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Sample records for moroccan ethnic minority

  1. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-06-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented. PMID

  2. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  3. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups. PMID:22069768

  4. The Politics of Arabic Language Education: Moroccan Immigrant Children's Language Socialization into Ethnic and Religious Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Sanchez, Inmaculada M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of reproduction and the manufacturing of national/ethnic and religious identities in the deterritorialized space of the Moroccan immigrant diaspora. More specifically, this paper examines Moroccan immigrant children's language socialization into pan-Arabic and Islamic identities in relation to the teaching of the…

  5. Ethnic Minorities in America: Past, Present, Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Marion Therese

    This paper investigates the nature of ethnic prejudice and examines the treatment of four ethnic minorities in the United States--American Indians, blacks, Chinese Americans, and Mexican Americans. The hypothesis is that, despite inequality, ethnic minorities in the United States enjoy a better lot than ethnic minorities elsewhere. Two forms of…

  6. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  7. The Perception of Neighborhood Disorder in Flemish Belgium: Differences between Ethnic Majority and Minority Group Members and Bearing on Fear of Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancluysen, Kris; Van Craen, Maarten; Ackaert, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The present research examines whether the perception of neighborhood disorder differs between ethnic majority and minority group members and whether perceived disorder has the same impact on fear of crime among ethnic minorities as among the majority group. To answer the research questions, data are used from a survey among persons of Moroccan,…

  8. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  9. Ethnic minority energy conference: report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The report of a 1977 energy conference sponsored by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People summarizes the basic concern that US energy policy was not addressing the importance of full employment or the impact of rising energy costs on the poor. Conference speakers spoke of the social and economic changes that are needed if minorities are to participate in the economics of the technological age. These include better educational opportunities and cooperation between civil rights groups and energy planners. Other topics were venture opportunities for minorities in energy-related fields and opportunities for minority advocacy and energy efficiency actions.

  10. Communicating with older ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    Likupe, Gloria

    2014-06-10

    In a time of increasing cultural diversity, it is essential that healthcare professionals respond by providing culturally competent care. Healthcare professionals must recognise the diverse needs of people from ethnic minority communities to ensure that they receive equal standards of care. This is particularly pertinent when providing care for older ethnic minority patients who may not be fluent in English. This article focuses on the need to communicate effectively with this group of patients to meet their health and social care needs, with the ultimate aim of improving patient outcomes. PMID:24894254

  11. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  12. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  13. Ethnic Identity of Minority No-Fee Preservice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shuhan; Li, Ling; Yalikunjiang, Aisige; Tao, Xunyu; Li, Quan; Gong, Siyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study used a questionnaire to survey ethnic identity among 329 ethnic minority no-fee preservice students at Southwest University. The results indicated that: (1) Ethnic minority no-fee students have a relatively strong sense of identity with both their ethnicity and the Chinese nation, and the correlation between the two is positive. Their…

  14. Ethnic Identity, Externalizing Problem Behaviour and the Mediating Role of Self-Esteem among Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Yagmur, Sengul; Stams, Geert Jan; de Haan, Mariette

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between two aspects of ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment-affirmation) and externalizing problem behaviour in Dutch, Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch adolescents living in the Netherlands. A total number of 345 adolescents (115…

  15. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  16. Why Teach? Ethnic Minority College Students' Views on Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, A. Y.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of the number of ethnic minority teachers was undertaken due to the increased awareness at one Hispanic Serving Institution (HSI) in Southern California where there were low numbers of minorities entering the teacher credential programs. When approached about the low numbers of ethnic minority students in the teacher preparation…

  17. Beliefs about Justification for Knowing When Ethnic Majority and Ethnic Minority Students Read Multiple Conflicting Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strømsø, Helge Ivar; Bråten, Ivar; Anmarkrud, Øistein; Ferguson, Leila E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role of justification for knowing beliefs in learning and comprehension when ethnic majority and ethnic minority students from the same school classes read five conflicting documents on the scientific issue of sun exposure and health. Results showed that the more ethnic minority students trusted scientific authorities and the less…

  18. School Belonging, Ethnic Identity, and Psychological Adjustment among Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummadam, Praveena; Pittman, Laura D.; Ioffe, Micah

    2016-01-01

    This study considers how the psychological adjustment of ethnic minority college students may be linked to a sense of school belonging and ethnic identity, two constructs related to individuals feeling like they belong to a larger group. Using self-reports from 311 undergraduates from ethnic minority backgrounds, school belonging was found to be…

  19. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  20. Race, culture and ethnicity in minority research: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    Dein, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Race and ethnicity are terms commonly used in ethnic minority research. Both these terms present a number of problems in terms of definition and classification. It is argued here that there is a need to move beyond essentialised concepts of race and ethnicity to examine the socio-political processes which relate to their social construction and the ways in which these terms articulate with other categories such as social class and gender and structure social relationships. The implications of the social constructionist position are discussed specifically in relation to the use of interpreters and ethnic matching of researcher and respondent in qualitative research on ethnic minorities. PMID:16856693

  1. The Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon; Osler, Audrey; Hill, John

    2005-01-01

    This article critically analyses the extent to which the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant (EMAG) has been successful in meeting its core objective of raising the achievement of minority ethnic groups who are at risk of underachieving. The article provides an historical analysis of the Grant, sets the Grant within the context of the Labour…

  2. Relating Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Attitudes toward Treating Minority Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurung, Regan A. R.; Mehta, Vivek

    2001-01-01

    The attitudes of medical students of Indian decent (N=150) toward treating minority clients and using alternative therapies were assessed in relationship to the students' ethnic identity, acculturation, and self-concept. Students with strong ethnic identity and acculturation were more likely to treat minority patients and use alternative…

  3. Ethnic and Minority Studies Review. Volume 1, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Norman, Ed.; Copps, Jane, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    This document is the first issue of the University of Wisconsin System "Ethnic and Minority Studies Review," which represents an effort to bring to the attention of the people of Wisconsin and elsewhere an awareness of the work that is being done in the area of ethnic and minority and women's studies, especially within Wisconsin, along with…

  4. Ethnic Minority Graduates: Differences by Degrees. Report 309.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, H.; And Others

    The employment outcomes and career progress of ethnic minority members who graduated from four United Kingdom universities in 1993 were compared to those of their white counterparts. A final matched sample of 272 graduates (half were members of ethnic minorities) was achieved by filtering an initial sample of 3,421 graduates. Additional data were…

  5. Counselors' Values Profile: Implications for Counseling Ethnic Minority Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Andres J.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Meyer, Dinorah M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors review the empirical literature on counselors' values, describe values salient to the 4 largest ethnic minority groups in the United States, identify similarities and differences between counselors' values and those of the minority groups, and discuss implications for counseling ethnically different clients. Understanding counselors'…

  6. Minority Ethnic Pupils in Mainly White Schools. Research Report .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Tony; de Abreu, Guida; Fihosy, Cornelius; Gray, Hilary; Lambert, Hannah; Neale, Jo

    This study investigated the situation of ethnic minority students in predominantly white British schools, highlighting factors affecting their educational achievement and examining the perspectives of ethnic minority students and their parents and teachers. Surveys of the performance of over 34,000 students in predominantly white schools in 35…

  7. Mental health issues affecting ethnic minorities in Japan.

    PubMed

    Noda, F

    1998-12-01

    Although Japan is becoming a multicultural society, the policy for ethnic minorities is not as mature as that in Western countries. Mental health issues among new ethnic minorities will be discussed. New minorities are mainly South-East Asian refugees, foreign brides from the Philippines, Korea and China, and returnees from China. Because their communities are very small, they tend to have great difficulties in coping with the Japanese society. Problems in their adjustment to the host country will be discussed. PMID:9895196

  8. Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens. PMID:24851509

  9. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. PMID:25198413

  10. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  11. Stigma: barrier to mental health care among ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Gary, Faye A

    2005-12-01

    This paper explicates the stigma of mental illness as it is experienced by four ethnic minority groups in the United States. Concerns about prejudice and discrimination among individuals who suffer burdens related to mental illness are delineated. It is proposed that ethnic minority groups, who already confront prejudice and discrimination because of their group affiliation, suffer double stigma when faced with the burdens of mental illness. The potency of the stigma of mental illness is one reason why some ethnic minority group members who would benefit from mental health services elect not to seek or adequately participate in treatment. The combination of stigma and membership in an ethnic minority group can impede treatment and well-being, creating preventable and treatable mortalities and morbidities. The article concludes with recommendations for research and health policy implications. PMID:16283995

  12. Identifying Medical School Applicants from Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, I. C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Two studies of about 12,000 applicants to United Kingdom schools show that ethnic origin of surnames is reliably assessable by independent judges, and that surnames are valid indicators of ethnic origin as determined by self-classification, showing very high specificity (97 percent) and slightly lesser sensitivity (84 percent). (Author/MLW)

  13. Are Ethnic Minorities Underrepresented in UK Postgraduate Study?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeling, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent rapid increases in postgraduate numbers, little is known about the ethnic background of current postgraduates. This lacuna is addressed using data about the UK postgraduate population. Overall, students from minority ethnic backgrounds are under-represented among research and teacher-training students but not on masters degrees. The…

  14. Empirical Research on Ethnic Minority Students: 1995-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Eleazar, III; Lopez, Angel; Straub, Carrie; Powell, Selma; McKinney, Tracy; Walker, Zachary; Gonzalez, Tiphanie; Slocum, Timothy A.; Mason, Lee; Okeeffe, Breda V.; Bedesem, Pena L.

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority disproportionality has been a topic of extensive discussion and research for many years. In 1997, Artiles, Trent, and Kuan conducted a seminal review of the special education research literature to identify how often researchers report and disaggregate data in ways that would support conclusions about specific ethnic minority…

  15. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  16. Representations of Ethnic Minorities in China's University Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhenzhou; Postiglione, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the representation of ethnic minorities in China through a review of campus newspapers, a major print medium in which universities exercise power over the discourse of cultural recognition. Three universities attended by minority students were selected. A two-dimensional mode (content and configuration) is established to…

  17. Confronting Ourselves: The White and Racial/Ethnic-Minority Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sue, Derald Wing

    1993-01-01

    Responds to earlier article by Mio and Iwamasa (1993) on white researchers investigating ethnic-minority populations and other cross-cultural issues. Focuses on slow progress being made toward building bridges of trust and understanding. Asserts that, to move forward, both minority and majority researchers must make genuine and concerted effort to…

  18. The Common Experience of "Otherness:" Ethnic and Racial Minority Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadao, Kathleen C.; Johnsrud, Linda K.

    1998-01-01

    A study identified commonalities in the experiences of ethnic and racial minority faculty members at a predominantly white research university in Hawai'i. Despite the heterogeneity of minority faculty, common experiences include (1) the bicultural stance cultivated; (2) ethnocentrism perceived; (3) and discriminatory behavior experienced. The…

  19. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  20. Inhibitors to Achievement in Science and Mathematics by Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olstad, Roger G.; And Others

    Suggesting that the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in technical and science-related careers and within academic programs leading to such careers has not resulted primarily from free exercise of choice on their part, but rather has resulted in some measure from barriers to minority group participation, the literature was surveyed to…

  1. Negotiating candidacy: ethnic minority seniors’ access to care

    PubMed Central

    KOEHN, SHARON

    2013-01-01

    The ‘Barriers to Access to Care for Ethnic Minority Seniors ’ (BACEMS) study in Vancouver, British Columbia, found that immigrant families torn between changing values and the economic realities that accompany immigration cannot always provide optimal care for their elders. Ethnic minority seniors further identified language barriers, immigration status, and limited awareness of the roles of the health authority and of specific service providers as barriers to health care. The configuration and delivery of health services, and health-care providers’ limited knowledge of the seniors’ needs and confounded these problems. To explore the barriers to access, the BACEMS study relied primarily on focus group data collected from ethnic minority seniors and their families and from health and multicultural service providers. The applicability of the recently developed model of ‘candidacy’, which emphasises the dynamic, multi-dimensional and contingent character of health-care access to ethnic minority seniors, was assessed. The candidacy framework increased sensitivity to ethnic minority seniors’ issues and enabled organisation of the data into manageable conceptual units, which facilitated translation into recommendations for action, and revealed gaps that pose questions for future research. It has the potential to make Canadian research on the topic more co-ordinated. PMID:23814327

  2. Addressing the needs of an ethnic minority diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Davies, Karen

    Even if ethnic minority populations in our health community are small in numbers, it is important to identify factors that may affect the quality of the healthcare encounter, such as linguistic needs and health beliefs. Despite increased prevalence and morbidity of diabetes in certain ethnic minority groups, inequalities in health may exist and can be multifactorial in nature. This article looks at the importance of cultural sensitivity, so health professionals can articulate difference, show respect and understand health-related beliefs and values. Individual assessment means that health information can be given that values diversity and is specific to an individual. This article uses social and psychological theory to offer explanations as to how prejudice occurs, and looks at the start of a journey for a diabetes team that cares for a small ethnic minority population. PMID:16723927

  3. Barriers to the Success of Ethnic Minority Students in School Psychology Graduate Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Chelsi R.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Dufrene, Brad A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined factors that may serve as barriers to the success of ethnic minority graduate students by assessing the academic, social, and emotional experiences of approximately 87 ethnic minority and 313 ethnic majority school psychology graduate students. Results indicated that ethnic minority graduate students reported…

  4. Bridging Worlds: Ethnic Minority Pupils in Catholic Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    Aggregated attainment data for each of the four Key Stages of the National Curriculum during 2006-07 are used to compare the performance of schools having differing proportions of ethnic minority pupils on roll. The data are for all maintained primary and secondary schools that completed the 2007 Annual Schools' Census. There are noticeable…

  5. A Multicultural Countryside?: Ethnic Minorities in Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missingham, Bruce; Dibden, Jacqui; Cocklin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews previous social science knowledge about non-English speaking background (NESB) immigrant communities in rural Australia with the aim of systematising what has been a diverse and fragmented literature. We propose a number of unifying themes which suggest the outlines of an emerging social science of ethnic minorities in rural…

  6. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  7. Vocational Education for China's Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Minhui

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the current status and problems of vocational education for China's ethnic minorities. It concludes that these problems have both universal areas in common with China's overall education situation and individual characteristics; they also have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities. The universal areas include the…

  8. Close Friendships among Urban, Ethnic-Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe; Gingold, Rachel; Rotenberg, Mariana; Kuriakose, Geena

    2005-01-01

    In-depth interviews with ethnic-minority, low-income, urban adolescents reveal the multiple meanings of trust and closeness in friendships, the intersection of trust and distrust, and the ways in which close friendships are firmly embedded in cultural contexts.

  9. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  10. Immigrants and Ethnic Minorities in the History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The experience of immigrants and ethnic minorities in post-war Europe represents a significant silence in the history of education in Europe. Published research in the field on this theme is negligible in quantity, and is largely restricted to brief and narrative descriptions of policy changes that are organised around concepts of assimilation,…

  11. Votes and Policies: Ethnic Minorities and the General Election 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Muhammad

    Surveys were conducted to present a picture of the participation of ethnic minorities in British elections. The surveys measured voter registration, knowledge and attitudes about issues, voting patterns in the 1979 General Election, candidates' attitudes about issues (especially race relations issues), and activities and election success of…

  12. Creating an inclusive environment for black and minority ethnic nurses.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Claire; Alexis, Obrey

    Black and minority ethnic nurses are an important part of today's NHS and acknowledging the part that they play and creating an environment where they feel valued is essential for multiprofessional working. Celebration of the diversity that nurses from different ethnic backgrounds bring to nursing care and to team working is often absent from the cultural environment in which nurses work. In fact, nurses can feel discriminated against and feel that their ethnic background is adversely affecting their career progression (Beishon et al, 1995). Creating a culturally competent environment should be central to the ethos of the NHS and cultural awareness and cultural empowerment are key components of an enhanced level of cultural competence. Education and career development opportunities are essential in enhancing confidence and self-esteem and in creating career progression equality for nurses from different ethnic backgrounds. PMID:15687904

  13. Impact of Racism on Ethnic Minority Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-01-01

    A problem in ethnic minority mental health that can be solved in the foreseeable future is understanding how subtle and covert forms of racism affect psychological health of racial minorities. Although scientific psychology has generated a large body of literature on racial prejudice, stereotypes, intergroup attitudes, and racial bias and their often implicit and automatic nature, relatively little is known about the effects of these subtle racial bias on minority individuals. Following a selective review of recent developments in experimental psychology and multicultural psychology, I suggest some promising approaches and opportunities for future integration that would advance the field. PMID:26158843

  14. Intragroup Contact and Anxiety Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Considering Ethnic Identity and School Diversity Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66 % female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed. PMID:24951944

  15. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    PubMed Central

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  16. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  17. In Search of Cultural Diversity: Recent Literature in Cross-Cultural and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia

    2001-01-01

    Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…

  18. Enhance Ideological Political Education Work for Ethnic Minority Students and Build up Harmonious Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate the development of the ethnic minority regions and cultivate ethnic minority talent, the state has successively implemented policies of setting up the Tibet Class and the Xinjiang Class in institutions of higher learning in China's interior regions ("neidi"), enabling some of the finest young students among the ethnic minorities to…

  19. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Huey, Stanley J.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no well-established treatments were identified, probably efficacious or possibly efficacious treatments were found for ethnic minority youth with anxiety-related problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, conduct problems, substance use problems, trauma-related syndromes, and other clinical problems. In addition, all studies met either Nathan and Gorman's (2002) Type 1 or Type 2 methodological criteria. A brief meta-analysis showed overall treatment effects of medium magnitude (d = .44). Effects were larger when EBTs were compared to no treatment (d = .58) or psychological placebos (d = .51) versus treatment as usual (d = .22). Youth ethnicity (African American, Latino, mixed/other minority), problem type, clinical severity, diagnostic status, and culture-responsive treatment status did not moderate treatment outcome. Most studies had low statistical power and poor representation of less acculturated youth. Few tests of cultural adaptation effects have been conducted in the literature and culturally validated outcome measures are mostly lacking. Recommendations for clinical practice and future research directions are provided. PMID:18444061

  20. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted. PMID:24722777

  1. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities. NCES 2007-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KewalRamani, Angelina; Gilbertson, Lauren; Fox, Mary Ann; Provasnik, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" examines the educational progress and challenges that racial and ethnic minorities face in the United States. This report shows that over time larger numbers of minorities have completed high school and continued their education in college. Despite these gains, progress has…

  2. Cancer and ethnic minorities--the Department of Health's perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, V.

    1996-01-01

    With more than 160,000 deaths annually cancer is the second commonest cause of death in the UK. The little evidence available shows that black and minority ethnic people are experiencing an increase in cancer-related mortality. The Government's Health of the Nation report produced in 1993 by the Department of Health identifies key areas, including cancer, where improvements in mortality and morbidity could be achieved, and an essential element relates to the needs of black and minority ethnic people. It is, for example, now well recognised that in terms of screening, treatment and palliation, cancer services are not always accessible and sensitive to the needs of this section of the population. Beginning with a demographic backdrop this paper reviews the data on the occurrence of cancer and on access to services by this section of the population. Relevant initiatives funded by the Department of Health are highlighted and a summary of the information sources to enable health care purchasers and service providers to assess the needs of their local population has also been given. PMID:8782792

  3. Prevalence of Psychiatric Illnesses among Ethnic Minority Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-nan; Chan, Domin; Laderman, Mara

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among a national representative sample of older Latinos, Asians, African-Americans, and Afro-Caribbean to non-Latino Whites. DESIGN Cross-sectional study conducted in 2001 through 2004. SETTING Urban and rural households in the contiguous United States. PARTICIPANTS A total of 4,245 community-dwelling residents aged 50 and older living in non-institutional settings. Data are from the NIMH Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys. METHODS The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessed lifetime and 12-month psychiatric disorders. Interviewers matched the cultural background and language preference of participants. Bayesian estimates compared psychiatric disorder prevalence rates among ethnic/racial groups. RESULTS After gender adjustments, older non-Latino Whites had higher lifetime rates of any depressive disorder than African-Americans but were no different than older Latinos. Older Asians and Afro-Caribbean had significantly lower lifetime rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders than non-Latino Whites. Immigrant Asians had higher lifetime rates of GAD than the U.S.-born Asians and immigrant Latinos had higher lifetime rates of dysthymia and GAD than U. S.-born Latinos. U.S. born Latinos had higher lifetime rates of substance abuse, especially alcohol abuse, than immigrant Latinos. There were no significant differences in the rates of 12-month psychiatric disorders between non-Latino whites and ethnic/racial minorities, except that older African-Americans had higher 12-month rates of any substance use disorder compared to non-Latino Whites. CONCLUSION Prevalence rates vary considerably by ethnicity and race as well as by nativity for older minorities, suggesting different patterns of illness and risk. PMID:20374401

  4. Diversity Summit 2008: challenges in the recruitment and retention of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Desiree; Razani, Jill; Suarez, Paola; Lafosse, Jose M; Manly, Jennifer; Attix, Deborah K

    2010-11-01

    The 2008 Diversity Summit recognized the many advantages of increasing the number of neuropsychologists from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The Summit addressed the aspiration of creating a more ethnically diverse body of neuropsychologists by increasing the recruitment of ethnic minority students to neuropsychology training programs. Challenges to successful recruitment and retention of ethnic minority students were discussion points at the Summit. This paper summarizes and expands these points and also suggests solutions to these challenges with the aim of stimulating innovative approaches to increasing the representation of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology. PMID:21108149

  5. The palliative care needs of ethnic minority patients: staff perspectives.

    PubMed

    Diver, Fiona; Molassiotis, Alexander; Weeks, Les

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess palliative care staff's perceptions of multicultural care provision and explore the barriers and facilitators to culturally sensitive care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with five palliative care staff were conducted. Staff showed awareness of inter-cultural diversity and the importance of individualized care. It also became apparent that staff did not possess ethnocentric attitudes. Facilitators of multicultural care that emerged from the data included training, learning from experience, the use of culturally specific literature and resources, and effective communication channels in the team. However, barriers were present, including limited interpreting services, and some staff and other patients' negative behaviours towards ethnic minority patients. The findings lead to recommendations for better resourcing and expansion of interpreting services, and for more training, based on staff's desire for limited culturally specific knowledge in sensitive combination with an individualized care philosophy. PMID:12968120

  6. Comparisons and perceived deprivation in ethnic minority settings.

    PubMed

    Zagefka, Hanna; Brown, Rupert

    2005-04-01

    Two studies investigated comparison choices among ethnic minorities and majorities. The perceived status of the self vis-á-vis different comparison targets also was assessed. Antecedents and consequences of comparisons and relative deprivation were examined. Predictions were derived from social comparison, stigma, social identity, and relative deprivation research. Two surveys were conducted, one in London with mainly Asian participants (N = 235) and one in Germany with Turkish and Aussiedler participants (N = 166) and German majority members (N = 351). Participants preferred intragroup and temporal comparisons (with other ingroup members and with the self in the past) to various types of cross-group comparisons (with outgroup members). Perceived similarity and contact with a target positively predicted interest in comparing with this target, and perceived higher status of the target was a negative predictor. Some evidence was found that feelings of deprivation depend on comparison choices. Deprivation negatively predicted self-esteem and life satisfaction. Deprivation and group identification were negatively correlated. PMID:15743982

  7. Explanations of AD in ethnic minority participants undergoing cognitive screening.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Gibson, Sandra E; Williams, Christine L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare explanations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) of African American, Afro-Caribbean, and European American older adults undergoing cognitive screening. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions regarding what they knew about AD and if they were experiencing memory problems. Responses were coded and quantized for analysis. Forty percent reported experiencing memory problems. Afro-Caribbeans made significantly more incorrect statements about AD and were less likely to identify memory loss as a symptom. Half the participants said they would seek their physician's advice if the screening was positive; none mentioned a memory disorder center. Misconceptions about AD included the effect of aluminum, brain collapse, relaxed brain, shaking, tremors, and physical illness. More Afro-Caribbeans, all of whom were first generation, had misconceptions about AD. Campaigns to educate the public about AD need to provide culturally sensitive and appropriate information to ethnic minority populations. PMID:21697141

  8. Diabetes in migrants and ethnic minorities in a changing World

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; Caletti, Maria Turchese; Marchesini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    On a worldwide scale, the total number of migrants exceeds 200 million and is not expected to reduce, fuelled by the economic crisis, terrorism and wars, generating increasing clinical and administrative problems to National Health Systems. Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), and specifically diabetes, are on the front-line, due to the high number of cases at risk, duration and cost of diseases, and availability of effective measures of prevention and treatment. We reviewed the documents of International Agencies on migration and performed a PubMed search of existing literature, focusing on the differences in the prevalence of diabetes between migrants and native people, the prevalence of NCD in migrants vs rates in the countries of origin, diabetes convergence, risk of diabetes progression and standard of care in migrants. Even in universalistic healthcare systems, differences in socioeconomic status and barriers generated by the present culture of biomedicine make high-risk ethnic minorities under-treated and not protected against inequalities. Underutilization of drugs and primary care services in specific ethnic groups are far from being money-saving, and might produce higher hospitalization rates due to disease progression and complications. Efforts should be made to favor screening and treatment programs, to adapt education programs to specific cultures, and to develop community partnerships. PMID:26862371

  9. Diabetes in migrants and ethnic minorities in a changing World.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Luca; Caletti, Maria Turchese; Marchesini, Giulio

    2016-02-10

    On a worldwide scale, the total number of migrants exceeds 200 million and is not expected to reduce, fuelled by the economic crisis, terrorism and wars, generating increasing clinical and administrative problems to National Health Systems. Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), and specifically diabetes, are on the front-line, due to the high number of cases at risk, duration and cost of diseases, and availability of effective measures of prevention and treatment. We reviewed the documents of International Agencies on migration and performed a PubMed search of existing literature, focusing on the differences in the prevalence of diabetes between migrants and native people, the prevalence of NCD in migrants vs rates in the countries of origin, diabetes convergence, risk of diabetes progression and standard of care in migrants. Even in universalistic healthcare systems, differences in socioeconomic status and barriers generated by the present culture of biomedicine make high-risk ethnic minorities under-treated and not protected against inequalities. Underutilization of drugs and primary care services in specific ethnic groups are far from being money-saving, and might produce higher hospitalization rates due to disease progression and complications. Efforts should be made to favor screening and treatment programs, to adapt education programs to specific cultures, and to develop community partnerships. PMID:26862371

  10. Differences between ethnic minority and native children in breakfast habits.

    PubMed

    Mont, Giorgia; Gkliati, Dimitra; Fanciullo, Lavinia; Mastrorilli, Carla; Finistrella, Viviana; Volta, Elio; Ruggerini, Anna; Ciati, Roberto; Vanelli, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the breakfast habits in a cohort of school ethnic minority (EM) children admitted to a summer sport school (SSS) in order to evaluate the possible differences with their Italian peers (IP). One hundred-seventy-nine children aged 6-14 years were interviewed through a questionnaire about breakfast behaviors and nutrition habits. The results were compared with those obtained in a randomized sample of 179 Italian peers (IP) attending the same SSS. EM children skip breakfast more frequently than IP (15% vs 7%; p = 0.029). The omissions are attributed to the lack of time (45% vs 54%) and not being hungry upon waking (44% vs 38%). During weekends the percentage of breakfast skippers decreased of about 3 percentage points but persisted a significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.024). EM children who did not have breakfast show a mean BMI higher than breakfast consumers (p = 0.05). Bakery products and milk were the most frequently consumed food and drink in EM and IP children (68% vs 70% and 71% vs 76% respectively). EM children chose and prepared personally breakfast at home more frequently than IP (54% vs 22%). These EM children were more inclined to skip breakfast (p = 0.025) and to have an elevated BMI (p = 0.006) than IP. An educational program, for ethnic minority families, in different languages and according to their cultural, religious and socio-economic influences could be a possible means for changing their lifestyle and reducing their risk to become overweight. PMID:22480068

  11. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. PMID:23656627

  12. Minority Ethnic Television in Toronto and Los Angeles: Two North American Approaches to Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    Toronto (Ontario, Canada) and Los Angeles (California) are two cities that provide television programs for specific ethnic groups. During a sample week, 13 percent of the total broadcast time of stations serving Greater Toronto was devoted to programs for ethnic groups. In another sample week, minority ethnic broadcasts took up 17 percent of the…

  13. Exploratory Investigation of Drivers of Attainment in Ethnic Minority Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Lara A.; Koutsoubou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that ethnic minority learners in further education in England either under-achieve or are under-represented because they face various inhibitors connected to their ethnicity. Motivators may be in place, however, which increase attainment specifically for some ethnic groups. This exploratory study intends to examine what works and…

  14. Ethnic Composition of School Classes, Majority-Minority Friendships, and Adolescents' Intergroup Attitudes in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Scheepers, Peer L. H.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between the proportion of ethnic minority adolescents in school classes, the proportion and quality of majority-minority friendships and intergroup attitudes were examined using multi-level analysis (N = 2386 adolescents in 117 school classes in the Netherlands). In school classes with high proportions of ethnic minority…

  15. Using the Multiple Lenses of Identity: Working with Ethnic and Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Diane; Rutter, Phil

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the complexities of working with clients with dual minority status (i.e., sexual orientation and ethnicity). The authors explore the multiple contexts that influence ethnic and sexual minority clients' self-concept. A case illustration of a Puerto Rican lesbian college student is presented, and suggestions for implementing…

  16. Heritage and Identity: Ethnic Minority Students from South Asia in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Mingyue; Patkin, John

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the language attitudes, language practices and identity construction of a group of ethnic minority students in a secondary school in Hong Kong. Drawing on data from focus group and individual interviews, this research shows that the ethnic minority students negotiate and contest their heritage identity by utilizing their…

  17. Minority Rights and Majority Rule: Ethnic Tolerance in Romania and Bulgaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Mary E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of data from national surveys of majority ethnic groups in Romania and Bulgaria examined the effects on tolerance toward minority groups of education, community ethnic composition, urbanism, age, gender, perceived threat to national security from the minority group's homeland, democratic values, and prevailing political ideology. Contains…

  18. Division 45: The Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…

  19. Who Tunes in to What? A Report on Ethnic Minority Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Muhammad

    This study was undertaken to determine how the press and broadcasting media report issues pertaining to ethnic minorities and race relations, and the extent to which ethnic minorities are given the opportunity to use these channels for information, entertainment, and cultural satisfaction. A sample of 1,192 Asians living in the Leicester City…

  20. Developing Black and Minority Ethnic Leaders: The Case for Customized Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunbawo, Dolapo

    2012-01-01

    The provision of customized black and minority ethnic (BME) leadership courses and programmes is one of the measures being employed to address the under-representation of teachers and school leaders from minority ethnic backgrounds. This strategy has always attracted controversy as opinions have been divided about its value and benefits. Yet there…

  1. Residential Segregation and Birth Weight among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel…

  2. The Big Picture: The National Achievement Agenda and Minority Ethnic Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes issues of minority student achievement in the context of United Kingdom government policies and the government's Standards and Effectiveness Unit (SEU). Discusses: (1) the big picture; (2) data on ethnic student achievement; (3) SEU policies; (4) government approaches to the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant; and (5) issues for the…

  3. Ethnic & Linguistic Minority Children with Special Needs. A Critical Review of Educational Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Christine

    This paper describes experiences in teaching ethnic and linguistic minority children with learning difficulties and counseling their families, from 1976 to 1992 in Pakistan and England. The paper begins with a vignette describing an ethnic minority child with learning difficulties. A global approach to the issues is then presented, examining the…

  4. The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Succession in Ethnic Minority Family Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Matlay, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact that entrepreneurship education can have on succession in ethnic minority family firms that operate in the highly competitive UK economy. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a complex conceptual model of ethnic minority graduates' economic activities and outlines the possible…

  5. The Use of Role Models to Improve Engagement of Ethnic Minority Students in Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butt, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an enquiry into whether role models in science have an effect on ethnic minority engagement and aspirations. It discusses whether incorporating scientists from across the globe into lessons could have a positive impact on ethnic minority and white pupils. Pupils at a Sheffield school were introduced to scientists from across…

  6. Life Satisfaction among Ethnic Minorities: The Role of Discrimination and Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2008-01-01

    For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life satisfaction. Using data from two studies the…

  7. The New Paradigm of Ethnic Minority Educational Research: Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Dong-ge; Huang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative research and quantitative research have their own advantages, so mixed use both to improve scientific research. Too many Chinese Ethnic Minority Educational Research in qualitative research, and few use quantitative research, leading the results with many subjective factors. The reason is that selecting ethnic minority educational…

