r_arrow}Yq12::Ycen{r_arrow}Yp11 (or Yq11{r_arrow}Ycen)::9pter{r_arrow}9qter; insertion of Ycen interstitially to an autosome; interstitial insertion of two Yq12 segments separated by an euchromatic non-Y segment; and multiple Y/autosomal translocations containing unequal Yq12 segments. These markers required three or more breaks/reunions. Loci of breaks and retaining segments of the Y chromosome were identified by the combination of conventional chromosome bandings, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and Southern blot DNA analyses. Extensive structural rearrangements involving the Y chromosome were evident. The heterochromatic Y segments retained in cell lines of male donor origins at a distinctively higher rate than the euchromatic Y arms. The Y/A markers were present in all cells and paired Y/As were found in some cell lines. These facts strongly suggested that at least some of these markers were present in the tissue explant, but not entirely derived newly in vitro. These naturally occurring structural changes of the Y chromosomes are very complex, and often rather unique. Therefore, a single Y/A marker chromosome may be used solely to identify a cell line; cell lines with the unique aberration(s) can be collated to construct a Y segment sequential panel for mapping genes; and the unique Y/A translocations can be used to discriminate a DNA segment at multiple sites on the Y chromosome arm simultaneously.

  19. The vital role of polymerase ζ and REV1 in mutagenic, but not correct, DNA synthesis across benzo[a]pyrene-dG and recruitment of polymerase ζ by REV1 to replication-stalled site.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Keiji; Cho, Youngjin; Yang, In-Young; Akagi, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Eiji; Tateishi, Satoshi; de Wind, Niels; Hanaoka, Fumio; Ohmori, Haruo; Moriya, Masaaki

    2012-03-16

    The DNA synthesis across DNA lesions, termed translesion synthesis (TLS), is a complex process influenced by various factors. To investigate this process in mammalian cells, we examined TLS across a benzo[a]pyrene dihydrodiol epoxide-derived dG adduct (BPDE-dG) using a plasmid bearing a single BPDE-dG and genetically engineered mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). In wild-type MEFs, TLS was extremely miscoding (>90%) with G → T transversions being predominant. Knockout of the Rev1 gene decreased both the TLS efficiency and the miscoding frequency. Knockout of the Rev3L gene, coding for the catalytic subunit of pol ζ, caused even greater decreases in these two TLS parameters; almost all residual TLS were error-free. Thus, REV1 and pol ζ are critical to mutagenic, but not accurate, TLS across BPDE-dG. The introduction of human REV1 cDNA into Rev1(-/-) MEFs restored the mutagenic TLS, but a REV1 mutant lacking the C terminus did not. Yeast and mammalian three-hybrid assays revealed that the REV7 subunit of pol ζ mediated the interaction between REV3 and the REV1 C terminus. These results support the hypothesis that REV1 recruits pol ζ through the interaction with REV7. Our results also predict the existence of a minor REV1-independent pol ζ recruitment pathway. Finally, although mutagenic TLS across BPDE-dG largely depends on RAD18, experiments using Polk(-/-) Polh(-/-) Poli(-/-) triple-gene knockout MEFs unexpectedly revealed that another polymerase(s) could insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG. This indicates that a non-Y family polymerase(s) can insert a nucleotide opposite BPDE-dG, but the subsequent extension from miscoding termini depends on REV1-polζ in a RAD18-dependent manner. PMID:22303021

  20. The Kl-3 Loop of the Y Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster Binds a Tektin-like Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, C.; Bonaccorsi, S.; Gatti, M.

