Science.gov

Sample records for moringa oleifera lam

  1. Antileishmanial compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Preet Kamal; Singh, Sushma; Singh, Inder Pal

    2014-01-01

    The antileishmanial activity of extracts and phytoconstituents of Moringa oleifera Lam. was investigated in vitro against promastigotes of Leishmania donavani. The 70% ethanolic extract of roots and the methanolic extract of leaves showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 83.0 microg/ml and 47.5 microg/ml, respectively. Antileishmanial activity of the methanolic extract of leaves increased upon fractionation, as its ethyl acetate fraction was found to be more active with an IC50 value of 27.5 microg/ml. The most active antileishmanial compound niazinin, a thiocarbamate glycoside isolated from this fraction, showed an IC50 value of 5.25 microM. Results presented in this study indicate that extracts from M. oleifera may be developed as an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:24873031

  2. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

  3. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera. PMID:26032590

  4. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products.

    PubMed

    Limmatvapirat, C; Limmatvapirat, S; Charoenteeraboon, J; Wessapan, C; Kumsum, A; Jenwithayaamornwech, S; Luangthuwapranit, P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  5. Comparison of Eleven Heavy Metals in Moringa Oleifera Lam. Products

    PubMed Central

    Limmatvapirat, C.; Limmatvapirat, S.; Charoenteeraboon, J.; Wessapan, C.; Kumsum, A.; Jenwithayaamornwech, S.; Luangthuwapranit, P.

    2015-01-01

    Eleven heavy metals in various products of Moringa oleifera were analyzed to determine eleven heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The products of M. oleifera were purchased in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. All products were digested with nitric acid solution before determining the concentrations of heavy metals. The recoveries of all heavy metals were found to be in the range of 99.89-103.05%. Several criteria such as linearity, limits of detection, limits of quantification, specificity, precision under repeatability conditions and intermediate precision reproducibility were evaluated. Results indicate that this method could be used in the laboratory for determination of eleven heavy metals in M. oleifera products with acceptable analytical performance. The results of analysis showed that the highest concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, and Mn were found in tea leaves while the highest concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn were found in leaf capsules. Continuous monitoring of heavy metals in M. oleifera products is crucial for consumer health. PMID:26664066

  6. Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Chi-Wei; Chou, Jia-Ying; Murugan, M; Shieh, Bor-Jinn; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2007-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate the therapeutic properties of the seeds and leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam as herbal medicines. Ethanol extracts showed anti-fungal activities in vitro against dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum canis. GC-MS analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves showed a total of 44 compounds. Isolated extracts could be of use for the future development of anti-skin disease agents. PMID:16406607

  7. Protective effects of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Afzal; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Agarwal, Smita; Rahman, Mashiur; Islam, Khairul; Hossain, Ekhtear; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Karim, Md Rezaul; Nikkon, Farjana; Saud, Zahangir Alam; Hossain, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective role of leaves of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) Lam. against arsenic-induced toxicity in mice. Methods Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as non-treated control group while, the second, third, and fourth groups were treated with M. oleifera leaves (50 mg/kg body weight per day), sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg body weight per day) and sodium arsenite plus M. oleifera leaves, respectively. Serum indices related to cardiac, liver and renal functions were analyzed to evaluate the protective effect of Moringa leaves on arsenic-induced effects in mice. Results It revealed that food supplementation of M. oleifera leaves abrogated the arsenic-induced elevation of triglyceride, glucose, urea and the activities of alkaline phospatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. M. oleifera leaves also prevented the arsenic-induced perturbation of serum butyryl cholinesterase activity, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions The results indicate that the leaves of M. oleifera may be useful in reducing the effects of arsenic-induced toxicity. PMID:25183111

  8. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade

    PubMed Central

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Materials and Methods: Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Results: Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. Conclusions: These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing. PMID:22224061

  9. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) grown in Nigeria: In vitro antisickling activity on deoxygenated erythrocyte cells

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Olufunmilayo E.; Kolapo, Adelodun L.; Folarin, Akintomiwa O.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicine, which is more available and affordable for the poor uses medicinal plants for the treatment and management of various ailments, including the sickle cell disease (SCD). About 24 million Nigerians are carriers of this sickled cell gene, while approximately 2.4 million are SCD patients. Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) possesses high nutritional value and has been used in folklore medicine to treat various ailments related to pain and inflammation. Chemical, pharmacological and pharmacognostical applications of Moringa oleifera have been reported. Objective: This study investigated the antisickling potential of polar and non-polar extracts of the seed, flower and leaf of Moringa oleifera for the first time. Materials and Methods: Using crude methanol extract, aqueous extract, ethyl acetate and butanol, the in vitro antisickling activities of Moringa oleifera fractions, were evaluated using erythrocyte cells deoxygenated with 2% sodium metabisulphite. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid and normal saline were employed as positive and negative controls. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, free anthraquinones, and alkaloids. Extracts of the seed and flower demonstrated a higher (P<0.05) antisickling activity in comparison to the leaf extract. The leaf extract, as well as those of the seed and flower, equally demonstrated a (P<0.05) reversal of sickled erythrocytes. Discussions and Conclusions: These findings suggest that Moringa oleifera may play a role in the management of SCD, by incorporation of its fractions into recipes. More extensive biological evaluations and further studies will be necessary for the chemical characterization of the antisickling principles. PMID:22557922

  10. Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2014-08-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases. A simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was developed and validated for the determination of the contents of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, the primary antioxidative compounds, in M. oleifera leaves. HPLC analysis was successfully conducted by using a Hypersil BDS C18 column, eluted with a gradient of methanol-1% acetic acid with a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and detected at 334 nm. Parameters for the validation included linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. The developed HPLC method was precise, with relative standard deviation < 2%. The recovery values of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in M. oleifera leaf extracts were 98.50, 98.47 and 98.59%, respectively. The average contents of these compounds in the dried ethanolic extracts of the leaves of M. oleifera collected from different regions of Thailand were 0.081, 0.120 and 0.153% (w/w), respectively. The developed HPLC method was appropriate and practical for the simultaneous analysis of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin in the leaf extract of M. oleifera. This work is valuable as guidance for the standardization of the leaf extracts and pharmaceutical products of M. oleifera. PMID:23828911

  11. In vitro wound healing potential and identification of bioactive compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  12. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Pauzi, Nur Aimi Syarina; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro. PMID:24490175

  13. Anti-nutritional factors in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera (Lam).

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ezeonu, F C; Ezekwesili-Ofili, J O; Igwilo, S N; Nsofor, C I; Abdulsalami, M S; Obi, E

    2014-01-01

    The evergreen plant, Moringa oleifera (Lam) has been known to have both medicinal and nutritional properties, thus its wide use in traditional medicine in Africa and Asia. The roots, in particular, have been reported to possess antibiotic, anti-tumour and anti-oxidative activities. This study therefore seeks to determine the levels of the anti-nutritional factors and other proximate analyses in the roots of a local cultivar of Moringa oleifera which might be responsible for such activities. The concentrations of oxalates and phytates in the roots were determined using the methods of Munro and Bassir and Griffith and Thomas, respectively. The methods of Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) were used to estimate the amount of tannins, saponins and cyanogenic glycosides while the Technicon sequential Multi-sample amino acid analyzer (TSM) was used determine the amino acid concentration in the roots. Tannins (45 mg 100 g(-1)) and oxalates (17.08 mg 100 g(-1)) were present in the roots at higher levels while saponins (4.20mg 100 g(-1)), cyanogenic glycosides (2.72 mg 100 g(-1)) and phytates (0.07 mg 100 g(-1)) occurred at much lower levels. The roots contained (Mean +/- Standard Error of mean) %crude lipid (6.33 +/- 1.64), %crude proteins (5.02 +/- 1.52), %carbohydrates (76.75), %ash (4.97 +/- 0.53) and %moisture (6.93 +/- 0.58). The roots lacked the water-soluble vitamins pyridoxine, riboflavin and thiamine but contained ascorbic acid (48.13 mg 100 g(-1)) and niacin (5.83 mg 100 g(-1)). This study has shown that Moringa oleifera roots are rich in anti-nutritional factors and that is why they are widely used in traditional medicine in Africa, Asia and Americas for its medicinal importance. PMID:24783788

  14. Isolation and characterization of a flocculating protein from Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Gassenschmidt, U; Jany, K D; Tauscher, B; Niebergall, H

    1995-04-13

    A flocculating protein from the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. was isolated by extraction with phosphate buffer followed by cation exchange chromatography. The molecular mass of the protein determined by SDS-PAGE was about 6.5 kDa, the isoelectric point was above pH 10. Amino acid analysis and sequencing showed high contents of glutamine, arginine and proline, and a total of 60 residues. The amino terminus is blocked by pyroglutamate. The flocculant capacity, determined in glass powder suspension, is comparable to that of a cationic polymer on polyacrylamide basis. Flocculation activity may be explained by the patch charge mechanism due to low molecular weight and high charge density. PMID:7727523

  15. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. SUMMARY Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids

  16. Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Estelamar Maria Borges; Carvalho, Maria Regina Barbieri; Neves, Valdir Augusto; Silva, Maraíza Apareci; Arantes-Pereira, Lucas

    2014-03-15

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a leguminous plant, originally from Asia, which is cultivated in Brazil because of its low production cost. Although some people have used this plant as food, there is little information about its chemical and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to characterise the leaves of M. oleifera in terms of their chemical composition, protein fractions obtained by solubility in different systems and also to assess their nutritional quality and presence of bioactive substances. The whole leaf flour contained 28.7% crude protein, 7.1% fat, 10.9% ashes, 44.4% carbohydrate and 3.0mg 100g(-1) calcium and 103.1mg 100g(-1) iron. The protein profile revealed levels of 3.1% albumin, 0.3% globulins, 2.2% prolamin, 3.5% glutelin and 70.1% insoluble proteins. The hydrolysis of the protein from leaf flour employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) resulted in 39.5% and 29.5%, respectively. The total protein showed low in vitro digestibility (31.8%). The antinutritional substances tested were tannins (20.7 mg g(-1)), trypsin inhibitor (1.45TIU mg g(-1)), nitrate (17 mg g(-1)) and oxalic acid (10.5 mg g(-1)), besides the absence of cyanogenic compounds. β-Carotene and lutein stood out as major carotenoids, with concentrations of 161.0 and 47.0 μg g(-1) leaf, respectively. Although M. oleifera leaves contain considerable amount of crude protein, this is mostly insoluble and has low in vitro digestibility, even after heat treatment and chemical attack. In vivo studies are needed to better assess the use of this leaf as a protein source in human feed. PMID:24206684

  17. Bioremediation of Turbid Surface Water Using Seed Extract from the Moringa oleifera Lam. (Drumstick) Tree.

    PubMed

    Lea, Michael

    2014-01-01

    An indigenous water treatment method uses Moringa oleifera seeds in the form of a crude water-soluble extract in suspension, resulting in an effective natural clarification agent for highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water. Efficient reduction (80.0% to 99.5%) of high turbidity produces an aesthetically clear supernatant, concurrently accompanied by 90.00% to 99.99% (1 to 4 log) bacterial reduction. Application of this low-cost Moringa oleifera protocol is recommended for water treatment where rural and peri-urban people living in extreme poverty are presently drinking highly turbid and microbiologically contaminated water. PMID:24789599

  18. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  19. Moringa oleifera Lam prevents acetaminophen induced liver injury through restoration of glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I; Nanthini, U

    2008-08-01

    Initiation of acetaminophen (APAP) toxicities is believed to be promoted by oxidative stress during the event of overdosage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO), an Asian plant of high medicinal value, against a single high dose of APAP. Groups of five male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-administered with MO (200 and 800 mg/kg) prior to a single dose of APAP (3g/kg body weight; p.o). Silymarin was used as an established hepatoprotective drug against APAP induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of MO extract was observed following significant histopathological analysis and reduction of the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in groups pretreated with MO compared to those treated with APAP alone. Meanwhile, the level of glutathione (GSH) was found to be restored in MO-treated animals compared to the groups treated with APAP alone. These observations were comparable to the group pretreated with silymarin prior to APAP administration. Group that was treated with APAP alone exhibited high level of transaminases and ALP activities besides reduction in the GSH level. The histological hepatocellular deterioration was also evidenced. The results from the present study suggested that the leaves of MO can prevent hepatic injuries from APAP induced through preventing the decline of glutathione level. PMID:18514995

  20. Clinical Efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. Stems Bark in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common problem in clinical practice. Usually they are asymptomatic and are commonly present with distressing symptoms like pain and burning sensation on urination. Antibiotics are widely used to treat UTIs; however, they have their own limitations like resistance, reinfection, and relapses. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the value of Moringa oleifera Lam. stem bark as a potential medicine for UTIs. Study Design. 30 patients with UTI were randomly divided into two groups with 15 patients in each group. Shigru bark was given to patients of the first group (trial group) and modern medicines were prescribed to the other group of patients. At least three follow-ups are taken in both groups at the end of every week of treatment. Results. After treatment 66.67 % were cured, 13.33 % improved, 13.33% patients have no change, and 6.67% relapsed in trial group and in control group 46.67% were cured, 26.66% improved, 6.67% patients have no change, and 20% relapsed. Interpretation and Conclusion. The trial drug is significant in the management of UTI. This study needs to be done on a large scale and for a long time. PMID:27437504

  1. Uterine histoarchitecture during pre and post-implantation periods of rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A O; Pathak, S; Shukla, S; Mathur, R

    1987-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (roots) has been studied on histoarchitecture of the uterus during pre and post-implantation stages in rats so as to elucidate its antifertility mode of action. The histoarchitecture of the uterus of control pregnant rat had revealed a clear-cut close apposition of the uterine endometrium with reduced lumen and loose stroma. There was a prominent appearance of deciduoma and the uterine glands were enlarged. Glandular cells showed hypertrophy and in the endometrium the leucocytic infiltration was increased. When the aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. was administered, no deciduoma was observed on day 5th of pregnancy and the luminal epithelium remained unstimulated. The lumen was enlarged and the uterus was non-oedematous. It has been concluded that the administration of aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. to pregnant rats could not stimulate the uterus which remained non-receptive throughout the period of treatment, therefore, the fertilized eggs may not be welcomed by the unprepared uterus. PMID:3630576

  2. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2008-08-01

    To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNFalpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V(t)) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFalpha and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma. PMID:18686107

  3. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    PubMed Central

    Jafarain, Abbas; Asghari, Gholamreza; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera. PMID:25337524

  4. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P < 0.05) improved meat pH and water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated samples. No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples. PMID:23572848

  5. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage. PMID:24553063

  6. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Asghari, Gholamreza; Taheri, Diana; Saeidi, Mozhgan; Nasr-Esfahani, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4%) and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 ml/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6) and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm) as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg) were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg) was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive. PMID:25050310

  7. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  8. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  9. Preventive effects of Moringa oleifera (Lam) on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes in iron deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shinichi; Sato, Shigeru; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-08-01

    The effects of Moringa oleifera (MO), Moringaceae on hyperlipidemia and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes caused by iron deficiency were investigated. Four-week-old male Wistar-strain rats were fed a control diet based on AIN-93G (C), an iron deficient diet (FeD), a FeD + 0.5% MO (FeD-m) diet, or a FeD + MO 1% (FeD-M) diet for 4 weeks. It was found that MO reduced iron-deficient diet-induced increases in serum and hepatic lipids with dose-dependent increases of serum quercetin and kaempherol, but did not prevent anemia. By electron microscopy, in iron deficient hepatocytes, slightly swollen mitochondria and few glycogen granules were observed, but glycogen granules increased and mitochondria were normalized by treatment with MO. Furthermore, lipoproteins were observed in the Golgi complex under treatment with MO. These results suggest a possible beneficial effect of MO in the prevention of hyperlipidemia and ultrastructural changes in hepatocytes due to iron-deficiency. PMID:17690476

  10. Effects of Oral Administration of Moringa oleifera Lam on Glucose Tolerance in Goto-Kakizaki and Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Ndong, Moussa; Uehara, Mariko; Katsumata, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Kazuharu

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal plants constitute an important source of potential therapeutic agents for diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera (MO) Lam, Moringacea, on glucose tolerance in Wistar rats and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, modeled type 2 diabetes. Major polyphenols in MO powder were quercetin glucosides, rutin, kaempferol glycosides and chlorogenic acids by HPLC analysis. As the results of glucose tolerance test, MO significantly decreased the blood glucose at 20, 30, 45and 60 min for GK rats and at 10, 30 and 45 min for Wistar rats (p<0.05) compared to the both controls after glucose administration. The area under the curve of changes in the blood glucose was significantly higher in the GK control group than in the GK plus MO group (p<0.05) in the periods 30-60 min and 60-120 min. Furthermore, MO significantly decreased stomach emptying in GK rats (p<0.05). The results indicated that MO has an ameliorating effect for glucose intolerance, and the effect might be mediated by quercetin-3-glucoside and fiber contents in MO leaf powder. The action of MO was greater in GK rats than in Wistar rats. PMID:18398501

  11. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Siddhuraju, Perumal; Becker, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    Water, aqueous methanol, and aqueous ethanol extracts of freeze-dried leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. from different agroclimatic regions were examined for radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities. All leaf extracts were capable of scavenging peroxyl and superoxyl radicals. Similar scavenging activities for different solvent extracts of each collection were found for the stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) radical. Among the three different moringa samples, both methanol and ethanol extracts of Indian origins showed the highest antioxidant activities, 65.1 and 66.8%, respectively, in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid system. Nonetheless, increasing concentration of all the extracts had significantly (P < 0.05) increased reducing power, which may in part be responsible for their antioxidant activity. The major bioactive compounds of phenolics were found to be flavonoid groups such as quercetin and kaempferol. On the basis of the results obtained, moringa leaves are found to be a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their marked antioxidant activity. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from freeze-dried moringa leaves. Overall, both methanol (80%) and ethanol (70%) were found to be the best solvents for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from moringa leaves. PMID:12670148

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl₄-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl₄ treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves in Carbon Tetrachloride-Intoxicated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharmendra; Arya, Priya Vrat; Aggarwal, Ved Prakash; Gupta, Radhey Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of the extract of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatotoxic rats were treated with ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera for a period of 60 days at the following three dose levels; 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day, orally. The activities were studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like SGOT, SGPT, GGT, LDH, ALP, ACP, as well as total bilirubin, total protein and albumin in serum concomitantly with the activities of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GR and GPx in liver. The activities of all parameters registered a significant (p ≤ 0.001) alteration in CCl4 treated rats, which were significantly recovered towards an almost normal level in rats co-administered with M. oleifera extract in a dose-dependent manner. All the biochemical investigations were confirmed by the histopathological observations and compared with the standard drug. silymarin. Results suggest that the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of M. oleifera leaves are possibly related to the free radical scavenging activity which might be due to the presence of total phenolics and flavonoids in the extract and/or the purified compounds β-sitosterol, quercetin and kaempferol, which were isolated from the ethanol extract of M. oleifera leaves. PMID:26785072

  14. Direct effects of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) acetone leaf extract on broiler chickens naturally infected with Eimeria species.

    PubMed

    Ola-Fadunsin, Shola David; Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi

    2013-08-01

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of all broiler mortalities worldwide. The control of this disease relies mainly on the use of anticoccidial drugs. However, herbal preparations could be an alternative for the treatment against coccidiosis in chickens. The direct effects of Moringa oleifera acetone extracts on broiler chickens naturally infected with mixed Eimeria species was investigated to determine the relative efficacy of the extracts against coccidiosis in birds. The investigations were carried out in seven groups (ten chickens per group). The birds were given various doses (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g/kg body weight) of acetone extract of leaves of M. toltrazuril (positive control) and untreated (negative control). The extract was evaluated for anticoccidial activity by means of inhibition of oocyst output in faeces, faecal score, weight gain and mortality. Haematological indices were evaluated by standard methods. The group treated with 1.0 g/ kg body weight Moringa oleifera extract produced the least inhibitory effect on oocyst shed in the faeces (96.4%), while the groups treated with 2.0 g/kg, 3.0 g/kg, 4.0 g/kg and 5.0 g/kg body weight of the extract produced 97.4, 98.7, 99.1 and 99.8%, respectively. Body weight gains of infected chickens treated with the extract significantly improved (p < 0.05), and faecal scores were milder. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood count of the treated birds were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the infected untreated group. Moringa oleifera leaves could find application in the treatment of avian coccidiosis in veterinary practice. PMID:23440591

  15. Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

    2013-01-01

    The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anamika; Gautam, Manish K; Singh, Rahul K; Kumar, M Vijay; Rao, Ch V; Goel, R K; Anupurba, Shampa

    2010-11-01

    Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M. oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Different doses of MOE i.e. 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days. Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days. On day 16 and 19, hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin level (Hb), percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded. Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test. MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils, weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic index in normal and immunosuppressed mice. The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity. PMID:21117458

  17. Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, Sunday E; Atawodi, Joy C; Idakwo, Gabriel A; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Wurtele, Gerd; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Medicinal plants have been shown to have both chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects on cancer and other diseases related to oxidative damage. Moringa oleifera Lam., known in the Hausa and Igala languages of Nigeria as "Zogale" and "Gergedi," respectively, and drumstick in English, is a plant that is used both as food and in folkloric medicine in Nigeria and elsewhere. Different parts of the plant were analyzed for polyphenol content as well as in vitro antioxidant potential. The methanol extract of the leaves of M. oleifera contained chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside, whereas in the root and stem barks, several procyanidin peaks were detected. With the xanthine oxidase model system, all the extracts exhibited strong in vitro antioxidant activity, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 16, 30, and 38 microL for the roots, leaves, and stem bark, respectively. Similarly, potent radical scavenging capacity was observed when extracts were evaluated with the 2-deoxyguanosine assay model system, with IC(50) values of 40, 58, and 72 microL for methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks, respectively. The high antioxidant/radical scavenging effects observed for different parts of M. oleifera appear to provide justification for their widespread therapeutic use in traditional medicine in different continents. The possibility that this high antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity may impact on the cancer chemopreventive potential of the plant must be considered. PMID:20521992

  18. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits. PMID:25374169

  19. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oil from leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. cultivated in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Marrufo, Tatiana; Nazzaro, Filomena; Mancini, Emilia; Fratianni, Florinda; Coppola, Raffaele; De Martino, Laura; Agostinho, Adelaide Bela; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) grown in Mozambique was investigated. The chemical composition was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. Hexacosane (13.9%), pentacosane (13.3%) and heptacosane (11.4%) were the main components. Ultra High Performance Chromatography-DAD analysis detected the flavonoids quercetin (126 μg/g) and luteolin (6.2 μg/g). The essential oil exhibited a relatively low free radical scavenging capacity. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed against two Gram-positive strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and five fungal strains of agro-food interest (Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium digitatum, and Aspergillus niger spp.). B. cereus and P. aeruginosa, as well as the fungal strains were sensitive to the essential oil. PMID:24022760

  20. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%–24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  1. Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abubakar Amali; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Cheah, Pike See; Abas, Farida; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a serious complication of diabetes, which affects a significant percentage (15%) of diabetics and up to 15%-24% of those affected may require amputation. Therefore, the economic burden of diabetic foot ulcers is enormous and is associated with high cost of treatment and prolongs hospitalization. The present study was conducted to evaluate antibacterial and in vivo wound healing activities of an aqueous fraction of Moringa oleifera on a diabetic condition. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out using agar well and tube dilution techniques. The in vivo study was conducted using six groups of animals that comprise of one normal and diabetic control group each, three treatment groups of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction, and a positive control group (1% w/w silver sulfadiazine). Rats were induced with diabetes using a combination of streptozotocin 65 and 150 mg/kg nicotinamide daily for 2 days, and excision wounds were created and treated with various doses (0.5%, 1%, and 2% w/w aqueous fraction) daily for 21 days. Biophysical, histological, and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results of the study revealed that aqueous fraction possessed antibacterial activity through inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli organisms. The topical application of aqueous fraction revealed enhancement of wound healing under sustained hyperglycemic condition for the duration of the experiment. This enhancement was achieved through decreased wound size, improved wound contraction, and tissue regeneration, as well as downregulation of inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, and upregulation of an angiogenic marker vascular endothelial growth factor in wound tissue treated with various doses of aqueous fraction of M. oleifera. The findings suggest that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera

  2. Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunbinu, Akinola O; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier L; Adebayo, Muritala A; Ogunwande, Isiaka A

    2009-04-01

    The essential oils of four plant species from Nigeria have been extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The oils of Cajanus cajan were comprised of sesquiterpenes (92.5%, 81.2% and 94.3% respectively in the leaves, stem and seeds). The major compounds identified were alpha-himachalene (9.0-11.5%), beta-himachalene (8.0-11.0%), gamma-himachalene (6.9-8.1%), alpha-humulene (7.1-8.7%) and alpha-copaene (4.5-5.6%). However, monoterpenoid compounds (81.8%) dominated the oil of Moringa oleifera with an abundance of alpha-phellandrene (25.2%) and p-cymene (24.9%). On the other hand, aldehydes (52.8%) occurred in the highest amount in Heliotropium indicum, represented by phenylacetaldehyde (22.2%), (E)-2-nonenal (8.3%) and (E, Z)-2-nonadienal (6.1%), with a significant quantity of hexahydrofarnesylacetone (8.4%). The leaf and stem oils of Bidens pilosa were dominated by sesquiterpenes (82.3% and 59.3%, respectively). The main compounds in the leaf oil were caryophyllene oxide (37.0%), beta-caryophyllene (10.5%) and humulene oxide (6.0%), while the stem oils had an abundance of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (13.4%), delta-cadinene (12.0%) and caryophyllene oxide (11.0%). The observed chemical patterns differ considerably from previous investigations. PMID:19476009

  3. Simultaneous analysis of eight vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ningli; Gong, Xiao; Feng, Cuiping; Wang, Xiaoxi; Xu, Yongwei; Lin, Lijing

    2016-09-15

    A new method for simultaneous determination of eight vitamin E isomers including α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol by ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC(2)) equipped with a diode array detector was reported. They were separated on a BEH 2-EP column (3.0 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution (95:5-80:20) with a mobile phase consisted of CO2 and methanol:isopropanol (1:1, v/v), back pressure of 1800 psi, flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and detection at 294 nm. The results showed good linearity (R(2)=0.9990-0.9998) and high resolution (1.48-7.67). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) ranged from 23-49 ng/L and 70-150 ng/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were 0.62-3.16% and 0.82-3.34%, respectively. Moreover, this method was successfully applied to analysis the vitamin E isomers in Moringa oleifera leaf samples. PMID:27080892

  4. Inhibitory effect of n-butanol fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a guinea pig model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Banerjee, Aryamitra; Chauhan, Bhupendrasinh F; Padh, Harish; Nivsarkar, Manish; Mehta, Anita A

    2009-01-01

    Moringaceae, which belongs to the Moringa oleifera Lam. family, is a well-known herb used in Asian medicine as an antiallergic drug. In the present study, the efficacy of the n-butanol extract of the seeds of the plant (MONB) is examined against ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs. The test drugs (MONB or dexamethasone) are administered orally prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% ovalbumin. During the experimental period, bronchoconstriction tests are performed, and lung function parameters are measured. The blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are collected to assess cellular content, and serum is used for cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-4, and interleukin-6) assays. Histamine assays of lung tissue are performed using lung tissue homogenate. The results suggest that in ovalbumin-sensitized model control animals, tidal volume is decreased, respiration rate is increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are increased significantly compared with nonsensitized controls. MONB treatment shows improvement in all parameters except bronchoalveolar lavage tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-4. Moreover, MONB treatment demonstrates protection against acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation. These results indicate that MONB has an inhibitory effect on airway inflammation. Thus, MONB possesses an antiasthmatic property through modulation of the relationship between Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalances. PMID:19966143

  5. Activation of Cellular Immunity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-Infected Mice by the Oral Administration of Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, Masahiko; Wadhwani, Ashish; Kai, Hisahiro; Hidaka, Muneaki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Sugita, Chihiro; Watanabe, Wataru; Matsuno, Koji; Hagiwara, Akinori

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is used as a nutritive vegetable and spice. Its ethanol extract has been previously shown to be significantly effective in alleviating herpetic skin lesions in mice. In this study, we evaluated the alleviation by the aqueous extract (AqMOL) and assessed the mode of its anti-herpetic action in a murine cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection model. AqMOL (300 mg/kg) was administered orally to HSV-1-infected mice three times daily on days 0 to 5 after infection. AqMOL significantly limited the development of herpetic skin lesions and reduced virus titers in the brain on day 4 without toxicity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to inactivated HSV-1 antigen was significantly stronger in infected mice administered AqMOL and AqMOL augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production by HSV-1 antigen from splenocytes of HSV-1-infected mice at 4 days post-infection. AqMOL administration was effective in elevating the ratio of CD11b(+) and CD49b(+) subpopulations of splenocytes in infected mice. As DTH is a major host defense mechanism for intradermal HSV infection, augmentation of the DTH response by AqMOL may contribute to their efficacies against HSV-1 infection. These results provided an important insights into the mechanism by which AqMOL activates cellular immunity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26814058

  6. Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bharali, Rupjyoti; Tabassum, Jawahira; Azad, Mohammed Rekibul Haque

    2003-01-01

    The modulatory effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of drumsticks of Moringa oliefera Lam at doses of 125 mg/kg bodyweight and 250 mg/ kg body weight for 7 and 14 days, respectively, were investigated with reference to drug metabolising Phase I (Cytochrome b(5) and Cytochrome p(450) ) and Phase II (Glutathione-S- transferase) enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of 6-8 week old female Swiss albino mice. Further, the chemopreventive efficacy of the extract was evaluated in a two stage model of 7,12 - dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis. Significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the activities of hepatic cytochrome b(5), cytochrome p(450), catalase, glutathione peroxidase ( GPx ), glutathione reductase (GR), acid soluble sulfhydryl content (-SH ) and a significant decrease ( p<0.01 ) in the hepatic MDA level were observed at both dose levels of treatment when compared with the control values. Glutathione-S- transferase ( GST )activity was found to be significantly increased (p<0.01 ) only at the higher dose level. Butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA ) fed at a dose of 0.75% in the diet for 7 and 14 days (positive control ) caused a significant increase (p<0.05 to p<0.01) in the levels of hepatic phase I and phase II enzymes, anti- oxidant enzymes, glutathione content and a decrease in lipid peroxidation. The skin papillomagenesis studies demonstrated a significant decrease (p<0.05 ) in the percentage of mice with papillomas, average number of papillomas per mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse when the animals received a topical application of the extract at a dose of 5mg/ kg body weight in the peri-initiation phase 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application, Group II ), promotional phase (from the day of croton oil application and continued till the end of the experiment, Group III ) and both peri and post initiation stages (from 7 days prior to DMBA application and continued till the

  7. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  8. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

  9. Microalgae removal with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Barrado-Moreno, M M; Beltran-Heredia, J; Martín-Gallardo, J

    2016-02-01

    Moringa oleifera seed extract was tested for algae (Chlorella, Microcystis, Oocystis and Scenedesmus) removal by Jar-test technique. This coagulant can be used in drinking water treatment. Jar-test has been carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of this natural coagulant agent inside real surface water matrix. The influence of variables has been studied in this process, including operating parameters such as coagulant dosage, initial algae concentration, pH, agitation time and water matrix. Removal capacity is verified for water with high contamination of algae while the process is not affected by the pH and water matrix. Coagulation process may be modelling through Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption hypothesis, so acceptable r2 coefficients are obtained. PMID:26688055

  10. Butanolic fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) attenuates isoprotrenol-induced cardiac necrosis and oxidative stress in rats: an EPR study

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sunanda

    2015-01-01

    The preventive effect of Moringa oleifera polyphenolic fraction (MOPF) on cardiac damage was evaluated in isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity model of Wistar rats. Male rats in different groups were treated with MOPF orally at the dose of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days and were subsequently administered (s.c.) with ISO (85 mg/kg body weight) for the last two days. At the end of the experiment levels of serum troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, content of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities/levels of different cellular antioxidants were estimated in control and experimental groups. Additionally, scavenging potential to the hydroxyl radical of the fraction was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). ISO administered rats showed significant increase in the levels of serum troponin-I, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and heart tissue MDA content. Furthermore, marked reduction in the activities of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels were observed. EPR study showed an increase in signal intensity in ISO-induced rats. Triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of heart section revealed a marked increase in infarcted area in ISO-induced rats. Histological features of the heart also indicated a disruption in the structure of cardiac myofibrils in these animals. MOPF (100 mg/kg body weight) pretreatment prevented all these adverse effects of ISO. Present results show that the rich polyphenolic content of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the myocardial damage and decreased the oxidative stress, possibly through hydroxyl radical scavenging activity as evidenced from the EPR spectra. PMID:26417351

  11. Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract prevents fat diet induced oxidative stress in mice and protects liver cell-nuclei from hydroxyl radical mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Das, Nilanjan; Ganguli, Debdutta; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-12-01

    High fat diet (HFD) prompts metabolic pattern inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria thereby triggering multitude of chronic disorders in human. Antioxidants from plant sources may be an imperative remedy against this disorder. However, it requires scientific validation. In this study, we explored if (i) Moringa oleifera seed extract (MoSE) can neutralize ROS generated in HFD fed mice; (ii) protect cell-nuclei damage developed by Fenton reaction in vitro. Swiss mice were fed with HFD to develop oxidative stress model (HFD group). Other groups were control, seed extract alone treated, and MoSE simultaneously (HS) treated. Treatment period was of 15 days. Antioxidant enzymes with tissue nitrite content (TNC) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated from liver homogenate. HS group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) compared to only HFD fed group. Further, TNC and LPO decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in HS group compared to HFD fed group. MoSE also protected hepatocytes nuclei from the hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction. MoSE was found to be polyphenol rich with potent reducing power, free radicals and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity. Thus, MoSE exhibited robust antioxidant prospective to neutralize ROS developed in HFD fed mice and also protected the nuclei damage from hydroxyl radicals. Hence, it can be used as herbal medication against HFD induced ROS mediated disorders. PMID:26742324

  12. Development of a magnetic coagulant based on Moringa oleifera seed extract for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tássia R T; Silva, Marcela F; Nishi, Leticia; Vieira, Angélica M S; Klein, Márcia R F; Andrade, Murilo B; Vieira, Marcelo F; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-04-01

    In this work, to evaluate the effectiveness of the coagulation/flocculation using a natural coagulant, using Moringa oleifera Lam functionalized with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, producing flakes that are attracted by an external magnetic field, thereby allowing a fast settling and separation of the clarified liquid, is proposed. The removal efficiency of the parameters, apparent color, turbidity, and compounds with UV254nm absorption, was evaluated. The magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant could effectively remove 90 % of turbidity, 85 % of apparent color, and 50 % for the compounds with absorption at UV254nm, in surface waters under the influence of an external magnetic field within 30 min. It was found that the coagulation/flocculation treatment using magnetic functionalized M. oleifera Lam coagulant was able to reduce the values of the physico-chemical parameters evaluated with reduced settling time. PMID:26743649

  13. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera on antitubercular drug-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Kumar, N Ashok

    2002-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae), commonly known as "Drumstick," is used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of various illness. We have evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves on liver damage induced by antitubercular drugs such as isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), and pyrazinamide (PZA) in rats. Oral administration of the extract showed a significant protective action made evident by its effect on the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (aspartate aminotransferase), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin in the serum; lipids, and lipid peroxidation levels in liver. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The results of this study showed that treatment with M. oleifera extracts or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by antitubercular drugs. PMID:12495589

  15. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; El Rabey, Haddad A

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  16. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; El Rabey, Haddad A.

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group. PMID:25629046

  17. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. PMID:24731259

  18. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Ann Lila, Mary; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC) made by extracting fresh leaves with water utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates (1–4) into moringa isothiocyanates (5–8). Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, compound 5 (4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate), and compound 8 (4-[(4’-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate) content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. Compound 8 exhibited 80% stability at 37 °C for 30 days. MC, 5, and 8 significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, 5 and 8 attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFβ at 1 and 5 µM. Our results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates (5–8), delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. PMID:24731259

  19. Effect of Different Parts (Leaf, Stem and Stalk) and Seasons (Summer and Winter) on the Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. PMID:22016645

  20. Effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ming-Chih; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Kang, Sue-Ming; Tsai, Min-Lang

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. PMID:22016645

  1. Aqueous enzymatic extraction of Moringa oleifera oil.

    PubMed

    Mat Yusoff, Masni; Gordon, Michael H; Ezeh, Onyinye; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports on the extraction of Moringa oleifera (MO) oil by using aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method. The effect of different process parameters on the oil recovery was discovered by using statistical optimization, besides the effect of selected parameters on the formation of its oil-in-water cream emulsions. Within the pre-determined ranges, the use of pH 4.5, moisture/kernel ratio of 8:1 (w/w), and 300stroke/min shaking speed at 40°C for 1h incubation time resulted in highest oil recovery of approximately 70% (goil/g solvent-extracted oil). These optimized parameters also result in a very thin emulsion layer, indicating minute amount of emulsion formed. Zero oil recovery with thick emulsion were observed when the used aqueous phase was re-utilized for another AEE process. The findings suggest that the critical selection of AEE parameters is key to high oil recovery with minimum emulsion formation thereby lowering the load on the de-emulsification step. PMID:27283648

  2. Studies on gum of Moringa oleifera for its emulsifying properties

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Dibya Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emulsion has been a form of presenting water insoluble substances for a long period of time. Now a day, it has been a way of presenting various intravenous additives and diagnostic agents in X-ray examinations. Various substances can be used as emulsifying agent, which can be operationally defined as a stabilizer of the droplets formed of the internal phase. Materials and Methods: Gum from Moringa oleifera was evaluated for its emulsifying properties. Castor oil emulsions 30 percent (o/w), containing 2 to 4% Moringa oleifera gum was prepared. Emulsions containing equivalent concentration of acacia were also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared were stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. The prepared emulsions were evaluated for creaming rate, globule size and rate of coalescence. 23 factorial design was chosen to investigate the effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes and electrolytes on the creaming rate and globule size. Results: The results of the investigations show that the gum of Moringa oleifera possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia. Conclusion: Gum of Moringa oleifera could be used in pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical preparation. PMID:24741276

  3. Direct and Indirect Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol- and Isothiocyanate-Enriched Fractions from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Boyunegmez Tumer, Tugba; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]-isothiocyanate and 4-[(4′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  4. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  5. Effective flocculation of fine mineral suspensions using Moringa oleifera seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, T.M.

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using Moringa oleifera seeds, or the active components of the seeds, in the clarification of waters containing suspended mineral fines. In comparative testing using a hematite suspension, the flocculating activity of Moringa oleifera seeds was better than alum. Twenty milligrams of seed powder was sufficient to clarify the hematite to near zero turbidity, while the same amount of alum had a minimal effect on turbidity. Extracts were prepared from the seeds in an attempt to separate the proteins. A crude protein extract was enriched by lowering the pH to 6.0. Only 0.08 mg/L of the enriched extract was required to flocculate a minusil suspension. Environmentally friendly protein flocculants could theoretically be produced and enhanced with recombinant DNA techniques as an alternative to chemical flocculants currently used in water treatment.

  6. Review of the Safety and Efficacy of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Hartman, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves, seeds, bark, roots, sap, and flowers are widely used in traditional medicine, and the leaves and immature seed pods are used as food products in human nutrition. Leaf extracts exhibit the greatest antioxidant activity, and various safety studies in animals involving aqueous leaf extracts indicate a high degree of safety. No adverse effects were reported in association with human studies. Five human studies using powdered whole leaf preparations of M. oleifera have been published, which have demonstrated anti-hyperglycemic (antidiabetic) and anti-dyslipidemic activities. These activities have been confirmed using extracts as well as leaf powders in animal studies. A rapidly growing number of published studies have shown that aqueous, hydroalcohol, or alcohol extracts of M. oleifera leaves possess a wide range of additional biological activities including antioxidant, tissue protective (liver, kidneys, heart, testes, and lungs), analgesic, antiulcer, antihypertensive, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory actions. A wide variety of polyphenols and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids, glucosinolates, and possibly alkaloids is believed to be responsible for the observed effects. Standardization of products is an issue. However, the results of published studies to date involving M. oleifera are very promising. Additional human studies using standardized extracts are highly desirable. PMID:25808883

  7. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toppo, Reetu; Roy, Birendra Kumar; Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kumar, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p≤0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27047130

  8. Preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in DSSC solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saehana, Sahrul; Darsikin, Muslimin

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the preliminary study of application of Moringa oleifera resin as polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). We found that polymer electrolyte membrane was formed by using solution casting methods. It is observed that polymer electrolyte was in elastic form and it is very potential to application as DSSC component. Performance of DSSC which employing Moringa oleifera resin was also observed and photovoltaic effect was found.

  9. Anti-cyanobacterial activity of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    Filtrates from crushed Moringa oleifera seeds were tested for their effects on growth and Photosystem II efficiency of the common bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa populations exhibited good growth in controls and treatments with 4- and 8-mg crushed Moringa seeds per liter, having similar growth rates of 0.50 (±0.01) per day. In exposures of 20- to 160-mg crushed Moringa seeds L−1, growth rates were negative and on average −0.23 (±0.05) .day−1. Presumably, in the higher doses of 20- to 160-mg crushed seeds per liter, the cyanobacteria died, which was supported by a rapid drop in the Photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII), while the ΦPSII was high and unaffected in 0, 4, and 8 mg L−1. High-density populations of M. aeruginosa (chlorophyll-a concentrations of ∼270 µg L−1) were reduced to very low levels within 2 weeks of exposure to ≥80-mg crushed seeds per liter. At the highest dosage of 160 mg L−1, the ΦPSII dropped to zero rapidly and remained nil during the course of the experiment (14 days). Hence, under laboratory conditions, a complete wipeout of the bloom could be achieved. This is the first study that yielded evidence for cyanobactericidal activity of filtrate from crushed Moringa seeds, suggesting that Moringa seed extracts might have a potential as an effect-oriented measure lessening cyanobacterial nuisance. PMID:20676212

  10. Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Tsaknis, J; Lalas, S; Gergis, V; Dourtoglou, V; Spiliotis, V

    1999-11-01

    The oil from Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seeds from Kenya was extracted using three different procedures including cold press (CP), extraction with n-hexane (H), and extraction with a mixture of chloroform/methanol (50:50) (CM). The oil concentration ranged from 25.8% (CP) to 31.2% (CM). The density, refractive index, color, smoke point, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters, sterols, tocopherols (by HPLC), peroxide value, and at 232 and 270 nm and the susceptibility to oxidation measured with the Rancimat method were determined. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic (up to 75.39%). The dominant saturated acids were behenic (up to 6. 73%) and palmitic (up to 6.04%). The oil was also found to contain high levels of beta-sitosterol (up to 50.07%), stigmasterol (up to 17.27%), and campesterol (up to 15.13%). alpha-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols were detected up to levels of 105.0, 39.54, and 77. 60 mg/kg of oil, respectively. The induction period (at 120 degrees C) of M. oleifera seed oil was reduced from 44.6 to 64.3% after degumming. The M. oleifera seed oil showed high stability to oxidative rancidity. The results of all the above determinations were compared with those of a commercial virgin olive oil. PMID:10552840

  11. In vivo radioprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Rao, A V; Devi, P U; Kamath, R

    2001-09-01

    Radioprotective property of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated in healthy adult Swiss albino mice. Animals were injected (ip) with 150 mg/kg body weight of 50% methanolic extract (ME) of M. oleifera leaves, as a single dose, or in 5 daily fractions of 30 mg/kg each, and exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (RT, 4 Gy) 1 hr later. Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 7 days after treatment. Bone marrow protection was studied by scoring aberrations in metaphase chromosomes and micronucleus induction in polychromatic erythrocytes and normochromatic erythrocytes. Pretreatment with a single dose of 150 mg/kg ME significantly reduced the percent aberrant cells to 2/3rd that of RT alone group on day 1 and brought the values to normal range by day 7 post-irradiation. A similar effect was also seen for the micronucleated cells. Fractionated administration of ME (30 mg/kg x 5) gave a higher protection than that given by the same dose administered as a single treatment. ME also inhibited the Fenton reaction-generated free radical activity in vitro in a concentration dependent manner. These results demonstrate that pretreatment with the methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera confers significant radiation protection to the bone marrow chromosomes in mice and this may lead to the higher 30 day survival after lethal whole body irradiation. PMID:11831365

  12. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats*

    PubMed Central

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-01-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed. PMID:25743119

  13. 'Moringa oleifera: study of phenolics and glucosinolates by mass spectrometry'.

    PubMed

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Maksoud, Salwa A; Natella, Fausta; Montoro, Paola; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Foddai, Marzia; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Chessa, Mario; Pintore, Giorgio

    2014-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is a medicinal plant and an excellent dietary source of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) and health-promoting phytochemicals (phenolic compounds, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates). Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates are known to possess anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant effects and have attracted great interest from both toxicological and pharmacological points of view, as they are able to induce phase 2 detoxification enzymes and to inhibit phase 1 activation enzymes. Phenolic compounds possess antioxidant properties and may exert a preventative effect in regards to the development of chronic degenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to assess the profile and the level of bioactive compounds in all parts of M. oleifera seedlings, by using different MS approaches. First, flow injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) fingerprinting techniques and chemometrics (PCA) were used to achieve the characterization of the different plant's organs in terms of profile of phenolic compounds and glucosinolates. Second, LC-MS and LC-MS/MS qualitative and quantitative methods were used for the identification and/or determination of phenolics and glucosinolates in M. oleifera. PMID:25230187

  14. Moringa oleifera extract enhances sexual performance in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Prabsattroo, Thawatchai; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Iamsaard, Sitthichai; Somsapt, Pichet; Sritragool, Opass; Thukhummee, Wipawee; Muchimapura, Supaporn

    2015-03-01

    Aphrodisiacs are required to improve male sexual function under stressful conditions. Due to the effects of oxidative stress and dopamine on male sexual function, we hypothesized that Moringa oleifera leaves might improve male sexual dysfunction induced by stress. Therefore, the effects on various factors playing important roles in male sexual behavior, such as antioxidant effects, the suppression of monoamine and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) activities, serum testosterone and corticosterone levels, and histomorphological changes in the testes, of a hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves were investigated. Various doses of extract including 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) were given orally to male Wistar rats before exposure to 12 h-immobilization stress for 7 d. The results demonstrated that the extract showed both antioxidant and monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) suppression activities. At 7 d of treatment, the low dose of extract improved sexual performance in stress-exposed rats by decreasing intromission latency and increasing intromission frequency. It also suppressed PDE-5 activity, decreased serum corticosterone level, but increased serum testosterone, numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa. The increased numbers of interstitial cells of Leydig and spermatozoa might have been due to the antioxidant effect of the extract. The increased sexual performance during the intromission phase might have been due to the suppression of MAO-B and PDE-5 activities and increased testosterone. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential aphrodisiac, but further research concerning the precise underlying mechanisms is still needed. PMID:25743119

  15. Nutritive evaluation and effect of Moringa oleifera pod on clastogenic potential in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Promkum, Chadamas; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2010-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (horseradish tree; tender pod or fruits) has been consumed as a vegetable and utilized as a major ingredient of healthy Thai cuisine. Previous studies have shown that M. oleifera pod extracts act as bifunctional inducers along with displaying antioxidant properties and also inhibiting skin papillomagenesis in mice. This study was aimed to determine the nutritive value, and clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials of M. oleifera pod. The nutritive value was determined according to AOAC methods. The clastogenic and anticlastogenic potentials were determined using the in vivo erythrocyte micronucleus assay in the mouse. Eighty male mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% of ground freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod (bMO) for 2 weeks prior to administration of both direct-acting (mitomycin C, MMC) and indirect-acting (7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, DMBA), clastogens. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h, dropped on acridine orange-coated slides, and then counted for reticulocytes both with and without micronuclei by fluorescence microscopy. The nutritive value of 100 g bMO consisted of: moisture content, 8.2 g; protein, 19.2 g; fat, 3.9 g; carbohydrate (dietary fiber included), 60.5 g; dietary fiber, 37.5 g; ash, 8.1 g and energy, 354 kcal. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera had no clastogenic activity in the mouse while it possessed anticlastogenic activity against both direct and indirect-acting clastogens. Freeze-dried boiled M. oleifera pod at 1.5%, 3.0% and 6.0% in the diets decreased the number of micronucleated peripheral reticulocytes (MNRETs) induced by both MMC and DMBA. However, the effect was statistically significant in the dose dependent manner only in the MMC-treated group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that bMO has no clastogenicity and possesses anticlastogenic potential against clastogens, and particularly a direct-acting clastogen in the mouse. PMID:21039028

  16. Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Komal; Balaraman, R; Amin, A H; Bafna, P A; Gulati, O D

    2003-06-01

    Rabbits were fed Moringa oleifera (200mg/kg/day, p.o.) or lovastatin (6mg/kg/day, p.o.) in banana pulp along with standard laboratory diet and hypercholesterolaemic diet for 120 days. Moringa oleifera and lovastatin were found to lower the serum cholesterol, phospholipid, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL, cholesterol to phospholipid ratio and atherogenic index, but were found to increase the HDL ratio (HDL/HDL-total cholesterol) as compared to the corresponding control groups. Treatment with M. oleifera or lovastatin in normal rabbits decreased the HDL levels. However, HDL levels were significantly increased or decreased in M. oleifera- or lovastatin-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits, respectively. Lovastatin- or M. oleifera-treated hypercholesterolaemic rabbits showed decrease in lipid profile of liver, heart and aorta while similar treatment of normal animals did not produce significant reduction in heart. Moringa oleifera was found to increase the excretion of faecal cholesterol. Thus, the study demonstrates that M. oleifera possesses a hypolipidaemic effect. PMID:12738086

  17. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations. PMID:24024688

  18. Micro- and Macroelemental Composition and Safety Evaluation of the Nutraceutical Moringa oleifera Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu-Gyekye, I. J.; Frimpong-Manso, S.; Awortwe, C.; Antwi, D. A.; Nyarko, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose plant used in Ghana and most parts of Africa. Its high mineral, protein, and vitamins content has enabled its use as a nutraceutical and panacea for various diseases. This study aimed at measuring the micro- and macroelements content of dried Moringa oleifera leaves using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic (EDXRF) and assessing its toxicological effect in rats. Acute toxicity (5000 mg/kg) and a subacute toxicity studies of the leaf (40 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) extract were conducted in rats. Blood samples were assessed for biochemical and haematological parameters. Results showed significant levels of thirty-five (35) elements (14 macroelements and 21 microelements) in M. oleifera extract. There were no observed overt adverse reactions in the acute and subacute studies. Although there were observed elevations in liver enzymes ALT and ALP (P < 0.001) and lower creatinine levels in the extract treated groups, no adverse histopathological findings were found. Moringa oleifera dried leaf extract may, therefore, be reasonably safe for consumption. However, the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves should not exceed a maximum of 70 grams per day to prevent cumulative toxicity of these essential elements over long periods. PMID:25136361

  19. Micro- and Macroelemental Composition and Safety Evaluation of the Nutraceutical Moringa oleifera Leaves.

    PubMed

    Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Frimpong-Manso, S; Awortwe, C; Antwi, D A; Nyarko, A K

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose plant used in Ghana and most parts of Africa. Its high mineral, protein, and vitamins content has enabled its use as a nutraceutical and panacea for various diseases. This study aimed at measuring the micro- and macroelements content of dried Moringa oleifera leaves using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic (EDXRF) and assessing its toxicological effect in rats. Acute toxicity (5000 mg/kg) and a subacute toxicity studies of the leaf (40 mg/kg to 1000 mg/kg) extract were conducted in rats. Blood samples were assessed for biochemical and haematological parameters. Results showed significant levels of thirty-five (35) elements (14 macroelements and 21 microelements) in M. oleifera extract. There were no observed overt adverse reactions in the acute and subacute studies. Although there were observed elevations in liver enzymes ALT and ALP (P < 0.001) and lower creatinine levels in the extract treated groups, no adverse histopathological findings were found. Moringa oleifera dried leaf extract may, therefore, be reasonably safe for consumption. However, the consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves should not exceed a maximum of 70 grams per day to prevent cumulative toxicity of these essential elements over long periods. PMID:25136361

  20. Assessment of toxicity of Moringa oleifera flower extract to Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni and Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Filho, Cláudio A A; Albuquerque, Lidiane P; Silva, Luanna R S; Silva, Patrícia C B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Albuquerque, Monica C P A; Melo, Ana Maria M A; Napoleão, Thiago H; Pontual, Emmanuel V; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2015-08-01

    This study reports the effect of an aqueous extract from Moringa oleifera Lam. flowers on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos and adults and on Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. The extract contains tannins, saponins, flavones, flavonols, xanthones, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The toxicity of the extract on Artemia salina larvae was also investigated to determine the safety of its use for schistosomiasis control. After incubation for 24h, the flower extract significantly (p<0.05) delayed the development of B. glabrata embryos and promoted mortality of adult snails (LC50: 2.37±0.5mgmL(-1)). Furthermore, treatment with the extract disrupted the development of embryos generated by snails, with most of them remaining in the blastula stage while control embryos were already in the gastrula stage. Flower extract killed A. salina larvae with a LC50 value (0.2±0.015mgmL(-1)) lower than that determined for snails. A small reduction (17%) in molluscicidal activity was detected when flower extract (2.37mgmL(-1)) was exposed to tropical environmental conditions (UVI index ranging from 1 to 14, temperature from 25 to 30°C, and 65% relative humidity). Toxicity to A. salina was also reduced (LC50 value of 0.28±0.01mgmL(-1)). In conclusion, M. oleifera flower extract had deleterious effects on B. glabrata adults and embryos. However, unrestricted use to control schistosomiasis should be avoided due to the toxicity of this extract on A. salina. PMID:25867917

  1. Review: an exposition of medicinal preponderance of Moringa oleifera (Lank.).

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz; Mahmood, Sidra

    2014-03-01

    Medicinal plants are believed to be a precious natural reservoir as they are assumed to have paranormal effects for the mankind. Moringa oleifera grows throughout most of the tropics and has numerous industrial and medicinal uses. This review acquaints with the consequence of fera (Moringaceae), a fast growing medicinal plant wide spread in tropical regions with height ranging from 5-10m. It has an enormous nutritional worth due to existence of vitamins and proteins. It is subsisted with many constituents. Its oil consists of oleic, tocopherols, stearic, palmitic, behenic and arachidic acid. Flavanoids and phenolics such as gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, ellagic acid, quercetin and vanillin are present by means of leaf extract, being richest in phenolics and subsequent fruit and seed extract respectively, that are accountable for antioxidant activity of plant. Seeds have been pragmatic with active components as novel O-ethyl-4- (α -L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl carbamate together with seven known compounds, 4 (α -L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate, niazimicin, niazirin, β-sitosterol, glycerol-1- (9 -octadecanoate), 3 -O- 6 -O-oleoyl- β -D-glucopyranosyl-b-sitosterol, and β - sitosterol- 3-X-O -β -D-glucopyranoside , that have been discerned to inhibit EBV-EA (Epstein- Barr virus-early antigen), that is persuaded by the cancer promoter. M. oleifera leaves, gums, roots, flowers as well as kernels have been unanimously utilized for managing tissue tenderness, cardiovascular and liver maladies, normalize blood glucose and cholesterol. It has also profound antimicrobial, hypoglycemic and anti-tubercular activities. PMID:24577932

  2. Potential anti-inflammatory phenolic glycosides from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides; 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate (1), 4-[(3'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (2), and S-methyl-N-{4-[(a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benz...