  8. Ethnic Minority Graduate Entrepreneurs in the UK: Characteristics, Motivation and Access to Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Millman, Cindy; Scott, Jonathan; Hannon, Paul; Matlay, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Small ethnic minority businesses make an important contribution to the UK economy, and this is reflected in their rapid growth over the last decade. A considerable proportion of the growth in new venture creation can be attributed to ethnic minority graduates, who increasingly embark on entrepreneurship as a rewarding and fulfilling alternative to…

  9. Do Attitudes toward School Influence the Underachievement of Turkish and Moroccan Minority Students in Flanders? The Attitude-Achievement Paradox Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Praag, Lore; Stevens, Peter A. J.; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    While many ethnic minority students underachieve compared with their ethnic majority peers, they often hold very positive school attitudes. Mickelson (1990) explained this attitude-achievement paradox by the existence of a double set of attitudes. Abstract attitudes reflect the dominant ideas about schooling, while concrete attitudes refer to a…

  10. Use and Preference of Advice on Small Children's Food: Differences Between Parents From Ethnic Minority, Ethnic Majority, and Mixed Households.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Vassard, Ditte; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed the influence of acculturation on parental attitudes to, and use of, different sources of health advice about young children's food in Denmark. Using combined ethnic position of the children's parents as a proxy for household acculturation, the authors conducted a postal survey of 2,511 households with young children (6 months to 3.5 years) occupying ethnic minority, ethnic majority, or ethnic mixed position. The analysis showed that the use of advice differed in the 3 groups. Households with ethnic minority status were more likely to use the child's grandparents, general practitioners, and hospital staff as information sources, while households with ethnic majority status were more likely to use mothers' peer groups and written material. In all types of household municipal public health nurses were relied on as a source of advice on young children's food, but households with ethnic minority status were more likely to find the advice obtained in this way incompatible with their family eating habits. Although existing dietary health communication strategies delivered by public health nurses appear to work well in all household types, parents from minority households seem to experience dilemmas. These may be related to their cultural and generational status at the time of receiving the advice. Adjustments to current communication strategies on young children's food are suggested. PMID:26374927

  11. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. PMID:16194811

  12. Ethnic minorities' paranoia and self-preservative work behaviors in response to perceived ethnic discrimination, with collective self-esteem as a buffer.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dejun Tony

    2016-07-01

    The present research examines (a) how ethnic minorities' paranoia mediates the relations between perceived ethnic discrimination and 2 forms of self-preservative work behaviors and (b) how ethnic minorities' collective self-esteem moderates the relation between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoia. Two field studies focusing on 2 ethnic minority groups (Asian and Latino/Hispanic Americans), respectively, rendered empirical support to the focal mechanisms, which appeared robust even when perceived ethnic acceptance, psychological needs satisfaction, and neuroticism were simultaneously accounted for. Specifically, paranoia mediated the relations between perceived ethnic discrimination and voice and between perceived ethnic discrimination and workplace withdrawal. Collective self-esteem attenuated the relation between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoia. These key findings shed light on the emotional and behavioral implications of perceived ethnic discrimination in the workplace and highlight collective self-esteem as a critical factor that attenuates the negative emotional consequence of perceived ethnic discrimination. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26652266

  13. How Does Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Victimization by Peers and by Teachers Relate to the School Belongingness of Ethnic Minority Students in Flanders, Belgium? An Explorative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2015-01-01

    School belongingness has proven its positive effect on a wide range of outcomes that lead to school success. However, the factors that influence school belongingness received little research attention. Hence, the goal of this study is to explore the impact of ethnic victimization on ethnic minority students' school belongingness. Hereto, we…

  14. Minority stress, ethnic identity, and depression among Latino/a college students.

    PubMed

    Arbona, Consuelo; Jimenez, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine among Latino/a college students the extent to which dimensions of minority stress related to ethnic group membership (college climate, academic achievement, ethnic discrimination, and intra-ethnic pressure stress) were uniquely associated with depression symptoms when general college stress was taken into account. The study also examined if ethnic identity moderated the relation of minority stress to depression symptoms. Participants were 309 Latino/a undergraduate students (53% women; 69% of Mexican descent) enrolled in a diverse, major research, urban, public university in the southwestern United States. Findings revealed that minority stress in the areas of academic concerns and negative perceptions of the campus climate contributed unique variance to depression symptoms when controlling for gender and students' general college stress. Ethnic identity did not moderate the relation of any of the minority stress dimensions to depression. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24188654

  15. Counselling Ethnic Minorities: Does It Require Special Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shack, Sybil

    1978-01-01

    Ethnicity is an important part of Canadian life. There is no magic formula for counseling "ethnic" students. Ethnic differences create some problems, but add spice and color to Canadian classrooms. Knowledge, understanding, sensitivity, acceptance, and mutual trust help to dissipate the problems. (Author)

  16. Deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care for ethnic minority children: a qualitative assessment among care providers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma outcomes are generally worse for ethnic minority children. Cultural competence training is an instrument for improving healthcare for ethnic minority patients. To develop effective training, we explored the mechanisms in paediatric asthma care for ethnic minority patients that lead to deficiencies in the care process. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews on care for ethnic minority children with asthma (aged 4-10 years) with paediatricians (n = 13) and nurses (n = 3) in three hospitals. Interviews were analysed qualitatively with a framework method, using a cultural competence model. Results Respondents mentioned patient non-adherence as the central problem in asthma care. They related non-adherence in children from ethnic minority backgrounds to social context factors, difficulties in understanding the chronic nature of asthma, and parents’ language barriers. Reactions reported by respondents to patients’ non-adherence included retrieving additional information, providing biomedical information, occasionally providing referrals for social context issues, and using informal interpreters. Conclusions This study provides keys to improve the quality of specialist paediatric asthma care to ethnic minority children, mainly related to non-adherence. Care providers do not consciously recognise all the mechanisms that lead to deficiencies in culturally competent asthma care they provide to ethnic minority children (e.g. communicating mainly from a biomedical perspective and using mostly informal interpreters). Therefore, the learning objectives of cultural competence training should reflect issues that care providers are aware of as well as issues they are unaware of. PMID:22551452

  17. Integration versus segregation: ethnic minorities and urban politics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Van Grunsven, L

    1992-01-01

    The population of Singapore is very heterogenous. The main groups distinguished are the Chinese, the Malays, the Indians, and others. Since the end of the 1950s these groups have remained stable: Chinese make up 76%, Malays 15%, Indians 6%, and others 3% of the total population. In the mid-1960s almost 25% of the Chinese were working in commerce as opposed to only 10% of the Malays. More than 50% of Malays held low-paying jobs in services compared to less than 30% of the Chinese. The backward position of the Malays during the 1960s was reinforced by residential location in the peripheries. In the 1950s and 1960s the city center was exclusively inhabited by the Chinese. Malays were living in small clusters across the city and in 1 large cluster in the eastern part of the city. The ruling People's Action Party government during the 1960s adopted the New Economic Policy which granted economic and social privileges to the Malays. In 1969 the decision was made to disperse the Malay community across the city. In the early 1960s the state launched a large-scale public housing program through the newly created Housing and Development Board (H.D.B.). Between 1970 and 1982 Malay households living in H.D.B. apartments increased from 23% to 77%. Between 1970 and 1980 substantial declustering of the malay community and desegregation of the ethnic groups had occurred. In 24 areas out of 51 subdivisions of Singapore the Malay quotient decreased between 1970 and 1980. In 1980 the location quotient for Malay settlement areas was significantly lower (varying between 0.07 and 2.18) than the highest quotient in 1970 (varying between 0.06 and 3.7). During the 1980s the economic participation of the Malays increased steadily, they became gradually incorporated into industry, and increasingly moved upward within the public housing sector. Between 1980 and 1990 the Malay households living in H.D.B. dwellings increased from 72% to 97%. Notwithstanding residential integration, ethnic

  18. Ethnic Experience and Politics of Ethnicity in a Globalized Environment: Insights into the Perspectives and Experiences of the Ukrainian Minority Youth in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the question of ethnic place/identity negotiation, as well as ethnic minority experiences shaped by globalization processes in the post-1989 national and (East) European space. Using a cultural lens, this qualitative study first examines how the place and positioning of ethnic minorities are defined in the context of the…

  19. Methodological issues in ethnic and racial identity research with ethnic minority populations: theoretical precision, measurement issues, and research designs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Syed, Moin; Yip, Tiffany; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Lee, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    This article takes stock of research methods employed in the study of racial and ethnic identity with ethnic minority populations. The article is presented in three parts. The first section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ethnic and racial identity (ERI) development. The second section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ERI content. The final section reviews key methodological and analytic principles that are important to consider for both ERI development and content. The article concludes with suggestions for future research addressing key methodological limitations when studying ERI. PMID:24490892

  20. Crime and mental disorders among native Dutch and ethnic minority juvenile defendants in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vinkers, David J; Duits, Nils

    2011-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of mental disorders and the recommendations regarding criminal responsibility and treatment in pre-trial mental health evaluations requested by Dutch juvenile courts for youths between the ages of 12 to 17. Youths of native Dutch (n=2694) and of ethnic minority background (n=1393) were compared. The prevalence of mental disorders was similar for both groups (76.8% versus 74.4%). Criminal responsibility in native Dutch youth was more often considered 'diminished' or 'strongly diminished' than in ethnic minority youth. Admission to a juvenile institution was more often recommended for ethnic minority juveniles than for native Dutch juveniles. It remains unclear from our data whether these differences reflect a false stereotype of ethnic minority populations as being more dangerous and threatening. PMID:21420173

  1. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention Among Ethnic Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as structural or policy interventions, have the potential to impact the HIV epidemic at a population level, and thus reduce the HIV health disparities that exist among ethnic minority youth and other segments of the U.S. population. This article calls for a paradigm shift to develop, evaluate, and disseminate interventions that target upstream/macro-level factors or that, at a minimum, integrate both a macro and individual level perspective. The article also discusses the challenges in developing and evaluating such interventions. Psychologists and other behavioral scientists can play a critical role in reducing the impact of HIV on ethnic minority youth by integrating macro-level approaches to future HIV prevention strategies. PMID:23688095

  2. Ethnic Minorities and Achievements: The Black Hole in Science Ranks. Part 2: Post-16 Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasekoala, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the overrepresentation of ethnic minority postsecondary students into the arts and humanities instead of science and technical coursework and its impact on employability. The factors that impact this trend are highlighted. (GR)

  3. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  4. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence

  5. Body Dissatisfaction and Physical Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne; Ammon, Natalie Y.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Graham, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and adjustment, and the role physical development plays in this association, in an ethnically diverse sample of over 1100 urban, ninth grade boys and girls (M age = 14). More similarities than differences were found across ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Latino,…

  6. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  7. Vocational Education and Training in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate the provision of Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses (SEMBs) operating in the West Midlands region of the UK. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative approach is employed, involving in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 66 owner/managers of small ethnic minority…

  8. Researching Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese Context: Mixed Methods Design for Cross Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Hue, Ming Tak

    2011-01-01

    Research on and with ethnic minority students is characterised by a growing international literature that privileges "liberal multiculturalism" as a lens through which to understand their experiences, yet ethnic diversity is constructed and responded to in many societies that are not underpinned by liberal democratic values. In this paper we use…

  9. The Mediators of Minority Ethnic Underperformance in Final Medical School Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolf, Katherine; McManus, I. Chris; Potts, Henry W. W.; Dacre, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background: UK-trained medical students and doctors from minority ethnic groups underperform academically. It is unclear why this problem exists, which makes it dif?cult to know how to address it. Aim: To investigate whether demographic and psychological factors mediate the relationship between ethnicity and ?nal examination scores. Sample: Two…

  10. Teachers' and Parental Attribution for School Performance of Ethnic Majority and Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; de Haan, Mariette

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether teachers' and parental attributions for children's school performance differ depending on the ethnic background of the child. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, real-life attributions within 54 teacher-parent conversations (15 ethnic majority; 39 minority) were examined. The results indicated that,…

  11. Ethnicity, Education and Empowerment: Identity Construction among Minority Students in Southwestern China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    1998-01-01

    Eight percent of the population of the People's Republic of China is comprised of ethnic minority people, people with cultures (particularly languages and religions) that are distinct from the majority (or Han) Chinese. Ethnic students in China and elsewhere face considerable obstacles to getting a good education. A tiny percentage of Chinese…

  12. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: A Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, the "leaky pipeline" metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school…

  13. Education of Ethnic Minority Children in Denmark: Monocultural Hegemony and Counter Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Christian; Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, the paper shows how a monocultural approach has…

  14. Academic and Career Expectations of Ethnic Minority Youth in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Francis; Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ku, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Based on social-cognitive career theory (SCCT), we explore how ethnic identity, parental occupation, efficacy in learning Chinese, and learning experience relate to ethnic minority adolescents' academic and career expectations. The participants are 632 Southeast Asian adolescents in Hong Kong. In accordance with SCCT, structural equation modeling…

  15. Minority ethnicity patient satisfaction and experience: results of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey in England

    PubMed Central

    Pinder, Richard J; Ferguson, Jamie; Møller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to explore the differential patient satisfaction reported by patients with cancer who are from ethnic minority backgrounds, examining patient-reported experience of interacting with medical and nursing staff. Setting As a secondary analysis, we collated data collected over two consecutive annual rounds of the National Cancer Patient Experience Survey (NCPES) from September 2012 to November 2013. Participants There were 138 878 responses from 155 hospital trusts across the National Health Service in England, representing a response rate of 63.9% based on the total identified cohort of patients receiving cancer care over those 2 years. Outcomes We used the results of the annual survey, which sought to assess overall patient satisfaction along with patient experience of interacting with clinical nurse specialists, hospital doctors and ward nurses. Results Ethnic minority patients reported lower satisfaction and less positive experiences of care overall. While some of this difference appeared related to demographic and socioeconomic variation, ethnic minority patients remained less positive than those in the White British group, after statistical adjustment. Ethnic minority patients also reported lower confidence in, and less understanding of, healthcare professionals, including clinical nurse specialists, doctors and ward nurses. Conclusions Given the diversity of the British population, as well as the clustering of ethnic minority patients in certain urban areas, a better understanding of the expectations and additional needs of ethnic minority patients is required to improve their experience of and satisfaction with cancer care. PMID:27354083

  16. Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karla J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

  17. Ethnic minority under-representation in clinical trials. Whose responsibility is it anyway?

    PubMed

    Hussain-Gambles, Mahvash

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic minority people are frequently under-represented in clinical trials. This potentially affects the generalisability/external validity of the trial findings. This not only has important repercussions regarding the safety and the efficacy of new drug use in ethnic minority groups, but also reduces opportunities for subgroup analysis. There can be no scientific basis for excluding this group of people from clinical trials. Aims to provide a mix of theoretical and empirical debates, in order to make sense of ethnic minority exclusion from clinical trials, and suggest possibility of change. Recommends that educational programmes should be directed at clinical trial investigators and funding bodies, to increase their awareness of under-representation of ethnic minority people in clinical trials. Ethics committees could also redress this inequality by providing guidance for investigators, and by being more rigorous about reviewing clinical trial protocols. Provides a set of guidelines to "enlighten" and aid health professionals in working with ethnic, linguistic and culturally diverse populations. The guidelines require additional work and have cost implications. Argues that cost should not be allowed as an acceptable excuse for excluding ethnic minority people from clinical trials. PMID:12916177

  18. Genetic relationships of ethnic minorities in Southwest China revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongbin; Fan, Hao; Zhang, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Hu, Songnian; Chu, Jiayou; Wang, Duen-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Population migrations in Southwest and South China have played an important role in the formation of East Asian populations and led to a high degree of cultural diversity among ethnic minorities living in these areas. To explore the genetic relationships of these ethnic minorities, we systematically surveyed the variation of 10 autosomal STR markers of 1,538 individuals from 30 populations of 25 ethnic minorities, of which the majority were chosen from Southwest China, especially Yunnan Province. With genotyped data of the markers, we constructed phylogenies of these populations with both D(A) and D(C) measures and performed a principal component analysis, as well as a clustering analysis by structure. Results showed that we successfully recovered the genetic structure of analyzed populations formed by historical migrations. Aggregation patterns of these populations accord well with their linguistic affiliations, suggesting that deciphering of genetic relationships does in fact offer clues for study of ethnic differentiation. PMID:20360948

  19. Conducting HIV Research in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities: Building a Successful Interdisciplinary Research Team

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Frinny R.; Dominguez, Dinora C.; Grady, Christine; Stoll, Pamela; Ramos, Catalina; Mican, JoAnn M.; Miranda-Acevedo, Robert; Morgan, Marcela; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Purdie, Lori; Koziol, Deloris; Rivera-Goba, Migdalia V.

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection occurs in disproportionately high rates among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, making it imperative that individuals from these groups be included in research studies. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to recruit HIV-infected Hispanics and African Americans into clinical trials, but a skilled interdisciplinary team that includes researchers with racial and ethnic diversity can help. This article describes a successful approach for building an interdisciplinary team that values the participation of racial and ethnic minorities in clinical trials and that has the skills to work with these groups. The success of the Adelante (a Spanish word meaning forward) Team can be attributed to team members who actively participate in decision-making, are empowered, and function in a cohesive manner. Successful research teams build relationships with research participants in order to increase the probability that racial and ethnic minorities will enroll and participate fully in research. PMID:21277228

  20. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed. PMID:10539612

  1. Intelligence Testing and Minority Students: Foundations, Performance Factors, and Assessment Issues. Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Suzuki, Lisa A.

    This book examines intelligence assessment among ethnic minority children. Part 1, "Foundations," includes: (1) "Historical Issues" (e.g., emergence of intelligence testing in Europe and ideology of the intelligence testing movement); and (2) "Multicultural Perspective of Intelligence: Theory and Measurement Issues" (e.g., group differences in…

  2. Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72 691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

  3. A Comparison of Trilingual Education Policies for Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Bob; Feng, Anwei

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, the People's Republic of China (PRC) has instigated language policies in education ostensibly designed to foster trilingualism in ethnic minority groups. The policies, which, as this paper shows, vary from region to region, encompass the minority group's home language, Chinese, and English. Based on data arising from interviews,…

  4. Handbook for Increasing Ethnic Minority Participation in APA Divisions, State Psychological Associations, and Council of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC. Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs.

    This handbook describes ways to increase representation of ethnic minorities on the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives and in APA affairs generally. Increased minority representation in APA affairs should promote research on special populations and demonstrate the APA's refusal to accept the status quo. Methods for…

  5. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  6. Racial-Ethnic Minorities and Women in School Administration: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA. Office of Minority Affairs.

    This selected bibliography of minorities and women in school administration is comprised of two sections: (1) "Racial-Ethnic Minorities in School Administration" contains 21 pages of references, most of which are annotated. Listed are 7 books, 30 journal articles, 18 ERIC documents, 11 reports, and 70 dissertations. (2) "Women in School…

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and its Health Impact on Ethnic Minority Women [corrected].

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient-provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  8. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination by Teachers and Ethnic Minority Students' Academic Futility: Can Parents Prepare Their Youth for Better or for Worse?

    PubMed

    D'hondt, Fanny; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the interplay of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers, parents' ethnic socialization practices, and ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. Since discrimination creates barriers beyond control of the individual, the first research goal is to examine the association of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers with ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. The second research goal is to focus on the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization (e.g., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) to get a better understanding of the interaction between family level factors and the potentially negative consequences of ethnic teacher discrimination. A multilevel analysis on 1181 ethnic minority students (50.6 % girls; mean age = 15.5), originating from migration, in 53 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) shows that the frequent perception of ethnic discrimination by teachers is associated with stronger feelings of academic futility, and if these students also received high levels of parents' ethnic socialization, they perceive even stronger feelings of futility. The group of ethnic minority students, who perceive frequent ethnic teacher discrimination, is a group at risk, and parents' ethnic socialization does not seem able to change this. PMID:26861710

  9. Eliminating Behavioral Health Disparities and Improving Outcomes for Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Katherine; Ybarra, Rick; Chapa, Teresa; Martinez, Octavio N

    2016-01-01

    Integrated care holds promise for reducing mental health disparities for racial and ethnic minority groups, but studies are lacking. The authors consider critical components of effective integrated models for minority populations, including cultural and linguistic competence and a diverse workforce, and describe emerging best practices. To successfully implement integrated models into practice with minority populations will require guidance from communities, consumers and family members, and national experts. PMID:26325461

  10. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  11. Panel V: Adaptive Health Behaviors Among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Shirley P.; Angel, Ronald; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye; Liu, William; Schinke, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Race, ethnicity, and cultural attitudes and practices are among the variables that influence health behaviors, including adaptive health behaviors. The following discussions highlight the important role of social conditions in shaping health behaviors and the central role of family in promoting health across the Asian, Hispanic, Native American, and African American ethnic groups. Factors that may lead to health-damaging behaviors are also discussed. The need for additional research that identifies correlations among physiological, social, and behavioral factors and health behaviors, as well as underlying mechanisms, is called for. PMID:8654341

  12. Race, Ethnicity, and Minority Housing in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momeni, Jamshid A., Ed.

    Access to adequate housing is a strong indicator of inequality between whites and minority groups. Although the government has played an important role in the provision of housing for minorities through Federal Housing Acts, the recent trend is toward continuing discrimination in home rental and ownership. This book contains the following 11…

  13. Minority Ethnic Students and Science Participation: a Qualitative Mapping of Achievement, Aspiration, Interest and Capital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Billy

    2016-02-01

    In the UK, the `leaky pipeline' metaphor has been used to describe the relationship between ethnicity and science participation. Fewer minority ethnic students continue with science in post-compulsory education, and little is known about the ways in which they participate and identify with science, particularly in the secondary school context. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 interviews and 22 h of classroom observations with British students (aged 11-14) from Black Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Indian and Chinese ethnic backgrounds, this paper identified five `types' of science participation among minority ethnic students. The five types of science participation emerged from an analysis of students' science achievement, science aspiration, science interest and science capital. The characteristics of the five types are as follows: Science adverse students have no aspirations towards science and lacked interest, achievement and capital in science. Science intrinsic students have high science aspirations, interest and capital but low science attainment. Students who are science intermediate have some aspirations, interest and capital in science, with average science grades. Science extrinsic students achieve highly in science, have some science capital but lacked science aspirations and/or interest. Science prominent students are high science achievers with science aspirations, high levels of interest and capital in science. The findings highlight that minority ethnic students participate in science in diverse ways. Policy implications are suggested for each type as this paper provides empirical evidence to counter against public (and even some academic) discourses of minority ethnic students as a homogeneous group.

  14. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

  15. Higher Education Access and Equality among Ethnic Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2010-01-01

    Market reform, financial decentralization, and economic globalization in recent years have greatly accentuated China's social and regional inequalities. These inequalities stem from many factors, including the rise of an urban middle class, a change in the status of women, a resurgence of ethnic identities, an increase in rural-to-urban migration,…

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Perceived Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms in Ethnic Minority Youth: The Roles of Attributional Style, Positive Ethnic/Racial Affect, and Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2016-01-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal…

  17. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  18. Older and Wiser: Adult Learning and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    1993-01-01

    The British "Older and Wiser" project demonstrated the need for educational opportunities for older adults from minority groups. The double barriers of ageism and racism faced by these adults must be addressed. (SK)

  19. Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: multiple minority status adolescents and mental health.

    PubMed

    Consolacion, Theodora B; Russell, Stephen T; Sue, Stanley

    2004-08-01

    This study examined the association between multiple minority statuses and reports of suicidal thoughts, depression, and self-esteem among adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine mental health outcomes across racial/ethnic groups for same-sex-attracted youths and female youths. Hispanic/Latino, African American, and White female adolescents reported more suicidal thoughts, higher depression, and lower self-esteem compared with male adolescents in their racial/ethnic group. Same-sex-attracted youths did not consistently demonstrate compromised mental health across racial/ethnic groups. Follow-up analyses show that White same-sex-attracted female adolescents reported the most compromised mental health compared with other White adolescents. However, similar trends were not found for racial/ethnic minority female youths with same-sex attractions. PMID:15311974

  20. Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology's special issue on immigration.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws. PMID:23875848

  1. Barriers to cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Laura A V; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women are less likely to attend cervical screening. Aim To explore self-perceived barriers to cervical screening attendance among ethnic minority women compared to white British women. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Community groups in ethnically diverse London boroughs. Methods Interviews were carried out with 43 women from a range of ethnic minority backgrounds (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White other) and 11 White British women. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework analysis. Results Fifteen women had delayed screening/had never been screened. Ethnic minority women felt that there was a lack of awareness about cervical cancer in their community, and several did not recognise the terms ‘cervical screening’ or ‘smear test’. Barriers to cervical screening raised by all women were emotional (fear, embarrassment, shame), practical (lack of time) and cognitive (low perceived risk, absence of symptoms). Emotional barriers seemed to be more prominent among Asian women. Low perceived risk of cervical cancer was influenced by beliefs about having sex outside of marriage and some women felt a diagnosis of cervical cancer might be considered shameful. Negative experiences were well remembered by all women and could be a barrier to repeat attendance. Conclusions Emotional barriers (fear, embarrassment and anticipated shame) and low perceived risk might contribute to explaining lower cervical screening coverage for some ethnic groups. Interventions to improve knowledge and understanding of cervical cancer are needed in ethnic minority communities, and investment in training for health professionals may improve experiences and encourage repeat attendance for all women. PMID:25583124

  2. The Association of Neighborhood Social Capital and Ethnic (Minority) Density with Pregnancy Outcomes in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schölmerich, Vera L. N.; Erdem, Özcan; Borsboom, Gerard; Ghorashi, Halleh; Groenewegen, Peter; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Denktaş, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal morbidity rates are relatively high in the Netherlands, and significant inequalities in perinatal morbidity and mortality can be found across neighborhoods. In socioeconomically deprived areas, ‘Western’ women are particularly at risk for adverse birth outcomes. Almost all studies to date have explained the disparities in terms of individual determinants of birth outcomes. This study examines the influence of neighborhood contextual characteristics on birth weight (adjusted for gestational age) and preterm birth. We focused on the influence of neighborhood social capital – measured as informal socializing and social connections between neighbors – as well as ethnic (minority) density. Methods Data on birth weight and prematurity were obtained from the Perinatal Registration Netherlands 2000–2008 dataset, containing 97% of all pregnancies. Neighborhood-level measurements were obtained from three different sources, comprising both survey and registration data. We included 3.422 neighborhoods and 1.527.565 pregnancies for the birth weight analysis and 1.549.285 pregnancies for the premature birth analysis. Linear and logistic multilevel regression was performed to assess the associations of individual and neighborhood level variables with birth weight and preterm birth. Results We found modest but significant neighborhood effects on birth weight and preterm births. The effect of ethnic (minority) density was stronger than that of neighborhood social capital. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density was associated with higher birth weight for infants of non-Western ethnic minority women compared to Western women (15 grams; 95% CI: 12,4/17,5) as well as reduced risk for prematurity (OR 0.97; CI 0,95/0,99). Conclusions Our results indicate that neighborhood contexts are associated with birth weight and preterm birth in the Netherlands. Moreover, ethnic (minority) density seems to be a protective factor for non-Western ethnic minority women, but

  3. Mindfulness-based relapse prevention with racial and ethnic minority women.

    PubMed

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Greenfield, Brenna L; Bowen, Sarah

    2013-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in the treatment of addiction have been acknowledged for several years, yet little is known about which empirically supported treatments for substance use disorders are more or less effective in treating racial and ethnic minority clients. The current study was a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of two evidence-based treatments, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) and relapse prevention (RP), as part of a residential addiction treatment program for women referred by the criminal justice system (n=70). At 15-week follow-up, regression analyses found that racial and ethnic minority women in MBRP, compared to non-Hispanic and racial and ethnic minority women in RP, reported significantly fewer drug use days (d=.31) and lower addiction severity (d=.65), based on the Addiction Severity Index. Although the small sample size is a limitation, the results suggest that MBRP may be more efficacious than traditional treatments for racial and ethnic minority women. PMID:24018224

  4. Adapting health promotion interventions for ethnic minority groups: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Jing; Davidson, Emma; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark; Netto, Gina; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation of health interventions has garnered international support across academic disciplines and among various health organizations. Through semi-structured interviews, we sought to explore and understand the perspectives of 26 health researchers and promoters located in the USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Norway, working with ethnic minority populations, specifically African-, South Asian- and Chinese-origin populations in the areas of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, to better understand how adaptation works in practice. We drew on the concepts of intersectionality, representation and context from feminist, sociology and human geography literature, respectively, to help us understand how adaptations for ethnic groups approach the variable of ethnicity. Findings include (i) the intersections of ethnicity and demographic variables such as age and gender highlight the different ways in which people interact, interpret and participate in adapted interventions; (ii) the representational elements of ethnicity such as ancestry or religion are more complexly lived than they are defined in adapted interventions and (iii) the contextual experiences surrounding ethnicity considerations shape the receptivity, durability and continuity of adapted interventions. In conclusion, leveraging the experience and expertise of health researchers and promoters in light of three social science concepts has deepened our understanding of how adaptation works in principle and in practice for ethnic minority populations. PMID:25561680

  5. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  6. Lifelong Learning for Social Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruatona, Tonic

    2015-01-01

    In spite of its overall economic success, most citizens living in the remote areas of Botswana face poverty and are unemployed. The article argues that minority communities in remote areas are excluded because education programs use unfamiliar languages and de-contextualized curricula, there is no national qualifications framework to sufficiently…

  7. Educating Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam: Policies and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacchino-Baker, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    Teacher education programs in Vietnam, like their counterparts in most multicultural societies, struggle to address the issues of access, equity, and excellence. The nation's minority groups, about 13 percent of the population, traditionally have not gained admission to educational opportunities on a par with members of the majority group,…

  8. Ethnic Minorities in American Labor Markets. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    The document presents an analysis of the economic status of certain minority groups in the United States. The groups include Blacks, American Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipinos. Specifically, the document examines differences in female labor supply, female occupational status, and male earnings among the…

  9. Educational Provision for Ethnic Minority Groups in Nicaragua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docherty, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines effect of Nicaragua's 1979 revolution on education, especially for minority Miskito Indians. Summarizes history of Indian culture in region. Suggests Sandinista government began emphasizing bilingual, bicultural education in 1982-83, sparked by deteriorating economic situation. Concludes multicultural education program, while hindered by…

  10. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  11. Relationships between Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and Counseling Psychology: Three New Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…

  12. Research Ethics for Mental Health Science Involving Ethnic Minority Children and Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Boyce, Cheryl; Duster, Troy; Frank, Deborah A.; Grisso, Thomas; Levine, Robert J.; Macklin, Ruth; Spencer, Margaret Beale; Takanishi, Ruby; Trimble, Joseph E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    Summarizes key recommendations resulting from a meeting of national leaders in bioethics, multicultural research, and ethnic minority mental health. The recommendations focus on applying a cultural perspective to the evaluation of research risks and benefits; developing and implementing respectful informed consent procedures; developing and…

  13. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  14. Equal Access of Ethnic Minority Students to Different Types of Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we focus on answering the question "Is there equal access to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs) for ethnic minority (EM) students in Yunnan Province (China), and what explanation might be found for any differences?" In order to answer this question, we rely on the education attainment theory, and a sample of…

  15. Reduced Psychological Distress in Racial and Ethnic Minority Students Practicing the Transcendental Meditation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Charles; Nidich, Sanford; Colbert, Robert; Hagelin, John; Grayshield, Lisa; Oviedo-Lim, Dynah; Nidich, Randi; Rainforth, Maxwell; Jones, Chris; Gerace, Denise

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing literature describing the stressful nature of students' school experience. Previous research has found that racial and ethnic minority groups are particularly subject to high levels of stress due to exposure to violence, pressures due to acculturation, and the schooling process. This is the first study to evaluate effects of the…

  16. A "Both-And" Perspective between the Society of Counseling Psychology and Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…

  17. Interactive Whole Language E-Story for Early Literacy Development in Ethnic Minority Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…

  18. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  19. Being an Ally: Honoring the Contributions of Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Helen A.; Flores, Michelle P.; Dodson, Milo L.

    2012-01-01

    We underscore the importance of this compilation in our response to the major contribution on the histories of the five major ethnic minority psychological associations (EMPAs). The description of the formation, mission, goals, and activities of the EMPAs will serve as a useful tool to educate counseling psychologists and other professionals about…

  20. The Ties That Bind: Effective Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities as Models of Peaceful Coexistence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.