    1993-01-01

    Primary spermatocyte nuclei of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit three giant lampbrush-like loops formed by the kl-5, kl-3 and ks-1 Y-chromosome fertility factors. These structures contain and abundantly transcribe highly repetitive, simple sequence DNAs and accumulate large amounts of non-Y-encoded proteins. By immunizing mice with the 53-kD fraction (enriched in β(2)-tubulin) excised from a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel loaded with Drosophila testis proteins we raised a polyclonal antibody, designated as T53-1, which decorates the kl-3 loop and the sperm flagellum. Two dimensional immunoblot analysis showed that the T53-1 antibody reacts with a single protein of about 53 kD, different from the tubulins and present both in X/Y and X/O males. Moreover, the antigen recognized by the T53-1 antibody proved to be testis-specific because it was detected in testes and seminal vesicles but not in other male tissues or in females. The characteristics of the protein recognized by the T53-1 antibody suggested that it might be a member of a class of axonemal proteins, the tektins, known to form Sarkosyl-urea insoluble filaments in the wall of flagellar microtubules. Purification of the Sarkosyl-urea insoluble fraction of D. melanogaster sperm revealed that it contains four polypeptides having molecular masses ranging from 51 to 57 kD. One of these polypeptides reacts strongly with the T53-1 antibody but none of them reacts with antitubulin antibodies. These results indicate that the kl-3 loop binds a non-Y encoded, testis-specific, tektin-like protein which is a constituent of the sperm flagellum. This finding supports the hypothesis that the Y loops fulfill a protein-binding function required for the proper assembly of the axoneme components. PMID:8454204

  1. Use of in ovo chorioallantoic membrane engraftment to culture testes from neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Emi; Takino, Sachio; Okajima, Hidemi; Tong, Bin; Sugiyama, Toshie; Yamada, Takahisa; Niimura, Sueo; Yamashiro, Hideaki

    2014-08-01

    Many attempts have been made to culture germ cells in vitro by mimicking their development in vivo. The objective of this study was to establish an alternative method of xenotransplantation by developing a new approach for the rapid induction of spermatogenesis by using the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos. Fertilized chicken eggs were incubated for 7 d, after which a small window was cut into the shell of the egg. We then transplanted testes from 7- to 8-d-old B6D2F1 mice onto the vessels of the chorioallantoic membrane and incubated them at 35.0 °C for 14 d or 37.5 °C for 12 d. After this in ovo CAM (iCAM) culture, the survival rates of the eggs and testes were assessed histologically and immunohistologically. The transplanted testes in the chicken embryos that survived were supported by the CAM, with an associated chronic vascularization response. The testes cultured at 35.0 °C had lower rates of generation and higher rates of death than did those cultured at 37.5 °C. Histologic examination of the testes cultured at 37.5 °C revealed the presence of spermatogonia and primary spermatocyte-like germ cells in the seminiferous tubules. The number of cells positive for synaptonemal complex protein 3 in the seminiferous tubules was significantly higher than that in the noniCAM-cultured testes from control mice. These results suggest that iCAM culturing of neonatal donor testis induces androcyte development. This method could be the foundation for a method that would enable in vitro spermatogenesis. PMID:25296013

  2. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Heer, Katrin; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Albrecht, Larissa; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Staeps, Felix C; Herre, Edward Allen; Dick, Christopher W

    2015-01-01

    Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs. PMID:26226482

  3. Spatial Scales of Genetic Structure in Free-Standing and Strangler Figs (Ficus, Moraceae) Inhabiting Neotropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Heer, Katrin; Albrecht, Larissa; García-Villacorta, Roosevelt; Staeps, Felix C.; Herre, Edward Allen; Dick, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Wind-borne pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) can transport fig (Ficus sp., Moraceae) pollen over enormous distances (> 100 km). Because of their extensive breeding areas, Neotropical figs are expected to exhibit weak patterns of genetic structure at local and regional scales. We evaluated genetic structure at the regional to continental scale (Panama, Costa Rica, and Peru) for the free-standing fig species Ficus insipida. Genetic differentiation was detected only at distances > 300 km (Jost´s Dest = 0.68 ± 0.07 & FST = 0.30 ± 0.03 between Mesoamerican and Amazonian sites) and evidence for phylogeographic structure (RST>>permuted RST) was only significant in comparisons between Central and South America. Further, we assessed local scale spatial genetic structure (SGS, d ≤ 8 km) in Panama and developed an agent-based model parameterized with data from F. insipida to estimate minimum pollination distances, which determine the contribution of pollen dispersal on SGS. The local scale data for F. insipida was compared to SGS data collected for an additional free-standing fig, F. yoponensis (subgenus Pharmacosycea), and two species of strangler figs, F. citrifolia and F. obtusifolia (subgenus Urostigma) sampled in Panama. All four species displayed significant SGS (mean Sp = 0.014 ± 0.012). Model simulations indicated that most pollination events likely occur at distances > > 1 km, largely ruling out spatially limited pollen dispersal as the determinant of SGS in F. insipida and, by extension, the other fig species. Our results are consistent with the view that Ficus develops fine-scale SGS primarily as a result of localized seed dispersal and/or clumped seedling establishment despite extensive long-distance pollen dispersal. We discuss several ecological and life history factors that could have species- or subgenus-specific impacts on the genetic structure of Neotropical figs. PMID:26226482