  3. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  4. Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended. PMID:26057747

  5. Cultivation, Genetic, Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Moringa oleifera Leaves: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an interesting plant for its use in bioactive compounds. In this manuscript, we review studies concerning the cultivation and production of moringa along with genetic diversity among different accessions and populations. Different methods of propagation, establishment and cultivation are discussed. Moringa oleifera shows diversity in many characters and extensive morphological variability, which may provide a resource for its improvement. Great genetic variability is present in the natural and cultivated accessions, but no collection of cultivated and wild accessions currently exists. A germplasm bank encompassing the genetic variability present in Moringa is needed to perform breeding programmes and develop elite varieties adapted to local conditions. Alimentary and medicinal uses of moringa are reviewed, alongside the production of biodiesel. Finally, being that the leaves are the most used part of the plant, their contents in terms of bioactive compounds and their pharmacological properties are discussed. Many studies conducted on cell lines and animals seem concordant in their support for these properties. However, there are still too few studies on humans to recommend Moringa leaves as medication in the prevention or treatment of diseases. Therefore, further studies on humans are recommended. PMID:26057747

  6. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, O. S.; Elebiyo, T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  7. Moringa oleifera Supplemented Diets Prevented Nickel-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O S; Elebiyo, T C

    2014-01-01

    Background. The Moringa oleifera plant has been implicated for several therapeutic potentials. Objective. To evaluate whether addition of M. oleifera to diet has protective effect against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methodology. Male Wistar rats were assigned into six groups of five. The rats were given oral exposure to 20 mg/kg nickel sulphate (NiSO4) in normal saline and sustained on either normal diet or diets supplemented with Moringa oleifera at different concentrations for 21 days. 24 hours after cessation of treatments, all animals were sacrificed under slight anesthesia. The blood and kidney samples were collected for biochemical and histopathology analyses, respectively. Results. NiSO4 exposure reduced the kidney-to-body weight ratio in rats and caused significant elevation in the levels of plasma creatinine, urea, and potassium. Also, the plasma level of sodium was decreased by NiSO4 exposure. However, addition of M. oleifera to diets averted the nickel-induced alteration to the level of creatinine and urea. The histopathology revealed damaged renal tubules and glomerular walls caused by NiSO4 exposure. In contrast, the damages were ameliorated by the M. oleifera supplemented diets. Conclusion. The addition of M. oleifera to diet afforded significant protection against nickel-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:25295181

  8. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. SUMMARY Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages. PMID:27013794

  9. In vitro inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its major components on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components. PMID:24427941

  10. Preparation and characterization of a novel adsorbent from Moringa oleifera leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello, Olugbenga Solomon; Adegoke, Kayode Adesina; Akinyunni, Opeyemi Omowumi

    2015-10-01

    A new and novel adsorbent was obtained by impregnation of Moringa oleifera leaf in H2SO4 and NaOH, respectively. Prepared adsorbents were characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR, SEM, TGA and EDX analyses, respectively. The effects of operational parameters, such as pH, moisture content, ash content, porosity and iodine number on these adsorbents were investigated and compared with those of commercial activated carbon (CAC). EDX results of acid activated M. oleifera leaf have the highest percentage of carbon by weight (69.40 %) and (76.11 %) by atom, respectively. Proximate analysis showed that the fixed carbon content of acid activated M. oleifera leaf (69.14 ± 0.01) was the highest of all adsorbents studied. Conclusively, the present investigation shows that acid activated M. oleifera leaf is a good alternative adsorbent that could be used in lieu of CAC for recovery of dyes and heavy metal from aqueous solutions and other separation techniques.

  11. Erectogenic and Aphrodisiac Property of Moringa oleifera: Involvement of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inamdar, Mohammed Naseeruddin; Dethe, Shekhar M; Gururaj, Giligar M; Jamwal, Rohitash; Bhaskar, Anirban; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-07-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors have been reported to improve penile erection; therefore, sEH could be useful for management of erectile dysfunction. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of 30 Indian medicinal plants were screened for their sEH inhibition potential. Fifteen extracts showed >50% inhibition when screened at 50 µg/mL in sEH inhibition assay. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) seeds (MEMO) was most potent with IC50 1.7 ± 0.1 µg/mL and was selected for in vitro studies on isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle and in vivo sexual behaviour studies on healthy and diabetic rats. Rats were divided into five groups, each containing six animals and treated orally with either water, vehicle (1% Tween-20), MEMO (45 and 90 mg/kg/day for 21 days), and standard drug, sildenafil (5 mg/kg/day for 7 days). An equal number of female rats were used, and the effect of MEMO and sildenafil was compared with that of vehicle. MEMO significantly relaxed isolated rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle at 0.1-100 µg/mL in vitro and significantly increased (p < 0.05) sexual activity, intracavernous pressure/mean arterial pressure in normal and diabetic rats. The increase in erectile function of rats by MEMO could be because of its sEH inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27020843

  12. Characterization of soluble dietary fiber from Moringa oleifera seeds and its immunomodulatory effects.

    PubMed

    Anudeep, Sandanamudi; Prasanna, Vaddi K; Adya, Shruthi M; Radha, Cheruppanpullil

    2016-10-01

    Moringa oleifera (moringa or drumstick) seeds are a potential source of dietary fiber with 6.5% w/w soluble dietary fiber. Biochemical characterization of moringa seed soluble fiber revealed that it is a glycoprotein with 5% neutral sugars. Arabinose and xylose are the major neutral sugars identified by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Moringa seed soluble fiber was identified as protease resistant-glycoprotein and termed as moringa seed resistant protein (MSRP). MSRP was found to be a homodimer (18kDa) containing two 9kDa monomeric units as revealed by SDS-PAGE analysis with pI 10.8. Immunostimulating activity of MSRP was assessed by murine splenocyte proliferation and production of NO from macrophages. MSRP at low concentration (0.01μg/well) strongly increased proliferation of splenocytes, while MSRP at high concentration weakly responded. MSRP induced 6-fold increase in NO production when compared to the control which indicates the activation of macrophages. MSRP isolated from defatted moringa seed flour is a potent mitogen, enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes and inducing NO from macrophages. This study concludes that moringa seed is a potential nutritional source to promote the immune system of the host. PMID:27283233

  13. Extract of Moringa oleifera leaves ameliorates streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Hanan Dawood; Tohamy, Adel Fathy

    2014-06-01

    Medicinal plants attract growing interest in the therapeutic management of Diabetes mellitus. Moringa oleifera is a remarkably nutritious vegetable with several antioxidant properties. The present study assessed the possible antioxidant and antidiabetic effects of an aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves in treating streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats. The antidiabetic effects of aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves were assessed histomorphometrically, ultrastructurally and biochemically. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was monitored and morphometric measurements of β-cells of islets of Langerhans (modified Gomori's stain) and collagen fibers (Mallory's trichrome stain) were performed. The antioxidant effects of M. oleifera leaves were determined by measuring the reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, in pancreatic tissue. M. oleifera treatment significantly ameliorated the altered FPG (from 380% to 145%), reduced glutathione (from 22% to 73%) and malondialdehyde (from 385% to 186%) compared to control levels. The histopathological damage of islet cells was also markedly reversed. Morphometrically, M. oleifera significantly increased the areas of positive purple modified Gomori stained β-cells (from 60% to 91%) and decreased the area percentage of collagen fibers (from 199% to 120%) compared to control values. Experimental findings clearly indicate the potential benefits of using the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves as a potent antidiabetic treatment. PMID:24657072

  14. Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetes in rats by regeneration of β cells and reduction of pyruvate carboxylase expression.

    PubMed

    Abd El Latif, Amira; El Bialy, Badr El Said; Mahboub, Hamada Dahi; Abd Eldaim, Mabrouk Attia

    2014-10-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. contains many active ingredients with nutritional and medicinal values. It is commonly used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic agent. The present study was designed to investigate how an aqueous extract from the leaves of M. oleifera reveals hypoglycemia in diabetic rats. M. oleifera leaf extract counteracted the alloxan-induced diabetic effects in rats as it normalized the elevated serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde, and normalized mRNA expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in hepatic tissues. It also increased live body weight gain and normalized the reduced mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase in the liver of diabetic rats. Moreover, it restored the normal histological structure of the liver and pancreas damaged by alloxan in diabetic rats. This study revealed that the aqueous extract of M. oleifera leaves possesses potent hypoglycemic effects through the normalization of elevated hepatic pyruvate carboxylase enzyme and regeneration of damaged hepatocytes and pancreatic β cells via its antioxidant properties. PMID:25289966

  15. The Flocculating Cationic Polypetide from Moringa oleifera Seeds Damages Bacterial Cell Membranes by Causing Membrane Fusion.

    PubMed

    Shebek, Kevin; Schantz, Allen B; Sines, Ian; Lauser, Kathleen; Velegol, Stephanie; Kumar, Manish

    2015-04-21

    A cationic protein isolated from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been extensively studied for use in water treatment in developing countries and has been proposed for use in antimicrobial and therapeutic applications. However, the molecular basis for the antimicrobial action of this peptide, Moringa oleifera cationic protein (MOCP), has not been previously elucidated. We demonstrate here that a dominant mechanism of MOCP antimicrobial activity is membrane fusion. We used a combination of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and fluorescence assays to observe and study the kinetics of fusion of membranes in liposomes representing model microbial cells. We also conducted cryo-EM experiments on E. coli cells where MOCP was seen to fuse the inner and outer membranes. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of membrane vesicles with MOCP molecules were used to elucidate steps in peptide adsorption, stalk formation, and fusion between membranes. PMID:25845029

  16. Assessment of transesterified palm olein and Moringa oleifera oil blends as vanaspati substitutes.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Rahman, Fazal

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the suitability of Moringa oleifera oil and palm olein blends as vanaspati substitutes on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Blends were prepared either by blending Moringa oleifera oil or palm olein at 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100 ratios, transesterified by Rhizopus miehei, compared with market vanaspati, designated as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The blends were filled in 3-layer polyethylene pouch packs, stored at ambient temperature, sampled at every at 0, 90 and 180-days for the assessment of storage stability. The melting point and iodine value of T2 and control were 36.8, 37.2 °C and 62.2, 51.8, with no effect on free fatty acids content, peroxide, anisidine values and color of the deodorized stuffs. C18:1 content of T2 was 59.7 % with no trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acid content of the market vanaspati was 22.9 %. The addition of Moringa oleifera oil improved the induction period of the blends strongly inhibited the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products. The overall acceptability score of French fries prepared in T2 was 81 % of the total score (9). Blend containing 50 % palm olein and 50 % Moringa oleifera oil can be used in the formulation of a functional shelf stable fat that can be used as a vanaspati substitute. PMID:25829626

  17. Effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Ayobami Oladele; Aderoju, Hameed Adeola; Alagbonsi, Isiaka Abdullateef

    2013-01-01

    While anti-oxidant effects of Moringa oleifera in much oxidative stress related diseases have been well reported, cryptorchidism on the other hand has been shown to cause oxidative stress. However, study is scanty on the likely role of Moringa oleifera in reducing cryptorchidism-induced oxidative stress in rats has not been studied. The present study looked into the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MEMO) on semen and biochemical parameters in cryptorchid rats. Twenty male albino rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=5 each). Groups A and B were sham-operated and treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively, while groups C and D were rendered cryptorchid and also treated with corn-oil and 200 mg/kg of MEMO respectively. Cryptorchid rats had lower testicular weight, sperm count, germ cell count, testicular superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration, testicular total protein and higher testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration compared to sham-operated rats. MEMO had no significant effect on testicular weight and MDA concentration, while it significantly increased sperm count, germ cell count, testicular SOD and total protein in the cryptorchid rats. The present study suggests that MEMO ameliorates cryptorchidism associated germ cell loss and oxidative stress. PMID:24311830

  18. Effects of fermentation time on the functional and pasting properties of defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, Omobolanle O; James, Samaila; Ocheme, Ocheme B; Chinma, Chiemela E; Akpa, V Eleojo

    2016-01-01

    Effects of fermentation time on the functional and pasting properties of defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was examined. Moringa seeds were fermented naturally at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h; oven dried at 60°C for 12 h; milled into five different flour samples for each fermentation time and defatted. The functional and pasting properties of the samples were determined. The result shows significant increase in the water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity and emulsifying capacity with increase in fermentation time. However, there was a significant decrease in bulk density (0.53-0.32 g/cm(3)) and dispersibility (36.00-20.50%) with an increase in fermentation time. There were significant increase in peak viscosity, trough, breakdown, final viscosity, and set back with increasing fermentation time. The swelling power and solubility of fermented Moringa seed flour was significantly affected. PMID:26788314

  19. Detection of water soluble lectin and antioxidant component from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Santos, A F S; Argolo, A C C; Coelho, L C B B; Paiva, P M G

    2005-03-01

    Seed flour from Moringa oleifera is widely used as a natural coagulant for water treatment in developing countries. Extracts obtained by water soaking of M. oleifera intact seeds were investigated for the presence of lectin, trypsin inhibitor, tannin as well as antioxidant activity. A water soluble M. oleifera lectin (WSMoL) detected was mainly active with rabbit cells at pH 4.5; heat treatment, pH 7.0, fructose and porcine thyroglobulin abolished HA of WSMoL. Trypsin inhibitor or tannins were not detected; the antioxidant component (WSMoAC) reduced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) was slower than catechin and was thermostable. The extracts showed a primary glycopolypeptide band of Mw 20,000; the main native acidic protein showed hemagglutinating activity. WSMoL may be involved in seed coagulant properties. PMID:15766952

  20. Soluble Moringa oleifera leaf extract reduces intracellular cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kerdsomboon, Kittikhun; Tatip, Supinda; Kosasih, Sattawat; Auesukaree, Choowong

    2016-05-01

    Moringa oleifera leaves are a well-known source of antioxidants and traditionally used for medicinal applications. In the present study, the protective action of soluble M. oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) against cadmium toxicity was investigated in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that this extract exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by cadmium and H2O2 through the reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, not only the co-exposure of soluble MOLE with cadmium but also pretreatment of this extract prior to cadmium exposure significantly reduced the cadmium uptake through an inhibition of Fet4p, a low-affinity iron(II) transporter. In addition, the supplementation of soluble MOLE significantly reduced intracellular iron accumulation in a Fet4p-independent manner. Our findings suggest the potential use of soluble extract from M. oleifera leaves as a dietary supplement for protection against cadmium accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:26675819

  1. Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and their antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, TNVKV; Elumalai, EK

    2011-01-01

    Objective To formulate a simple rapid procedure for bioreduction of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extract of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera). Methods 10 mL of leaf extract was mixed to 90 mL of 1 mM aqueous of AgNO3 and was heated at 60 - 80 °C for 20 min. A change from brown to reddish color was observed. Characterization using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was performed. Results TEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 57 nm. Conclusions M. oleifera demonstrates strong potential for synthesis of silver nanoparticles by rapid reduction of silver ions (Ag+ to Ag0). Biological methods are good competents for the chemical procedures, which are eco-friendly and convenient. PMID:23569809

  2. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera as a dietary supplement on growth and reproductive performance in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Latoya T.; Fowler, Lauren A.; Barry, Robert J.; Watts, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The leaves of the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree contain a significant source of protein, vitamins and minerals, and are considered as an important dietary supplement in countries where chronic malnourishment is linked to poor fetal development. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Moringa leaf as a supplemental replacement for vitamins, minerals, and protein in a formulated zebrafish diet and the impact that it may have on growth and reproductive outcome. Diets included a formulated control (FC) containing an array of vitamins and mineral supplements (pre-mixes), dried ground Moringa only (M), formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes (Fvm), and formulated control minus vitamin and mineral pre-mixes and supplemented with Moringa (FM). Juvenile zebrafish were fed experimental diets ad libitum. After a 12 week feeding period, each treatment group was evaluated based on growth and reproductive performance. The M treatment showed the least growth performance (length and weight gain) and no reproductive success (no egg production). Although small, M fish appeared otherwise healthy, with survivorship at ca. 70%, suggesting, Moringa can serve as a single ingredient source for a short period of time. FC showed the highest growth performance, and had the highest reproductive success. Growth performance and reproduction in the Fvm diet was greatly reduced. However, inclusion of Moringa (FM) promoted significant, but not total, recovery of growth and reproductive metrics. These data suggest that Moringa leaves can serve as an acceptable supplement for macro and micronutrients in the diet and could, in part, reduce problems associated with nutrient deficiencies. PMID:27570785

  3. Molecular imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of flavonol aglycones from Moringa oleifera extracts.

    PubMed

    Pakade, Vusumzi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Lindahl, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer produced using quercetin as the imprinting compound was applied for the extraction of flavonol aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) from Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts obtained using heated reflux extraction method. Identification and quantification of these flavonols in the Moringa extracts was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Breakthrough volume and retention capacity of molecular imprinted polymer SPE was investigated using a mixture of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The calculated theoretical number of plates was found to be 14, 50 and 8 for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. Calculated adsorption capacities were 2.0, 3.4 and 3.7 μmol/g for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. No myricetin was observed in Moringa methanol extracts. Recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol from Moringa methanol extracts of leaves and flowers ranged from 77 to 85% and 75 to 86%, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility of using the developed molecularly imprinted SPE method for quantitative clean-up of both of these flavonoids. Using heated reflux extraction combined with molecularly imprinted SPE, quercetin concentrations of 975 ± 58 and 845 ± 32 mg/kg were determined in Moringa leaves and flowers, respectively. However, the concentrations of kaempferol found in leaves and flowers were 2100 ± 176 and 2802 ± 157 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:23255435

  4. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts and enzymatic activity of liver from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves/sunflower seed cake.

    PubMed

    Moyo, B; Oyedemi, S; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2012-08-01

    The study investigated antioxidant potency of Moringa oleifera leaves in different in vitro systems using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidative effect on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were investigated in goats supplemented with M. oleifera (MOL) or sunflower seed cake (SC). The acetone extract had higher concentrations of total flavonoids (295.01 ± 1.89 QE/g) followed by flavonols (132.74 ± 0.83 QE/g), phenolics (120.33 ± 0.76 TE/g) and then proanthocyanidins (32.59 ± 0.50 CE/g) than the aqueous extract. The reducing power of both solvent extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner. The acetone extract depicted higher percentage inhibition against DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide radicals which were comparable with reference standard antioxidants (vitamin C and BHT). MOL increased the antioxidant activity of GSH (186%), SOD (97.8%) and catalase (0.177%). Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced by MOL. The present study suggests that M. oleifera could be a potential source of compounds with strong antioxidant potential. PMID:22465510

  5. Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Moustapha; Lamien-Sanou, Assita; Ramdé, Norbert; Ouédraogo, Aimé S; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Zongo, Salifou P; Goumbri, Olga; Duez, Pierre; Guissou, Pierre I

    2013-03-01

    Oxidative stress due to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. The nephroprotective effect of aqueous-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (150 and 300 mg/kg) was evaluated against gentamicin-induced (80 mg/kg) renal injury in rabbits. Serum urea and creatinine levels were evaluated as the markers of renal nephrotoxicity. At the end of the experiment, the kidneys of rabbits were excised for histological examinations and determination of lipid peroxidation levels. Serum urea and creatinine levels were reduced in the M. oleifera (150 and 300 mg/kg) plus gentamicin treated groups. On histological examinations, kidney of intoxicated rabbits groups which received M. oleifera extract showed reparative tendencies. A highly significant (p < 0.01) elevation was observed in lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in the kidneys of gentamicin-intoxicated rabbits whereas combined treatment of M. oleifera and gentamicin group showed a highly significant (p < 0.01) depletion in LPO. The present study indicates that aqueous-ethanolic extract of M. oleifera leaves attenuates renal injury in rabbits treated with gentamicin, possibly by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. PMID:22197459

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Moringa oleifera Leaves in Chronic Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, Majambu

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is an angiosperm plant, native of the Indian subcontinent, where its various parts have been utilized throughout history as food and medicine. It is now cultivated in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The nutritional, prophylactic, and therapeutic virtues of this plant are being extolled on the Internet. Dietary consumption of its part is therein promoted as a strategy of personal health preservation and self-medication in various diseases. The enthusiasm for the health benefits of M. oleifera is in dire contrast with the scarcity of strong experimental and clinical evidence supporting them. Fortunately, the chasm is slowly being filled. In this article, I review current scientific data on the corrective potential of M. oleifera leaves in chronic hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, as symptoms of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reported studies in experimental animals and humans, although limited in number and variable in design, seem concordant in their support for this potential. However, before M. oleifera leaf formulations can be recommended as medication in the prevention or treatment of diabetes and CVD, it is necessary that the scientific basis of their efficacy, the therapeutic modalities of their administration and their possible side effects be more rigorously determined. PMID:22403543

  7. Effect of incorporation of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on quality of ground pork patties.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, M; Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Sen, A R; Sureshkumar, K

    2014-11-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of different levels of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (MLE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in raw and cooked pork patties during refrigerated storage. Five treatments evaluated include: Control (without MLE/BHT), MLE 300 (300 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 450 (450 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 600 (600 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics) and BHT 200 (200 ppm BHT). Total phenolic content ranged from 60.78 to 70.27 mg per gram. A concentration dependent increase in reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of both MLE and BHT was noticed. Higher (P < 0.001) a* and lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values were observed in MLE 600 and BHT 200 compared to control. Addition of MLE did not affect the sensory attributes or microbial quality. These results showed that M. oleifera leaves can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid oxidation in ground pork patties. PMID:26396309

  8. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26609199

  9. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26609199

  10. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand- washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in vivo design with healthy volunteers. Methods The hands of fifteen volunteers were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was tested as a hand washing product and was compared with reference non-medicated liquid soap using a cross over design following an adaptation of the European Committee for Standardization protocol (EN 1499). In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of Moringa oleifera leaf powder was compared with an inert powder using the same protocol. Results Application of 2 and 3 g of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (mean log10-reduction: 2.44 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.34, respectively) was significantly less effective than the reference soap (3.00 ± 0.27 and 2.99 ± 0.26, respectively; p < 0.001). Application of the same amounts of Moringa oleifera (2 and 3 g) but using a wet preparation, was also significantly less effective than reference soap (p < 0.003 and p < 0.02, respectively). However there was no significant difference when using 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder in dried or wet preparation (mean log10-reduction: 2.70 ± 0.27 and 2.91 ± 0.11, respectively) compared with reference soap (2.97 ± 0.28). Application of calcium sulphate inert powder was significantly less effective than the 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder (p < 0.01). Conclusion Four grams of Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap

  11. Profiling glucosinolates and phenolics in vegetative and reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringa oleifera L. (horseradish tree) and Moringa stenopetala L.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Richard N; Mellon, Fred A; Foidl, Nikolaus; Pratt, John H; Dupont, M Susan; Perkins, Lionel; Kroon, Paul A

    2003-06-01

    Moringa species are important multi-purpose tropical crops, as human foods and for medicine and oil production. There has been no previous comprehensive analysis of the secondary metabolites in Moringa species. Tissues of M. oleifera from a wide variety of sources and M. stenopetala from a single source were analyzed for glucosinolates and phenolics (flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and cinnamates). M. oleifera and M. stenopetala seeds only contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate at high concentrations. Roots of M. oleifera and M. stenopetala had high concentrations of both 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and benzyl glucosinolate. Leaves from both species contained 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and three monoacetyl isomers of this glucosinolate. Only 4-(alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate was detected in M. oleifera bark tissue. M. oleifera leaves contained quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside), and lower amounts of kaempferol-3-O-glucoside and kaempferol-3-O-(6' '-malonyl-glucoside). M. oleifera leaves also contained 3-caffeoylquinic acid and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Leaves of M. stenopetala contained quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside (rutin) and 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Neither proanthocyanidins nor anthocyanins were detected in any of the tissues of either species. PMID:12769522

  12. Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed.

    PubMed

    Aviara, N A; Musa, W B; Owolarafe, O K; Ogunsina, B S; Oluwole, F A

    2015-07-01

    Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed were moisture content (4.78, 6.00, 8.00 and 10.00 % wet basis), heating temperature (50, 70, 85 and 100 °C) and heating time (15, 20, 25 and 30 min). Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1.1239 MPa was obtained at the processing conditions of 10.00 % moisture content, 50 °C heating temperature and 15 min heating time. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0.3164 MPa and it occurred at the moisture content of 4.78 %, heating temperature of 100 °C and heating time of 30 min. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that all the processing variables and their interactions had significant effect on the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed at 1 % level of significance. This was further demonstrated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Tukey's test and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis successfully separated the means and a multiple regression equation was used to express the relationship existing between the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed and its moisture content, processing temperature, heating time and their interactions. The model yielded coefficients that enabled the oil point pressure of the seed to be predicted with very high coefficient of determination. PMID:26139917

  13. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. PMID:25442573

  14. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%). PMID:17141409

  15. Structural characterization of coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin and its effect on hemostatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Luz, Luciana de Andrade; Silva, Mariana Cristina Cabral; Ferreira, Rodrigo da Silva; Santana, Lucimeire Aparecida; Silva-Lucca, Rosemeire Aparecida; Mentele, Reinhard; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Paiva, Patricia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2013-07-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate recognition proteins. cMoL, a coagulant Moringa oleifera Lectin, was isolated from seeds of the plant. Structural studies revealed a heat-stable and pH resistant protein with 101 amino acids, 11.67 theoretical pI and 81% similarity with a M. oleifera flocculent protein. Secondary structure content was estimated as 46% α-helix, 12% β-sheets, 17% β-turns and 25% unordered structures belonging to the α/β tertiary structure class. cMoL significantly prolonged the time required for blood coagulation, activated partial thromboplastin (aPTT) and prothrombin times (PT), but was not so effective in prolonging aPTT in asialofetuin presence. cMoL acted as an anticoagulant protein on in vitro blood coagulation parameters and at least on aPTT, the lectin interacted through the carbohydrate recognition domain. PMID:23537800

  16. Isothiocyanate-rich Moringa oleifera extract reduces weight gain, insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Carrie; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Kuhn, Peter; Richard, Allison J.; Wicks, Shawna; Stephens, Jacqueline M.; Wang, Zhong; Mynatt, Randy; Cefalu, William; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Scope Moringa oleifera (moringa) is tropical plant traditionally used as an antidiabetic food. It produces structurally unique and chemically stable moringa isothiocyanates (MICs) that were evaluated for their therapeutic use in vivo. Methods and results C57BL/6L mice fed very high fat diet (VHFD) supplemented with 5% moringa concentrate (MC, delivering 66 mg/kg/d of MICs) accumulated fat mass, had improved glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, and did not develop fatty liver disease compared to VHFD-fed mice. MC-fed group also had reduced plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, cholesterol, IL-1β, TNFα, and lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) expression. In hepatoma cells, MC and MICs at low micromolar concentrations inhibited gluconeogenesis and G6P expression. MICs and MC effects on lipolysis in vitro and on thermogenic and lipolytic genes in adipose tissue in vivo argued these are not likely primary targets for the anti-obesity and anti- diabetic effects observed. Conclusion Data suggest that MICs are the main anti-obesity and anti-diabetic bioactives of MC, and that they exert their effects by inhibiting rate-limiting steps in liver gluconeogenesis resulting in direct or indirect increase in insulin signaling and sensitivity. These conclusions suggest that MC may be an effective dietary food for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25620073

  17. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741

  18. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.

    PubMed

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-Kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract. PMID:26550159

  19. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract. PMID:26550159

  20. Moringa oleifera mitigates memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of age-related dementia.

    PubMed

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required. PMID:24454988

  1. Protease inhibitor from Moringa oleifera with potential for use as therapeutic drug and as seafood preservative

    PubMed Central

    Bijina, B.; Chellappan, Sreeja; Krishna, Jissa G.; Basheer, Soorej M.; Elyas, K.K.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Chandrasekaran, M.

    2011-01-01

    Protease inhibitors are well known to have several applications in medicine and biotechnology. Several plant sources are known to return potential protease inhibitors. In this study plants belonging to different families of Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Graminae and Moringaceae were screened for the protease inhibitor. Among them Moringa oleifera, belonging to the family Moringaceae, recorded high level of protease inhibitor activity after ammonium sulfate fractionation. M. oleifera, which grows throughout most of the tropics and having several industrial and medicinal uses, was selected as a source of protease inhibitor since so far no reports were made on isolation of the protease inhibitor. Among the different parts of M. oleifera tested, the crude extract isolated from the mature leaves and seeds showed the highest level of inhibition against trypsin. Among the various extraction media evaluated, the crude extract prepared in phosphate buffer showed maximum recovery of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitor recorded high inhibitory activity toward the serine proteases thrombin, elastase, chymotrypsin and the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and papain which have more importance in pharmaceutical industry. The protease inhibitor also showed complete inhibition of activities of the commercially available proteases of Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus oryzae. However, inhibitory activities toward subtilisin, esperase, pronase E and proteinase K were negligible. Further, it was found that the protease inhibitor could prevent proteolysis in a commercially valuable shrimp Penaeus monodon during storage indicating the scope for its application as a seafood preservative. This is the first report on isolation of a protease inhibitor from M. oleifera. PMID:23961135

  2. Tissue-Specific Metabolic Profile Study of Moringa oleifera L. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Iqbal; Chowdhury, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, an important multipurpose crop, is rich in various phytochemicals: flavonoids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and carotenes. The purpose of this study was to profile the groups of metabolites in leaf and stem tissues of M. oleifera. Various sugars, amino acids, and organic acid derivatives were found in all of the M. oleifera tissues with different profiles/peak intensities depending on the tissue. 1D proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was applied for collecting metabolite spectra. Approximately 30 metabolites with 2 unknown peaks were identified with Chenomx and verified with MMCD databases using carbon data. Among these metabolites, 22 metabolites were identified as common in both leaf and stem tissues. Of the remaining 8 metabolites, 4-aminobutyrate, adenosine, guanosine, tyrosine, and p-cresol were found only in leaf tissues; however, glutamate, glutamine, and tryptophan were found only in stem tissues. Biochemical pathway analysis revealed that 28 identified metabolites were interconnected with 36 different pathways as well as related to different fatty acids and secondary metabolites synthesis biochemical pathways. It is well known that different tissues of M. oleifera have nutritional, medicinal, and therapeutic values; therefore, our main objective is to provide a publicly available M. oliefera tissue specific metabolite database. PMID:26366209

  3. Moringa oleifera Mitigates Memory Impairment and Neurodegeneration in Animal Model of Age-Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required. PMID:24454988

  4. Effect of Moringa oleifera flower extract on larval trypsin and acetylcholinesterase activities in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Dias de Assis, Caio Rodrigo; de Souza Bezerra, Ranilson; Xavier, Haroudo Satiro; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti control is crucial to reducing dengue fever. Aedes aegypti larvae have developed resistance to organophosporous insecticides and the use of natural larvicides may help manage larval resistance by increasing elements in insecticide rotation programs. Here, we report on larvicidal activity of Moringa oleifera flower extract against A. aegypti L(1), L(2), L(3), and L(4) as well as the effect of flower extract on gut trypsin and whole-larval acetylcholinesterase from L(4.) In addition, the heated flower extract was investigated for larvicidal activity against L(4) and effect on larval gut trypsin. Moringa oleifera flower extract contains a proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor (M. oleifera flower trypsin inhibitor, MoFTI), triterpene (β-amyrin), sterol (β-sitosterol) as well as flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin). Larvicidal activity was detected against L(2), L(3), and L(4) (LC(50) of 1.72%, 1.67%, and 0.92%, respectively). Flower extract inhibited L(4) gut trypsin (MoFTI K(i) = 0.6 nM) and did not affect acetylcholinesterase activity. In vivo assay showed that gut trypsin activity from L(4) treated with M. oleifera flower extract decreased over time (0-1,440 min) and was strongly inhibited (98.6%) after 310 min incubation; acetylcholinesterase activity was not affected. Thermal treatment resulted in a loss of trypsin inhibitor and larvicidal activities, supporting the hypothesis that flower extract contains a proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor that may be responsible for the deleterious effects on larval mortality. PMID:22392801

  5. The use of Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as Coagulant to Improve the Quality of Wastewater and Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawati; Rani Yuliastri, Indra; Nurhasni; Rohaeti, Eti; Effendi, Hefni; Darusman, Latifah K.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater and ground water treatment are mostly using Polyaluminum Chloride (PAC), a synthetic coagulant, which possess health risk and require expensive cost. This research was carried out to observe the effect of Moringa oleifera seed as natural coagulant to replace synthetic coagulant. M. oleifera reduced 98.6% turbidity of wastewater, 10.8% of its conductivity, 11.7% of its BOD and removed its metal contents (Cd, Cr, Mn). When applied to ground water, M. oleifera removed the turbidity of ground water as much as 97.5%, while reduced the conductivity and BOD of ground water 53.4% and 18%, respectively. The use of M. oleifera also reduced total number of coliform. The advantage of using M. oleifera is that it does not reduce pH as PAC, hence does not require further treatment to adjust pH of the treated water.

  6. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry. PMID:27471732

  7. Use of Moringa oleifera Flower Pod Extract as Natural Preservative and Development of SCAR Marker for Its DNA Based Identification.

    PubMed

    Gull, Iram; Javed, Attia; Aslam, Muhammad Shahbaz; Mushtaq, Roohi; Athar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    The use of Moringa oleifera as natural food preservative has been evaluated in the present study. In addition, for quality assurance, the study has also been focused on the shelf life of product to authenticate the identification of plant by development of DNA based marker. Among the different extracts prepared from flower pods of Moringa oleifera, methanol and aqueous extract exhibited high antibacterial and antioxidant activity, respectively. The high phenolic contents (53.5 ± 0.169 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid contents (10.9 ± 0.094 mg QE/g) were also recorded in methanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Due to instability of bioactive compounds in aqueous extract, methanol extract is considered as potent natural preservative. The shelf life of methanol extract was observed for two months at 4°C under dark conditions. The developed SCAR primers (MOF217/317/MOR317) specifically amplified a fragment of 317 bp from DNA of Moringa oleifera samples collected from different regions of Punjab province of Pakistan. The methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower pods has great potential to be used as natural preservative and nutraceutical in food industry. PMID:27471732

  8. In vitro fermentation characteristics and effective utilisable crude protein in leaves and green pods of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera cultivated at low and mid-altitudes.

    PubMed

    Melesse, A; Steingass, H; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vitro nutrient digestibility and utilisation of leaves and green pods of two Moringa species in supplementing the feed of ruminant animals during the dry season. Samples were analysed for proximate nutrients using official methods. The metabolisable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and effective utilisable crude protein (uCP) were estimated using the Hohenheim in vitro gas test method. Gas volume in Moringa stenopetala leaves and green pods was generally higher than those of Moringa oleifera. Gas volume for leaves was similar between low and mid-altitudes but was higher for green pods at mid-altitude. M. stenopetala leaves contained significantly higher ME (9.8 MJ/kg DM) and OMD (75%) than those of M. oleifera. Similarly, M. stenopetala green pods had higher ME and OMD values than those of M. oleifera. For green pods, the ME and OMD values were significantly higher at mid-altitude than those at low altitude although these values for leaves were similar between both altitudes. Moringa oleifera leaves had higher effective uCP than those of M. stenopetala. Nevertheless, the effective uCP was higher for green pods of M. stenopetala than those of M. oleifera. The effective uCP for leaves cultivated at mid-altitude was slightly higher than those at low altitude. This study suggested that leaves and green pods could be used as alternative energy and protein supplements for tropical ruminants, particularly during dry periods. It was further concluded that leaves were generally better in nutrient compositions and in vitro nutrient digestibility characteristics than green pods. PMID:22497540

  9. GC/GCMS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera roots

    PubMed Central

    Faizi, Shaheen; Sumbul, Saima; Versiani, Muhammed Ali; Saleem, Rubeena; Sana, Aisha; Siddiqui, Hira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS. Methods A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature for 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis. Results The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102 compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide (38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents. Conclusions This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds. PMID:25183335

  10. The protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Taha, Nevine R; Amin, Hanan Ali; Sultan, Asrar A

    2015-02-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating antineoplastic agent is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors and B-cell malignant disease. It is known to cause urinary bladder damage due to inducing oxidative stress. Moringa oleifera (Mof) is commonly known as drumstick tree. Moringa leaves have been reported to be a rich source of β-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, and potassium. It acts as a good source of natural antioxidants; due to the presence of various types of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoids. The aim of this work was to test the possible antioxidant protective effects of M. oleifera leaves against CP induced urinary bladder toxicity in rats. Female Wister albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Group I served as control, received orally normal saline, group II received a single dose CP 100mg/kg intraperitoneally, group III and VI both received orally hydroethanolic extract of Mof; 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg respectively daily for a week, 1h before and 4h after CP administration. Rats were sacrificed 24h after CP injection. The bladder was removed, sectioned, and subjected to light, transition electron microscopic studies, and biochemical studies (measuring the parameter of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde along with the activities of the antioxidant enzyme reduced glutathione). The bladders of CP treated rats showed ulcered mucosa, edematous, hemorrhagic, and fibrotic submucosa by light microscopy. Ultrastructure observation showed; losing large areas of uroepithelium, extended intercellular gaps, junction complexes were affected as well as damage of mitochondria in the form of swelling and destruction of cristae. Biochemical analysis showed significant elevation of malondialdhyde, while reduced glutathione activity was significantly lowered. From the results obtained in this work, we can say that Moringa leaves play an important role in ameliorating and protecting the bladder from CP toxicity. PMID

  11. Moringa oleifera as an Anti-Cancer Agent against Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Albalawi, Sulaiman Mansour; Athar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Al-Shahrani, Hamoud; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaves, bark and seed extracts. When tested against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cancer cell lines, the extracts of leaves and bark showed remarkable anti-cancer properties while surprisingly, seed extracts exhibited hardly any such properties. Cell survival was significantly low in both cells lines when treated with leaves and bark extracts. Furthermore, a striking reduction (about 70-90%) in colony formation as well as cell motility was observed upon treatment with leaves and bark. Additionally, apoptosis assay performed on these treated breast and colorectal cancer lines showed a remarkable increase in the number of apoptotic cells; with a 7 fold increase in MD-MB-231 to an increase of several fold in colorectal cancer cell lines. However, no significant apoptotic cells were detected upon seeds extract treatment. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution showed a G2/M enrichment (about 2-3 fold) indicating that these extracts effectively arrest the cell progression at the G2/M phase. The GC-MS analyses of these extracts revealed numerous known anti-cancer compounds, namely eugenol, isopropyl isothiocynate, D-allose, and hexadeconoic acid ethyl ester, all of which possess long chain hydrocarbons, sugar moiety and an aromatic ring. This suggests that the anti-cancer properties of Moringa oleifera could be attributed to the bioactive compounds present in the extracts from this plant. This is a novel study because no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa extracts obtained in the locally grown environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancers. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa not only in leaves but also in bark. These findings suggest that both the leaf and bark extracts of Moringa collected from the Saudi Arabian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for treatment of breast

  12. Moringa oleifera as an Anti-Cancer Agent against Breast and Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman Khazim; Albalawi, Sulaiman Mansour; Athar, Md Tanwir; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Al-Shahrani, Hamoud; Islam, Mozaffarul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the anti-cancer effect of Moringa oleifera leaves, bark and seed extracts. When tested against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-8 cancer cell lines, the extracts of leaves and bark showed remarkable anti-cancer properties while surprisingly, seed extracts exhibited hardly any such properties. Cell survival was significantly low in both cells lines when treated with leaves and bark extracts. Furthermore, a striking reduction (about 70–90%) in colony formation as well as cell motility was observed upon treatment with leaves and bark. Additionally, apoptosis assay performed on these treated breast and colorectal cancer lines showed a remarkable increase in the number of apoptotic cells; with a 7 fold increase in MD-MB-231 to an increase of several fold in colorectal cancer cell lines. However, no significant apoptotic cells were detected upon seeds extract treatment. Moreover, the cell cycle distribution showed a G2/M enrichment (about 2–3 fold) indicating that these extracts effectively arrest the cell progression at the G2/M phase. The GC-MS analyses of these extracts revealed numerous known anti-cancer compounds, namely eugenol, isopropyl isothiocynate, D-allose, and hexadeconoic acid ethyl ester, all of which possess long chain hydrocarbons, sugar moiety and an aromatic ring. This suggests that the anti-cancer properties of Moringa oleifera could be attributed to the bioactive compounds present in the extracts from this plant. This is a novel study because no report has yet been cited on the effectiveness of Moringa extracts obtained in the locally grown environment as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancers. Our study is the first of its kind to evaluate the anti-malignant properties of Moringa not only in leaves but also in bark. These findings suggest that both the leaf and bark extracts of Moringa collected from the Saudi Arabian region possess anti-cancer activity that can be used to develop new drugs for treatment of

  13. Development of a reliable extraction and quantification method for glucosinolates in Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Müller, Carsten T; Mewis, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates are the characteristic secondary metabolites of plants in the order Brassicales. To date the common DIN extraction 'desulfo glucosinolates' method remains the common procedure for determination and quantification of glucosinolates. However, the desulfation step in the extraction of glucosinolates from Moringa oleifera leaves resulted in complete conversion and degradation of the naturally occurring glucosinolates in this plant. Therefore, a method for extraction of intact Moringa glucosinolates was developed and no conversion and degradation of the different rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolates was found. Buffered eluents (0.1 M ammonium acetate) were necessary to stabilize 4-α-rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate (Rhamno-Benzyl-GS) and acetyl-4-α-rhamnopyranosyloxy-benzyl glucosinolate isomers (Ac-Isomers-GS) during HPLC analysis. Due to the instability of intact Moringa glucosinolates at room temperature and during the purification process of single glucosinolates, influences of different storage (room temperature, frozen, thawing and refreezing) and buffer conditions on glucosinolate conversion were analysed. Conversion and degradations processes were especially determined for the Ac-Isomers-GS III. PMID:25053080

  14. Innovative physico-chemical treatment of wastewater incorporating Moringa oleifera seed coagulant.

    PubMed

    Bhuptawat, Hitendra; Folkard, G K; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-04-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pan tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain a high quality edible oil (up to 40% by weight) and water soluble proteins that act as effective coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. The use of this natural coagulant material has not yet realised its potential. A water extract of M. oleifera seed was applied to a wastewater treatment sequence comprising coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation-sand filtration. The study was laboratory based using an actual wastewater. Overall COD removals of 50% were achieved at both 50 and 100mg/l M. oleifera doses. When 50 and 100mg/l seed doses were applied in combination with 10mg/l of alum, COD removal increased to 58 and 64%, respectively. The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. In the tests incorporating alum, sludge generation and filter head loss increased by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. These encouraging treatment results indicate that this may be the first treatment application that can move to large scale adoption. The simple water extract may be obtained at minimal cost from the presscake residue remaining after oil extraction from the seed. The regulatory compliance issues of adopting 'new materials' for wastewater treatment are significantly less stringent than those applying to the production of potable water. PMID:16987603

  15. Effect of Moringa oleifera lectin on development and mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Juliene S; Santos, Nataly D L; Napoleão, Thiago H; Gomes, Francis S; Ferreira, Rodrigo S; Zingali, Russolina B; Coelho, Luana C B B; Leite, Sônia P; Navarro, Daniela M A F; Paiva, Patrícia M G

    2009-11-01

    Aedes aegypti larvae have developed tolerance to many insecticides used for mosquito control. Moringa oleifera seeds contain a water-soluble lectin (WSMoL) and this paper reports the effect of M. oleifera seed extracts (MoE(1-15)) and WSMoL on development and survival of A. aegypti larvae. WSMoL peptide from in-gel trypsin digestion is also described. MoE(1-15) showed hemagglutinating activity and WSMoL had similarity with flocculating proteins from M. oleifera seeds. MoE(1) and MoE(3) delayed larval development which stopped in the third instar (L3) in MoE(6) and MoE(15). Significant (p<0.0001) larval mortality was only detected in MoE(15). Native WSMoL showed larvicidal activity (LC(50) 0.197 mg mL(-1)) and heated lectin, without hemagglutinating activity, did not kill fourth instar (L4) larvae. Optical microscopy showed that live L4 from MoE(1) presented underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen and hypertrophic segments; dead L4 from WSMoL were absent of underlying epithelium, had increased gut lumen and hypertrophic segments. The presence of hemagglutinating activity in the extracts suggests that soluble lectin promotes the delay of larval development and mortality; furthermore, the absence of larvicidal activity in heat-denatured WSMoL strengthens the involvement of lectin in this activity mechanism. PMID:19747711

  16. Antiproliferation and induction of apoptosis by Moringa oleifera leaf extract on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sreelatha, S; Jeyachitra, A; Padma, P R

    2011-06-01

    Medicinal plants provide an inexhaustible source of anticancer drugs in terms of both variety and mechanism of action. Induction of apoptosis is the key success of plant products as anticancer agents. The present study was designed to determine the antiproliferative and apoptotic events of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) using human tumor (KB) cell line as a model system. KB cells were cultured in the presence of leaf extracts at various concentrations for 48 h and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. MLE showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of KB cells. The antiproliferative effect of MLE was also associated with induction of apoptosis as well as morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The morphology of apoptotic nuclei was quantified using DAPI and propidium iodide staining. The degree of DNA fragmentation was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. In addition, MLE at various concentrations was found to induce ROS production suggesting modulation of redox-sensitive mechanism. Eventually, HPTLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolics such as quercetin and kaempferol. Thus, these findings suggest that the leaf extracts from M. oleifera had strong antiproliferation and potent induction of apoptosis. Thus, it indicates that M. oleifera leaf extracts has potential for cancer chemoprevention and can be claimed as a therapeutic target for cancer. PMID:21385597

  17. Identification and characterization of a potent anticancer fraction from the leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera L.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Praveen T; Vardarajalu, Ambalika; Wadhwani, Ashish; Patel, Viral

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer potential of Moringa oleifera L. extracts have been well established. However, there are no reports on the isolated molecules/fractions from these extracts which are responsible for the anticancer/cytotoxic activity. Thus, in the present study, we explored the same. The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts of the M. oleifera leaves and 15 fractions (F1 to F15) of ethyl acetate extract were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity using Hep-2 cell lines and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model in mice, respectively. Among the tested samples, the F1 fraction showed potential cytotoxic effect in Hep-2 cell lines with a CTC50 value of 12.5 ± 0.5 μg/ml. In vivo studies with the doses 5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o. demonstrated significant reduction in body weight and increased the mean survival time compared to the control group. These results were also comparable to the standard, 5-Fluorouracil, treated animals. We have also successfully isolated and characterized the anticancer fraction, F1 from the leaves of M. oleifera L. PMID:25757240

  18. Therapeutic effects of Moringa oleifera on arsenic-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Sharma, Mamta; S Flora, Swaran J

    2005-11-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree; Hindi: Saijan; Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities, including hypocholesterolemic agent, regulation of thyroid hormone status, anti-diabetic agent, gastric ulcers, anti-tumor agent and hypotensive agent, used for treating various diseases such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. Therapeutic efficacy of oral administration of seed powder of M. oleifera (500mg/kg, orally, once daily) post arsenic exposure (100ppm in drinking water for 4 months) was investigated in rats. Animals exposed to arsenic(III) showed a significant inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in blood. On the other hand, a significant decrease in hepatic ALAD, and an increase in δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase (ALAS) activity was noted after arsenic exposure. These changes were accompanied by an increase in thiobarbiturc acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in liver and kidney. Activities of liver, kidney and brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase also showed a decrease on arsenic exposure. Administration of M. oleifera seed powder post arsenic exposure, exhibited significant recovery in blood ALAD activity while, it restored blood GSH and ROS levels. Most of the other blood biochemical variables remained unchanged on M. oleifera supplementation. A significant protection in the altered ALAD and ALAS activities of liver and TBARS level in liver and kidney was however, observed after M. oleifera administration. Interestingly, there was a marginal but significant depletion of arsenic from blood, liver and kidneys. The results, thus lead us to conclude that post arsenic exposure administration with

  19. Edible oils for liver protection: hepatoprotective potentiality of Moringa oleifera seed oil against chemical-induced hepatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Said, Mansour S; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A; Al-Blowi, Ali S; Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed; Ahmed, Atallah F; Rafatullah, Syed

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, in vitro antioxidant, antioxidative stress and hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil (Ben oil; BO) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4) ) induced lipid peroxidation and hepatic damage in rats. The oil at 0.2 and 0.4 mL/rat was administered orally for 21 consecutive days. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, ALP, GGT) and bilirubin levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the oil. There was a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in the liver tissue. The results obtained indicated that BO possesses potent hepatoprotective action against CCl(4) -induced hepatic damage by lowering liver marker enzymes, MDA concentration, and elevating NP-SH and TP levels in liver tissue. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver. The results of this study showed that treatment with Ben oil or silymarin (as a reference) appears to enhance the recovery from hepatic damage induced by CCl(4) . The pentobarbital induced narcolepsy prolongation in mice was retarded by the Ben oil. Acute toxicity test in mice showed no morbidity or mortality. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene-linolic acid assay tests of the BO exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity in both tests used. The possible mechanism(s) of the liver protective activity of Ben oil activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of antioxidant component(s) in the oil. Consequently, BO can be used as a therapeutic regime in treatment of some hepatic disorders. PMID:22757719

  20. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Kruti Debnath; Das, M. R.; Pati, M.; Pati, P. D.; Gupta, A. R.; Patra, R. C.; Senapati, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant. Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm) level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential count (DC), total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration (MCHC) were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment. Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves. PMID:27047044

  1. Relative bioavailability of folate from the traditional food plant Moringa oleifera L. as evaluated in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Saini, R K; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Srinivasan, K; Giridhar, P

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is an affordable and rich source of dietary folate. Quantification of folate by HPLC showed that 5-formyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (502.1 μg/100 g DW) and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (223.9 μg/100 g DW) as the most dominant forms of folate in M. oleifera leaves. The bioavailability of folate and the effects of folate depletion and repletion on biochemical and molecular markers of folate status were investigated in Wistar rats. Folate deficiency was induced by keeping the animals on a folate deficient diet with 1 % succinyl sulfathiazole (w/w). After the depletion period, animals were repleted with different levels of folic acid and M. oleifera leaves as a source of folate. Feeding the animals on a folate deficient diet for 7 weeks caused a significant (3.4-fold) decrease in serum folate content, compared to non-depleted control animals. Relative bioavailability of folate from dehydrated leaves of M. oleifera was 81.9 %. During folate depletion and repletion, no significant changes in liver glycine N-methyl transferase and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase expression were recorded. In RDA calculations, only 50 % of natural folate is assumed to be bioavailable. Therefore, the bioavailability of folate from Moringa is much higher, suggesting that M. oleifera based food can be used as a significant source of folate. PMID:26787970

  2. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation. PMID:25976997

  3. Pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera. 1: Preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, A; Cabrera, O; Morales, O; Mollinedo, P; Mendia, P

    1991-07-01

    The antimicrobial activities of Moringa oleifera leaves, roots, bark and seeds were investigated in vitro against bacteria, yeast, dermatophytes and helminths pathogenic to man. By a disk-diffusion method, it was demonstrated that the fresh leaf juice and aqueous extracts from the seeds inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and that extraction temperatures above 56 degrees C inhibited this activity. No activity was demonstrated against four other pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. By a dilution method, no activity was demonstrated against six pathogenic dermatophytes. A method was standardized for studying the effect of aqueous extracts on Ascaris lumbricoides eggs, but no activity was exhibited by any part of the tree in contrast to Chenopodium ambrosioides leaf extracts. PMID:1921416

  4. Optimization of process conditions for removal of cadmium using bioactive constituents of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Jamal, P; Muyibi, S A; Syarif, W M

    2008-07-01

    Pollutants, especially heavy metals like cadmium, Chromium, lead and mercury, play a significant role in causing various water-borne diseases to humans. This study evaluates the sorption properties of bioactive constituents of Moringa oleifera seeds for decontamination of cadmium at laboratory scale. The performance of the bioactive constituent extracted by salt extraction method was enhanced by process optimization with various concentration of bioactive dosages, agitation speed, contact time, pH and heavy metal concentrations. Statistical optimization was carried out for evaluating the polynomial regression model through effect of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The maximum removal of cadmium was 72% by using 0.2 g/l of bioactive dosage. PMID:19025007

  5. Moringa oleifera leaf extract prevents isoproterenol-induced myocardial damage in rats: evidence for an antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and cardioprotective intervention.