    Although counseling literature addresses within-group diversity among racial/ethnic groups in this country, seldom do studies examine the interpersonal dynamics within communities where minorities have fostered interdependence, cooperation, and acceptance of diversity among themselves. This paper presents an overview of some critical factors which…

  1. Responsive Services for People with Learning Disabilities from Minority Ethnic Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Sue; Starling, Samantha; Burton, Mark; Azmi, Sabiha; Chapman, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of a postal questionnaire survey carried out to explore the responsiveness and appropriateness of services for people with learning disabilities from minority ethnic communities in the North West of England. Twenty-one learning disability service commissioners or service providers completed the questionnaire.…

  2. Nurses' experiences of caring for South Asian minority ethnic patients in a general hospital in England.

    PubMed

    Vydelingum, Vasso

    2006-03-01

    Healthcare provision for minority ethnic groups in the UK has generally revealed inequalities in access and differential service provision. British healthcare policy has started to address such issues. However, very few studies have specifically examined the experiences of nurses caring for minority ethnic patients. This paper focuses on the focus group interviews of a broader ethnographic study, aimed at describing nurses' experiences of caring for South Asian minority ethnic patients, in a general hospital in the south of England. A sample of 43 nurses of all grades from six medical wards took part in the focus groups: three ward sisters, 22 staff nurses and 18 care assistants; 40 participants were white, one was African-Caribbean and two were South Asian. Data analysis revealed eight themes: changes in service provision; false consciousness of equity; limited cultural knowledge; victim blaming; valuing of the relatives; denial of racism; ethnocentrism, and self-disclosure. The study revealed a good local service response to government policies in addressing inequality. However, there was a tendency to treat all minority ethnic patients the same, with evidence of ethnocentric practices, victim-blaming approaches and poor cultural competence in nursing staff, which raise questions about the quality of service provision. The study indicates that ongoing training and development in the area of cultural competence is necessary. PMID:16494664

  3. Capitalizing on Mobile Technology to Support Healthy Eating in Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Pernal, Wendy; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Franko, Debra L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a mobile technology-based intervention to support healthy eating among ethnic minority female students. Participants: Forty-three African American and Hispanic female students participated in a 3-week intervention between January and May 2013. Methods: Participants photographed their meals using their smart…

  4. Access to Higher Education of 25 Ethnic Minorities in Yunnan Province, South Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2010-01-01

    The level of development of higher education (HE) is an important indicator to measure the development of the social economy and the civilization of a region or country. In this article, we compare the distribution of the freshmen of ethnic minorities (EMs) with the distribution of EMs over the population, based on a sample of 1 464 freshmen from…

  5. The Effectiveness of PREP with Lower-Income Racial/Ethnic Minority Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Bergen, Carrie; Inch, Leslie J.; France, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) with lower-income and racial/ethnic minority (African American and Latino/a) couples. Additionally, we tested whether relationship outcomes varied based on the delivery format (i.e., group format vs. couple format). The sample included 321…

  6. Global and Ethnic Self-Esteem in School Context: Minority and Majority Groups in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2004-01-01

    There is a considerable body of research that has explored the impact of school characteristics on the self-esteem of racial and ethnic minority group children. This work, however, has been mainly conducted among African Americans and has various conceptual and methodological problems. The present large-scale study in 182 classes from 82 schools…

  7. Parent Training among Ethnic Minorities: Parenting Practices as Mediators of Change in Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorknes, Ragnhild; Kjobli, John; Manger, Terje; Jakobsen, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined parenting practices as mediators of changes in child conduct problems in ethnic minority families participating in Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO). The participants included 96 Somali and Pakistani immigrant mothers and their children living in Norway. The families were randomized to PMTO or a waiting-list…

  8. Protective Mechanisms for Depression among Racial/Ethnic Minority Youth: Empirical Findings, Issues, and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah M; Wallander, Jan L; Cameron, Linda

    2015-12-01

    We (1) review empirical studies that report findings regarding putative protective mechanisms when exposed to risk of depression in African American and Hispanic adolescents; (2) identify key protective mechanisms for different risk contexts that garner empirical support; (3) synthesize the mechanisms identified as protective against depression among racial/ethnic minority adolescents; and (4) discuss improved methods for advancing understanding of resilience against depression in minority youth. The studies were selected from PsycINFO searches that met the following inclusion criteria: participants between 12 and 21 years of age, inclusions of racial/ethnic minority members, examining protection through an interaction with a risk factor, and outcome measures of depression, depressed mood, or depressive symptomatology. We found 39 eligible studies; 13 of which included multiple racial/ethnic groups. The following were supported as protective mechanisms, at least preliminarily, for at least one racial/ethnic group and in at least one risk context: employment, extracurricular activities, father-adolescent closeness, familism, maternal support, attending predominately minority schools, neighborhood composition, non-parent support, parental inductive reasoning, religiosity, self-esteem, social activities, and positive early teacher relationships. To investigate protective mechanisms more comprehensively and accurately across individual, social, and community levels of influence, we recommend incorporating multilevel modeling or multilevel growth curve analyses and large diverse samples. PMID:26374228

  9. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self-Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self-regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self-regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers'…

  10. "We Raised It with the Head": The Educational Practices of Minority Ethnic, Middle-Class Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a small-scale empirical exploration of the views, experiences and educational practices of middle-class minority ethnic families in the United Kingdom. It draws on semi-structured interviews conducted with 36 parents, pupils and "young professionals". Analyses consider to what extent generic class resources, as…

  11. The Improvement of Foreign Language Teachers' Affective Variables in Universities for Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Kun

    2012-01-01

    This paper states the current situation of foreign language teachers' affective variables in universities for ethnic minorities when teaching a foreign language. It emphasizes the urgent need of improvement of affective variables in such universities based on relevant research results and an interview performed in a university for ethnic…

  12. 75 FR 29776 - Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is soliciting information, research, and ideas to assist FDA in fulfilling its responsibilities regarding tobacco product advertising and promotion that is designed to appeal to specific racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. For the same reasons, we are also interested in receiving information about the advertising and promotion of......

  13. Toward Culturally Centered Integrative Care for Addressing Mental Health Disparities among Ethnic Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Kisha; McGregor, Brian; Thandi, Poonam; Fresh, Edith; Sheats, Kameron; Belton, Allyson; Mattox, Gail; Satcher, David

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, recognition and treatment of mental illness and its co-morbidities still remain a significant public health problem in the United States. Ethnic minorities are identified as a population that is vulnerable to mental health disparities and face unique challenges pertaining to mental health care. Psychiatric illness is associated with great physical, emotional, functional, and societal burden. The primary health care setting may be a promising venue for screening, assessment, and treatment of mental illnesses for ethnic minority populations. We propose a comprehensive, innovative, culturally centered integrated care model to address the complexities within the health care system, from the individual level, that includes provider and patient factors, to the system level, which include practice culture and system functionality issues. Our multi-disciplinary investigative team acknowledges the importance of providing culturally tailored integrative healthcare to holistically concentrate on physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral problems among ethnic minorities in a primary care setting. It is our intention that the proposed model will be useful for health practitioners, contribute to the reduction of mental health disparities, and promote better mental health and well-being for ethnic minority individuals, families, and communities. PMID:25383991

  14. Race, Ethnicity, and College Success: Examining the Continued Significance of the Minority-Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Stella M.; Park, Toby J.

    2013-01-01

    The minority-serving institution (MSI) sector has grown considerably since the 1980s, yet we have less empirical information about what currently influences students to enroll in and complete college at these institutions in comparison to their non-MSI counterparts. We evaluate student postsecondary outcomes by race and ethnicity in Texas's large…

  15. Working with Culture: Psychotherapeutic Interventions with Ethnic Minority Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Luis A., Ed.; Koss-Chioino, Joan D., Ed.

    This book presents essays concerning culturally responsive psychotherapeutic interventions for specific problems commonly experienced by ethnic-minority youth. Each essay offers case examples, along with a clinical how-to approach for dealing with problems such as cross-racial foster care, gang involvement, child abuse, and substance abuse. Essays…

  16. Special Issue: Racial and Ethnic Minority Students' Success in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Palmer, Robert T.; Davis, Ryan J.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2011-01-01

    This monograph provides educational researchers, policymakers, and practitioners with an overview of existing knowledge regarding factors that influence success among racial and ethnic minority students in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) circuit. To accomplish this task, the authors reviewed more than four hundred…

  17. Effective Counseling for Racial/Ethnic Minority Clients: Examining Changes Using a Practice Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Graceffo, James M.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that counseling decreases students' academic distress. These findings, however, are based primarily on European American students. This study explored the impact of counseling on academic distress for treatment-seeking racial/ethnic minority college students using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological…

  18. Removing the Barriers: Raising Achievement Levels for Minority Ethnic Pupils. Exploring Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This resource kit, which can be used with an accompanying videotape and written materials, shows how three English secondary schools have succeeded in raising the achievement of their ethnic minority students by increasing expectations of what each student is capable of, valuing diversity, working in partnership with parents, and encouraging…

  19. Sociological Perspectives on Ethnic Minority Teachers in China: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, MaryJo Benton

    2016-01-01

    Improving the quality of education has been a central goal of the People's Republic of China since its founding in 1949. Particular concern has been focused on ethnic minority areas where educational quality lags behind that of other regions. Since 1986 the State Education Commission has been working toward the implementation of nine years of…

  20. Training Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in a White Man's Program: Don't Get Bucked off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcus, Carolyn G.; Crowley, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This is a narrative journey of a Blackfeet woman as she learned to help ethnic minority students navigate graduate training. The talk reflects the holistic, contextual, and interdependent characteristics of Native American culture blended with the culture of the West. Insights from working with horses are included because they have much to teach…

  1. Stress, Self-Esteem, Hope, Optimism, and Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacek, Kimberly R.; Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined hope, optimism, self-esteem, social support, stress, and indices of subjective well-being (SWB) in 137 low-income, urban, ethnic minority adolescents. Hope, optimism, and self-esteem were significant predictors of SWB indices, but stress predicted only 1 SWB index: negative affect. No moderators of stress and negative affect…

  2. A Blessing with a Curse: Model Minority Ethnic Students and the Construction of Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    While concerns around minority ethnic students and underachievement have attracted considerable attention in educational research, such as in England, few studies have examined those who excel, except as reference to justify the equity of the established system. This paper explores the educational success of British Chinese and Indian students,…

  3. Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

  4. The Impossibility of Minority Ethnic Educational "Success"? An Examination of the Discourses of Teachers and Pupils in British Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that in Britain dominant educational discourses of "the ideal pupil" exclude minority ethnic pupils and prevent them from inhabiting a position of authentic "success". It suggests that "the successful pupil" is a desired yet refused subject position for many minority ethnic young people--even for those who are (to some extent)…

  5. The Power of Knowledge: A Critical Analysis of the Depiction of Ethnic Minorities in China's Elementary Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting

    2015-01-01

    This study critically analyzes knowledge about: (1) ethnic minority groups; (2) the dominant Han group; and (3) the interaction between ethnic minorities and Han presented in three types of elementary textbooks used in China. The analysis reveals that the knowledge about and the values and beliefs of the Han people are overwhelmingly dominant in…

  6. Teachers' Multicultural Awareness and the Ethnic Identity of Minority Students: An Individual Case Study of a Hani Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qunhui, Ou; Na, Du

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the role of teachers' multicultural awareness in promoting minority students' ethnic identity by considering the situation in one particular middle school. A case study of a Hani student is presented to show how teachers' multicultural awareness affects ethnic identity and the academic achievement of minority students. This…

  7. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  8. Ethnic minority children’s active commuting to school and association with physical activity and pedestrian safety behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's active commuting to school, i.e. walking or cycling to school, was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, although studies among ethnic minorities are sparse. Among a low-income, ethnic minority sample of fourth grade students from eight public schools, we examine...

  9. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  10. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  11. A Preliminary Discussion on Several Forms of Alternate Location Schooling in Ethnic Minority Education and the Problems Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Zhanlong

    2010-01-01

    "Alternate location schooling" ("yidi banxue"), a special measure adopted in China to advance ethnic minority education and especially basic education, adheres to the principle of providing focused educational support in Tibet and Xinjiang and giving consideration to education in ethnic minority regions nationwide. Since the founding of the…

  12. What Difference Does "Difference" Make? A Discussion with Ethnic Minority Students about Their Learning Experience in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housee, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the everyday experiences of minority ethnic students at a university in the West Midlands. Based on interviews with 23 second-level students taking Sociology modules, it seeks to highlight the key social, personal and pedagogic issues for this group of minority ethnic students and to deepen understandings of cultural identity…

  13. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  14. Reflections on ethnic minority psychology: learning from our past so the present informs our future.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Anderson J

    2009-10-01

    Commentary on progress and reflections of conversations that undergirded the advancement of ethnic minority psychology are presented by the author as a perspective of an Elder. Articles in this special issue are considered in terms of the themes that emerged from their narratives on the history of ethnic psychological associations, Division 45, the Minority Fellowship Program, and governance's response to multicultural issues within the American Psychological Association. Themes in the history of African Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians are discussed in terms of the centrality of culture, history, and pride in resilience, treatment in U.S. history, representation in literature, and its implications for training, research and practice, challenges for ethnic psychological associations, and tensions in transition to a multicultural psychology movement. PMID:19916676

  15. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the cognitive abilities necessary to…

  16. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M.; Vega, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC’s impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done. PMID:27034811

  17. Health disparities in colorectal cancer among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Christian S; Oman, Matthew; Patel, Aatish M; Vega, Kenneth J

    2016-04-01

    In the 2010 Census, just over one-third of the United States (US) population identified themselves as being something other than being non-Hispanic white alone. This group has increased in size from 86.9 million in 2000 to 111.9 million in 2010, representing an increase of 29 percent over the ten year period. Per the American Cancer Society, racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to develop cancer and die from it when compared to the general population of the United States. This is particularly true for colorectal cancer (CRC). The primary aim of this review is to highlight the disparities in CRC among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Despite overall rates of CRC decreasing nationally and within certain racial and ethnic minorities in the US, there continue to be disparities in incidence and mortality when compared to non-Hispanic whites. The disparities in CRC incidence and mortality are related to certain areas of deficiency such as knowledge of family history, access to care obstacles, impact of migration on CRC and paucity of clinical data. These areas of deficiency limit understanding of CRC's impact in these groups and when developing interventions to close the disparity gap. Even with the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Healthcare Act, disparities in CRC screening will continue to exist until specific interventions are implemented in the context of each of racial and ethnic group. Racial and ethnic minorities cannot be viewed as one monolithic group, rather as different segments since there are variations in incidence and mortality based on natural history of CRC development impacted by gender, ethnicity group, nationality, access, as well as migration and socioeconomic status. Progress has been made overall, but there is much work to be done. PMID:27034811

  18. Effects of racial/ethnic discrimination on the health status of minority veterans.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Linda; Harada, Nancy D

    2008-04-01

    As the veteran population becomes ethnically diverse, it is important to understand complex interrelationships between racism and health. This study examined the association between perceptions of discrimination and self-reported mental and physical health for Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Hispanic veterans. The data for this study come from the 2001 Veteran Identity Program Survey, which measured utilization of outpatient care, discrimination, and health status across three minority veteran groups. Multivariate regression methods were used to model self-reported mental and physical health on perceptions of discrimination controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Findings revealed that racial/ethnic discrimination during military service was significantly associated with lower physical, but not mental health. Satisfaction with health care provider's sensitivity toward racial/ethnic background was significantly associated with better mental health. Findings highlight the importance of developing policies that address racial/ethnic discrimination during military service while providing health care services for veterans. PMID:18472621

  19. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists. PMID:26547146

  20. Protection of Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations During an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, Kevin; Levine, Robert S.; Ompad, Danielle C.; McDonald, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minority populations experience worse health outcomes than do other groups during and after disasters. Evidence for a differential impact from pandemic influenza includes both higher rates of underlying health conditions in minority populations, increasing their risk of influenza-related complications, and larger socioeconomic (e.g., access to health care), cultural, educational, and linguistic barriers to adoption of pandemic interventions. Implementation of pandemic interventions could be optimized by (1) culturally competent preparedness and response that address specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations, (2) improvements in public health and community health safety net systems, (3) social policies that minimize economic burdens and improve compliance with isolation and quarantine, and (4) relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications. PMID:19797739

  1. Expressed emotion among white and ethnic minority families of adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hoste, Renee Rienecke; le Grange, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Expressed emotion (EE), a measure of a relative's attitudes and behaviours towards an ill family member, has been found to be related to treatment outcome for both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Although cultural and ethnic background can influence the way in which family members interact, very little is known about cultural differences in EE among families of an eating disordered adolescent. As part of a treatment study for adolescent BN, 55 patients and 84 parents participated in a structured interview, from which EE ratings were made. White and ethnic minority families were compared on five subscales of EE as well as overall level of EE (high vs. low). No significant differences were found between white and minority families. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that white and minority families of eating disorder patients may share several similarities. PMID:18240126

  2. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

  3. Educating ethnic minority students for the nursing workforce: facilitators and barriers to success.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Jocelyn; Duty, Susan

    2010-07-01

    The number of ethnic minorities graduating from nursing programs does not meet the number of ethnic minority nurses that are needed for patient care. In order to identify the facilitators and barriers to success, a survey was sent to current students and to those who graduated within 2 years. There were 314 responses, which was an overall response rate of 39.6%. Among the 4 facilitator factors, only the general academic support factor was perceived as more helpful by African-American students (p = 0.001). Among the 5 barrier factors, African-American students and Other Ethnic Minority students perceived program workload and pace (African-Americans p < 0.005; Other multicultural groups p < 0.02), computer access (African-Americans p < 0.05; Other multicultural groups p < 0.05) and technology competence (African-Americans p < 0.02) to be barriers. Any student, regardless of ethnicity, who worked at a job 13 to 40 hours a week, perceived family and financial concerns as a barrier. Results indicated that curriculum content should include technology basics and testing for competence. Financial support for students must be expanded through loans and scholarships so workload and pace become more manageable. PMID:20857771

  4. Cancer fear and fatalism among ethnic minority women in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Wardle, Jane; Marlow, Laura AV

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer fear and fatalism are believed to be higher in ethnic minorities and may contribute to lower engagement with cancer prevention and early detection. We explored the levels of cancer fear and fatalism in six ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and examined the contribution of acculturation and general fatalism. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 720 White British, Caribbean, African, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi women (120 of each) was conducted. Three items assessed cancer fear and two cancer fatalism. Acculturation was assessed using (self-reported) migration status, ability to speak English, and understanding of health leaflets; general fatalism with a standard measure. Results: Relative to White British women, African and Indian women were more fearful of cancer, Bangladeshi women less fearful, and Pakistani and Caribbean women were similar to White British women. Cancer fatalism was higher in all the ethnic minority groups compared with White British women. Less acculturated women were less likely to worry (ORs 0.21–0.45, all P<0.05) or feel particularly afraid (ORs 0.11–0.31, all P<0.05) but more likely to feel uncomfortable about cancer (ORs 1.97–3.03, all P<0.05). Lower acculturation (ORs 4.30–17.27, P<0.05) and general fatalism (OR 2.29, P<0.05) were associated with the belief that cancer is predetermined. Conclusions: In general, cancer fear and fatalism are more prevalent among ethnic minority than White British women and even more so in less acculturated ethnic minorities. This may affect their participation in cancer prevention and early detection. PMID:26867159

  5. The utilisation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among ethnic minorities in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Race has been reported to affect the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), but there is very little research on the use of CAM by ethnicity in Korea. This study explores the prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in South Korea. Methods The design is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of ethnic minorities was recruited from two public healthcare centres in Gyeonggi province. The survey instrument included 37 questions regarding CAM use, factors influencing use of CAM, self-health management, and the socio-demographic profile of study participants. Results Sixty-two percent of study participants reported the use of CAM. Multivitamins (53.3%), acupuncture (48.9%), and traditional Korean herbal medicine (38.9%) were popular CAM modalities in our sample. Other notable CAM modalities included herbal plants, therapeutic massage, and moxibustion therapy. The majority of CAM users (52.2%) received CAM services to treat diseases or as a secondary treatment while receiving conventional care. Having positive perceptions toward the effectiveness of CAM was a major determining factor in CAM use. Conclusions Physicians need to be aware of the fact that many ethnic minorities use CAM therapies. Many CAM users reported that they want doctors to know about their CAM use and have a basic understanding of traditional medicine in their home country. Overcoming language and cultural barriers will help reduce unwanted medical complications. High prevalence of CAM use among ethnic minorities in our study warrants further studies using larger sample population. PMID:24641983

  6. Stress Buffering Effects of Oxytocin on HIV Status in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Erin M.; Antoni, Michael H.; Lopez, Corina; Mendez, Armando J.; Szeto, Angela; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Klimas, Nancy; Kumar, Mahendra; Schneiderman, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated perceptions of psychosocial stress and stressful life events are linked to faster disease progression in individuals living with HIV and these associations may be stronger for women from ethnic minority populations. Levels of neurohormones such as oxytocin (OT), cortisol, and norepinephrine (NE) have been shown to influence the effects of psychosocial stress in different populations. Understanding how intrinsic neuroendocrine substances moderate the effects of stressors in minority women living with HIV (WLWH) may pave the way for interventions to improve disease management. Methods We examined circulating levels of plasma OT as a moderator of the effects of stress on disease status (viral load, CD4+ cell count) in 71 low-income ethnic minority WLWH. Results At low levels of OT, there was an inverse association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. Counter-intuitively, at high levels of OT there was a positive association between stress and CD4+ cell counts. This pattern was unrelated to women’s viral load. Other neuroendocrine hormones known to down-regulate the immune system (cortisol, norepinephrine) did not mediate the effects of OT and stress on immune status. Conclusions OT may have stress buffering effects on some immune parameters and possibly health status in low income ethnic minority WLWH reporting elevated stress. PMID:21215526

  7. Chronic diseases in Europe's migrant and ethnic minorities: challenges, solutions and a vision.

    PubMed

    Bhopal, Raj

    2009-04-01

    The pattern of chronic disease varies hugely internationally, and this is now reflected in Europe's multi-ethnic populations. This is creating challenges for epidemiology, public health and clinical care. Human rights legislation and health policies are mandating equity of service i.e. equal needs being met equally well. Indicators of race and ethnicity demonstrate important variations in health and health care, but the data are sparse, especially in Southern and Eastern Europe, and for some ethnic groups across the continent. Ethnic coding of routine health databases is required. The task will best succeed as a national one, with European level coordination and guidance on concepts. Pending this achievement, data linkage techniques can help fill the information gap. One of many ongoing debates that need resolution across Europe is on the preferred indicator of ethnicity, related terminology and mode of measurement. Original research also needs expansion, especially in relation to cohort studies and trials and boosted samples of ethnic minority groups in large scale European health surveys. Such work may require European legislation of the kind that has been effective in the United States (NIH Revitalisation Act 1993). A dialogue between policy makers, funders, researchers and practitioners is needed urgently as a precursor to engaging the public. PMID:19307249

  8. Minority Stress, Perceived Bicultural Competence, and Depressive Symptoms among Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Meifen; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Mallinckrodt, Brent; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Botello-Zamarron, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Based on biculturalism theory (LaFromboise, Coleman, & Gerton, 1993), the present study examined the direct effect of perceived bicultural competence (PBC) on depressive symptoms, and PBC as a potential coping resource to moderate the association between minority stress and depressive symptoms. Participants were 167 Asian American, African…

  9. Entrance Exam Admission Policies on Ethnic Minorities and Equal Educational Rights for Minorities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiwei, Lang

    2010-01-01

    In 1977, the Chinese government reinstated the national unified college entrance exam enrollment system. As a part of this system, the government also implemented preferential policies on the enrollment of minorities that authorized the increase or decrease of exam scores and enrollment cutoff points; the policies were therefore seen as…

  10. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  11. An exploration of young ethnic minority males' beliefs about romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jennifer L; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic minority males experience a disproportionate prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Few studies have explored the beliefs that frame romantic relationships in which sexual behavior occurs. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of romantic relationships for young ethnic minority men who partner with adolescent women with high-risk sexual histories and the beliefs about romantic relationships that underlie these relationship choices. A phenomenologic approach was used. Two semi-structured interviews were completed with six Mexican American and two African American young adult males 19 to 26 years of age. Participants struggled to balance a desire to maintain physical and psychological closeness with partners with a desire to distance from partners in the face of unmet psychological needs. Recognition of how males struggle to balance getting needs met in romantic relationships will be necessary for the provision of culturally relevant care for males and their partners. PMID:21341948

  12. Is it racism? Skepticism and resistance towards ethnic minority care workers among older care recipients.

    PubMed

    Jönson, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the occurrence and character of skepticism and resistance towards ethnic minority care workers among older care recipients in a municipality in Sweden. Twelve representatives of caregiver organizations were interviewed about their experience of this phenomenon. Three additional interviews were conducted with ethnic minority care workers. Representatives described the problem as rare and mostly occurring as language difficulties or as a temporary problem characterized as a fear of the unknown among some care recipients. They tended to apply a pragmatic or pathologizing approach when talking about causes of and solutions to the problem. These approaches enabled care providers to comply with "potential racism" without challenging an official ideology of anti-racism. In contrast, staff of foreign descent described the problem as more frequent and severe, particularly for short-term employees who experience many first-time encounters with care recipients. PMID:17953063

  13. Systematic Review of Interventions for Racial/Ethnic-Minority Pregnant Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Cassey, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Large disparities exist in smoking rates during pregnancy by racial/ethnic status. Aims The current review examined controlled studies that predominantly included racial/ethnic-minority pregnant smokers for providing smoking cessation treatment. Methods Two authors independently conducted the literature searches in the standard databases using a combination of the keywords with minority, pregnancy, smoking, and cessation identifiers. Results The searches identified nine articles that met the inclusion criteria. Only two studies exclusively targeted specific minority groups. Most of them provided some form of brief smoking cessation counseling, with two combining with incentives and one combining with pharmacotherapy. Two studies provided intensive cognitive interventions. Pregnant smokers of American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic subgroups, and Asian or Pacific Islander are under-studied. Conclusions Future studies to treat minority pregnant smokers could target under-studied minority groups and may need to directly and intensely target smoking behavior, address cultural and psychosocial issues in an individualized and comprehensive manner, and analyze cost-benefit of an intervention. PMID:26925170

  14. Sexual discourses and strategies among minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cense, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the way minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands evaluate their sexual experiences, how they frame these experiences in different sexual discourses and how they deal with conflicts between different sexual discourses, both at home and in Dutch society. During 46 narrative interviews, Dutch young people (aged 12-22 years) from different minority ethnic communities shared their sexual histories and their dreams for the future relating to love and sexuality. Different sexual discourses can be identified in the language they used to describe their ideas and their experiences. Young people grow up with a variety of discourses but actively re-shape them according to circumstances and need. In many cases, young people experience a conflict between the discourses of the home and those that are prevalent more generally in Dutch society. Young people's ways of negotiating these contradictory discourses comprise four main strategies: (1) conforming to parents' values, (2) breaking up with parents, (3) leading a double life and (4) integrating competing discourses. By bringing together different sexual discourses and acknowledging diverse strategies, sexual health policies can become more effective in promoting sexual health for minority ethnic youth. Findings from the study add fuel to debate on understanding (sexual) agency among young people, exhibiting the social 'embeddedness' of individual agency. PMID:24902033

  15. Just Good Developmental Science: Trust, Identity, and Responsibility in Ethnic Minority Recruitment and Retention.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Camacho, Tissyana C; Guillaume, Casta

    2016-01-01

    Given the noted difficulty of recruiting and retaining ethnic and racial minority populations into various kinds of research endeavors (e.g., basic, prevention, intervention, health), they remain underrepresented and thus underserved by the research community as compared to other US groups. As developmental scientists, we often ask questions that imply longitudinal research designs, and thus, issues of attentiveness and responsiveness are paramount to the successful engagement (i.e., recruitment) and sustainability (i.e., retention) of our research with ethnic/racial minority samples. The goal of this chapter is to advance an ongoing dialogue about much of the work researchers of ethnic/racial minority child and youth development do in order to effectually recruit and retain youth and families but that is not often obvious to colleagues and readers of the final products. We frame our discussion with three key broadly significant themes: the role of trust, researcher identity and insider/outsider status, and responsibility. Perhaps most importantly, throughout the chapter, we provide concrete examples of the ways in which developmental scientists are transforming potential recruitment and retention challenges into opportunities in their own research programs. PMID:26956073

  16. Instruments Measuring Externalizing Mental Health Problems in Immigrant Ethnic Minority Youths: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties

    PubMed Central

    Paalman, Carmen H.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Jansma, Elise P.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about reliability and validity of instruments measuring externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Aims To provide an overview of studies on measurement properties of instruments measuring these problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths, their methodological quality and results. Methods A systematic review of the literature in MEDLINE, EMbase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library was performed. Evaluation of methodological quality of studies found was done by using the ‘COSMIN-checklist’. Full text, original articles, published in English after 1990 were included. Articles had to concern the development or evaluation of the measurement properties of self-reported, parent-reported and/or teacher- or clinician-reported questionnaires assessing or screening externalizing mental health problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. Specific results of analyses on (an) immigrant ethnic minority group had to be given. Results Twenty-nine studies evaluating 18 instruments met our criteria. Most studies concerned instruments with known validity in Western populations, tested mainly in African Americans. Considering methodological quality, inequivalences between ethnicities were found, self-reports seemed to perform better, and administration of an instrument influenced reliability and validity. Conclusion It seems that the majority of instruments for assessing externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths is currently not sufficiently validated. Further evaluating existing instruments is crucial to accurately assess and interpreted externalizing problems in immigrant ethnic minority youths. PMID:23704892

  17. Emotional problems in preadolescents in Norway: the role of gender, ethnic minority status, and home- and school-related hassles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background "The gender gap" refers to a lifelong higher rate of emotional problems in girls, as compared to boys, that appears during adolescence. The gender gap is a well-replicated finding among older adolescents and is assumed to be a cross-cultural phenomenon. However, these cross-cultural studies have not investigated the gender gap in ethnic minorities but sampled ethnic majority adolescents in different countries. Some studies that investigated the gender gap across ethnic groups indirectly (by presenting emotional problem scores stratified by gender and ethnic group) indicate that the gender gap is less prominent or even absent among minorities. The aims of this study were to assess whether the gender gap is found in both majority and minority preadolescents, and to investigate whether a possible (gender and ethnic) group difference can be accounted for by differences in home or school hassles. Methods Participants were 902 preadolescent students (aged 10 to 12) from two cities in Norway. We collected self-report measures of emotional problems and home and school hassles. Using mediated moderation analysis we tested whether the interaction effect between gender and ethnic minority background on emotional problems was mediated by home or school hassles. Results The gender gap in emotional problems was restricted to ethnic majority preadolescents. School hassles but not home hassles accounted in part for this effect. Conclusions The absence of the gender gap among minority as opposed to majority preadolescents may indicate that social circumstances may postpone or hamper the emergence and magnitude of the gender gap in ethnic minority preadolescents. In this study, school hassles partly accounted for the combined gender and ethnic group differences on emotional problems. This indicates that school hassles may play a role in the higher levels of emotional problems in preadolescent minority boys and consequently the absence of a gender gap found in our minority

  18. Exploring the underperformance of male and minority ethnic medical students in first year clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Katherine; Haq, Inam; McManus, I Chris; Higham, Jenny; Dacre, Jane

    2008-12-01

    Evidence shows that medical students from Minority Ethnic (ME) backgrounds and male medical students underperform in undergraduate examinations. Our study confirmed these findings in first year clinical (year 3) medical students, and further explored this disparity in performance. We conducted a series of meta-analyses to measure the effects of sex and ethnic group on the written examination and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores of three groups of year 3 medical students at two London UK medical schools (n = 1,051; 46.0% male; 48.7% White). Male and ME students scored lower on written and OSCE assessments. Both assessments were statistically significantly correlated (mean r = 0.45) and therefore the effects of sex and ethnic group were measured on each exam after being adjusted for the effect of the other. Although sex and ethnic differences remained on the OSCE when adjusted for written performance, these differences disappeared on the written when it was adjusted for OSCE performance. These findings may reflect a relative deficit in practical clinical knowledge in male and ME year 3 students. Results were unlikely to be due to examiner bias, as the machine-marked unadjusted written exam results showed significant sex and ethnic differences. PMID:17487565

  19. Elevated birth defects in racial or ethnic minority children of women living near hazardous waste sites.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen; Bove, Frank; Kaye, Wendy; Stone, Melanie

    2002-03-01

    This case-control study evaluated the relationship between birth defects in racial or ethnic minority children born during 1983-1988 and the potential exposure of their mothers to contaminants at hazardous waste sites in California. Four categories of race or ethnicity were used: black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Case subjects were 13,938 minority infants with major structural birth defects (identified by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program) whose mothers resided in selected counties at the time of delivery. The control group was composed of 14,463 minority infants without birth defects who were randomly selected from the same birth cohort as the case subjects. The potential for exposure was determined by whether the mother resided at the time of delivery in the same census tract as a hazardous waste site that was on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List (NPL). Racial/ethnic minority infants whose mothers had been potentially exposed to hazardous waste were at slightly increased risk for birth defects (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.27) than were racial/ethnic minority infants whose mothers had not been potentially exposed. The greatest association was between potential exposure and neural tube defects (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 0.93-2.55), particularly anencephaly (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 0.91-3.75). The strongest association between birth defects and potential exposure was among American Indians/Alaska Natives (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.62-2.27). Despite the limitations of this study, the consistency of these findings with previous studies suggests an association between environmental risk factors and birth defects. This is particularly relevant to minority populations. We recommend further investigation of birth defects among minority communities, particularly among American Indians/Alaska Natives. Special attention should also be paid to

  20. Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students.