  4. Protective effect of Bajijiasu against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ling; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Shuai, Ou; Zhang, He-Ming; Liu, Song-Hao; Wang, Jin-Yu

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), is also directly neurotoxic. Mitigation of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is thus a possible therapeutic approach to delay or prevent onset and progression of AD. This study evaluated the protective effect of Bajijiasu (β- D-fructofuranosyl (2-2) β- D-fructofuranosyl), a dimeric fructose isolated from the Chinese herb Radix Morinda officinalis, on Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Bajijiasu alone had no endogenous neurotoxicity up to 200 μM. Brief pretreatment with 10-40 μM Bajijiasu (2 h) significantly reversed the reduction in cell viability induced by subsequent 24 h exposure to Aβ25-35 (21 μM) as measured by MTT and LDH assays, and reduced Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis as indicated by reduced annexin V-EGFP staining. Bajijiasu also decreased the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in PC12 cells, upregulated expression of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase, prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm), and blocked Aβ25-35-induced increases in [Ca(2+)] i . Furthermore, Bajijiasu reversed Aβ25-35-induced changes in the expression levels of p21, CDK4, E2F1, Bax, NF-κB p65, and caspase-3. Bajijiasu is neuroprotective against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, likely by protecting against oxidative stress and ensuing apoptosis. PMID:23812758

  5. Effects of herbal preparation Equiguard on hormone-responsive and hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma cells: mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Lu, Xiaohua; Guo, Junqiao; Xiong, Wen; Kunicki, Jan; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wu, Joseph M

    2002-04-01

    The Equiguard is a dietary supplement comprised of standardized extracts from nine herbs, respectively, Herba epimedium brevicornum Maxim (stem and leaves), Radix morindae officinalis (root), Fructus rosa laevigatae michx (fruit), Rubus chingii Hu (fruit), Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill (fruit), Ligustrum lucidum Ait (fruit), Cuscuta chinensis Lam (seed), Psoralea corylifolia L. (fruit), and Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge (root). This proprietary product, formulated according to Chinese traditional medicinal concepts, is aimed at restoring harmony in the of the kidney, an organ which Chinese medicinal principles consider to be vital for invigorating as well as maintaining balance of the entire urological system. As the prostate is an integral component of the urological system, we performed in vitro studies to test the effects of ethanol extracts of Equiguard to modulate prostate growth and gene expression. These studies used prostate cancer cells mimicking the androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) states of prostate carcinogenesis. Results show that Equiguard significantly reduced cancer cell growth, induced apoptosis, suppressed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and lowered intracellular and secreted prostate specific antigen (PSA), and almost completely abolished colony forming abilities of prostate cancer cells. These data support the interpretation that this herbal formulation contains ingredients that collectively may be efficacious in preventing or treating AD and AI prostate carcinoma. The anti-prostatic activities of Equiguard may stem from its complex composition capable of targeting multiple signal transduction/metabolic pathways, to effectively correct, counteract or circumvent the impaired or dysfunctional mechanisms accompanying different stages of prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:11894110