    PubMed

    Nandave, Mukesh; Ojha, Shreesh Kumar; Joshi, Sujata; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2009-02-01

    The present study evaluated cardioprotective effect of lyophilized hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera in the isoproterenol (ISP)-induced model of myocardial infarction. Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups and orally fed saline once daily alone (sham) or with ISP (ISP control) or ISP with M. oleifera (200 mg/kg), respectively, for 1 month. On days 29 and 30 of administration, rats of the ISP control and M. oleifera-ISP groups were administered ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) at an interval of 24 hours. On day 31, hemodynamic parameters (mean arterial pressure [MAP], heart rate [HR], left ventricular end-diastolic pressure [LVEDP], and left ventricular peak positive [(+) LV dP/dt] and negative [(-) LV dP/dt] pressures were recorded. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, and hearts were excised and processed for biochemical, histopathological, and ultrastructural studies. Chronic treatment with M. oleifera demonstrated mitigating effects on ISP-induced hemodynamic [HR, (+) LV dP/dt, (-) LV dP/dt, and LVEDP] perturbations. Chronic M. oleifera treatment resulted in significant favorable modulation of the biochemical enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase-MB) but failed to demonstrate any significant effect on reduced glutathione compared to the ISP control group. Moringa treatment significantly prevented the rise in lipid peroxidation in myocardial tissue. Furthermore, M. oleifera also prevented the deleterious histopathological and ultrastructural perturbations caused by ISP. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that M. oleifera extract possesses significant cardioprotective effect, which may be attributed to its antioxidant, antiperoxidative, and myocardial preservative properties. PMID:19298195

  6. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Farooq; Bhanger, M I

    2003-10-22

    The hexane-extracted oil content of Moringa oleifera seeds ranged from 38.00 to 42.00%. Protein, fiber, and ash contents were found to be 26.50-32.00, 5.80-9.29, and, 5.60-7.50%, respectively. Results of physical and chemical parameters of the extracted oil were as follows: iodine value, 68.00-71.80; refractive index (40 degrees C), 1.4590-1.4625; density (24 degrees C), 0.9036-0.9080 mg/mL; saponification value, 180.60-190.50; unsaponifiable matter, 0.70-1.10%; and color (1 in. cell), 0.95-1.10 R + 20.00-35.30 Y. Tocopherols (alpha, gamma, and delta) in the oil were up to 123.50-161.30, 84.07-104.00, and 41.00-56.00 mg/kg, respectively. The oil was found to contain high levels of oleic acid (up to 78.59%) followed by palmitic, stearic, behenic, and arachidic acid up to levels of 7.00, 7.50, 5.99, and 4.21%, respectively. The induction period (Rancimat, 20 L/h, 120 degrees C) of the crude oil was 9.99 h and reduced to 8.63 h after degumming. Specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were 1.70 and 0.31, respectively. Many parameters of M. oleifera oil indigenous to Pakistan were comparable to those of typical Moringa seed oils reported in the literature. The results of the present analytical study were also compared with those of different vegetable oils. PMID:14558778

  7. A study of the parameters affecting the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera in drinking water purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    The powder obtained from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been shown to be an effective primary coagulant for water treatment. When the seeds are dried, dehusked, crushed and added to water, the powder acts as a coagulant binding colloidal particles and bacteria to form agglomerated particles (flocs), which settle allowing the clarified supernatant to be poured off. Very little research has been undertaken on the parameters affecting the effectiveness of M. oleifera, especially in Malawi, for purification of drinking water and there is a great need for further testing in this area. Conclusive data needs to be compiled to demonstrate the effects of various water parameters have on the efficiency of the seeds. A parametric study was undertaken at Leeds Metropolitan University, UK, with the aim to establish the most appropriate dosing method; the optimum dosage for removal of turbidity; the influence of pH and temperature; together with the shelf life of the M. oleifera seeds. The study revealed that the most suitable dosing method was to mix the powder into a concentrated paste, hence forming a stock suspension. The optimum M. oleifera dose, for turbidity values between 40 and 200 NTU, ranged between 30 and 55 mg/l. With turbidity set at 130 NTU and a M. oleifera dose within the optimum range at 50 mg/l, pH levels were varied between 4 and 9. It was discovered that the coagulant performance was not too sensitive to pH fluctuations when conditions were within the optimum range. The most efficient coagulation, determined by the greatest reduction in turbidity, occurred at pH 6.5. Alkaline conditions were overall more favourable than acidic conditions; pH 9 had an efficiency of 65% of optimum, whilst at pH 5 the efficiency dropped to around 55%. The efficiency further dropped at pH 4, where the powder only produced results of around 10% of optimum conditions. A temperature range of 4-60 °C was studied in this research. Colder waters (<15 °C) were found to

  8. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries. PMID:19603700

  9. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arti R; Vijayakumar, M; Mathela, Chandra S; Rao, Chandana V

    2009-09-01

    The antioxidant potency of different fractions of Moringa oleifera leaves were investigated by employing various established in vitro systems, such as beta-Carotene bleaching, reducing power, DPPH/superoxide/hydroxyl radical scavenging, ferrous ion chelation and lipid peroxidation. On the basis of in vitro antioxidant properties polyphenolic fraction of M. oleifera leaves (MOEF) was chosen as the potent fraction and used for the DNA nicking and in vivo antioxidant properties. MOEF shows concentration dependent protection of oxidative DNA damage induced by HO() and also found to inhibit the toxicity produced by CCl(4) administration as seen from the decreased lipid peroxides (LPO) and increased glutathione (GSH) levels. Among the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were restored to almost normal levels compared to CCl(4) intoxicated rats. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ellagic and ferulic acid) and flavonoids (kaempferol, quercetin and rutin). Thus, it may be concluded that the MOEF possess high phenolic content and potent antioxidant properties, which may be mediated through direct trapping of the free radicals and also through metal chelation. PMID:19520138

  10. Crystal structure of mature 2S albumin from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Anwar; Mariutti, Ricardo Barros; Masood, Rehana; Caruso, Icaro Putinhon; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Gravatim; Millena de Freita, Cristhyane; Santos, Camila Ramos; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; Rossini Mutton, Márcia Justino; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Arni, Raghuvir Krishnaswamy

    2S albumins, the seed storage proteins, are the primary sources of carbon and nitrogen and are involved in plant defense. The mature form of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera), a chitin binding protein isoform 3-1 (mMo-CBP3-1) a thermostable antifungal, antibacterial, flocculating 2S albumin is widely used for the treatment of water and is potentially interesting for the development of both antifungal drugs and transgenic crops. The crystal structure of mMo-CBP3-1 determined at 1.7 Å resolution demonstrated that it is comprised of two proteolytically processed α-helical chains, stabilized by four disulfide bridges that is stable, resistant to pH changes and has a melting temperature (TM) of approximately 98 °C. The surface arginines and the polyglutamine motif are the key structural factors for the observed flocculating, antibacterial and antifungal activities. This represents the first crystal structure of a 2S albumin and the model of the pro-protein indicates the structural changes that occur upon formation of mMo-CBP3-1 and determines the structural motif and charge distribution patterns for the diverse observed activities. PMID:26505799

  11. Cerebroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera against focal ischemic stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kirisattayakul, Woranan; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta

    2013-01-01

    The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg(-1) was orally given to male Wistar rats (300-350 g) once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO) and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration. PMID:24367723

  12. Cerebroprotective Effect of Moringa oleifera against Focal Ischemic Stroke Induced by Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Tong-Un, Terdthai; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Wannanon, Panakaporn; Jittiwat, Jinatta

    2013-01-01

    The protection against ischemic stroke is still required due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Based on the role of oxidative stress in stroke pathophysiology, we determined whether Moringa oleifera, a plant possessing potent antioxidant activity, protected against brain damage and oxidative stress in animal model of focal stroke. M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg·kg−1 was orally given to male Wistar rats (300–350 g) once daily at a period of 2 weeks before the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery (Rt.MCAO) and 3 weeks after Rt.MCAO. The determinations of neurological score and temperature sensation were performed every 7 days throughout the study period, while the determinations of brain infarction volume, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px were performed 24 hr after Rt.MCAO. The results showed that all doses of extract decreased infarction volume in both cortex and subcortex. The protective effect of medium and low doses of extract in all areas occurred mainly via the decreased oxidative stress. The protective effect of the high dose extract in striatum and hippocampus occurred via the same mechanism, whereas other mechanisms might play a crucial role in cortex. The detailed mechanism required further exploration. PMID:24367723

  13. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

  14. Removal of tetracycline from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Matos, Maria; Sousa, Ângela; Costa, Cátia; Nogueira, Regina; Teixeira, José A; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Parpot, Pier; Coelho, Luana C B B; Brito, António G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tetracycline antibiotic (TA) removal from contaminated water by Moringa oleifera seed preparations. The composition of synthetic water approximate river natural contaminated water and TA simulated its presence as an emerging pollutant. Interactions between TA and protein preparations (extract; fraction and lectin) were also evaluated. TA was determined by solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Moringa extract and flour removed TA from water. The extract removed TA in all concentrations, and better removal (40%) was obtained with 40 mg L(-1); seed flour (particles < 5 mm), 1.25 and 2.50 g L(-1) removed 28% and 29% of tetracycline, respectively; particles > 5 mm (0.50 g L(-1)) removed 55% of antibiotic. Interactions between TA and seed preparations were assayed by haemagglutinating activity (HA). Specific HA (SHA) of extract (pH 7) was abolished with tetracycline (5 mg L(-1)); fraction (75%) and lectin HA (97%) were inhibited with TA. Extract SHA decreased by 75% at pH 8. Zeta potential (ZP) of extract 700 mg L(-1) and tetracycline 50 mg L(-1) , pH range 5-8, showed different results. Extract ZP was more negative (-10.73 to -16.00 mV) than tetracycline ZP (-0.27 to -20.15 mV); ZP difference was greater in pH 8. The focus of this study was achieved since Moringa preparations removed TA from water and compounds interacting with tetracycline involved at least lectin-binding sites. This is a natural process, which do not promote environmental damage. PMID:26264037

  15. Estimation of total phenolic content, in-vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers of Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Alhakmani, Fatma; Kumar, Sokindra; Khan, Shah Alam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) grown in Oman. Methods Flowers of M. oleifera were collected in the month of December 2012 and identified by a botanist. Alcoholic extract of the dry pulverized flowers of M. oleifera were obtained by cold maceration method. The ethanolic flower extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening as the reported methods. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content. DPPH was used to determine in-vitro antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity of flowers was investigated by protein denaturation method. Results Phytochemical analysis of extract showed presence of major classes of phytochemicals such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides etc. M. oleifera flowers were found to contain 19.31 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent of total phenolics in dry extract but exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract was significant and comparable with the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that flowers of M. oleifera possess potent anti-inflammatory activity and are also a good source of natural antioxidants. Further study is needed to identify the chemical compounds responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23905019

  16. Screening Reliable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Ting; Wu, Yu-Ling; Li, Jun-Cheng; OuYang, Kun-Xi; Ding, Mei-Mei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Shu-Qi; Lin, Meng-Fei; Chen, Han-Bin; Hu, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a promising plant species for oil and forage, but its genetic improvement is limited. Our current breeding program in this species focuses on exploiting the functional genes associated with important agronomical traits. Here, we screened reliable reference genes for accurately quantifying the expression of target genes using the technique of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in M. oleifera. Eighteen candidate reference genes were selected from a transcriptome database, and their expression stabilities were examined in 90 samples collected from the pods in different developmental stages, various tissues, and the roots and leaves under different conditions (low or high temperature, sodium chloride (NaCl)- or polyethyleneglycol (PEG)- simulated water stress). Analyses with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms revealed that the reliable reference genes differed across sample designs and that ribosomal protein L1 (RPL1) and acyl carrier protein 2 (ACP2) were the most suitable reference genes in all tested samples. The experiment results demonstrated the significance of using the properly validated reference genes and suggested the use of more than one reference gene to achieve reliable expression profiles. In addition, we applied three isotypes of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene that are associated with plant adaptation to abiotic stress to confirm the efficacy of the validated reference genes under NaCl and PEG water stresses. Our results provide a valuable reference for future studies on identifying important functional genes from their transcriptional expressions via RT-qPCR technique in M. oleifera. PMID:27541138

  17. Soluble extract from Moringa oleifera leaves with a new anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Jung, Il Lae

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and has also been used as a treatment for many diseases. Recently, various therapeutic effects of M. oleifera such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects have been investigated; however, most of these studies described only simple biological phenomena and their chemical compositions. Due to the increasing attention on natural products, such as those from plants, and the advantages of oral administration of anticancer drugs, soluble extracts from M. oleifera leaves (MOL) have been prepared and their potential as new anticancer drug candidates has been assessed in this study. Here, the soluble cold Distilled Water extract (4°C; concentration, 300 µg/mL) from MOL greatly induced apoptosis, inhibited tumor cell growth, and lowered the level of internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human lung cancer cells as well as other several types of cancer cells, suggesting that the treatment of cancer cells with MOL significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, over 90% of the genes tested were unexpectedly downregulated more than 2-fold, while just below 1% of the genes were upregulated more than 2-fold in MOL extract-treated cells, when compared with nontreated cells. Since severe dose-dependent rRNA degradation was observed, the abnormal downregulation of numerous genes was considered to be attributable to abnormal RNA formation caused by treatment with MOL extracts. Additionally, the MOL extract showed greater cytotoxicity for tumor cells than for normal cells, strongly suggesting that it could potentially be an ideal anticancer therapeutic candidate specific to cancer cells. These results suggest the potential therapeutic implications of the soluble extract from MOL in the treatment of various types of cancers. PMID:24748376

  18. Screening Reliable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li-Ting; Wu, Yu-Ling; Li, Jun-Cheng; OuYang, Kun-Xi; Ding, Mei-Mei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Shu-Qi; Lin, Meng-Fei; Chen, Han-Bin; Hu, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a promising plant species for oil and forage, but its genetic improvement is limited. Our current breeding program in this species focuses on exploiting the functional genes associated with important agronomical traits. Here, we screened reliable reference genes for accurately quantifying the expression of target genes using the technique of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in M. oleifera. Eighteen candidate reference genes were selected from a transcriptome database, and their expression stabilities were examined in 90 samples collected from the pods in different developmental stages, various tissues, and the roots and leaves under different conditions (low or high temperature, sodium chloride (NaCl)- or polyethyleneglycol (PEG)- simulated water stress). Analyses with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms revealed that the reliable reference genes differed across sample designs and that ribosomal protein L1 (RPL1) and acyl carrier protein 2 (ACP2) were the most suitable reference genes in all tested samples. The experiment results demonstrated the significance of using the properly validated reference genes and suggested the use of more than one reference gene to achieve reliable expression profiles. In addition, we applied three isotypes of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene that are associated with plant adaptation to abiotic stress to confirm the efficacy of the validated reference genes under NaCl and PEG water stresses. Our results provide a valuable reference for future studies on identifying important functional genes from their transcriptional expressions via RT-qPCR technique in M. oleifera. PMID:27541138

  19. Soluble Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves with a New Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Il Lae

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera has been regarded as a food substance since ancient times and has also been used as a treatment for many diseases. Recently, various therapeutic effects of M. oleifera such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antioxidant effects have been investigated; however, most of these studies described only simple biological phenomena and their chemical compositions. Due to the increasing attention on natural products, such as those from plants, and the advantages of oral administration of anticancer drugs, soluble extracts from M. oleifera leaves (MOL) have been prepared and their potential as new anticancer drug candidates has been assessed in this study. Here, the soluble cold Distilled Water extract (4°C; concentration, 300 µg/mL) from MOL greatly induced apoptosis, inhibited tumor cell growth, and lowered the level of internal reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human lung cancer cells as well as other several types of cancer cells, suggesting that the treatment of cancer cells with MOL significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, over 90% of the genes tested were unexpectedly downregulated more than 2-fold, while just below 1% of the genes were upregulated more than 2-fold in MOL extract-treated cells, when compared with nontreated cells. Since severe dose-dependent rRNA degradation was observed, the abnormal downregulation of numerous genes was considered to be attributable to abnormal RNA formation caused by treatment with MOL extracts. Additionally, the MOL extract showed greater cytotoxicity for tumor cells than for normal cells, strongly suggesting that it could potentially be an ideal anticancer therapeutic candidate specific to cancer cells. These results suggest the potential therapeutic implications of the soluble extract from MOL in the treatment of various types of cancers. PMID:24748376

  20. Ecotype variability in growth and secondary metabolite profile in Moringa oleifera: impact of sulfur and water availability.

    PubMed

    Förster, Nadja; Ulrichs, Christian; Schreiner, Monika; Arndt, Nick; Schmidt, Reinhard; Mewis, Inga

    2015-03-25

    Moringa oleifera is widely cultivated in plantations in the tropics and subtropics. Previous cultivation studies with M. oleifera focused primarily only on leaf yield. In the present study, the content of potentially health-promoting secondary metabolites (glucosinolates, phenolic acids, and flavonoids) were also investigated. Six different ecotypes were grown under similar environmental conditions to identify phenotypic differences that can be traced back to the genotype. The ecotypes TOT4880 (origin USA) and TOT7267 (origin India) were identified as having the best growth performance and highest secondary metabolite production, making them an ideal health-promoting food crop. Furthermore, optimal cultivation conditions-exemplarily on sulfur fertilization and water availability-for achieving high leaf and secondary metabolite yields were investigated for M. oleifera. In general, plant biomass and height decreased under water deficiency compared to normal cultivation conditions, whereas the glucosinolate content increased. The effects depended to a great extent on the ecotype. PMID:25689922

  1. MicroRNA from Moringa oleifera: Identification by High Throughput Sequencing and Their Potential Contribution to Plant Medicinal Value

    PubMed Central

    Pirrò, Stefano; Zanella, Letizia; Kenzo, Maurice; Montesano, Carla; Minutolo, Antonella; Potestà, Marina; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Canini, Antonella; Cirilli, Marco; Muleo, Rosario; Colizzi, Vittorio; Galgani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform. A total of 31,290,964 raw reads were produced from a library of small RNA isolated from M. oleifera seeds. We identified 94 conserved and two novel miRNAs that were validated by qRT-PCR assays. Results from qRT-PCR trials conducted on the expression of 20 Moringa miRNA showed that are conserved across multiple plant species as determined by their detection in tissue of other common crop plants. In silico analyses predicted target genes for the conserved miRNA that in turn allowed to relate the miRNAs to the regulation of physiological processes. Some of the predicted plant miRNAs have functional homology to their mammalian counterparts and regulated human genes when they were transfected into cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discovering M. oleifera miRNAs based on high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and we provided new insight into a potential cross-species control of human gene expression. The widespread cultivation and consumption of M. oleifera, for nutritional and medicinal purposes, brings humans into close contact with products and extracts of this plant species. The potential for miRNA transfer should be evaluated as one possible mechanism of action to account for beneficial properties of this valuable species. PMID:26930203

  2. MicroRNA from Moringa oleifera: Identification by High Throughput Sequencing and Their Potential Contribution to Plant Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Pirrò, Stefano; Zanella, Letizia; Kenzo, Maurice; Montesano, Carla; Minutolo, Antonella; Potestà, Marina; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Canini, Antonella; Cirilli, Marco; Muleo, Rosario; Colizzi, Vittorio; Galgani, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a widespread plant with substantial nutritional and medicinal value. We postulated that microRNAs (miRNAs), which are endogenous, noncoding small RNAs regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, might contribute to the medicinal properties of plants of this species after ingestion into human body, regulating human gene expression. However, the knowledge is scarce about miRNA in Moringa. Furthermore, in order to test the hypothesis on the pharmacological potential properties of miRNA, we conducted a high-throughput sequencing analysis using the Illumina platform. A total of 31,290,964 raw reads were produced from a library of small RNA isolated from M. oleifera seeds. We identified 94 conserved and two novel miRNAs that were validated by qRT-PCR assays. Results from qRT-PCR trials conducted on the expression of 20 Moringa miRNA showed that are conserved across multiple plant species as determined by their detection in tissue of other common crop plants. In silico analyses predicted target genes for the conserved miRNA that in turn allowed to relate the miRNAs to the regulation of physiological processes. Some of the predicted plant miRNAs have functional homology to their mammalian counterparts and regulated human genes when they were transfected into cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of discovering M. oleifera miRNAs based on high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and we provided new insight into a potential cross-species control of human gene expression. The widespread cultivation and consumption of M. oleifera, for nutritional and medicinal purposes, brings humans into close contact with products and extracts of this plant species. The potential for miRNA transfer should be evaluated as one possible mechanism of action to account for beneficial properties of this valuable species. PMID:26930203

  3. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14-0.33 and 6.61-9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients. PMID:26274956

  4. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14–0.33 and 6.61–9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients. PMID:26274956

  5. In vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Moringa oleifera Seeds on HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, CACO-2 and L929 Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud A; Wadaan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is widely consumed in tropical and subtropical regions for their valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics. Recently, extensive research has been conducted on leaf extracts of M. oleifera to evaluate their potential cytotoxic effects. However, with the exception of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, little information is present on the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil obtained from M. oleifera seeds. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to investigate the potential cytotoxic activity of seed essential oil obtained from M. oleifera on HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, CACO-2 and L929 cell lines. The different cell lines were subjected to increasing oil concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 1 mg/mL for 24h, and the cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT assay. All treated cell lines showed a significant reduction in cell viability in response to the increasing oil concentration. Moreover, the reduction depended on the cell line as well as the oil concentration applied. Additionally, HeLa cells were the most affected cells followed by HepG2, MCF-7, L929 and CACO-2, where the percentages of cell toxicity recorded were 76.1, 65.1, 59.5, 57.0 and 49.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values obtained for MCF-7, HeLa and HepG2 cells were 226.1, 422.8 and 751.9 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that seed essential oil from M. oleifera has potent cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines. PMID:26107222

  6. Concomitant administration of Moringa oleifera seed powder in the remediation of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in mouse.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Dubey, D K; Kannan, G M; Flora, S J S

    2007-01-01

    Contamination of ground water by arsenic has become a cause of global public health concern. In West Bengal, India, almost 6 million people are endemically exposed to inorganic arsenic by drinking heavily contaminated groundwater through hand-pumped tube wells. No safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures for treating arsenic poisoning are available. We recently reported that some of the herbal extracts possess properties effective in reducing arsenic concentration and in restoring some of the toxic effects of arsenic in animal models. Moringa oleifera Lamarack (English: Horseradish-tree, Drumstick-tree, Hindi: Saijan, Sanskrit: Shigru) belongs to the Moringaceae family, is generally known in the developing world as a vegetable, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. The objective of the present study was to determine whether Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seed powder could restore arsenic induced oxidative stress and reduce body arsenic burden. Exposure to arsenic (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally for 6weeks) led to a significant increase in the levels of tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), metallothionein (MT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) which were accompanied by a decrease in the activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in mice. Arsenic exposed mice also exhibited liver injury as reflected by reduced acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and altered heme synthesis pathway as shown by inhibited blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. Co-administration of M. oleifera seed powder (250 and 500 mg/kg, orally) with arsenic significantly increased the activities of SOD, catalase, GPx with elevation in reduced GSH level in tissues (liver, kidney and brain). These changes were accompanied by approximately 57%, 64% and 17% decrease in blood ROS, liver

  7. Coagulant properties of Moringa oleifera protein preparations: application to humic acid removal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Teixeira, José A C; Brito, António G; Coelho, Luana C B B; Nogueira, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed to characterize the coagulant properties of protein preparations from Moringa oleifera seeds in the removal of humic acids from water. Three distinct preparations were assayed, namely extract (seeds homogenized with 0.15 M NaCl), fraction (extract precipitated with 60% w/v ammonium sulphate) and cMoL (protein purified with guar gel column chromatography). The extract showed the highest coagulant activity in a protein concentration between 1 mg/L and 180 mg/L at pH 7.0. The zeta potential of the extract (-10 mV to -15 mV) was less negative than that of the humic acid (-41 mV to -42 mV) in a pH range between 5.0 and 8.0; thus, the mechanism that might be involved in this coagulation activity is adsorption and neutralization of charges. Reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was observed in water samples containing 9 mg/L carbon as humic acid when treated with 1 mg/L of the extract. A decrease in colour and in the aromatic content of the treated water was also observed. These results suggested that the extract from M. oleifera seeds in a low concentration (1 mg/L) can be an interesting natural alternative for removing humic acid from water in developing countries. The extract dose determined in the present study does not impart odour or colour to the treated water. PMID:22519089

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  9. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the

  10. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of phytosynthesized CeO2 NPs using Moringa oleifera peel extract.

    PubMed

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2016-08-01

    Biosynthetic methods are alternative approaches which are much safer than the normal techniques (physical and chemical) used for the methods for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The benefits are sample as it is economic and environment friendly. Herein present investigation, we have reported a microwave mediated eco-friendly synthetic approach for preparing cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles. Here, we used Moringa oleifera peel as the stabilizing and reducing agent towards synthesize of Ce2O NPs via microwave irradiation. The NPs were further characterized using UV-Vis, FT-IR, XRD and HR-TEM techniques. The FTIR analysis confirmed the phytochemical involvement in NPs stabilization. The crystallinity of CeO2 nanoparticles are well demonstrated through X-ray Diffraction and HR-TEM. The TEM images reveal the spherical shape of the CeO2 NPs having an average size of 45nm. Additionally, these CeO2 NPs were used successfully as a catalyst in the degradation of the dye, crystal violet. Also the antibacterial activity of the synthesized CeO2 NPs was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria). CeO2 NPs showed better activity on E. coli than S. aureus. We have demonstrated an eco-friendly preparation of CeO2 nanoparticles, a good photocatalyst and having better antibacterial properties. PMID:27236047

  11. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. PMID:27069722

  12. Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Dhakarey, R; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    The aqueous extract of leaf (LE), fruit (FE) and seed (SE) of Moringa oleifera was assessed to examine the ability to inhibit the oxidative DNA damage, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing (QS) potentials. It was found that these extracts could significantly inhibit the OH-dependent damage of pUC18 plasmid DNA and also inhibit synergistically with trolox, with an activity sequence of LE > FE > SE. HPLC and MS/MS analysis was carried out, which showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin and vanillin. The LE was with comparatively higher total phenolics content (105.04 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g), total flavonoids content (31.28 mg quercetin equivalents (QE)/g), and ascorbic acid content (106.95 mg/100 g) and showed better antioxidant activity (85.77%), anti-radical power (74.3), reducing power (1.1 ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, OH-induced deoxyribose degradation, and scavenging power of superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals than did the FE, SE and standard alpha-tocopherol. Eventually, LE and FE were found to inhibit violacein production, a QS-regulated behavior in Chromobacterium violaceum 12472. PMID:19425184

  13. Oil and fatty acid diversity in genetically variable clones of Moringa oleifera from India.

    PubMed

    Banerji, R; Bajpai, Aruna; Verma, S C

    2009-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds from India were determined in the present study. The petroleum ether extracted oil ranged from 27.83 - 45.07% on kernel basis and 15.1-28.4% on whole seed basis in 20 different clones. Leaves and pods showed a good source of vitamin C. Oleic acid (C18:1) has been found to be the major fatty acid being 78.91-85.52% as compared to olive oil, which is considered to be richest source of oleic acid. All the clones from India did not show any presence of behenic acid (C 22:0). The oil was also found to contain high levels of beta-sitosterol ranged from 42.29-47.94% stigmasterol from 13.66-16.61%, campesterol from 12.53-16.63%. The gamma- and delta-tocopherol were found to be in the range of 128.0-146.95, 51.88-63.5 and 55.23-63.84 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:19075502

  14. A simple purification and activity assay of the coagulant protein from Moringa oleifera seed.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, Kebreab A; Gunaratna, K R; Henriksson, Hongbin; Brumer, Harry; Dalhammar, Gunnel

    2005-06-01

    Use of extracts from Moringa oleifera (MO) is of great interest for low-cost water treatment. This paper discusses water and salt extraction of a coagulant protein from the seed, purification using ion exchange, its chemical characteristics, coagulation and antimicrobial properties. The coagulant from both extracts is a cationic protein with pI greater than 9.6 and molecular mass less than 6.5 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis of the purified water extract indicated that it contained at least four homologous proteins, based on MS/MS peptide sequence data. The protein is thermoresistant and remained active after 5h heat treatment at 95 degrees C. The coagulant protein showed both flocculating and antibacterial effects of 1.1--4 log reduction. With samples of high turbidity, the MO extract showed similar coagulation activity as alum. Cecropin A and MO extract were found to have similar flocculation effects for clay and microorganisms. Simple methods for both the purification and assay of MO coagulating proteins are presented, which are necessary for large-scale water treatment applications. PMID:15921719

  15. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. PMID:26032632

  16. Interaction of Moringa oleifera seed protein with a mineral surface and the influence of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kwaambwa, Habauka M; Hellsing, Maja S; Rennie, Adrian R; Barker, Robert

    2015-06-15

    The paper describes the adsorption of purified protein from seeds of Moringa oleifera to a sapphire interface and the effects of addition of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Neutron reflection was used to determine the structure and composition of interfacial layers adsorbed at the solid/solution interface. The maximum surface excess of protein was found to be about 5.3 mg m(-2). The protein does not desorb from the solid/liquid interface when rinsed with water. Addition of SDS increases the reflectivity indicating co-adsorption. It was observed that CTAB is able to remove the protein from the interface. The distinct differences to the behavior observed previously for the protein at the silica/water interface are identified. The adsorption of the protein to alumina in addition to other surfaces has shown why it is an effective flocculating agent for the range of impurities found in water supplies. The ability to tailor different surface layers in combination with various surfactants also offers the potential for adsorbed protein to be used in separation technologies. PMID:25746187

  17. Evaluation of Moringa oleifera Seed Lectin as a Metal Remover in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Freitas, José H E S; de Santana, Keissy V; da Silva, Pollyanna M; de Moura, Maiara C; Coelho, Luana C B B; do Nascimento, Aline E; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Napoleao, Thiago H

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of Moringa oleifera seed lectin (WSMoL) as a metal remover in water and the effects of metals on its hemagglutinating and antibacterial activities were determined. Aqueous metal solutions were incubated with WSMoL for 8 h at 4°C and the concentrations of metals were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Hemagglutination and antibacterial assays were conducted with WSMoL and lectin exposed or not to the metals. The removal efficiency of WSMoL was 49.00%, 53.21%, 71.45%, 55.42%, 69.88%, 62.14%, and 49.36% for Cd+2, Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Mg+2, Mn+2, and Al+3, respectively. WSMoL showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. However, hemagglutinating and antibacterial activities were impaired after exposure to metals. In conclusion, WSMoL efficiently removed metals present in water but the interaction with metals impaired lectin carbohydrate-binding ability and antibacterial activity. This should be considered when properties of WSMoL other than metal removal are desired. PMID:27184499

  18. Adoption of Moringa oleifera to combat under-nutrition viewed through the lens of the “Diffusion of Innovations” theory

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Melanie D.; Fahey, Jed W.

    2009-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, an edible tree found worldwide in the dry tropics, is increasingly being used for nutritional supplementation. Its nutrient-dense leaves are high in protein quality, leading to its widespread use by doctors, healers, nutritionists and community leaders, to treat under-nutrition and a variety of illnesses. Despite the fact that no rigorous clinical trial has tested its efficacy for treating under-nutrition, the adoption of M. oleifera continues to increase. The “Diffusion of innovations theory” describes well, the evidence for growth and adoption of dietary M. oleifera leaves, and it highlights the need for a scientific consensus on the nutritional benefits. PMID:20161339

  19. Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract inhibits reducing monosaccharide-induced protein glycation and oxidation of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nunthanawanich, Pornpimon; Sompong, Weerachat; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Mäkynen, Kittana; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Dahlan, Winai; Ngamukote, Sathaporn

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important factor for pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. Moringa oleifera is one of the medicinal plants that have anti-hyperglycemic activity. However, anti-glycation property of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the different types of reducing monosaccharides-induced protein glycation has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on reducing sugars-induced protein glycation and protein oxidation. Total phenolic content of MOE was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bovine serum albumin was incubated with 0.5 M of reducing sugars (glucose or fructose) with or without MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The results found that total phenolic content was 38.56 ± 1.50 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry extract. The formation of fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs [N (ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)] and the level of fructosamine were determined to indicate protein glycation, whereas the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group were examined for protein oxidation. MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent, N (ε)-CML and markedly decreased fructosamine level (P < 0.05). Moreover, MOE significantly prevented protein oxidation manifested by reducing protein carbonyl and the depletion of protein thiol in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Thus, the findings indicated that polyphenols containing in MOE have high potential for decreasing protein glycation and protein oxidation that may delay or prevent AGE-related diabetic complications. PMID:27468399

  20. A potential oral anticancer drug candidate, Moringa oleifera leaf extract, induces the apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, IL LAE; LEE, JU HYE; KANG, SE CHAN

    2015-01-01

    It has previously been reported that cold water-extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf have anticancer activity against various human cancer cell lines, including non-small cell lung cancer. In the present study, the anticancer activity of M. oleifera leaf extracts was investigated in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. By the analysis of apoptotic signals, including the induction of caspase or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and the Annexin V and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assays, it was demonstrated that M. oleifera leaf extracts induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. In the hollow fiber assay, oral administration of the leaf extracts significantly reduced (44–52%) the proliferation of the HepG2 cells and A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. These results support the potential of soluble extracts of M. oleifera leaf as orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of human liver and lung cancers. PMID:26622717

  1. Moringa oleifera pod inhibits inflammatory mediator production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Muangnoi, Channarong; Chingsuwanrote, Pimjai; Praengamthanachoti, Phawachaya; Svasti, Saovaros; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn

    2012-04-01

    Pro-inflammatory mediators produced during inflammatory response have been demonstrated to initiate and aggravate pathological development of several chronic diseases. Plant bioactive constituents have been reported to exert anti-inflammatory activities. Various parts of Moringa oleifera have long been used as habitual diets and traditional remedy along the tropical region. Anti-inflammatory activity of boiled M. oleifera pod extract was assessed by measuring pro-inflammatory mediator expression in the lipopolysaccharide-induced murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Prior treatment with 31-250 μg/mL M. oleifera extract for 1 h inhibited elevation of mRNA and protein level of interleukine-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenease-2, induced by lipopolysaccharide for 24 h in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect was mediated partly by inhibiting phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B protein and mitogen-activated protein kinases. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity from bioactive compounds present in the M. oleifera pod constituents may contribute to ameliorate the pathogenesis of inflammatory-associated chronic diseases. PMID:21537903

  2. RSM optimized Moringa oleifera peel extract for green synthesis of M. oleifera capped palladium nanoparticles with antibacterial and hemolytic property.

    PubMed

    Surendra, T V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Rayalu, G Mokesh

    2016-09-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) are the very good catalytic agents in many coupling reactions, also these are very well biological agents against bacteria and fungus. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized from microwave assisted methanolic extract of M. oleifera peel. To optimize the extraction process RSM (Response Surface Methodology) was applied. To get a good extraction yield BBD (Box-Behnken Design) was employed. The better optimized conditions for the extraction was found as 400W, 25mL of CH3OH at 65°C for 2min. We observed 61.66mg of extract yield from this method. Eco-friendly M. oleifera capped Pd NPs were synthesized using M. oleifera peel extract and confirmed using the different characterization techniques like UV- Vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM and HR-TEM analysis. We found the size of the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs nanoparticles as 27±2nm and shape of the particles as spherical through the TEM analysis. M. oleifera capped Pd NPs exhibits good antibacterial activity against S. aureus (Staphylococcus aureus) and E. coli (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains and we found the zone inhibition as 0.6 and 0.7mm. The synthesized M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are screened for hemolytic activity and it proved the M. oleifera capped Pd NPs are non-toxic on RBCs cells. PMID:27474786

  3. Effect of Chronic Administration of Methanol Extract of Moringa Oleifera on Some Biochemical Indices in Female Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Omobowale, T O; Oyagbemi, A A; Abiola, J O; Azeez, I O; Adedokun, R A M; Nottidge, H O

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate safety associated with prolonged consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves as beverage. Fourteen rats were used in this study. They were divided into 2 groups each containing 7 rats. Rats in group I received 2ml/kg of corn oil (standard vehicle drug). Animals in groups II were administered with 400mg/kg body of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MEMO) for five weeks respectively. Serum collected was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine. There was significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum total protein, albumin, globulin and AST activity. The activity of ALT decreased but not significant. Similarly, 400mg/kg body of MEMO led to significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum BUN and creatinine. All experimental animals that received 400mg/kb of MEMO had significant (P<0.05) decrease in body weight from week to week 4 of the experiment. Taken together, 400mg/kg body of MEMO seemed to be toxic to the liver with apparently no toxicity in the kidney. Hence, prolonged exposure is not advisable as such could portend danger to the liver. PMID:26196575

  4. Sperm abnormalities induced by pre-pubertal exposure to cyclophosphamide are effectively mitigated by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Nayak, G; Vadinkar, A; Nair, S; Kalthur, S G; D'Souza, A S; Shetty, P K; Mutalik, S; Shetty, M M; Kalthur, G; Adiga, S K

    2016-03-01

    Moringa oleifera L. is a medicinal plant with potential antioxidant property. This study was aimed at investigating the chemoprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOE) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity. Two-week-old male Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally injected with phosphate-buffered saline, 50 mg kg(-1) of CP and 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE. In combination treatment, mice were injected with 25 mg kg(-1) of MOE 24 h prior to CP injection, 24 h prior and post-CP injection and 24 h post-CP injection for 5 consecutive days (10 mg kg(-1) ). Six weeks later, mice were sacrificed to assess epididymal sperm parameters. MOE alone did not have any significant effect on sperm parameters. However, acute injection of CP resulted in significant decline in motility (P < 0.001), increase in head abnormality (P < 0.01) and DNA damage (P < 0.05). Combining MOE with CP increased the sperm density, motility and reduced head defect and DNA damage, irrespective of the schedule and dosage of MOE. Administration of MOE prior to CP significantly elevated the level of superoxide dismutase and catalase with concomitant decrease in lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. In conclusion, MOE may have potential benefit in reducing the loss of male gonadal function following chemotherapy. PMID:25904411

  5. The Chemopreventive Phytochemical Moringin Isolated from Moringa oleifera Seeds Inhibits JAK/STAT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weigl, Julia; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Canistro, Donatella; Paolini, Moreno; Iori, Renato; Rascle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) and moringin (GMG-ITC) are edible isothiocyanates present as glucosinolate precursors in cruciferous vegetables and in the plant Moringa oleifera respectively, and recognized for their chemopreventive and medicinal properties. In contrast to the well-studied SFN, little is known about the molecular pathways targeted by GMG-ITC. We investigated the ability of GMG-ITC to inhibit essential signaling pathways that are frequently upregulated in cancer and immune disorders, such as JAK/STAT and NF-κB. We report for the first time that, similarly to SFN, GMG-ITC in the nanomolar range suppresses IL-3-induced expression of STAT5 target genes. GMG-ITC, like SFN, does not inhibit STAT5 phosphorylation, suggesting a downstream inhibitory event. Interestingly, treatment with GMG-ITC or SFN had a limited inhibitory effect on IFNα-induced STAT1 and STAT2 activity, indicating that both isothiocyanates differentially target JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Furthermore, we showed that GMG-ITC in the micromolar range is a more potent inhibitor of TNF-induced NF-κB activity than SFN. Finally, using a cellular system mimicking constitutive active STAT5-induced cell transformation, we demonstrated that SFN can reverse the survival and growth advantage mediated by oncogenic STAT5 and triggers cell death, therefore providing experimental evidence of a cancer chemopreventive activity of SFN. This work thus identified STAT5, and to a lesser extent STAT1/STAT2, as novel targets of moringin. It also contributes to a better understanding of the biological activities of the dietary isothiocyanates GMG-ITC and SFN and further supports their apparent beneficial role in the prevention of chronic illnesses such as cancer, inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. PMID:27304884

  6. The Antiproliferative Effect of Moringa oleifera Crude Aqueous Leaf Extract on Human Esophageal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-04-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) is commonly diagnosed in South Africa (SA), with high incidences occurring in SA's black population. Moringa oleifera (MO), a multipurpose tree, is used traditionally for its nutritional and medicinal properties. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of ailments, including cancer. We investigated the antiproliferative effect of MO crude aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on a cancerous esophageal cell line (SNO). SNO cells were exposed to a range of MOE dilutions to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay). Oxidative stress was determined using the TBARS assay. The comet assay was used to assess DNA damage. We then determined cell death mechanisms by measuring phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels (luminometry). Protein expression of Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 was determined by western blotting. SNO cells were treated with a range of MOE dilutions to obtain an IC50 value of 389.2 μg/mL MOE (24 h), which was used in all subsequent assays. MOE significantly increased lipid peroxidation (P < .05) and DNA fragmentation (P < .0001) in SNO cells. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed by the increase in PS externalization (P < .0001), caspase-9 (P < .05) and caspase-3/7 (P = .22) activities, and decreased ATP levels (P < .0001). MOE significantly increased both the expression of Smac/DIABLO protein and cleavage of PARP-1, resulting in an increase in the 24-kDa fragment (P < .001). MOE possesses antiproliferative effects on SNO EC cells by increasing lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and induction of apoptosis. PMID:27074620

  7. Attenuation of the extract from Moringa oleifera on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang-Hu; Chen, Yi-Jui; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Liu, Kuo-Wei; Chang, Junn-Liang; Pan, Shwu-Fen; Lin, Tzer-Bin; Chen, Mei-Jung

    2012-02-29

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an extract from Moringa oleifera (MO) on the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in Wistar rats. An ethanol extraction was performed on dried MO leaves, and HPLC analysis identified niaziridin and niazirin in the extract. PH was induced with a single subcutaneous injection of MCT (60 mg/kg) which resulted in increases in pulmonary arterial blood pressure (Ppa) and in thickening of the pulmonary arterial medial layer in the rats. Three weeks after induction, acute administration of the MO extract to the rats decreased Ppa in a dose-dependent manner that reached statistical significance at a dose of 4.5 mg of freeze-dried extract per kg body weight. The reduction in Ppa suggested that the extract directly relaxed the pulmonary arteries. To assay the effects of chronic administration of the MO extract on PH, control, MCT and MCT+MO groups were designated. Rats in the control group received a saline injection; the MCT and MCT+MO groups received MCT to induce PH. During the third week after MCT treatment, the MCT+MO group received daily i.p. injections of the MO extract (4.5 mg of freeze-dried extract/kg of body weight). Compared to the control group, the MCT group had higher Ppa and thicker medial layers in the pulmonary arteries. Chronic treatments with the MO extract reversed the MCT-induced changes. Additionally, the MCT group had a significant elevation in superoxide dismutase activity when normalized by the MO extract treatments. In conclusion, the MO extract successfully attenuated the development of PH via direct vasodilatation and a potential increase in antioxidant activity. PMID:22242951

  8. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  9. The Chemopreventive Phytochemical Moringin Isolated from Moringa oleifera Seeds Inhibits JAK/STAT Signaling.

    PubMed

    Michl, Carina; Vivarelli, Fabio; Weigl, Julia; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Canistro, Donatella; Paolini, Moreno; Iori, Renato; Rascle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) and moringin (GMG-ITC) are edible isothiocyanates present as glucosinolate precursors in cruciferous vegetables and in the plant Moringa oleifera respectively, and recognized for their chemopreventive and medicinal properties. In contrast to the well-studied SFN, little is known about the molecular pathways targeted by GMG-ITC. We investigated the ability of GMG-ITC to inhibit essential signaling pathways that are frequently upregulated in cancer and immune disorders, such as JAK/STAT and NF-κB. We report for the first time that, similarly to SFN, GMG-ITC in the nanomolar range suppresses IL-3-induced expression of STAT5 target genes. GMG-ITC, like SFN, does not inhibit STAT5 phosphorylation, suggesting a downstream inhibitory event. Interestingly, treatment with GMG-ITC or SFN had a limited inhibitory effect on IFNα-induced STAT1 and STAT2 activity, indicating that both isothiocyanates differentially target JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Furthermore, we showed that GMG-ITC in the micromolar range is a more potent inhibitor of TNF-induced NF-κB activity than SFN. Finally, using a cellular system mimicking constitutive active STAT5-induced cell transformation, we demonstrated that SFN can reverse the survival and growth advantage mediated by oncogenic STAT5 and triggers cell death, therefore providing experimental evidence of a cancer chemopreventive activity of SFN. This work thus identified STAT5, and to a lesser extent STAT1/STAT2, as novel targets of moringin. It also contributes to a better understanding of the biological activities of the dietary isothiocyanates GMG-ITC and SFN and further supports their apparent beneficial role in the prevention of chronic illnesses such as cancer, inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. PMID:27304884

  10. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ≤ 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ≤ 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs. PMID:22546609

  11. Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated, and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour

    PubMed Central

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole S; Adeoti, Oluwole A; Ariyo, Oluwaseun

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds were processed as raw M. oleifera (RMO), germinated M. oleifera (GMO), and fermented M. oleifera (FMO), and were evaluated for proximate, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, phytochemicals/antinutrients, and functional properties. Protein content of GMO (23.69 ± 0.11 g/100 g) was higher than FMO (21.15 ± 0.08 g/100 g) and that of RMO (18.86 ± 0.09 g/100 g) (P < 0.05), respectively. Energy value of FMO (465.32 ± 0.48 kcal) was higher than GMO (438.62 ± 0.12 kcal) and that of RMO (409.04 ± 1.61 kcal), respectively. Mineral contents in GMO were significantly higher in iron, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and copper, while FMO were higher in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, and both were significantly lower than those in RMO (P < 0.05). Total essential amino acids (TEAAs) in FMO (31.07 mg/g crude protein) were higher than in GMO (26.52 mg/g crude protein), and were higher than that in RMO (23.56 mg/g crude protein). Linoleic acid (58.79 ± 0.02–62.05 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and behenic acid (0.13 ± 0.00–0.20 ± 0.06 g/100 g) were the predominant and least fatty acids, respectively. Phytochemical/antinutrient compositions in FMO samples were significantly lower than GMO, and both were significantly lower when compared with RMO samples (P < 0.05). The bulk density (pack and loose), foaming capacity, swelling capacity, and water absorption capacity (WAC) of FMO were significantly higher than those of GMO, and there was no significant difference between GMO and RMO samples. The study established that fermentation processing methods increased the protein content, essential amino acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles, and reduced antinutrient compositions of M. oleifera seed than germination processing techniques; hence, fermentation techniques should be encouraged in processing moringa seeds in food processing. PMID:24804056

  12. Comparative study on nutrient composition, phytochemical, and functional characteristics of raw, germinated, and fermented Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, Oluwole S; Adeoti, Oluwole A; Ariyo, Oluwaseun

    2013-11-01

    Moringa oleifera seeds were processed as raw M. oleifera (RMO), germinated M. oleifera (GMO), and fermented M. oleifera (FMO), and were evaluated for proximate, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, phytochemicals/antinutrients, and functional properties. Protein content of GMO (23.69 ± 0.11 g/100 g) was higher than FMO (21.15 ± 0.08 g/100 g) and that of RMO (18.86 ± 0.09 g/100 g) (P < 0.05), respectively. Energy value of FMO (465.32 ± 0.48 kcal) was higher than GMO (438.62 ± 0.12 kcal) and that of RMO (409.04 ± 1.61 kcal), respectively. Mineral contents in GMO were significantly higher in iron, sodium, potassium, magnesium, and copper, while FMO were higher in calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, and both were significantly lower than those in RMO (P < 0.05). Total essential amino acids (TEAAs) in FMO (31.07 mg/g crude protein) were higher than in GMO (26.52 mg/g crude protein), and were higher than that in RMO (23.56 mg/g crude protein). Linoleic acid (58.79 ± 0.02-62.05 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and behenic acid (0.13 ± 0.00-0.20 ± 0.06 g/100 g) were the predominant and least fatty acids, respectively. Phytochemical/antinutrient compositions in FMO samples were significantly lower than GMO, and both were significantly lower when compared with RMO samples (P < 0.05). The bulk density (pack and loose), foaming capacity, swelling capacity, and water absorption capacity (WAC) of FMO were significantly higher than those of GMO, and there was no significant difference between GMO and RMO samples. The study established that fermentation processing methods increased the protein content, essential amino acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles, and reduced antinutrient compositions of M. oleifera seed than germination processing techniques; hence, fermentation techniques should be encouraged in processing moringa seeds in food processing. PMID:24804056

  13. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test

    PubMed Central

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130–132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  14. Antioxidant and Antifatigue Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Moringa oleifera in Rats Subjected to Forced Swimming Endurance Test.

    PubMed

    Lamou, Bonoy; Taiwe, Germain Sotoing; Hamadou, André; Abene; Houlray, Justin; Atour, Mahamat Mey; Tan, Paul Vernyuy

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera on swimming performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated in male Wistar rats (130-132 g). Four groups of rats (16 per group) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given distilled water, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. On day 28, 8 rats from each group were subjected to the forced swimming test with tail load (10% of body weight). The remaining 8 rats per group were subjected to the 90-minute free swim. Maximum swimming time, glycemia, lactamia, uremia, triglyceridemia, hepatic and muscle glycogen, hematological parameters, and oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde) were measured. Results. M. oleifera extract increased maximum swimming time, blood hemoglobin, blood glucose, and hepatic and muscle glycogen reserves. The extract also increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased the blood concentrations of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, it decreased blood concentrations of lactate, triglycerides, and urea. In conclusion, the antifatigue properties of M. oleifera extract are demonstrated by its ability to improve body energy stores and tissue antioxidant capacity and to reduce the tissue build-up of lactic acid. PMID:26904162

  15. New insights into the structure and mode of action of Mo-CBP3, an antifungal chitin-binding protein of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Batista, Adelina B; Oliveira, José T A; Gifoni, Juliana M; Pereira, Mirella L; Almeida, Marina G G; Gomes, Valdirene M; Da Cunha, Maura; Ribeiro, Suzanna F F; Dias, Germana B; Beltramini, Leila M; Lopes, José Luiz S; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2014-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein purified from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds that displays inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This study investigated the structural properties and the antifungal mode of action of this protein. To this end, circular dichroism spectroscopy, antifungal assays, measurements of the production of reactive oxygen species and microscopic analyses were utilized. Mo-CBP3 is composed of 30.3% α-helices, 16.3% β-sheets, 22.3% turns and 30.4% unordered forms. The Mo-CBP3 structure is highly stable and retains its antifungal activity regardless of temperature and pH. Fusarium solani was used as a model organism for studying the mechanisms by which this protein acts as an antifungal agent. Mo-CBP3 significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth at 0.05 mg.mL-1. Mo-CBP3 has both fungistatic and fungicidal effects, depending on the concentration used. Binding of Mo-CBP3 to the fungal cell surface is achieved, at least in part, via electrostatic interactions, as salt was able to reduce its inhibitory effect. Mo-CBP3 induced the production of ROS and caused disorganization of both the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in F. solani cells. Based on its high stability and specific toxicity, with broad-spectrum efficacy against important phytopathogenic fungi at low inhibitory concentrations but not to human cells, Mo-CBP3 has great potential for the development of new antifungal drugs or transgenic crops with enhanced resistance to phytopathogens. PMID:25347074

  16. New Insights into the Structure and Mode of Action of Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein of Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Adelina B.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Gifoni, Juliana M.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Almeida, Marina G. G.; Gomes, Valdirene M.; Da Cunha, Maura; Ribeiro, Suzanna F. F.; Dias, Germana B.; Beltramini, Leila M.; Lopes, José Luiz S.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.