    PubMed

    Fleschler Peskin, Melissa; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Tortolero, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    Although sexting among U.S. youth has received much popular media attention, there are only limited data on its prevalence among ethnic minority youth. This study, therefore, specifically examined the prevalence and patterns of sexting (sending and/or receiving a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message) among a sample of black and Hispanic youth. Data from 1,034 tenth graders from a large, urban school district in southeast Texas were used to calculate the prevalence of sexting by gender-race/ethnicity. Overlap among sexting behaviors was also examined. Electronic surveys were administered via an audio-computer-assisted self-interview on laptop computers. Prevalence estimates were obtained, and chi-square analyses were conducted to compare the distribution of sexting behaviors by gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. More than 20% of students reported sending either a nude or semi-nude picture/video or a sexual text-only message (jointly referred to as a "sext"), and more than 30% reported receiving a sext. Sexts were also frequently shared with unintended recipients. Black males and females reported similar prevalence estimates for sexting behaviors. However, they were more likely than Hispanic males to participate in some sexting behaviors. Hispanic females reported the lowest estimates for sexting behaviors for all gender-race/ethnicity subgroups. Many youth who sent or received a nude or semi-nude picture/video were also likely to have sent or received sexual text-only messages. The results of this study indicate that sexting is prevalent among ethnic minority youth. However, more research is needed to understand the specific context and circumstances around which sexting occurs in this population. PMID:23438265

  1. Tales from the Playing Field: Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from recent research exploring black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of Physical Education teacher education (PETE) in England (Flintoff, 2008). Despite policy initiatives to increase the ethnic diversity of teacher education cohorts, BME students are under-represented in PETE, making up just…

  2. Achieving Ethnic Minority Students’ Inclusion: A Flemish School’s Discursive Practices Countering the Quasi-Market Pressure to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanoni, Patrizia; Mampaey, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify how ethnically diverse schools can discursively maintain a good reputation. Reputation allows attracting the mixed student population necessary to achieve inclusion or closing the gap between the attainment of ethnic majority and minority students. In semi-market educational systems where students are free…

  3. Characteristics of Academic Advising that Contribute to Racial and Ethnic Minority Student Success at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Ravello, Joanna N.

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority student departure continues to be a major concern for higher education researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. We explore the role that academic advisors play in facilitating success among students of color at predominantly White institutions that have demonstrated effectiveness at generating ethnic minority…

  4. The Generic and Rhetorical Structures of Expositions in English by Chinese Ethnic Minorities: A Perspective from Intracultural Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    This contrastive study is concerned with relations between rhetoric and ethnicity in second language (L2) writing. It investigates the influence of Chinese rhetoric on expository writing in English by three groups: the majority Chinese Han group, and two ethnic minorities, Tibetan and Mongolian. Relying on a contrastive text analysis of 30…

  5. Predicting the Grades of Low-Income--Ethnic-Minority Students from Teacher-Student Discrepancies in Reported Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Kristin Emilia; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Jackson, Karen Moran

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of discrepancies between teachers' perceptions of students' motivation and students' reports of their motivation on math and English grades and to identify possible gender and ethnic differences. Participants included 215 low-income, ethnic-minority students and their teachers in academically…

  6. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible…

  7. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of New York City Children from Different Ethnic Minority Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, N; Mervish, N; Galvez, MP; Brenner, B; Wolff, MS

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Methods Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6–8 year old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using caregiver report of child’s race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using Chi Square and ANOVA tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Results Participants (n=486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%) or non-Hispanic Black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic Blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity prevalence among Hispanic subgroups (25%) and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models including home language did not show significant differences in the estimates. Conclusion Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. PMID:22985985

  8. Do racial and ethnic minority patients fare worse after SCI?: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gary, Kelli W; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Shamburger, Aisha; Stevens, Lillian F; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan C

    2011-01-01

    A number of researchers have identified differences in SCI outcomes between racial and ethnic groups, but findings have never been synthesized to give clinicians and researchers a coherent picture of the problem. The goals of the current project were to (1) conduct a critical literature review of studies specifically investigating racial and ethnic disparities in spinal cord injury care, services, and outcomes; (2) explore possible causative factors that may explain these disparities; (3) propose strategies that may reduce disparities and improve access, service, and outcomes for minority patients with SCI; and (4) generate ideas for future research in this area. A search using MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and HealthSource resulted in 49 articles discussing hospital, mental health, physical functioning, employment, quality of life, and family outcomes. Results indicated that after an SCI, racial and ethnic minority groups have shorter hospital lengths of stay, higher rehospitalizations rates, higher levels of depression, more days in poor health, greater degrees of unemployment, more difficulties with mobility, lower self-reported subjective well-being and quality of life and life satisfaction, and greater risk of marital breakup. A variety of causative factors, intervention strategies, and directions for future research are presented. PMID:22142762

  9. Role of relatives of ethnic minority patients in patient safety in hospital care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    van Rosse, Floor; Suurmond, Jeanine; Wagner, Cordula; de Bruijne, Martine; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective Relatives of ethnic minority patients often play an important role in the care process during hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse the role of these relatives in relation to the safety of patients during hospital care. Setting Four large urban hospitals with an ethnic diverse patient population. Participants On hospital admission of ethnic minority patients, 20 cases were purposively sampled in which relatives were observed to play a role in the care process. Outcome measures We used documents (patient records) and added eight cases with qualitative interviews with healthcare providers, patients and/or their relatives to investigate the relation between the role of relatives and patient safety. An inductive approach followed by selective coding was used to analyse the data. Results Besides giving social support, family members took on themselves the role of the interpreter, the role of substitutes of the patient and the role of care provider. The taking over of these roles can have positive and negative effects on patient safety. Conclusions When family members take over various roles during hospitalisation of a relative, this can lead to a safety risk and a safety protection for the patient involved. Although healthcare providers should not hand over their responsibilities to the relatives of patients, optimising collaboration with relatives who are willing to take part in the care process may improve patient safety. PMID:27056588

  10. Do arterial stiffness and wave reflection underlie cardiovascular risk in ethnic minorities?

    PubMed

    Faconti, Luca; Nanino, Elisa; Mills, Charlotte E; Cruickshank, Kennedy J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that remarkable differences in cardiovascular risk between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or dislipidemia measured in midlife. Therefore, the underlying pathophysiology leading to this "excess risk" in ethnic minority groups is still poorly understood, and one way to address this issue is to shift the focus from "risk" to examine target organs, particularly blood vessels and their arterial properties more directly. In fact, structural and functional changes of the vascular system may be identifiable at very early stages of life when traditional factors are not yet developed. Arterial stiffening, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity, and wave reflection parameters, especially augmentation index, seem to be an important pathophysiological mechanism for the development of cardiovascular disease and predict mortality independent of other risk factors. However, data regarding these arterial indices in ethnic minorities are relatively rare and the heterogeneity between populations, techniques and statistical methods make it difficult to fully understand their role. PMID:27540482

  11. Do arterial stiffness and wave reflection underlie cardiovascular risk in ethnic minorities?

    PubMed Central

    Nanino, Elisa; Mills, Charlotte E; Cruickshank, Kennedy J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that remarkable differences in cardiovascular risk between ethnic groups cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or dislipidemia measured in midlife. Therefore, the underlying pathophysiology leading to this “excess risk” in ethnic minority groups is still poorly understood, and one way to address this issue is to shift the focus from “risk” to examine target organs, particularly blood vessels and their arterial properties more directly. In fact, structural and functional changes of the vascular system may be identifiable at very early stages of life when traditional factors are not yet developed. Arterial stiffening, measured as aortic pulse wave velocity, and wave reflection parameters, especially augmentation index, seem to be an important pathophysiological mechanism for the development of cardiovascular disease and predict mortality independent of other risk factors. However, data regarding these arterial indices in ethnic minorities are relatively rare and the heterogeneity between populations, techniques and statistical methods make it difficult to fully understand their role. PMID:27540482

  12. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Libraries Serving the General Public. Round Table on Library Service to Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities. Papers. the General Public. Round Table on Library Service to Ethnic and Linguistic Minorities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library services to ethnic and linguistic minorities which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "On Serving the Older Polyglot: The Role of the Public Libraries in the United States" (Sylva N. Manoogian, United States); (2) "Minority Language Selection and Acquisition…

  13. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women. PMID:22376196

  14. Ethnic Variations in Central Corneal Thickness in a Rural Population in China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hua; Shen, Wei; Niu, Zhiqiang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the ethnic differences in central corneal thickness (CCT) in population-based samples of ethnic Bai, Yi and Han people living in rural China. Methods 6504 adults (2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han) aged 50 years or older participated in the study. Each subject underwent standardized ocular examinations and interviewer-administered questionnaires for risk factor assessment. CCT was measured for both eyes using an ultrasound pachymeter. Regression and principal component analysis were performed to examine the relationship of ethnicity and other factors with CCT. Results The mean CCT readings were 536.4 ± 34.2 μm in ethnic Bai, 532.1 ± 32.1 μm in ethnic Yi and 529.6 ± 32.7 μm in ethnic Han adults (P<0.001), respectively. There was a decreasing trend of mean CCT with increasing age across all ethnic groups. In multivariate linear regression models, increasing CCT was associated with younger age (P<0.001), male gender (P<0.001), Bai (P<0.001) or Yi (P<0.001) ethnicity, greater body mass index (P<0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001), greater corneal curvature (P<0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P < 0.001), and thicker lens (P<0.001). Ethnicity contributed significantly to presence of thin cornea (60%; P< 0.001) compared with other factors. CCT had similar impact on intraocular pressure readings across all ethnic groups. Conclusions This study of more than 6500 multiethnic participants demonstrates significant ethnic variations in CCT, with Han ethnicity having the thinnest cornea compared with ethnic minorities. These data are essential to guide future multiethnic clinical trials on CCT-related ocular conditions such as glaucoma. PMID:26274328

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  16. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  17. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

  18. Understanding sub-optimal HPV vaccine uptake among ethnic minority girls

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth; Tsui, Jennifer; Chang, L. Cindy; Marchand, Erica; Taylor, Victoria M.; Singhal, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Background The introduction of HPV vaccines represents a breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. However, little is known about vaccination uptake and correlates among U.S. low-income, ethnic minority and immigrant populations who may benefit most from the vaccine. Methods Telephone interviews (N=490) were conducted in six languages between January and November 2009 among mothers of vaccine-eligible girls (ages 9–18) using the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Office of Women’s Health service referral hotline. HPV and vaccine awareness, knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and daughter’s vaccine receipt were assessed. Results The sample consisted of low-income, uninsured, ethnic minority and immigrant women. Only 29% of daughters initiated the vaccine and 11% received all three doses. No ethnic differences were observed in initiation or completion rates. Ethnic differences were observed in HPV awareness, perceived risk, and other immunization related beliefs. The strongest predictor of initiation was vaccine awareness (OR=12.00). Daughter’s age and reporting a younger acceptable age for vaccination were positively associated with initiation. Mothers of unvaccinated girls reported lacking information about the vaccine to make a decision (66%) and not knowing where they could obtain the vaccine (74%). Conclusion Vaccination rates in this sample were lower than state and national estimates, and were associated with low levels of vaccine awareness. Interventions, including culturally targeted messaging, may be helpful for enhancing HPV vaccine knowledge, modifying vaccine-related beliefs and increasing uptake. Impact Our findings provide valuable guidance for developing interventions to address sub-optimal HPV vaccination in high risk groups. PMID:21602307

  19. Utilizing ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency to recategorize reported pathogenic deafness variants.

    PubMed

    Shearer, A Eliot; Eppsteiner, Robert W; Booth, Kevin T; Ephraim, Sean S; Gurrola, José; Simpson, Allen; Black-Ziegelbein, E Ann; Joshi, Swati; Ravi, Harini; Giuffre, Angelica C; Happe, Scott; Hildebrand, Michael S; Azaiez, Hela; Bayazit, Yildirim A; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A; Gazquez, Irene; Tamayo, Marta L; Gelvez, Nancy Y; Leal, Greizy Lopez; Jalas, Chaim; Ekstein, Josef; Yang, Tao; Usami, Shin-ichi; Kahrizi, Kimia; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Najmabadi, Hossein; Scheetz, Todd E; Braun, Terry A; Casavant, Thomas L; LeProust, Emily M; Smith, Richard J H

    2014-10-01

    Ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency impact variant categorization for genetic screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) and other genetic disorders. We sought to evaluate all previously reported pathogenic NSHL variants in the context of a large number of controls from ethnically distinct populations sequenced with orthogonal massively parallel sequencing methods. We used HGMD, ClinVar, and dbSNP to generate a comprehensive list of reported pathogenic NSHL variants and re-evaluated these variants in the context of 8,595 individuals from 12 populations and 6 ethnically distinct major human evolutionary phylogenetic groups from three sources (Exome Variant Server, 1000 Genomes project, and a control set of individuals created for this study, the OtoDB). Of the 2,197 reported pathogenic deafness variants, 325 (14.8%) were present in at least one of the 8,595 controls, indicating a minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.00006. MAFs ranged as high as 0.72, a level incompatible with pathogenicity for a fully penetrant disease like NSHL. Based on these data, we established MAF thresholds of 0.005 for autosomal-recessive variants (excluding specific variants in GJB2) and 0.0005 for autosomal-dominant variants. Using these thresholds, we recategorized 93 (4.2%) of reported pathogenic variants as benign. Our data show that evaluation of reported pathogenic deafness variants using variant MAFs from multiple distinct ethnicities and sequenced by orthogonal methods provides a powerful filter for determining pathogenicity. The proposed MAF thresholds will facilitate clinical interpretation of variants identified in genetic testing for NSHL. All data are publicly available to facilitate interpretation of genetic variants causing deafness. PMID:25262649

  20. Utilizing Ethnic-Specific Differences in Minor Allele Frequency to Recategorize Reported Pathogenic Deafness Variants

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, A. Eliot; Eppsteiner, Robert W.; Booth, Kevin T.; Ephraim, Sean S.; Gurrola, José; Simpson, Allen; Black-Ziegelbein, E. Ann; Joshi, Swati; Ravi, Harini; Giuffre, Angelica C.; Happe, Scott; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Azaiez, Hela; Bayazit, Yildirim A.; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.; Gazquez, Irene; Tamayo, Marta L.; Gelvez, Nancy Y.; Leal, Greizy Lopez; Jalas, Chaim; Ekstein, Josef; Yang, Tao; Usami, Shin-ichi; Kahrizi, Kimia; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Najmabadi, Hossein; Scheetz, Todd E.; Braun, Terry A.; Casavant, Thomas L.; LeProust, Emily M.; Smith, Richard J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic-specific differences in minor allele frequency impact variant categorization for genetic screening of nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) and other genetic disorders. We sought to evaluate all previously reported pathogenic NSHL variants in the context of a large number of controls from ethnically distinct populations sequenced with orthogonal massively parallel sequencing methods. We used HGMD, ClinVar, and dbSNP to generate a comprehensive list of reported pathogenic NSHL variants and re-evaluated these variants in the context of 8,595 individuals from 12 populations and 6 ethnically distinct major human evolutionary phylogenetic groups from three sources (Exome Variant Server, 1000 Genomes project, and a control set of individuals created for this study, the OtoDB). Of the 2,197 reported pathogenic deafness variants, 325 (14.8%) were present in at least one of the 8,595 controls, indicating a minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.00006. MAFs ranged as high as 0.72, a level incompatible with pathogenicity for a fully penetrant disease like NSHL. Based on these data, we established MAF thresholds of 0.005 for autosomal-recessive variants (excluding specific variants in GJB2) and 0.0005 for autosomal-dominant variants. Using these thresholds, we recategorized 93 (4.2%) of reported pathogenic variants as benign. Our data show that evaluation of reported pathogenic deafness variants using variant MAFs from multiple distinct ethnicities and sequenced by orthogonal methods provides a powerful filter for determining pathogenicity. The proposed MAF thresholds will facilitate clinical interpretation of variants identified in genetic testing for NSHL. All data are publicly available to facilitate interpretation of genetic variants causing deafness. PMID:25262649

  1. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  2. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged…

  3. Strategies for Managing Racism and Homophobia among U.S. Ethnic and Racial Minority Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-01-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35…

  4. Duration of US residence and suicidality among racial/ethnic minority immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Cohen, Steven A.; Mezuk, Briana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The immigration experience embodies a range of factors including different cultural norms and expectations, which may be particularly important for groups who become racial/ethnic minorities when they migrate to the US. However, little is known about the correlates of mental health indicators among these groups. The primary and secondary aims were to determine the association between duration of US residence and suicidality, and 12-month mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, respectively, among racial/ethnic minority immigrants. Methods Data were obtained from the National Survey of American Life and the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between duration of US residence, and suicidality and 12-month psychopathology. Results Among Afro-Caribbeans, there was a modest positive association between duration of US residence and 12-month psychopathology (Plinear trend = 0.016). Among Asians there was a modest positive association between duration of US residence and suicidal ideation and attempts (Plinear trend = 0.018, 0.063, respectively). Among Latinos, there was a positive association between duration of US residence, and suicidal ideation, attempts and 12-month psychopathology (Plinear trend = 0.001, 0.012, 0.002, respectively). Latinos who had been in the US for >20 years had 2.6 times greater likelihood of suicidal ideation relative to those who had been in the US for <5 years (95 % CI 1.01–6.78). Conclusions The association between duration of US residence and suicidality and psychopathology varies across racial/ethnic minority groups. The results for Latino immigrants are broadly consistent with the goal-striving or acculturation stress hypothesis. PMID:25108531

  5. Retention in Depression Treatment among Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Alegria, Margarita; Gao, Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Premature discontinuation of psychiatric treatment among ethnic-racial minorities is a persistent concern. Prior research on identifying factors associated with ethnic-racial disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples with adequate representation of minority groups and especially non-English speakers. In this article we aim to identify variations in the likelihood of retention in depression treatment among ethnic-racial minority groups in the US as compared to non-Latino whites. Secondly, we aim to identify factors which are related to treatment retention. Methods We use data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) to examine differences and correlates of depression treatment retention among a representative sample (n=564) of non-Latino whites, Latinos, African American and Asian respondents with last 12 month depressive disorder and who report receiving formal mental health treatment in the last year. We define retention as attending at least four visits or remaining in treatment over a 12 month period. Results Being seen by a mental health specialist as opposed to being seen by a generalist and having received medication are correlates of treatment retention for the entire sample. However, after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors including number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and level of disability, African Americans are significantly less likely to be retained in depression treatment as compared to non-Latino whites. Conclusions Availability of specialized mental health services or comparable treatment within primary care could improve treatment retention. Low retention suggests persistent problems in the delivery of depression treatment for African Americans. PMID:20336808

  6. The ethnic minorities of southern Italy and Sicily: relationships through surnames.

    PubMed

    Vienna, A; Peña Garcia, J A; Mascie-Taylor, C G; Biondi, G

    2001-01-01

    Surnames of grandparents were collected from children in the primary schools of the Albanian-Italian, Croat-Italian and Greek-Italian villages of southern Italy and Sicily. The coefficients of relationships by isonymy show almost no relationship with ethnicity. Ethnolinguistic minorities of southern Italy and Sicily are geographically subdivided into two main clusters: the first cluster comprises the Albanian, Croat and Greek communities of the Adriatic area; and the second cluster comprises the Albanian and Greek communities of the Ionian, Thirrenian and Sicilian areas. PMID:11316393

  7. Ethnic Minorities and Coronary Heart Disease: an Update and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J. Adam; Alvarez, Manrique

    2016-01-01

    Heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Overall, heart disease accounts for about 1 in 4 deaths with coronary heart disease (CHD) being responsible for over 370,000 deaths per year. It has frequently and repeatedly been shown that some minority groups in the USA have higher rates of traditional CHD risk factors, different rates of treatment with revascularization procedures, and excess morbidity and mortality from CHD when compared to the non-Hispanic white population. Numerous investigations have been made into the causes of these disparities. This review aims to highlight the recent literature which examines CHD in ethnic minorities and future directions in research and care. PMID:26792015

  8. Treating ethnic minority adults with anxiety disorders: Current status and future recommendations☆

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Michele M; Mitchell, Frances E.; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    The past three decades have witnessed an increase in the number of empirical investigations examining the phenomenology of anxiety and related conditions. There has also been an increase in efforts to understand differences that may exist between ethnic groups in the expression of the anxiety disorders. In addition, there is now substantial evidence that a variety of treatment approaches (most notably behavioral and cognitive behavioral) are efficacious in remediating anxiety. However, there continues to be comparatively few treatment outcome studies investigating the efficacy of anxiety treatments among minority populations. In this paper, we review the extant treatment outcome research for African American, Hispanic/Latino[a] American, Asian American, and Native Americans suffering with one of the anxiety disorders. We discuss some of the specific problems with the research in this area, and then provide specific recommendations for conducting treatment outcome research with minority populations in the future. PMID:22417877

  9. Organizational Implementation of Evidence-Based Substance Abuse Treatment in Racial and Ethnic Minority Communities

    PubMed Central

    He, Amy; Kim, Ahraemi; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated organizational factors associated with the implementation of contingency management treatment (CMT) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT) in substance abuse treatment (SAT) programs serving racial and ethnic minority communities. Analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 2010–2011 from a random sample of 148 publicly funded SAT programs showed that accepting private insurance was positively associated with CMT and MAT implementation, whereas larger programs were associated with greater implementation of MAT. Supervisorial openness to and expectations about implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) and attributes for change were strongly associated with CMT, whereas the interactions between openness to EBPs and programs that accept private insurance and that are governed by parent organizations were positively associated with MAT. These external expectations and managerial attitudes supported the implementation of psychosocial and pharmacotherapy treatments in SAT. Implications for improving standards of care in minority communities are discussed. PMID:24046236

  10. Increasing access to care for cultural and linguistic minorities: ethnicity-specific health care organizations and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2007-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been attributed in part to cultural and linguistic dissonance between certain patient populations and the health care system. Yet in the long term, structural solutions for ameliorating health care disparities have not been forthcoming. One strategy for increasing access to care for cultural and linguistic minorities is ethnicity-specific subsystems of care. The historical experiences of the Chinese community in San Francisco are used to reconstruct the evolution of its ethnicity-specific health care infrastructure and to create an organizational development model for ethnicity-specific health care organizations and infrastructures. The four stages of the model include developing and recruiting a bicultural and bilingual health care workforce, structuring health care resources for maximum accessibility, expanding health care organizations, and integrating ethnicity-specific health care resources into the mainstream health care system. Policy recommendations to develop ethnicity-specific subsystems of care are presented. PMID:17675712

  11. [Preliminary discussion on an overview of ethnic minority use of species of mineral medicine].

    PubMed

    Jia, Min-ru; Lu, Xiao-lin; Ma, Yu-ying

    2015-12-01

    As an indispensable part of minority traditional medicine, mineral medicine has used with less dosage and reliable efficacy for the last thousand years. Based on the unearthed relics and medical literatures of past dynasties, the history of Han nationality ap- years, which had been recorded in main literature. But there is less comprehensive report of its usage in the other 55-minority nationality. This article was based on the analysis of ethnic minority literature of thousands of years, and conducted a comprehensive collation and analysis of mineral medicine. It was mostly determined that there was 20 minority groups using mineral medicine, with a total of 163 species (limited our references), and the most used is the Tibetan, accounting for 141. The most serious problems of mineral medicine are that species should be further investigated and researched, and then become the legal commercial medicine, and the classification principles of mineral medicine should be established. Through the traditional processing and experimental studies, the problems of attenuation and detoxification should be solved. PMID:27141685

  12. Exploring the experience of facilitating self-management with minority ethnic stroke survivors: a qualitative study of therapists' perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Fiona; Kilbride, Cherry; Victor, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The utility of self-management with people from minority ethnic backgrounds has been questioned, resulting in the development of culturally specific tools. Yet, the use of stroke specific self-management programmes is underexplored in these high risk groups. This article presents the experience of stroke therapists in using a stroke specific self-management programme with stroke survivors from minority ethnic backgrounds. Methods: 26 stroke therapists with experience of using the self-management programme with stroke survivors from minority ethnic backgrounds participated in semi-structured interviews. These were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results: Three themes were identified. One questioned perceived differences in stroke survivors interaction with self-management based on ethnicity. The other themes contrasted with this view demonstrating two areas in which ethnic and cultural attributes were deemed to influence the self-management process both positively and negatively. Aspects of knowledge of health, illness and recovery, religion, family and the professionals themselves are highlighted. Conclusions: This study indicates that ethnicity should not be considered a limitation to the use of an individualized stroke specific self-management programme. However, it highlights potential facilitators and barriers, many of which relate to the capacity of the professional to effectively navigate cultural and ethnic differences. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke therapists suggest that ethnicity should not be considered a barrier to successful engagement with a stroke specific self-management programme. Health, illness and recovery beliefs along with religion and the specific role of the family do however need to be considered to maximize the effectiveness of the programme. A number of the facilitators and barriers identified are not unique to stroke survivors from ethnic minority communities, nor shared by all. The

  13. Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke places a significant burden to all affected individuals, but it is perhaps more significant amongst members of black, minority and ethnic communities, who may experience poorer awareness of stroke symptoms than the general population. Recently, several initiatives tried to improve public awareness that symptoms of stroke need to be treated as a medical emergency. However, ethnic communities present cultural barriers, requiring tailored health promotion interventions, whose effectiveness remains uncertain. Our systematic review aimed to identify relevant published evidence, synthesize the main study components and identify evidence of the effectiveness of the interventions. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched for journal articles on health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities, published in English between 1995 and 2012. Search results were collaboratively assessed by the authors; included studies were analysed to identify their main characteristics, and a thematic analysis of their content was conducted. No meta-analysis was performed, due to the heterogeneity of results. Results Eighteen studies were included, reporting 15 interventions conducted in the US, for African-Americans or Hispanics; populations sizes differed between interventions. Interventions were mostly carried out in community settings with different educational techniques, focussing on experiential methods. Health professionals usually organized the programs, delivered by nurses, other health professionals or volunteers. The few theory-based interventions focussed on individual-level behavioural change. Practical cultural adaptation strategies were not linked to specific theoretical frameworks. Interventions widely differed as for target populations, settings, delivery methods, contents and professional roles involved. All study designs were quantitative, and the emerging evidence of effectiveness was inconclusive

  14. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  15. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14–18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women. PMID:23867137

  16. Helicobacter pylori isolates from ethnic minority patients in Guangxi: Resistance rates, mechanisms, and genotype

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Juan; Huang, Yan-Qiang; Chen, Bing-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Qiang; Huang, Zan-Song; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Lian-Deng; Wei, Hong-Yu; Chen, Yuan-Hong; Tang, Hua-Ying; Huang, Gan-Rong; Qin, Yan-Chun; Li, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Lu-Yao

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to clarithromycin among ethnic minority patients in Guangxi, explore the underlying mechanisms, and analyze factors influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates. METHODS: H. pylori strains were isolated, cultured and subjected to drug sensitivity testing. The 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates was amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing to detect point mutations. REP-PCR was used for genotyping of H. pylori isolates, and NTsys_2 software was used for clustering analysis based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Factors potentially influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of clarithromycin resistance was 31.3%. A2143G and A2144G mutations were detected in the 23S rRNA gene of all clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates. At a genetic distance of 78%, clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates could be divided into six groups. Significant clustering was noted among H. pylori isolates from patients with peptic ulcer or gastritis. CONCLUSION: The rate of clarithromycin resistance is relatively high in ethnic minority patients in Guangxi. Main mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance are A2143G and A2144G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates can be divided into six groups based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Several factors such as disease type may influence the genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates. PMID:24782630

  17. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  18. Internalising and Externalising Problems in Middle Childhood: A Study of Indian (Ethnic Minority) and English (Ethnic Majority) Children Living in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison; Barrett, Martyn

    2004-01-01

    The psychological adjustment of ethnic minority children has received little research attention, particularly in Britain. The present study set out to investigate the adjustment of Indian children living in Britain as well as the adjustment of their English peers. The sample consisted of 125 children (66 Indian and 59 English) between the ages of…

  19. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account. PMID:26370238

  20. A process evaluation: Does recruitment for an exercise program through ethnically specific channels and key figures contribute to its reach and receptivity in ethnic minority mothers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minority women from low-income countries who live in high-income countries are more physically inactive than ethnic majority women in those countries. At the same time, they can be harder to reach with health promotion programs. Targeting recruitment channels and execution to ethnic groups could increase reach and receptivity to program participation. We explored using ethnically specific channels and key figures to reach Ghanaian, Antillean, and Surinamese mothers with an invitation for an exercise program, and subsequently, to determine the mothers’ receptivity and participation. Methods We conducted a mixed methods process evaluation in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. To recruit mothers, we employed ethnically specific community organizations and ethnically matched key figures as recruiters over Dutch health educators. Reach and participation were measured using reply cards and the attendance records from the exercise programs. Observations were made of the recruitment process. We interviewed 14 key figures and 32 mothers to respond to the recruitment channel and recruiter used. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Results Recruitment through ethnically specific community channels was successful among Ghanaian mothers, but less so among Antillean and Surinamese mothers. The more close-knit an ethnic community was, retaining their own culture and having poorer comprehension of the Dutch language, the more likely we were to reach mothers through ethnically specific organizations. Furthermore, we found that using ethnically matched recruiters resulted in higher receptivity to the program and, among the Ghanaian mothers in particular, in greater participation. This was because the ethnically matched recruiter was a familiar, trusted person, a translator, and a motivator who was enthusiastic, encouraging, and able to adapt her message (targeting/tailoring). Using a health expert was preferred in order to increase the credibility and

  1. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity in the Tibetan ethnic minority group of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Deng, Ya-jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Qing-ju; Xu, Peng; Qin, Hai-xia; Fan, Shuan-liang; Huang, Ping; Deng, Li-bin; Lucas, Rudolf; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in the Tibetan ethnic minority of China. To that purpose, we have studied KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 16 KIR genes and three pseudogenes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4*001/002, 2DS4*003-007, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1*001/002/004, and 3DP1*003) in a population sample of 102 unrelated healthy individuals of the Tibetan population living in Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans mainly live in "the roof of the world," the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China and surrounding areas stretching from central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and mainland China in the East, and India, Nepal, and Bhutan to the south. KIR gene frequencies and statistical parameters of Tibetan ethnic minority were calculated. Fifteen KIR genes were observed in the 102 tested Tibetan individuals with different frequencies. The allelic frequencies of the 15 KIR genes ranged from 0.06 to 0.86. In addition, KIR 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL2, and 3DL3 were found to be present in every individual. Variable gene content, together with allelic polymorphisms, can result in individualized human KIR genotypes and haplotypes, with the A haplotypes being predominantly observed. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, a comparison of the population data of our study with previously published population data of other ethnic groups or areas was performed. The differences of allelic frequency distribution in KIR2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 3DS1, and 2DP1 were statistically significant among different populations using the statistical method of the standard χ(2) test. In conclusion, the results of the present study can be valuable for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool and for