  6. In vitro studies on the sensitivity pattern of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs and local herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The resistance of human malaria parasites to anti-malarial compounds has become considerable concern, particularly in view of the shortage of novel classes of anti-malarial drugs. One way to prevent resistance is by using new compounds that are not based on existing synthetic antimicrobial agents. Results Sensitivity of 100 Plasmodium falciparum isolates to chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, mefloquine, sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, artemisinin, Momordica charantia (‘Ejirin’) Diospyros monbuttensis (‘Egun eja’) and Morinda lucida (‘Oruwo’) was determined using the in vitro microtest (Mark III) technique to determine the IC50 of the drugs. All the isolates tested were sensitive to quinine, mefloquine and artesunate. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were resistant to chloroquine, 13% to amodiaquine and 5% to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Highest resistance to chloroquine (68.9%) was recorded among isolates from Yewa zone while highest resistance to amodiaquine (30%) was observed in Ijebu zone. Highest resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine was recorded in Yewa and Egba zones, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between the responses to artemisinin and mefloquine (P<0.05), artemisinin and quinine (P<0.05) and quinine and mefloquine (P<0.05). A negative correlation was observed between the responses to chloroquine and mefloquine (P>0.05). Highest anti-plasmodial activity was obtained with the ethanolic extract of D. monbuttensis (IC50 = 3.2nM) while the lowest was obtained from M. lucida (IC50 =25nM). Conclusions Natural products isolated from plants used in traditional medicine, which have potent anti-plasmodial action in vitro, represent potential sources of new anti-malarial drugs. PMID:24555525

  7. Geospatial modelling for groundwater quality mapping: a case study of Rupnagar district, Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, S.; Kaur, A.; Litoria, P.; Pateriya, B.

    2014-11-01

    Over period of time, the water usage and management is under stress for various reasons including pollution in both surface and subsurface. The groundwater quality decreases due to the solid waste from urban and industrial nodes, rapid use of insecticides and pesticides in agricultural practices. In this study, ground water quality maps for Rupnagar district of Punjab has been prepared using geospatial interpolation technique through Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) approach. IDW technique has been used for major ground water quality parameters observed from the field samples like Arsenic, Hardness, pH, Iron, Fluoride, TDS, and Sulphate. To assess the ground water quality of the Rupnagar district, total 280 numbers of samples from various sources of tubewells for both pre and post monsoon have collected. Out of which, 80 to 113 samples found Iron with non potable limits ranging 0.3-1.1mg/l and 0.3-1.02mg/l according to BIS standard for both the seasons respectively. Chamkaur Sahib, Rupnagar, Morinda blocks have been found non potable limit of iron in both pre & post-monsoon. 11 to 52 samples in this region have sulphate with permissible limits in both the season ranging 200-400mg/l and 201-400mg/l. But arsenic had acceptable limit in both the season. Various parameters-wise ground water quality map is generated using the range values of drinking water quality to know the distribution of different parameters and diversification in the concentration of different elements. These maps are very much needful for human being to expand awareness among the people to maintain the Cleanness of water at their highest quality and purity levels to achieve a healthy life.

  8. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  9. [Cloud Point extraction for determination of mercury in Chinese herbal medicine by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry with optimization using Box-Behnken design].

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Li, Shan; Zhou, Jian-dong; Xu, Ying; Long, Jun-biao; Yang, Bing-yi

    2014-08-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Hg in Chinese herbal medicine samples by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). Hg2+ was reacted with dithizone to form hydrophobic chelate under the condition of pH. Using Triton X-114, as surfactant, chelate was quantitatively extracted into small volume of the surfactant-rich phase by heating the solution in a water bath for 15 min and centrifuging. Four variables including pH, dithizone concentration, Triton X-114 concentration and equilibrium temperature (T) showed the significant effect on extraction efficiency of total Hg evaluated by single-factor experiment, and Box-Behnken design and response surface method- ology were adopted to further investigate the mutual interactions between these variables and to identify their optimal values that would generate maximum extraction efficiency. The results showed that the binomial was used to fit the response to experimental levels of each variable. ALL linear, quadratic terms of four variables, and interactions between pH and Trion X-114, pH and di- thizone affected the response value(extraction efficiency) significantly at 5% level. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: pH 5.1, Triton X-114 concentration of 1.16 g x L(-1), dithizone concentration of 4.87 mol x L(-1), and T 58.2 degrees C, the predicted value of fluorescence was 4528.74 under the optimum conditions, and the experimental value had only 2.1% difference with it. Under the conditions, fluorescence was linear to mercury concentration in the range of 1-5 microg x L(-1). The limit of detection obtained was 0.01247 microg x L(-1) with the relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for six replicate determinations of 1.30%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of Hg in morindae Radix, Andrographitis and dried tangerine samples with the recoveries of 95.0%-100.0%. Apparently Box-Behnken design combined with