    2014-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein purified from Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds that displays inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This study investigated the structural properties and the antifungal mode of action of this protein. To this end, circular dichroism spectroscopy, antifungal assays, measurements of the production of reactive oxygen species and microscopic analyses were utilized. Mo-CBP3 is composed of 30.3% α-helices, 16.3% β-sheets, 22.3% turns and 30.4% unordered forms. The Mo-CBP3 structure is highly stable and retains its antifungal activity regardless of temperature and pH. Fusarium solani was used as a model organism for studying the mechanisms by which this protein acts as an antifungal agent. Mo-CBP3 significantly inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth at 0.05 mg.mL−1. Mo-CBP3 has both fungistatic and fungicidal effects, depending on the concentration used. Binding of Mo-CBP3 to the fungal cell surface is achieved, at least in part, via electrostatic interactions, as salt was able to reduce its inhibitory effect. Mo-CBP3 induced the production of ROS and caused disorganization of both the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane in F. solani cells. Based on its high stability and specific toxicity, with broad-spectrum efficacy against important phytopathogenic fungi at low inhibitory concentrations but not to human cells, Mo-CBP3 has great potential for the development of new antifungal drugs or transgenic crops with enhanced resistance to phytopathogens. PMID:25347074

  17. Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit; Maji, Gurupada; Deb, Bimal; Pan, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-08-01

    In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic. PMID:20661662

  18. Evaluation of the antidepressant activity of Moringa oleifera alone and in combination with fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ginpreet; Invally, Mihir; Sanzagiri, Resham; Buttar, Harpal S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of mental depression has increased in recent years, and has become a serious health problem in most countries of the world, including India. Due to the high cost of antidepressant synthetic drugs and their accompanying side effects, the discovery of safer antidepressant herbal remedies is on the rise. Moringa oleifera (MO) (drumstick) has been used in traditional folk medicine, and in Ayurveda, it is considered as a valuable remedy for treating nervous system disorders as well as memory enhancing agent. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the acute and chronic behavioral and antidepressant effects of alcoholic extracts of MO leaves in standardized mouse models of depression. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic extracts of MO (MOE) leaves were prepared, and phytoconstituents were determined using appropriate chemical analytical methods. Following preliminary dose-finding toxicity studies, the biological activity of MOE was tested in Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into six groups: Groups 1 and 2 served as vehicle control and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) standard control, respectively. Groups 3 and 4 served as treatment groups and were orally administered ethanolic MOE at doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Groups 5 and 6, respectively, received combination doses of MOE 100 mg/kg + 10 mg fluoxetine, and MOE 200 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg fluoxetine. Following acute and 14 days chronic treatments, all animals were tested using behavioral models of depression, such as forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and locomotor activity test (LAT). Results: Significant changes in all tested activities (FST, TST, LAT) of chronically dosed mice were observed, especially in animals given simultaneously combined doses of 200 mg/kg/day MOE + 10 mg/kg/day fluoxetine for 14 days. The antidepressant effect of MOE may have been invoked through the noradrenergic-serotonergic neurotransmission pathway, which is the hallmark of

  19. Oviposition-Stimulant and Ovicidal Activities of Moringa oleifera Lectin on Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Nataly Diniz de Lima; de Moura, Kézia Santana; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Santos, Geanne Karla Novais; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural insecticides against the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been the object of research due to their high level of eco-safety. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL) is a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti. This work reports the effects of WSMoL on oviposition and egg hatching of A. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings WSMoL crude preparations (seed extract and 0–60 protein fraction), at 0.1 mg/mL protein concentration, did not affect oviposition, while A. aegypti gravid females laid their eggs preferentially (73%) in vessels containing isolated WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL), compared with vessels containing only distilled water (control). Volatile compounds were not detected in WSMoL preparation. The hatchability of fresh eggs deposited in the solutions in the oviposition assay was evaluated. The numbers of hatched larvae in seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL were 45±8.7 %, 20±11 % and 55±7.5 %, respectively, significantly (p<0.05) lower than in controls containing only distilled water (75–95%). Embryos were visualized inside fresh control eggs, but not within eggs that were laid and maintained in WSMoL solution. Ovicidal activity was also assessed using stored A. aegypti eggs. The protein concentrations able to reduce the hatching rate by 50% (EC50) were 0.32, 0.16 and 0.1 mg/mL for seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL, respectively. The absence of hatching of stored eggs treated with WSMoL at 0.3 mg/mL (EC99) after transfer to medium without lectin indicates that embryos within the eggs were killed by WSMoL. The reduction in hatching rate of A. aegypti was not linked to decrease in bacteria population. Conclusions/Significance WSMoL acted both as a chemical stimulant cue for ovipositing females and ovicidal agent at a given concentration. The oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities, combined with the previously reported larvicidal activity, make WSMoL a very interesting candidate in integrated A. aegypti

  20. Sensory evaluation of locally-grown fruit purees and inulin fibre on probiotic yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 (o)C. PMID:25995722

  1. Sensory Evaluation of Locally-grown Fruit Purees and Inulin Fibre on Probiotic Yogurt in Mwanza, Tanzania and the Microbial Analysis of Probiotic Yogurt Fortified with Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kathryn; Soltani, Mohammad; Gough, Robert

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to establish new food products that increase the nutritional value and health benefits of the probiotic yogurt currently used in the Western Heads East (WHE) Project in Mwanza, Tanzania. The probiotic yogurt has established health benefits, and product development through fortification must not adversely affect the acceptability of yogurt or the viability of the probiotics. Both sensory testing and microbial analysis testing were conducted. The products tested were yogurt fortified with locally-grown fruit purees with inulin and Moringa oleifera. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that all yogurts were not rated significantly different from the control, except for appearance. The avocado puree without inulin rated significantly lower in all categories. The microbial analysis showed that Moringa oleifera did not negatively affect the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 in MRS, milk or yogurt, although a significant decrease was found after 5 weeks of storage at 4 oC. PMID:25995722

  2. Experimental Assessment of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Fruit for Its Antistress, Antioxidant, and Scavenging Potential Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    PubMed Central

    Luqman, Suaib; Srivastava, Suchita; Kumar, Ritesh; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Chanda, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and fruit extracts on markers of oxidative stress, its toxicity evaluation, and correlation with antioxidant properties using in vitro and in vitro assays. The aqueous extract of leaf was able to increase the GSH and reduce MDA level in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of fruit showed highest phenolic content, strong reducing power and free radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant capacity of ethanolic extract of both fruit and leaf was higher in the in vitro assay compared to aqueous extract which showed higher potential in vivo. Safety evaluation studies showed no toxicity of the extracts up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Our results support the potent antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera which adds one more positive attribute to its known pharmacological importance. PMID:22216055

  3. Chemopreventive and anti-leukemic effects of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves on wistar rats bearing benzene induced leukemia.

    PubMed

    Akanni, E O; Adedeji, A L; Adedosu, O T; Olaniran, O I; Oloke, J K

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological exploitation of natural compounds has continued to lead to development of non-synthetic and non-toxic anticancer agents that are promising at ameliorating the menace of neoplastic diseases such as leukemia. This study is an attempt to determine the chemopreventive and antileukemic activities of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves on benzene induced leukemia bearing rats. Leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 0.2 mL benzene solution 48 hourly for 4 weeks in appropriate rat groups. Ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera (EMO) leaves was administered at 0.2 mL of 100 mg/mL to respective treatment rat groups. A standard antileukemic drug (cyclophosphamide) was also used to treat appropriate rat groups. Clinical examination of liver and spleen with hematological parameters were employed to assess the leukemia burden following analysis of the rat blood samples on Sysmex KX-21N automated instrument. Leukemia induction reflected in severe anemia and a marked leukocytosis over the control/baseline group. Liver and spleen enlargements were also observed in group exposed to benzene carcinogen. The in vivo antioxidative potential of EMO was evaluated using Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. The liver MDA and GSH levels obtained in benzene induced leukemic rats treated with EMO compared favorably with those obtained in similar treatments with the standard drug (p< 0.05). The extract demonstrated chemopreventive and anti-leukemic activities as much as the standard anti-leukemic drug (p>0.05) by ameliorating the induced leukemic condition in the affected rat groups owing to its bioactive constituents. This study reveals that the extract might be an active, natural and non-toxic anticancer drug lead. PMID:25051949

  4. Haematological and serum biochemical responses of rabbit does to crude Moringa oleifera leaf extract at gestation and lactation.

    PubMed

    Ewuola, Emmanuel Olubisi; Sokunbi, Olujide Adedamola; Sanni, Kafayat Modupeola; Oyedemi, Oluwaseyi Margaret; Lawal, Temitope Tawakalit

    2015-04-01

    As the plant Moringa oleifera is used in herbal medicines for animals, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of crude M. oleifera leaf extract (CMOLE) on the blood profile of rabbit does during gestation and lactation. Twenty-four mature does (mean weight 2200 g) housed individually were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomised design. The animals in treatments 2, 3 and 4 were orally given 100, 200 and 300 mL/L CMOLE, respectively, at 2.5 mL/kg body weight at 48 h intervals for 9 weeks. The control animals (treatment 1) were given with water only. All the does were mated with untreated bucks 2 weeks into the experiment. Blood samples were collected at 3rd trimester (day 25 of gestation) and 2nd week of lactation. During gestation, levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit, haemoglobin, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the treatments. However, animals on treatment 2 had the highest platelets (148.8 × 10(9)/L), not significantly different from those on treatments 3 (141.5 × 10(9)/L) and 4 (135.0 × 10(9)/L), but higher (p < 0.05) than the control (126.6 × 10(9)/L). Haematological parameters during lactation were not significantly different among the treatments. Of the serum biochemical variables examined during gestation, only urea was higher (p < 0.05) in control rabbits than those administered with 300 mL/L CMOLE. In lactation, only cholesterol was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced with an increase in CMOLE concentration. This suggests that Moringa has a hypocholesterolemic effect and is safe for use up to 300 mL/L for both nutritional and medicinal purposes. PMID:25686552

  5. (13)C NMR characterization of triacylglycerols of Moringa oleifera seed oil: an "oleic-vaccenic acid" oil.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna; Chepkwony, Paul Kiprono; Ndalut, Paul K

    2002-02-27

    The composition of acyl chains and their positions in the triacylglycerols of the oil extracted from seeds of Moringa oleifera were studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The unsaturated chains of M. oleifera seed oil were found to comprise only mono-unsaturated fatty acids and, in particular, two omega-9 mono-unsaturated acids, (cis-9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids) and one omega-7 mono-unsaturated acid (cis-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid)). The mono-unsaturated fatty acids were detected as separated resonances in the spectral regions where the carbonyl and olefinic carbons resonate according to the 1,3- and 2-positions on the glycerol backbone. The unambiguous detection of vaccenic acid was also achieved through the resonance of the omega-3 carbon. The (13)C NMR methodology enabled the simultaneous detection of oleate, vaccenate, and eicosenoate chains according to their positions on the glycerol backbone (1,3- and 2-positions) through the carboxyl, olefinic, and methylene envelope carbons of the triacylglycerol acyl chains. PMID:11853466

  6. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats' Penile Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Olasehinde, Tosin A.; Oyeleye, Sunday I.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid) contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH)) scavenging abilities, and Fe2+-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe2+-induced MDA production in rats' penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO∗, OH∗, chelated Fe2+, and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe2+-induced MDA production, and radical (OH∗, NO∗) scavenging and Fe2+-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26557995

  7. Interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    PubMed

    Maikokera, R; Kwaambwa, H M

    2007-04-01

    The surfactant behaviour of aqueous coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The interaction of the coagulant protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has been monitored by surface tension and intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The extracted protein shows some weak surface activity at low concentrations. To achieve maximum surface activity (i.e. maximum reduction in surface tension of water), substantially higher concentrations of protein are required. The coagulant protein-SDS interaction scheme did not exhibit the behaviour of weakly interacting polymer-surfactant systems and the SDS interacts in a monomeric form with the protein. The association process of SDS with the coagulant protein is supported by protein fluorescence measurements. SDS has an effect on the fluorescence of the coagulant protein indicating that the local environment of tryptophan in the protein changes as SDS concentration below its critical micelle concentration is increased. These results have led us to the conclusions that: (1) the protein extracted from M. oleifera seeds has significant surfactant behaviour; (2) the coagulant protein interacts strongly with SDS and the protein might have specific binding sites for SDS; (3) there is formation of protein-SDS complex. PMID:17207612

  8. Perturbation of pharmacologically relevant polyphenolic compounds in Moringa oleifera against photo-oxidative damages imposed by gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ramabulana, T; Mavunda, R D; Steenkamp, P A; Piater, L A; Dubery, I A; Madala, N E

    2016-03-01

    Oxidative stress is a physiological state associated with almost all biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. This phenomenon occurs due to imbalances which result from the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Plants, however, have developed sophisticated mechanisms to mitigate the effect of ROS. In this regard, plant polyphenolic metabolites such as flavonoids are known to possess high antioxidant activities. In the current study, changes in the levels of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera after gamma radiation treatment were investigated with reverse phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometric techniques in combination with multivariate data models such as principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis. Our results revealed several polyphenolic compounds such as hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and flavonoid molecules to be down-regulated post-radiation treatment. Interestingly, other flavonoid molecules were found to be up-regulated post-radiation treatment, thereby suggesting a possible compensatory phenomenon. The existence and involvement of structurally similar metabolites (such as regio-isomers of chlorogenic acids) in M. oleifera towards mitigating photo-oxidative damages are in support of the proposed evolutionary existence of a large pool of polyphenolics which contribute to the state of readiness, aptly described as a "better safe than sorry" phenomenon. Our study thus reaffirms the involvement of phenolic compounds as a first line of constitutive/preformed protection against oxidative stress. Furthermore, the obtained data supports M. oleifera as a source of versatile and pharmacologically relevant metabolites that may be exploited for ameliorating the oxidative damages imposed by several metabolic disorders in humans. PMID:26854613

  9. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent. PMID:21118057

  10. Sorption potential of Moringa oleifera pods for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mubeena; Moosa Hasany, S; Bhanger, M I; Iqbal, Shahid

    2007-03-22

    Moringa oleifera pods Lamarck (Drumstick or Horseradish) is a multipurpose medium or small size tree from sub-Himalayan regions of north-west India and indigenous to many parts of Asia, Africa, South America, and in the Pacific and Caribbean Islands. Its pods (MOP) have been employed as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of organics, i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and cumene (BTEC) from aqueous solutions using HPLC method. Effect of different parameters, i.e., sorbent dose 0.05-0.8g, 25cm(-3) agitation time 5-120min, pH 1-10, temperature 283-308K and concentration of sorbate (1.3-13)x10(-3), (1.1-11)x10(-3), (0.9-9)x10(-3), (0.8-8)x10(-3)moldm(-3), on the sorption potential of MOP for BTEC have been investigated. The pore area and average pore diameter of the MOP by BET method using nitrogen as a standard are calculated to be 28.06+/-0.8m(2)g(-1) and 86.2+/-1.3nm respectively. Freundlich, Langumir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption isotherms were employed to evaluate the sorption capacity of MOP. Sorption capacities of BTEC onto MOP have been found to be 46+/-10, 84+/-9, 101+/-4, 106+/-32mmolg(-1) by Freundlich, 8+/-0.1, 9+/-0.1, 10+/-0.3, 9+/-0.1mmolg(-1) by Langumir and 15+/-1, 21+/-1, 23+/-2, 22+/-3mmolg(-1) by D-R isotherms respectively, from BTEC solutions at 303K. While the mean energy of sorption process 9.6+/-0.3, 9.2+/-0.2, 9.3+/-0.3, 9.5+/-0.4kJmol(-1) for BTEC is calculated by D-R isotherm only. Rate constant of BTEC onto MOP 0.033+/-0.003, 0.030+/-0.002, 0.029+/-0.002, 0.027+/-0.002min(-1) at solution concentration of 1.3x10(-3), 1.1x10(-3), 0.9x10(-3) and 0.8x10(-3)moldm(-3) and at 303K have been calculated by employing Lagergren equation. Thermodynamic parameters DeltaH -8+/-0.4, -10+/-0.6, -11+/-0.7, -11+/-0.7kJmol(-1), DeltaS -22+/-2, -26+/-2, -27+/-2, -29+/-3Jmol(-1)K(-1) and DeltaG(303K) -0.9+/-0.2, -1.9+/-0.2, -2.3+/-0.1 and -2.6+/-0.2kJmol(-1) were also estimated for BTEC respectively at temperatures 283-308K. The

  11. A comparison between Moringa oleifera and chemical coagulants in the purification of drinking water - An alternative sustainable solution for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Craven, T.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A. S.; O'Neill, J. G.

    A research project was commissioned to investigate the performance of Moringa oleifera compared with that of aluminium sulphate (Al 2(SO 4) 3) and ferric sulphate (Fe 2(SO 4) 3), termed alum and ferric respectively. A series of jar tests was undertaken using model water, different raw water sources and hybrid water containing a mixture of both of these types of water. The model water consisted of deionised water spiked with Escherichia coli (E. coli) at 10 4 per 100 ml and turbidity (146 NTU) artificially created by kaolin. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 84% turbidity and 88% E. coli, whereas alum removed greater than 99% turbidity and E. coli. Low turbidity river water (<5 NTU), with an E. coli count of 605 colony forming units (cfu)/100 ml was treated with M. oleifera and ferric. Results showed an 82% and 94% reduction in E. coli for M. oleifera and ferric respectively. Tests on turbid river water of 45 NTU, with an E. coli count of 2650 cfu/100 ml, showed a removal of turbidity of 76% and E. coli reduction of 93% with M. oleifera. The equivalent reductions for alum were 91% and 98% respectively. Highly coloured reservoir water was also spiked with E. coli (10 4 cfu/100 ml) and turbidity (160 NTU) artificially created by kaolin; termed hybrid water. Under these conditions M. oleifera removed 83% colour, 97% turbidity and reduced E. coli by 66%. Corresponding removal values for alum were 88% colour, 99% turbidity and 89% E. coli, and for ferric were 93% colour, 98% turbidity and 86% E. coli. Tests on model water, using a secondary treatment stage sand filter showed maximum turbidity removal of 97% and maximum E. coli reduction of 98% using M. oleifera, compared with 100% turbidity and 97% E. coli for alum. Although not as effective as alum or ferric, M. oleifera showed sufficient removal capability to encourage its use for treatment of turbid waters in developing countries.

  12. Chemical composition, fatty acid content and antioxidant potential of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaves, sunflower cake and grass hay.

    PubMed

    Qwele, K; Hugo, A; Oyedemi, S O; Moyo, B; Masika, P J; Muchenje, V

    2013-03-01

    The present study determined the chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) content and antioxidant capacity of meat from goats supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) or sunflower cake (SC) or grass hay (GH). The meat from goat supplemented with MOL had higher concentrations of total phenolic content (10.62±0.27 mg tannic acid equivalent E/g). The MOL significantly scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS) radical to 93.51±0.19% (93.51±0.19%) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical to 58.95±0.3% than other supplements. The antioxidative effect of MOL supplemented meat on catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid oxidation (LO) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than other meat from goat feed on grass hay or those supplemented with sunflower seed cake. The present study indicated that the anti-oxidative potential of MOL may play a role in improving meat quality (chemical composition, colour and lipid stability). PMID:23273450

  13. Point-of-Use Interventions to Decrease Contamination of Drinking Water: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study on Efficacy, Effectiveness, and Acceptability of Closed Containers, Moringa oleifera, and In-home Chlorination in Rural South India

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Jacqueline; Balraj, Vinohar; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Roy, Sheela; Rani, Lilly Michael; Chandresekhar, R.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    To assess water contamination and the relative effectiveness of three options for point-of-use water treatment in South India, we conducted a 6-month randomized, controlled intervention trial using chlorine, Moringa oleifera seeds, a closed valved container, and controls. One hundred twenty-six families participated. Approximately 70% of public drinking water sources had thermotolerant coliform counts > 100/100 mL. Neither M. oleifera seeds nor containers reduced coliform counts in water samples from participants' homes. Chlorine reduced thermotolerant coliform counts to potable levels, but was less acceptable to participants. Laboratory testing of M. oleifera seeds in water from the village confirmed the lack of reduction in coliform counts, in contrast to the improvement seen with Escherichia coli seeded distilled water. This discrepancy merits further study, as M. oleifera was effective in reducing coliform counts in other studies and compliance with Moringa use in this study was high. PMID:20439952

  14. Dietary effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder on growth, gastrointestinal morphometry and blood and liver metabolites in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Zvinorova, P I; Lekhanya, L; Erlwanger, K; Chivandi, E

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) as a dietary supplement on growth performance, gastrointestinal (GIT) morphometry and liver function using weanling Sprague Dawley rats to model humans under ad libitum and restricted feeding. An MOLP-based diet was generated by supplementing normal rat feed with the leaf powder at 20%. Four dietary regimens included normal rat feed fed at 20% of body mass (NRF: ad libitum), NRF fed at 14% of body mass (NRFR, restricted), Moringa-supplemented feeds fed at 20% and 14% of body mass (MOF: ad libitum and MOFR: restrictedly) respectively. Thirty-two pups were randomly assigned to the diets and fed for 5 weeks, after which they were fasted, euthanased and GIT viscera masses, lengths and histology were assessed. Blood was collected for metabolite and markers of liver function assays. Tibiae and femora lengths were used to determine linear growth. Rats fed the restricted diets had lower weekly body mass gains (p = 0.0001) than those on ad libitum feeding; however, they showed compensatory growth by 5 weeks. Terminally, the rats fed MOFR had shorter (p < 0.05) femora and tibiae than their counterparts on the other diets. Except on the caeca, diet had no effect on the absolute masses and lengths of GIT viscera. Relative to tibia length, rats on the MOF had significantly heavier stomachs and caeca and longer small and large intestines than their counterparts on NRF, but this was not supported histologically. Level of feeding and supplementation did not affect blood metabolite concentration, liver glycogen and lipid storage nor the plasma activities AST and ALP in the rats. Supplementing diets with MOLP under restricted access to feed (low calorific supply) might compromise linear growth. PMID:24661493

  15. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats' Penile Tissues.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid) contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH)) scavenging abilities, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe(2+)-induced MDA production in rats' penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO (∗) , OH (∗) , chelated Fe(2+), and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe(2+)-induced MDA production, and radical (OH (∗) , NO (∗) ) scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26557995

  16. Attenuation of lead-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver, kidney and blood of male Wistar rats by Moringa oleifera seed powder.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Daughtry, Lucius K; Jones, Angelica C; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tree belonging to Moringaceae family and its leaves and seeds are reported to have ameliorative effects against metal toxicity. In the present investigation, M. oleifera seed powder was tested against lead-induced oxidative stress and compared against meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment. Male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control (2000 ppm of sodium acetate for 2 weeks), exposed (2000 ppm of lead acetate for 2 weeks), Moringa treated (500 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure), and DMSA treated (90 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure). After exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed and the brain was separated into cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem; liver, kidney, and blood were also collected. The data indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid perioxidation products (LPP), total protein carbonyl content (TPCC), and metal content of brain regions, liver, and kidney in the exposed group compared with their respective controls. In the blood, delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit showed significant (p<0.05) decrease on lead exposure. However, administration of M. oleifera restored all the parameters back to control, tissue-specifically, and also showed improvement in restoration better than DMSA treatment, indicating reduction of the negative effects of lead-induced oxidative stress. PMID:25404379

  17. The effect of turbidity levels and Moringa oleifera concentration on the effectiveness of coagulation in water treatment.

    PubMed

    Nkurunziza, T; Nduwayezu, J B; Banadda, E N; Nhapi, I

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to assess the water purification and antimicrobial properties of Moringa oleifera (MO). Hence different concentrations (25 to 300 mg/L) were prepared from a salt (1 M NaCl) extract of MO fine powder and applied to natural surface water whose turbidity levels ranged from 50 to 450 NTU. The parameters determined before and after coagulation were turbidity, pH, colour, hardness, iron, manganese and Escherichia coli. The experiments showed that turbidity removal is influenced by the initial turbidity since the lowest turbidity removal of 83.2% was observed at 50 NTU, whilst the highest of 99.8% was obtained at 450 NTU. Colour removal followed the same trend as the turbidity. The pH exhibited slight variations through the coagulation. The hardness removal was very low (0 to 15%). However, high removals were achieved for iron (90.4% to 100%) and manganese (93.1% to 100%). The highest E. coli removal achieved was 96.0%. Its removal was associated with the turbidity removal. The optimum MO dosages were 150 mg/L (50 NTU and 150 NTU) and 125 mg/L for the rest of the initial turbidity values. Furthermore all the parameters determined satisfied the WHO guidelines for drinking water except for E. coli. PMID:19403968

  18. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, K; Velmurugan, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Ashokkumar, S

    2015-05-15

    The development of semiconductor materials made a considerable progress of catalytic technologies. In the present study, a simple and eco-friendly chemical direction for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf extract of Moringa oleifera has been used. The prepared ZnO NPs were characterized various techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD analysis revealed the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO NPs. FT-IR confirmed the presence of functional groups of both leaf extract and ZnO NPs. The particles size, morphology and topography determined from FE-SEM. The intense and narrow width of zinc and oxygen have high purity and crystalline were identified using EDX. UV-Vis absorption showed the characteristic absorption peak of ZnO NPs. The results of antimicrobial activities revealed that maximum zones of inhibition was observed Gram (+ve) positive bacteria and followed by the Gram (-ve) negative bacteria and fungal at concentration of 200μg/mL of ZnO NPs. PMID:25725211

  19. Chemotherapeutic efficacy of an ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract against chromium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadek, K M

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the mechanism underlying the chemotherapeutic efficacy of an ethanolic Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MOLEE) against chromium-induced impairments of rat testes using biochemical methods. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Group I (control), group II injected potassium dichromate (8 mg kg(-1) ) i.p., group III gastrogavaged MOLEE (500 mg kg(-1) ) p.o. and group IV received (potassium dichromate plus MOLEE) by the same doses for 60 days. After the blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed to determine the testicular antioxidant status and sperm parameters. The chromium-treated group exhibited a significant decrease in testicular antioxidant enzymatic activities, local immunity and sperm parameters as well as an increase in inflammatory markers when compared with the control and MOLEE-treated group. However, concurrent administration of chromium and MOLEE significantly ameliorated the chromium effects on the sperm parameters, local immunity, inflammatory markers and antioxidant enzymatic activities compared with rats exposed to chromium alone. This study concludes that chronic exposure to chromium produces clear testicular toxicity, which can either be prevented or at least decreased by concomitant administration of MOLEE. Interestingly, the metal ion chelation could attribute partly the antioxidant activities of MOLEE. PMID:24215114

  20. Effect of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera leaf meal on performance of growing rabbits.

    PubMed

    Safwat, Assem Mohamed; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Nieves, Duilio

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of including either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as tropical feed resources at two levels (30 or 40 %) on growth performance, carcass traits, and economical efficiency of growing rabbits. A total of 60 California growing rabbits were randomly distributed into five experimental groups, each consisting of 12 rabbits and were allocated individually; the groups were control, 30 % LLM, 40 % LLM, 30 % MOLM, and 40 % MOLM. The experimental period lasted from 6 to 12 weeks of age. The results showed that rabbits fed control and 30 % MOLM diets had significantly the highest final body weight and daily weight gain being 2,040 and 2,000 g and 31.6 and 30.6 g/day, respectively. Similarly, the best feed conversion ratio was associated with 30 % MOLM and control groups (3.2 and 3.4), while the worst value was for 40 % LLM group (5.2). MOLM treatments recorded significantly the highest dressing percentage along with control group. The inclusion of MOLM by 30 and 40 % improved the economical efficiency (2 and 1.5) in comparison with the control group (1.1). The results suggest that MOLM can be included in growing rabbit diets up to 40 % without any adverse effect on growth performance or carcass traits with higher economical efficiency of growing rabbits. PMID:24935404

  1. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and evaluation of its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elumalai, K.; Velmurugan, S.; Ravi, S.; Kathiravan, V.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    The development of semiconductor materials made a considerable progress of catalytic technologies. In the present study, a simple and eco-friendly chemical direction for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using leaf extract of Moringa oleifera has been used. The prepared ZnO NPs were characterized various techniques such as UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). XRD analysis revealed the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO NPs. FT-IR confirmed the presence of functional groups of both leaf extract and ZnO NPs. The particles size, morphology and topography determined from FE-SEM. The intense and narrow width of zinc and oxygen have high purity and crystalline were identified using EDX. UV-Vis absorption showed the characteristic absorption peak of ZnO NPs. The results of antimicrobial activities revealed that maximum zones of inhibition was observed Gram (+ve) positive bacteria and followed by the Gram (-ve) negative bacteria and fungal at concentration of 200 μg/mL of ZnO NPs.

  2. Competing role of bioactive constituents in Moringa oleifera extract and conventional nutrition feed on the performance of Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Alimon, Abd Razak; Safinar Ismail, Intan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf extract as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and antioxidant parameters was evaluated on broiler meat and the compounds responsible for the corresponding antioxidant activity were identified. 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/v of MO leaf aqueous extracts (MOLE) were prepared, and nutritional feed supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/w of MO leaf meal (MOLM) extracts were also prepared and analysed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the treated broiler groups (control (T1) and treatment (T2, T3, and T4)) were evaluated for performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status. The results of this study revealed that, among the broilers fed MOLM, the broilers fed 0.5% w/w MOLM (T2) exhibited enhanced meat quality and antioxidant status (P < 0.05). However, the antioxidant activity of the MOLE is greater than that of the MOLM. The LC-MS/MS analysis of MOLM showed high expression of isoflavones and fatty acids from soy and corn source, which antagonistically inhibit the expression of the flavonoids/phenols in the MO leaves thereby masking its antioxidant effects. Thus, altering the soy and corn gradients in conventional nutrition feed with 0.5% w/w MO leaves supplement would provide an efficient and cost-effective feed supplement. PMID:25793214

  3. Influence of Moringa oleifera on pharmacokinetic disposition of rifampicin using HPLC-PDA method: a pre-clinical study.

    PubMed

    Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Gupta, Subhash Chandra; Arya, Jai Shankar; Shanker, Karuna; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Singh Khanuja, Suman Preet

    2011-06-01

    The influence of active fraction isolated from pods of an indigenous plant, Moringa oleifera (MoAF) was studied on the pharmacokinetic profile of the orally administered frontline anti-tuberculosis drug rifampicin (20 mg/kg b.w.) in Swiss albino mice. The antibiotic rifampicin alone and in combination with MoAF (0.1 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally and heparanized blood samples were collected from the orbital plexus of mice for plasma separation at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 h, post treatment. Plasma rifampicin concentration, pharmacokinetic parameters and drug metabolizing enzyme (cytochrome P-450) activity were determined. The pharmacokinetic data revealed that MoAF-treated animals had significantly increased rifampicin plasma concentration, C(max), K(el), t(½(a)), t(½(el)), K(a) and AUC as well as inhibited rifampicin-induced cytochrome P-450 activity. In conclusion, the result of this study suggested that the bioavailability-enhancing property of MoAF may help to lower the dosage level and shorten the treatment course of rifampicin. PMID:20845375

  4. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-08-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  5. Cytotoxicity and effect of extraction methods on the chemical composition of essential oils of Moringa oleifera seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kayode, Rowland Monday Ojo; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural materials as food flavors and preservatives has led to the search for suitable essential oils. Moringa oleifera seed essential oil was extracted by solvent-free microwave and hydrodistillation. This study assessed its chemical constituents. Cytotoxicity of the oils was investigated using hatchability and lethality tests on brine shrimps. A total of 16 and 26 compounds were isolated from the hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SME) oils, respectively, which accounted for 97.515% and 97.816% of total identifiable constituents, respectively. At 24 h when the most eggs had hatched, values of the SME (56.7%) and HDE (60.0%) oils were significantly different (P<0.05) from those of sea water (63.3%) and chloramphenicol (15.0%). Larva lethality was different significantly (P<0.05) between HDE and SME oils at different concentrations and incubation periods. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the oils was >1000 mg/ml recommended as an index for non-toxicity, which gives the oil advantage over some antioxidant, antimicrobial, therapeutic, and preservative chemicals. PMID:26238543

  6. Competing Role of Bioactive Constituents in Moringa oleifera Extract and Conventional Nutrition Feed on the Performance of Cobb 500 Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Alimon, Abd. Razak; Safinar Ismail, Intan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaf extract as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and antioxidant parameters was evaluated on broiler meat and the compounds responsible for the corresponding antioxidant activity were identified. 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/v of MO leaf aqueous extracts (MOLE) were prepared, and nutritional feed supplemented with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% w/w of MO leaf meal (MOLM) extracts were also prepared and analysed for their in vitro antioxidant potential. Furthermore, the treated broiler groups (control (T1) and treatment (T2, T3, and T4)) were evaluated for performance, meat quality, and antioxidant status. The results of this study revealed that, among the broilers fed MOLM, the broilers fed 0.5% w/w MOLM (T2) exhibited enhanced meat quality and antioxidant status (P < 0.05). However, the antioxidant activity of the MOLE is greater than that of the MOLM. The LC-MS/MS analysis of MOLM showed high expression of isoflavones and fatty acids from soy and corn source, which antagonistically inhibit the expression of the flavonoids/phenols in the MO leaves thereby masking its antioxidant effects. Thus, altering the soy and corn gradients in conventional nutrition feed with 0.5% w/w MO leaves supplement would provide an efficient and cost-effective feed supplement. PMID:25793214

  7. Moringa oleifera Enhances Liver Antioxidant Status via Elevation of Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Counteracts Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Uma, N; Fakurazi, S; Hairuszah, I

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the role of antioxidant enzyme system following crude hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MO) in acute paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Hydroethanolic extract (80%) of MO (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg; p.o) was pre-administered before a single oral dose of 3 g/kg PCM intoxication to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Pre-treatment of the extract was found to have reduced lipid peroxidation level when compared to the group treated with PCM only. The level of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-Stransferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) was restored to near normal in groups that were pre-treated with MO. Histopathological studies have further confirmed the hepatoprotective activity of MO compared to group treated with PCM only. The results obtained were comparable to silymarin (200 mg/kg; p.o). The MO extract was found to have significantly protected the liver against toxicity following PCM intoxication by enhancing the level of antioxidant enzyme activity. PMID:22691934

  8. Antioxidant Activity and Induction of mRNA Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Mangmool, Supachoke; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2015-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand, were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity. The extract and its major active components were investigated for the inhibition of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production and the effects on antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression. The extract, crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, significantly reduced the reactive oxygen species production inducing by H2O2 in HEK-293 cells. Treatment with isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of natural antioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound. PMID:26166137

  9. High-performance liquid chromatography method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, D I; López-Cervantes, J; Vázquez, N J Ríos

    2006-02-10

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the microscale determination of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera is reported. The method includes microscale saponification and extraction with n-hexane. Optimized conditions for reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection were as follows: column, 25 cm x 0.46 cm, Exil ODS 5-microm; column temperature, 25 degrees C; mobile phase, a 20:80 (v/v) mixture of methanol:acetonitrile; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min. With these conditions, method precision (relative standard deviation) was 5.6% for alpha-tocopherol and 4.9% for gamma-tocopherol. We used this method to measure alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in samples from M. oleifera as part of nutritional studies in edible plants cultivated in the Northwest México. PMID:16439255

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa. PMID:24706008

  11. Effect of Moringa oleifera lectins on survival and enzyme activities of Aedes aegypti larvae susceptible and resistant to organophosphate.

    PubMed

    Agra-Neto, Afonso Cordeiro; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; Santos, Nataly Diniz de Lima; Luz, Luciana de Andrade; de Oliveira, Cláudia Maria Fontes; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes aegypti has led to emergence of resistant populations. Moringa oleifera seeds contain the lectins WSMoL and cMoL. WSMoL has larvicidal activity on fourth-stage of A. aegypti organophosphate-susceptible larvae (Rockefeller L4). This study reports on the effects of cMoL on the survival of Rockefeller L4 as well as of WSMoL and cMoL on L4 from an organophosphate-resistant population (Rec-R). The effects of lectins on digestive (amylase, trypsin, and protease) and detoxifying (superoxide dismutase (SOD), α- and β-esterases) enzymes from larvae were also determined. cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) did not kill Rockefeller L4 as well as WSMoL and cMoL (0.1-0.8 mg/ml) were not larvicidal for Rec-R L4. WSMoL stimulated protease, trypsin-like, and α-amylase from Rockefeller L4 while cMoL inhibited these enzymes. WSMoL had no effect on trypsin-like activity from Rec-R L4 but inhibited protease and α-amylase. Among digestive enzymes of Rec-R L4, cMoL inhibited only trypsin-like activity. cMoL inhibited SOD activities from Rockefeller and Rec-R L4 in a higher level than WSMoL while β-esterase from Rockefeller L4 was more inhibited by WSMoL. The lectins promoted low stimulation or inhibition of α-esterase activities from both populations. In conclusion, Rockefeller and Rec-R larvae were distinctly affected by M. oleifera lectins, and larvicidal mechanism of WSMoL on Rockefeller L4 may involve deregulation of digestive enzymes. cMoL interfered mainly on SOD activity and thus it can be investigated as a synergistic agent for controlling populations whose resistance is linked to an increased detoxifying process mediated by this enzyme. PMID:24142287

  12. Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, R; Swarup, D; Patra, R C; Chandra, Vikas

    2009-11-01

    Aqueous extracts of T. indica fruit pulp (100 mg/kg body weight) and M. oleifera seeds (50 mg/kg body wight) orally once daily for 90 days lowered plasma fluoride concentrations in rabbits receiving fluorinated drinking water (200 mg NaF/ Liter water). Cortical indices and metaphysial width in animals receiving extracts also revealed beneficial effects of plant extracts. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water in comparison to that receiving fluorinated water alone. Preliminary results revealed these plant extracts have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity. PMID:20099463

  13. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods.

    PubMed

    Safwat, A M; Sarmiento-Franco, L; Santos-Ricalde, R H; Nieves, D; Sandoval-Castro, C A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  14. Estimating Apparent Nutrient Digestibility of Diets Containing Leucaena leucocephala or Moringa oleifera Leaf Meals for Growing Rabbits by Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Safwat, A. M.; Sarmiento-Franco, L.; Santos-Ricalde, R. H.; Nieves, D.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed diets with different levels of either Leucaena leucocephala (LLM) or Moringa oleifera (MOLM) leaf meals and also to compare total collection and TiO2 marker methods for estimating digestibility. A total of 30 California growing rabbits (1.81±0.19 kg live weight on average) were randomly distributed into five experimental groups of six rabbits each and were housed in individual cages. The groups were control, 30% LLM, 40% LLM, 30% MOLM, and 40% MOLM. All groups received pelleted diets for two weeks; diets also contained 4 g/kg titanium dioxide as dietary marker. Daily feed intake was recorded during the whole experimental period and total feces were collected daily and weighed individually during four days. The results showed that there were no difference (p>0.05) in feed, dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), digestible energy, and crude fiber (CF) intake between the control group and the other experimental groups. The apparent digestibility values of DM, OM, CP, CF, acid detergent fiber, and gross energy were the highest for control group (p = 0.001), meanwhile MOLM diets had generally higher nutrient digestibility coefficients than LLM diets. Increasing the inclusion level of leaf meal in the diet from 30% to 40% improved the digestibility of CF from 45.02% to 51.69% for LLM and from 48.11% to 55.89% for MOLM. Similar results for apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients were obtained when either total collection or indigestible marker method was used. In conclusion, the digestibility of MOLM containing diets were better than LLM diets, furthermore TiO2 as an external marker could be used as a simple, practical and reliable method to estimate nutrients digestibility in rabbit diets. PMID:26104524

  15. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo A.; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

  16. Processing Effects on the Antioxidant Activities of Beverage Blends Developed from Cyperus esculentus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Moringa oleifera Extracts.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Damilare, Akintoroye; Ojuade, Temitope D

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of bioactive compounds in foods has changed the dietary lifestyle of many people. Cyperus esculentus (tigernut) is highly underutilized in Africa, yet tigernut extract is highly profitable in Europe. This study aims to add value to tigernut extract by revealing its health benefits and food value. In this study, tigernut tubers were germinated or roasted and the extracts were combined with Moringa oleifera extract (MOE) or Hibiscus sabdariffa extract (HSE) and spiced with ginger to produce functional drinks. The drinks were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics, sensory parameters, and antioxidant potentials. The total phenolic content of each beverage was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity of each beverage was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays. The beverages from the germinated tigernut extracts had the highest titratable acidity and the lowest pH, while beverages containing the roasted tigernut extract had the highest ∘Brix. Germination and roasting significantly enhanced the total phenolic content of the drinks. The beverage containing HSE and germinated tigernut extract had a total phenolic content of 45.67 mg/100 mL gallic acid equivalents, which was significantly higher than the total phenolic content of all other samples. The DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with germinated tigernut extracts was significantly higher than the DPPH inhibition activity of the beverages prepared with fresh tigernut extract. The taste and overall acceptability of drinks containing the roasted tigernut extract were preferred, while the color and appearance of drinks with the germinated samples were preferred. Roasting or germinating tigernuts before extraction and addition of MOE or HSE extracts is another way to add value and enhance the utilization of tigernuts. PMID:25320721

  17. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100-500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts. PMID:23533530

  18. Simultaneous Determination of Crypto-Chlorogenic Acid, Isoquercetin, and Astragalin Contents in Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts by TLC-Densitometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarck (Moringaceae) is used as a multipurpose medicinal plant for the treatment of various diseases. Isoquercetin, astragalin, and crypto-chlorogenic acid have been previously found to be major active components in the leaves of this plant. In this study, a thin-layer-chromatography (TLC-)densitometric method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of these major components in the 70% ethanolic extracts of M. oleifera leaves collected from 12 locations. The average amounts of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin were found to be 0.0473, 0.0427, and 0.0534% dry weight, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and robustness. The linearity was obtained in the range of 100–500 ng/spot with a correlation coefficient (r) over 0.9961. Intraday and interday precisions demonstrated relative standard deviations of less than 5%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining the recovery. The average recoveries of each component from the extracts were in the range of 98.28 to 99.65%. Additionally, the leaves from Chiang Mai province contained the highest amounts of all active components. The proposed TLC-densitometric method was simple, accurate, precise, and cost-effective for routine quality controlling of M. oleifera leaf extracts. PMID:23533530

  19. Effect of Moringa oleifera on advanced glycation end-product formation and lipid metabolism gene expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sangkitikomol, W; Rocejanasaroj, A; Tencomnao, T

    2014-01-01

    In Thai traditional medicine, Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of many degenerative diseases, such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the antioxidant effect of M. oleifera extract (MOE) for reduction of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, cell viability, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism gene expression in HepG2 cells. We found that the lyophilized form of MOE in 80% ethanol possessed mean (± SD) total antioxidant, polyphenolic, and flavonoid contents of 9307 ± 364 TE mM/kg dry mass, 218 ± 1 GE mM/kg dry mass, and 286 ± 12 QE mM/kg dry mass, determined using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, a Folin Ciocalteu phenol assay, and a total flavonoids assay, respectively. Concentrations of 2.5-10.0 mg/mL MOE could inhibit AGE-formation by 10-45%, and 100-1000 mg/L MOE reduced intracellular oxidative stress (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in the DCFH-DA assay. However, MOE induced cytotoxicity at high doses (2000-3000 mg/L), as shown by the MTT assay. MOE significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of the HMG-CoAR, PPARα1, and PPARγ genes (P < 0.05). We concluded that M. oleifera could have benefits for human health by reducing oxidative stress and AGE formation. Moreover, M. oleifera may reduce cholesterol and lipid synthesis by suppression of HMG-CoAR, PPARα1, and PPARγ gene expression, thereby maintaining lipid homeostasis. PMID:24615037

  20. Quality characteristics and stability of Moringa oleifera seed oil of Indian origin.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, Babatunde S; Indira, T N; Bhatnagar, A S; Radha, C; Debnath, S; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2014-03-01

    Cold pressed and hexane extracted moringa seed oils (CPMSO and HEMSO) were evaluated for their physico-chemical and stability characteristics. The iodine value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter of CPMSO and HEMSO were found to be 67.8 and 68.5 g I2 / 100 g oil, 190.4 and 191.2 mg KOH / g oil and 0.59 and 0.65%, respectively. The total tocopherols of CPMSO and HEMSO were found to be 95.5 and 90.2 mg/Kg. The fatty acid composition of CPMSO and HEMSO showed oleic acid as the major fatty acid (78-79%). The oxidative, thermal and frying stabilities of the CPMSO were compared with commercial raw and refined groundnut oil (GNO and RGNO). The CPMSO was of adequate thermal stability and better oxidative stability as it showed 79% lesser peroxide formation than GNO. The frying stability of CPMSO was better as it showed lower increase in free fatty acid (28%), peroxide value (10 meq O2/Kg) and color (25%) than RGNO (48%, 22 meq O2/kg and 52%, respectively) after frying. PMID:24587525

  1. Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Siddhartha; Guha, Debjani

    2007-08-01

    The present study has been undertaken to observe the effect of aqueous extract of M. oleifera (MO) leaf (300mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index, enterochromaffin (EC) cells and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) content of ulcerated gastric tissue. Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, po), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold stress. In all cases increased mean ulcer index in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content. Pretreatment with MO for 14 days decreased mean ulcer index, increased both EC cell count and 5-HT content in all ulcerated group, but treatment with ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, along with MO pretreatment increased mean ulcer index, decreased 5-HT content without any alteration in EC cell count. The results suggest that the protective effect of MO on ulceration is mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels which may act via 5-HT3 receptors on gastric tissue. PMID:17877150

  2. Adsorption Study on Moringa Oleifera Seeds and Musa Cavendish as Natural Water Purification Agents for Removal of Lead, Nickel and Cadmium from Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, N. A. A.; Jayasuriya, N.; Fan, L.

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of plant based materials Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds and Musa cavendish (banana peel) for removing heavy metals namely lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd) from contaminated groundwater was studied. Tests were carried out with individual and combined biomass at neutral pH condition on synthetic groundwater samples. The optimum biomass doses were determined as 200 mg/L for single biomass and 400 mg/L (in the ratio of 200 mg/L: 200 mg/L) for combined biomasses and used for adsorption isotherm studies with contact time of 30 minutes. Results showed that combined biomasses was able to met the Pb, Ni and Cd WHO standards from higher Pb, Ni and Cd initial concentrations which were up to 40 µg/L, 50 µg/L 9 µg/L, respectively compared to individual biomass of Moringa seed and banana peel. Moringa seeds exhibited the highest removal of Pb (81%) while the combined biomasses was most effective in removing Ni (74%) and Cd (97%) over wider their initial concentration ranges. The experimental data were linearized with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Freundlich model described the Pb adsorption better than the Langmuir model for all the tested biomasses. However, the Langmuir model fit better with the experimental data of Ni adsorption by Moringa seeds. Both models showed negligible differences in the coefficient of determination (R2) when applied for Ni and Cd adsorption on banana peel and combined biomasses, suggesting that there were multiple layers on the biomass interacting with the metals. Chemisorption is suggested to be involved in Pb adsorption for all tested biomasses as the value of nF calculated was lower than one. This type of adsorption could explain the phenomenon of different behavior of Pb removal and the higher Pb adsorption capacity (represented by KF values) compared to Ni and Cd. The study demonstrates that Moringa seeds, banana peel and their combination have the potential to be used as a natural alternative

  3. Moringa oleifera Gold Nanoparticles Modulate Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Caspase-9 Splice Variants in A549 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiloke, Charlette; Phulukdaree, Alisa; Anand, Krishnan; Gengan, Robert M; Chuturgoon, Anil A

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNP's) facilitate cancer cell recognition and can be manufactured by green synthesis using nutrient rich medicinal plants such as Moringa oleifera (MO). Targeting dysregulated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is crucial for cancer therapeutics. We investigated the antiproliferative effects of AuNP synthesized from MO aqueous leaf extracts (MLAuNP ) in A549 lung and SNO oesophageal cancer cells. A one-pot green synthesis technique was used to synthesise MLAuNP . A549, SNO cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were exposed to MLAuNP and CAuNP to evaluate cytotoxicity (MTT assay); apoptosis was measured by phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, mitochondrial depolarization (ΔΨm) (flow cytometry), caspase-3/7, -9 activity, and ATP levels (luminometry). The mRNA expression of c-myc, p53, Skp2, Fbw7α, and caspase-9 splice variants was determined using qPCR, while relative protein expression of c-myc, p53, SRp30a, Bax, Bcl-2, Smac/DIABLO, Hsp70, and PARP-1 were determined by Western blotting. MLAuNP and CAuNP were not cytotoxic to PBMCs, whilst its pro-apoptotic properties were confirmed in A549 and SNO cells. MLAuNP significantly increased caspase activity in SNO cells while MLAuNP significantly increased PS externalization, ΔΨm, caspase-9, caspase-3/7 activities, and decreased ATP levels in A549 cells. Also, p53 mRNA and protein levels, SRp30a (P = 0.428), Bax, Smac/DIABLO and PARP-1 24 kDa fragment levels were significantly increased. Conversely, MLAuNP significantly decreased Bcl-2, Hsp70, Skp2, Fbw7α, c-myc mRNA, and protein levels and activated alternate splicing with caspase-9a splice variant being significantly increased. MLAuNP possesses antiproliferative properties and induced apoptosis in A549 cells by activating alternate splicing of caspase-9. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2302-2314, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26923760

  4. Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of breast meat from broiler chickens supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal over a period of refrigeration.

    PubMed

    Nkukwana, T T; Muchenje, V; Masika, P J; Hoffman, L C; Dzama, K; Descalzo, A M

    2014-01-01

    Effects of diets supplemented with or without Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidative stability of broiler breast meat during refrigerated storage was determined. Dietary treatments (T) were as follows: T1, positive control, 668g/ton Salinomycin and 500g/ton Albac; T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 1%, 3% and 5% of dry matter (DM) intake, respectively; and T5, a negative control (0% additives). Oxidative stability was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) on day (D) 1-8 of storage at 4°C; and FA analysis was done on samples obtained on D1 and D8. Significant effects on TBARS were noted on day (D) 1, 3, 4 and 7; increased with increasing storage time, and with increase in MOLM supplementation. Highest (P<0.05) C18:0 and C15:0 levels were noted on D1 in T2; C20:0 in T4 on D8; C20:2, C20:3n6 and C22:6n3 in T2; C18:3n6 and P/S ratio in T4 on D1; and n-3 in T3. Thus, despite the high SFA content, additive supplementation of M. oleifera leaf meal up to 5% of the bird's DMI improved the FA profile and reduced lipid oxidation in broiler breast meat. PMID:24001839

  5. Effect of supplementing crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goat castrates with Moringa oleifera leaves on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Busani; Masika, Patrick J; Muchenje, Voster

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) on growth performance, carcass and non-carcass characteristics of crossbred Xhosa lop-eared goats. A total of 24 castrated goats aged 8 months, with a mean initial weight of 15.1 ± 2.3 kg, were randomly divided into three diet groups with eight goats in each. The duration of the trial was 60 days. All goats received a basal diet of grass hay (GH) ad libitum and wheat bran (200 g/day each). The MOL and sunflower cake (SC) groups were fed additional 200 g of dried M. oleifera leaves and 170 g of SC, respectively. The third group (GH) did not receive any additional ration. The crude protein of MOL (23.75%) and SC (23.27%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH diet (14.08%). The attained average daily weight gain for goats fed MOL, SC and GH were 103.3, 101.3 and 43.3 g, respectively (P < 0.05). Higher (P < 0.05) feed intakes observed were in SC (491.5 g) and MOL (490.75 g) compared with GH (404.5 g). The hot carcass weight was higher (P < 0.05) for SC (10.48 kg) and MOL (10.34 kg) than for the GH group (8.59 kg). The dressing percentage in SC (55.8%) and MOL (55.1%) were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the GH (52.9%). The growth performance and carcass characteristics of SC and MOL goats were not different. Feeding MOL or SC improved the growth performance and carcass characteristics of goats in an almost similar way, which indicates that M. oleifera could be used as an alternative protein supplement in goats. PMID:21901302

  6. Trypsin inhibitor from Moringa oleifera flowers interferes with survival and development of Aedes aegypti larvae and kills bacteria inhabitant of larvae midgut.