  2. The influence of early-life conditions on cardiovascular disease later in life among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Rimke; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The reasons for the high prevalence of CVD in ethnic minority groups are not fully understood. Recently, the importance of early-life developmental factors and their impact on CVDs in adulthood is increasingly being recognised, but little is known about this among ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the current paper aimed to fill this knowledge gap by reviewing the available literature to assess the influence of early-life conditions on CVDs and its risk factors in ethnic minority populations residing in Western countries. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE between 1989 and 2014. In total, 1418 studies were identified of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies investigated the relationship between early-life anthropometrics and CVD risk factors of which all except one found significant associations between the assessed anthropometric measures and CVD risk factors. Seven studies evaluated the influence of childhood socio-economic status (SES) on CVD and risk factors of which five found significant associations between childhood SES measures and CVD risk factors. Five studies investigated the relationship between other early-life conditions including early-life nutrition, physical development, and childhood psychosocial conditions, and CVD risk factors. Four of these studies found significant associations between the assessed childhood conditions and CVD risk factors. This review reinforces the importance of early-life conditions on adult CVD in ethnic minority groups. Improvement of early-life conditions among ethnic minority groups may contribute to reducing CVD risk in these populations. PMID:26141120

  3. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  4. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  5. The Cultural Ecogram: A Tool for Enhancing Culturally Anchored Shared Understanding in the Treatment of Ethnic Minority Families

    PubMed Central

    YASUI, MIWA

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic and racial disparities in mental health care continue to exist, highlighting the increasing concern within the realm of clinical practice as to how clinicians are to effectively integrate the central role of culture and context into the treatment delivery process for culturally diverse children and families. The current paper presents the Cultural Ecogram, - a clinical engagement tool designed to facilitate the development of a culturally anchored shared understanding – as one method that may facilitate clinician-client shared understanding on the client’s cultural, ethnic and racial context central to the effective implementation of treatments with ethnic minority children and families. PMID:26273233

  6. Perspectives on child diarrhoea management and health service use among ethnic minority caregivers in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, primary government health services are now accessible for the whole population including ethnic minority groups (EMGs) living in rural and mountainous areas. However, little is known about EMGs' own perspectives on illness treatment and use of health services. This study investigates treatment seeking strategies for child diarrhoea among ethnic minority caregivers in Northern Vietnam in order to suggest improvements to health services for EMGs and other vulnerable groups. Methods The study obtained qualitative data from eight months of field work among four EMGs in lowland and highland villages in the Northern Lao Cai province. Triangulation of methods included in-depth interviews with 43 caregivers of pre-school children (six years and below) who had a case of diarrhoea during the past month, three focus group discussions (FGDs) with men, and two weeks of observations at two Communal Health Stations (CHGs). Data was content-analyzed by ordering data into empirically and theoretically inspired themes and sub-categories assisted by the software NVivo8. Results This study identified several obstacles for EMG caregivers seeking health services, including: gender roles, long travelling distances for highland villagers, concerns about the indirect costs of treatment and a reluctance to use government health facilities due to feelings of being treated disrespectfully by health staff. However, ethnic minority caregivers all recognized the danger signs of child diarrhoea and actively sought simultaneous treatment in different health care systems and home-based care. Treatments were selected by matching the perceived cause and severity of the disease with the 'compatibility' of different treatments to the child. Conclusions In order to improve EMGs' use of government health services it is necessary to improve the communication skills of health staff and to acknowledge both EMGs' explanatory disease models and the significant socio-economic constraints

  7. Substance use and experienced stigmatization among ethnic minority men who have sex with men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jay P; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steve; Ayala, George; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented deleterious effects of racism among ethnic minorities and of homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM). Less is known about the impact of multiple forms of stigmatization on ethnic minority MSM. This study examined substance use by African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino MSM, and the associations of experienced racism and homophobia from various sources with polydrug use and stimulant drug use. Experienced racism within the general community was associated with higher levels of use; other forms of discrimination were either not associated with polydrug or stimulant use or had more complex relationships with use. Implications for further research and interventions are discussed. PMID:25397640

  8. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hurst, Jamie R; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Self regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers' emerging self regulation abilities in 224 low-income African American (n=86) and Latino (n=138) children observed at age 30 months in father-child and mother-child interactions to determine unique predictions from fathering qualities. Child-oriented mothering but not fathering predicted greater simple response inhibition for both African American and Latino children. Fathering but not mothering quality uniquely predicted greater complex response inhibition, but only for the African American children. The culture-specific fathering effects could not be explained by differences in father involvement. PMID:23940412

  9. Unique Contributions of Fathering to Emerging Self Regulation in Low-Income Ethnic Minority Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Hurst, Jamie R.; Amos, Melissa; Hasanizadeh, Nazly; Mata-Otero, Ana-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Self regulation ability is an important component of school readiness and predictor of academic success, but few studies of self regulation examine contributions of fathering to the emergence of self regulation in low-income ethnic minority preschoolers. Associations were examined between parental child-oriented parenting support and preschoolers’ emerging self regulation abilities in 224 low-income African American (n=86) and Latino (n=138) children observed at age 30 months in father-child and mother-child interactions to determine unique predictions from fathering qualities. Child-oriented mothering but not fathering predicted greater simple response inhibition for both African American and Latino children. Fathering but not mothering quality uniquely predicted greater complex response inhibition, but only for the African American children. The culture-specific fathering effects could not be explained by differences in father involvement. PMID:23940412

  10. Medication management concerns of ethnic minority family caregivers of people living with dementia.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Robyn J; Harrison, Lindsey; Mullan, Judy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the medication management experiences of Australian ethnic minority family caregivers of people living with dementia. From the perspective of this group of caregivers, medication management was a source of stress resulting from the progressive loss of ability of care recipients to manage their own medications; the complexity of the medication regime and the caregiver's lack of trust of the care recipient to safely and effectively manage medications. Caregivers used various strategies to manage medications and avoid conflict with care recipients including being watchful and involving other family members in medication management tasks. Family caregivers indicated that a lack of information and access to support to inform their medication management role added to their stress, which was exacerbated in some cases by limited English proficiency. Supportive factors noted by caregivers included a well-established relationship with a community pharmacist, involvement of a geriatrician, family support and caregiver support group participation. PMID:24339089

  11. Mindfulness Training and Classroom Behavior Among Lower-Income and Ethnic Minority Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Randima

    2015-01-01

    This field intervention trial evaluated the effect of a 5-week mindfulness-based curriculum on teacher-ratings of student classroom behavior at a Richmond, CA public elementary school, and examined if the addition of more sessions provided added benefit to student outcomes. Seventeen teachers reported on the classroom behaviors of 409 children (83 % enrolled in a California free lunch program and 95.7 % ethnic minority) in kindergarten through sixth grade at pre-intervention, immediate post-intervention, and 7 weeks post-intervention. Results showed that teachers reported improved classroom behavior of their students (i.e., paying attention, self-control, participation in activities, and caring/respect for others) that lasted up to 7 weeks post-intervention. Overall, improvements were not bolstered by the addition of extra sessions, with the exception of paying attention. The implications of this study are limited due to the lack of a mindfulness program-naïve control group, yet findings suggest that mindfulness training might benefit teacher-based perceptions of improved classroom behavior in a public elementary school, which has practice implications for improving the classroom learning environment for lower-income and ethnically-diverse children. PMID:25624749

  12. Psychotherapists' outcomes with White and racial/ethnic minority clients: First, the good news.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jeffrey A; McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G; Locke, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) investigate whether psychotherapists differ in their effectiveness with clients, (b) determine whether disparities exist within therapists' caseloads in their outcomes with White and racial and ethnic minority (REM) clients, (c) explore therapist factors that might contribute to observed therapist effects, and (d) identify whether treatment outcomes varied for REM and White clients. A sample of 3,825 clients seen by 251 therapists at 45 college counseling centers completed the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms at the beginning and end of individual psychotherapy. Therapists differed in their effectiveness at reducing general distress across clients, and evidence was found for disparities within therapists' caseloads in their effectiveness with REM and White clients. Effect sizes were small. Disparities within therapists' caseloads were not a function of any therapist variable that was studied. Therapy outcomes were similar for White and REM clients. Therapist multicultural competence can, and should, be considered in terms of measurable outcomes across client racial/ethnic groups. It is possible to identify multiculturally expert therapists who evidence competence with both REM and White clients and who might serve as models from whom the field could learn. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078197

  13. Depression in Racial and Ethnic Minorities: the Impact of Nativity and Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This research examines factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder in racial and ethnic minorities residing in the USA, with an emphasis on the impact of nativity, discrimination, and health lifestyle behaviors. The Healthy Migrant Effect and Health Lifestyle Theory were used to inform the design of this project. The use of these frameworks not only provides insightful results but also expands their application in mental health disparities research. Logistic regression models were implemented to examine risk factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Data were derived from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (n = 17,249). Support was found for the hypothesis that certain immigrants, specifically Asian and Afro-Caribbean, have lower odds of depression as compared their non-immigrant counterparts. Although, Hispanic immigrants directionally had lower odds of depression, this finding was not statistically significant. Furthermore, engaging in excessive alcohol consumption was associated with higher rates of depression (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, p < 0.001), and the effect of discrimination on depression was found to be significant, even when controlling for demographics. Of all racial and ethnic groups, foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans had the lowest rate of depression at 7 % followed by foreign-born Asians at 8 %. PMID:26863239

  14. Sources of Response Bias in Older Ethnic Minorities: A Case of Korean American Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyong T.; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B.; Jang, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N=1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin’s Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted. PMID:26049971

  15. Sources of Response Bias in Older Ethnic Minorities: A Case of Korean American Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Ju-Young; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B; Jang, Yuri

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N = 1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin's Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted. PMID:26049971

  16. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles were confirmed by α- and β-globin genetic testing, including DNA microarray analysis, direct sequencing methods and multiplex gap-PCR assays. Setting Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. Results We found 363 suspected cases by primary screening of haematological variables and haemoglobin analysis. After further genetic testing, four types of α- and β-thalassaemia mutation were detected in 203 out of 363 individuals. Both α0- and α+-thalassaemia mutations, --SEA and -α3.7, were identified. β-Thalassaemia mutations included CD17 (HBB:c.52A>T) and CD26 (HbE or HBB:c.79G>A). In addition, 13 HbE carriers had coexisting α0- or α+-thalassaemia deletions. Clinical haematological variables indicated that, in this study, carriers of all thalassaemic genotypes had more severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia than non-thalassaemic individuals. Conclusions Our results provide information on the Jino ethnic minority that may be useful for further genetic counselling, prenatal screening and clinical diagnosis of thalassaemia in this region. PMID:26715484

  17. Increasing the involvement of national and regional racial and ethnic minority organizations in HIV information and education.

    PubMed Central

    Holman, P B; Jenkins, W C; Gayle, J A; Duncan, C; Lindsey, B K

    1991-01-01

    Responding to the facts that (a) the AIDS epidemic is occurring among black and Hispanic populations disproportionately to their percentage of the U.S. population and (b) effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs are racially, ethnically, and culturally relevant and sensitive, CDC in 1988 initiated a 5-year grant program for HIV prevention efforts by national racial and ethnic minority organizations and regional consortia of racial and ethnic minority organizations. A total of 33 organizations received first-year funds. Of the 32 grants that are ongoing, 15 primarily target blacks, 12 Hispanics, 4 Native Americans and Alaskan Natives, and 1 Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Some grants are for more than one racial or ethnic population. Programs may be categorized as (a) education programs within national non-AIDS organizations and their respective affiliate networks to increase their understanding, support, and community out-reach for HIV prevention; for example, National Urban League, Inc.; (b) programs providing specific HIV prevention expertise and technical assistance to community-based and other organizations; for example, National Minority AIDS Council; (c) HIV prevention programs emphasizing communications and media; for example, Hispanic Designers, Inc; and (d) prevention programs targeted to a specific racial or ethnic group within a geographic area; for example, Midwest Hispanic AIDS Coalition. As a result of these grants, substantial resources are being invested in prevention programs developed by and for racial and ethnic minorities. Other overall benefits include an expanded foundation of organizations to address AIDS and other health problems affecting these populations, strengthened interrelationships among HIV-focused and broader-based minority organizations, and extensive collaboration of private sector organizations with Federal and State public health and education agencies. PMID:1659717

  18. Should High Non-Completion Rates amongst Ethnic Minority Students Be Seen as an Ethnicity Issue? Evidence from a Case Study of a Student Cohort from a British University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the question of how the high non-completion rates found amongst ethnic minority students in UK higher education should be interpreted. US studies examining the nexus between academic performance, ethnicity and social background have concluded that ethnicity-related performance differences are not just the by-product of social…

  19. Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

    2001-11-01

    Bourdieu's cultural capital thesis is an attempt to explain how social class influences the transmission of educational inequality. In this article, the question of the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities stands central. On the basis of Dutch and American research findings, a model is formulated and empirically tested with the aid of data from the Dutch Primary Education cohort study. Students from four ethnic groups are included: Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan. The main variables are language and math test scores, socio-economic milieu, and a number of capital indicators, including financial resources, linguistic resources, parental reading behavior, and educational resources within the family. The results show no mediating effect of resources within the various ethnic groups. The findings also suggest that in research and practice it is relevant to not treat ethnic groups as one homogenous group, but to differentiate between the various groups.

  20. Ethnicity as Social Capital: An Examination of First-Generation, Ethnic-Minority Students at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birani, Aisha; Lehmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we use interview data collected in a four-year longitudinal study of first-generation university students to answer the question: how might the ethnicity of first-generation students impact their university experiences? After briefly examining previous literature written on the educational achievement levels of ethnic-minority…

  1. Disparities in treatment for substance use disorders and co-occurring disorders for ethnic/racial minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Papers were included if specific comparisons in receipt of SUD services for youth were made by race or ethnicity. The review was organized following the Sociocultural Framework. Results Compared to non-Latino Whites with SUD, Black adolescents with SUD report receiving less specialty and informal care, while Latinos with SUD report less informal services. Potential mechanisms of racial and ethnic disparities were identified in: federal and economic health care policies and regulations; the operation of the health care system and provider organization; provider level factors; the environmental context; the operation of the community system; and patient level factors. Significant disparities reductions could be achieved by adoption of certain state policies and regulations that increase eligibility in public insurance. There is also a need to study how the organization of treatment services might lead to service disparities, particularly problems in treatment completion. Institutional and family characteristics linked to better quality of care should be explored. Since treatments appear to work well independent of race/ethnicity, translational research to bring evidence based care in diverse communities can bolster their effectiveness. Conclusions Our review suggests promising venues to reduce ethnic and racial disparities in behavioral health services for ethnic and racial minority youth. PMID:21156267

  2. A systematic review of telecounselling and its effectiveness in managing depression amongst minority ethnic communities.

    PubMed

    Dorstyn, Diana S; Saniotis, Arthur; Sobhanian, Farah

    2013-09-01

    Telecounselling--the provision of counselling services by telephone, videoconferencing or Internet media--can assist with disparities in the treatment and management of depression for minority ethnic groups. We therefore reviewed the evidence examining the effectiveness of telecounselling for this population. This involved a search of electronic databases, the grey literature and two peer-reviewed journals. Study quality was examined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine guidelines. Cohen's d effect sizes were additionally calculated for between-study comparisons. The final sample comprised eight independent studies, with a total of 498 adults of Asian, African-American or Spanish origin. None of the studies met the criteria for the highest methodological rating (Level 1) and there were five studies at Level 2. Significant short-term treatment effects were associated with telephone- and Internet-mediated services, including moderate to large improvements across measures of depression, anxiety, quality of life and psychosocial functioning reported. Longer-term treatment effects were also reported, although these results were based on very limited data. The results highlight the need for additional rigorous research to determine the clinical efficacy of telecounselling as a treatment option for depression among minority communities. PMID:24163298

  3. Promoting Post-16 Participation of Ethnic Minority Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds: A Systematic Review of the Most Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Gorard, Stephen; Torgerson, Carole

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread international concern that young people from disadvantaged backgrounds and some ethnic minorities are less likely to continue education or training after compulsory schooling, or are less likely to follow the highest-status and prestigious routes. Based on work done in the UK, this paper presents the results of a systematic…

  4. Disparities in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders for Ethnic/Racial Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; Carson, Nicholas J.; Goncalves, Marta; Keefe, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on racial and ethnic disparities in behavioral health services and present recent data, focusing on services for substance use disorders (SUD) and comorbid mental health disorders for children and adolescents. Method: A literature review was conducted of behavioral health services for minority youth. Articles…

  5. Reasons for Withdrawal from Higher Vocational Education. A Comparison of Ethnic Minority and Majority Non-Completers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Severiens, Sabine E.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored possible differences in reasons for withdrawing from higher vocational education between ethnic minority and majority non-completers in the Netherlands. Tinto's model on the departure process was used as a theoretical framework. A total of 1017 non-completers filled in a questionnaire regarding their reasons for…

  6. The effect of participatory community communication on HIV preventive behaviors among ethnic minority youth in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, socially marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities in mountainous areas are often difficult to engage in HIV research and prevention programs. This intervention study aimed to estimate the effect of participatory community communication (PCC) on changing HIV preventive ideation and behavior among ethnic minority youth in a rural district from central Vietnam. Methods In a cross-sectional survey after the PCC intervention, using a structured questionnaire, 800 ethnic minority youth were approached for face-to-face interviews. Propensity score matching (PSM) technique was then utilized to match these participants into two groups-intervention and control-for estimating the effect of the PCC. Results HIV preventive knowledge and ideation tended to increase as the level of recall changed accordingly. The campaign had a significant indirect effect on condom use through its effect on ideation or perceptions. When intervention and control group statistically equivalently reached in terms of individual and social characteristics by PSM, proportions of displaying HIV preventive knowledge, ideation and condom use were significantly higher in intervention group than in matched control counterparts, accounting for net differences of 7.4%, 12.7% and 5%, respectively, and can be translated into the number of 210; 361 and 142 ethnic minority youth in the population. Conclusions The study informs public health implications both theoretically and practically to guide effective HIV control programs for marginalized communities in resources-constrained settings like rural Vietnam and similar contexts of developing countries. PMID:22401660

  7. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  8. Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

  9. Effect of a School-Based Test Anxiety Intervention in Ethnic Minority Youth Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Costa, Natalie M.; Marks, Allison B.; Romano, Dawn M.; Verrett, Shannon L.; Brown, Darlene M.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a school-based test anxiety intervention among ethnic minority youth. The study used a prospective intervention design with a sample of (N = 94) ninth graders from New Orleans exposed to Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath. Thirty youth with elevated test anxiety completed a primarily behavioral (e.g., relaxation…

  10. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  11. Careers "From" but Not "In" Science: Why Are Aspirations to Be a Scientist Challenging for Minority Ethnic Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The importance of science to the economy and for the progression of society is widely acknowledged. Yet, there are concerns that minority ethnic students in the UK are underrepresented, and even excluded, from post-compulsory science education and careers "in" science. Drawing on an exploratory study of 46 semi-structured interviews with…

  12. Intake Concerns of Racial and Ethnic Minority Students at a University Counseling Center: Implications for Developmental Programming and Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Chen, Eric C.; Ceesay, Paulette

    1997-01-01

    Examined the presenting concerns of racial and ethnic minority students (N=157) at a university counseling center. Results indicate that family and romantic relationship issues, academic concerns, and depression were among their primary concerns. Implications for developing outreach programs to address the mental health needs of similar college…

  13. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  14. Post Traumatic Stress, Context, and the Lingering Effects of the Hurricane Katrina Disaster among Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Marino, Reshelle C.; Romano, Dawn M.; Scott, Brandon G.; Perry, Andre M.; Triplett, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the stability of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a predominantly ethnic minority sample of youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Youth (n = 191 grades 4th thru 8th) were screened for exposure to traumatic experiences and PTSD symptoms at 24 months (Time 1) and then again at 30 months (Time 2) post-disaster. PTSD…

  15. The Over-Education of UK Immigrants and Minority Ethnic Groups: Evidence from the Labour Force Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the incidence of over and under education and the effect on earnings for immigrants and natives who hold UK qualifications, drawn from the Quarterly Labour Force Survey 1993-2003. The paper also compares earnings penalties associated with over and under education across immigrant and minority ethnic groups for men and women. The…

  16. Less Socially Engaged? Participation in Friendship and Extracurricular Activities Among Racial/Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Prior research has linked social engagement, such as peer interaction and participation in school activities, to a host of positive outcomes for youth and adolescents. However, little research considers patterns of social engagement among racial/ethnic minority and immigrant adolescents, despite prior research suggesting…

  17. Explaining Sustained Inequalities in Ethnic Minority School Exclusions in England--Passive Racism in a Neoliberal Grip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The enquiries into police action in the Stephen Lawrence murder, the Macpherson report and the subsequent race relations legislation have altered the political, professional and wider social climate of debate on equality issues, including inequalities in minority ethnic exclusions. The paper analyses the meanings given to racism and institutional…

  18. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  19. Hepatitis C Testing, Infection, and Linkage to Care Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities in the United States, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jian; Liao, Youlian; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated rates and determinants of hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing, infection, and linkage to care among US racial/ethnic minorities. Methods. We analyzed the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health Across the US Risk Factor Survey conducted in 2009–2010 (n = 53 896 minority adults). Results. Overall, 19% of respondents were tested for HCV. Only 60% of those reporting a risk factor were tested, with much lower rates among Asians reporting injection drug use (40%). Odds of HCV testing decreased with age and increased with higher education. Of those tested, 8.3% reported HCV infection. Respondents with income of $75 000 or more were less likely to report HCV infection than those with income less than $25 000. College-educated non-Hispanic Blacks and Asians had lower odds of HCV infection than those who did not finish high school. Of those infected, 44.4% were currently being followed by a physician, and 41.9% had taken HCV medications. Conclusions. HCV testing and linkage to care among racial/ethnic minorities are suboptimal, particularly among those reporting HCV risk factors. Socioeconomic factors were significant determinants of HCV testing, infection, and access to care. Future HCV testing and prevention activities should be directed toward racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those of low socioeconomic status. PMID:23153151

  20. An Exploration of the Link between Minority Ethnic and White Students' Degree Attainment and Views of Their Future "Possible Selves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    There is a significant gap in degree attainment between White and minority ethnic (ME) students in the UK as measured by the percentage awarded a "good" degree. The causes for the gap are highly complex; however outcomes for ME students are lower than for their White peers across the whole of the UK higher education sector. This paper…

  1. Student Perception of Assessment Practices: Towards "No Loser" Classrooms for All Students in the Ethnic Minority Schools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Leung, Chi-Hung; Kennedy, Kerry Johon

    2015-01-01

    As part of a wide-scale education reform, Hong Kong schools have been focusing on the creation of "no loser" classrooms that support learning for all students (Education Commission 2000). This article examined both groups of ethnic minority and Chinese students' perception of assessment practices and the extent to which classroom…

  2. A Study of Ethnic Minority College Students: A Relationship among the Big Five Personality Traits, Cultural Intelligence, and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Teresa Ann

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of Higher Education are challenged to educate an increasing, diverse ethnic minority population. This study examines (1) if the theory of the Big Five personality traits as a predictor of the cultural intelligence theoretical model remains constant with ethnic minority college students attending a southeastern United States…

  3. The Negotiation of Minority Ethnic Identities in Virtually All-White Communities: Research with Children and Their Families in the South Wales Valleys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scourfield, Jonathan; Evans, Jonathan; Shah, Wahida; Beynon, Huw

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on qualitative interviews with 19 children and nine of their parents or carers in the South Wales valleys to discuss the effect on the social identities of minority ethnic children of living in virtually all-white communities. There is discussion of minority ethnic identities, local identities and Welshness, and the paper…

  4. Beyond the Culture of Exclusion: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine the Perceptions of British "Minority Ethnic" and Eastern European "Immigrant" Young People in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Emel

    2012-01-01

    In England there are minority ethnic students with past family connections to the former British Empire, as well as recent Eastern European students, economic migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. One may wish to ask, do newly emerging racial identities conceptualise race and race relations in similar ways to existing minority ethnic communities?…

  5. Primary Prevention Approaches to the Development of Mental Health Services for Ethnic Minorities: A Challenge to Social Work Education and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel O., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains articles on mental health needs, experiences, and preventive social work programs in ethnic minority communities. An overview by Gwenelle Styles O'Neal reviews factors that influence the mental health of ethnic minorities and explores family and community support networks for alleviating stress. Susan Bellinger examines…

  6. An Examination of the Impact of Racial and Ethnic Identity, Impostor Feelings, and Minority Status Stress on the Mental Health of Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClain, Shannon; Beasley, Samuel T.; Jones, Bianca; Awosogba, Olufunke; Jackson, Stacey; Cokley, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, racial centrality, minority status stress, and impostor feelings as predictors of mental health in a sample of 218 Black college students. Ethnic identity was found to be a significant positive predictor of mental health, whereas minority status stress and impostor feelings were significant negative predictors.…

  7. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  8. The organization of sex work in low and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Liu; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E.; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in high and low-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

  9. Adiposity and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and related health outcomes in European ethnic minorities of Asian and African origin: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Bærug, Anne; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective To review ethnic differences in: 1) adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2) future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3) prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design Literature review. Results Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention. PMID:23467680

  10. Uptake of health services for common mental disorders by first-generation Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Fassaert, Thijs; de Wit, Matty AS; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Tuinebreijer, Wilco C; Gorissen, Wim HM; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Dekker, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Background Migration and ethnic minority status have been associated with higher occurrence of common mental disorders (CMD), while mental health care utilisation by non-Western migrants has been reported to be low compared to the general population in Western host countries. Still, the evidence-base for this is poor. This study evaluates uptake of mental health services for CMD and psychological distress among first-generation non-Western migrants in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods A population-based survey. First generation non-Western migrants and ethnic Dutch respondents (N = 580) participated in structured interviews in their own languages. The interview included the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). Uptake of services was measured by self-report. Data were analysed using weighting techniques and multivariate logistic regression. Results Of subjects with a CMD during six months preceding the interview, 50.9% reported care for mental problems in that period; 35.0% contacted specialised services. In relation to CMD, ethnic groups were equally likely to access specialised mental health services. In relation to psychological distress, however, Moroccan migrants reported less uptake of primary care services (OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.15 to 0.88). Conclusion About half of the ethnic Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan population in Amsterdam with CMD contact mental health services. Since the primary purpose of specialised mental health services is to treat "cases", this study provides strong indications for equal access to specialised care for these ethnic groups. The purpose of primary care services is however to treat psychological distress, so that access appears to be lower among Moroccan migrants. PMID:19698174

  11. Ethnic differences in problem perception: Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior.

    PubMed

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866477

  12. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of

  13. Language, Ethnicity and Education: Case Studies on Immigrant Minority Groups and Immigrant Minority Languages. Multilingual Matters 111.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broeder, Peter; Extra, Guus

    Immigrant minority groups and immigrant minority languages in Europe are viewed from three perspectives (demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational) through case studies. The first part, using a demographic approach, includes research on immigrant minority groups in population statistics of both European Union and English-dominant countries…

  14. [Study on sustainable development of industy of ethnic medicine in minority area].

    PubMed

    Ye, Hua; Liu, Shu-Lin; Zhai, Yong-Song; Huang, Ming-Jin; Zhang, Li-Dong

    2014-08-01

    Ethnic medicine industry is facing many problems such as narrow market, exhaustion of resource, decline of ethnic medicine and no qualified successors. Sustainable development theory was utilized to analyse the elements and problems of ethnic medicine industry, and the counter measures were put forward to get rid of the predicament and to realize the sustainable development which depends on the ethnic medicine resources, national medicine, industrial policy, personnel training and modern technology. The development issues of ethnic medicine industry can be solved by the coordination of enterprise, government and public. Finally the ethnic medicine can provide better services for society. PMID:25509310

  15. Minority ethnic groups in dementia care: a review of service needs, service provision and models of good practice.

    PubMed

    Daker-White, G; Beattie, A M; Gilliard, J; Means, R

    2002-05-01

    Sixty-seven English language articles were obtained for the review, the majority of which (44, 65.7%) had US origins. Broadly, the main issues covered in the literature were the under-utilization of services by minority ethnic groups; the prevalence of dementia in different ethnic groups; the experience of care giving in different racial groups and language as a factor in cognitive assessment. Although it has been argued that the instruments used to assess cognitive function are culturally biased, the available published evidence would seem to suggest that the fundamental issue is language ability, rather than minority group membership per se. Studies into the care giving experience amongst different ethnic or racial groups suffer from theoretical and methodological weaknesses. Studies of help-seeking among various ethnic groups in the US have found that many do not prioritize dementia as a health problem in the face of more pressing concerns. There was little consensus amongst the articles about whether services should be provided specifically for different ethnic groups, reflecting a lack of evidence concerning the efficacy of different models of service provision. PMID:12028878

  16. Racial and ethnic minority patients report different weight-related care experiences than non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kristina H; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Fischer, Heidi; Yamamoto, Ayae; Young, Deborah R

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to compare patients' health care experiences, related to their weight, across racial and ethnic groups. In Summer 2015, we distributed a written survey with telephone follow-up to a random sample of 5400 racially/ethnically and geographically diverse U.S. adult health plan members with overweight or obesity. The survey assessed members' perceptions of their weight-related healthcare experiences, including their perception of their primary care provider, and the type of weight management services they had been offered, or were interested in. We used multivariable multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity and responses to questions about care experience. Overall, 2811 members (53%) responded to the survey and we included 2725 with complete data in the analysis. Mean age was 52.7 years (SD 15.0), with 61.7% female and 48.3% from minority racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMI was 37.1 kg/m(2) (SD 8.0). Most (68.2%) respondents reported having previous discussions of weight with their provider, but interest in such counseling varied by race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic blacks were significantly less likely to frequently avoid care (for fear of discussing weight/being weighed) than whites (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.90). Relative to whites, respondents of other race/ethnicities were more likely to want weight-related discussions with their providers. Race/ethnicity correlates with patients' perception of discussions of weight in healthcare encounters. Clinicians should capitalize on opportunities to discuss weight loss with high-risk minority patients who may desire these conversations. PMID:27486558

  17. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Comparing Walser and Romance populations in the Upper Lys Valley (Western Alps).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Griso, Clio; Pettener, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences between neighbouring populations are often said to give rise to reproductive barriers. For ethnic minorities, these barriers can easily result in genetic isolation. In this study, we analyse the surname structure of the Walser of the upper Lys Valley, a German-speaking ethnic minority in the Italian Western Alps, to better understand the relationships between linguistic and genetic isolation. Analyses were based on 1713 marriages registered from 1838 to 1938 in four villages of the valley: three Walser communities (Issime, Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Gressoney-La-Trinité) and the Romance community of Gaby. The results show that endogamy and inbreeding are lower than in other Italian linguistic minorities, with the exception of Gaby, whose values rank among the highest ever found in Italy. Compared to the Walser communities' Gaby behaves as an outgroup and has an almost exclusively autochthonous surname set. The latter aspect is also true, but to a lesser extent, for the Walser villages, in particular for Issime on the one hand and Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité on the other. These findings strongly suggest that the Walser communities' ethnic minority status is not associated with genetic isolation, whereas genetic isolation was found in the linguistically non-isolated Gaby. Finally, our results are consistent with two independent late medieval migration events at the origin of these Walser settlements. PMID:21757790

  18. Understanding cervical screening non-attendance among ethnic minority women in England

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, L A V; Wardle, J; Waller, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds are less likely to attend cervical screening than White British women. This study explored sociodemographic and attitudinal correlates of cervical screening non-attendance among BAME women. Methods: Women (30–60 years) were recruited from Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African and White British backgrounds (n=720). Participants completed structured interviews. Results: BAME women were more likely to be non-attenders than white British women (44–71% vs 12%) and fell into two groups: the disengaged and the overdue. Migrating to the United Kingdom, speaking a language other than English and low education level were associated with being disengaged. Being overdue was associated with older age. Three attitudinal barriers were associated with being overdue for screening among BAME women: low perceived risk of cervical cancer due to sexual inactivity, belief that screening is unnecessary without symptoms and difficulty finding an appointment that fits in with other commitments. Conclusions: BAME non-attenders appear to fall into two groups, and interventions for these groups may need to be targeted and tailored accordingly. It is important to ensure that BAME women understand cancer screening is intended for asymptomatic women and those who have ceased sexual activity may still be at risk. PMID:26171938

  19. Infant mortality among racial/ethnic minority groups, 1983-1984.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, J C

    1990-07-01

    Infant mortality varies considerably among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. For groups other than whites and blacks, previously published rates based on the vital statistics system have been underestimated because of inconsistencies in the classification of race and Hispanic status on birth and death certificates. For this report, infant mortality rates (IMRs) are based on the 1983 and 1984 linked birth and infant-death files, and mother's race and Hispanic origin are reported in accordance with information shown on the birth certificates. Overall, Asians have somewhat lower infant mortality rates than whites, but the rates vary from 6.0/1,000 among Japanese mothers to 9.0/1,000 among "other Asian" mothers. Hispanic mothers show even wider variation: from 7.8/1,000 among Cubans to 12.9/1,000 among Puerto Ricans. Blacks have an IMR twice as high as that for whites, and the rate for American Indians is nearly 60% above the rate for whites. Mexicans are the third largest minority group in the United States, accounting for one-quarter million births per year. Despite a high rate of poverty and low use of prenatal care, Mexicans have approximately the same IMR (9.0/1,000) as non-Hispanic whites. Further study of this group could assist in the development of prevention strategies. PMID:2115109