  10. Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

    2009-09-25

    The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacities of some Nigerian indigenous medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Akinmoladun, Afolabi C; Obuotor, Efere M; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2010-04-01

    Methanolic extracts of 10 selected Nigerian medicinal plants-Psidium guajava, Alstonia boonei, Cassia alata, Newbouldia laevis, Spondias mombin, Globimetula cupulatum, Chromolaena odorata, Securidaca longepedunculata, Ocimum gratissimum, and Morinda lucida-widely used in ethnomedicine, were assessed for phytochemical constituents and antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using seven different antioxidant assay methods. Phytochemical screening gave positive tests for steroids, terpenoids, and cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids contained in the extracts. P. guajava contained the highest amount of total phenolics (380.08 +/- 4.40 mg/L gallic acid equivalents), and the highest amounts of total flavonoids were found in the leaf extracts of C. alata (275.16 +/- 1.62 microg/mL quercetin equivalents [QE]), C. odorata (272.12 +/- 2.32 microg/mL QE), and P. guajava (269.72 +/- 2.78 microg/mL QE). Percentage 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was highest in S. mombin (88.58 +/- 3.04%) and P. guajava (82.79 +/- 2.84%) and compared with values obtained for ascorbic acid and gallic acid. All the extracts, generally, had low nitric oxide radical scavenging activities, and G. cupulatum had the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (63.84 +/- 0.97%). The extracts in general demonstrated high lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, with only M. lucida (38.74 +/- 1.99%) and A. boonei (47.16 +/- 0.59%) being exceptions. The reductive potential was highest in P. guajava (0.79 +/- 0.04) and least in S. longepedunculata (0.26 +/- 0.00). DPPH assay correlated well with total phenolic contents (r(2) = 0.76) and reductive potential (r(2) = 0.81) and fairly with lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (r(2) = 0.51). There was a good correlation between total phenolic contents and reductive potential (r(2) = 0.79) and a fair correlation between total phenolic contents and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (r(2

  12. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuna Kadugu (NK), a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose) were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats. There were no delayed effects

  13. Fiscal Year 1998 Well Installation, Plugging and Abandonment, and Redevelopment summary report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment, and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1998 at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Five new groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the Y-12 Plant under the FY 1998 drilling program. Two of the wells are located in west Bear Creek Valley, one is in the eastern Y-12 Plant area near Lake Reality, and two are located near the Oil Landfarm Waste Management Area, which were installed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (Bechtel Jacobs) as part of a site characterization activity for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Disposal Cell. Also, two existing wells were upgraded and nine temporary piezometers were installed to characterize hydrogeologic conditions at the Disposal Cell site. In addition, 40 temporary piezometers were installed in the Boneyard/Bumyard area of Bear Creek Valley by Bechtel Jacobs as part of the accelerated remedial actions conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program. Ten monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1998. Two existing monitoring wells were redeveloped during FY 1998 (of these, GW-732 was redeveloped tsvice). All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures from the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA 1992); and the Monitoring Well Installation Plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Energy Systems 1997a). Well installation and development of the non-Y-12 Plant GWPP oversight installation projects were conducted using procedures/guidance defined in the following documents: Work Plan for Support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek East End Volatile Organic Compound Plumes Well Installation Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge

  14. Soil water erosion on Mediterranean vineyards. A review based on published data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Cerdà, Artemi; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    soil and water management techniques to the farmers and implement soil erosion mitigation policies at appropriate spatial scales. Acknowledgements The RECARE project is funded by the European Commission FP7 program, ENV.2013.6.2-4 "Sustainable land care in Europe". References Blavet, D., De Noni, G., Le Bissonnais, Y., Leonard, M., Maillo, L., Laurent, J.Y., Asseline, J., Leprun, J. C., Arshad, M. A., Roose, E.: Effect of land use and management on the early stages of soil water erosion in French Mediterranean vineyards, Soil & Tillage Research, 106, 124-136, 2009. Brenot, J., Quiquerez, A., Petit, C., Garcia, J.-P., Davy, P.: Soil erosion rates in Burgundian vineyards, Bolletino della Società Geologica Italiana, Volume Speciale 6, 169-174, 2006. Casalí, J., Giménez, R., De Santisteban, L., Alvarez-Mozos, J., Mena, J., Del Valle de Lersundi, J.: Determination of long-term erosion rates in vineyards of Navarre (Spain) using botanical benchmarks, Catena, 78, 12-19, doi:10.1016/ j.catena.2009.02.015, 2009. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S. H.: Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils, Hydrological Processes, 21, 2325-2336, doi: 10.1016/j.catena.2008.03.010, 2007. Ferrero, A., Usowicz, B., Lipiec, J.: Effects of tractor traffic on spatial variability of soil strength and water content in grass covered and cultivated sloping vineyard, Soil & Tillage Research, 84, 127-138, 2005. Leh, M., Bajwa, S., Chaubey, I.: Impact of land use change on erosion risk: and integrated remote sensing geographic information system and modeling methodology, Land Degradation & Development, 24, 409- 421, doi 10.1002/ldr.1137, 2013. Leonard, J., Andrieux, P.: Infiltration characteristics of soils in Mediterranean vineyards in southern France, Catena, 32, 209-223, 1998. Martinez-Casasnovas, J. A., Ramos, M. C., Benites, G.: Soil and water assessment tool soil loss simulation at the sub-basin scale in the Alt Penedès-Anoia vineyard region (NE

  15. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Antarctic Meteorites: Preliminary Results on Terrestrial Ages and Temporal Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlovich, E.; Vogt, S.; Wolf, S. F.; Elmore, D.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1993-07-01

    the production rates for these radionuclides in this group of meteorites to be 18.2 +/- 2.3 and 58 +/- 13 dpm/kg respectively, consistent with production rates cited for falls [8]. Cosmic ray exposure ages using the ^10Be/^21Ne method outlined by Graf et al. [9] substantially agree with ages calculated from noble gases alone. Similar agreements are obtained between cosmic ray exposure ages based solely on noble gases and those calculated using ^26Al/^21Ne [9]. We calculated terrestrial ages using the secular equilibrium distribution for ^36Cl of 22.8 +/- 3.1 dpm/kg [10]. Our results are similar to those seen by Nishiizumi et al. [10], with a few ages ranging up to several hundred thousand years. It is worth noting that the Yamato meteorites measured in the present study, all of which happen to have been collected in the 1979 recovery effort ("Y79"), have a much older terrestrial age distribution (median age of 140 ka) than the Yamato distribution shown in [10]. We find it interesting that our Yamato age distribution is, however, consistent with the distribution of Y79 ages (median age, 110 ka) listed in [10], and that non-Y79 Yamato meteorites (median age in [10], 22 ka) seem to be responsible for a disproportionate number of the youngest Yamato meteorites. This possible collection area phenomenon is under investigation. Preliminary statistical analysis of the results using the preliminary terrestrial ages calculated here, trace-element data [3,4,11], and the methods elucidated in [2] is consistent with the notion that the meteorite flux sampled by the Earth has changed as a function of time. The latest results will be presented in Vail. References: [1] Koeberl C. and Cassidy W. A. (1991) GCA, 55, 3-18. [2] Lipschutz M. E. and Samuels S. M. (1991) GCA, 55, 19-34. [3] Wolf S. F. and Lipschutz M. E. (1992) LPS XXIII, 1545-1546. [4] Dodd R. T. et al. (1993) JGR, submitted. [5] Wetherill G. W. (1986) Nature, 319, 357-358. [6] Schultz L., personal communication. [7