    PubMed

    Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; de Lima Santos, Nataly Diniz; de Moura, Maiara Celine; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2014-02-01

    Moringa oleifera flower extract, with trypsin inhibitor activity, is a larvicidal agent on Aedes aegypti. This work reports the isolation of trypsin inhibitor (M. oleifera flower trypsin inhibitor (MoFTI)) and its effect on A. aegypti egg hatching, viability of newly hatched larvae, survival of pupae, and growth of inhabitant bacteria from midgut of fourth-instar larvae (L4). MoFTI (K i, 2.4 μM), isolated by affinity chromatography on trypsin-agarose column, was an 18.2 kDa polypeptide on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Flower extract (at concentrations of 8.5-17.0 mg/mL) reduced egg hatchability while MoFTI (0.05-0.5 mg/mL) did not affect the hatching rate. Mortality of newly hatched larvae ranged from 3.5 to 19.1 % in the presence of the extract (4.0-17.0 mg/mL) and was also promoted by MoFTI (LC50, 0.3 mg/mL). After 72 h, larvae incubated with extract at 13.0 and 17.0 mg/mL were at stages L2 and L1, respectively, while in control they reached L3 instar. In the presence of MoFTI, at all concentrations tested, the larvae did not pass the first instar. Flower extract and MoFTI did not interfere on pupae survival. The extract and MoFTI inhibited the growth of L4 gut bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 3.47 and 0.031 mg/mL, respectively) but only the inhibitor showed bactericide effect (minimum bactericidal concentration of 1.0 mg/mL). The findings reported herein indicate that MoFTI constitutes a larvicidal principle from M. oleifera flowers against A. aegypti newly hatched larvae and is an antibacterial agent active against the microbiota from L4 gut. PMID:24271154

  7. Moringa fruit inhibits LPS-induced NO/iNOS expression through suppressing the NF-κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Tae-Sung; Park, Yoon-Yub; Chae, Whi-Gun; Chung, Il-Kyung; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Chang, Young-Chae

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a natural biologically active substance, by determining its inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Extracts from different parts of moringa (root, leaf, and fruit) reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. The moringa fruit extract most effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production and levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The moringa fruit extract also was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Furthermore, moringa fruit extract inhibited the cytoplasmic degradation of I κ B -α and the nuclear translocation of p65 proteins, resulting in lower levels of NF -κ B transactivation. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that moringa fruit extract reduces the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including NO , IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 via the inhibition of NF -κ B activation in RAW264.7 cells. These findings reveal, in part, the molecular basis underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of moringa fruit extract. PMID:24117072

  8. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  9. Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Apoptosis Studies of Quercetin-3-O Glucoside and 4-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-Rhamnopyranosyloxy)-Benzyl Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Maiyo, Fiona C; Moodley, Roshila; Singh, Moganavelli

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera, from the family Moringaceae, is used as a source of vegetable and herbal medicine and in the treatment of various cancers in many African countries, including Kenya. The present study involved the phytochemical analyses of the crude extracts of M.oleifera and biological activities (antioxidant, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in-vitro) of selected isolated compounds. The compounds isolated from the leaves and seeds of the plant were quercetin-3-O-glucoside (1), 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), lutein (3), and sitosterol (4). Antioxidant activity of compound 1 was significant when compared to that of the control, while compound 2 showed moderate activity. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 were tested in three cell lines, viz. liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and a non-cancer cell line Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293), using the MTT cell viability assay and compared against a standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. Apoptosis studies were carried out using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining method. The isolated compounds showed selective in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against human cancer and non-cancer cell lines, respectively. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cell line with an IC50 of 79 μg mL(-1) and moderate cytotoxicity against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 of 150 μg mL(-1), while compound 2 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco- 2 and HepG2 cell lines with an IC50 of 45 μg mL(-1) and 60 μg mL(-1), respectively. Comparatively both compounds showed much lower cytotoxicity against the HEK293 cell line with IC50 values of 186 μg mL(-1) and 224 μg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:26428271

  10. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera leaves by multiresponse surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Celia; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Ibáñez, Elena

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at studying the optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) by multi-response surface methodology (RSM) to test their efficiency towards the extraction of phenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) leaves. The extraction yield, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TF), DPPH scavenging method and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay were considered as response variables while effects of extraction time, percentage of ethanol, and temperature were studied. Extraction time of 20 min, 42% ethanol and 158°C were the MAE optimum conditions for achieving extraction yield of 26 ± 2%, EC50 15 ± 2 μg/mL, 16 ± 1 Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 5.2 ± 0.5 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 86 ± 4 mg GAE/g dry leaf. Regarding PLE, the optimum conditions that allowed extraction yield of 56 ± 2%, EC50 21 ± 3 μg/mL, 12 ± 2 mmol Eq Trolox/100 g dry leaf, 6.5 ± 0.2 mg Eq quercetin/g dry leaf, and 59 ± 6 mg GAE/g dry leaf were 128°C, 35% of ethanol, and 20 min. PLE enabled the extraction of phenolic compounds with a higher number of hydroxyl-type substituents such as kaempferol diglycoside and its acetyl derivatives and those that are sensitive to high temperatures (glucosinolates or amino acids) while MAE allowed better recoveries of kaempferol, quercetin, and their glucosides derivatives. PMID:27122439

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. PMID:26871553

  12. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (MO) is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P = 0.0698); there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P > 0.8115). However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P < 0.0001), and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001); metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P < 0.0001) and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P < 0.0001). Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:25548560

  13. Potential Chemoprevention of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene Induced Renal Carcinogenesis by Moringa oleifera Pods and Its Isolated Saponin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Paliwal, Ritu

    2014-04-01

    Present investigation shows that hydroethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MOHE) and its isolated saponin (SM) attenuates DMBA induced renal carcinogenesis in mice. Isolation of SM was achieved by TLC and HPLC and characterization was done using IR and (1)H NMR. Animals were pre-treated with MOHE (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o), BHA as a standard (0.5 and 1 %) and SM (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days prior to the administration of single dose of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight). Administration of DMBA significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced level of xenobiotic enzymes. It enhanced renal malondialdehyde, with reduction in renal glutathione content, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione-S-transferase. The status of renal aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total protein content were also found to be decreased along with increase in total cholesterol in DMBA administered mice. Pretreatment with MOHE and SM significantly reversed the DMBA induced alterations in the tissue and effectively suppressed renal oxidative stress and toxicity. PMID:24757303

  14. Removal of Anabaena flos-aquae in water treatment process using Moringa oleifera and assessment of fatty acid profile of generated sludge.

    PubMed

    Moreti, Livia O R; Coldebella, Priscila Ferri; Camacho, Franciele P; Carvalho Bongiovani, Milene; Pereira de Souza, Aloisio Henrique; Kirie Gohara, Aline; Matsushita, Makoto; Fernandes Silva, Marcela; Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the coagulation/flocculation/dissolved air flotation (C/F/DAF) process using the coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed powder, and to analyse the profile of fatty acids present in the generated sludge after treatment. For the tests, deionized water artificially contaminated with cell cultures of Anabaena flos-aquae was used, with a cell density in the order of 10(4) cells mL(-1). C/F/DAF tests were conducted using 'Flotest' equipment. For fatty acid profile analyses, a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used. It was seen that the optimal dosage (100 mg L(-1)) of MO used in the C/F/DAF process was efficient at removing nearly all A. flos-aquae cells (96.4%). The sludge obtained after treatment contained oleic acid (61.7%) and palmitic acid (10.8%). Thus, a water treatment process using C/F/DAF linked to integral MO powder seed was found to be efficient in removing cells of cyanobacteria, and produced a sludge rich in oleic acid that is a precursor favourable for obtaining quality biodiesel, thus becoming an alternative application for the recycling of such biomass. PMID:26586082

  15. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Vanessa N.; Borges, Simone S. O.; Coelho, Nivia M. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese), using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min−1, 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L−1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min−1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L−1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L−1, n = 7). The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L−1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%. PMID:21785595

  16. HARVESTING POTABLE AND STORABLE WATER WITH MORINGA SEEDS AND SAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose to design and implement a point-of-use process for water purification and storage in developing nations. Our research innovates on an existing technique for purifying water with seeds from the Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree. Mixing water with crushed Moringa seed...

  17. Some newer marker phytoconstituents in methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves and evaluation of its immunomodulatory and splenocytes proliferation potential in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, M.; Garg, Satish K.; Yadav, Prashant; Bhatia, A. K.; Goel, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to unravel the newer marker phytoconstituents in methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOLE) and evaluation of its immunomodulatory and splenocytes proliferation potential in rats. Materials and Methods: Hot methanolic extract of MOLE was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Immunomodulatory potential was studied in four groups of rats following administration of MOLE at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg for 21 days, followed by immunization with Salmonella typhimurium “O” antigen and antibody titer determined using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Total lymphocytes and T- and B-lymphocytes count were determined in control and after MOLE administration (62.5 and 125 mg/kg) to rats for 42 days. Splenocytes (2 × 106 spleen cells/ml) from MOLE treated rats were harvested and stimulated using concanavalin A and optical density (OD) and stimulation index were determined. Splenocytes from healthy control rats were also collected and treated in vitro with different concentrations of MOLE (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml) and concanavalin A to determine effect of MOLE on OD and stimulation index. Results: GC-MS analysis revealed presence of 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid ethyl ester, 6-octadecenoic acid, cis-vaccenic acid and 2-octyl-cyclopropaneoctanal in MOLE. MOLE at 125 mg/kg increased the antibody titer by 50%. Although there was slight decline in lymphocytes count (total, B- and T-lymphocytes) in MOLE treated rats, percentage of T-lymphocytes was increased nonsignificantly. Ex vivo and in vitro studies revealed marked increase in OD and stimulation index indicating MOLE-induced splenocytes proliferation. Conclusion: GC-MS study revealed four new compounds in MOLE apart from promising its immunomodulatory potential based on humoral immune response, percentage increase in T-lymphocytes count, and induction of splenocytes proliferation. PMID:26600641

  18. Leaf Protein and Mineral Concentrations across the “Miracle Tree” Genus Moringa

    PubMed Central

    Sankaran, Renuka P.; Fahey, Jed W.; Grusak, Michael A.; Odee, David; Nouman, Wasif

    2016-01-01

    The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation. PMID:27459315

  19. Leaf Protein and Mineral Concentrations across the "Miracle Tree" Genus Moringa.

    PubMed

    Olson, Mark E; Sankaran, Renuka P; Fahey, Jed W; Grusak, Michael A; Odee, David; Nouman, Wasif

    2016-01-01

    The moringa tree Moringa oleifera is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree cultivated across the lowland dry tropics worldwide for its nutritious leaves. Despite its nutritious reputation, there has been no systematic survey of the variation in leaf nutritional quality across M. oleifera grown worldwide, or of the other species of the genus. To guide informed use of moringa, we surveyed protein, macro-, and micro- nutrients across 67 common garden samples of 12 Moringa taxa, including 23 samples of M. oleifera. Moringa oleifera, M. concanensis, M. stenopetala, an M. concanensis X oleifera hybrid, and M. longituba were highest in protein, with M. ruspoliana having the highest calcium levels. A protein-dry leaf mass tradeoff may preclude certain breeding possibilities, e.g. maximally high protein with large leaflets. These findings identify clear priorities and limitations for improved moringa varieties with traits such as high protein, calcium, or ease of preparation. PMID:27459315

  20. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model.

    PubMed

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Kura, Aminu Umar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Md Isa, Norhaszalina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO) is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p) and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg), silymarin-positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p) respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg) during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract treatment

  1. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model

    PubMed Central

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Kura, Aminu Umar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Md. Isa, Norhaszalina

    2016-01-01

    N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO) is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p) and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg), silymarin—positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p) respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg) during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract treatment

  2. Improving the sludge conditioning potential of moringa seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ademiluyi, Joel O.; Eze, Romanus M.

    1990-01-01

    In the search for a cheaper material to effectively condition sludge, oil-free moringa seed was prepared and tested. A Soxhlet apparatus was used to extract the oil from moringa seed ( Moringa oleifera). The oil-free seed (marc) has been found to have higher conditioning potential than the ordinary moringa seed. However, the traditional ferric chloride is still a better sludge conditioner than moringa seed marc. For the digested domestic sludge used, optimum conditioning dosages were found to be 0.6, 0.80, and 1.10% of the total solids for ferric chloride, marc of the moringa seed, and ordinary moringa seed, respectively. Since little or no operational material is lost in the extraction process, the moringa seed marc is a promising conditioner in place of the ordinary seed.

  3. Cardioprotective potential of N,α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide, an indole alkaloid, isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera in isoproterenol induced cardiotoxic rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda; Kar, Anand; Sharma, Pratibha; Sharma, Ashok

    2013-02-15

    Hitherto unknown protective effect of N,α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide (VR), isolated from Moringa oleifera leaves in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac toxicity was evaluated in rats. Oral administration of VR at 40 mg/kg for 7 days markedly reduced the ISO-induced increase in the levels of serum cardiac markers such as troponin-T, creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation with a parallel increase in the cellular antioxidants suggesting its cardio-protective and free radical scavenging potential, which was latter confirmed by in vitro study. Rats treated with test compound also improved the ISO-induced abnormal changes in ECG as well as in cardiac histology. A reduction in myocardial necrosis was further evidenced by the tri-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) stain in isolated test drug pretreated rats. These findings suggest the cardio-protective potential of the isolated alkaloid and possibly the beneficial action is mediated through its free radical scavenging property. PMID:23321560

  4. Dietary iron supplements and Moringa oleifera leaves influence the liver hepcidin messenger RNA expression and biochemical indices of iron status in rats.

    PubMed

    Saini, R K; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Srinivasan, K; Giridhar, P

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the effects of iron depletion and repletion on biochemical and molecular indices of iron status were investigated in growing male Wistar rats. We hypothesized that iron from Moringa leaves could overcome the effects of iron deficiency and modulate the expression of iron-responsive genes better than conventional iron supplements. Iron deficiency was induced by feeding rats an iron-deficient diet for 10 weeks, whereas control rats were maintained on an iron-sufficient diet (35.0-mg Fe/kg diet). After the depletion period, animals were repleted with different source of iron, in combination with ascorbic acid. Iron deficiency caused a significant (P < .05) decrease in serum iron and ferritin levels by 57% and 40%, respectively, as compared with nondepleted control animals. Significant changes in the expression (0.5- to100-fold) of liver hepcidin (HAMP), transferrin, transferrin receptor-2, hemochromatosis type 2, ferroportin 1, ceruloplasmin, and ferritin-H were recorded in iron-depleted and iron-repleted rats, as compared with nondepleted rats (P < .05). Dietary iron from Moringa leaf was found to be superior compared with ferric citrate in overcoming the effects of iron deficiency in rats. These results suggest that changes in the relative expression of liver hepcidin messenger RNA can be used as a sensitive molecular marker for iron deficiency. PMID:25150122

  5. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and inducible nitric oxide synthase by 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Jung; Cheenpracha, Sarot; Chang, Leng Chee; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Pezzuto, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lamarack is commonly consumed for nutritional or medicinal properties. We recently reported the isolation and structure elucidation of novel bioactive phenolic glycosides, including 4-[(2′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (RBITC), which was found to suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. Inhibitors of proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and iNOS are potential anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive agents. The inhibitory activity of RBITC on NO production (IC50 = 0.96 ± 0.23 µM) was greater than that mediated by other well-known isothiocyanates such as sulforaphane (IC50 = 2.86 ± 0.39 µM) and benzyl isothiocyanate (IC50 = 2.08 ± 0.28 µM). RBITC inhibited expression of COX-2 and iNOS at both the protein and mRNA levels. Major upstream signaling pathways involved mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). RBITC inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase, as well as ubiquitin-dependent degradation of inhibitor κBα (IκBα). In accordance with IκBα degradation, nuclear accumulation of NF-κB, and subsequent binding to NF-κB cis-acting element, was attenuated by treatment with RBITC. These data suggest RBITC should be included in the dietary armamentarium of isothiocyanates potentially capable of mediating anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive activity. PMID:21774591

  6. Effect of dehydration methods on retention of carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in Moringa oleifera leaves and preparation of a RTE product.

    PubMed

    Saini, R K; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2014-09-01

    Fresh leaves of M. oleifera plants were analysed for nutritionally important phytoconstituents and feasible commercially used dehydration method were evaluated to preserve these in dehydrated leaves. Trans-lutein, trans-β-carotene and trans-zeaxanthin were found as the major carotenoids in fresh leaves, accounting for 36.9, 18.2 and 5.5 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Similarly, high amounts of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and total phenolic content (271.0, 36.9 and 512.0 mg/100 g FW), respectively were recorded in leaves. α-tocopherol was the most stable vitamin under all drying conditions (86.4 % retention during oven drying), compare to other studied phytoconstituents. Cabinet tray drying was found as efficient as lyophilisation to retain maximum content of total carotenoids (60.1 %), trans-β-carotene (90.1 %), 13-cis-lutein (93.2 %), and DPPH activity, however, lutein (51.3 %) and ascorbic acid (97.8 %) was best preserved by lyophilisation. During dehydration, significant trans to cis isomerization of β-carotene and lutein was also recorded. A ready to eat (RTE) chutney powder (adjunct) was developed from dehydrated leaves. The product was evaluated using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and was accepted with a high overall quality score. The present investigation explores the nutritional potential of M. oleifera leaves and suitable methods of drying that could be useful for processed food formulation. PMID:25190880

  7. A novel Moringa oleifera leaf extract can mitigate the stress effects of salinity and cadmium in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Howladar, Saad M

    2014-02-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris plants were grown in the presence of NaCl and/or CdCl2 beginning from the second week, sprayed twice with moringa leaf extract (MLE) at 21 and 28 days after sowing (DAS), and were sampled at 35 DAS for growth and chemical analyses and yielded at the end of experiment. Growth traits, level of photosynthetic pigments, green pod yield and pod protein were significantly reduced with exposing the plants to NaCl and/or CdCl2. However, the follow up foliar application with MLE detoxified the stress generated by NaCl and/or CdCl2 and significantly enhanced the aforementioned parameters. Either individual or combined used stresses increased the electrolyte leakage (EL), lipid peroxidation and plant Cd(2+) content, and decreased the membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC). However, the foliar application of MLE in the absence of the stress improved the MSI and RWC and minimized plant Cd(2+) content but could not affect EL and lipid peroxidation. Proline content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes showed a significant increase in response to MLE as well as to NaCl and/or CdCl2 stress. PMID:24433793

  8. Mo-CBP3, an Antifungal Chitin-Binding Protein from Moringa oleifera Seeds, Is a Member of the 2S Albumin Family

    PubMed Central

    Freire, José E. C.; Vasconcelos, Ilka M.; Moreno, Frederico B. M. B.; Batista, Adelina B.; Lobo, Marina D. P.; Pereira, Mirella L.; Lima, João P. M. S.; Almeida, Ricardo V. M.; Sousa, Antônio J. S.; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C. O.; Oliveira, José T. A.; Grangeiro, Thalles B.

    2015-01-01

    Mo-CBP3 is a chitin-binding protein from M. oleifera seeds that inhibits the germination and mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi. This protein is highly thermostable and resistant to pH changes, and therefore may be useful in the development of new antifungal drugs. However, the relationship of MoCBP3 with the known families of carbohydrate-binding domains has not been established. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding 4 isoforms of Mo-CBP3 (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2, Mo-CBP3-3 and Mo-CBP3-4) were cloned from developing seeds. The polypeptides encoded by the Mo-CBP3 cDNAs were predicted to contain 160 (Mo-CBP3-3) and 163 amino acid residues (Mo-CBP3-1, Mo-CBP3-2 and Mo-CBP3-4) with a signal peptide of 20-residues at the N-terminal region. A comparative analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that Mo-CBP3 is a typical member of the 2S albumin family, as shown by the presence of an eight-cysteine motif, which is a characteristic feature of the prolamin superfamily. Furthermore, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that Mo-CBP3 is a mixture of isoforms that correspond to different mRNA products. The identification of Mo-CBP3 as a genuine member of the 2S albumin family reinforces the hypothesis that these seed storage proteins are involved in plant defense. Moreover, the chitin-binding ability of Mo-CBP3 reveals a novel functionality for a typical 2S albumin. PMID:25789746

  9. LAM (Lymphangioleiomyomatosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lungs Work Lung Function Tests Pleurisy and Other Pleural Disorders Thoracentesis Send a link to NHLBI to someone ... 50 percent of women who have LAM develop pneumothorax (noo-mo-THOR-aks), or collapsed lung. In ...

  10. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

  11. Comparative study between M. oleifera and aluminum sulfate for water treatment: case study Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salazar Gámez, Lorena L; Luna-delRisco, Mario; Cano, Roberto Efrain Salazar

    2015-10-01

    The world has a water deficit, mostly located in developing countries. For example, in Colombia, water deficit is a major concern and it increases in rural areas, where the rate of accessibility to drinking water is of 33.26% in 2005. Since the 1970s, the most used technology for water purification is the conventional physicochemical process. The most common coagulant used in this process is aluminum sulfate (alum). This study focuses on a comparison between Moringa oleifera seeds and alum for water treatment in different natural waters. Results showed that M. oleifera removed 90% turbidity and alum 96% from water samples from the tested natural brook. However, color removal for M. oleifera was 95 and 80.3% for alum. For water-polluted samples, both coagulants have shown high efficiency (100%) in color and turbidity removal. Usage of natural coagulants (i.e., M. oleifera) instead of chemical ones (i.e., alum) are more convenient in rural areas where the economic situation and accessibility of those products are key elements to maintain fresh water treatment standards. Additionally, results demonstrated that high dosages M. oleifera did not affect the optimal value in terms of color and turbidity removal. In rural and developing countries, this is important because it does not require a sophisticated dosing equipment. PMID:26437662

  12. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  13. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kelsey; Lantagne, Daniele; Kotlarz, Nadine; Jellison, Kristen

    2010-03-01

    Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation of SWS programmes; although research shows that a 3.75 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p=0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters>or=30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination. PMID:20009248

  14. LAM cells biology and lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    PubMed

    Grzegorek, Irmina; Drozdz, Katarzyna; Podhorska-Okolow, Marzenna; Szuba, Andrzej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Progressive lung tissue destruction in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) occurs as a result of excessive proliferation of LAM cells caused by a mutation in one of the tuberous sclerosis complex suppressor genes, TSC1 or TSC2. These cells show constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and many of the mTOR-related kinases such as Akt, Erk, S6K1 and S6. Phenotype of LAM cells differs considerably depending on their microenvironment. LAM cells show differences in morphology, size and expression of various factors depending on their location in the tumor or body fluids. The presence of LAM cells in blood, urine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and chyle proves their ability to metastasis. Antigens of smooth muscle cells are expressed in most LAM cells. Some of these cells are immunoreactive with HMB-45 antibody, which is used for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of LAM. Receptors for estrogen and progesterone may also be expressed in these cells, which probably is associated with the fact that LAM occurs almost exclusively in women of childbearing age. LAM cells via increased production of metalloproteinases are involved in the destruction of the extracellular matrix, as well as the remodeling and damage of lung tissue. Sporadic LAM occurs extremely rarely. Therefore a good experimental model of this disease is necessary. To date, several animal and human cell lines, which both genetically and phenotypically resemble LAM cells, have been obtained. These cell lines, derived from LAM nodule or an angiomyolipoma, are usually characterized by a mutation of the TSC2 gene, expression of smooth muscle cell antigens such as a-smooth muscle actin (aSMA) or S6K1 and S6 protein hyperphosphorylation. Presently, there is no commercially available cell line representing a good model of LAM. A better understanding of LAM cell biology is necessary for creating a useful model in vitro for further exploration of both LAM pathomechanisms and more

  15. Glucosinolates in Moringa stenopetala.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Dräger, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    Bio-guided fractionation of seed extracts from Moringa stenopetala resulted in a myrosinase hydrolysis product, 5,5-dimethyloxazolidine-2-thione. It is formed from the glucosinolate glucoconringiin, which was identified together with O-(rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate from M. stenopetala for the first time. The glucosinolates in seeds, leaves and roots of M. stenopetala were quantified as des-sulphoglucosinolate by HPLC. The seeds without testa contained the highest concentration of glucoconringiin and of O-(rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate within the plant, 3 % and 19 % of dry mass, respectively. Abbreviations. GLS:glucosinolate GC:glucoconringiin RB-GLS: O-(rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate PMID:12709911

  16. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

  17. Comparison of Moringa stenopetala seed extract as a clean coagulant with Alum and Moringa stenopetala-Alum hybrid coagulant to remove direct dye from Textile Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dalvand, Arash; Gholibegloo, Elham; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Golchinpoor, Najmeh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Kamani, Hossein; Hosseini, Sara Sadat; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficiency of Moringa stenopetala seed extract was compared with alum and M. stenopetala-alum hybrid coagulant to remove Direct Red 23 azo dye from textile wastewater. The effects of parameters such as pH, coagulant dose, type of salt used for the extraction of coagulant and initial dye concentration on dye removal efficiency were investigated. Moreover, the existing functional groups on the structure of M. stenopetala coagulant (MSC) were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the morphology of sludge produced by MSC, alum, and hybrid coagulant was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Ninhydrin test was also used to determine the quantity of primary amines in the MSC and Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). According to the results, with increasing the coagulant dose and decreasing the initial dye concentration, dye removal efficiency has increased. The maximum dye removal of 98.5, 98.2, and 98.3 % were obtained by using 240, 120, and 80 mg/L MSC, alum and hybrid coagulant at pH 7, respectively. The results also showed MSC was much more effective than MOC for dye removal. The volume of sludge produced by MSC was one fourth and half of those produced by alum and hybrid coagulant, respectively. Based on the results, hybrid coagulant was the most efficient coagulant for direct dye removal from colored wastewater. PMID:27164876

  18. Processing effects on bioactive components and functional properties of moringa leaves: development of a snack and quality evaluation.

    PubMed

    Devisetti, Rajesh; Sreerama, Yadahally N; Bhattacharya, Sila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alkali pre-treatment on the nutritional, anti-nutritional and functional properties of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf flour (MLF), and sensory assessment of MLF-based snack product was investigated. The pre-treatment reduced the content of anti-nutrients, but improved the functional properties of MLF. The MLF-based ready-to-eat puffed snack exhibited high protein (21.6 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (14.8 g/100 g) contents while it contained a low fat content of 3.7 g/100 g. The HPLC analysis of phenolics revealed that chlorogenic and gallic acids were the predominant phenolic acids present in the raw leaf flour, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and gallic acids were the major phenolic acids in the pre-treated leaf flour. Flavonoids such as catechin, kaempferol, rutin and luteolin were present in both MLFs and the prepared snack. Overall sensory quality indicated that the snacks had acceptable textural attributes and improved nutritional profile at the 20 % level of substitution. It is possible to develop a ready-to-eat convenience food product with good functional and nutritional properties using pre-treated moringa leaf. PMID:26787984

  19. LAM actuated propellant flow control device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinicke, Robert H.; Cust, Kevin M.

    1992-02-01

    An advanced design LAM (limited angle motor) positions an integral flow control element for bi-level flow control of storable propellants. The LAM incorporates permanent magnet latching to maintain the flow control element in either the low or high flow position without continuous electrical energization. The LAM stator and rotor are fully sheathed within stainless steel. This construction method permits the LAM to control storable propellants without using dynamic seals to isolate the LAM from the propellants. All welded construction prevents external leakage. The design concept selection rationale and the computer FEA (finite element analysis) methods employed to optimize design characteristics are presented. Correlations of analyses to test results are described.

  20. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of LAM? The uncontrolled growth of ... their effect on nearby body tissues causes the signs and symptoms of LAM. The most common signs ...

  1. Therapeutic Strategies for Treatment of Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)

    PubMed Central

    Krymskaya, Vera P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare progressive lung disease affecting almost exclusively women. Neoplastic growth of atypical smooth muscle-like cells in the lung induces destruction of lung parenchyma leading to the formation of lung cysts, rupture of which results in spontaneous pneumothorax. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with inherited hamartoma syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Progression of LAM often results in loss of pulmonary function and death. Increasing understanding of neoplastic LAM cell growth is driving the development of therapeutic approaches targeting the disease progression. Areas covered This review provides background to understand the rationale for current treatments used in patients with LAM, to critically appraise the evidence for these treatments, and to discuss future treatment approaches. The literature review includes publications from PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov/. Expert Opinion Targeting mTOR activation with rapamycin analogs sirolimus and everolimus are awaiting approval by the FDA for treatment of LAM. A number of other treatment options have been investigated and are currently tested in clinical trials to target LAM cell survival and metastasis. Key remaining and poorly understood areas for development and validation of therapeutic targeting in LAM are destruction of lungs, pathological lymphangiogenesis, and hormonal regulation. Future will reveal whether they could be targeted therapeutically. PMID:26779398

  2. Frying stability of Moringa stenopetala seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Tsaknis, John

    2006-06-01

    The frying performance of Moringa stenopetala seed oil (extracted with cold press or n-hexane) was studied especially as regards repeated frying operations. The oils were used for intermittent frying of potato slices and cod filets at a temperature of 175 degrees C for 5 consecutive days (5 fryings per day). The chemical changes occurring in oils were evaluated. Free fatty acid content, polar compounds, colour and viscosity of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine value, smoke point, polyunsaturated fatty acid content, induction period and tocopherol content decreased. The effect of the oil on the organoleptic quality of these fried foods and the theoretical number of frying operations possible before having to discard the oil was also determined. The analytical and sensory data showed that the lowest deterioration occurred in cold press produced oil. PMID:16810562

  3. [Toxocological study of Guiera senegalensis Lam (Combretaceae)].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Cisse, A; Gueye, S S; Mendes, V; Siby, T; Diouf Diop, R M; Bassene, E

    2000-01-01

    The study was based on an aqueous extract derived from a 60 degrees ethanolic tincture containing 0.032 g of dry matter per ml. The leaves of Guiera senegalensis Lam (Combretaceae) were collected in December 1991 at Nguekhokh a village within 20 km from Mbour (Senegal). The extract was administered for six months through daily forced-feeling at 2 g/kg to Wistar male and female rats whose weight at the beginning of the experiment tanged between 140 g and 180 g. The urine was analysed during the study and the animals were weighed every four weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were slaughtered and various analyses carried out. Haematological features in relation with erythropoiesis, haemoglobinogenesis and leucopoiesis, were studied in relation with renal and hepatic functions; biochemical features too. Some organs (heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, cerebellum, spleen and liver) were removed and examined in order to detect possible lesions following the experiment. Judging by the results, Guiera senegalensis Lam (Combretaceae), as used in the experiment, did not show any significant toxicity. PMID:14679980

  4. Moringa coagulant as a stabilizer for amorphous solids: Part I.

    PubMed

    Bhende, Santosh; Jadhav, Namdeo

    2012-06-01

    Stabilization of amorphous state is a focal area for formulators to reap benefits related with solubility and consequently bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In the present work, an attempt has been made to explore the potential of moringa coagulant as an amorphous state stabilizer by investigating its role in stabilization of spray-dried (amorphous) ibuprofen, meloxicam and felodipine. Thermal studies like glass forming ability, glass transition temperature, hot stage microscopy and DSC were carried out for understanding thermodynamic stabilization of drugs. PXRD and dissolution studies were performed to support contribution of moringa coagulant. Studies showed that hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions between drug and moringa coagulant are responsible for amorphous state stabilization as explored by ATR-FTIR and molecular docking. Especially, H-bonding was found to be predominant mechanism for drug stabilization. Therein, arginine (basic amino acid in coagulant) exhibited various interactions and played important role in stabilization of aforesaid amorphous drugs. PMID:22359158

  5. UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    UNDERSIDE FROM SOUTH BANKS; NOTICE NEW GLUE LAM CROSSBEAMS SISTERED TO OLDER BEAMS, NEW STRINGERS AND COMPONENTS MAKE UP A NEARLY NEW SUPPORT SYSTEM - Short Bridge, Spanning South Santiam River at High Deck Road, Cascadia, Linn County, OR

  6. Classical closure theory and Lam's interpretation of epsilon-RNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE

    1995-01-01

    Lam's phenomenological epsilon-renormalization group (RNG) model is quite different from the other members of that group. It does not make use of the correspondence principle and the epsilon-expansion procedure. We demonstrate that Lam's epsilon-RNG model is essentially the physical space version of the classical closure theory in spectral space and consider the corresponding treatment of the eddy viscosity and energy backscatter.

  7. A remarkable new species of Coeliccia from the Tuyen Lam Lake area, Lam Dong, southern Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platycnemididae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A

    2016-01-01

    Coeliccia suoitia sp. nov. (holotype ♂, from Suoi Tia, Tuyen Lam Lake, Da Lat, Lam Dong Province, Vietnam, deposited in RMNH) is described from males from southern Vietnam. It is a distinctive species that possess highly unusual characters in the thorax and anal appendages that make its ultimate generic placement questionable. Relationships between Coeliccia Kirby, Asthenocnemis Lieftinck and Indocnemis Laidlaw, and within Coeliccia, are briefly discussed. PMID:27394751

  8. Ethnopharmacological uses of Antidesma madagascariense Lam. (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, Mohamad Fawzi; Korumtollee, Housna Nazifah; Chady, Zaynab Zaina Banu Khan

    2015-01-01

    Antidesma madagascariense Lam. is an indigenous plant of the Mascarene Islands which has interestingly shined as a promising traditional medicinal plant. The ethnobotanical uses of this plant were geared toward the treatment and management of dysentery, albumin in the urine, jaundice, fever, diabetes, skin infections, rheumatic and body aches among others. Preliminary screening of this plant coupled with a plethora of in vitro and in vivo tests have furnished scientists with documented findings that have appraised its traditional use in the treatment and management of infectious diseases. The presence of antidesmin, a commonly characterized component of Antidesma species, might justify the medicinal virtues of this plant. The present monograph aims at providing the botanical description, traditional uses and latest findings documented on A. madagascariense. Nonetheless, continued research on this plant needs to be completed in order to rationalize the use of this promising plant as a potential source of beneficial constituents for the treatment and management of human diseases and hence set up promising optimism for drug development. PMID:26401391

  9. Discovery and Classification of DES15S2lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2015-10-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of DES15S2lam discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectrum (540-965nm) was obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190) and SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  10. TSC2 epigenetic defect in primary LAM cells. Evidence of an anchorage-independent survival

    PubMed Central

    Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Sirchia, Silvia M; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Grande, Vera; Colapietro, Patrizia; Chiaramonte, Eloisa; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) can be sporadic or associated with TSC and is characterized by widespread pulmonary proliferation of abnormal α-smooth muscle (ASM)-like cells. We investigated the features of ASM cells isolated from chylous thorax of a patient affected by LAM associated with TSC, named LAM/TSC cells, bearing a germline TSC2 mutation and an epigenetic defect causing the absence of tuberin. Proliferation of LAM/TSC cells is epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent and blockade of EGF receptor causes cell death as we previously showed in cells lacking tuberin. LAM/TSC cells spontaneously detach probably for the inactivation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt/mTOR pathway and display the ability to survive independently from adhesion. Non-adherent LAM/TSC cells show an extremely low proliferation rate consistent with tumour stem-cell characteristics. Moreover, LAM/TSC cells bear characteristics of stemness and secrete high amount of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Anti-EGF receptor antibodies and rapamycin affect proliferation and viability of non-adherent cells. In conclusion, the understanding of LAM/TSC cell features is important in the assessment of cell invasiveness in LAM and TSC and should provide a useful model to test therapeutic approaches aimed at controlling their migratory ability. PMID:24606538

  11. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  12. Stiochiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, K.; Cheng, Chaohsiung; Jap, B.K. ); Nikaido, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 {mu}M for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of their results.

  13. Solid-state characterization and dissolution properties of meloxicam-moringa coagulant-PVP ternary solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Noolkar, Suhail B; Jadhav, Namdeo R; Bhende, Santosh A; Killedar, Suresh G

    2013-06-01

    The effect of ternary solid dispersions of poor water-soluble NSAID meloxicam with moringa coagulant (obtained by salt extraction of moringa seeds) and polyvinylpyrrolidone on the in vitro dissolution properties has been investigated. Binary (meloxicam-moringa and meloxicam-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and ternary (meloxicam-moringa-PVP) systems were prepared by physical kneading and ball milling and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry. The in vitro dissolution behavior of meloxicam from the different products was evaluated by means of United States Pharmacopeia type II dissolution apparatus. The results of solid-state studies indicated the presence of strong interactions between meloxicam, moringa, and PVP which were of totally amorphous nature. All ternary combinations were significantly more effective than the corresponding binary systems in improving the dissolution rate of meloxicam. The best performance in this respect was given by the ternary combination employing meloxicam-moringa-PVP ratio of [1:(3:1)] prepared by ball milling, with about six times increase in percent dissolution rate, whereas meloxicam-moringa (1:3) and meloxicam-PVP (1:4) prepared by ball milling improved dissolution of meloxicam by almost 3- and 2.5-folds, respectively. The achieved excellent dissolution enhancement of meloxicam in the ternary systems was attributed to the combined effects of impartation of hydrophilic characteristic by PVP, as well as to the synergistic interaction between moringa and PVP. PMID:23483432

  14. Elaeis oleifera genomic-SSR markers: exploitation in oil palm germplasm diversity and cross-amplification in arecaceae.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (H(o)) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (F(is)) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family. PMID:22605966

  15. Elaeis oleifera Genomic-SSR Markers: Exploitation in Oil Palm Germplasm Diversity and Cross-Amplification in Arecaceae

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Noorhariza Mohd; Singh, Rajinder; Rosli, Rozana; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2012-01-01

    Species-specific simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are favored for genetic studies and marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for oil palm genetic improvement. This report characterizes 20 SSR markers from an Elaeis oleifera genomic library (gSSR). Characterization of the repeat type in 2000 sequences revealed a high percentage of di-nucleotides (63.6%), followed by tri-nucleotides (24.2%). Primer pairs were successfully designed for 394 of the E. oleifera gSSRs. Subsequent analysis showed the ability of the 20 selected E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The average Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) value for the SSRs was 0.402, with the tri-repeats showing the highest average PIC (0.626). Low values of observed heterozygosity (Ho) (0.164) and highly positive fixation indices (Fis) in the E. oleifera germplasm collection, compared to the E. guineensis, indicated an excess of homozygosity in E. oleifera. The transferability of the markers to closely related palms, Elaeis guineensis, Cocos nucifera and ornamental palms is also reported. Sequencing the amplicons of three selected E. oleifera gSSRs across both species and palm taxa revealed variations in the repeat-units. The study showed the potential of E. oleifera gSSR markers to reveal genetic diversity in the genus Elaeis. The markers are also a valuable genetic resource for studying E. oleifera and other genus in the Arecaceae family. PMID:22605966

  16. Anatomical investigation of flower of Butea monosperma Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140

  17. Foam Properties and Detergent Abilities of the Saponins from Camellia oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Yang, Chao-Hsun; Chang, Ming-Shiang; Ciou, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The defatted seed meal of Camellia oleifera has been used as a natural detergent and its extract is commercially utilized as a foam-stabilizing and emulsifying agent. The goal of this study was to investigate the foam properties and detergent ability of the saponins from the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera. The crude saponin content in the defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 8.34 and the total saponins content in the crude saponins extract was 39.5% (w/w). The foaming power of the 0.5 crude saponins extract solution from defatted seed meal of C. oleifera was 37.1 of 0.5 SLS solution and 51.3% to that of 0.5% Tween 80 solution. The R5 value of 86.0% represents good foam stability of the crude saponins extracted from the defatted seed meal of the plant. With the reduction of water surface tension from 72 mN/m to 50.0 mN/m, the 0.5% crude saponins extract solution has wetting ability. The sebum-removal experiment indicated that the crude saponins extract has moderate detergency. The detergent abilities of the saponins from C. oleifera and Sapindus mukorossi were also compared. PMID:21151446

  18. Policy considerations for the introduction and promotion of the lactational amenorrhea method: advantages and disadvantages of LAM.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K I; Kotelchuck, M

    1998-09-01

    Some attributes of LAM are unquestionably positive, such as the fact that it is effective. Clinical trials of LAM have upheld the Bellagio Consensus that the chance of pregnancy is less than 2% in the first 6 months postpartum in amenorrheic women who are fully or nearly fully breastfeeding. Secondary data analyses in numerous settings have drawn the same conclusion. Whether as a strategy or a method, used correctly or even if used imperfectly, LAM is a reliable way to avoid pregnancy. To the extent that LAM represents an additional contraceptive option, this is also clearly positive since a broad array of contraceptive options maximizes the likelihood of finding a good fit between user and method, and increases contraceptive use. Other characteristics of LAM represent potentially positive impacts. If LAM is shown to be an effective conduit to other modern methods, the implications are profoundly positive. If LAM is cost effective, for households and/or for programs, this will also make the method extraordinarily attractive. Conversely, some aspects of LAM are negative, such as the fact that it affords no protection against STDs, it requires counseling from a well-informed provider, and intensive breastfeeding can make heavy demands on the woman's time. Many of the remaining attributes of LAM may not be important to a policy decision about LAM promotion. For example, whether LAM is actualized as a strategy or a method may not be important to a decision to promote LAM, although it has a huge impact on how services are delivered. Some factors may be profound on a local or individual level. For example, one simple factor, such as the absence of full/nearly full breastfeeding, can rule out the method as an option, while another, such as the fact that it provides the needed waiting period during vasectomy counseling, can make LAM the method of choice. Although LAM seems unlikely to have widespread popularity in societies like the United States, within such settings are

  19. Therapeutic options for lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): where we are and where we are going

    PubMed Central

    Steagall, Wendy K; Moss, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a multisystem disease affecting predominantly premenopausal and middle-aged women, causes progressive respiratory failure due to cystic lung destruction and is associated with lymphatic and kidney tumors. In the past, the treatment of LAM comprised exclusively anti-estrogen and related hormonal therapies. These treatments, however, have not been proven effective. In this article, we discuss new findings regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of LAM cell growth, which may offer opportunities to develop effective and targeted therapeutic agents. PMID:20948684

  20. A new tigliane-type diterpene from Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lin-Feng; Liang, Qian; Liu, Tie; He, Ming-Yu; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Wen-Hui

    2016-07-01

    One new tigliane-type diterpene, 4-deoxy-4(β)H-8-hydroperoxyphorbol-12-benzoate-13-isobutyrate (1), together with two known diterpenoids, 3-acetyl-5,8-dibenzoyl-14α-propanoyl-13,17-epoxy-7-myrsinaone diterpene with C9-C10 cyclised to form an additional lactone ring (2), Euphodendriane A (3) have been isolated from the whole plants of Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. Their structures were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic analysis (NMR and HR-ESI-MS) and comparison with data reported in the literature. This is the first isolation of 8-hydroperoxy tigliane diterpene (1) from the genus of Euphorbia. All compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities. PMID:26729599

  1. Combinatorial approach to Mathieu and Lamé equations

    SciTech Connect

    He, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Based on some recent progress on a relation between four dimensional super Yang-Mills gauge theory and quantum integrable system, we study the asymptotic spectrum of the quantum mechanical problems described by the Mathieu equation and the Lamé equation. The large momentum asymptotic expansion of the eigenvalue is related to the instanton partition function of supersymmetric gauge theories which can be evaluated by a combinatorial method. The electro-magnetic duality of gauge theory indicates that in the parameter space, there are three asymptotic expansions for the eigenvalue, and we confirm this fact by performing the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) analysis in each asymptotic expansion region. The results presented here give some new perspective on the Floquet theory about periodic differential equation.

  2. Phytochemical Investigations on Chemical Constituents of Achillea tenuifolia Lam

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdol Majid

    2014-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a methanolic extract from which after fractionation in solvents with different polarities, two known flavones 3’, 5- dihydroxy- 4’, 6, 7- trimethoxy flavone (eupatorine, compound 3), 5- hydroxy- 3’,4’, 6, 7- tetramethoxyflavone (compound 4), besides stearic acid (compound 1), lupeol (compound 2), daucosterol (β- sitosterol 3-O- β- D- glucopyranoside, compound 5), 2, 4- dihydroxy methyl benzoate (compound 6) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by means of different spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, Mass and 1H- NMR (1D and 2D) and 13C-NMR. For further confirming the structures of isolated compounds, comparison of the spectral data of them with those reported in the litratures have been done. PMID:25276207

  3. Analysis of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) patent tomograms: Stereology and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.; Wing, G.M.; Winter, L.; Zahrt, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is an insidious disease of young women which attacks the lungs and if untreated results in death. Treatment is radical. Currently a woman diagnosed as having LAM (usually by computed tomography (CT) of the lung) is run through an exhausting set of tests and exercises to determine the extent of the disease. Image processing techniques have been able to quantify the tomograms by providing a histogram of the number of cyst intercepts of a given area. The images are digital, so the data are discrete, and the areas are in terms of square pixels. It is hoped that by analyzing the data and by recovering the probability density of the cysts themselves one can provide a set of parameters that will aid in the early diagnosis of the disease and that will correlate well with the physiology. The desire to invert the data, that is to determine the probability density of the cysts from the probability density of the circular intersections of the cysts with the tomographic plane, led to a re-examination of the Wicksell equation. In Section 2, the authors transform Wicksell`s equation in diameter (a generalized Abel equation) into an equation in areas (the original Abel equation). In Section 3 they present the adjoint equation in several equivalent forms. Analytic solutions of the adjoint equation necessary for later use are developed in Section 4. Outside of the framework of integral equations they have done some modeling of the data. They find that, to a very high degree of reliability, the data follows a simple power law. The distribution of spheres likewise follows a simple power law. These considerations are given in Section 5. Then in Section 6 they explore the exponential model as an alternative. Section 7 solves the Wicksell equation and uses the Golberg device, via the adjoint, to solve a related problem. They finally get to the number of cysts and their average size in Section 8. Their conclusions are in Section 9.

  4. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Virola oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, K N; de Campos, F; de Souza, M M; Yunes, R A; Delle Monache, F; Cechinel Filho, V

    2001-01-01

    A methanolic extract and two fractions (n-hexane and ethyl acetate) from Virola oleifera leaves and some compounds (one lignan and two flavonoids) were investigated to verify the analgesic activity by using the writhing test in mice. The crude methanolic extract showed a moderate analgesic effect (about 40% of inhibition in this test at 10 mg/kg), whereas n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions caused inhibition of 51.3 +/- 5.9% and 50.5 +/- 6.3%, respectively. Oleiferin-C (1), a lignan isolated from the n-hexane fraction, showed an interesting analgesic potential in this model when compared to two standard drugs, paracetamol (4-acetamidophenol) and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). The ID50 calculated for this compound was 17.25 micromol/kg, with confidence interval between 13.7 and 21.3 micromol/kg, being about 8 times more potent than the standard drugs. The mixture of two glycoside-flavonoids, identified as astilbin (2) and quercitrin (3), also exhibited good analgesic activity, causing 63% of reduction of abdominal constriction in mice. These results suggest beneficial effect of this plant to treat dolorous processes. PMID:11724372

  5. Overview of Sustainability Studies of CNC Machining and LAM of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyamekye, Patricia; Leino, Maija; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM), known also as 3D printing, is a powder bed fusion (PBF) type of additive manufacturing (AM) technology used to fabricate metal parts out of metal powder. The development of the technology from building prototype parts to functional parts has increased remarkably in 2000s. LAM of metals is promising technology that offers new opportunities to manufacturing and to resource efficiency. However, there is only few published articles about its sustainability. Aim in this study was to create supply chain model of LAM and CNC machining and create a methodology to carry out a life cycle inventory (LCI) data collection for these techniques. The methodology of the study was literature review and scenario modeling. The acquisition of raw material, production phase and transportations were used as basis of comparison. The modelled scenarios were fictitious and created for industries, like aviation and healthcare that often require swift delivery as well as customized parts. The results of this study showed that the use of LAM offers a possibility to reduce downtime in supply chains of spare parts and reduce part inventory more effectively than CNC machining. Also the gap between customers and business is possible to be shortened with LAM thus offering a possibility to reduce emissions due to less transportation. The results also indicated weight reduction possibility with LAM due to optimized part geometry which allow lesser amount of metallic powder to be used in making parts.