  20. An Examination of Culturally Relevant Stressors, Coping, Ethnic Identity, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Coyle, Laura D.; Stinson, Jennifer; Mull, Megan; Doud, Katherine; Buchheit, Christine; Gorman, Catherine; Hewitt, Amber; Keene, Chesleigh; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations between culturally relevant stressors (i.e., urban hassles, perceived discrimination) and subjective well-being (SWB; i.e., positive/ negative affect, life satisfaction) to examine whether ethnic identity and/or coping strategies would serve as moderators of the relations between stress and SWB for 157 urban, ethnic…

  1. Ethnic differences in help-seeking behaviour following child sexual abuse: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Okur, Pinar; van der Knaap, Leontien M; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Western societies, groups from a minority ethnic background are under-represented in formal mental health care. However, it is unknown if the minority ethnic victims of child sexual abuse differ from majority ethnic victims regarding their help-seeking behaviours. This study used a multi-method design to investigate the prevalence of (in) formal help-seeking after child sexual abuse and the influence of attitudes towards gender roles and sexuality on help-seeking among the Dutch minority ethnic and majority ethnic victims. We also examined differences in reasons not to seek help. Quantitative survey data on help-seeking patterns among 1496 child sexual abuse victims were collected. Four qualitative focus groups were conducted with professionals working in the field of child sexual abuse and minority ethnic groups to explore help-seeking behaviour. No significant differences between ethnicity emerged in help-seeking rates. However, respondents with more liberal gender attitudes were more likely to disclose than conservative respondents. Additionally, an interaction effect was observed between ethnicity and gender attitudes, indicating that, contrary to the main effect, young people of Moroccan and Turkish heritage with more liberal gender attitudes were less likely to disclose abuse. Reasons for not seeking help differed among groups. Focus group members emphasised mistrust towards counsellors and perceptions that inhibit minority ethnic youth from seeking help. PMID:26265161

  2. From the margins to the center: ethnic minority women and the mental health effects of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Chung, Heewoon; Tillman, Shaquita; Belcourt, Annie

    2009-10-01

    The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed. PMID:19578029

  3. Academic performance of ethnic minority candidates and discrimination in the MRCGP examinations between 2010 and 2012: analysis of data

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the difference in failure rates in the postgraduate examination of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP) by ethnic or national background, and to identify factors associated with pass rates in the clinical skills assessment component of the examination. Design Analysis of data provided by the Royal College of General Practitioners and the General Medical Council. Participants Cohort of 5095 candidates sitting the applied knowledge test and clinical skills assessment components of the MRCGP examination between November 2010 and November 2012. A further analysis was carried out on 1175 candidates not trained in the United Kingdom, who sat an English language capability test (IELTS) and the Professional and Linguistic Assessment Board (PLAB) examination (as required for full medical registration), controlling for scores on these examinations and relating them to pass rates of the clinical skills assessment. Setting United Kingdom. Results After controlling for age, sex, and performance in the applied knowledge test, significant differences persisted between white UK graduates and other candidate groups. Black and minority ethnic graduates trained in the UK were more likely to fail the clinical skills assessment at their first attempt than their white UK colleagues (odds ratio 3.536 (95% confidence interval 2.701 to 4.629), P<0.001; failure rate 17% v 4.5%). Black and minority ethnic candidates who trained abroad were also more likely to fail the clinical skills assessment than white UK candidates (14.741 (11.397 to 19.065), P<0.001; 65% v 4.5%). For candidates not trained in the UK, black or minority ethnic candidates were more likely to fail than white candidates, but this difference was no longer significant after controlling for scores in the applied knowledge test, IELTS, and PLAB examinations (adjusted odds ratio 1.580 (95% confidence interval 0.878 to 2.845), P=0.127). Conclusions Subjective bias due to racial discrimination

  4. Enrollment of racial/ethnic minorities and women with HIV in clinical research studies of HIV medicines.

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick S.; McNaghten, A. D.; Begley, Elin; Hutchinson, Angela; Cargill, Victoria A.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Inclusion of women and racial/ethnic minorities is a requirement for federally supported clinical research, but data on clinical research participation from women and racial/ethnic minorities with HIV are few. To describe participation in clinical research of HIV medicines among women and racial/ethnic minorities, and associated factors, we used data from a cross-sectional behavioral surveillance interview project conducted in 15 U.S. states. METHODS: Data were from 6,892 persons living with HIV infection, recruited in facilities in seven U.S. states and using population-based methods in eight other states, between 2000-2004. We calculated self-reported participation in a clinical research study of HIV medicines, factors associated with self-reported study participation among men and women, and reasons for not participating in a study among nonparticipants. MAIN FINDINGS: Overall, 17% of respondents had ever participated in a clinical research study. For men, the odds of participation were lower for black or Hispanic men (versus white men) and were higher for men whose risk for HIV infection was male-male sex (versus men with male-female sex risk) and for men with AIDS. For men who had not participated in a study, black men were more likely than white men to report not participating in a study because they were unaware of available studies or were not offered enrollment (75% vs. 69%), and because they did not want to be a "guinea pig" (11% vs. 8%). Among women, participation was not associated with race/ethnicity or risk for HIV infection but was associated with living in an area with an NIH- or CDC- supported clinical research network. HIV-infected women were more likely than HIV-infected men with comparable modes of HIV acquisition to have participated in a study. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons with HIV interviewed in these 15 states, self-reported participation in clinical research studies was higher among women than men, but racial/ethnic minority men were

  5. The family-school-primary care triangle and the access to mental health care among migrant and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Marta; Moleiro, Carla

    2012-08-01

    Understanding the concepts of mental health and help seeking behaviours of migrant and ethnic minority families constitutes an important step toward improving the intercultural competence of health and education professionals. This paper addresses these goals among ethnic and migrant minorities in Portugal. For this a multi-informant approach was selected. The study involved nine focus groups (N = 39) conducted with different samples: young immigrants (12-17 years), immigrant parents, teachers and health professionals. The results showed similarities and differences in concepts of mental health, as well as help seeking processes. Stigma continued to be recognized as a barrier in the access to mental health care. The paper argues that providing adequate training on mental health on cultural diversity competencies to health and education professionals can contribute to a better inter-communication and -relation system in the family-school-primary care triangle and thus facilitate access to mental health care for youth. PMID:21947737

  6. Maternal care and birth outcomes among ethnic minority women in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Maili; Gissler, Mika

    2009-01-01

    Background Care during pregnancy and labour is of great importance in every culture. Studies show that people of migrant origin have barriers to obtaining accessible and good quality care compared to people in the host society. The aim of this study is to compare the access to and use of maternity services, and their outcomes among ethnic minority women having a singleton birth in Finland. Methods The study is based on data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register in 1999–2001 linked with the information of Statistics Finland on woman's country of birth, citizenship and mother tongue. Our study data included 6,532 women of foreign origin (3.9% of all singletons) giving singleton birth in Finland during 1999–2001 (compared to 158,469 Finnish origin singletons). Results Most women have migrated during the last fifteen years, mainly from Russia, Baltic countries, Somalia and East Europe. Migrant origin women participated substantially in prenatal care. Interventions performed or needed during pregnancy and childbirth varied between ethnic groups. Women of African and Somali origin had most health problems resulted in the highest perinatal mortality rates. Women from East Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Somalia had a significant risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age newborns. Most premature newborns were found among women from the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia. Primiparous women from Africa, Somalia and Latin America and Caribbean had most caesarean sections while newborns of Latin American origin had more interventions after birth. Conclusion Despite good general coverage of maternal care among migrant origin women, there were clear variations in the type of treatment given to them or needed by them. African origin women had the most health problems during pregnancy and childbirth and the worst perinatal outcomes indicating the urgent need of targeted preventive and special care. These study results do not confirm either

  7. Factors affecting the disclosure of diabetes by ethnic minority patients: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes and related complications are common among ethnic minority groups. Community-based social support interventions are considered promising for improving diabetes self-management. To access such interventions, patients need to disclose their diabetes to others. Research on the disclosure of diabetes in ethnic minority groups is limited. The aim of our study was to explore why diabetes patients from ethnic minority populations either share or do not share their condition with people in their wider social networks. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 32 Surinamese patients who were being treated for type 2 diabetes by general practitioners in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Results Most patients disclosed their diabetes only to very close family members. The main factor inhibiting disclosure to people outside this group was the Surinamese cultural custom that talking about disease is taboo, as it may lead to shame, gossip, and social disgrace for the patient and their family. Nevertheless, some patients disclosed their diabetes to people outside their close family circles. Factors motivating this decision were mostly related to a need for facilities or support for diabetes self-management. Conclusions Cultural customs inhibited Surinamese patients in disclosing their diabetes to people outside their very close family circles. This may influence their readiness to participate in community-based diabetes self-management programmes that involve other groups. What these findings highlight is that public health researchers and initiatives must identify and work with factors that influence the disclosure of diabetes if they are to develop community-based diabetes self-management interventions for ethnic minority populations. PMID:21619571

  8. Factors associated with HPV awareness among mothers of low-income ethnic minority adolescent girls in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Beth A; Tsui, Jennifer; Singhal, Rita; Sanchez, Leah; Nonzee, Narissa J; Chang, L Cindy; Taylor, Victoria M; Bastani, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Among caregivers of adolescent girls, awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) is strongly associated with vaccine uptake. Little is known, however, about the predictors of HPV awareness among low-income ethnic minority groups in the U.S. The purpose of this study is to understand demographic factors associated with HPV awareness among low-income, ethnic minority mothers in Los Angeles County. We conducted a cross-sectional study of caregivers of adolescent girls through the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Office of Women's Health's hotline. The majority of the participants were foreign-born (88%), one quarter lacked a usual source of care, and one quarter lacked public or private health insurance for their daughter. We found that one in three participants had never heard of HPV or the vaccine. Mothers that were unaware of HPV were significantly more likely to conduct the interview in a language other than English and to lack health insurance for their daughters. HPV vaccine awareness was much lower in our caregiver sample (61%) than in a simultaneous national survey of caregivers (85%). The associations between lack of awareness and use of a language other than English, as well as lack of health insurance for their daughter indicate the need for HPV vaccine outreach efforts tailored to ethnic minority communities in the U.S. PMID:25434792

  9. CEMTDD: The database for elucidating the relationships among herbs, compounds, targets and related diseases for Chinese ethnic minority traditional drugs

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tao; Yao, Hong; Pang, Xiaobo; Sun, Fuzhou; Ouyang, Liang; Wang, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    China has different ethnic minorities that establish their own medical systems and practice experience for thousand years, thereafter named Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drugs (CEMTDs) (http://www.cemtdd.com/index.html). Since many compounds from CEMTDs have been reported to perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological conditions, the relationships amongst a series of compounds from specific herbs, their targets and relevant diseases have become our main focus in CEMTD modernization. Herein, we have constructed the first Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drug Database (CEMTDD) mainly from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), retrieving CEMTD-related information from different resources. CEMTDD contains about 621 herbs, 4, 060 compounds, 2, 163 targets and 210 diseases, among which most of herbs can be applied into gerontology therapy including inflammation, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease. Gerontology is highly occurred in XUAR, and has abundant experience in treating such diseases, which may benefit for developing a new gerontology therapeutic strategy. CEMTDD displays networks for intricate relationships between CEMTDs and treated diseases, as well as the interrelations between active compounds and action targets, which may shed new light on the combination therapy of CEMTDs and further understanding of their herb molecular mechanisms for better modernized utilizations of CEMTDs, especially in gerontology. PMID:25970778

  10. The Association between Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Different Ethnic Minority Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZhiZhong; Ma, Wanrui; Liu, Lan

    2014-01-01

    The association, in different ethnic groups, of apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been unclear. Few studies have examined the association in Chinese minorities. The current study explores the association between apoE gene polymorphism and MCI in one of the biggest ethnic groups—the Hui—and compares it with the Han. The Minimental State Exam, Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 306 ethnic Hui and 618 ethnic Han people aged ≥55 years. ApoE genotypes were determined using the high resolution melting curve method. The distribution of the apoE genotype and the frequency of alleles ε2, ε3, and ε4 were similar in the Hui and Han groups. In analyses adjusted for age, gender, and education level, the ε4 allele was a risk factor for MCI in both the Hui group (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.02–6.66) and the Han group (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.19–4.67), but the apoE ε2 allele was protective for MCI only in the Han group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.38–0.88). The association of some apoE genotypes with MCI may differ in different ethnic groups in China. Further studies are needed to explore this effect among different populations. PMID:25161798

  11. Neglected diseases and ethnic minorities in the Western Pacific Region exploring the links.

    PubMed

    Schratz, Alexander; Pineda, Martha Fernanda; Reforma, Liberty G; Fox, Nicole M; Le Anh, Tuan; Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza, L; Henderson, Mackenzie K; Mendoza, Raymond; Utzinger, Jürg; Ehrenberg, John P; Tee, Ah Sian

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs. PMID:20624529

  12. Retaining ethnic minority parents in a preventive intervention: the quality of group process.

    PubMed

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Duncan, Larissa G; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2006-07-01

    This study examined relations between group process variables and retention of ethnic minority (African American and Hispanic) caregivers in a family-focused preventive intervention. Data from the Familias Unidas/SEPI project (Coatsworth, Pantin, & Szapocznik, 2002), a randomized, controlled intervention trial, were used to cluster participants according to their patterns of retention over 30 intervention sessions. These person-centered analyses identified three broad patterns: (a) dropouts; (b) variable-attenders; and (c) consistent-high-attenders. Two subgroups of the variable-attender group were also identified: (a) intermittent-attenders, and (b) continual-attenders. Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) with follow-up Analysis of Variance tested for differences among the three main retention groups on facilitator ratings of participants' general level of participation, leadership, positive alliance with the group, and negative alliance with the group during the first half of the intervention. Leadership and positive alliance significantly discriminated the broad retention patterns. Mean level of participation was not significantly different across retention groups. Results of DFA and ANOVA analyses using leadership, alliance, and participation variables from the first and second halves of the intervention indicated only leadership and positive alliance during the second half of the intervention discriminated continual-attenders from intermittent-attenders. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors describe a promising approach to studying facilitators' assessments of client involvement in a family-focused preventive intervention. The quality of the participants' behavior during sessions, rather than their absolute levels of participation, predicted their pattern of retention in the program. Future comparisons of facilitator and parent views may prove helpful. PMID:16802072

  13. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  14. A Model of Organizational Context and Shared Decision Making: Application to LGBT Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients.

    PubMed

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Lopez, Fanny Y; Moore, Jennifer E; Cook, Scott C; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) occurs when patients and clinicians work together to reach care decisions that are both medically sound and responsive to patients' preferences and values. SDM is an important tenet of patient-centered care that can improve patient outcomes. Patients with multiple minority identities, such as sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, are at particular risk for poor SDM. Among these dual-minority patients, added challenges to clear and open communication include cultural barriers, distrust, and a health care provider's lack of awareness of the patient's minority sexual orientation or gender identity. However, organizational factors like a culture of inclusion and private space throughout the visit can improve SDM with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ("LGBT") racial/ethnic minority patients who have faced stigma and discrimination. Most models of shared decision making focus on the patient-provider interaction, but the health care organization's context is also critical. Context-an organization's structure and operations-can strongly influence the ability and willingness of patients and clinicians to engage in shared decision making. SDM is most likely to be optimal if organizations transform their contexts and patients and providers improve their communication. Thus, we propose a conceptual model that suggests ways in which organizations can shape their contextual structure and operations to support SDM. The model contains six drivers: workflows, health information technology, organizational structure and culture, resources and clinic environment, training and education, and incentives and disincentives. These drivers work through four mechanisms to impact care: continuity and coordination, the ease of SDM, knowledge and skills, and attitudes and beliefs. These mechanisms can activate clinicians and patients to engage in high-quality SDM. We provide examples of how specific contextual changes could make SDM more effective for LGBT

  15. Increasing Ethnic Minority Participation in Substance Abuse Clinical Trials: Lessons Learned in the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s Clinical Trials Network

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, Kathleen; Larios, Sandra; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Holmes, Beverly; Venner, Kamilla; Chavez, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation in clinical trials limits the extent to which ethnic minorities benefit from advances in substance abuse treatment. The objective of this article is to share the knowledge gained within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN) of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and other research on recruiting and retaining ethnic minorities into substance abuse clinical trials. The article includes a discussion of two broad areas for improving inclusion— community involvement and cultural adaptation. CTN case studies are included to illustrate three promising strategies for improving ethnic minority inclusion: respondent-driven sampling, community-based participatory research, and the cultural adaptation of the recruitment and retention procedures. The article concludes with two sections describing a number of methodological concerns in the current research base and our proposed research agenda for improving ethnic minority inclusion that builds on the CTN experience. PMID:21988575

  16. Ethnic and gender differences in mental health utilization: the case of Muslim Jordanian and Moroccan Jewish Israeli out-patient psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, A; Graham, J R; Ophir, M; Kandah, J

    2001-01-01

    A sample of 148 (87 Jordanian [61 male, 26 female] and 61 Israeli [26 male, 35 female]) was selected from a psychiatric clinic in Ashdod Israel and Zarka Jordan, using convenience sampling methodology over a 12 month period in late 1997 and early 1998. A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist: A Self-Report Symptom Inventory (HSCL) was translated into Arabic and Hebrew and distributed to subjects; additional questions explored demographic characteristics, forms of received treatment, patient perceptions of treatment efficacy, patient use of traditional healers, and patient explanation of etiology. Data revealed that there were differences in dimensions between the 2 groups based on nationality and gender. More Jordanians than Israelis expected medications as the main treatment, and unlike Israelis, no Jordanian patients received individual psychotherapy. Israelis expected medications, advice, directions, and instructions from psychiatrists. Both ethnic groups consulted a wide array of traditional healers, although precise types of healers varied according to gender and ethnicity. Israeli subjects gave more diverse explanations of mental health etiologies: physical, family, divorce, economic, unemployment; whereas Jordanians tended to emphasize divine and spiritual sources. Implications for psychiatric practice are discussed. PMID:11589335

  17. Creating Culturally Relevant Alzheimer's Support Groups for Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joseph Neil

    Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…

  18. Conceptions of Learning and Approaches to Studying among White and Ethnic Minority Students in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The attainment of White students at UK institutions of higher education tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups, but the causes of this are unclear. Aims: This study compared White students and students from other ethnic groups in their conceptions of learning, their approaches to studying, and their academic…

  19. Ethnic Identity: Formation and Transmission among Hispanics and Other Minorities. SUNY Series, United States Hispanic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Martha E., Ed.; Knight, George P., Ed.

    This book contains 14 research papers and reviews on the development of ethnic identity in childhood and adolescence and the transmission of ethnic identity within families and across family generations. The research focuses on Hispanic-Americans, particularly Mexican-Americans; some studies include Blacks, American Indians, Asian-Americans, and…

  20. Use of Inpatient Mental Health Services by Members of Ethnic Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Cheung, Freda K.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the ethnic-related differences in mental hospitalization admittance rates, diagnoses, and length of treatment. Explores reasons other than ethnic origin that may account for these differences, including socioeconomic standing, access to alternative services, bias in practitioners' assignment of diagnostic labels, and differential stigma…

  1. The Academic Engagement of White and Ethnic Minority Students in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2011-01-01

    At UK institutions of higher education, the academic attainment of White students tends to be higher than that of students from other ethnic groups. A postal survey of Open University students found very little difference in academic engagement in those from different ethnic groups. The differences in pass rates and course grades remained…

  2. Ethnic Resources Utilization of Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Chicago Minority Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kwang Chung; Hurh, Won Moo

    1985-01-01

    Korean entrepreneurs rely heavily on their ethnic resources for both business formation and operation. While such resource utilization facilitates immigrants' business entry and gives them competitive advantage in the general marketplace, the same mechanism poses the problems of entra-ethnic business competition and precarious position as a…

  3. "Just Open Your Eyes a Bit More": The Methodological Challenges of Researching Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne; Webb, Louisa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the challenges of centralising "race" and ethnicity in Physical Education (PE) research, through reflecting on the design and implementation of a study exploring Black and minority ethnic students' experiences of their teacher education. Our aim in the paper is to contribute to ongoing theoretical and…

  4. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  5. "The Big Ones Swallow the Small Ones". Or Do They? Language-in-Education Policy and Ethnic Minority Education in the Lao PDR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse nations in Southeast Asia. The post-1975 government's policies regarding ethnic minority peoples are often considered to represent an ideological shift from earlier monocultural orientations to a discourse of interethnic equality and solidarity.…

  6. Language Proficiency and Socio-Cultural Orientation of Turkish and Moroccan Youngsters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extra, Guus; Yagmur, Kutlay

    2010-01-01

    In this study, data and discourses on immigrant minority groups and languages other than Dutch at home and at school are presented in order to contextualise the status of Turkish and Moroccan communities and their languages in the Netherlands. Patterns of language use, choice and attitudes of Turkish (n = 63) and Moroccan (n = 64) youngsters in…

  7. Neuropsychological impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV infection and low literacy levels: Effects of education and reading level in participant characterization

    PubMed Central

    RYAN, ELIZABETH L.; BAIRD, REON; MINDT, MONICA RIVERA; BYRD, DESIREE; MONZONES, JENNIFER; MORGELLO, SUSAN

    2006-01-01

    Educational attainment is an important factor in the interpretation of cognitive test scores but years of education are not necessarily synonymous with educational quality among racial/ethnic minority populations. This study investigated the comparability of educational attainment with reading level and examined whether discrepancies in education and reading level accounted for differences in neuropsychological test performance between HIV+ racial/ethnic minority and nonminority participants. Study participants (N = 200) were derived from the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank (MHBB) where 50% of the cohort had ≤8th grade reading level but only 5% had ≤8 years of education. Significantly lower reading ability and education was found among African Americans and Hispanics, and these participants were more likely to have discrepant reading and education levels compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Discrepancy in reading and education level was associated with worse neuropsychological performance while racial/ethnic minority status was not. As years of schooling overestimated racial/ethnic minority participants’ educational quality, standard norms based on education may inflate impairment rates among racial/ethnic minorities. Identifying appropriate normative standards is and will continue to be important in the detection of cognitive impairment in racial/ethnic minorities with HIV. PMID:16519268

  8. APOE Genotype in the Ethnic Majority and Minority Groups of Laos and the Implications for Non-Communicable Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Kaoru; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Southivong, Bouavanh; Rattanavong, Oudayvone; Sengkhygnavong, Vikham; Pyaluanglath, Amphay; Sayasithsena, Saymongkhonh; Nakamura, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Murata, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing age is associated with elevated risk of non-communicable diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a risk factor not only for AD, but also for cognitive decline, depressive symptoms, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos) is undergoing development; consequently, life expectancy has risen. To evaluate the future risk of non-communicable diseases, we investigated APOE genotypes and anthropometric characteristics in the Laotian population. Methodology/Principal Findings Subjects were 455 members of the Lao Loum majority and 354 members of ethnic minorities. APOE genotypes, anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and blood glucose were recorded. To compare individual changes, health examination data collected 5 years apart were obtained from a subset of Lao Loum subjects. APOE ε4 allele frequencies were higher among minorities (31.3%) than among Lao Loum (12.6%). In Lao Loum, but not in minorities, mean waist circumference and blood pressure increased significantly across age groups. Comparisons of health conditions between the beginning and end of the 5-year period revealed significant increases in obesity and blood glucose levels in Lao Loum. APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significant increases in resting heart rate in both ethnic groups. Conclusions/Significance A higher ε4 allele frequency was observed in Laotian minorities than in the Laotian majority. Furthermore, higher obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose were observed in the middle-aged ethnic majority. Therefore, given these genetic and non-communicable disease risk factors, it seems likely that as the Laotian population ages, elevated rates of non-communicable aging-related diseases, such as dementia, will also become more prevalent. PMID:27168072

  9. Differential HIV Risk for Racial/Ethnic Minority Trans*female Youths and Socioeconomic Disparities in Housing, Residential Stability, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of 282 trans*female youths aged 16 to 24 years participating in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, SHINE study from 2012 to 2013 to determine differences between racial/ethnic minority and White youths. Methods. We conducted the χ2 test to determine distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and White participants in sociodemographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors, and syndemic factors. Results. Of the trans*female youths, 4.8% were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and White trans*female youths differed significantly in gender identity and sexual orientation. Racial/ethnic minority youths also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to have lived with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse than were Whites. Conclusions. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple-minority stress on racial/minority trans*female youths are needed imminently, and prevention efforts must address macrolevel disparities for trans*female youths, especially those from racial/ethnic minority groups, to reduce these disparities and prevent incident cases of HIV. PMID:25905826

  10. Comparison of Dutch Ethnic Minority and Majority Engineering Students: Social and Academic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severiens, Sabine; ten Dam, Geert; Blom, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Study careers of minority students in Dutch higher education are still less successful compared with the careers of majority students. Minority students still seem to experience more difficulties than majority students. Vincent Tinto's twin concepts of academic and social integration are used here to explore the experiences of minority and…

  11. Moving toward true inclusion of racial/ethnic minorities in federally funded studies. A key step for achieving respiratory health equality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Burchard, Esteban G; Oh, Sam S; Foreman, Marilyn G; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-03-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds. PMID:25584658

  12. Moving toward True Inclusion of Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Federally Funded Studies. A Key Step for Achieving Respiratory Health Equality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sam S.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    A key objective of the 1993 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Revitalization Act was to ensure inclusion of minorities in clinical research. We conducted a literature search for the period from 1993 to 2013 to examine whether racial/ethnic minorities are adequately represented in published research studies of pulmonary diseases, particularly NIH-funded studies. We found a marked underrepresentation of minorities in published clinical research on pulmonary diseases. Over the last 20 years, inclusion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups was reported (in MeSH terms, journal titles, and MEDLINE fields) in less than 5% of all NIH-funded published studies of respiratory diseases. Although a secondary analysis revealed that a larger proportion of NIH-funded studies included any minorities, this proportional increment mostly resulted from studies including relatively small numbers of minorities (which precludes robust race- or ethnic-specific analyses). Underrepresentation or exclusion of minorities from NIH-funded studies is likely due to multiple reasons, including insufficient education and training on designing and implementing population-based studies of minorities, inadequate motivation or incentives to overcome challenges in the recruitment and retention of sufficient numbers of members of racial/ethnic minorities, underrepresentation of minorities among respiratory scientists in academic medical centers, and a dearth of successful partnerships between academic medical centers and underrepresented communities. This problem could be remedied by implementing short-, medium-, and long-term strategies, such as creating incentives to conduct minority research, ensuring fair review of grant applications focusing on minorities, developing the careers of minority scientists, and facilitating and valuing research on minorities by investigators of all backgrounds. PMID:25584658

  13. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. Methods A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Results The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Conclusion Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand. PMID:19445678

  14. Dementia in a Black and minority ethnic population: characteristics of presentation to an inner London memory service

    PubMed Central

    Tuerk, Rosalyn; Sauer, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Aims and method To examine data on referrals to an inner-city London memory service to explore any differences in referral rates, cognitive assessments and stages of dementia at presentation between ethnic groups. Results African–Caribbean patients were well represented in the memory service. They were diagnosed with dementia on average 4.5 years younger than their White British counterparts and were more likely to be diagnosed with a vascular or mixed type dementia. However, scores on initial cognitive testing were significantly lower in the African–Caribbean group, possibly representing more advanced disease at presentation. Clinical implications Initiatives to access Black and minority ethnic populations earlier in the course of their illness should be considered. Professionals need to consider the potential for cultural bias in memory testing and diagnosing dementia in these populations, and the importance of cultural competency in assessments. PMID:26755947

  15. Mentoring the Mentors of Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minorities Who are Conducting HIV Research: Beyond Cultural Competency.

    PubMed

    Walters, Karina L; Simoni, Jane M; Evans-Campbell, Teresa Tessa; Udell, Wadiya; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Pearson, Cynthia R; MacDonald, Meg M; Duran, Bonnie

    2016-09-01

    The majority of literature on mentoring focuses on mentee training needs, with significantly less guidance for the mentors. Moreover, many mentoring the mentor models assume generic (i.e. White) mentees with little attention to the concerns of underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities (UREM). This has led to calls for increased attention to diversity in research training programs, especially in the field of HIV where racial/ethnic disparities are striking. Diversity training tends to address the mentees' cultural competency in conducting research with diverse populations, and often neglects the training needs of mentors in working with diverse mentees. In this article, we critique the framing of diversity as the problem (rather than the lack of mentor consciousness and skills), highlight the need to extend mentor training beyond aspirations of cultural competency toward cultural humility and cultural safety, and consider challenges to effective mentoring of UREM, both for White and UREM mentors. PMID:27484060

  16. Towards fair health policies for migrants and ethnic minorities: the case-study of ETHEALTH in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, progress in the development of health policies that address the needs of migrants and ethnic minorities has been slow. This is partly due to the absence of a strategic commitment by the health authorities. The Ministry of Public Health commissioned the ETHEALTH (EThnicity &HEALTH) group to formulate relevant recommendations to the public authorities with a view to reducing health inequalities among ethnic minorities. This paper describes the political process and the outcomes of the ETHEALTH expert group. Results After ten meetings, the ETHEALTH group came up with 46 recommendations, which were presented at a national press conference in December 2011. Target groups concerned by these recommendations covered both irregular migrants and migrants entitled to the national insurance coverage. Recommendations were supported by the need of combining universal approaches to health care with more specific approaches. The scope of the recommendations concerned health care as well as prevention, health promotion and access to health care. When analysing the content of the recommendations, some ETHEALTH recommendations were not fully measurable, and time-related; they were, however, quite specific and realistic within the Belgian context. The weak political commitment of an executive agency was identified as a major obstacle to the implementation of the recommendations. Conclusions The ETHEALTH group was an example of scientific advice on a global health issue. It also demonstrated the feasibility of coming up with a comprehensive strategy to decrease ethnic health inequalities, even in a political context where migration issues are sensitive. Two final lessons may be highlighted at the end of the first phase of the ETHEALTH project: firstly, the combination of scientific knowledge and practical expertise makes recommendations SMART; and, secondly, the low level of commitment on the part of policymakers might jeopardise the effective implementation of

  17. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered. PMID:25963050

  18. "My Parents Have Stressed that since I Was a Kid": Young Minority Ethnic British Citizens and the Phenomenon of Aspirational Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates retrospectively and prospectively the educational and career aspirations and experiences of young minority ethnic British citizens. It focuses on one aspect of a larger mixed methods study, that is, qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with a stratified sample of 20 young men and women of minority ethnic…

  19. Conservation of cultural heritage in minority ethnic regions in northwestern china—an exploration at Kuqa, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, N.; Zhang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Kuqa, Xinjiang, is located at northwestern inland china. Traditionally a bridge between eastern and western civilizations, Kuqa had a history of cultural fusion and was left with abundant cultural heritage. As population increase, economic growth and social changes occurred, spontaneous renovation of the old city was affected, in which street fabric and scenes underwent damages. The paper demonstrates attempts made in various projects to achieve conservation of cultural heritage in agreement with economic development and improvement of living condition. The lessons learnt in these projects will be of value to development of other historic cities, especially in minority ethnic regions in China.

  20. Culture and biology: surnames in evaluating genetic relationships among the ethnic minorities of Southern Italy and Sicily.

    PubMed

    Vienna, A; Biondi, G

    2001-06-01

    Surnames of grandparents were collected from children in the primary schools of the Albanian-Italian, Croat-Italian, and Greek-Italian villages. The coefficients of relationships by isonymy show almost no relationship with ethnicity. Ethnolinguistic minorities of Southern Italy and Sicily are geographically subdivided in two main clusters: the first cluster comprises the Albanian, Croat, and Greek communities of the Adriatic area; and the second cluster comprises the Albanian communities of the Ionian, Thirrenian and Sicilian area. The Greeks of Reggio Calabria Province are completely separated from the other communities. PMID:11787541

  1. Violence against women in the militarized Indian frontier: beyond "Indian culture" in the experiences of ethnic minority women.

    PubMed

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2012-03-01

    Violence against women (VAW) in India is commonly attributed to an overarching metacultural patriarchal framework. Focusing on this national culture of violence obscures the experiences of VAW among ethnic minority women. This article focuses on VAW in Northeast India, a region populated by large numbers of Scheduled Tribes with different cultural norms, and where society has become militarized by ongoing insurgency and counterinsurgency. Though tempting, militarization alone is not a sufficient explanation for VAW; instead, this article focuses on the interplay between nonfamilial and familial contexts in creating a "frontier culture of violence" in which VAW is experienced and contested. PMID:22615121

  2. Depression among the Moroccan systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wafki, Fahd; Amine, Bouchra; Ibn Yacoub, Yousra; Laatiriss, Assia; Znat, Fatima; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and predictors factors of depression in Moroccan patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), we conducted a cross-sectional study of 59 Moroccan patients with systemic sclerosis. Patients were assessed by using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale "PHQ-9" and through extensive clinical histories and medical examinations. The Arabic version of HAQ and SF-36 was used to assess functional disability and health status, respectively. Forty-six patients (77.4%) presented symptoms of depression. Thirty six (61%) have a major depressive syndrome and 10 (16.4%) have a minor depressive syndrome. The PHQ-9 score was significantly higher in the patient with prolonged disease duration, severe joint pain, higher disease severity, and important acute-phase reactants. Also, depression had a negative impact on physical and mental scores. Systemic scleroderma is associated with a high prevalence of depression. Screening for depression among patients with SSc is recommended and it should be assessed for routinely. PMID:21629986

  3. Barriers to access and minority ethnic carers' satisfaction with social care services in the community: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Habibi, Ruth; Smith, Raymond; Manthorpe, Jill

    2015-01-01

    As populations age, the numbers of carers overall and numbers of carers from minority ethnic groups in particular are rising. Evidence suggests that carers from all sections of the community and particularly carers from minority groups often fail to access care services. This may relate to barriers in accessing services and service dissatisfaction. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarise minority ethnic carers' perceptions of barriers to accessing community social care services and their satisfaction with these services if accessed. The following databases were searched from their start until July 2013: Social Care Online, Social Policy and Research, Scopus, PsychINFO, HMIC, ASSIA, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus and AMED. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Most investigated either barriers to access or satisfaction levels, although three explored both. Only 4 studies investigated minority ethnic carers' satisfaction with social care, although 12 studies reported perceived barriers to accessing services. Few studies compared minority ethnic carers' perceptions with majority ethnic groups, making it difficult to identify issues specific to minority groups. Most barriers described were potentially relevant to all carers, irrespective of ethnic group. They included attitudinal barriers such as not wanting to involve outsiders or not seeing the need for services and practical barriers such as low awareness of services and service availability. Issues specific to minority ethnic groups included language barriers and concerns about services' cultural or religious appropriateness. Studies investigating satisfaction with services reported a mixture of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Barriers common to all groups should not be underestimated and a better understanding of the relationship between perceived barriers to accessing services and dissatisfaction with services is needed before the experiences of all carers can be improved. PMID

  4. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research. PMID:8882838

  5. Identity Development in a Transracial Environment: Racial/Ethnic Minority Adoptees in Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Emma R.; Samek, Diana R.; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that transracial adopted children have increased risk for problems related to self-esteem and ethnic identity development. We evaluated this hypothesis across four groups of transracial adoptees: Asian (N = 427), Latino (N = 28), Black (N = 6), Mixed/Other (N = 20), and same-race white adoptees (N = 126) from 357 adoptive families. No mean differences were found in adoptee’s ratings of affect about adoption, or of curiosity about birthparents. Some differences were found in general identity development and adjustment. There were notable differences in communication about race/ethnicity across groups and between parent and child report. PMID:26300622

  6. Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Linda L., Ed.

    Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for rural areas. Results show minimal…

  7. [The HLA system in the Moroccan population: General review].

    PubMed

    Brick, C; Atouf, O; Essakalli, M

    2015-01-01

    The Moroccan population is an interesting study model of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) polymorphism given its ethnic and genetic diversity. Through an analysis of the literature, this work proposes to establish a balance of knowledge for this population in the field of histocompatibility: HLA diversity, anthropology, transplantation and HLA associations and diseases. This analysis shows that the HLA system has not been fully explored within the Moroccan population. However, the results obtained allowed us to initiate a database reflecting the specific healthy Moroccan population HLA polymorphism to identify immigration flows and relationships with different people of the world and to reveal the association of certain HLA alleles with frequent pathologies. We also propose to analyze the reasons hindering the development of this activity in Morocco and we will try to identify some perspectives. PMID:26597780

  8. Young low-income ethnic minority children watch less television when their mothers regulate what they are viewing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Matson, Pamela A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Parenting practices can reduce how much television (TV) children watch. This study evaluated the longitudinal association between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by low-income ethnic minority children. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of the Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study. Data were used from ethnic minority mothers with a child from birth to four-years-old, collected over two waves approximately 16 months apart. The dependent variable was the amount of TV watched by the child (wave two). The main independent variable was the maternal regulation of TV content (wave one). Using multiple linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between maternal regulation of TV content and the amount of TV watched by the child, adjusting for covariates. Results Of the 835 mothers, 71% were high content regulators and 8% reported no content regulation. Children whose mothers reported no regulation watched more TV approximately 16 months later than those whose mothers reported high regulation of content (β =0.91, 95% CI: 0.09–1.73). Conclusion Our findings suggest that regulating content influences viewing amounts in young children approximately 16 months later. Interventions focused on heightening parental regulation of content may improve content and diminish viewing amounts. PMID:25424888

  9. An Investigation of Racial and/or Ethnic Minority Teacher Candidates' Strengths Awareness and Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hui

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus among researchers that teachers from diverse linguistic, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds contribute to American education (Dee, 2004; Easton-Brooks, Lewis, & Yang, 2010; Irvine, 2003; Irvine & Fenwick, 2011; Ladson-Billings, 2005; Lu, 2005; Talbert-Johnson, 2001). There is also a call for teacher educators to recognize what…

  10. Stress-Related Growth in Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Measurement Structure and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Allison A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Aldridge, Arianna A.

    2009-01-01

    Stress-related growth is defined as the perception or experience of deriving benefits from encountering stressful circumstances and, thus, has been identified as a protective factor against stress. The current study revised and subsequently validated scores on an existing measure of stress-related growth in a sample of racial/ethnic minority…

  11. Translanguaging Knowledge and Identity in Complementary Classrooms for Multilingual Minority Ethnic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li

    2014-01-01

    This article examines multilingual interactions in the complementary school classroom for ethnic Chinese children in the UK. Through a detailed analysis of classroom exchanges amongst the children and their teachers, the study aims to demonstrate how they alternate between different varieties of Chinese and English and different modes of…

  12. Role of Referrals in Mental Health Service Disparities for Racial and Ethnic Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegria, Margarita; Lin, Julia Y.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Sampson, Nancy A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate racial/ethnic differences in teachers' and other adults' identification and/or encouragement of parents to seek treatment for psychiatric problems in their children and to evaluate if and whether identification/encouragement is associated with service use. Method: Data on identification/encouragement to seek treatment for…

  13. Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission: A Study among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Stevens, Gonneke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between religious group identification and ethnic and national identity among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim adolescents (11-18 years) and their parents (n = 369). Compared to their parents, adolescents showed higher national identification and lower religious and ethnic group identification. However, for adolescents…

  14. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  15. Moving Beyond the "add and Stir" Approach to Increasing Diversity in the Sciences: Design and Implementation of AN Undergraduate Course Entitled Ethnic Minorities in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.; Ritch, Donna

    In an effort to create a more culturally inclusive undergraduate science curriculum, a course entitled "Ethnic Minorities in Science" was designed and implemented. The course has the following learning objectives: 1). to understand the history and culture of science in the U.S., in order to recognize what has led to the current under representation of specific ethnic groups in the sciences; 2). to appreciate the often undervalued or overlooked contributions of minority scientists and physicians; 3). to gain a perspective on the disparities in the quality of health care available to various ethnic groups in the U.S.; and 4). to identify ways to initiate change and improve the climate for minorities in the fields of science and medicine. Course readings, pedagogical methods, and the impact of the course on students' awareness of diversity issues in science are discussed.

  16. Variations in the experiences and expressions of depression among ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta L

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethnic differences in the experiences and expressions of depressive symptoms. Also, a discussion is presented regarding the effects that depression has on the individual and consequently the adverse impact it will have on society. Because the expressions of depression are so varied, appropriate measures are required to account for the differences of these expressions in individuals in order to facilitate appropriate diagnosing Both in the United States and throughout the world, depression accounts for a significant proportion of psychiatric disorders, with women and the poor experiencing a disproportionate burden of morbidity. It is essential to remember that clinical depression is never normal and should not be accepted as a normal part of life for any individual, regardless of race, age, or life situation. Depression is a chronic, often relapsing illness, especially if initially under-treated. With depression, it is also essential to identify the role that certain biological variations and particularly the role that ethnicity and gender may play. In other words, because of environmental and certain biological variations, there may be diferences in not only the life experiences but also the mode of expression that depression takes, particularly in women and ethnic people of color. It is essential to identify these significant differences. Certainly, minimizing the risk of psychiatric misdiagnosis is critical to achieving optimal health. PMID:17004424

  17. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening. PMID:26134040

  18. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers. PMID:26285361

  19. Alcohol Use and Subsequent Sex among HIV-Infected Patients in an Ethnic Minority Area of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaofeng; Duan, Song; Duan, Qixiang; Pu, Yongcheng; Yang, Yuecheng; Ding, Yingying; Gao, Meiyang; He, Na

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine alcohol use and subsequent HIV risky behaviors among a sample of predominately ethnic minority people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a rural community in Yunnan Province, China. Method A cross-sectional study with a face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted among eligible participants. Results In total, 455 (94.4%) out of 482 eligible HIV patients participated in the study. Of them, 82.6% were ethnic minorities; 15.4% were never married; 96.5% were sexually experienced; 55.4% had used drugs, 67% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Over 65% were ever drinkers; of whom 61.5% were current drinkers. Among current drinkers, 32.4% drank daily and 41.2% were hazardous drinkers. Chinese white wine was the preferred choice. Higher level of alcohol use among drinkers in the preceding month was positively associated with being males (OR = 2.76, 95%CI: 1.03–7.43), ethnic minorities (OR Jingpo = 2.21, 95%CI: 1.06–4.59; OR other minorities = 3.20, 95%CI: 1.34–7.62), higher education (OR1–6 = 1.98, 95%CI: 0.99–3.96; OR≥7 = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.09–5.06) and being ART-naive (OR = 2.69, 95%CI: 1.67–4.32). About 39% of ever drinkers reported having engaged in sex after drinking since HIV diagnosis. Those who were younger than 46 years (OR16–25 = 7.77, 95%CI: 1.22–49.60, OR26–35 = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.06–7.35, OR36–45 = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.57–7.58), hazardous drinkers (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.00–3.97) and drug users (OR = 3.01, 95%CI: 1.19–7.58) were more likely to have had sex after drinking. Approximately 56% of drug users had used drugs after drinking. Conclusions High prevalence of alcohol use and subsequent risky behaviors including sexual engagement and drug use among HIV patients in rural Yunnan require tremendous and integrated efforts for prevention and control of alcohol and drug abuse and HIV spreading. PMID:23626712

  20. Positive and Negative Self-Esteem among Ethnic Minority Early Adolescents: Social and Cultural Sources and Threats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2003-01-01

    Studied positive and negative self-esteem among 1,070 Turkish and Moroccan early adolescents in the Netherlands. Findings show the usefulness of distinguishing between positive and negative self-esteem when studying global self-esteem among a dolescents. (SLD)

  1. Ethnic Minorities at America's Liberal Arts Colleges--The New Invisible Men and Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, David S.

    A study was undertaken to analyze interview and questionnaire responses from 50 liberal arts colleges receiving Exxon Foundation grants to improve their management. In this analysis it was learned that although respondents had opportunities to mention minorities they seldom did. Responses of five top college officials are analyzed here: campus…

  2. Health and Life Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Older Adults in Mainland China: Effects of Financial Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yawen; Aranda, Maria P.; Chi, Iris

    2007-01-01

    China has achieved indisputable economic growth in the past decades but, with it, unbalanced development across region and socio-economic groups. Little is known about how this impacts the lives of minority older adults who tend to live in remote inland areas. This study is the first attempt to examine and compare the relationships between…

  3. Exploring the Impact of Supplementary Schools on Black and Minority Ethnic Pupils’ Mainstream Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maylor, Uvanney; Rose, Anthea; Minty, Sarah; Ross, Alistair; Issa, Tozun; Kuyok, Kuyok Abol

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a study commissioned by the (then) Department for Children, Schools and Families. The research mapped the provision, and explored the impact, of supplementary schools and aimed specifically to develop further understanding as to how supplementary schools might raise the attainment of Black and Minority Ethnic…

  4. Barriers to service use for postpartum depression symptoms among low-income ethnic minority mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Laura S; Dornig, Katrina; Curran, Laura

    2009-04-01

    The risks of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) in the United States are higher among low-income ethnic minority mothers. However, research has not adequately investigated barriers to formal help seeking for PPD symptoms among this vulnerable population. We used convenience and purposive sampling strategies to recruit mothers experiencing past-year (the year prior to interview) PPD symptoms (n=14), community key informants (n=11), and service providers (n=12) to participate in focus groups and individual interviews. A grounded theory analysis of these nested perspectives revealed individual, community, and provider-level barriers operating at various stages of the help-seeking process: thinking about symptoms, seeking advice, and rejecting formal care. Although mothers overwhelmingly recommended "talking it out" for other mothers with PPD, an array of attitudinal and instrumental barriers led mothers to choose self-help practices in lieu of formal mental health care. PMID:19299758

  5. Inflammatory bowel disease in young patients: challenges faced by black and minority ethnic communities in the UK.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Christopher; Nash, Avril; Lloyd, Michele; Brooks, Fiona; Lindsay, James O; Poullis, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing among black and minority ethnic (BME) communities. Despite this rise in prevalence, there is a paucity of research relating to ethnicity and IBD outside the USA. Furthermore, the symptoms of IBD are reported to start during childhood or adolescence in 20-25% of people with the condition. It is therefore important that young people's experiences of diagnosis, treatment and living with IBD are fully understood to ensure effective services and information provision. The study reported on in this paper was commissioned by a UK charity (Crohn's and Colitis UK) with the aim of increasing understanding of the specific issues and service needs of young people with IBD from BME communities. Empirical research entailed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 young people from BME groups accessed through gastroenterology departments at three collaborating NHS hospitals in England serving ethnically diverse populations. Interviews were carried out from June to December 2010 and sought to capture young people's views with IBD. A thematic analysis of their experiences identified many commonalities with other young people with IBD, such as the problematic route to formal diagnosis and the impact of IBD on education. The young people also experienced tensions between effective self-management strategies and cultural norms and practices relating to food. Moreover, the ability of parents to provide support was hampered for some young people by the absence of culturally competent services that were responsive to the families' communication needs. The findings highlight the need for more culturally appropriate information concerning IBD, and improved responsiveness to young people with IBD within primary care and the education system, as well as culturally competent messaging relating to the specific nature of the condition among the wider South Asian and black communities. PMID:25660726

  6. Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. Methods We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5); information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning) and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting) were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. Results After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1)). When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P<0.01). Adjustment for socio-economic factors mediated the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour (e.g. attenuation in OR by 54.4% (P<0.05) from OR 5.1 (95% CI 2.8; 9.4) to OR 2.9 (95% CI 1.5; 5.6) in Cape Verdean subgroup). However, associations remained significant in most ethnic subgroups. A final adjustment for family functioning and parenting factors further attenuated the association (e.g. attenuation in OR by 55.5% (P<0.05) from OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.3; 4.4) to OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0; 2.4) in European other subgroup). Conclusions This study showed that preschoolers from

  7. The Relations among Maternal Health Status, Parenting Stress, and Child Behavior Problems in Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Families

    PubMed Central

    BeLue, Rhonda; Halgunseth, Linda C.; Abiero, Beatrice; Bediako, Phylicia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Minimal attention has been given to understanding parenting stress among low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with conduct problems. Maternal health and parenting hassles may serve as important risk factors for parenting stress. This study examined whether parenting hassles moderated the relations between maternal physical and mental health and parenting stress in a sample of low-income, ethnically diverse mothers of children with behavioral problems. Methods The sample included 177 low-income Black, Latina, and White mothers of kindergartners with behavior problems. PATH analysis was employed to assess the associations between maternal mental and physical health and parenting stress, as well as the moderating role of parenting hassles in this cross-sectional study. Results After adjusting for covariates, we found that parenting hassles mediates the relationship between social support and parenting stress as well as maternal health and parenting stress. Conclusion Findings suggest that promoting coping resources for daily parenting hassles and supporting the physical and mental health of minority mothers may have important implications for parenting children with high behavior problems. PMID:26863556

  8. Sourcing Program: To identify outstanding women and ethnic minorities in research and research management

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, S.H.

    1991-08-01

    To meet the challenges of the changing demographics and a projected shortage of technically trained workers in the 21st century, Lawrence Livermore National (LLNL) is increasing its commitment to develop a diverse work force with the abilities to carry out the Laboratory's missions. In addition to the recruitment programs already established at LLNL, a sourcing program to identify outstanding women and minorities in research and research management was initiated in the summer of 1990. A research methodology, time table, selection criteria, and data generation strategy were designed and implemented for this program. Through extensive contacts with R D facilities, women's and minority professional organizations, national research councils, technical professional societies and universities, other sourcing programs were investigated and evaluated and a network of contacts and resources was developed. This report describes the design and implementation of the sourcing program targeting outstanding women and minorities in science and engineering. It details the investigation and evaluation of sourcing programs in other R D facilities and provides information regarding methods and sources used to identify potential candidates. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Rigidity in Gender-Typed Behaviors in Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study of Ethnic Minority Children

    PubMed Central

    Ruble, Diane; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Shrout, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A key prediction of cognitive theories of gender development concerns developmental trajectories in the relative strength or rigidity of gender typing. To examine these trajectories in early childhood, 229 children (African American, Mexican, Dominican) were followed annually from age 3 to 5 and gender-stereotypical appearance, dress-up play, toy play, and sex segregation were examined. High gender-typing was found across ethnic group, and most behaviors increased in rigidity, especially from age 3 to 4. In addressing controversy surrounding the stability and structure of gender-typing it was found that from year to year, most behaviors showed moderately stable individual differences. Behaviors were uncorrelated within age, but showed more concordance in change across time, suggesting that aspects of gender-typing are multidimensional but still show coherence. PMID:23432471

  10. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs haplotypes of Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhou; Jun, Wang; XingBo, Song; XiaoJun, Lu; Liu, Ding; BinWu, Ying

    2010-03-01

    We have co-amplified and analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) in 132 healthy unrelated autochthonous male individuals of Chinese Tibetan ethnic group residing in Lassa area of China. The gene diversity values for the Y-STRs loci ranged from a minimum 0.206 for DYS391 locus to a maximum of 0.912 for DYS385a/b locus in the populations. A total of 123 haplotypes were identified, among which 115 were unique and 8 occurred more than once. The overall haplotype diversity for 17 Y-STRs loci was 0.998. Research results will be valuable for forensic use in the regions and for Chinese population genetic study. PMID:20116321

  11. Exploring healthy eating among ethnic minority students using mobile technology: Feasibility and adherence.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Shiyko, Mariya; Intille, Stephen; Wilson, Kelcey; O'Carroll, Dympna; Lovering, Meghan; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Iannuccilli, Alyssa; Luk, Stephanie; Shoemaker, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Interventions aiming to help ethnically diverse emerging adults engage in healthy eating have had limited success. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of and adherence to an intervention capitalizing on mobile technology to improve healthy eating. Participants created an online photo food journal and received motivational text messages three times a day. Satisfaction with the intervention was assessed, as were control variables including depression and body dissatisfaction. In addition, weight and height were measured. Levels of adherence to the photo food journal were high with approximately two photos posted a day at baseline. However, adherence rates decreased over the course of the study. Body dissatisfaction positively predicted adherence, while body mass index negatively predicted study satisfaction. Mobile technology provides innovative avenues for healthy eating interventions. Such interventions appear acceptable and feasible for a short period; however, more work is required to evaluate their viability regarding long-term engagement. PMID:25609082

  12. Strategies for managing racism and homophobia among U.S. ethnic and racial minority men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Han, Chong-suk; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George

    2011-04-01

    Despite widespread recognition that experiences of social discrimination can lead to poor physical and mental health outcomes for members of minority groups, little is known about how U.S. ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) manage their experiences of racism and homophobia. We conducted six focus group discussions (n = 50) and 35 in-depth interviews with African American, Latino, and Asian and Pacific Islander MSM (aged 18 or older) recruited in Los Angeles. This process revealed five strategies that MSM of color employed in order to mitigate the impact of racism and homophobia. To minimize opportunities for stigmatization, men used (a) concealment of homosexuality and (b) disassociation from social settings associated with stigmatization. To minimize the impact of experienced stigma, men (c) dismissed the stigmatization and (d) drew strength and comfort from external sources. Men also actively countered stigmatization by (e) direct confrontation. More research is needed to understand the efficacy of these coping strategies in mitigating negative health consequences of stigmatization and discrimination. PMID:21517663

  13. Diverging or Converging Trends: An Investigation of Education Policies Concerning the Incorporation of Ethnic Minority Children in England, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qureshi, Yasmeen F.; Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses specifically on the incorporation of ethnic minority children within the education systems of England, France and Germany. The trends in policy development after World War II in these countries are examined through the prism of three ideal-typical incorporation strategies--integration, assimilation and separation. This is done…

  14. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  15. Social-Cognitive Predictors of STEM Career Interests and Goal Persistence in College Students with Disabilities from Racial and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Johnson, Ebonee T.; Kundu, Madan; Chan, Fong D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics's (STEM) self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and contextual supports and barriers to STEM educational goals in college students with disabilities from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design…

  16. Mentors Lead and Leaders Mentor: A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Mentoring on the Pathway to the Presidency of Ethnic Minority Female Illinois Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutz, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This study was a qualitative study of the effect of mentoring on the career path of women who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups and have become presidents of community colleges in the state of Illinois. It used a multiple case study method utilizing in-depth interviews, documentation review and observations. Research shows nearly…

  17. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  18. Race, Rurality and Representation: Black and Minority Ethnic Mothers' Experiences of Their Children's Education in Rural Primary Schools in England, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2014-01-01

    There is little research that has examined the role of mothers in their children's education in the rural space of the school, particularly in relation to the experiences of Black and minority ethnic (BME) families who are newcomers to the rural space. This article attempts to redress the balance and examine how BME mothers are positioned in…

  19. Ethnic Minorities and Migrant Communities. Report on the Round Table and Satellite Meetings. International Congress on AIDS (9th, Berlin, Germany, June 6-11, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz Foundation, London (England).

    The Naz Foundation sponsors a project on HIV and AIDS education, prevention, and support among South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities in Europe. As immigrants, ethnic minorities, and refugees, these people are not isolated from the societies in which they live, and are just as vulnerable as any other community to AIDS. A conference on…

  20. Promoting Cultural Responsiveness: Teachers' Constructs of an Assessment Classroom Environment for Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2015-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about how diverse learning needs of ethnic minority students could be better fulfilled. This study examines local teachers' constructs of assessment classroom environments. Using qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews with 32 teachers from three secondary schools, this study shows ways…

  1. "You've Got to Be Tough and I'm Trying": Black and Minority Ethnic Student Teachers' Experiences of Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Chris; Lall, Rajinder

    2011-01-01

    Whilst Black and minority ethnic (BME) recruitment to initial teacher education (ITE) in the UK is increasing, completion rates are lower than for White students, and this study reports the experiences of BME student teachers on a primary postgraduate programme that had been particularly successful in increasing recruitment of BME students.…

  2. Turn 2 Us: Outcomes of an Urban Elementary School-Based Mental Health Promotion and Prevention Program Serving Ethnic Minority Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montañez, Evelyn; Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rodriguez, James; McCord, Mary; Meyer, Dodi

    2015-01-01

    Many school-age children in the United States with social, emotional, and behavioral problems do not receive mental health services. These problems negatively affect their social and behavioral functioning and academic achievement. This is particularly a problem for Latino youths, who represent the largest ethnic minority group in the United…

  3. Three Advantages of Cross-National Comparative Ethnography--Methodological Reflections from a Study of Migrants and Minority Ethnic Youth in English and Spanish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Clara Rübner

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the strengths of using ethnographic research methods in cross-national comparative research. It focuses particularly on the potential of applying such methods to the study of migrants and minority ethnic youth in education, where large-scale quantitative studies or single-sited ethnographies are currently dominant. By linking…

  4. Signalling L2 Centrality, Maintaining L1 Dominance: Teacher Language Choice in an Ethnic Minority Primary Classroom in the Lao PDR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincotta-Segi, Angela Rose

    2011-01-01

    Although the Lao People's Democratic Republic has speakers of up to 230 different languages belonging to four ethnolinguistic families, the Lao Government's policy as stated in its Education Law is that Lao is the official language of education at all levels. This creates a challenging situation for teachers in ethnic minority villages throughout…

  5. Factors that Promote High Post-16 Participation of Some Minority Ethnic Groups in England: A Systematic Review of the UK-Based Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Torgerson, Carole; Gorard, Stephen; Ainsworth, Hannah; Low, Graham; Wright, Kath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to identify those factors that drive the high participation in immediate post-16 and higher education of some minority ethnic groups in the UK. What could we learn from these examples to encourage higher aspirations more generally? The article reports a summary of a formal and systematic review of 1678 studies dated 1997…

  6. Tobacco Use among U.S. Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups--African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics: A Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and certain racial and ethnic minority groups are at higher risk for using tobacco. This is the first Surgeon General's report to focus on tobacco use among these four racial and ethnic minority groups. It provides a single, comprehensive source of data on each group's pattern…

  7. Perceived racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination experiences of minority migrant nurses: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-11-01

    Every day minority migrant nurses (MMNs) work shoulder to shoulder with domestic nurses in health care settings worldwide. Published studies offer reports of research where work-life experiences of MMNs have been explored. The following literature review focuses on experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination as described by MMNs. Background and significance of the topic are described and the purpose of the review is presented, followed by definitions of relevant terms, search strategy, and theoretical considerations. Feagin and Eckberg's discrimination typology is the framework used to organize MMNs' reported experiences of perceived prejudice and discrimination. A theory-linked summary, including policy, practice, and research implications, concludes the article. PMID:24837998

  8. Video-feedback intervention increases sensitive parenting in ethnic minority mothers: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Yagmur, Sengul; Mesman, Judi; Malda, Maike; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Ekmekci, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Using a randomized control trial design we tested the effectiveness of a culturally sensitive adaptation of the Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in a sample of 76 Turkish minority families in the Netherlands. The VIPP-SD was adapted based on a pilot with feedback of the target mothers, resulting in the VIPP-TM (VIPP-Turkish Minorities). The sample included families with 20-47-month-old children with high levels of externalizing problems. Maternal sensitivity, nonintrusiveness, and discipline strategies were observed during pretest and posttest home visits. The VIPP-TM was effective in increasing maternal sensitivity and nonintrusiveness, but not in enhancing discipline strategies. Applying newly learned sensitivity skills in discipline situations may take more time, especially in a cultural context that favors more authoritarian strategies. We conclude that the VIPP-SD program and its video-feedback approach can be successfully applied in immigrant families with a non-Western cultural background, with demonstrated effects on parenting sensitivity and nonintrusiveness. PMID:24972105

  9. Prevalence, Risk, and Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder across Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Alegría, Margarita; Fortuna, Lisa R.; Lin, Julia Y.; Norris, L. Frances; Gao, Shan; Takeuchi, David T.; Jackson, James S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Valentine, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We assess whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) varies in prevalence, diagnostic criteria endorsement, and type and frequency of traumatic events (PTEs) among a nationally representative U.S. sample of 5071 non-Latino whites, 3264 Latinos, 2178 Asians, 4249 African Americans, and 1476 Afro-Caribbeans. Methods PTSD and other psychiatric disorders were evaluated using the World Mental Health-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) in a national household sample that oversampled ethnic/racial minorities (n=16,238) but was weighted to produce results representative of the general population. Results Asians have lower prevalence rates of probable lifetime PTSD while African Americans have higher rates as compared to non-Latino whites, even after adjusting for type and number of exposures to traumatic events, and for sociodemographic, clinical and social support factors. Afro-Caribbeans and Latinos seem to demonstrate similar risk to non-Latino whites, adjusting for these same covariates. Higher rates of probable PTSD exhibited by African Americans and lower rates for Asians, as compared to non-Latino whites, do not appear related to differential symptom endorsement, differences in risk or protective factors or differences in types and frequencies of PTEs across groups. Conclusions There appears to be marked differences in conditional risk of probable PTSD across ethnic/racial groups. Questions remain about what explains risk of probable PTSD. Several factors that might account for these differences are discussed as well as the clinical implications of our findings. Uncertainty of the PTSD diagnostic assessment for Latinos and Asians requires further evaluation. PMID:24226308

  10. Sensitive parenting as a cross-cultural ideal: sensitivity beliefs of Dutch, Moroccan, and Turkish mothers in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Ekmekci, Hatice; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that beliefs about the ideal sensitive mother are similar across Dutch, Moroccan, and Turkish mothers living in the Netherlands. A total of 75 mothers with at least one child between the ages of six months and six years described their views about the ideal sensitive mother using the Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (Pederson, Moran, & Bento, 1999 ). These views were highly similar within and across cultural and socio-economic groups. Nevertheless, family income fully mediated the relationship between ethnic background and sensitivity beliefs; income of minority mothers was lower which was in turn predictive of a lower sensitivity belief score. Our findings suggest that the main behavioral markers of sensitivity are valued by mothers from different cultural backgrounds. The role of socio-economic status in sensitivity beliefs is consistent with the Family Stress Model. PMID:23106181

  11. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  12. Genetic polymorphism analyses of a novel panel of 19 X-STR loci in the Chinese Uygur ethnic minority* #

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-xin; Chen, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jiang-wei; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tian-hua; Zhang, Li-ping; Yang, Guang; Meng, Hao-tian; Zhang, Yu-dang; Mei, Ting; Liu, Yao-shun; Dong, Qian; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic data and forensic parameters of 19 X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci in Chinese Uygur ethnic minority are presented. These loci were detected in a sample of 233 (94 males and 139 females) unrelated healthy individuals. We observed 238 alleles at the 19 X-STR loci, with the corresponding gene frequencies spanning the range from 0.0021 to 0.5644. After Bonferroni correction (P>0.0026), there were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The cumulative power of discrimination in females and males, and the probability of exclusion of the 19 X-STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 998 091, 0.999 999 999 999 966, and 0.999 999 986 35, respectively. The cumulative mean exclusion chance was 0.999 999 992 849 in deficiency cases, 0.999 999 999 999 628 in normal trios, and 0.999 999 998 722 in duo cases. The high value of the forensic parameters mentioned above revealed that the novel panel of 19 loci had important values for forensic applications in the Uygur group. PMID:27143264

  13. What are effective approaches to increasing rates of organ donor registration among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Deedat, Sarah; Kenten, Charlotte; Morgan, Myfanwy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify effective interventions to increase organ donor registration and improve knowledge about organ donation among ethnic minorities in North America and the UK. Design Systematic review. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Central searched up to November 2012, together with four trials databases and the grey literature. Review methods A systematic search followed by assessment of eligibility and quality. An interpretive and thematic approach to synthesis was undertaken. This examined the nature and delivery of interventions in relation to a range of outcomes: verified registration, changing knowledge and a measured shift towards greater readiness. Results 18 studies were included in the review, comprising educational and mass media interventions. Mass media interventions alone reported no significant change in the intention or willingness to register. Educational interventions either alone or combined with mass media approaches were more effective in increasing registration rates, with a strong interpersonal component and an immediate opportunity to register identified as important characteristics in successful change. Conclusions Effective interventions need to be matched to the populations’ stage of readiness to register. Measured outcomes should include registration and shifts along the pathway towards this behavioural outcome. PMID:24362010

  14. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice. PMID:27002546

  15. “Not Designed for Us”: How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-Income, Minority Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants’ attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors’ scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were “not for us.” The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities. PMID:25574059

  16. Advantageous and disadvantageous impacts of tourism development on the living of Li ethnic minority villagers in Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing-yu; Umezaki, Masahiro; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2003-06-01