  6. Reassessment of the Genome Size in Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera, and Its Interspecific Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Camillo, Julceia; Leão, André P; Alves, Alexandre A; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Azevedo, Ana LS; Nunes, Juliana D; de Capdeville, Guy; de A Mattos, Jean K; Souza, Manoel T

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at generating a comprehensive genomic database on Elaeis spp., our group is leading several R&D initiatives with Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) and Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm), including the whole-genome sequencing of the last. Genome size estimates currently available for this genus are controversial, as they indicate that American oil palm genome is about half the size of the African oil palm genome and that the genome of the interspecific hybrid is bigger than both the parental species genomes. We estimated the genome size of three E. guineensis genotypes, five E. oleifera genotypes, and two interspecific hybrids genotypes. On average, the genome size of E. guineensis is 4.32 ± 0.173 pg, while that of E. oleifera is 4.43 ± 0.018 pg. This indicates that both genomes are similar in size, even though E. oleifera is in fact bigger. As expected, the hybrid genome size is around the average of the two genomes, 4.40 ± 0.016 pg. Additionally, we demonstrate that both species present around 38% of GC content. As our results contradict the currently available data on Elaeis spp. genome sizes, we propose that the actual genome size of the Elaeis species is around 4 pg and that American oil palm possesses a larger genome than African oil palm. PMID:26203259

  7. Reassessment of the Genome Size in Elaeis guineensis and Elaeis oleifera, and Its Interspecific Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Camillo, Julceia; Leão, André P; Alves, Alexandre A; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Azevedo, Ana Ls; Nunes, Juliana D; de Capdeville, Guy; de A Mattos, Jean K; Souza, Manoel T

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at generating a comprehensive genomic database on Elaeis spp., our group is leading several R&D initiatives with Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm) and Elaeis oleifera (American oil palm), including the whole-genome sequencing of the last. Genome size estimates currently available for this genus are controversial, as they indicate that American oil palm genome is about half the size of the African oil palm genome and that the genome of the interspecific hybrid is bigger than both the parental species genomes. We estimated the genome size of three E. guineensis genotypes, five E. oleifera genotypes, and two interspecific hybrids genotypes. On average, the genome size of E. guineensis is 4.32 ± 0.173 pg, while that of E. oleifera is 4.43 ± 0.018 pg. This indicates that both genomes are similar in size, even though E. oleifera is in fact bigger. As expected, the hybrid genome size is around the average of the two genomes, 4.40 ± 0.016 pg. Additionally, we demonstrate that both species present around 38% of GC content. As our results contradict the currently available data on Elaeis spp. genome sizes, we propose that the actual genome size of the Elaeis species is around 4 pg and that American oil palm possesses a larger genome than African oil palm. PMID:26203259

  8. Stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB, an outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, K; Cheng, C H; Nikaido, H; Jap, B K

    1991-01-01

    We have directly measured the stoichiometry of maltodextrin-binding sites in LamB. Scatchard plots and computer fitting of flow dialysis (rate-of-dialysis) experiments clearly establish three independent binding sites per LamB trimer, with a dissociation constant of approximately 60 microM for maltoheptaose. The current model for LamB's function as a specific pore is discussed with respect to the symmetry in LamB's kinetic properties and the implications of our results. Images PMID:2001992

  9. New phytoconstituents from the aerial parts of Fumaria parviflora Lam

    PubMed Central

    Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Fumaria parviflora Lam. (Fumariaceae) is an annual herb found throughout the world. Traditionally it has great significance in various disorders. In folk medicine of Turkey it is used against hepato-biliary dysfunction and imported from Iran. In Charaka and Sushruta, it is recommended for treatment of fevers, blood disorders, chronic skin diseases, urinary diseases and cough. The compounds were isolated from methanolic extract of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel (60-120 mesh) as stationary phase and structure of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of its aerial parts led to the isolation of five new compounds characterized as (5αH,11αH)-8-oxo-homoiridolide (1), n-docosanyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl salicylate (2), 2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylenedodecan-10-oyl-12, 15-olide14-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (3), 4-oxo-stigmast-5-en-3β-ol-D-glucopyranoside (4) and salicylic acid-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (5) along with the known compounds α-D-glucopyranosyl hexadecanoate (6) and α-D-glucopyranosyl- (2 → 1ʹ)-α-D-glucopyranoside (7). The isolated compounds are useful as they will provide essential data and information for the further researchers and development of effective analytical marker for identity, purity and quality control of this traditional plant in future. PMID:24959414

  10. Pharmacological investigations on Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC., Compositae.

    PubMed

    Simões, C M; Schenkel, E P; Bauer, L; Langeloh, A

    1988-04-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. inflorescences have been used as remedies in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of human ailments, particularly those of the gastrointestinal tract. Different extracts of inflorescences have been tested for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, constipating and sedative activities. The aqueous extracts (maceration and decoction) and ethanolic macerate exhibited an inhibition of the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema at a dose range of 75-500 mg kg-1 i.p., and also showed analgesic effect with the acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. The gastrointestinal propulsion of a charcoal suspension was not affected significantly by any extract, at a dose of 200 mg kg-1 p.o., in mice. The aqueous decoction increased pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, at doses of 200 and 500 mg kg-1 i.p. and p.o., in mice. The ethanolic macerate inhibited contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, noradrenaline and barium chloride in four different smooth muscle tissues. The antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activities were reproduced with quercetin, luteolin and quercetin 3-methyl ether, flavonoids that have been isolated from this plant. A partial evaluation of the toxicity of the extracts was also performed. The pharmacological effects assayed are discussed in relation to the chemical constituents of this plant and its popular use in gastrointestinal disturbances, and inflammatory conditions could be related to the presence of the flavonoids. PMID:3393010

  11. Predictive and prognostic properties of TB-LAM among HIV-positive patients initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    d'Elia, Alexander; Evans, Denise; McNamara, Lynne; Berhanu, Rebecca; Sanne, Ian; Lönnermark, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    While the diagnostic properties of the TB LAM urine assay (LAM) have been well-described, little is known about its predictive and prognostic properties at ART initiation in a routine clinic setting. We describe the predictive and prognostic properties of LAM in HIV-positive patients initiating ART at an urban hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa. Retrospective study of HIV-positive adults (>18 years) who initiated standard first-line ART between February 2012 and April 2013 and had a LAM test at initiation. In HIV-positive patients with no known TB at ART initiation, we assessed the sensitivity, specificity and positive/negative likelihood ratios of LAM to predict incident TB within 6 months of ART initiation. In addition, in patients with a TB diagnosis and on TB treatment <3 months at ART initiation, we measured the CD4 response at 6 months on ART. Of the 274 patients without TB at ART initiation, 65% were female with median CD4 count of 213 cells/mm3. Among the 14 (5.1%) patients who developed active TB, none were urine LAM +ve at baseline. LAM had poor sensitivity (0.0% 95% CI 0.00-23.2) to predict incident TB within 6 months of initiation. We analyzed 22 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis at initiation separately. Of these, LAM +ve patients (27%) showed lower CD4 gains compared to LAM negative patients (median increase 103 vs 199 cells/mm3; p = 0.08). LAM has limited value for accurately predicting incident TB in patients with higher CD4 counts after ART initiation. LAM may help identify TB/HIV co-infected patients at ART initiation who respond more slowly to treatment and require targeted interventions to improve treatment outcomes. Larger studies with longer patient follow-up are needed. PMID:26600904

  12. A novel Vibrio beta-glucosidase (LamN) that hydrolyzes the algal storage polysaccharide laminarin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Robertson, Kelly L; Liu, Charles; Liu, Jinny L; Johnson, Brandy J; Leary, Dagmar H; Compton, Jaimee R; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Legler, Patricia M; Vora, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic versatility, tractability and rapid growth potential of the Vibrio spp. have made them increasingly attractive systems for investigating carbon cycling in the marine environment. In this study, an in silico subtractive proteomic strategy was used to identify a novel 101 kDa GH3 family β-glucosidase (LamN) that was found in bioluminescent Vibrio campbellii strains capable of utilizing the algal storage glucan laminarin. A heterologous overexpression system verified the sequence-predicted function of LamN as it enabled the growth of Escherichia coli on laminarin as a sole carbon source. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analyses revealed that V. campbellii grown on laminarin demonstrated a 4- to 314-fold induction of lamN gene expression when compared to the same strains grown on glucose or glycerol. Corresponding tandem mass spectrometric analyses detected LamN protein expression only in cells grown on laminarin. Heterologous expression, purification and biochemical characterization identified LamN as a heat stable laminarinase with β-1,3, β-1,4 and β-1,6 glucosidase activity. Collectively, these data identify an enzyme that may allow V. campbellii to exploit some of the most abundant polysaccharides associated with deteriorating phytoplankton blooms and provide support for the potential involvement of V. campbellii in the formation of bioluminescent milky seas. PMID:26207048

  13. A Sacrificial Lam: A Divided School Board, a Beleaguered Superintendent, and an Urgent Need to Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossey, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This case describes the confrontational relationship between four trustees on the San Antonio School Board and the San Antonio School District's superintendent Diana Lam, a nationally recognized school reformer, who came to San Antonio in 1994. The case includes a dramatic board meeting where a closely divided board meets to buy out Lam's…

  14. Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer (LAMS) as a Standoff Analyzer in Space Missions for Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Managadze, G. G.; Pugel, D. E.; Corrigan, C. M.; Doty, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    A laser ablation mass spectrometer (LAMS) based on a time-of-flight (TOF) analyzer with adjustable drift length is proposed as a standoff elemental composition sensor for space missions to airless bodies. It is found that the use of a retarding potential analyzer in combination with a two-stage reflectron enables LAMS to be operated at variable drift length. For field-free drift lengths between 33 cm to 100 cm, at least unit mass resolution can be maintained solely by adjustment of internal voltages, and without resorting to drastic reductions in sensitivity. Therefore, LAMS should be able to be mounted on a robotic arm and analyze samples at standoff distances of up to several tens of cm, permitting high operational flexibility and wide area coverage of heterogeneous regolith on airless bodies.

  15. Determination of antimicrobial activity and resistance to oxidation of moringa peregrina seed oil.

    PubMed

    Lalas, Stavros; Gortzi, Olga; Athanasiadis, Vasilios; Tsaknis, John; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid) were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined. PMID:22367027

  16. Complete genome sequence of strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) isolated from saline sediment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Li; Li, Yan-Bin; Ruan, Zhi-Yong; You, Yang; Wang, Lu-Shan; Qin, Han; Liu, Song; Shui, Zong-Xia; Wang, Yan-Wei; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wu, Bo; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; Ma, Ke-Dong; He, Ming-Xiong

    2016-02-20

    The type strain Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens LAM0015(T) with considerably highly NaCl tolerance is a member of halophiles. Here we report its genome sequence, the first to publish complete genome sequence of the Lentibacillus genus. It contains 3,858,520bp with an average GC content of 42.12%, encoding multiple valuable proteins academically and industrially. The genome sequence of strain LAM0015(T) provides basic information for further elucidation of halophilic mechanism and wider exploitation of functional genes. PMID:26806488

  17. Chan-Evans-Lam Amination of Boronic Acid Pinacol (BPin) Esters: Overcoming the Aryl Amine Problem.

    PubMed

    Vantourout, Julien C; Law, Robert P; Isidro-Llobet, Albert; Atkinson, Stephen J; Watson, Allan J B

    2016-05-01

    The Chan-Evans-Lam reaction is a valuable C-N bond forming process. However, aryl boronic acid pinacol (BPin) ester reagents can be difficult coupling partners that often deliver low yields, in particular in reactions with aryl amines. Herein, we report effective reaction conditions for the Chan-Evans-Lam amination of aryl BPin with alkyl and aryl amines. A mixed MeCN/EtOH solvent system was found to enable effective C-N bond formation using aryl amines while EtOH is not required for the coupling of alkyl amines. PMID:27045570

  18. Ethanol extract of Moringa oliefera prevents in vitro glucose induced cataract on isolated goat eye lens

    PubMed Central

    Kurmi, Raghvendra; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Bansal, Divya; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dubey, Nazneen

    2014-01-01

    Aim of Study: The aim of current work was to evaluate in vitro anticataract potential of Moringa oliefera extract. Materials and Methods: Goat eye lenses were divided into 4 groups; Group served as control, Group II as toxic control, Group III and Group IV were incubated in extract (250 μg/ml and 500 μg/ml of extract of M. oliefera) Group II, III and IV were incubated in 55 mM glucose in artificial aqueous humor to induce lens opacification. Estimation of total, water soluble protein, catalase, glutathione and malondialdehyde along with photographic evaluation of lens was done. Results: Group II (toxic control) lenses showed high amount of MDA (Malondialdehyde), soluble, insoluble protein, decreased catalase and glutathione levels, while lenses treated with Moringa oliefera extract (Group III and Group IV) showed significant (* P < 0.05) reduction in MDA and increased level of catalase, glutathione, total and soluble protein. Conclusion: Results of present findings suggest protective effect of Moringa oliefera in prevention of in vitro glucose induced cataract. PMID:24008789

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of the Oil-Rich Tea Plant, Camellia oleifera, Reveals Candidate Genes Related to Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapidly driven by the need for developing sustainable sources of nutritionally important fatty acids and the rising concerns about environmental impacts after using fossil oil, oil-plants have received increasing awareness nowadays. As an important oil-rich plant in China, Camellia oleifera has played a vital role in providing nutritional applications, biofuel productions and chemical feedstocks. However, the lack of C. oleifera genome sequences and little genetic information have largely hampered the urgent needs for efficient utilization of the abundant germplasms towards modern breeding efforts of this woody oil-plant. Results Here, using the 454 GS-FLX sequencing platform, we generated approximately 600,000 RNA-Seq reads from four tissues of C. oleifera. These reads were trimmed and assembled into 104,842 non-redundant putative transcripts with a total length of ∼38.9 Mb, representing more than 218-fold of all the C. oleifera sequences currently deposited in the GenBank (as of March 2014). Based on the BLAST similarity searches, nearly 42.6% transcripts could be annotated with known genes, conserved domains, or Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Comparisons with the cultivated tea tree, C. sinensis, identified 3,022 pairs of orthologs, of which 211 exhibited the evidence under positive selection. Pathway analysis detected the majority of genes potentially related to lipid metabolism. Evolutionary analysis of omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (FAD2) genes among 20 oil-plants unexpectedly suggests that a parallel evolution may occur between C. oleifera and Olea oleifera. Additionally, more than 2,300 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 20,200 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the C. oleifera transcriptome. Conclusions The generated transcriptome represents a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in the public databases, providing an unprecedented opportunity to discover all related-genes associated with lipid metabolic

  20. Mathematical Physics in the Style of Gabriel Lamé and the Treatise of Emile Mathieu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbin, Évelyne; Guitart, René

    The Treatise of Mathematical Physics of Emile Mathieu, published from 1873 to 1890, provided an exposition of the specific French "Mathematical Physics" inherited from Lamé, himself an heir of Poisson, Fourier, and Laplace. The works of all these authors had significant differences, but they were pursuing the same goal, described here with its relation to Theoretical Physics.

  1. Stochasticity in the Expression of LamB and its Affect on λ phage Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Emily; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2006-03-01

    λ phage binds to E. Coli's lamB protein and injects its DNA into the cell. The phage quickly replicates and after a latent period the bacteria bursts, emitting mature phages. We developed a mathematical model based on the known physical events that occur when a λ phage infects an E.Coli cell. The results of these models predict that the bacteria and phage populations become extinct unless the parameters of the model are very finely tuned, which is untrue in the nature. The lamB protein is part of the maltose regulon and can be repressed to minimal levels when grown in the absence of inducer. Therefore, a cell that is not expressing any lamB protein at that moment is resistant against phage infection. We studied the dynamic relationship between λ phage and E. Coli when the concentration of phage greatly outnumbers the concentration of bacteria. We study how the stochasticity of the expression of lamB affects the percentage of cells that the λ phage infects. We show that even in the case when the maltose regulon is fully induced a percentage of cells continue to persist against phage infection.

  2. [Determination of ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam by microwave digestion-FAAS].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shu-Ge; Zhou, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Tun-Hai; Ding, Jian-Bing; Shan, Li-Juan; Shi, Yang

    2009-07-01

    Comprehensive utilization of traditional Uighur medicine has been increasingly emphasized, and the relationship between metal elements and traditional Uighur medicine has attracted great attention, so it is quite important to determine the contents of traditional Uighur medicine. The Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam powder was digested with HNO3 by microwave digestion before determination. Ten metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam were determined by FAAS. The work conditions, accuracy and precision of the method were studied. The linear correlations of standard curves are good (r = 0.999 0-0.999 8). The recovery (n = 6) is 95%-108%, and the RSD(n = 6) is 0.45%-1.53%. The results showed that there were comparatively rich metal elements, among which are comparatively high calcium, magnesium and potassium in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The method offers traits of low detection limit, high sensitivity, speediness and exactness, and wasapplied to the determination of metal elements in samples with satisfactory results. It provided useful data for discussing the relationship between the content of the metal elements in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam and clinical application of the Uighur medicine. PMID:19798990

  3. Fatty acid, flavonol, and mineral composition variability among seven macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) verdc. accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.] seeds containing high concentrations of fatty acids, flavonols and minerals will provide government, public and private organizations with a nutritious and healthy food for use by malnourished and food deprived people worldwide. Seeds from seven horse...

  4. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information. PMID:22100506

  5. Laser-assisted Microdissection (LAM) as a Tool for Transcriptional Profiling of Individual Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Florez Rueda, Ana Marcela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Schmidt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of developmental processes at the molecular level requires insights into transcriptional regulation, and thus the transcriptome, at the level of individual cell types. While the methods described here are generally applicable to a wide range of species and cell types, our research focuses on plant reproduction. Plant cultivation and seed production is of crucial importance for human and animal nutrition. A detailed understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the formation of the reproductive lineage (germline) and ultimately of seeds is a precondition for the targeted manipulation of plant reproduction. In particular, the engineering of apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) into crop plants promises great improvements, as it leads to the formation of clonal seeds that are genetically identical to the mother plant. Consequently, the cell types of the female germline are of major importance for the understanding and engineering of apomixis. However, as the corresponding cells are deeply embedded within the floral tissues, they are very difficult to access for experimental analyses, including cell-type specific transcriptomics. To overcome this limitation, sections of individual cells can be isolated by laser-assisted microdissection (LAM). While LAM in combination with transcriptional profiling allows the identification of genes and pathways active in any cell type with high specificity, establishing a suitable protocol can be challenging. Specifically, the quality of RNA obtained after LAM can be compromised, especially when small, single cells are targeted. To circumvent this problem, we have established a workflow for LAM that reproducibly results in high RNA quality that is well suitable for transcriptomics, as exemplified here by the isolation of cells of the female germline in apomictic Boechera. In this protocol, procedures are described for tissue preparation and LAM, also with regard to RNA extraction and quality control

  6. On the neural network calculation of the Lamé coefficients through eigenvalues of the elasticity operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossandón, Sebastián; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-02-01

    A new numerical method is presented with the purpose to calculate the Lamé coefficients, associated with an elastic material, through eigenvalues of the elasticity operator. The finite element method is used to solve repeatedly, using different Lamé coefficients values, the direct problem by training a direct radial basis neural network. A map of eigenvalues, as a function of the Lamé constants, is then obtained. This relationship is later inverted and refined by training an inverse radial basis neural network, allowing calculation of mentioned coefficients. A numerical example is presented to prove the effectiveness of this novel method.

  7. Genetic Structuration, Demography and Evolutionary History of Mycobacterium tuberculosis LAM9 Sublineage in the Americas as Two Distinct Subpopulations Revealed by Bayesian Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Reynaud, Yann; Millet, Julie; Rastogi, Nalin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains broadly present in the Americas despite intense global efforts for its control and elimination. Starting from a large dataset comprising spoligotyping (n = 21183 isolates) and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs data (n = 4022 isolates) from a total of 31 countries of the Americas (data extracted from the SITVIT2 database), this study aimed to get an overview of lineages circulating in the Americas. A total of 17119 (80.8%) strains belonged to the Euro-American lineage 4, among which the most predominant genotypic family belonged to the Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM) lineage (n = 6386, 30.1% of strains). By combining classical phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian approaches, this study revealed for the first time a clear genetic structuration of LAM9 sublineage into two subpopulations named LAM9C1 and LAM9C2, with distinct genetic characteristics. LAM9C1 was predominant in Chile, Colombia and USA, while LAM9C2 was predominant in Brazil, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Globally, LAM9C2 was characterized by higher allelic richness as compared to LAM9C1 isolates. Moreover, LAM9C2 sublineage appeared to expand close to twenty times more than LAM9C1 and showed older traces of expansion. Interestingly, a significant proportion of LAM9C2 isolates presented typical signature of ancestral LAM-RDRio MIRU-VNTR type (224226153321). Further studies based on Whole Genome Sequencing of LAM strains will provide the needed resolution to decipher the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this successful family. PMID:26517715

  8. mTOR Activation, Lymphangiogenesis, and Estrogen-Mediated Cell Survival: The “Perfect Storm” of Pro-Metastatic Factors in LAM Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Research interest in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has grown dramatically in the past decade, particularly among cancer biologists. There are at least two reasons for this: first, the discovery in the year 2000 that LAM cells carry TSC2 gene mutations, linking LAM with cellular pathways including the PI3K/Akt/mTOR axis, and allowing the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)-regulated pathways that are believed to underlie LAM pathogenesis to be studied in cells, yeast, Drosophila, and mice. A second reason for the rising interest in LAM is the discovery that LAM cells can travel to the lung, including repopulating a donor lung after lung transplantation, despite the fact that LAM cells are histologically benign. This “benign metastasis” underpinning suggests that elucidating LAM pathogenesis will unlock a set of fundamental mechanisms that underlie metastatic potential in the context of a cell that has not yet undergone malignant transformation. Here, we will outline the data supporting the metastatic model of LAM, consider the biochemical and cellular mechanisms that may enable LAM cells to metastasize, including both cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous factors, and highlight a mouse model in which estrogen promotes the metastasis and survival of TSC2-deficient cells in a MEK-dependent manner. We propose a multistep model of LAM cell metastasis that highlights multiple opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Taken together, the metastatic behavior of LAM cells and the involvement of tumor-related signaling pathways lead to optimism that cancer-related paradigms for diagnosis, staging, and therapy will lead to therapeutic breakthroughs for women living with LAM. PMID:20235886

  9. A model of maltodextrin transport through the sugar-specific porin, LamB, based on deletion analysis.

    PubMed

    Klebba, P E; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1994-10-01

    LamB facilitates the uptake of maltose and maltodextrins across the bacterial outer membrane and acts as a general porin for small molecules. Using directed deletion mutagenesis we removed several regions of the LamB polypeptide and identified a polypeptide loop that both constricts the maltoporin channel and binds maltodextrins. In conjunction with a second sugar binding site that we identified at the rim of the channel, these data clarify, for the first time, the mechanism of transport through a substrate-specific porin. Furthermore, unlike the transverse loops of general porins, which originate from a central location in their primary structure, the loop that regulates LamB permeability originates from a C-terminal site. Thus LamB represents a second distinct class of porins in the bacterial outer membrane that is differently organized and separately evolved from OmpF-type, general porins. PMID:7925308

  10. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (DetermineTM TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89–256/mm3). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1–55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4–33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0–66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59–0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51–0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm3. Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression. PMID:26865526

  11. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for interstate movement,...

  12. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for interstate movement,...

  13. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for interstate movement,...

  14. 7 CFR 318.13-26 - Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa pods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon... and the Territories § 318.13-26 Breadfruit, jackfruit, fresh pods of cowpea, dragon fruit, mangosteen, melon, and moringa pods from Hawaii. (a) Breadfruit and jackfruit. (1) To be eligible for...

  15. Antisickling properties of divanilloylquinic acids isolated from Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Ouattara, B; Jansen, O; Angenot, L; Guissou, I P; Frédérich, M; Fondu, P; Tits, M

    2009-03-01

    Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (syn. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides) (Rutaceae) is the most cited Fagara species for the treatment and the prevention of sickle cell disease crisis. Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a public health problem in many countries particularly in Africa. The present study was designed to evaluate the antisickling properties of three isomeric divanilloylquinic acids (3,4-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin A; 3,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin B and 4,5-O-divanilloylquinic acid or burkinabin C) identified previously by LC/MS/NMR analysis in the root bark of F. zanthoxyloides [Ouattara et al., 2004. LC/MS/NMR analysis of isomeric divanilloylquinic acids from the root bark of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Phytochemistry 65, 1145-1151]. The three isomers showed interesting antisickling properties which increased from burkinabins A to C. PMID:19110407

  16. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam).

    PubMed

    Priya, P Sathiya; Sasikumar, J M; Gowsigan, G

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  17. Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis (L), Quercus infectoria (Oliver) and Canthium parviflorum (Lam)

    PubMed Central

    Priya, P. Sathiya; Sasikumar, J.M.; Gowsigan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Ruta chalapensis, L., (Rutaceae), Quercus infectoria Oliver., (Fagaceae) and Canthium parviflorum Lam., (Rubiaceae) against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella oxytocoa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis. The experiment was carried out using disc diffusion method. The results revealed that the methanol extract of aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis (L) presented the highest zone of inhibition against tested pathogens. Other plants showed significant zone of inhibition. PMID:22557348

  18. Negative dominance in gene lamB: random assembly of secreted subunits issued from different polysomes.

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, C; Hofnung, M

    1983-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the lambda receptor, an oligomeric outer membrane protein from Escherichia coli K12 involved in phage lambda adsorption. We show that, under certain conditions, in a strain diploid for gene lamB, all the missense lamB mutations conferring lambda resistance that we have tested are dominant with respect to wild-type. We propose a model which allows a quantitative interpretation of the data. It is based on negative complementation at the level of oligomerisation. Wild-type and mutant subunits would assemble at random forming homo- and hetero-oligomers. Only wild-type homo-oligomers would be efficient for phage inactivation. For some classes of missense mutations the hetero-oligomers would have the capacity to bind, but not to inactivate the phage. The model confirms that active lambda receptor is a trimer and implies that for this secreted protein there is no preferential assembly of subunits originating from the same polysome. Images Fig. 2. PMID:11894914

  19. [Isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. with recycling preparative high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Li, Guozhu; Meng, Qingyan; Luo, Bi; Ge, Zhenghong; Liu, Wenjie

    2015-01-01

    The combination of alternate recycling and direct recycling preparative liquid chromatography method was developed for the isolation of chemical constituents from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The crude extract was obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. by solvent extraction, column chromatography and reversed-phase (RP) flash chromatography. All the separations were performed with methanol and water as mobile phases and the developed recycling preparative method was used with twin RP columns switched by a two-position ten-way valve for the separation. The mobile phase was recycled in close loop with a two-position six-way valve. The fraction I and fraction II from reversed-phase flash chromatography were selected for the demonstration of separation power of the proposed protocol, and five compounds were obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. The isolated five compounds were identified as pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, pinocembrin-7-O-rutinoside, acacetin-7-O-rutinoside, picein and protocatechuic acid with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results showed that the developed preparation method exhibited higher separation efficiency with less mobile phase used than the reported methods, and could be expected as an effective method for the separation of complex natural products, especially the compounds with similar structures. PMID:25958674

  20. Differentially methylated obligatory epialleles modulate context-dependent LAM gene expression in the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Wedd, Laura; Kucharski, Robert; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Differential intragenic methylation in social insects has been hailed as a prime mover of environmentally driven organismal plasticity and even as evidence for genomic imprinting. However, very little experimental work has been done to test these ideas and to prove the validity of such claims. Here we analyze in detail differentially methylated obligatory epialleles of a conserved gene encoding lysosomal α-mannosidase (AmLAM) in the honeybee. We combined genotyping of progenies derived from colonies founded by single drone inseminated queens, ultra-deep allele-specific bisulfite DNA sequencing, and gene expression to reveal how sequence variants, DNA methylation, and transcription interrelate. We show that both methylated and non-methylated states of AmLAM follow Mendelian inheritance patterns and are strongly influenced by polymorphic changes in DNA. Increased methylation of a given allele correlates with higher levels of context-dependent AmLAM expression and appears to affect the transcription of an antisense long noncoding RNA. No evidence of allelic imbalance or imprinting involved in this process has been found. Our data suggest that by generating alternate methylation states that affect gene expression, sequence variants provide organisms with a high level of epigenetic flexibility that can be used to select appropriate responses in various contexts. This study represents the first effort to integrate DNA sequence variants, gene expression, and methylation in a social insect to advance our understanding of their relationships in the context of causality. PMID:26507253

  1. A reconstructive surgeon's taste in art: Dr Peter Parker and the Lam Qua oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Chang, J

    1993-05-01

    Hidden within the basement archives of Yale University's Historical Medical Library lie the original oil painting collection and personal papers of the first American surgeon to practice in China. The Reverend Dr Peter Parker, a graduate of Yale, established the first American hospital in Guangzhou (formerly Canton) in 1835 and successfully introduced Western surgical techniques including amputation, anesthesia, and reconstructive surgery. In addition to this distinguished career of medical missionary service, Parker commissioned the Chinese artist Lam Qua to paint a fascinating series of portraits depicting patients with extreme tumor growths. In this article, Parker's own journals are examined to reveal both his missionary zeal and his frustrations working in China. Selected examples of the Lam Qua paintings are presented along with Parker's corresponding patient descriptions. These detailed patient reports give insight into the extent of surgical pathology as well as the relative brutality of surgical techniques in the early to mid-1800s. The historical significance of the Peter Parker-Lam Qua collaboration within the context of the Western transformation of Chinese art and medicine is also discussed. PMID:8342936

  2. PREDICTING WATER ACTIVITY IN ELECTROLYTE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CISTERNAS-LAM MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG; GREER DA; DISSELKAMP RL

    2011-03-01

    Water activity is an important parameter needed to predict the solubility of hydrated salts in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. A number of models available in the scientific literature predict water activity from electrolyte solution composition. The Cisternas-Lam model is one of those models and has several advantages for nuclear waste application. One advantage is that it has a single electrolyte specific parameter that is temperature independent. Thus, this parameter can be determined from very limited data and extrapolated widely. The Cisternas-Lam model has five coefficients that are used for all aqueous electrolytes. The present study aims to determine if there is a substantial improvement in making all six coefficients electrolyte specific. The Cisternas-Lam model was fit to data for six major electrolytes in Hanford nuclear waste supernatants. The model was first fit to all data to determine the five global coefficients, when they were held constant for all electrolytes it yielded a substantially better fit. Subsequently, the model was fit to each electrolyte dataset separately, where all six coefficients were allowed to be electrolyte specific. Treating all six coefficients as electrolyte specific did not make sufficient difference, given the complexity of applying the electrolyte specific parameters to multi-solute systems. Revised water specific parameters, optimized to the electrolytes relevant to Hanford waste, are also reported.

  3. Antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, S; Wink, M; Afsharypuor, S; Asghari, G; Mohagheghzadeh, A

    2012-04-01

    Natural antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of many age-related diseases and promotion of health. Among natural antioxidants from plants, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants and chelating agents. Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori (Moringaceae) is a small desert tree distributed from tropical Africa to east India. Moringa tree is also growing in south-east of Iran. The antioxidant activity of M. peregrina methanolic leaf extract on 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radicals was determined in in vitro experiments. It exhibited the scavenging activity on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals with IC(50) of 8.06 ± 0.29 μg/ml and 47.93 ± 1.33 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, total phenolic content of the leaf extract was determined and using (1)HNMR, mass and spectroscopic methods, the structure of the isolated flavonoid glycoside, rutin, as one of the compounds responsible for reported antioxidant activities was identified. PMID:23181088

  4. Antioxidant activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    PubMed Central

    Dehshahri, S.; Wink, M.; Afsharypuor, S.; Asghari, G.; Mohagheghzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    Natural antioxidants have an important role in the prevention of many age-related diseases and promotion of health. Among natural antioxidants from plants, flavonoids and other phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants and chelating agents. Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori (Moringaceae) is a small desert tree distributed from tropical Africa to east India. Moringa tree is also growing in south-east of Iran. The antioxidant activity of M. peregrina methanolic leaf extract on 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radicals was determined in in vitro experiments. It exhibited the scavenging activity on DPPH and superoxide anion radicals with IC50 of 8.06 ± 0.29 μg/ml and 47.93 ± 1.33 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, total phenolic content of the leaf extract was determined and using 1HNMR, mass and spectroscopic methods, the structure of the isolated flavonoid glycoside, rutin, as one of the compounds responsible for reported antioxidant activities was identified. PMID:23181088

  5. Resin from Virola oleifera Protects Against Radiocontrast-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Claudia Hertel; Ramos, Jean Pierre Louzada; Scherer, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Jairo Pinto; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Meyrelles, Silvana Santos; Pereira, Thiago Melo Costa

    2015-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an iatrogenic medical event for which there is not yet a successful therapy. Increasing evidence in rodents has suggested that this disease is associated with renal tubular and vascular injury that is triggered directly by oxidative stress. In the present study, we evaluated whether the antioxidant resin from Virola oleifera (RV) could attenuate renal damage in an experimental mouse model of CIN. Adult male Swiss mice were divided into six groups and pre-treated orally with RV (10, 100 and 300 mg/kg), N-acetylcysteine (200 mg/kg) or vehicle for 5 days before the induction of CIN and Control group. Renal function was assessed by measuring plasma creatinine and urea levels. Additionally, renal oxidative stress and apoptosis/cell viability were determined with flow cytometry. Finally, kidney tissues were sectioned for histopathological examination. In this CIN model, pre-treatment with RV improved renal function, lowered the mortality rate, and reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis in both the medulla and cortex renal cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the RV treatment had beneficial effects on kidney histopathology that were superior to the standard treatment with N-acetylcysteine. These data suggest that because of its antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects and its ability to preserve renal function, resin from Virola oleifera may have potential as a new therapeutic approach for preventing CIN. PMID:26674346

  6. Purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Junchen; Liu, Yuan; An, Tianchen; Liu, Yujun; Wang, Manchuriga; Song, Yanting; Zheng, Feifei; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yingxia; Deng, Shiming

    2015-05-01

    A proteinaceous inhibitor against trypsin was isolated from the seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. by successive ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange, and gel-filtration chromatography. The trypsin inhibitor, named as AHLTI (A. heterophyllus Lam. trypsin inhibitor), consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 28.5 kDa, which was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence of AHLTI was DEPPSELDAS, which showed no similarity to other known trypsin inhibitor sequence. AHLTI completely inhibited bovine trypsin at a molar ratio of 1:2 (AHLTI:trypsin) analyzed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, inhibition activity assay, and gel-filtration chromatography. Moreover, kinetic enzymatic studies were carried out to understand the inhibition mechanism of AHLTI against trypsin. Results showed that AHLTI was a competitive inhibitor with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) of 3.7 × 10(-8) M. However, AHLTI showed weak inhibitory activity toward chymotrypsin and elastase. AHLTI was stable over a broad range of pH 4-8 and temperature 20-80°C. The reduction agent, dithiothreitol, had no obvious effect on AHLTI. The trypsin inhibition assays of AHLTI toward digestive enzymes from insect pest guts in vitro demonstrated that AHLTI was effective against enzymes from Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). These results suggested that AHLTI might be a novel trypsin inhibitor from A. heterophyllus Lam. belonging to Kunitz family, and play an important role in protecting from insect pest. PMID:25851516

  7. A Job Pause Service under LAM/MPI+BLCR for Transparent Fault Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Mueller, Frank; Engelmann, Christian; Scott, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Checkpoint/restart (C/R) has become a requirement for long-running jobs in large-scale clusters due to a meantime- to-failure (MTTF) in the order of hours. After a failure, C/R mechanisms generally require a complete restart of an MPI job from the last checkpoint. A complete restart, however, is unnecessary since all but one node are typically still alive. Furthermore, a restart may result in lengthy job requeuing even though the original job had not exceeded its time quantum. In this paper, we overcome these shortcomings. Instead of job restart, we have developed a transparent mechanism for job pause within LAM/MPI+BLCR. This mechanism allows live nodes to remain active and roll back to the last checkpoint while failed nodes are dynamically replaced by spares before resuming from the last checkpoint. Our methodology includes LAM/MPI enhancements in support of scalable group communicationwith fluctuating number of nodes, reuse of network connections, transparent coordinated checkpoint scheduling and a BLCR enhancement for job pause. Experiments in a cluster with the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite show that our overhead for job pause is comparable to that of a complete job restart. A minimal overhead of 5.6% is only incurred in case migration takes place while the regular checkpoint overhead remains unchanged. Yet, our approach alleviates the need to reboot the LAM run-time environment, which accounts for considerable overhead resulting in net savings of our scheme in the experiments. Our solution further provides full transparency and automation with the additional benefit of reusing existing resources. Executing continues after failures within the scheduled job, i.e., the application staging overhead is not incurred again in contrast to a restart. Our scheme offers additional potential for savings through incremental checkpointing and proactive diskless live migration, which we are currently working on.

  8. Transport solutions of the Lamé equations and shock elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyeva, L. A.; Kaishybaeva, G. K.

    2016-07-01

    The Lamé system describing the dynamics of an isotropic elastic medium affected by a steady transport load moving at subsonic, transonic, or supersonic speed is considered. Its fundamental and generalized solutions in a moving frame of reference tied to the transport load are analyzed. Shock waves arising in the medium at supersonic speeds are studied. Conditions on the jump in the stress, displacement rate, and energy across the shock front are obtained using distribution theory. Numerical results concerning the dynamics of an elastic medium influenced by concentrated transport loads moving at sub-, tran- and supersonic speeds are presented.

  9. New bibenzyl glycosides from leaves of Camellia oleifera Abel. with cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuelong; Tang, Ling; Feng, Baomin; Shi, Liying; Wang, Huiguo; Wang, Yongqi

    2011-04-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of leaves of Camellia oleifera Abel. led to the isolation of 3 new bibenzyl glycosides. Their structures have been elucidated as 1-(3',5'-dihydroxy)phenyl-2-(4″-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylethane (1), 1-(3',5'-dimethoxy)phenyl-2-(4″-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylethane (2) and 1-(3',5'-dimethoxy)phenyl-2-[4″-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(6→1)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]phenylethane (3) through spectral studies including HR-ESI-MS, ((1))H NMR, ((13))C NMR and 2D NMR experiments. All the above 3 bibenzyl glycosides showed cytotoxic activities to Hela and hep2 cell lines. PMID:21219989

  10. Beneficial Effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on Hepatoprotective and Gastroprotective Activities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that increased dietary intake of natural antioxidants is beneficial for health because of their bioactivities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation actions. Camellia oil made from tea seed (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used as an edible oil and a traditional medicine in Taiwan and China. Until now, the camellia oil has been widely considered as a dietary oil for heath. In this review, we summarize the protective effects of camellia oil with antioxidant activity against oxidative stress leading to hepatic damage and gastrointestinal ulcers. The information in this review leads to the conclusion that camellia oil is not only an edible oil but also a vegetable oil with a potential function for human health. PMID:26598814

  11. Topology of the membrane protein LamB by epitope tagging and a comparison with the X-ray model.

    PubMed

    Newton, S M; Klebba, P E; Michel, V; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1996-06-01

    We previously developed a genetic approach to study, with a single antibody, the topology of the outer membrane protein LamB, an Escherichia coli porin with specificity towards maltodextrins and a receptor for bacteriophage lambda. Our initial procedure consisted of inserting at random the same reporter epitope (the C3 neutralization epitope from poliovirus) into permissive sites of LamB (i.e., sites which tolerate insertions without deleterious effects on the protein activities or the cell). A specific monoclonal antibody was then used to examine the position of the inserted epitope with respect to the protein and the membrane. In the present work, we set up a site-directed procedure to insert the C3 epitope at new sites in order to distinguish between two-dimensional folding models. This allowed us to identify two new surface loops of LamB and to predict another periplasmic exposed region. The results obtained by random and directed epitope tagging are analyzed in light of the recently published X-ray structure of the LamB protein. Study of 23 hybrid LamB-C3 proteins led to the direct identification of five of the nine external loops (L4, L5, L6, L7, and L9) and led to the prediction of four periplasmic loops (I1, I4, I5, and I8) of LamB. Nine of the hybrid proteins did not lead to topological conclusions, and none led to the wrong predictions or conclusions. The comparison indicates that parts of models based on secondary structure predictions alone are not reliable and points to the importance of experimental data in the establishment of outer membrane protein topological models. The advantages and limitations of genetic foreign epitope insertion for the study of integral membrane proteins are discussed. PMID:8655540

  12. A cytological study of anther and pollen development in Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Gao, C; Yuan, D Y; Wang, B F; Yang, Y; Liu, D M; Han, Z Q

    2015-01-01

    The plant species Camellia oleifera is an important producer of edible oil in China. However, it suffers from a low fruit-setting rate. This study used high resolution scanning electron microscopy of semi-thin tissue sections to investigate anther development and pollen formation, and to determine whether problems in forming functional pollen cause low seed setting rates. During anther development, cell sizes within the epidermis and end othecium gradually increase, and at the beginning of the microsporocyte phase, the cells become highly vacuolated. The cell walls of the inner wall cells thicken in a ribbon pattern during the later part of the two-cell pollen stage. Middle layer cells become flattened during the later part of the secondary sporogenous cell stage. A tapetum also forms at this stage; the secondary sporogenous cells begin to degrade at the early microspore stage and completely disappear by the time the pollen is mature, thus forming a glandular tapetum. In microsporocyte, cytokinesis occurs simultaneously with microsporocyte meiosis, and a tetrahedral arrangement is present in tetrads. Reproductive cells begin to form at the later stage of microsporogenesis; the nuclei of the reproductive cells are enlarged as the reproductive cells begin to move away from the pollen wall. Two-cell pollen is first formed after reproductive cells have left the pollen wall, and the number of inclusions in the pollen subsequently increases. The pollen matures for 5-8 days before flowering occurs. No pollen abortion phenomena were observed, suggesting that anther development in C. oleifera is normal and that functional pollen are formed. PMID:26345807

  13. Self-Sterility in Camellia oleifera May Be Due to the Prezygotic Late-Acting Self-Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ting; Yuan, De-Yi; Zou, Feng; Gao, Chao; Yang, Ya; Zhang, Lin; Tan, Xiao-Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this report, self-sterility in Camellia oleifera was explored by comparing structural and statistical characteristics following self-pollination (SP) and cross-pollination (CP). Although slightly delayed pollen germination and pollen tube growth in selfed ovaries compared to crossed ovaries was observed, there was no significant difference in the percentages of pollen that germinated and pollen tubes that grew to the base of the style. There was also no difference in morphological structure after the two pollination treatments. However, the proportions of ovule penetration and double fertilization in selfed ovules were significantly lower than in crossed ovules, indicating that a prezygotic late-acting self-incompatible mechanism may exist in C. oleifera. Callose deposition was observed in selfed abortive ovules, but not in normal. Ovules did not show differences in anatomic structure during embryonic development, whereas significant differences were observed in the final fruit and seed set. In addition, aborted ovules in selfed ovaries occurred within 35 days after SP and prior to zygote division. However, this process did not occur continuously throughout the life cycle, and no zygotes were observed in the selfed abortive ovules. These results indicated that the self-sterility in C. oleifera may be caused by prezygotic late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI). PMID:24926879

  14. Differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species on seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera) in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-05-01

    Seed hoarding is an important behavioral adaptation to food shortages for many rodent species. Sympatric rodents may affect the natural regeneration of large-seeded trees differently as seed dispersers or seed predators. Using seeds of oil tea ( Camellia oleifera), we investigated differences in hoarding behaviors among six sympatric rodent species in semi-natural enclosures in a subtropical forest in southwest of China. We found that all these six species ate seeds of C. oleifera, but only Edward's long-tailed rats ( Leopoldamys edwardsi) were predominantly scatter hoarders; chestnut rats ( Niviventer fulvescens) and white-bellied rats ( Niviventer confucianus) scatter hoarded and larder hoarded few seeds, but were seed predators; South China field mice ( Apodemus draco) exhibited little larder-hoarding behavior; and Chevrier's field mice ( A. chevrieri) as well as Himalayan rats ( Rattus nitidusa) did not hoard seeds at all. The rodents that engaged in scatter hoarding often formed single-seed caches and tended to cache seeds under grass or shrubs. Our findings indicate that sympatric rodents consuming seeds of the same species of plant can have different hoarding strategies, affecting seed dispersal and plant regeneration differently. We conclude by discussing the role of these species in hoarding seeds of C. oleifera and highlight the essential role of Edward's long-tailed rats as predominantly potential dispersers of this plant species.

  15. Folding-based suppression of extracytoplasmic toxicity conferred by processing-defective LamB.

    PubMed

    Cosma, C L; Crotwell, M D; Burrows, S Y; Silhavy, T J

    1998-06-01

    We have utilized processing-defective derivatives of the outer membrane maltoporin, LamB, to study protein trafficking functions in the cell envelope of Escherichia coli. Our model proteins contain amino acid substitutions in the consensus site for cleavage by signal peptidase. As a result, the signal sequence is cleaved with reduced efficiency, effectively tethering the precursor protein to the inner membrane. These mutant porins are toxic when secreted to the cell envelope. Furthermore, strains producing these proteins exhibit altered outer membrane permeability, suggesting that the toxicity stems from some perturbation of the cell envelope (J. H. Carlson and T. J. Silhavy, J. Bacteriol. 175:3327-3334, 1993). We have characterized a multicopy suppressor of the processing-defective porins that appears to act by a novel mechanism. Using fractionation experiments and conformation-specific antibodies, we found that the presence of this multicopy suppressor allowed the processing-defective LamB precursors to be folded and localized to the outer membrane. Analysis of the suppressor plasmid revealed that these effects are mediated by the presence of a truncated derivative of the polytopic inner membrane protein, TetA. The suppression mediated by TetA' is independent of the CpxA/CpxR regulon and the sigma E regulon, both of which are involved in regulating protein trafficking functions in the cell envelope. PMID:9620961

  16. Sirolimus Therapy for Patients With Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Leads to Loss of Chylous Ascites and Circulating LAM Cells.

    PubMed

    Harari, Sergio; Elia, Davide; Torre, Olga; Bulgheroni, Elisabetta; Provasi, Elena; Moss, Joel

    2016-08-01

    A young woman received a diagnosis of abdominal, sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) and multiple abdominal lymphangioleiomyomas and was referred for recurrent chylous ascites responding only to a fat-free diet. On admission, pulmonary function test (PFT) results showed a moderate reduction in the transfer factor for carbon monoxide with normal exercise performance. The serum vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) level was 2,209 pg/mL. DNA sequences, amplified at loci kg8, D16S3395, D16S3024, D16S521, and D16S291 on chromosome 16p13.3, showed a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) only for kg8. Fat-free total parenteral nutrition in association with sirolimus (2 mg po daily) was initiated. Serum sirolimus levels were maintained at concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/mL. After 1 month, reintroduction of a low-fat oral feeding was achieved without recurrence of ascites. PFT results were stable. Interestingly, clinical improvement was associated with a reduction in the VEGF-D serum level (1,558 pg/mL). LOH at the kg8 biomarker in blood LAM cells was no longer detected. PMID:27502989

  17. Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Afzal, Muhammad; Kazmi, Imran; Anwar, Firoz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Material and Methods: The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Result: Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum (250 mg/kg, p.o.) was not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of B. Pinnatum protects the liver slightly. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P*<0.05; P**<0.01 and P***<0.001) treated the liver injury induced by DENA. Conclusion: It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. Pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants. PMID:24174817

  18. Effect of different growth stages of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. on its chemical composition

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wenhuan; Yang, Tao; Liu, Feng; Tian, Shuge

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to monitor the changes in the chemical composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. throughout nine different growth stages. Materials and Methods: Volatile components such as essential oils were analyzed using the gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry, and the contents of non-volatile components were determined by a visible spectrophotometer. Results: Hydro-distilled essential oil content ranged from a minimum of 1.1% (in the post-flowering stage) to a maximum of 1.8% (in the flowering stage). The essential oils included pulegone, which was the most abundant component (77.48-87.3%), p-menthanone (2.79-12.39%), trans-isopulegone (1.04-2.06%), d-limonene (0.51-3.03%) and eucarvone (1.5-4.48%). The contents of non-volatile components, such as that of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total triterpenoids content (TTC) and total free amino acids content (TFAAC) were measured using visible spectrophotometry. In the growing stage, TPC, TFC, TTC and TFAAC were 9.91-12.80 mg/g, 29.84-50.63 mg/g, 0.57-1.41 mg/g and 13.33-28.56 mg/g, respectively. Conclusion: These data can be used as a basis to determine the optimal harvest time of Z. clinopodioide Lam. PMID:24914287

  19. Chemical and biomolecular characterization of Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important ingredient of the alpine liqueur "Genepi".

    PubMed

    Rubiolo, Patrizia; Matteodo, Maura; Bicchi, Carlo; Appendino, Giovanni; Gnavi, Giorgio; Bertea, Cinzia; Maffei, Massimo

    2009-05-13

    Artemisia umbelliformis Lam., an important alpine plant used for the preparation of flavored beverages, showed a remarkable intraspecific variability, at both genomic and gene product (secondary metabolites) levels. The variability of A. umbelliformis Lam. currently cultivated in Piedmont (Italy, Au1) and in Switzerland (Au2) was investigated by combining the chemical analysis of essential oil and sesquiterpene lactones and the molecular characterization of the 5S-rRNA-NTS gene by PCR and PCR-RFLP. Marked differences were observed between the two plants. Au1 essential oil contained alpha- and beta-thujones as the main components, whereas Au2 contained 1,8-cineole, borneol, and beta-pinene. Au1 sesquiterpene lactone fractions contained cis-8-eudesmanolide derivatives and Au2 the trans-6-germacranolide costunolide. Specific A. umbelliformis Au1 and Au2 primers were designed on the sequence of the 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. Furthermore, a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied using RsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Chemical and biomolecular data contributed to the characterization of A. umbeliformis chemotypes. PMID:19326948

  20. Intestinal α-glucosidase and some pancreatic enzymes inhibitory effect of hydroalcholic extract of Moringa stenopetala leaves

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Moringa stenopetala has been used in traditional health systems to treat diabetes mellitus. One of the successful methods to prevent of the onset of diabetes is to control postprandial hyperglycemia by the inhibition of α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase activities, resulting in the aggressive delay of the carbohydrate digestion of absorbable monosaccharides. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the extract of the leaves of Moringa stenopetala on α-glucosidase, pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase, and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, and, therefore find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar and lipid levels. Methods The dried leaves of Moringa stenopetala were extracted with hydroalcoholic solvent and dried using rotary vapor under reduced pressure. The dried extracts were determined for the total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content and condensed tannins content by using Folin-Ciocateu’s reagent, AlCl3 and vanillin assay, respectively. The dried extract of plant-based food was further quantified with respect to intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase) inhibition and pancreatic α-amylase inhibition by glucose oxidase method and dinitrosalicylic (DNS) reagent, respectively. Results The phytochemical analysis indicated that flavonoid, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents in the extract were 71.73 ± 2.48 mg quercetin equivalent/g of crude extract, 79.81 ± 2.85 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of crude extract, 8.82 ± 0.77 mg catechin equivalent/g of crude extract, respectively. The extract inhibited intestinal sucrase more than intestinal maltase with IC50 value of 1.47 ± 0.19 mg/ml. It also slightly inhibited pancreatic α-amylase, pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase. Conclusion The result demonstrated the beneficial biochemical effects of Moringa stenopetala by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, pancreatic cholesterol esterase

  1. Development and cross-species transferability of unigene-derived microsatellite markers in an edible oil woody plant, Camellia oleifera (Theaceae).

    PubMed

    Jia, B G; Lin, Q; Feng, Y Z; Hu, X Y; Tan, X F; Shao, F G; Zhang, L

    2015-01-01

    Camellia oleifera is an important edible oil woody plant in China. Lack of useful molecular markers hinders current genetic research on this tree species. Transcriptome sequencing of developing C. oleifera seeds generated 69,798 unigenes. A total of 6949 putative microsatellites were discovered among 6042 SSR-containing unigenes. Then, 150 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were evaluated in 20 varieties of C. oleifera. Of these, 52 SSRs revealed polymorphism, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 15 and expected heterozygosity values from 0.269 to 0.888. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.32 to 0.897. Cross-species transferability rates in Camellia chekangoleosa and Camellia japonica were 90.4 and 78.8%, respectively. The 52 polymorphic unigene-derived SSR markers serve to enrich existing microsatellite marker resources for C. oleifera and offer potential for applications in genetic diversity evaluation, molecular fingerprinting, and genetic mapping in C. oleifera, C. chekangoleosa, and C. japonica. PMID:26125898

  2. 75 FR 29722 - Foreign-Trade Zone 18-San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 18--San Jose, CA; Application for Subzone; Lam Research Corporation (Wafer Fabrication Equipment Manufacturing); Fremont, Newark, and Livermore, CA An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade...

  3. Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Montañez, G; Burgos-Hernández, A; Calderón-Santoyo, M; López-Saiz, C M; Velázquez-Contreras, C A; Navarro-Ocaña, A; Ragazzo-Sánchez, J A

    2015-05-15

    The present focused on the study of the antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of pulp Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) extract, using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line M12.C3.F6 (murine B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Jackfruit pulp extract was sequentially fractionated by chromatography (RP-HPLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. The organic extracts obtained from Jackfruit pulp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and proliferation of cells M12.C3.F6; a dose-response relationship was showed. Sequential RP-HPLC fractionation of the active extracts produced both antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the Jackfruit contained compounds with chemoprotective properties to reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1, also proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:25577099

  4. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  5. Biosystematic studies on Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal subsp. Axillare (Gentianaceae) in peninsular India.

    PubMed

    Shahina, P M; Nampy, Santhosh

    2014-05-01

    The pantropical genus Enicostema (Gentianaceae) has three species and two sub species world over, namely, E. verticillatum (L.) Engl. (America), E. elizabethae Veldkamp (Madagascar) and E. axillare having 3 subsp. viz., subsp. axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal (India), subsp. latilobum (N.E. Br.) A. Raynal (East Africa) and subsp. littorale (Blume) A. Raynal (Indonesia). The present study aims to delimit the Indian taxa based on field and herbarium studies. Comparative morphology is studied using live as well as consulting wide range of specimens housed at various herbaria. The anatomy of leaf, stem, and root is studied using free hand sections and from epidermal peelings. The seed and pollen morphology are studied under SEM. Information on anatomy, palynology and seed micromorphology of E. axillare subsp. axillare is provided for the first time. PMID:26031003

  6. Cloning and characterization of the Rubisco activase gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; He, Bowen; Zhou, Shuang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2010-02-01

    A full-length cDNA of Rubisco activase (IBrcaI) was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). IBrcaI contains a 1,347 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 439 amino acids. The sequence alignment of multiple Rubisco activase genes from sweet potato and other plants showed high homology at two previously described ATP-binding sites. Western blot analysis indicated that there are two Rubisco activase proteins in sweet potato. Expression of IBrcaI was only detected in leaves. In the 14 h light and 10 h dark photoperiods, maximal and minimal IBrcaI mRNA expression levels were detected at 8:00 in the morning and at midnight, respectively. PMID:19296237

  7. Chemical and sensory comparison of fresh and dried lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit aroma.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Orrego, Carlos Eduardo; Peterson, Devin Grant; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-02-15

    The odour-active volatile compounds of lulo fruit (Solanum quitoense Lam.) were isolated by solvent extraction followed by solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE). GC-O and GCMS analyses as well as quantitation by internal standard method showed that (Z)-3-hexenal, ethyl butanoate, 3-sulphanylhexyl acetate, and ethyl hexanoate were key aroma compounds in this fruit. Other odorants with relevance because their contribution (high OAVs) to the overall aroma were 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, methyl benzoate, (E)-2-hexenal, and hexanal. Lulo fruit pulp in presence of maltodextrin DE-20 was dried by using four different types of drying methods: hot air-drying (HD), spray drying (SD), lyophilisation (LD), and ultrasonic convective hot air-drying (HUD). LD sample exhibited the highest sensory rank (lulo-like) in comparison with fresh fruit pulp. Hot-air drying processes (HD and HUD) changed adversely the aroma of lulo fruit pulp. PMID:25236202

  8. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed. PMID:25924532

  9. An integrated process to produce ethanol, vanillin, and xylooligosaccharides from Camellia oleifera shell.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Faxian; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Yu, Shiyuan

    2013-12-15

    This study aims to present an integrated process that can be used to produce ethanol, vanillin, and xylooligosaccharides from Camellia oleifera shell. After the shell was pretreated with NaOH, two fractions were obtained: solid and liquid fractions. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed with cellulase and then fermented with Pichia stipitis to produce ethanol. The liquid fraction was subjected to oxidation to prepare vanillin or hydrolysis with xylanase to prepare xylooligosaccharides. The optimal pretreatment conditions of an orthogonal test were as follows: 12% NaOH concentration; 120°C; 150 min; and liquid-solid ratio of 10.0. After pretreatment, the solid fraction containing cellulose and a small part of xylan at 10% substance concentration via enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose-xylose cofermentation could obtain 17.35 g/L of ethanol, 80.90% of the theoretical yield. The liquid fraction was initially hydrolyzed with xylanase to produce 1758.63 mg/L of xylooligosaccharides (DP2-6) and then oxidized to produce 322.07 mg/L of vanillin. PMID:24188806

  10. Two new triterpenoid glycosides from the stems of Camellia oleifera Abel.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-Wei; Fu, Hui-Zheng; Luo, Yue-Hua; Zhou, Guo-Ping; Wan, Kai-Hua; Zhong, Rui-Jian

    2016-07-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-15α,16α,28-triol(1) and 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21β-acetyl-22α-angeloyloxyolean-12-ene-16α,28-diol (2) were isolated from the stems of Camellia oleifera Abel. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-2 were evaluated against five human tumour cell lines (HCT-8, BGC-823, A5049, and A2780). Compounds 1-2 showed cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.15 to 7.32 μM. PMID:26610161

  11. Interaction of bacteriophage lambda with its cell surface receptor: an in vitro study of binding of the viral tail protein gpJ to LamB (Maltoporin).

    PubMed

    Berkane, Emir; Orlik, Frank; Stegmeier, Johannes F; Charbit, Alain; Winterhalter, Mathias; Benz, Roland

    2006-02-28

    The cell surface receptor for bacteriophage Lambda is LamB (maltoporin). Responsible for phage binding to LamB is the C-terminal part, gpJ, of phage tail protein J. To study the interaction between LamB and gpJ, a chimera protein composed of maltose binding protein (MBP or MalE) connected to the C-terminal part of J (gpJ, amino acids 684-1131) of phage tail protein J of bacteriophage Lambda was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The interaction of the MBP-gpJ chimera protein with reconstituted LamB and its mutants LamB Y118G and the loop deletion mutant LamB Delta4+Delta6+Delta9v was studied using planar lipid bilayer membranes on a single-channel and multichannel level. Titration with the MBP-gpJ chimera blocked completely the ion current through reconstituted LamB when it was added to the cis side, the extracellular side of LamB with a half-saturation constant of approximately 6 nM in 1 M KCl. Control experiments with LamB Delta4+Delta6+Delta9v from which all major external loops had been removed showed similar blocking, whereas MBP alone caused no visible effect. Direct conductance measurement with His(6)-gpJ that contained a hexahistidyl tag (His(6) tag) at the N-terminal end of the protein for easy purification revealed no blocking of the ion current, requiring other measurements for the binding constant. However, when maltoporin was preincubated with His-gpJ, MBP-gpJ could not block the channel, which indicated that also His(6)-gpJ bound to the channel. High-molecular mass bands on SDS-PAGE and Western blots, confirming the planar lipid bilayer experiment results, also demonstrated stable complex formation between His(6)-gpJ and LamB or LamB mutants. The results revealed that phage Lambda binding includes not only the extracellular loops. PMID:16489764

  12. Identification and expression of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase genes and their relations to oil content in developing seeds of tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tea oil tree (Camellia oleifera, Co) provides a fine edible oil source in China. Tea oil from the seeds is very beneficial to human health. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) hydrolyzes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, two critical metab...

  13. Generation and application of ssDNA aptamers against glycolipid antigen ManLAM of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for TB diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Shi-Min; Xie, Yan; Song, Neng; Guan, Qing; Yuan, Chunhui; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2016-05-01

    The development of effective Mycobacterial antigen diagnostic reagents remains a high priority. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) is a lipoglycan serving as a major cell wall component. ManLAM is also an early released antigen in the blood circulation system during Mycobacteria tuberculosis (M.tb) infection and is a perfect target antigen for TB diagnosis. In this study, ssDNA aptamers "antibodies" against ManLAM of the predominant clinical epidemic M.tb Beijing genotype strains were generated by the Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) technique. The selected single aptamer T9 demonstrated the highest specificity and binding affinity, with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 668 ± 159 nmol/L. We further detected ManLAM antigens in serum and sputum samples from active pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) patients, extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) patients and healthy donors by using a T9 based enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA). The results showed that the specificity and sensitivity were 95.31% and 83.00% (for 100 aPTB serum samples), 98.70% and 92.71% (for 96 aPTB sputum samples), and 94.44% and 88.71% (for 62 EPTB serum samples), respectively. A good correlation was observed between the T9 aptamer-based ELONA and the clinical T-SPOT.TB. Thus, T9 based ELONA has potentials for diagnosis of TB, including inactive TB, smear-negative TB, EPTB, and TB with immunodeficiency, and assist the diagnosis of LTBI albeit it could not distinguish LTBI and active TB. PMID:26850356

  14. Diurnal observations on the behavioral ecology of Gymnothorax moringa (Cuvier) and Muraena miliaris (Kaup) on a Caribbean coral reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, R. W.; Abrams, M. D.; Schein, M. W.

    1983-09-01

    Activities of muraenids, primarily Gymnothorax moringa and Muraena miliaris, were observed on a Caribbean coral reef with a view to further understanding their role in the reef ecosystem. Other muraenid species included in the total of 198 sightings were Echidna catenata, Enchelycore nigricans, and an unidentified brown moray. The five species were unequally distributed among three basic habitats (sand, coral head, reef rock) available on the reef. Nine particular holes accounted for 52.5% of the total sightings, although hundreds of other seemingly appropriate sites were available. The eels (except M. miliaris) were transient with respect to given holes and particular sections of the reef. While some G. moringa were sighted in the same holes for several consecutive days, M. miliaris individuals remained in the same coral heads throughout the 6-week study period. Muraenids observed in this study showed high tolerances for and were tolerated by other fishes (including other morays) and invertebrates on the reef. They appeared to be opportunistic, roving predators and were not strictly nocturnal. Distinct behavioral interactions and displays between muraenids and reef fish were observed.

  15. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  16. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Farahnaki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  17. The C-terminal portion of the tail fiber protein of bacteriophage lambda is responsible for binding to LamB, its receptor at the surface of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    2000-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, its cell-surface receptor. We fused C-terminal portions of J, the tail fiber protein of lambda, to maltose-binding protein. Solid-phase binding assays demonstrated that a purified fusion protein comprising only the last 249 residues of J could bind to LamB trimers and inhibited recognition by anti-LamB antibodies. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that the fusion protein could also bind to LamB at the surface of intact cells. This interaction prevented lambda adsorption but affected only partially maltose uptake. PMID:10629200

  18. Triacylglyceride, antioxidant and antimicrobial features of virgin Camellia oleifera, C. reticulata and C. sasanqua Oils.

    PubMed

    Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M; Salinero, Carmen; Vela, Pilar; Sainz, María J; Vázquez-Tato, María Pilar; Seijas, Julio A

    2013-01-01

    Virgin oils obtained from seeds of Camellia oleifera (CO), Camellia reticulata (CR) and Camellia sasanqua (CS) were studied for their triacylglyceride composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Levels of fatty acids determined by ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis were similar to those reported for olive oils (82.30%-84.47%; 5.69%-7.78%; 0.26%-0.41% and 8.04%-11.2%, for oleic, linoleic, linolenic and saturated acids, respectively). The CR oil showed the best antioxidant potential in the three in vitro models tested. With regard to EC₅₀ values (µg/mL), the order in DPPH radical-scavenging was CR (33.48) < CO (35.20) < CS (54.87). Effectiveness in reducing power was CR (2.81) < CO (3.09) < CS (5.32). IC₅₀ for LPO inhibition were 0.37, 0.52 and 0.75 µg/mL for CR, CO and CS, respectively. All the oils showed antimicrobial activity, and exhibited different selectivity and MICs for each microorganism tested (E. coli, B. cereus and C. albicans). B. cereus was the less sensitive species (MIC: 52.083 ± 18.042 for CO; 41.667 ± 18.042 for CR; 104.167 ± 36.084 for CS mg/mL) and the E. coli was the most sensitive to camellia oil's effect. The standard gentamicin presented higher MIC for E. coli (4.2) than the CR (MIC= 2.6) and CO (MIC = 3.9) oils. PMID:23599015

  19. A role for residue 151 of LamB in bacteriophage lambda adsorption: possible steric effect of amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Charbit, A; Werts, C; Michel, V; Klebba, P E; Quillardet, P; Hofnung, M

    1994-06-01

    LamB is the cell surface receptor for bacteriophage lambda. LamB missense mutations yielding resistance to lambda have been previously grouped in two classes. Class I mutants block growth of lambda with wild-type host range (lambda h+) but support growth of one-step extended-host-range mutants (lambda h). Class II mutants block lambda h but support growth of two-step extended host range mutants (lambda hh*). While Class I mutations occur at 11 different amino acid sites, in five distinct portions of LamB, all the Class II mutations analyzed previously correspond to the same G-to-D change at amino acid 151. We generated by in vitro mutagenesis four different new substitutions at site 151 (to S, V, R, and C). Two of the mutants (G-151-->V [G151V] and G151R) were of Class II, while the two others (G151S and G151C) were of Class I, demonstrating that not only the site but also the nature of the substitutions at residue 151 was critical for the phage sensitivity phenotypes. The introduction of a negatively charged, a positively charged, or an aliphatic nonpolar residue at site 151 of LamB prevented both lambda h+ and lambda h adsorption, indicating that the block is not due to a charge effect. In contrast to G151D, which was sensitive to all the lambda hh* phages, G151V and G151R conferred sensitivity to only four of the five lambda hh* phages. Thus, G151V and G151R represent a new subclass of Class II LamB mutations that is more restrictive with respect to the growth of lambda hh*. Our results agree with the hypothesis that residue 151 belongs to an accessibility gate controlling the access to the phage tight-binding site and that substitutions at this residue affect the access of the phage to the binding site in relation to the size of the substitute side chain (surface area): the most restrictive changes are G151V and G151R, followed to a lesser extent by G151D and they by G151S and G151C. PMID:8195074

  20. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  1. Transcriptome and selected metabolite analyses reveal points of sugar metabolism in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.).

    PubMed

    Hu, Lisong; Wu, Gang; Hao, Chaoyun; Yu, Huan; Tan, Lehe

    2016-07-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly known as jackfruit, produces the largest tree-borne fruit known thus far. The edible part of the fruit develops from the perianths, and contains many sugar-derived compounds. However, its sugar metabolism is poorly understood. A fruit perianth transcriptome was sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform, producing 32,459 unigenes with an average length of 1345nt. Sugar metabolism was characterized by comparing expression patterns of genes related to sugar metabolism and evaluating correlations with enzyme activity and sugar accumulation during fruit perianth development. During early development, high expression levels of acid invertases and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for the rapid utilization of imported sucrose for fruit growth. The differential expression of starch metabolism-related genes and corresponding enzyme activities were responsible for starch accumulated before fruit ripening but decreased during ripening. Sucrose accumulated during ripening, when the expression levels of genes for sucrose synthesis were elevated and high enzyme activity was observed. The comprehensive transcriptome analysis presents fundamental information on sugar metabolism and will be a useful reference for further research on fruit perianth development in jackfruit. PMID:27181946

  2. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Barioni, Eric Diego; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes de Paula; Ferraz-de-Paula, Viviane; Wagner, Theodoro Marcel; Cogliati, Bruno; Corrêa dos Santos, Matheus; Machado, Marina da Silva; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Niero, Rivaldo; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli

    2013-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA-) stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity. PMID:23476704

  3. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  4. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately. PMID:22547271

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Metal-chelation Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam.

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Moin, Mohammad Reza; Razavizadeh, Masoud; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Achillea tenuifolia Lam. (Asteraceae) afforded a dichloromethane fraction from which three known compounds β-sitosterol (compound1), 5-hydroxy, 4',6,7– trimethoxy flavone (salvigenin compound 2), and methyl-gallate (compound 3) were isolated for the first time. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by different spectroscopic methods. Applying the molar-ratio method, the complexation of salvigenin with Fe (III), Cu(II) and Zn(II), the most abundant type of metal ions in the body, were then evaluated. It was determined that stoichiometric ratio of salvigenin with these cations were as Fe(Salvigenin)2 (H2O)2 and Cu(Salvigenin)2(H2O)2 in methanolic solution without pH control, while zinc ions didn`t form significant complexes. The results were confirmed more, by computational molecular modeling of the structure of proposed ligand-complexes by semi-imperical PM3 calculations, which determined negative heat of formation for the complexes Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions as -689.7 and -573.5, respectively and proposed chelating affinity of salvigenin in the following order: Fe(III) > Cu(II) >> Zn(II). PMID:24250440

  6. Spermidine Derivatives in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) Fruit: Sensory (Taste) versus Biofunctional (ACE-Inhibition) Properties.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diana Paola; Masatani, Chieko; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Peterson, Devin G; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-07-01

    The bitterness in lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.) fruit is increased during processing (juicing or drying). To identify the bitter-active compounds, the ethanolic fruit pulp extract was subjected to RP-18 solid-phase extraction, and then sensory-guided fractionated by HPLC. Two spermidine derivatives, N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine and N(1),N(8)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine, were isolated and their structures confirmed by analysis of their HPLC-ESI/MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR data. The N(1),N(4),N(8)-tris(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermidine was synthesized and used as an authentic sample to unequivocally confirm the structure of this compound and to quantitate it in both fresh and dried fruit. In silico analyses demonstrated that spermidine derivatives identified in lulo pulp exhibited a strong ACE-I (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) inhibitory activity. Subsequently, these results were confirmed by in vitro analyses and showed the potential use of lulo fruit pulp as an ingredient of functional foods related to the prevention of blood hypertension. PMID:27292771

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Sasikumar, J M; Maheshu, V; Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Darsini, D Teepica Priya

    2010-02-01

    The methanolic extract of the aerial part of Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (Rubiaceae) was screened for antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) quenching assay, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation decolorization test, ferric reducing power (FRP), scavenging capacity towards hydroxyl ion (OH*) radicals and nitric oxide (NO) radical inhibition activity using established assay procedures. Total phenolics and total flavonoid contents were, also determined. The plant yielded 210 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g phenolic content and 55 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g flavonoid content. The extract exhibited high antiradical activity against DPPH, ABTS, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radicals with EC50 value of 82, 150, 130, and 170 microg/ml, respectively. The FRP increased with increasing concentration of the sample. The antioxidant activity of the extract was comparable with that of the standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). High correlation between total phenolic/flavonoid contents and scavenging potential of different reactive oxygen species (R2 = 0.785-0.998) indicated the polyphenols as the main antioxidants. PMID:21086755

  8. Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of black plum (Eugenia jambolana lam.).

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Despite good understanding of the molecular basis of the disease and advances in treatment, globally cancer is still a major cause of death. Estimates are that it will surpass cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death, with higher incidences in the developing countries that have minimal resources. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the two most commonly used treatment modalities, are associated with untoward side effects. This has necessitated the search for alternatives that are effective, non toxic and easily affordable for patients and traditional medicinal plants are an ideal source. Eugenia jambolana Lam., commonly known as black plum or 'jamun' is an important medicinal plant in various traditional systems of medicine. It is effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea and preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties. Here, for the first time, the effects of jamun in treatment and prevention of cancer, and the mechanisms responsible for these effects are appraised. Additionally the drawbacks in existing knowledge are also stressed to emphasize the possible avenues that need to be investigated, so that maximum effects on both prevention and cure can be attained. PMID:21517226

  9. Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D) of bottom particle deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Jenn Wei; Law, Adrian W. K.; Adams, E. Eric; Yang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique, Light Attenuation Method for 3D data acquisition (LAM3D), to acquire three-dimensional spatial characteristics and temporal development of bottom particle deposits. The new technique performs data acquisition with higher spatial and temporal resolution than existing approaches with laser and ultrasonic 3D profilers, and is therefore ideal for laboratory investigations with fast varying changes in the sediment bed, such as the developing deposition profile from sediment clouds commonly formed during dredging or land reclamation projects and the dynamic evolution in movable bed processes in rivers. The principle of the technique is based on the analysis of the light attenuation due to multiple light scattering through the particle deposits layer compared to the clear water column. With appropriate calibration, the particles size and distribution thickness can be quantified by the transmitted light spectrum. In the presentation, we will first show our measurement setup with a light panel for calibrated illumination and a system of DSLR cameras for the light capturing. Subsequently, we shall present the experimental results of fast evolving deposition profile of a barge-disposed sediment cloud upon its bottom impact on the sea bed.

  10. Influence of growth phase on the essential oil composition of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Hamzeh

    2009-01-01

    Ziziphora clinopodioides belongs to the Lamiaceae family, that are widespread all over Iran. The leaves, flowers and stems of the plant are frequently used as wild vegetables or additives in food to offer aroma and flavour. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Z. clinopodioides Lam. in different growth stages were analysed by GC and GC-MS, and 29 components were identified. Pulegone (30.1%), thymol (21.3%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (12.9%) and piperitenone (9.3%) were the main components in the pre-flowering stage. In the flowering stage, pulegone (44.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (10.5%), 1,8-cineoil (10.4%), piperitenone (8.7%) and thymol (6.7%) were identified as the main constituents and in the post-flowering stage, pulegone (41.3%), isomenthone (11.6%), p-mentha-3-en-8-ol (11%), p-mentha-3,8-diene (7.2%) and thymol (5.8%) were identified as the major components. PMID:19401912

  11. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  12. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., "subabul" stem lignin: Isolation, structural characterization and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Yearla, Srinivasa Rao; Padmasree, Kollipara

    2016-06-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant renewable biopolymer on earth after cellulose. It is being used in many industrial applications due to its abundance. In the present study, lignin was isolated from the stems of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit., a high biomass yielding plant using acidic dioxane under N2 atmosphere. Structural characterization of isolated dioxane lignin (DL) was performed by analytical techniques: UV, FT-IR, ¹H NMR and ¹³C NMR. Their monolignol content was determined by nitrobenzene oxidation followed by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The data was compared with commercial alkali lignin (AL). The results showed that DL is of hardwood guaiacyl-syringyl (GS) type, whereas AL is softwood type with more guaiacyl units and trace amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of DL showed two stage thermal degradation profile similar to AL. The DTGmax for DL and AL were found in the second major loss event of second stage of TGA at 424°C and 404°C, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study exhibited the glass transition temperatures (Tg) at 132°C and 122°C for DL and AL, respectively. The results from thermal stability studies suggest that dioxane lignin isolated from the "miracle tree" (subabul) can be exploited in various thermoplastic industrial applications. PMID:27468468

  13. Drell-Yan production and Lam-Tung relation in the color glass condensate formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, Francois

    2007-10-01

    We study the Drell-Yan production cross section and structure functions in proton (deuteron)-nucleus collisions using the color glass condensate formalism. The nucleus is treated in the color glass condensate framework which includes both higher twist effects due to the inclusion of multiple scatterings and leading twist pQCD shadowing due to the small x resummation, while the proton (or deuteron) is treated within the DGLAP improved parton model. In particular, the Drell-Yan structure functions are used in order to investigate the Lam-Tung relation at small x, which is known to be identically zero at leading twist up to next-to-leading order, and is thus a good playground for studying higher twist effects. In agreement with this, we find that violations of this relation are more important for low momentum and invariant mass of the Drell-Yan pair, and also in the region of rapidity that corresponds to smaller values of x in the nucleus.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Gisely C.; Longhini, Renata; dos Santos, Paulo Victor P.; Araújo, Adriano A. S.; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (“Mutamba”), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  15. Preliminary Assessment of the Chemical Stability of Dried Extracts from Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lopes, Gisely C; Longhini, Renata; Dos Santos, Paulo Victor P; Araújo, Adriano A S; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; de Mello, João Carlos P

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of a preliminary estimation of the stability of the dried extract from bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. ("Mutamba"), with and without added colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD). The physical and chemical properties and the compatibility of CSD in the extract were evaluated for 21 days of storage under stress conditions of temperature (45 ± 2°C) and humidity (75 ± 5%). Thermogravimetry (TG) was supplemented using selective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of stability of the characteristic constituents (chemical markers), namely, procyanidin B2 (PB2) and epicatechin (EP). The results showed that PB2 is an appropriate compound to be used as a chemical marker in the quality control of dried extracts of G. ulmifolia. The stress study showed that there was no significant difference between the two formulations. However, considering the TG data and the high temperatures involved, the results suggest that CSD increases the stability of the dried extract of G. ulmifolia. PMID:22291706

  16. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  17. Analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Bhuyan, Shakhawat Hossan; Matin, Maima; Hossain, Faruq; Khatun, Farjana; Taiab, Abu; Jamaluddin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible analgesic, neuropharmacological, anti-diarrheal, and cytotoxic activities of the ethanol extract of leaves of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Family: Solanaceae). Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was measured by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition test. The neuropharmacological activities were evaluated using hole cross, hole board, and elevated plus-maze test and the anti-diarrheal activity was assessed using castor oil-induced diarrhea inhibition method. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay was carried out for assessing the cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of the leaves. Except cytotoxic activity, all the tests were conducted on mice. Results: The extract at oral doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in number of writhing, 52.1±0.66 and 4.4±0.64 compared with the control (78.6±0.29) with the percentage of inhibitions of writhing response were found to be 33.72% and 94.40%, respectively. Compare with the control, the extract at both doses showed significant sedative effect in hole cross test. In hole board test, the extract exhibited highly significant (p<0.001) anxiolytic activity at dose of (200 mg/kg), while the same activity was observed at dose of 400 mg/kg in elevated plus-maze test. The extract showed highly significant (p<0.001) anti-diarrheal activity in a dose-dependent manner. With the extract, significant lethality to brine shrimp was found with LC50 value of 61.66±0.9 μg/ml, which was comparable with the positive control (LC50: 11.89±0.8 µg/ml). Conclusion: The results from the present studies support the traditional uses of this plant part and could form the basis of further investigation including compound isolation. PMID:25050287

  18. Effect of crude extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. on human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Chinni, Santhivardhan; Dubala, Anil; Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Khatwal, Rizwan Basha; Satish Kumar, M N; Kannan, Elango

    2014-11-01

    The fruit of Eugenia jambolana Lam. is very popular for its anti-diabetic property. Previous studies on the crude extract of E. jambolana (EJE) have successfully explored the scientific basis for some of its traditional medicinal uses. Considering its wide use and consumption as a seasonal fruit, the present study investigates the ability of E. jambolana to interact with cytochrome P450 enzymes. The standardized EJE was incubated with pooled human liver microsomes to assess the CYP2C9-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of diclofenac, dextromethorphan, and testosterone, respectively. The metabolites formed after the enzymatic reactions were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. EJE showed differential effect on cytochrome P450 activities with an order of inhibitory potential as CYP2C9 > CYP3A4 > CYP2D6 having IC50 of 76.69, 359.02, and 493.05 µg/mL, respectively. The selectivity of EJE for CYP2C9 rather than CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 led to perform the enzyme kinetics to explicate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of CYP2C9-mediated diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation. EJE was notably potent in inhibiting the reaction in a non-competitive manner with Ki of 84.85 ± 5.27 µg/mL. The results revealed the CYP2C9 inhibitory potential of EJE with lower Ki value suggesting that EJE should be examined for its potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions when concomitantly administered with other drugs. PMID:24590863

  19. Phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons by using a freshwater fern species Azolla filiculoides Lam.

    PubMed

    Kösesakal, Taylan; Ünal, Muammer; Kulen, Oktay; Memon, Abdülrezzak; Yüksel, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phytoremediation capacity of Azolla filiculoides Lam. for the water resources contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated. The plants were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% crude oil under greenhouse conditions for 15 days. Although the growth rate of the plants were not negatively influenced by the presence of crude oil in the media for the concentration of 0.005% and 0.01% v/v, a gradual impeding effect of crude oil in the growth media has been observed at concentrations 0.05-0.1%. More than 0.1% crude oil in the growth medium ostensibly retarded the growth. For example, 0.2% oil in the media reduced growth approximately 50% relative to the control, and the presence of crude oil at concentrations 0.3% or more were lethal. The data about the percentage of plant growth, fresh weight increase and root growth clearly indicated that the tolerance level of A. filiculoides plants to crude oil ranges between 0.1% and 0.2%. In comparison to control samples, the biodegradation rate of total aliphatic and aromatic (phenathrene) hydrocarbons at 0.05-0.2% oil concentrations, was 94-73% and 81-77%, respectively. On the other hand, in case of further increases in oil concentration in media, i.e.; 0.3-0.5%, the biodegradation rate was still higher in the experimental samples, respectively 71-63% and 75-71%. The high biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons in the experimental samples suggested that A. filiculoides plants could be a promising candidate to be used for the phytoremediation of low crude oil contaminated precious freshwater resources. PMID:26588199

  20. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs. PMID:19663482

  1. In vitro antibacterial potency of Butea monosperma Lam. against 12 clinically isolated multidrug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Mahesh Chandra; Padhy, Rabindra Nath

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity, using cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water to validate medicinal uses of Butea monosperma Lam (B. monosperma) in controlling infections; and to qualitatively estimate phytochemical constituents of leaf-extracts of the plant. Methods The antibacterial activity of leaf-extracts was evaluated by the agar-well diffusion method against clinically isolated 12 Gram-positive and -negative multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of leaf-extracts against each bacterium were obtained in a 96-well micro-titre plate, by broth dilution micro-titre plate technique. Results The presence of tannins, flavonoids, starch, glycosides and carbohydrates in different leaf extracts was established. Pathogenic bacteria used were, Acinetobacter sp., Chromobacterium violaceum, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp., Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus, along with standard bacterial strains. These MDR bacteria had been recorded to have significant inhibitions by leaf extracts, obtained by cold and hot extraction procedures with five solvents. In addition, the hot aqueous extract against Enterococcus sp. had the highest inhibition zone-size (21 mm). Ciprofloxacin 30 µg/disc was the positive/reference control and the diluting solvent, 10% dimethyl sulphoxide was the negative control. Recorded MIC values of different extracts ranged between 0.23 and 13.30 mg/mL, and MBC values were 0.52 to 30.00 mg/mL, for these bacteria. Conclusions Leaf-extracts with hot water and ethanol had shown significant antibacterial activity against all bacteria. B. monosperma leaf-extract could be used in treating infectious

  2. Comparison of two sampling methods when studying periphyton colonization in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Anping; Lam, Kwan-Sing Paul; Hu, Zhangli

    2011-01-01

    We used standard periphyton samplers to examine the colonization pattern of periphytic algae on artificial substrates (glass slides) in Lam Tsuen River, Hong Kong, in dry (winter) and wet (summer) seasons. In each season, six replicated slides were retrieved randomly and replaced by new slides at weekly intervals over a period of 6 weeks. We thus obtained two batches of slides, both with a series of different exposure times (1 to 6 weeks): one batch was set up at the same time (start of the sampling) and the other was harvested at the same time (end of the sampling). Changes in taxonomic composition, species diversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), standing crop (in terms of cell density and cell biovolume), and abundance of the abundant algal species were monitored and compared between the two batches of slides. The succession patterns of the periphytic algae were similar between the two batches in each season, while more remarkable differences were observed between the two seasons, suggesting that either batch would be suitable for a colonization study of periphytic algae. The cell density was dominated by diatoms in both seasons, while the cell biovolume was dominated by diatoms in winter and by green algae in summer. The cell density and biovolume attributed to blue green algae was relatively small. Most of the diatom species exhibited similar colonization patterns throughout the experiment, while green algae showed different succession patterns in different seasons or sampling methods, indicating that diatoms are better bio-indicators than green algae for a periphyton colonization study. In general, the diversity indices and the standing crops reached their maximums at around week 4, and they were higher in summer than in winter.

  3. The aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. protect against NSAID-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Berenguer, B; Trabadela, C; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Quílez, A; Miño, P; De la Puerta, R; Martín-Calero, M J

    2007-11-01

    Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., a member of the Sterculiaceae family, is used in folk medicine because of its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties. Most of the research work carried out on this plant has focused on the bark because of its high concentration of antioxidant proanthocyanidins. The flowers and leaves of Guazuma ulmifolia, though less studied, are also used as a remedy for different conditions, such as kidney and gastrointestinal diseases, fever and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of the ethanolic extract from leaves and flowers of Guazuma ulmifolia in a model of acute gastric ulcer induced by diclofenac as ulcerogenic agent, using the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole as a protection reference. Therefore, the extract was administered two times orally to three groups of Wistar rats at doses of 500, 250 and 125mg/kg, with a 24-h interval between doses. Diclofenac (100mg/kg) was given 1h after the last administration of the extract. Pretreatment with Guazuma ulmifolia or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent way. Myeloperoxidase activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration was slightly reduced in vivo, whereas in vitro, anti-inflammatory activity was clearly inhibited in a dose-dependent way. The lowest doses of the extract significantly decreased the levels of lipoperoxides, and superoxide dismuthase activity increased to a similar extent as with omeprazole (P<0.001). Examination of glutathione metabolism reflected a significant rise in glutathione peroxidase activity at the highest dose of Guazuma ulmifolia. Finally, there was a faint elevation in prostaglandin E(2) levels with all doses, though the depletion induced by diclofenac could not be reverted. We conclude that the aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia protect gastric mucosa against the injurious effect of NSAIDs mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms. PMID:17884315

  4. Catalytic Chan–Lam coupling using a ‘tube-in-tube’ reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant

    PubMed Central

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    Summary A flow system to perform Chan–Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  5. Catalytic Chan-Lam coupling using a 'tube-in-tube' reactor to deliver molecular oxygen as an oxidant.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Carl J; Burton, Paul M; Smith, Alexander M R; Walter, Gary C; Baxendale, Ian R

    2016-01-01

    A flow system to perform Chan-Lam coupling reactions of various amines and arylboronic acids has been realised employing molecular oxygen as an oxidant for the re-oxidation of the copper catalyst enabling a catalytic process. A tube-in-tube gas reactor has been used to simplify the delivery of the oxygen accelerating the optimisation phase and allowing easy access to elevated pressures. A small exemplification library of heteroaromatic products has been prepared and the process has been shown to be robust over extended reaction times. PMID:27559412

  6. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of enzymatic protein hydrolysates from defatted Camellia oleifera seed cake.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Deng, Junlin; Shen, Shian; Li, Tian; Yuan, Ming; Yang, Ruiwu; Ding, Chunbang

    2015-09-01

    Seed cake protein (SCP) from Camellia oleifera was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases (Flavorzyme, Trypsin, Neutrase, Papain, Alcalase). Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution, antioxidant activity and functional property of the seed cake protein hydrolysates (SCPH) were investigated. Enzymatic hydrolysis improved protein solubility significantly but impaired the foaming and emulsifying property. Hydrolysate generated by alcalase had the highest hydrolysis degree (DH) and antioxidant activity, and displayed excellent protein solubility over wide range of pH, while hydrolysate prepared by flavorzyme showed better copper chelating capacity and emulsifying stability with low molecular weight distribution. Trypsin-treated SCPH showed better foaming property than original protein. The results indicated that enzyme type greatly influenced the molecular weight, functional property and antioxidant activity of SCPH. It was also found that electing appropriate protease and controlling the DH could be enhanced or reduced functional property according to actual applications. PMID:26344981

  7. Performance Comparison of a Matrix Solver on a Heterogeneous Network Using Two Implementations of MPI: MPICH and LAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jennifer K.

    1995-01-01

    Two of the current and most popular implementations of the Message-Passing Standard, Message Passing Interface (MPI), were contrasted: MPICH by Argonne National Laboratory, and LAM by the Ohio Supercomputer Center at Ohio State University. A parallel skyline matrix solver was adapted to be run in a heterogeneous environment using MPI. The Message-Passing Interface Forum was held in May 1994 which lead to a specification of library functions that implement the message-passing model of parallel communication. LAM, which creates it's own environment, is more robust in a highly heterogeneous network. MPICH uses the environment native to the machine architecture. While neither of these free-ware implementations provides the performance of native message-passing or vendor's implementations, MPICH begins to approach that performance on the SP-2. The machines used in this study were: IBM RS6000, 3 Sun4, SGI, and the IBM SP-2. Each machine is unique and a few machines required specific modifications during the installation. When installed correctly, both implementations worked well with only minor problems.

  8. Petrologic composition model of the upper crust in Bohai Bay basin, China, based on Lamé impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Tsang, Louisa L. H.; Wang, Yanghua; Zhao, Bing

    2009-12-01

    Seismic attributes, such as P- and S-wave velocity, Poisson’s ratio, and acoustic impedances, all generally can be used for distinguishing different rock types. The non-uniqueness can be largely reduced using Lamé impedances instead of acoustic impedances as additional constraints. We have followed this method to constitute a petrologic composition model of the upper crust in the Bohai Bay basin, China. We briefly review the seismic parameters used for discrimination of rock types and focus our attention on the sensitivity of different combinations of parameters to determine the composition of materials. Corrections for pressure and temperature are performed in order to compare elastic wave velocities and densities measured at room temperature and surface pressure in laboratory with those for representative rock parameters. In a second step, we find the rock classes in the tested area by contrasting known data to laboratory measurements on a variety of rock samples extracted in the area. The basic field data are P-wave velocity values collected along a seismic profile conducted in the Bozhong Depression. The different rock types belonging to a particular rock class are finally constrained by the seismic velocities, Poisson’s ratio, density, acoustic impedance, and Lamé impedance related to the topmost 10 km of the Bohai Bay crust.

  9. Determination of melatonin content in traditional Thai herbal remedies used as sleeping aids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Melatonin content was screened in leaves of seven edible herbs used as sleeping aids in Thai traditional medicine. These plants are Piper nigrum L, Sesbania glandiflora (L.) Desv., Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr., Senna tora (L.) Roxb., Moringa oleifera Lam., Momordica charantia L. and Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication in methanol for six hours at room temperature, and then melatonin was purified by C18 solid phase extraction (SPE). Melatonin was then quantified by a validated RP-C18 HPLC method with fluorescent detection. Findings Melatonin contents in extracts of B. ramiflora, S. glandiflora, M. charantia, S. tora and S. sesban were 43.2, 26.3, 21.4, 10.5 and 8.7 ng/g of dry sample weight, respectively. The highest melatonin content was from P. nigrum extract (1092.7 ng/g of dry sample weight). Melatonin was not detected in the extract of M. oleifera. Melatonin identification was confirmed by ELISA. Conclusions Melatonin was found in six of the seven herbs in the traditional Thai sleeping recipe. One of these, P. nigrum, exhibited an encouragingly high amount of melatonin. PMID:24393215

  10. Potential mechanisms of hypocholesterolaemic effect of Thai spices/dietary extracts.

    PubMed

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2011-02-01

    Several Thai spices/dietary ingredients were previously shown to have hypocholesterolaemic effects. These studies were mostly conducted in animal models in which the mechanisms of action were not yet well-established. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential mechanism of hypocholesterolaemic action of 12 selected plants, namely Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Moringa oleifera Lam., Cucurbita moschata Duchesne, Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Zingiber officinale, Morus alba L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Piper nigrum L., Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd., Curcuma zedoaria Rose, Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. and Piper retrofractum Vahl., widely used as spices and ingredients in various types of Thai food. The extract of P. nigrum at 100 µg mL(-1) was found to be the most effective cholesterol uptake inhibitor whereas those of A. galanga and C. sinensis effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity with IC50 values of 8.99±3.41 and 12.36±1.23 µg mL(-1), respectively. The potency of extracts from H. sabdariffa, M. oleifera and C. moschata at 100 µg mL(-1) were found to be similar to 0.4 µg mL(-1) pravastatin in inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and possibly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis. This study also demonstrated that several of the tested plants possessed multiple sites of action that were possibly responsible for their cholesterol-lowering effect in the in vivo model. PMID:20623425

  11. Characterization of a Thermobifida fusca beta-1,3-glucanase (Lam81A) with a potential role in plant biomass degradation.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Colleen E; Wilson, David B

    2006-11-28

    Thermobifida fusca is a filamentous soil bacterium that plays a major role in the breakdown of plant biomass. In this paper, we report the cloning, expression, purification, and characterization of the T. fusca enzyme, Lam81A. The Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Database (http://afmb.cnrs-mrs.fr/CAZY/) indicates that Lam81A belongs to a relatively uncharacterized family of beta-1,3-glucanases, family GH-81 [Coutinho, P. M., and Henrissat, B. (1999) in Recent Advances in Carbohydrate Bioengineering (Gilbert, H. J., Davies, G., Henrissat, B., and Svensson, B., Eds.) pp 3-12, The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, U.K.]. Microarray analysis suggests that Lam81A plays a role in biomass degradation, where its natural substrate may be the plant cell wall polysaccharide, callose, which is a polymer of beta-1,3-linked glucose. Characterization of Lam81A has shown that the enzyme is specific for beta-1,3-linked glucose polysaccharides, is endohydrolytic, and utilizes an inverting mechanism for substrate hydrolysis. In addition, the enzyme has a broad pH optimum from 5.5 to 10, a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C, and demonstrates substrate inhibition, as well as showing a high basal level of expression. PMID:17115704

  12. The β-Glucanase ZgLamA from Zobellia galactanivorans Evolved a Bent Active Site Adapted for Efficient Degradation of Algal Laminarin*

    PubMed Central

    Labourel, Aurore; Jam, Murielle; Jeudy, Alexandra; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Czjzek, Mirjam; Michel, Gurvan

    2014-01-01

    Laminarinase is commonly used to describe β-1,3-glucanases widespread throughout Archaea, bacteria, and several eukaryotic lineages. Some β-1,3-glucanases have already been structurally and biochemically characterized, but very few from organisms that are in contact with genuine laminarin, the storage polysaccharide of brown algae. Here we report the heterologous expression and subsequent biochemical and structural characterization of ZgLamAGH16 from Zobellia galactanivorans, the first GH16 laminarinase from a marine bacterium associated with seaweeds. ZgLamAGH16 contains a unique additional loop, compared with other GH16 laminarinases, which is composed of 17 amino acids and gives a bent shape to the active site cleft of the enzyme. This particular topology is perfectly adapted to the U-shaped conformation of laminarin chains in solution and thus explains the predominant specificity of ZgLamAGH16 for this substrate. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme and two enzyme-substrate complexes, one with laminaritetraose and the other with a trisaccharide of 1,3–1,4-β-d-glucan, have been determined at 1.5, 1.35, and 1.13 Å resolution, respectively. The structural comparison of substrate recognition pattern between these complexes allows the proposition that ZgLamAGH16 likely diverged from an ancestral broad specificity GH16 β-glucanase and evolved toward a bent active site topology adapted to efficient degradation of algal laminarin. PMID:24337571

  13. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  14. Site-directed mutagenesis of the greasy slide aromatic residues within the LamB (maltoporin) channel of Escherichia coli: effect on ion and maltopentaose transport.

    PubMed

    Denker, Katrin; Orlik, Frank; Schiffler, Bettina; Benz, Roland

    2005-09-23

    The 3D-structure of the maltooligosaccharide-specific LamB-channel of Escherichia coli (also called maltoporin) is known from X-ray crystallography. The 3D structure suggests that a number of aromatic residues (Y6, Y41, W74, F229, W358 and W420) within the channel lumen are involved in carbohydrate and ion transport. All aromatic residues were replaced by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Furthermore, LamB mutants were created in which two, three, four, five and all six aromatic residues were replaced to study their effects on ion and maltopentaose transport through LamB. The purified mutant proteins were reconstituted into lipid bilayer membranes and the single-channel conductance of the mutants was studied in conductance experiments. The results suggest that all aromatic residues provide some steric hindrance for ion transport through LamB. Highest impact is provided by Y6 and Y41 that are localized opposite Y118, which form the central constriction of the LamB channel. Stability constants for binding of maltopentaose to the mutant channels were measured using titration experiments with the carbohydrate. The mutation of one or several aromatic residue(s) led to a substantial decrease of the stability constant of binding. The highest effect was observed when all aromatic residues were replaced by alanine because no binding of maltopentaose could be detected in such a case. However, binding was again possible when Y118 was replaced by tryptophan. The carbohydrate-induced block of the channel function could be used also for the study of current noise through the different mutant LamB-channels. The analysis of the power density spectra of some of the mutants allowed the evaluation of the on-rate and off-rate constants (k1 and k(-1)) of carbohydrate binding to the binding site inside the channels. The results suggest that both on-rate and off-rate constants were affected by the mutations. For most mutants, k1 decreased and k(-1) increased. The possible influence of the

  15. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage.

    PubMed

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S; Robbertse, Petrus J

    2015-01-01

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6-12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules. PMID:25725083

  16. Germination and ultrastructural studies of seeds produced by a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree: implications for its domestication and seed storage

    PubMed Central

    Fotouo-M, Helene; du Toit, Elsa S.; Robbertse, Petrus J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed ageing during storage is one of the main causes of reduction in seed quality and this results in loss of vigour and failure to thrive. Finding appropriate storage conditions to ameliorate deterioration due to ageing is, therefore, essential. Ultrastructural changes in cellular organelles during storage and seed germination rates are valuable indices of damage that occurs during seed ageing. There is increasing interest in Moringa oleifera Lam. because of its multiple uses as an agroforestry crop. Seeds of this species lose their viability within 6–12 months of harvest but no scientific information is available on the longevity of seed stored in the fruit (capsules). In most undeveloped countries, seeds are still stored inside the fruit by traditional methods in special handmade structures. In this experiment we tried to simulate these traditional storage conditions. Capsules of Moringa were stored at ambient room temperature for 12, 24 and 36 months. The ultrastructure, solute leakage and viability of seed were investigated. The ultrastructure of 1-year-old seed showed no sign of deterioration. It was evident, however, that some cells of the 3-year-old seed had deteriorated. The remnants of the outer and inner two integuments that remain tightly attached to the cotyledons probably play a role in seed dormancy. No significant difference was found between germination percentage of fresh and 1-year-old seed. The germination percentage decreased significantly from 2 years of storage onward. The decrease in seed viability during storage was associated with a loss in membrane integrity which was evidenced by an increase in electrolyte leakage. Our findings indicate that the longevity of M. oleifera seeds can be maintained if they are stored within their capsules. PMID:25725083

  17. Development of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector method for the determination of three compounds in Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam from different origins of Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuge; Yu, Qian; Wang, Dongdong; Upur, Halmuart

    2012-01-01

    Context: As a traditional Uygur medicinal plant, Z. clinopodioides Lam has various uses in Xinjiang. Aims: A reversed-phase rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RP-RRLC) method with diode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous determination of diosmin, linarin, and pulegone from Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam, a widely used in traditional Uygur medicine for treating heart disease, high blood pressure, and other diseases. Settings and Design: Compounds were separated on a XDB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 μm) with gradient elution using methanol and 1% aqueous acetic acid (v/v) at 0.9 mL/min. he detection wavelength was set at 270 nm. Materials and Methods: Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. were collected from ten different origins in Xinjiang, including the Ban fang ditch, Tuoli, the Altay mountains, Terks, Xiata Road, Zhaosu Highway, Guozigou, Fukang, Jimsar, Wulabo. Statistical Analysis Used: The intra-day and inter-day precisions of all three compounds were less than 0.89% and the average recoveries ranged from 97.4 to 104.1%. There were highly significant linear correlations between component concentrations and specific chromatographic peak areas (R2 > 0.999). Results: The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the levels of three active components in Z. clinopodioides Lam. samples from different locations in Xinjiang. Conclusions: The proposed method is simple, consistent, accurate, and could be utilized as a quality control method for Z. clinopodioides Lam. PMID:24082631

  18. The Loss of Lam2 and Npr2-Npr3 Diminishes the Vacuolar Localization of Gtr1-Gtr2 and Disinhibits TORC1 Activity in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ning; Ma, Yan; Nakashima, Akio; Kikkawa, Ushio; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, mTORC1 activity is regulated by Rag GTPases. It is thought that the Ragulator complex and the GATOR (GAP activity towards Rags) complex regulate RagA/B as its GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) and GTPase-activating protein (GAP), respectively. However, the functions of components in these complexes remain elusive. Using fission yeast as a model organism, here we found that the loss of Lam2 (SPBC1778.05c), a homolog of a Ragulator component LAMTOR2, as well as the loss of Gtr1 or Gtr2 phenocopies the loss of Npr2 or Npr3, homologs of GATOR components Nprl2 or Nprl3, respectively. These phenotypes were rescued by TORC1 inhibition using pharmacological or genetic means, and the loss of Lam2, Gtr1, Gtr2, Npr2 or Npr3 disinhibited TORC1 activity under nitrogen depletion, as measured by Rps6 phosphorylation. Consistently, overexpression of GDP-locked Gtr1S20L or GTP-locked Gtr2Q60L, which suppress TORC1 activity in budding yeast, rescued the growth defect of Δgtr1 cells or Δgtr2 cells, respectively, and the loss of Lam2, Npr2 or Npr3 similarly diminished the vacuolar localization and the protein levels of Gtr1 and Gtr2. Furthermore, Lam2 physically interacted with Npr2 and Gtr1. These findings suggest that Lam2 and Npr2-Npr3 function together as a tether for GDP-bound Gtr1 to the vacuolar membrane, thereby suppressing TORC1 activity for multiple cellular functions. PMID:27227887

  19. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  20. Transcriptomic effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug Ibuprofen in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.

    PubMed

    Maria, Vera L; Amorim, Mónica J B; Bebianno, Maria João; Dondero, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The transcriptomic effects of Ibuprofen (IBU) in the digestive gland tissue of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. specimens exposed at low environmental concentrations (250 ng L(-1)) are presented. Using a 1.7 K feature cDNA microarray along with linear models and empirical Bayes statistical methods 225 differentially expressed genes were identified in mussels treated with IBU across a 15-day period. Transcriptional dynamics were typical of an adaptive response with a peak of gene expression change at day-7 (177 features, representing about 11% of sequences available for analysis) and an almost full recovery at the end of the exposure period. Functional genomics by means of Gene Ontology term analysis unraveled typical mussel stress responses i.e. aminoglycan (chitin) metabolic processes but also more specific effects such as the regulation of NF-κB transcription factor activity. PMID:27209120

  1. In vivo Function and Membrane Binding Properties are Correlated for Escherichia coli LamB Signal Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Martha S.; Gierasch, Lila M.; Zlotnick, Adam; Lear, James D.; Degrado, William F.

    1985-05-01

    Wild-type and pseudorevertant signal peptides of the lamB gene product of Escherichia coli interact with lipid systems whereas a nonfunctional deletion mutant signal peptide does not. This conclusion is based on (i) interaction of synthetic signal peptides with a lipid monolayer-water surface, (ii) conformational changes induced by presence of lipid vesicles in an aqueous solution of signal peptide, and (iii) capacities of the peptides to promote vesicle aggregation. Analysis of the signal sequences and previous conformational studies suggest that these lipid interaction properties may be attributable to the tendency of the functional signal peptides to adopt α -helical conformations. Although the possibility of direct interaction between the signal peptide and membrane lipids during protein secretion is controversial, the results suggest that conformationally related amphiphilicity and consequent membrane affinity of signal sequences are important for function in vivo.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on the vitamins, phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattak, Khanzadi Fatima; Rahman, Taj Ur

    2016-10-01

    Plant based food products and medicines are given more consideration for their efficacy, safety and synergistic effects. Radiation processing has been valuably used for microbial decontamination and value addition of the plant materials. The current study is about the effect of gamma irradiation on the quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. leaves. The leaves of the plant were irradiated at the dose levels of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5 kGy. The irradiated and control samples were evaluated for vitamin, phytochemicals, antibacterial and DPPH scavenging activities. The results showed that gamma irradiation doses up to 12.5 kGy enhanced the levels of certain phytochemicals and augmented the biological activities.

  3. Expression of meningococcal epitopes in LamB of Escherichia coli and the stimulation of serosubtype-specific antibody responses.

    PubMed

    McCarvil, J; McKenna, A J; Grief, C; Hoy, C S; Sesardic, D; Maiden, M C; Feavers, I M

    1993-10-01

    The class 1 outer membrane protein (OMP), a major variable surface antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, is a component of novel meningococcal vaccines currently in field trials. Serological variants of the protein are also used to serosubtype meningococci. Most of the amino acid changes that give rise to antigenic variants of the protein occur in two variable regions (VR1 and VR2) that are thought to form loops on the cell surface. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the nucleotide sequences encoding VR1 and VR2 from the chromosomal DNA of N. meningitidis strain M1080. These were cloned in frame into the lamB gene of the Escherichia coli expression vector pAJC264. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), using monoclonal antibodies, and SDS-PAGE confirmed that, upon induction, strains of E. coli carrying these constructs expressed hybrid LamB proteins containing the N. meningitidis surface loops. These strains were used to immunize rabbits and the resultant polyclonal antisera reacted specifically with the class 1 OMP of reference strain M1080 (P1.7). Immunogold labelling of meningococcal cells and whole-cell dot-blot analyses with these antisera showed that the variable epitopes were exposed on the cell surface and confirmed that this approach could be used to obtain serosubtype-specific antisera. The binding profiles of the antisera were determined from their reactions with overlapping synthetic peptides and their reactivity compared with that of relevant serosubtype-specific monoclonal antibodies. This approach was used successfully to raise antisera against two other class 1 OMP VR2s. A fourth antiserum raised against a VR2, including the P1.1 epitope, was not subtype specific. PMID:7526119

  4. Anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against Haemonchus contortus of sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Singh, Rajeev; Verma, P K; Singh, R; Anand, A

    2015-06-01

    Infection with Haemonchus contortus is one of the most important economic problems in small ruminants worldwide. Resistance development by parasites, drug residues in meat, toxicity, non-availability and high cost limit the usefulness of currently used synthetic drugs. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro anthelmintic efficacy of aqueous extract of seeds of Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze against H. contortus. Phytochemical analysis of extract showed high concentration of phenolic (11.93 ± 0.64 mg of GAE/g of extract), flavonoids (238.17 ± 19.14 mg of quercetin/g extract) and tannin (10.80 ± 0.70 mg of GAE/g of extract) content. The observations revealed that parasites were sluggish and movement was little at 4 h post exposure of 25, 50 mg/ml and very sluggish in 100 mg/ml concentration. The extract showed complete mortality of the adult H. contortus worms at the concentrations of 100 mg/ml at the time exposure of 6 h and with the concentration of 50 mg/ml at the post exposure of 8 h. At 25 mg/ml concentration 50 % mortality was recorded at 6 h and complete at 8 h post exposure. The LC50 at 6 and 8 h were 45.20 and 17.50 mg/ml respectively. Levamisole at concentration of 0.5 mg/ml caused 50 % mortality at 2 h post exposure and full mortality at 4 h post exposure. These cidal effects may be due to presence of high phenolic, flavonoids and tannin content in the extract. The results confirm the aqueous extract of B. monosperma (Lam.) Kuntze on adult H. contortus worms. PMID:26064000

  5. Determination of volatile glucosinolate degradation products in seed coat, stem and in vitro cultures of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    PubMed

    Dehshahri, S; Afsharypuor, S; Asghari, G; Mohagheghzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Moringaceae, a monogeneric family in Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), includes 14 species. One of them is Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori., a small tree, which grows in south east of Iran. Volatile constituents of seed coat and stem of M. peregrina were determined by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, extracts of seed and different cultured cells were analyzed by TLC and GC. Three volatile isothiocyanates including isopropyl isothiocyanate (4.2%), sec-butyl isothiocyanate (< 0.1%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (92.9%) were found in the volatile oil of the stem , while only two volatile isothiocyanates namely isopropyl isothiocyanate (7.0%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (51.5%) were determined in the seed coat of the tree. For the first time, the callus and suspension cultures of M. peregrina were initiated and established successfully on Murashige and Skoog medium, containing plant growth hormones. Different precursors and elicitors were fed to the cultures to induce glucosinolates production. This is the first report of in vitro culture production of M. peregrina. There was no production of volatile isothiocyanates in M. peregrina callus and suspension cultures with different treatments. PMID:23181080

  6. Two New Oleanane-Type Saponins with Anti-Proliferative Activity from Camellia oleifera Abel. Seed Cake.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jian-Fa; Peng, Yun-Ru; Bao, Guan-Hu; Hou, Ru-Yan; Wan, Xiao-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Two new oleanane-type saponins, named oleiferasaponins C₄ (1) and C₅ (2), were isolated from Camellia oleifera Abel. seed cake residue. Their respective structures were identified as 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxymethylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galacto-pyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosy-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosid-uronic acid methyl ester (1) and 16α-hydroxy-22α-O-angeloyl-23α-aldehyde-28-dihydroxy-methylene-olean-12-ene-3β-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2) through 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-ESI-MS, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The two compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB). PMID:26861265

  7. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the hydrolyzed sasanquasaponins from the defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yong; Xing, Haiting; Chen, Xuelan

    2013-08-01

    The defatted seeds of Camellia oleifera (Abel.) are used for stopping itching and pain in old days, the effective compounds need to be investigated. Sasanquasaponin as a rich fraction was extracted with 70% ethanol, purified by AB-8 macro-reticular resin, crystallized in 80% ethanol, and further hydrolyzed by 4% hydroxyl potassium or 2 M hydrochloride. Anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts were measured by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and croton oil induced ear inflammation in mice; the analgesic activities were analyzed by hot plate test, acetic acid induced writhing in mice; the levels of pain mediators of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE₂ were determined; the antioxidative activities in vivo were evaluated by MDA, SOD and GSH-Px in serum of rats. The extracts showed significant (p < 0.01) anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, remarkably (p < 0.01) inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and PGE2, decreased MDA and increased SOD and GSH-Px in serum. Inhibition of IL-1β, TNF-α and PGE2 may contribute to their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects; elimination of free radicals is also involved. The sapogenin and acid hydrolyzed product have better anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects, and stronger antioxidative activity than sasanquasaponin and alkaline hydrolyzed product, and they are better candidate medicines for inflammation and pain. PMID:23625174

  8. Two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins from roots of Camellia oleifera and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Yu; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Gao, Bin-Bin; Ren, Hai-Tao; Liu, Yan-Li; Li, Xiao-Ran; Li, Kun-Ping; Xu, Qiong-Ming; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Two new 28-nor-oleanane-type triterpene saponins, oleiferoside U (1), and oleiferoside V (2) were isolated from the 50% EtOH extract of the roots of Camellia oleifera C. Abel. Their structures were elucidated as camellenodiol 3β-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside and camellenodiol 3β-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside. Their chemical structures were established mainly on the basis of integrated spectroscopic techniques. In vitro, cytotoxic activities of the two new triterpene saponins were evaluated against three human tumor cell lines (A549, SMMC-7721, and MCF-7) using the MTT assay. Both of them showed a certain cytotoxic activities toward the tested cell lines and gave IC50 values in the range of 45.04-63.22 μM. PMID:26982333

  9. Development of an in Vitro System to Simulate the Adsorption of Self-Emulsifying Tea (Camellia oleifera) Seed Oil.

    PubMed

    Sramala, Issara; Pinket, Wichchunee; Pongwan, Pawinee; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Kasemwong, Kittiwut

    2016-01-01

    In this study, tea (Camellia oleifera) seed oil was formulated into self-emulsifying oil formulations (SEOF) to enhance the aqueous dispersibility and intestinal retention to achieve higher bioavailability. Self-emulsifying tea seed oils were developed by using different concentrations of lecithin in combination with surfactant blends (Span(®)80 and Tween(®)80). The lecithin/surfactant systems were able to provide clear and stable liquid formulations. The SEOF were investigated for physicochemical properties including appearance, emulsion droplets size, PDI and zeta potential. The chemical compositions of tea seed oil and SEOF were compared using GC-MS techniques. In addition, the oil adsorption measurement on artificial membranes was performed using a Franz cell apparatus and colorimetric analysis. The microscopic structure of membranes was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After aqueous dilution with fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF), the droplet size of all SEOF was close to 200 nm with low PDI values and the zeta potential was negative. GC-MS chromatograms revealed that the chemical compositions of SEOF were not significantly different from that of the original tea seed oil. The morphological study showed that only the SEOF could form film layers. The oil droplets were extracted both from membrane treated with tea seed oil and the SEOF in order to evaluate the chemical compositions by GC-MS. PMID:27136528

  10. Novel triterpenoid saponins from residual seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel. show anti-proliferative activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jianfa; Wang, Ruilong; Bao, Guanhu; Ling, Tiejun; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xinfu; Hou, Ruyan

    2015-07-01

    Four oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the seed cake of Camellia oleifera Abel.: camelliasaponin B1 and three new saponins, oleiferasaponin C1-C3 (1-3). Their structures were identified as 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (1); 22-O-angeloyl-camelliagenin A 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→2)]-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (2); and 28-O-cinnamoyl-camelliagenin B 3-O-[β-d-galactopyranosylz-(1→2)] [β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid methyl ester (3) through 1D and 2D NMR, HR-ESI-MS, as well as GC-MS spectroscopic methods. The anti-proliferative activities of these four compounds were investigated on five human tumor cell lines (BEL-7402, BGC-823, MCF-7, HL-60 and KB). Compounds 1 and 2 and camelliasaponin B1 showed significant cytotoxic activities. PMID:25958771

  11. Analysis of Hydroxy Fatty Acids from the Pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nian-Yun; Yang, Yi-Fang; Li, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to determine 7 hydroxy fatty acids in the pollen of Brassica campestris L. var. oleifera DC. All the investigated hydroxy fatty acids showed strong deprotonated molecular ions [M-H](-), which underwent two major fragment pathways of the allyl scission and the β-fission of the alcoholic hydroxyl group. By comparison of their molecular ions and abundant fragment ions with those of reference compounds, they were tentatively assigned as 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (1), 10,11,12-trihydroxy-(7Z,14Z)-heptadecadienoic acid (2), 7,15,16-trihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (3), 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid (4), 15-hydroxy-6Z,9Z,12Z-octadecatrienoic acid (5), 15-hydroxy-9Z,12Z- octadecadienoic acid (6), and 15-hydroxy-12Z-octadecaenoic acid (7), respectively. Compounds 3, 5, and 7 are reported for the first time. PMID:26555998

  12. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of the LAM-RRM1 N-terminal module of La protein from Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Chasapis, Christos T; Argyriou, Aikaterini I; Apostolidi, Maria; Konstantinidou, Parthena; Bentrop, Detlef; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    The N-terminal half of La protein consists of two concatenated motifs: La motif (LAM) and the N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM1) both of which are responsible for poly(U) RNA binding. Here, we present the backbone and side-chain assignments of the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of the 191-residue LAM-RRM1 region of the La protein from the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum and its secondary structure prediction. PMID:25687647

  13. Inhibitory effects of crude extracts from some edible Thai plants against replication of hepatitis B virus and human liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Edible plants such as Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer, Curcumin longa Lin, Momordica charantia Lin and Moringa oleifera Lam have long been believed in Thai culture to relieve ulcers and the symptoms of liver disease. However, little is known about their anti-liver cancer properties and antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-liver cancer and anti-HBV activities of crude extracts from these edible plants on human liver cancer cells. Methods Plant samples were prepared and extracted using buffer and hydro-alcoholic solvents. The MTT assay was performed to investigate the effects of the plant extracts on the cell viability of HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effect on replication of HBV was analysed by determining the level of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in transiently transfected HepG2 cells with the DNA expression plasmid of the HBV genome using a quantitative real-time PCR. Results Buffer and hydroalcoholic extracts from C. formosum (leaf) reduced cell viability of HepG2 cells and they also inhibited HBV cccDNA. Crude extracts from C. longa (bulb) in both solvents did not have any cytotoxic effects on the HepG2 cells, but they significantly decreased the level of HBV cccDNA. Buffer extracts from the leaves of M. charantia and the fruits of M. oleifera showed to have anti-HBV activity and also a mild cytotoxicity effect on the HepG2 cells. In addition, leaves of M. Oleifera extracted by hydroalcoholic solvent drastically decreased the level of cccDNA in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Conclusion Some crude extracts of edible plants contain compounds that demonstrate anti-liver cancer and anti-HBV activities. PMID:23216691

  14. Preface: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on Liquid and Amorphous Metals (LAM13) (Ekaterinburg, Russia, 8 14 July 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Pjotr; Gelchinskii, Boris; Sidorov, Valeriy

    2008-03-01

    The most recent developments in the field of liquid and amorphous metals and alloys are regularly updated through two complementary international conferences: the liquid and amorphous metals conference (LAM) and the rapidly quenched materials (RQ) conference. The first series of conferences started as LM1 in 1966 at Brookhaven for the basic understanding of liquid metals. The subsequent LM conferences were held in Tokyo (1972) and Bristol (1976). The conference was renewed in Grenoble (1980) as a LAM conference including amorphous metals and continued in Los Angeles (1983), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1986), Kyoto (1989), Vienna (1992), Chicago (1995), Dortmund (1998), Yokohama (2001) and Metz (2004). The conferences are mainly devoted to liquid and amorphous metals and alloys. However, communications on some non-metallic systems such as semiconductors, quasicrystals etc, are also accepted. The conference tradition strongly encourages participation from junior researchers and graduate students. The 13th conference of the LAM series was organized in Ekaterinburg, Russia, by the Institute of Metallurgy of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMet UB RAS) and the Ural State Pedagogical University (USPU), and held from 8-14 July 2007 under the chairmanship of Professors Pjotr Popel (USPU) and Boris Gelchinskii (IMet UB RAS). Two hundred and forty two active participants and about 60 guest participants from 20 countries attended the conference. There were no parallel sessions and all oral reports were separated into three groups: invited talks (40 min), full-scale oral reports (25 min), and brief oral reports (15 min). The program included ten sessions, ranging from purely theoretical subjects to the technological application of molten and amorphous alloys. The following sessions took place: A: Electronic structure and transport, magnetic properties; B: Phase transitions; C: Structure; D: Atomic dynamics and transport; E: Thermodynamics; F: Modelling

  15. Detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine is indicative of disseminated TB with renal involvement in patients living with HIV and advanced immunodeficiency: evidence and implications

    PubMed Central

    Lawn, Stephen D.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    TB is the leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths globally. New diagnostic tools are urgently needed to avert deaths from undiagnosed HIV-associated TB. Although simple assays that detect lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine have been commercially available for years, their specific role and utility were initially misunderstood, such that they have been slower to emerge from the diagnostics pipeline than otherwise might have been expected. In this article, we review and explain how urine-LAM assays should be understood as diagnostics for disseminated TB in HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency, in whom haematogenous TB dissemination to the kidneys serves as the primary mechanism by which LAM enters the urine. These insights are critical for the appropriate design of studies to evaluate these assays and to understand how they might be most usefully implemented. This understanding also supports the 2015 WHO recommendations on the restricted use of these assays in sick HIV-positive patients with advanced immunodeficiency. PMID:26884498

  16. Cloning of the LamA3 gene encoding the alpha 3 chain of the adhesive ligand epiligrin. Expression in wound repair.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M C; Tizard, R; VanDevanter, D R; Carter, W G

    1994-09-01

    We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the entire 170-kDa chain of epiligrin (alpha 3Ep) and a genomic clone encoding the alpha 3Ep gene (LamA3). Analysis of multiple cDNA clones revealed two distinct transcripts (alpha 3EpA and alpha 3EpB). Sequencing of the alpha 3EpA transcript indicated sequence and structural homology to laminin alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains that extend from domain IIIa through the carboxyl-terminal G domain. The alpha 3EpB transcript encodes a larger amino-terminal domain and contains additional epidermal growth factor repeats and sequences corresponding to domain IV of alpha 1 laminin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that the LamA3 gene is located on chromosome 18q11.2, a locus distinct from the LamA1 gene (18p11.3). The G domain of the epiligrin alpha 3 chain contains five subdomains that are individually related to the G subdomains reported for Drosophila and vertebrate laminin alpha chains. Sequence divergence within the G domain of alpha 3 epiligrin suggests that it is functionally distinct from laminin, consistent with our previous report showing that epiligrin interacts with different integrin adhesion receptors. Analysis of RNA from human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) identified multiple epiligrin transcripts that were down-regulated by viral transformation and differentiation. In contrast, epiligrin expression was up-regulated in wound sites of human skin. PMID:8077230

  17. Effect of crude extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on parasitaemia of mice infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of trypanosomosis is currently facing a number of problems including toxicity of trypanocidal drugs and development of resistance by the parasites. These limitations have prompted the search for alternative active substances (such as of natural origin). The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of extracts of Moringa stenopetala and Artemisia absinthium on Trypanosoma congolense in mice. Methods Swiss white male mice aged 8–12 weeks were divided into six experimental groups of six animals. Water and methanol extracts of the two plants were prepared. T. congolense was isolated from cattle at Ghibe valley (Ethiopia). All experimental mice received approximately 1 x 105 trypanosomes in 0.2 ml of blood. Plant extracts were given orally to four groups (2 plant species and two extraction methods) at 400 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days. One group remained as distilled water treated control and the other as diminzene aceturate treated control. The effect of the extracts on levels of parasitaemia, body weight, packed cell volume (PCV) and mice survival was monitored for 25 days. Results All treatments have significantly reduced parasitaemia and helped improve body weight, PCV and survival of mice compared to the water-treated control (P < 0.01 in all cases). These effects were comparable to that with diminazene aceturate. No significant difference was observed in the reduction of parasitaemia between plant extract treatment groups. However, mice with extracts of A. absinthium had significantly higher body weight than those with extracts of M. stenopetala (P < 0.05). Conclusions The two plants have antitrypanosomal potential against T. congolense by reducing the levels of parasitaemia, maintaining good PCV and body weight, and prolonging the lives of infected animals. PMID:24962241

  18. Microbiota at Multiple Body Sites during Pregnancy in a Rural Tanzanian Population and Effects of Moringa-Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Bisanz, Jordan E; Enos, Megan K; PrayGod, George; Seney, Shannon; Macklaim, Jean M; Chilton, Stephanie; Willner, Dana; Knight, Rob; Fusch, Christoph; Fusch, Gerhard; Gloor, Gregory B; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2015-08-01

    The nutritional status of pregnant women is vital for healthy outcomes and is a concern for a large proportion of the world's population. The role of the microbiota in pregnancy and nutrition is a promising new area of study with potential health ramifications. In many African countries, maternal and infant death and morbidity are associated with malnutrition. Here, we assess the influence of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, supplemented with Moringa plant as a source of micronutrients, on the health and oral, gut, vaginal, and milk microbiotas of 56 pregnant women in Tanzania. In an open-label study design, 26 subjects received yogurt daily, and 30 were untreated during the last two trimesters and for 1 month after birth. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and dietary recalls were recorded. Women initially categorized as nourished or undernourished consumed similar calories and macronutrients, which may explain why there was no difference in the microbiota at any body site. Consumption of yogurt increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the newborn feces but had no effect on the mother's microbiota at any body site. The microbiota of the oral cavity and GI tract remained stable over pregnancy, but the vaginal microbiota showed a significant increase in diversity leading up to and after birth. In summary, daily micronutrient-supplemented probiotic yogurt provides a safe, affordable food for pregnant women in rural Tanzania, and the resultant improvement in the gut microbial profile of infants is worthy of further study. PMID:25979893

  19. Quantitative analysis of the nutritional components in leaves and seeds of the Persian Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Gholamreza; Palizban, Abbasali; Bakhshaei, Behnosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina (M. peregrina) is an important tropical tree recognized for its nutritional and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional component in the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. Materials and Methods: The M. peregrina leaves and seeds of wild cultivated trees were collected from the areas of arid environment located in the South-East of the Iran. The leaves and seeds of M. peregrina were dried and grounded to a fine powder and kept in dark for the day of experiment. The acidic digested leaves and seeds were analyzed for Vitamins C and A, calcium, and potassium using atomic adsorption and flame emission spectrophotometer. Results: The analytical data revealed that the leaves and seeds of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori contain sufficient amounts of Vitamin C: 83 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.6 mg/100 g/DW; and Vitamin A: 6.8 ± 0.7 and 24.8 ± 0.7 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. The elemental analysis in the leaves and seeds showed that the calcium content are 764.8 ± 1.6 and 1164.8 ± 43.4 mg/100 g/DW and for potassium content are 900.2 ± 14 and 572 ± 10 mg/100 g/DW, respectively. Conclusions: The nutritional characteristics of the Persian M. peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori, investigated in this study revealed that, daily use of leaves and seeds of this plant could significantly provide the recommended dietary allowance for the Vitamins C and A, and minerals, such as calcium and potassium. PMID:26130935

  20. Microbiota at Multiple Body Sites during Pregnancy in a Rural Tanzanian Population and Effects of Moringa-Supplemented Probiotic Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Enos, Megan K.; PrayGod, George; Seney, Shannon; Macklaim, Jean M.; Chilton, Stephanie; Willner, Dana; Knight, Rob; Fusch, Christoph; Fusch, Gerhard; Gloor, Gregory B.; Burton, Jeremy P.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional status of pregnant women is vital for healthy outcomes and is a concern for a large proportion of the world's population. The role of the microbiota in pregnancy and nutrition is a promising new area of study with potential health ramifications. In many African countries, maternal and infant death and morbidity are associated with malnutrition. Here, we assess the influence of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, supplemented with Moringa plant as a source of micronutrients, on the health and oral, gut, vaginal, and milk microbiotas of 56 pregnant women in Tanzania. In an open-label study design, 26 subjects received yogurt daily, and 30 were untreated during the last two trimesters and for 1 month after birth. Samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and dietary recalls were recorded. Women initially categorized as nourished or undernourished consumed similar calories and macronutrients, which may explain why there was no difference in the microbiota at any body site. Consumption of yogurt increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the newborn feces but had no effect on the mother's microbiota at any body site. The microbiota of the oral cavity and GI tract remained stable over pregnancy, but the vaginal microbiota showed a significant increase in diversity leading up to and after birth. In summary, daily micronutrient-supplemented probiotic yogurt provides a safe, affordable food for pregnant women in rural Tanzania, and the resultant improvement in the gut microbial profile of infants is worthy of further study. PMID:25979893

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Lateral Flow Urine LAM Assay for TB Screening of Adults with Advanced Immunosuppression Attending Routine HIV Care in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hanifa, Yasmeen; Fielding, Katherine L.; Chihota, Violet N.; Adonis, Lungiswa; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Nicol, Mark P.; Ndlovu, Nontobeko T.; Sahid, Faieza; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Grant, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Determine TB-LAM (LF-LAM) to screen for tuberculosis among ambulatory adults established in HIV care in South Africa. Methods A systematic sample of adults attending for HIV care, regardless of symptomatology, were enrolled in the XPHACTOR study, which tested a novel algorithm for prioritising investigation with Xpert MTB/RIF. In this substudy, restricted to participants with enrolment CD4<200x106/l, urine was stored at enrolment for later testing with LF-LAM. Sputum was sent for immediate Xpert MTB/RIF if any of: current cough, fever ≥3 weeks, body mass index (BMI)<18.5kg/m2, CD4<100x106/l (or <200x106/l if pre-ART), weight loss ≥10% or strong clinical suspicion were present; otherwise, sputum was stored for Xpert testing at study completion. Participants were reviewed monthly, with reinvestigation if indicated, to 3 months, when sputum and blood were taken for mycobacterial culture. We defined tuberculosis as “confirmed” if Xpert, line probe assay or culture for M. tuberculosis within six months of enrolment were positive, and “clinical” if tuberculosis treatment started without microbiological confirmation. Results Amongst 424 participants, 61% were female and 57% were taking ART (median duration 22 months); median age, CD4 and BMI were 39 years, 111x106/l, and 23 kg/m2. 56/424 (13%) participants had tuberculosis (40 confirmed, 16 clinical). 24/424 (5.7%) vs. 8/424 (1.9%) were LAM-positive using grade 1 vs. grade 2 cut-off. Using grade 1 cut-off, sensitivity for confirmed TB (all clinical TB excluded) was 12.5% (95% CI 4.2%, 26.8%) and in CD4<100x106/l vs. CD4 ≥100x106/l was 16.7% (95% CI 4.7%, 37.4%) vs. 6.3% (95% CI 0.2%, 30.2%). Specificity was >95% irrespective of diagnostic reference standard, CD4 stratum, or whether grade 1 or grade 2 cut-off was used. Conclusion Sensitivity of LF-LAM is too low to recommend as part of intensified case finding in ambulatory patients established in HIV care

  2. Resurgence and the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit: connecting weak and strong coupling in the Mathieu and Lamé systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basar, Gökçe; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2015-02-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit for the low-energy behavior of and supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theories is encoded in the spectrum of the Mathieu and Lamé equations, respectively. This correspondence is usually expressed via an all-orders Bohr-Sommerfeld relation, but this neglects non-perturbative effects, the nature of which is very different in the electric, magnetic and dyonic regions. In the gauge theory dyonic region the spectral expansions are divergent, and indeed are not Borel-summable, so they are more properly described by resurgent trans-series in which perturbative and non-perturbative effects are deeply entwined. In the gauge theory electric region the spectral expansions are convergent, but nevertheless there are non-perturbative effects due to poles in the expansion coefficients, and which we associate with worldline instantons. This provides a concrete analog of a phenomenon found recently by Drukker, Mariño and Putrov in the large N expansion of the ABJM matrix model, in which non-perturbative effects are related to complex space-time instantons. In this paper we study how these very different regimes arise from an exact WKB analysis, and join smoothly through the magnetic region. This approach also leads to a simple proof of a resurgence relation found recently by Dunne and Ünsal, showing that for these spectral systems all non-perturbative effects are subtly encoded in perturbation theory, and identifies this with the Picard-Fuchs equation for the quantized elliptic curve.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  4. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  5. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  6. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  7. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebites are considered a neglected tropical disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. Although antivenom is the only treatment available, it is associated with several side effects. As an alternative, plants have been extensively studied in order to obtain an alternative treatment. In folk medicine, Azima tetracantha Lam. is usually used to treat snakebites. The present study aims to provide a scientific explanation for the use of this plant against snakebite. The extracts of shade dried leaves of A. tetracantha were tested for in vitro inhibitory activity on toxic venom enzymes like phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, acetylcholinesterase, hyaluronidase etc. from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venoms. Results The ethylacetate extract rendered a significant inhibitory effect on the phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes. Conclusions The present study suggests that ethylacetate extract of A. tetracantha leaves possesses compounds that inhibit the activity of toxic enzymes from Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli venom. Further pharmacological and in vivo studies would provide evidence that this substance may lead to a potential treatment against these venoms. PMID:24690426

  8. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.

    PubMed

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  9. Purification and structural characterization of an α-glucosidase inhibitory polysaccharide from apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) pulp.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Gu, Xin; Wang, Fengjun; Ouyang, Jie; Wang, Jianzhong

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the crude polysaccharide (APPS) from the fruiting bodies of apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L. Lam.) was isolated and fractionated by ultrafiltration and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The hypoglycemic activities of all fractions were determined by α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. The fraction APPS1-2 showed the best activity with an IC50 of 6.06 mg/mL. The properties and chemical compositions of this fraction were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography-eighteen angle laser light scattering instrument, UV spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H). The results demonstrated that APPS1-2 was a neutral glycoconjugate with a molecular weight of 25.93 kDa. It comprised rhamnose, glucose, mannose, and galactose, with a relative molar ratio of 1.34:2.01:0.48:0.35. The backbone of APPS1-2 may consist of rhamnose and glucose, but its branches may consist of mannose and galactose. The IR and UV spectrum of APPS1-2 revealed the typical characteristics of heteropolysaccharide. (1)H NMR spectrum showed that APPS1-2 contained α-configurations. PMID:25659703

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  11. Immunogenicity of viral B-cell epitopes inserted into two surface loops of the Escherichia coli K12 LamB protein and expressed in an attenuated aroA strain of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Michel, V; Leclerc, C; Hofnung, M; Charbit, A

    1999-01-01

    We previously developed a general procedure which allows the genetic coupling of a chosen foreign linear epitope in different 'permissive' sites of a carrier protein. By using the outer membrane protein LamB of Escherichia coli K12 as a carrier, we were able to express a number of different foreign epitopes at the bacterial surface. In the present work, taking advantage of the recent determination of the crystal structure of LamB, we inserted two model B-cell epitopes i.e.--the C3 epitope from poliovirus (residues 93 to 103 of VP1) and the preS2 epitope from hepatitis B virus, (residues 132 to 145)--at the tip of the most distal and largest surface exposed region of LamB (after residues 386, into loop L9). We also used two previously constructed LamB hybrids, corresponding to the insertion of the C3B or preSB epitope into permissive site 153 (lying in the middle of the fourth surface loop of LamB), to construct two LamB proteins corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the two different epitopes (with one epitope per site). The LamB hybrids were placed under the control of the anaerobically inducible pnirB promoter and expressed in a LamB-negative derivative of the aroA attenuated strain of S. typhimurium, SL3261. In vitro, the recombinant proteins were expressed at a high level (up to 10% of whole cell proteins) and in vivo the recombinant plasmids were stably maintained. For both epitopes, genetic coupling at site 386 appeared to be more favorable for the induction of anti-epitope antibodies than coupling at site 153. Moreover, the LamB hybrid corresponding to the simultaneous insertion of the preSB epitope at site 153 and of the C3B epitope at site 386 allowed the induction of both anti-poliovirus and anti-hepatitis B antibodies. PMID:10078601

  12. Identification of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS in Camellia oleifera and their potential as molecular markers for selection of high tea oil cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongzhong; Wang, Baoming; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Xiangnan; Wang, Rui; Peng, Shaofeng; Chen, Longsheng; Ma, Li; Luo, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tea oil derived from seeds of Camellia oleifera Abel. is high-quality edible oil in China. This study isolated full-length cDNAs of Rubisco subunits rbcL and rbcS from C. oleifera. The rbcL has 1,522 bp with a 1,425 bp coding region, encoding 475 amino acids; and the rbcS has 615 bp containing a 528 bp coding region, encoding 176 amino acids. The expression level of the two genes, designated as Co-rbcL and Co-rbcS, was determined in three C. oleifera cultivars: Hengchong 89, Xianglin 1, and Xianglin 14 whose annual oil yields were 546.9, 591.4, and 657.7 kg ha-1, respectively. The Co-rbcL expression in ‘Xianglin 14’ was significantly higher than ‘Xianglin 1’, and ‘Xianglin 1’ was greater than ‘Hengchong 89’. The expression levels of Co-rbcS in ‘Xianglin 1’ and ‘Xianglin 14’ were similar but were significantly greater than in ‘Hengchong 89’. The net photosynthetic rate of ‘Xianglin 14’ was significantly higher than ‘Xianglin 1’, and ‘Xianglin 1’ was higher than ‘Hengchong 89’. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that seed yields and oil yields were highly correlated with the expression level of Co-rbcL at P < 0.001 level; and the expression of Co-rbcS was correlated with oil yield at P < 0.01 level. Net photosynthetic rate was also correlated with oil yields and seed yields at P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively. Our results suggest that Co-rbcS and Co-rbcL in particular could potentially be molecular markers for early selection of high oil yield cultivars. In combination with the measurement of net photosynthetic rates, the early identification of potential high oil production cultivars would significantly shorten plant breeding time and increase breeding efficiency. PMID:25873921

  13. Trypanocidal and antileukaemic effects of the essential oils of Hagenia abyssinica, Leonotis ocymifolia, Moringa stenopetala, and their main individual constituents.

    PubMed

    Nibret, E; Wink, M

    2010-10-01

    Essential oils from three Ethiopian medicinal plants; Hagenia abyssinica (Rosaceae), Leonotis ocymifolia (Lamiaceae), and Moringa stenopetala (Moringaceae) were investigated for their chemical composition, trypanocidal, and cytotoxic activities. Twenty components were identified from the essential oil of H. abyssinica female flowers, ledol (58.57%) being the principal volatile oil component. Sixty-eight components were identified from the essential oil of L. ocymifolia aerial part, caryophyllene oxide (12.06%) being the major component. The essential oil of M. stenopetala seeds was dominated by isothiocyanates; benzyl isothiocyanate (54.30%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (16.37%) were the major components. The trypanocidal (Trypanosoma b. brucei) and antileukaemic (HL-60) effects of the three essential oils were studied. The oil of M. stenopetala seeds and its main compound, benzyl isothiocyanate showed the most potent trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 5.03 μg/ml and 1.20 μg/ml, respectively. The oils of H. abyssinica and L. ocymifolia exhibited trypanocidal activities with IC(50) values of 42.30 μg/ml and 15.41 μg/ml, respectively. Individual components (28 compounds) of the essential oils bearing different functional groups were also studied for their structure-activity relationships using trypanosomes and human leukaemia cells. Cinnamaldehyde (IC(50)=2.93 μg/ml) (a representative for aldehydes), nerolidol (IC(50)=15.78 μg/ml) (an alcohol), cedrene (IC(50)=4.07 μg/ml) (a hydrocarbon), benzyl isothiocyanate (IC(50)=1.20 μg/ml) (a representative for mustard oils), 1,8-cineole (IC(50)=83.15 μg/ml) (an ether), safrole (IC(50)=18.40 μg/ml) (aromatics with allyl and/or methoxy side chains), carvone (IC(50)=12.94μg/ml) (a ketone), styrene oxide (IC(50)=3.76 μg/ml) (an epoxide) and carvacrol (IC(50)=11.25 μg/ml) (a phenol) showed the most potent trypanocidal activities from their respective groups. Of all essential oil components tested, carvone

  14. Evaluation of a cost effective technique for treating aquaculture water discharge using Lolium perenne Lam as a biofilter.

    PubMed

    Nduwimana, André; Yang, Xiang-Long; Wang, Li-Ren

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization ponds generate low cost by-products that are useful for agriculture. The utilization of these by-products for soil amendment and as a source of nutrients for plants requires a high level of sanitation and stabilization of the organic matter, to maintain acceptable levels of soil, water and air quality. In this study, two aquaculture wastewater treatment systems; recirculating system and a floating plant bed system were designed to improve the quality of irrigation water in local communities with low income. In both systems the grass species Lolium perenne Lam was used as a plant biofilter while vegetable specie Amaranthus viridis was used to evaluate the performance of the system and the suitability of the phyto-treated water for irrigation. It was found that the harmful material removal rate for recirculating system was 88.9% for TAN (total ammonia nitrogen), 90% for NO2(-)-N, 64.8% for NO3(-)-N while for floating plant bed system 82.7% for TAN, 82% for NO2(-)-N and 60.5% for NO3(-)-N. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of waste element removal between the two systems revealed that both systems performed well, however, plant growth was not robust for floating plant bed system while recirculating system is energy consuming. Although both systems did not attain sufficient levels of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) load reduction, the treatment with L. perenne remarkably improved the irrigation water quality. A. viridis plants irrigated with the phyto-treated discharge water had lesser concentrations of heavy metals in their tissues compared to those irrigated with untreated discharge. The control plants irrigated with untreated discharge were also found to be highly lignified with few stems and small leaves. PMID:17966513

  15. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P.; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  16. Ontogenetic Variation of Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Roots, Leaves and Flowers of Astragalus compactus Lam. (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Naghiloo, Somayeh; Movafeghi, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Asnaashari, Solmaz; Dadpour, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The potential health risks and toxicity of synthetic antioxidants resulted in an upsurge of interest in phytochemicals as new sources of natural antioxidants. Phenolics of Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to have a protective effect against several degenerative diseases. The objective of this study was to determine total phenolics and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from different parts of A. compactus Lam. at different phenological phases and to investigate the correlations between antioxidation and the contents of the total phenolics. Methods Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated with the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Results Generally, the TPC in leaves was higher than that of the roots and flowers. TPC in leaves, roots and flowers of the species varied from 5.01-8.25, 4.29-7.89 and 4.19 μg GAE/mg DW, respectively. In addition, roots and leaves at fructification stage possessed higher TPC than vegetative and flowering stages. Therefore, the leaf extracts at fructification phase showed the highest TPC that accompanied with best antioxidant activity. In the root extracts, fructification stage was also characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. Conclusion A positive relationship between antioxidant activity and TPC showed that phenolics were the dominant antioxidant components in the species. The results obtained suggest that A. compactus methanolic extracts may serve as potential sources of natural phenolic antioxidants and that the fructification phase could be considered as the best stage for the harvesting of this plant. PMID:23678448

  17. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potentiality of Randia dumetorum Lam. Leaf and Bark via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Saikia, Bikas; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Singh, Yogendra P; Kalita, Kasturi; Dash, Suvakanta; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Randia dumetorum Lam. (RD) (Rubiaceae) is traditionally used by some tribes of Assam and Manipur of North East India for the treatment of liver ailments. In this context, to scientifically validate this indigenous traditional knowledge, we have evaluated the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of RD leaf and bark. The methanol extracts of RD leaf and bark were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant activity which exhibited good antioxidant activity in terms of reducing power assay, total antioxidant assay and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were found to be 112 ± 3.24 mg and 138 ± 2.46 mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract and 2.6 ± 0.26 mg and 3.34 ± 0.31 mg rutin equivalents/g extract respectively for RD leaf and bark methanol extracts. The in vivo hepato protective activity of the RD leaf and bark extract was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in male wistar rats. CCl4 administration induced hepatic damage in rats resulted in increased levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, albumin, bilirubin, TNF-α, IL-1β and decreased levels of total protein and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase. RD leaf and bark methanol extracts pre-treatment exhibited protection against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity by reversing all the abnormal parameters to significant levels. Histopathological results revealed that RD leaf and bark extracts at 400 mg/kg protects the liver from damage induced by CCl4. The results of this study scientifically validate the traditional use of RD leaf and bark for the treatment of liver ailments. PMID:27471465

  18. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. PMID:21958713

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of triterpene saponins from tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel) and their activities against bacteria and fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Fu; Yang, Shao-Lan; Han, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Lei; Lu, Gui-Long; Xia, Tao; Gao, Li-Ping

    2014-01-01

    A method using LC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS and LC/UV-ELSD was established to qualitatively analyze triterpene saponins obtained from the tea seed pomace (Camellia oleifera Abel). In addition, the quantitative analysis of oleiferasaponin A1 using LC/UV was developed. The purified total saponins did not exhibit any inhibitory effects at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/mL against the tested bacteria, except for Staphyloccocus aureus and Escherichia coli. By contrast, higher inhibitory activity was seen against the tested fungi, especially against Bipolaris maydis. Following treatment with an MIC value of 250 μg/mL for 24 h, the mycelial morphology was markedly shriveled in appearance or showed flattened and empty hyphae, with fractured cell walls, ruptured plasmalemma and cytoplasmic coagulation or leakage. These structural changes hindered the growth of mycelia. PMID:24914901

  20. Resonant frequency analysis of a Lamé-mode resonator on a quartz plate by the finite-difference time-domain method using the staggered grid with the collocated grid points of velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takashi; Hasegawa, Koji; Hirayama, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    The finite-difference time-domain (FD-TD) method using a staggered grid with the collocated grid points of velocities (SGCV) was formulated for elastic waves propagating in anisotropic solids and for a rectangular SGCV. Resonant frequency analysis of Lamé-mode resonators on a quartz plate was carried out to confirm the accuracy and validity of the proposed method. The resonant frequencies for the fundamental and higher-order Lamé-modes calculated by the proposed method agreed very well with their theoretical values.

  1. Toddaculin, Isolated from of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., Inhibited Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264 Cells and Enhanced Osteoblastogenesis in MC3T3-E1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Akio; Kumagai, Momochika; Mishima, Takashi; Ito, Junya; Otoki, Yurika; Harada, Teppei; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Misora; Yoshida, Izumi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis with bone loss is widely recognized as a major health problem. Bone homeostasis is maintained by balancing bone formation and bone resorption. The imbalance caused by increased bone resorption over bone formation can lead to various bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoclasts are the principal cells responsible for bone resorption and the main targets of anti-resorptive therapies. However, excessive inhibition of osteoclast differentiation may lead to inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Therefore, it is important to screen for new compounds capable of inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of rheumatism. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of pharmacological agents for the treatment of bone-related diseases, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. We investigated whether toddaculin, derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., affects both processes by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. Towards this end, we used pre-osteoclastic RAW 264 cells and pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. We found that toddaculin not only inhibited the differentiation of osteoclasts via activation of the NF-κB, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but it also induced differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating differentiation factors. Thus, toddaculin might be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:25993011

  2. Fast analysis of volatile components of Achillea tenuifolia Lam with microwave distillation followed by headspace single-drop microextraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Marzieh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the effect of microwaves on the amount of volatile compounds Achillea tenuifolia Lam with two methods, headspace single-drop microextraction and microwave-assisted headspace single-drop microextraction (MA-SDME), for the analysis of essential oil. Solvent selection, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time and sample mass were optimised by the simplex method. PMID:26329700

  3. How Is LAM Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung and chest wall together. This removes the space for leakage. Your doctor may do this procedure at your bedside in the hospital. You will be given medicine to prevent pain. The procedure also can be ...

  4. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. PMID:27618564

  5. Point-of-care detection of lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine for diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: a state of the art review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in urine is attractive as a potential means of diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) regardless of the anatomical site of disease. The most promising candidate antigen is the cell wall lipopolysaccharide antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM), which has been used to develop commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although highly variable diagnostic accuracy has been observed in different clinical populations, it is now clear that this assay has useful sensitivity for diagnosis of HIV-associated TB in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and low CD4 cell counts. Thus, this assay is particularly useful when selectively used among patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards. These are the very patients who have the highest mortality risk and who stand to gain the most from rapid diagnosis, permitting immediate initiation of TB treatment. A recently developed low-cost, lateral-flow (urine ‘dip-stick’) format of the assay provides a result within 30 minutes and is potentially a major step forward as it can be used at the point-of-care, making the possibility of immediate diagnosis and treatment a reality. This paper discusses the likely utility of this point-of-care assay and how it might best be used in combination with other diagnostic assays for TB. The many further research studies that are needed on this assay are described. Consideration is particularly given to potential reasons for the variable specificity observed in existing field evaluations of LAM ELISAs. Whether this might be related to the assay itself or to the challenges associated with study design is discussed. PMID:22536883

  6. In vivo Antihypertensive and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of the Crude Extracts and Fractions of Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. Leaves in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Geleta, Bekesho; Makonnen, Eyasu; Debella, Asfaw; Tadele, Ashenif

    2016-01-01

    Background: Moringa stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. is a medicinal plant that has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for treatment of hypertension and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect in fructose induced hypertensive rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into control and treatment groups (n = 6). Treatment groups were given daily extracts (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) orally with fructose. Whereas, positive, negative and normal control groups were received captopril (20 mg/kg/day with fructose), only fructose (66% w/v ad libitum) and distilled water ad libitum for 15 days, respectively. The blood pressure was measured every 5th day using tail cuff blood pressure analyzer, and on the 16th day the blood was sampled to evaluate antihyperlipidemic effect using clinical chemistry analyzer. Results: The study showed that aqueous and 70% ethanol extracts significantly prevented blood pressure increment in a dose dependent manner comparable to that of the standard drug. Similarly, the extracts suppressed increment in lipid profile (cholesterol, glucose, and triglycerides) compared with negative control. The biochemical test revealed that extracts produced a rise in liver but no effect on kidney function indicators compared with normal control. Conclusion: These findings revealed that both crude extracts of M. stenopetala (Baker f.) Cufod. possess antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic effect. PMID:27148056

  7. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties. PMID:26752619

  8. Genetic Architecture of Palm Oil Fatty Acid Composition in Cultivated Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Compared to Its Wild Relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  9. Genetic architecture of palm oil fatty acid composition in cultivated oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) compared to its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Carmenza; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Cros, David; Lopes, Ricardo; Cuellar, Teresa; Espeout, Sandra; Syaputra, Indra; Villeneuve, Pierre; Pina, Michel; Ritter, Enrique; Leroy, Thierry; Billotte, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We searched for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with the palm oil fatty acid composition of mature fruits of the oil palm E. guineensis Jacq. in comparison with its wild relative E. oleifera (H.B.K) Cortés. The oil palm cross LM2T x DA10D between two heterozygous parents was considered in our experiment as an intraspecific representative of E. guineensis. Its QTLs were compared to QTLs published for the same traits in an interspecific Elaeis pseudo-backcross used as an indirect representative of E. oleifera. Few correlations were found in E. guineensis between pulp fatty acid proportions and yield traits, allowing for the rather independent selection of both types of traits. Sixteen QTLs affecting palm oil fatty acid proportions and iodine value were identified in oil palm. The phenotypic variation explained by the detected QTLs was low to medium in E. guineensis, ranging between 10% and 36%. The explained cumulative variation was 29% for palmitic acid C16:0 (one QTL), 68% for stearic acid C18:0 (two QTLs), 50% for oleic acid C18:1 (three QTLs), 25% for linoleic acid C18:2 (one QTL), and 40% (two QTLs) for the iodine value. Good marker co-linearity was observed between the intraspecific and interspecific Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) linkage maps. Specific QTL regions for several traits were found in each mapping population. Our comparative QTL results in both E. guineensis and interspecific materials strongly suggest that, apart from two common QTL zones, there are two specific QTL regions with major effects, which might be one in E. guineensis, the other in E. oleifera, which are independent of each other and harbor QTLs for several traits, indicating either pleiotropic effects or linkage. Using QTL maps connected by highly transferable SSR markers, our study established a good basis to decipher in the future such hypothesis at the Elaeis genus level. PMID:24816555

  10. Late Quaternary environmental and human events at En Gedi, reflected by the geology and archaeology of the Moringa Cave (Dead Sea area, Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisker, Sorin; Porat, Roi; Davidovich, Uri; Eshel, Hanan; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Frumkin, Amos

    2007-09-01

    The Moringa Cave within Pleistocene sediments in the En Gedi area of the Dead Sea Fault Escarpment contains a sequence of various Pleistocene lacustrine deposits associated with higher-than-today lake levels at the Dead Sea basin. In addition it contains Chalcolithic remains and 5th century BC burials attributed to the Persian period, cemented and covered by Late Holocene travertine flowstone. These deposits represent a chain of Late Pleistocene and Holocene interconnected environmental and human events, echoing broader scale regional and global climate events. A major shift between depositional environments is associated with the rapid fall of Lake Lisan level during the latest Pleistocene. This exposed the sediments, providing for cave formation processes sometime between the latest Pleistocene (ca. 15 ka) and the Middle Holocene (ca. 4500 BC), eventually leading to human use of the cave. The Chalcolithic use of the cave can be related to a relatively moist desert environment, probably related to a shift in the location of the northern boundary of the Saharo-Arabian desert belt. The travertine layer was U-Th dated 2.46 ± 0.10 to 2.10 ± 0.04 ka, in agreement with the archaeological finds from the Persian period. Together with the inner consistency of the dating results, this strongly supports the reliability of the radiometric ages. The 2.46-2.10 ka travertine deposition within the presently dry cave suggests a higher recharge of the Judean Desert aquifer, correlative to a rising Dead Sea towards the end of the 1st millennium BC. This suggests a relatively moist local and regional climate facilitating human habitation of the desert.

  11. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. on blood pressure and oxidative status in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Asghari, Gholamreza; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo; Heidarinejad, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. is a tropical tree growing in southeast of Iran. All parts of this plant have nutritional uses and pharmacological activities. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in dexamethasone (Dex)-induced hypertension in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats received Dex (30 μg/kg, subcutaneously; s.c.) or saline (as vehicle, 1 ml/kg, s.c.) for 14 days. In a prevention study, the rats received M. peregrina extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for 4 days, followed by Dex for 14 days. In a reversal study, the animals received M. peregrina extract orally from day 8 to 14. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using tail-cuff method. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were assessed in plasma samples. Results: Dex significantly increased the SBP and the plasma H2O2 and decreased the plasma FRAP value (P < 0.001). M. peregrina extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg prevented (P < 0.01) but did not reverse Dex-induced hypertension in rats. It also dose-dependently reduced the plasma H2O2 concentration and improved the FRAP value upon Dex administration. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated the antioxidant and partially antihypertensive effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of M. peregrina in Dex-induced hypertension. Further experiments on other fractions of the leaves and also other parts of this plant are suggested for better evaluation of its antihypertensive effect and finding its mechanisms of action. PMID:26015927

  12. High-Q energy trapping of temperature-stable shear waves with Lamé cross-sectional polarization in a single crystal silicon waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizian, R.; Daruwalla, A.; Ayazi, F.

    2016-03-01

    A multi-port electrostatically driven silicon acoustic cavity is implemented that efficiently traps the energy of a temperature-stable eigen-mode with Lamé cross-sectional polarization. Dispersive behavior of propagating and evanescent guided waves in a ⟨100⟩-aligned single crystal silicon waveguide is used to engineer the acoustic energy distribution of a specific shear eigen-mode that is well known for its low temperature sensitivity when implemented in doped single crystal silicon. Such an acoustic energy trapping in the central region of the acoustic cavity geometry and far from substrate obviates the need for narrow tethers that are conventionally used for non-destructive and high quality factor (Q) energy suspension in MEMS resonators; therefore, the acoustically engineered waveguide can simultaneously serve as in-situ self-oven by passing large uniformly distributed DC currents through its body and without any concern about perturbing the mode shape or deforming narrow supports. Such a stable thermo-structural performance besides large turnover temperatures than can be realized in Lamé eigen-modes make this device suitable for implementation of ultra-stable oven-controlled oscillators. 78 MHz prototypes implemented in arsenic-doped single crystal silicon substrates with different resistivity are transduced by in- and out-of-plane narrow-gap capacitive ports, showing high Q of ˜43k. The low resistivity device shows an overall temperature-induced frequency drift of 200 ppm over the range of -20 °C to 80 °C, which is ˜15× smaller compared to overall frequency drift measured for the similar yet high resistivity device in the same temperature range. Furthermore, a frequency tuning of ˜2100 ppm is achieved in high resistivity device by passing 45 mA DC current through its body. Continuous operation of the device under such a self-ovenizing current over 10 days did not induce frequency instability or degradation in Q.

  13. Evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of African variety of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam fruit.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Atawodi, J C; Idakwo, P; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Wurtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2009-12-01

    Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet that have been credited with chemoprevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the whole ripened fruit of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam, a multipurpose tree growing in West and Central Africa and other countries bordering the Gulf of Guinea, for polyphenol content as well as its antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity. Analysis of the methanol extract of the fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet dual-array detector and mass-selective detector revealed the presence of catechol (9.27 mg/kg), gallate (10.40 mg/kg), methylgallate (0.88 mg/kg), ellagic acid (3.10 mg/kg), quercetin (0.21 mg/kg), and quercetin rhamnoside (0.76 mg/kg). The extract showed very high antioxidant potential (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 14 microL), but a rather weak radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 357 microL), when tested in vitro with the xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine assay model systems, respectively. These results suggest that consumption of D. edulis could contribute to prevention of diseases that are related to oxidative stress. PMID:20041788

  14. Evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and fractions of the most potent extracts.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Shiravand, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro   β -hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36±0.01 and 1.83±0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12±0.04 and 2.62±0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47±0.006 and 0.71±0.006 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24558335

  15. Stress responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and water velvet (Azolla filiculoides Lam.) to anionic surfactant sodium-dodecyl-sulphate (SDS).

    PubMed

    Forni, C; Braglia, R; Harren, F J M; Cristescu, S M

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are used for several purposes and recently they have attracted the attention for their ability to modify the behavior of other preexistent or co-disposed contaminants, although their use or discharge in wastewaters can represent a real or potential risk for the environment. Lemna minor L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. are floating aquatic macrophytes, very effective in accumulating several pollutants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In this work we evaluated the effects of SDS on these species by determining the stress ethylene production via laser-based trace gas detection, and the activities of enzymes involved in stress response, such as guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol-oxidase (PPO). Phenolics content was also determined. The macrophytes were treated with different concentrations of SDS for one week. SDS affected duckweed enzymatic activities and phenol content. While in the fern phenolics amount, PAL, G-POD and PPO activities were not affected by SDS except for 100 ppm SDS, the only concentration that was taken up and not completely degraded. Stress ethylene production was induced only in the fern treated with 50 and 100 ppm SDS. PMID:22277247

  16. HPLC-UV/DAD and ESI-MS(n) analysis of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of an Algerian medicinal plant: Paronychia argentea Lam.

    PubMed

    Sait, Sabrina; Hamri-Zeghichi, Sabrina; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Madani, Khodir; Rigou, Peggy; Brighenti, Virginia; Pio Prencipe, Francesco; Benvenuti, Stefania; Pellati, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Paronychia argentea Lam., belonging to the Caryophyllaceae family, is a perennial plant widely distributed in Algeria. Even though this plant is used in the Algerian popular medicine, its phytochemical characterization is incomplete. In this study, the flavonoid profile and the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract, decoction and infusion of P. argentea aerial parts are reported. Flavonoids were analyzed by means of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Eleven compounds were identified and six of them, including isorhamnetin-3-O-dihexoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetinmethylether-O-hexoside, quercetin, jaceosidin and isorhamnetin, were described in this plant for the first time. The ethanol extract showed the highest flavonoid content, followed by the decoction and the infusion (25.4 ± 0.8 mg/g of DM, 8.4 ± 0.5 mg/g of DM, 0.2 mg/g of DM, respectively), while the best antioxidant activity was shown by the decoction (RC0.5 = 178 μg/mL for reducing power, 72.4% of inhibition of lipid peroxidation, IC50 = 27.38μ g/mL for DPPH radical scavenging activity and 59.7% of inhibition of NO radical). These results showed that P. argentea decoction could be considered as a valuable source of flavonoids and antioxidants that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. PMID:25910047

  17. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

  18. Antioxidant activities of trypsin inhibitor, a 33 KDa root storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. Tainong 57).

    PubMed

    Hou, W C; Chen, Y C; Chen, H J; Lin, Y H; Yang, L L; Lee, M H

    2001-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitors (TIs), root storage proteins, were purified from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas[L.] Lam cv. Tainong 57) roots by trypsin affinity column according to the methods of Hou and Lin (Plant Sci. 1997, 126, 11-19 and Plant Sci. 1997, 128, 151-158). A single band of 33 kDa TI was obtained by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. This purified 33 kDa TI had scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. There was positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (2 to 22%) and amounts of 33 kDa TI (1.92 to 46 pmol). The scavenging activities of 33 kDa TI against DPPH were calculated from linear regression to be about one-third of those of glutathione between 5 and 80 pmol. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detection, it was found that 33 kDa TI could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of EPR signal were significantly decreased from 1.5 to 6 pmol of 33 kDa TI compared to those of the controls. It is suggested that 33 kDa TI, one of the sweet potato root storage proteins, may play a role as an antioxidant in roots and may be beneficial to health when it is consumed. PMID:11409996

  19. Eugenia jambolana Lam. Berry Extract Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis of Human Breast Cancer but not Non-Tumorigenic Breast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S.; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P.

    2009-01-01

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant, Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives:1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and, 2) to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC50=27 µg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC50=40 µg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC50>100 µg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 µg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p≤0.05) and the MDA-MB-231 (p≤0.01) breast cancer cells, but not towards the normal MCF-10A breast cells. These studies suggest that JFE may have potential beneficial effects against breast cancer. PMID:19166352

  20. Eugenia jambolana Lam. berry extract inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human breast cancer but not non-tumorigenic breast cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Adams, Lynn S; Chen, Shiuan; Killian, Caroline; Ahmed, Aftab; Seeram, Navindra P

    2009-02-11

    The ripe purple berries of the native Indian plant Eugenia jambolana Lam., known as Jamun, are popularly consumed and available in the United States in Florida and Hawaii. Despite the growing body of data on the chemopreventive potential of edible berry extracts, there is paucity of such data for Jamun fruit. Therefore our laboratory initiated the current study with the following objectives: (1) to prepare a standardized Jamun fruit extract (JFE) for biological studies and (2) to investigate the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of JFE in estrogen dependent/aromatase positive (MCF-7aro), and estrogen independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells, and in a normal/nontumorigenic (MCF-10A) breast cell line. JFE was standardized to anthocyanin content using the pH differential method, and individual anthocyanins were identified by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. JFE contained 3.5% anthocyanins (as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents) which occur as diglucosides of five anthocyanidins/aglycons: delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. In the proliferation assay, JFE was most effective against MCF-7aro (IC(50) = 27 microg/mL), followed by MDA-MB-231 (IC(50) = 40 microg/mL) breast cancer cells. Importantly, JFE exhibited only mild antiproliferative effects against the normal MCF-10A (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL) breast cells. Similarly, JFE (at 200 microg/mL) exhibited pro-apoptotic effects against the MCF-7aro (p

  1. Channel architecture in maltoporin: dominance studies with lamB mutations influencing maltodextrin binding provide evidence for independent selectivity filters in each subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ferenci, T; Lee, K S

    1989-01-01

    Maltoporin trimers constitute maltodextrin-selective channels in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. To study the organization of the maltodextrin-binding site within trimers, dominance studies were undertaken with maltoporin variants of altered binding affinity. It has been established that amino acid substitutions at three dispersed regions of the maltoporin sequence (at residues 8, 82, and 360) resulted specifically in maltodextrin-binding defects and loss of maltodextrin channel selectivity; a substitution at residue 118 increased both binding affinity and maltodextrin transport. Strains heterodiploid for lamB were constructed in which these substitutions were encoded by chromosomal and plasmid-borne genes, and the relative level of maltoporin expression from these genes was estimated. Binding assays with bacteria forming maltoporin heterotrimers were performed in order to test for complementation between binding-negative alleles, negative dominance of negative over wild-type alleles, and possible dominance of negatives over the high-affinity allele. Double mutants with mutations affecting residues 8 and 118, 82 and 118, and 118 and 360 were constructed in vitro, and the dominance properties of the mutations in cis were also tested. There was no complementation between negatives and no negative dominance in heterotrimers. The high-affinity mutation was dominant over negatives in trans but not in cis. The affinity of binding sites in heterotrimer populations was characteristic of the high-affinity allele present and uninfluenced by the negative allele. These results are consistent with the presence of three discrete binding sites in a maltoporin trimer and suggest that the selectivity filter for maltodextrins is not at the interface between the three subunits. PMID:2521623

  2. Do Ecological Niche Model Predictions Reflect the Adaptive Landscape of Species?: A Test Using Myristica malabarica Lam., an Endemic Tree in the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Shivaprakash K.; Gudasalamani, Ravikanth; Barve, Narayani; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Narayanagowda, Ganeshaiah Kotiganahalli; Ramanan, Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    Ecological niche models (ENM) have become a popular tool to define and predict the “ecological niche” of a species. An implicit assumption of the ENMs is that the predicted ecological niche of a species actually reflects the adaptive landscape of the species. Thus in sites predicted to be highly suitable, species would have maximum fitness compared to in sites predicted to be poorly suitable. As yet there are very few attempts to address this assumption. Here we evaluate this assumption. We used Bioclim (DIVA GIS version 7.3) and Maxent (version 3.3.2) to predict the habitat suitability of Myristica malabarica Lam