    Around the Mt. Wuzhishan in Hainan Island, China, tourism development has been rapidly progressed by the government and private companies since the 1980s, especially since the late 1990s, and consequently the living conditions of the Li ethnic minority people in Shuiman village, located in its center, have been drastically changing. As expected by the government, the villagers' income has increased by means of wage labors, selling the local products to the tourists, and compensatory payments for crops grown in the customary land when its use right was transferred to the company. Various changes in their lifestyle have contributed to the release from poverty and the overall improvement in basic human needs and primary health care. The villagers' flexible decision-makings on their living and environment use, with application of their traditional knowledge for resource uses, have been effective for sustainable human-environment relations, though further changes due to orders and requests of the government and companies may lead to environmental deterioration. Furthermore, inter-household differentiation in income and the perception on tourism development and agricultural development has been enlarged. These situations are discussed from the viewpoint of community-based sustainable development. PMID:15176124

  17. Genetic polymorphism analyses of a novel panel of 19 X-STR loci in the Chinese Uygur ethnic minority.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Xin; Chen, Jian-Gang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tian-Hua; Zhang, Li-Ping; Yang, Guang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Mei, Ting; Liu, Yao-Shun; Dong, Qian; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The population genetic data and forensic parameters of 19 X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci in Chinese Uygur ethnic minority are presented. These loci were detected in a sample of 233 (94 males and 139 females) unrelated healthy individuals. We observed 238 alleles at the 19 X-STR loci, with the corresponding gene frequencies spanning the range from 0.0021 to 0.5644. After Bonferroni correction (P>0.0026), there were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The cumulative power of discrimination in females and males, and the probability of exclusion of the 19 X-STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 998 091, 0.999 999 999 999 966, and 0.999 999 986 35, respectively. The cumulative mean exclusion chance was 0.999 999 992 849 in deficiency cases, 0.999 999 999 999 628 in normal trios, and 0.999 999 998 722 in duo cases. The high value of the forensic parameters mentioned above revealed that the novel panel of 19 loci had important values for forensic applications in the Uygur group. PMID:27143264

  18. Interventions to improve therapeutic communications between Black and minority ethnic patients and professionals in psychiatric services: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S.; Aslam, Rabeea'h W.; Palinski, Andrea; McCabe, Rose; Johnson, Mark R. D.; Weich, Scott; Singh, Swaran P.; Knapp, Martin; Ardino, Vittoria; Szczepura, Ala

    2015-01-01

    Background Communication may be an influential determinant of inequality of access to, engagement with and benefit from psychiatric services. Aims To review the evidence on interventions designed to improve therapeutic communications between Black and minority ethnic patients and clinicians who provide care in psychiatric services. Method Systematic review and evidence synthesis (PROSPERO registration: CRD42011001661). Data sources included the published and the ‘grey’ literature. A survey of experts and a consultation with patients and carers all contributed to the evidence synthesis, interpretation and recommendations. Results Twenty-one studies were included in our analysis. The trials showed benefits mainly for depressive symptoms, experiences of care, knowledge, stigma, adherence to prescribed medication, insight and alliance. The effect sizes were smaller for better-quality trials (range of d 0.18–0.75) than for moderate- or lower-quality studies (range of d 0.18–4.3). The review found only two studies offering weak economic evidence. Conclusions Culturally adapted psychotherapies, and ethnographic and motivational assessment leading to psychotherapies were effective and favoured by patients and carers. Further trials are needed from outside of the UK and USA, as are economic evaluations and studies of routine psychiatric care practices. PMID:26243761

  19. Inclusion of Ethnic Minorities in Telehealth Trials for Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Systematic Review Examining Prevalence and Language Issues

    PubMed Central

    Rooshenas, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is common, on the rise, and disproportionately affects ethnic minority groups. Telehealth interventions may mitigate diabetes-related complications, but might under-recruit or even exclude ethnic minorities, in part because of English language requirements. The under-representation of minority patients in trials could threaten the generalizability of the findings, whereby the patients who might stand to benefit most from such interventions are not being included in their evaluation. Objective The aims of this systematic review are twofold: (1) to assess the reporting and prevalence of ethnic minorities in published telehealth trials for type 2 diabetes, including identifying trial features associated with successful patient recruitment; and (2) to determine the proportion of such trials that report English language proficiency as an inclusion/exclusion criterion, including how and why they do so. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adults with type 2 diabetes in Western, English-speaking countries that included telehealth interventions targeting diabetes as a primary condition, and those that did not specifically recruit minority groups will be included. Search strategies were devised for indexed and keyword terms capturing type 2 diabetes, telehealth/health technology, and RCTs in English language publications from 2000 to July 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CENTRAL. Reference lists of included studies will also be searched. Two reviewers will independently screen abstracts and full-text articles against inclusion criteria, mediated by a third reviewer if consensus cannot be reached. Data extracted from included studies will be checked by a second reviewer and will be summarized using narrative synthesis. Results This research is in progress, with findings expected by Spring 2016. Conclusions This review will address research reporting and recruitment practices of ethnic minorities in telehealth RCTs for type 2

  20. Racial and ethnic distribution of faculty, students, and fellows in US epidemiology degree programs, 1992. Committee on Minority Affairs of the American College of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Schoenbach, V J; Reynolds, G H; Kumanyika, S K

    1994-07-01

    The American College of Epidemiology Committee on Minority Affairs assessed the racial/ethnic distribution of faculty, students, and postdoctoral fellows in epidemiology degree programs in the United States in 1992. Fifty-six programs in schools of public health, medicine, or veterinary medicine completed a one-page anonymous questionnaire (85% response rate). Of 711 faculty members (median of 8 per program), 46 (6%) were minorities (US black, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander). Of 2142 students (1206 masters, 862 doctoral, 74 postdoctoral: median of 17 per program), 293 (14% of all students; 17% of US citizen students) were minorities. In the 46 doctoral programs, there were 36 black students (in 20 doctoral programs), 15 Hispanic students (in 9 programs), and no Native Americans. There were three minority postdoctoral fellows, all blacks (4% of all postdoctoral fellows). Determined, consistent, and sustained efforts will be required to boost the representation of blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans in epidemiology. PMID:7921314

  1. Epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic men who have sex with men in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, S; Elford, J; Rice, B; Brown, A; Sinka, K; Evans, B; Gill, O; Fenton, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the epidemiology of HIV among black and minority ethnic (BME) men who have sex with men (MSM) in England and Wales (E&W). Methods: Ethnicity data from two national HIV/AIDS surveillance systems were reviewed (1997–2002 inclusive), providing information on new HIV diagnoses and those accessing NHS HIV treatment and care services. In addition, undiagnosed HIV prevalence among MSM attending 14 genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics participating in the Unlinked Anonymous Prevalence Monitoring Programme and having routine syphilis serology was examined by world region of birth. Results: Between 1997 and 2002, 1040 BME MSM were newly diagnosed with HIV in E&W, representing 12% of all new diagnoses reported among MSM. Of the 1040 BME MSM, 27% were black Caribbean, 12% black African, 10% black other, 8% Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, and 44% other/mixed. Where reported (n = 395), 58% of BME MSM were probably infected in the United Kingdom. An estimated 7.4% (approximate 95% CI: 4.4% to 12.5%) of BME MSM aged 16–44 in E&W were living with diagnosed HIV in 2002 compared with 3.2% (approximate 95% CI: 2.6% to 3.9%) of white MSM (p<0.001). Of Caribbean born MSM attending GUM clinics between 1997 and 2002, the proportion with undiagnosed HIV infection was 15.8% (95% CI: 11.7% to 20.8%), while among MSM born in other regions it remained below 6.0%. Conclusions: Between 1997–2002, BME MSM accounted for just over one in 10 new HIV diagnoses among MSM in E&W; more than half probably acquired their infection in the United Kingdom. In 2002, the proportion of BME MSM living with diagnosed HIV in E&W was significantly higher than white MSM. Undiagnosed HIV prevalence in Caribbean born MSM was high. These data confirm the need to remain alert to the sexual health needs and evolving epidemiology of HIV among BME MSM in E&W. PMID:16061545

  2. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  3. THERACOM: a systematic review of the evidence base for interventions to improve Therapeutic Communications between black and minority ethnic populations and staff in specialist mental health services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups in receipt of specialist mental health care have reported higher rates of detention under the mental health act, less use of psychological therapies, and more dissatisfaction. Although many explanations have been put forward to explain this, a failure of therapeutic communications may explain poorer satisfaction, disengagement from services and ethnic variations in access to less coercive care. Interventions that improve therapeutic communications may offer new approaches to tackle ethnic inequalities in experiences and outcomes. Methods The THERACOM project is an HTA-funded evidence synthesis review of interventions to improve therapeutic communications between black and minority ethnic patients in contact with specialist mental health services and staff providing those services. This article sets out the protocol methods for a necessarily broad review topic, including appropriate search strategies, dilemmas for classifying different types of therapeutic communications and expectations of the types of interventions to improve them. The review methods will accommodate unexpected types of study and interventions. The findings will be reported in 2013, including a synthesis of the quantitative and grey literature. Discussion A particular methodological challenge is to identify and rate the quality of many different study types, for example, randomised controlled trials, observational quantitative studies, qualitative studies and case studies, which comprise the full range of hierarchies of evidence. We discuss the preliminary methodological challenges and some solutions. (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42011001661). PMID:23442299

  4. Influence of the Socio-Economic Context on Self-Reported Gingival Bleeding in Individuals of Ethnic Minority Groups: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ardila, Carlos M.; Vivares-Builes, Annie Marcela; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the influence of the socio-economic context on self-reported gingival bleeding (SRGB) in individuals of ethnic minority groups (IEG). Methods: Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey in Colombia were collected. A multiple-stage stratified sampling was used. Data from 34.843 subjects were collected through interviews. The influence of socio-economic factors on SRGB in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. Results: Out of 34.843 subjects studied, a total of 6.440 individuals were members of ethnic minority groups. SRGB was observed in approximately 5% of IEG. There was a significant difference between IEG and subjects of the rest of the sample (28.403 subjects) regarding SRGB, elementary and high school education, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Human Development Index (HDI) and Unmet Basic Needs Index (UBNI) disfavouring IEG (P<0.05). The logistic model showed that SRGB was associated with IEG (P<0.001). This association persisted after controlling for confounders. A total of 33 Colombian states (level 2) and 6.440 members (level 1) of ethnic minority groups were included in the multilevel analisys; this model showed that the variance on SRGB was statistically significant at level 1 and 2. However, the variation at IEG level (35%) was smaller than the variation between states (65%) in the multilevel multivariate model. Conclusions: SRGB was higher in IEG. Also, GDP, HDI and UBNI were unfavourable factors in the members of ethnic minority groups. Considering these detriment factors and the higher variation between states, this study suggests that socio-economic context affects significantly SRGB in IEG. PMID:26383215

  5. Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

  6. Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and determinants of intakes between children of Dutch origin and non-Western ethnic minority children in the Netherlands – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    te Velde, Saskia J; Wind, Marianne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Brug, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable consumption is low in the Netherlands and a key target in healthy diet promotion. However, hardly any information is available on differences in fruit and vegetable consumption between Dutch children and ethnic minority children. Therefore, the aim of present study was to determine differences in usual fruit and vegetable intake between native Dutch and non-Western ethnic minority children and to study differences in and mediating effects of potential psychosocial and environmental determinants. Methods Ethnicity, usual fruit and vegetable consumption, psychosocial and environmental determinants and mothers' educational level were measured with a self-administered questionnaire during school hours in primary schools in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Complete data was available for 521 10–11 year-old-children, of which 50.5% of non-Western origin. Differences between the groups regarding potential determinants and fruit and vegetable intake were assessed with Mann Whitney tests or multiple regression analyses. Multiple regression analyses were also conducted to assess mediating effects. Results Ethnic minority girls ate fruit more frequently (1.41 ± 1.0 times/day) than Dutch girls (1.03 ± 0.82 times/day); no differences in frequency of intake were found for vegetables or among boys. Ethnic differences were found for almost all potential determinants. The Dutch children reported lower scores on these determinants than the ethnic minority children, except for perceived self-efficacy and barriers to eat fruit and vegetables. Knowledge of recommendations and facilitating behaviors of the parents mediated the association between ethnicity and fruit consumption among girls. Conclusion Ethnic minority girls in the Netherlands appear to have more favorable fruit intakes than Dutch girls, and ethnic minority children in general show more positive prerequisites for fruit and vegetable consumption. Interventions addressing multi-ethnic

  7. Are All Minority Women Equally Buffered from Negative Body Image? Intra-Ethnic Moderators of the Buffering Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabik, Natalie J.; Cole, Elizabeth R.; Ward, L. Monique

    2010-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is normative among European American women, and involvement with predominant culture or linking self-worth to weight may intensify the association between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness for women of color. Our study investigated whether orientation to other ethnic groups (Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure) and…

  8. Using text messages to improve patient-doctor communication among racial and ethnic minority adults: an innovative solution to increase influenza vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Ashley L; Kumar, Disha; Patel, Sajani; Arya, Monisha

    2014-12-01

    Despite the 2010 CDC recommendation that all adults receive influenza vaccinations, in the 2013-2014 influenza season, only 35% of Blacks and 37% of Hispanics were vaccinated, compared to 40% of Whites. This disparity could be due to poor patient-doctor communication, among other barriers. Doctors provide more health information to active communicators; unfortunately, they perceive minority patients to be poor communicators. A novel way to prompt minority patients to better communicate with their doctors is through mHealth. Text messaging is a simple, low cost, mHealth platform widely-used among racial and ethnic minorities. A text message campaign could be effective in providing vaccine education and prompting patients to converse with their doctors about influenza vaccinations. Text prompts could improve patient communication, thus increasing their likelihood of vaccination. This campaign could accomplish Healthy People 2020 goals: increase influenza vaccination, improve patient-doctor communication, increase use of mHealth, and reduce health disparities. PMID:25241643

  9. Predicting ethnic minority children's vocabulary from socioeconomic status, maternal language and home reading input: different pathways for host and ethnic language.

    PubMed

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Yeniad, Nihal; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Linting, Mariëlle

    2014-09-01

    When bilingual children enter formal reading education, host language proficiency becomes increasingly important. This study investigated the relation between socioeconomic status (SES), maternal language use, reading input, and vocabulary in a sample of 111 six-year-old children of first- and second-generation Turkish immigrant parents in the Netherlands. Mothers reported on their language use with the child, frequency of reading by both parents, and availability of children's books in the ethnic and the host language. Children's Dutch and Turkish vocabulary were tested during a home visit. SES was related to maternal language use and to host language reading input. Reading input mediated the relation between SES and host language vocabulary and between maternal language use and host language vocabulary, whereas only maternal language use was related to ethnic language vocabulary. During transition to formal reading education, one should be aware that children from low-SES families receive less host language reading input. PMID:24067295

  10. Five NCI-designated Cancer Centers’ Data Collection on Racial/Ethnic Minority Participation in Therapeutic Trials – A Current View and Opportunities for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, ET; Habermann, EB; Ford, JG; Wenzel, J; Brahmer, JR; Chen, MS; Jones, LA; Hurd, TC; Rogers, LM; Nguyen, LH; Ahluwalia, JS; Fouad, M; Vickers, SM

    2015-01-01

    Background To insure that NIH-funded research is relevant to the population’s needs, specific emphasis on proportional representation of minority/gender groups into National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) cancer centers’ clinical research programs is reported to the NCI. Methods EMPaCT investigators at five regionally-diverse comprehensive cancer centers compared data reported to the NCI for their most recent Cancer Center Support Grant (CCSG) competitive renewal to assess and compare the centers’ catchment area designations, data definitions, data elements, collection processes, reporting, and performance regarding proportional representation of race/ethnicity and gender subsets. Results Cancer centers’ catchment area definitions differed widely in terms of their cancer patient vs. general population specificity, levels of specificity, and geographic coverage. Racial/ethnic categories were similar, yet defined differently across institutions. Patients’ socioeconomic status (SES) and insurance status were inconsistently captured across the five centers. Conclusions/Recommendations Catchment area definitions and the collection of patient-level demographic factors vary widely across the five comprehensive cancer centers. This challenged the assessment of success by cancer centers in accruing representative populations into the cancer research enterprise. . Accrual of minorities was less than desired for at least one racial/ethnic subcategory at four of the five centers. Institutions should clearly and consistently declare their primary catchment area and the rationale; and should report how race/ethnicity and gender are defined, determined, collected, and reported. More standardized, frequent, consistent collection, reporting, and review of these data are recommended, as is a commitment to collecting socioeconomic data, given that SES is a primary driver of cancer disparities in the U.S.. PMID:24643649

  11. Type 2 diabetes in Belgians of Turkish and Moroccan origin

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To compare the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adults aged 35 to 74 years of the Turkish and Moroccan communities in Belgium with the prevalence in native Belgians. To examine the determinants and specific mechanisms responsible for differences in diabetes between these communities. Method Both objectives were examined using the Health Interview Surveys of 1997, 2001 and 2004. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed with diabetes as the outcome variable. The variables 'age', 'sex', 'ethnic origin', 'body mass index', 'lack of physical activity', 'educational attainment' and 'income' were introduced in the model in consecutive steps. Results In 35- to 74-year-olds, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher in Belgians of Tur-kish and Moroccan origin than in native Belgians. In native Belgian men, the prevalence amounts to 5.0%. In 35- to 74-year-old men of Turkish and Moroccan origin, the diabetes prevalence is 5.8% and 6.5% respectively. 4.3%, 18.7% and 11.9% of the women of Belgian, Turkish and Moroccan origin respectively suffer from diabetes. In men, differences in the prevalence of diabetes are strongly reduced after controlling for lack of physical activity and educational attainment. In women, differences remain high, although they become smaller after accounting for BMI and educational attainment. Conclusions In men, the differences in diabetes prevalence are explained by lifestyle factors and educational attainment. In women, the community differences in diabetes prevalence persist, although lifestyle factors and educational attainment play an important part in understanding these differences.

  12. Ethnic minority, young onset, rare dementia type, depression: A case study of a Muslim male accessing UK dementia health and social care services.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jemma L

    2016-07-01

    A case study comprised of formal interviews, formal observations and informal discussions investigated the motivations and experiences accessing dementia care health and social care services for a Muslim, Pakistani male with dementia. Motivations derived from 'desperation' and an inability to access support from family or religious community. Experiences of accessing services were mostly negative. Dementia services were ill-informed about how to support persons with young onset dementia, with pre-existing mental health conditions, from an ethnic minority. Education and training to remove barriers to all dementia care services is required for persons with dementia, their families and within dementia services and religious communities. PMID:24858552

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Meaning of Model Minority among Ethnic Koreans in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Koreans have been successful in nesting their educational achievement into places like China and the United States, where they have earned the title of "model minority". This research is a comparison of the manner in which the model minority stereotype is handled by Korean Chinese and Korean Americans. The gathered data leads us to argue that…

  14. Medical assistant coaching to support diabetes self-care among low-income racial/ethnic minority populations: Randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Laurie; Riley, Barth B.; Hernandez, Rosalba; Quinn, Lauretta T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Castillo, Amparo; Day, Joseph; Ingram, Diana; Wang, Yamin; Butler, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Innovative, culturally tailored strategies are needed to extend diabetes education and support efforts in low-resourced primary care practices serving racial/ethnic minority groups. A randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a diabetes self-care coaching intervention delivered by medical assistants and the joint effect of intervention and ethnicity over time. The randomized repeated-measures design included 270 low-income African American and Hispanic/Latino patients with type 2 diabetes. The one-year clinic- and telephone-based medical assistant coaching intervention was culturally tailored and guided by theoretical frameworks. A1C was obtained, and a self-care measure was completed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models with and without adjustment for covariates. There was significant overall improvement in mean self-care scores across time, but no intervention effect. Results revealed differences in self-care patterns across racial/ethnic subgroups. No differences were found for A1C levels across time or group. PMID:24569698

  15. Bilingual Toddlers Reap the Language They Sow: Ethnic Minority Toddlers' Childcare Attendance Increases Maternal Host Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Marielle J. L.; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Pieper, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development and correlates of language use in bilingual Turkish-Dutch immigrant mothers and their toddlers. In this short-term longitudinal study 87 mothers completed questionnaires on their Dutch and Turkish language use, ethnic identity and use of childcare. Observational data were obtained for maternal supportive…

  16. Ethnic Minority Youth in Youth Programs: Feelings of Safety, Relationships with Adult Staff, and Perceptions of Learning Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sun-A; Borden, Lynne M.; Serido, Joyce; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine perceptions that young people hold regarding their participation in community-based youth programs. Specifically, this study assesses young people's sense of psychological safety, their relationships with adult staff, their learning of social skills, and how different ethnic groups experience these factors. Data for the study…

  17. Tackling Underachievement of Learners from Ethnic Minorities: A Comparison of Recent Policies of School Improvement in Germany, England and Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomolla, Mechtild

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, in many western countries with large immigrant populations, inequalities in education relating to ethnic background have increased. Interventions traditionally consist of selective compensatory arrangements that focus on instruction in the second language--especially in early stages of schooling--and the treatment of…

  18. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  19. Challenges of Discourses on "Model Minority" and "South Korean Wind" for Ethnic Koreans' Schooling in Northeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Gao

    2009-01-01

    The educational success of ethnic Koreans in China has been achieved through Mandarin-Korean bilingual education, with the Korean language as the medium of instruction. Using the data collected as part of an ethnographic research on Korean elementary school students in a national Korean school in China, this article examines the relation between…

  20. Children of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities: An Overview and Conceptual Framework. Innocenti Occasional Papers. The Urban Child Series, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Cristina S.; Chiozzi, Paolo

    In Western Europe, internal and international migrations have generated vulnerable populations, notably an increasing number of children and young people of "foreign" parentage. Their problems are not specific to one ethnic group but derive from sociocultural processes and from situations of social relegation. Case studies based on a literature…

  1. Minority Health and Health Disparities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Health and Health Disparities Certain ethnic and racial minorities as well as other underserved populations experience ... disorders than do non-Hispanic whites, ethnic and racial disparities still exist for alcohol-related diseases, problems, ...

  2. What Contributes to the Activeness of Ethnic Minority Patients with Chronic Illnesses Seeking Allied Health Services? A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shangfeng; Dong, Dong; Ji, Lu; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun; Bishwajit, Ghose; He, Zhifei; Ming, Hui; Fu, Qian; Xian, Yue

    2015-09-01

    Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS). However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.76-15.21; p < 0.001). Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28-2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15-2.36, p = 0.002). However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities' activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58-7.50, p < 0.001) and

  3. What Contributes to the Activeness of Ethnic Minority Patients with Chronic Illnesses Seeking Allied Health Services? A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangfeng; Dong, Dong; Ji, Lu; Fu, Hang; Feng, Zhanchun; Bishwajit, Ghose; He, Zhifei; Ming, Hui; Fu, Qian; Xian, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Actively seeking health services lies at the core of effective models of chronic disease self-management and contributes to promoting the utilization of allied health services (AHS). However, the use of AHS by ethnic minority Chinese, especially the elderly living in rural areas, has not received much attention. This study, therefore, aims to explore the association between personal characteristics and the activeness of ethnic minority patients with chronic diseases in rural areas of western China seeking AHS. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data on the socio-demographic and economic characteristics, health knowledge level and health communication channels of the sampled patients. A logistic regression model was used to examine the association of these predictors with the activeness of the surveyed patients in seeking AHS. A total of 1078 ethnic minorities over 45 years old who had chronic conditions were randomly selected from three western provinces in China and were interviewed in 2014. It is found that the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) is the most salient predictor affecting the activeness of Chinese ethnic minorities in seeking AHS. The probability is 8.51 times greater for those insured with NCMS to actively seek AHS than those without (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.76–15.21; p < 0.001). Moreover, participants between 60 and 70 years old and those who have five to six household members are more likely to seek AHS compared with other social groups (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% CI 1.28–2.97, p = 0.007; OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.15–2.36, p = 0.002). However, the activeness of patients seeking AHS is lower for those who have better household economic conditions. Besides socio-demographic predictors, the Chinese ethnic minorities’ activeness in seeking AHS is clearly associated with the communication channels used for receiving health information, which include direct communication with doctors (OR = 5.18, 95% CI 3.58–7.50, p < 0

  4. Media Flows, Ethnicity, Racism and Xenophobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John D. H.; Husband, Charles

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of media definitions of ethnic majorities. Discusses media discourses concerning settled ethnic minorities, race relations and the news, ethnic minority media, contract labor, migrants and refugees, indigenous land-based groups, and ethnic minority presence in mainstream media. Draws examples from the United States, Eastern…

  5. Mercy Mercy Me: Social Injustice and the Prevention of Environmental Pollutant Exposures among Ethnic Minority and Poor Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Moore, Colleen F.

    2006-01-01

    Children's lead and pesticide exposures are used as examples to examine social disparities in exposure reduction efforts as well as environmental policies impacting children in poverty and minority children. The review also presents an estimate of the effect of social disparities in lead exposure on standardized test performance. Because including…

  6. Taking pictures to take control: Photovoice as a tool to facilitate empowerment among poor and racial/ethnic minority women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Teti, Michelle; Pichon, Latrice; Kabel, Allison; Farnan, Rose; Binson, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Poor and racial/ethnic minority women comprise the majority of women living with HIV (WLH) in the United States. Race, gender, class, and HIV-based stigmas and inequities limit women’s powers over their health and compromise their quality of life. To help WLH counter this powerlessness, we implemented a photovoice project called Picturing New Possibilities (PNP), and explored how women experienced empowerment through photovoice. PNP participants (N = 30) photographed their life experiences, attended 3 group discussions and a community exhibit of their photos, and completed a follow-up interview. We used strategies of Grounded Theory to identify key empowerment themes. Participants described empowerment through enhanced self-esteem, self-confidence, critical thinking skills, and control. Our findings suggest that photovoice is an important tool for WLH. It offers women a way to access internal strengths and use these resources to improve their quality of life and health. PMID:24064314

  7. Racial/Ethnic Minority Children’s Use of Psychiatric Emergency Care in California’s Public Mental Health System

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; Masland, Mary C.; Libby, Anne M.; Wallace, Neal; Fawley, Kya

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates and intensity of crisis services use by race/ethnicity for 351174 children younger than 18 years who received specialty mental health care from California’s 57 county public mental health systems between July 1998 and June 2001. Methods. We used fixed-effects regression for a controlled assessment of racial/ethnic disparities in children’s use of hospital-based services for the most serious mental health crises (crisis stabilization services) and community-based services for other crises (crisis intervention services). Results. African American children were more likely than were White children to use both kinds of crisis care and made more visits to hospital-based crisis stabilization services after initial use. Asian American/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native children were more likely than were White children to use hospital-based crisis stabilization services but, along with Latino children, made fewer hospital-based crisis stabilization visits after an initial visit. Conclusions. African American children used both kinds of crisis services more than did White children, and Asian Americans/Pacific Islander and American Indians/Alaska Native children visited only when they experienced the most disruptive and troubling kind of crises, and made nonrecurring visits. PMID:18048783

  8. Multilevel Analysis of Socioeconomic Determinants on Diabetes Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Self-Management in Ethnic Minorities of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Su, Rong; Cai, Le; Cui, Wenlong; He, Jianhui; You, Dingyun; Golden, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to investigate socioeconomic differences in prevalence, awareness, treatment and self-management of diabetes among ethnic minority groups in Yunnan Province, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 5532 Na Xi, Li Su, Dai and Jing Po ethnic minorities. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes prevalence, as well as the other outcomes. Results: Higher individual educational level was associated with a higher rate of awareness, treatment, adherence to medicines and monitoring of blood glucose (OR = 1.87, 4.89, 4.83, 6.45; 95% CI: 1.26–2.77, 1.87–12.7, 1.95–11.9, 2.23–18.6, respectively). Diabetic respondents with better household assets tended to receive more treatment (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.11–7.12) and to monitor their blood glucose (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.48–7.30). Diabetic patients with better access to medical services were more likely to treat (OR = 7.09, 95% CI: 2.46–20.4) and adhere to medication (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.46–11.7). Income at the contextual level was significantly correlated with diabetes prevalence, treatment and blood glucose monitoring (OR = 1.84, 3.04, 4.34; 95% CI: 1.20–2.83, 1.20–7.73, 1.45–13.0, respectively). Conclusions: Future diabetes prevention and intervention programs should take both individual and township-level socioeconomic factors into account in the study regions. PMID:27463725

  9. Barriers to Hospital Deliveries among Ethnic Minority Women with Religious Beliefs in China: A Descriptive Study Using Interviews and Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Kang, Chuyun; Theodoratou, Evropi; Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: China has made great progress in improving hospital delivery-the coverage of hospital delivery has increased to above 95% in most regions- some regions lag behind owing to geographic and economic inequality, particularly the poor ethnic minority areas of the Sichuan Province. This study explores factors which may influence hospital delivery from multiple perspectives, with implications for practice and policy. Methods: A framework analysis approach was used to identify and categorize the main barriers and levers to hospital delivery. Our analysis draws on basic information from the sampled counties (Butuo and Daofu). Results: The hospital delivery rate was below 50% in the two sampled areas. In both areas, the “New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme” and “Rural hospital delivery subsidy” were introduced, but only Butuo county had a transportation subsidy policy. Socioeconomically disadvantaged women in both counties who delivered their babies in hospitals could also apply for financial assistance. A lack of transport was among the main reasons for low hospital delivery rates in these two counties. Furthermore, while the hospital delivery costs could be mostly covered by “New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme” or “Rural Hospital Delivery Subsidy”, reimbursement was not guaranteed. People in Daofu county might be affected by their Buddhism religion for hospital delivery. Women in Butuo following the Animism religion would refuse delivery in hospitals because of language barriers. Traditional lay beliefs were the main factor that influenced hospital delivery; their understandings of reproductive health varied, and many believed that childbirth should not be watched by strangers and that a home delivery was safe. Conclusions: This study has highlighted a number of barriers and levers to hospital delivery in rural poor ethnic minority areas which could inform and improve the access and rate of hospital delivery rate; thereby reducing health

  10. Effectiveness of Cultural Adaptations of Interventions Aimed at Smoking Cessation, Diet, and/or Physical Activity in Ethnic Minorities. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nierkens, Vera; Hartman, Marieke A.; Nicolaou, Mary; Vissenberg, Charlotte; Beune, Erik J. A. J.; Hosper, Karen; van Valkengoed, Irene G.; Stronks, Karien

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of cultural adaptations in behavioral interventions targeting ethnic minorities in high-income societies is widely recognized. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in such interventions. Aim To systematically review the effectiveness of specific cultural adaptations in interventions that target smoking cessation, diet, and/or physical activity and to explore features of such adaptations that may account for their effectiveness. Methods Systematic review using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials registers (1997–2009). Inclusion criteria: a) effectiveness study of a lifestyle intervention targeted to ethnic minority populations living in a high income society; b) interventions included cultural adaptations and a control group that was exposed to the intervention without the cultural adaptation under study; c) primary outcome measures included smoking cessation, diet, or physical activity. Results Out of 44904 hits, we identified 17 studies, all conducted in the United States. In five studies, specific cultural adaptations had a statistically significant effect on primary outcomes. The remaining studies showed no significant effects on primary outcomes, but some presented trends favorable for cultural adaptations. We observed that interventions incorporating a package of cultural adaptations, cultural adaptations that implied higher intensity and those incorporating family values were more likely to report statistically significant effects. Adaptations in smoking cessation interventions seem to be more effective than adaptations in interventions aimed at diet and physical activity. Conclusion This review indicates that culturally targeted behavioral interventions may be more effective if cultural adaptations are implemented as a package of adaptations, the adaptation includes family level, and where the adaptation results in a higher intensity of the

  11. Self-Care Self-Efficacy, Religious Participation and Depression as Predictors of Poststroke Self-Care Among Underserved Ethnic Minorities.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Suzanne M; Huddleston, Cashuna; Porter, Ben; Amspoker, Amber B; Evans-Hudnall, Gina L

    2013-01-01

    Underserved ethnic minorities have multiple chronic disease risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol and substance use, which contribute to increased incidence of stroke. Self-efficacy (self-care self-efficacy), religious participation and depression may directly and indirectly influence engagement in post stroke self-care behaviors. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression, on tobacco, alcohol and substance use in a sample of largely ethnic minority, underserved stroke survivors (n=52). Participants previously recruited for a culturally tailored secondary stroke prevention self-care intervention were included. The treatment group received three stroke self-care sessions. The usual care group completed assessments only. Both groups were included in these analyses. Main outcome measures included tobacco, alcohol and substance use. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression were also assessed. Logistic regression analyses, using self-efficacy, religious practice and depression as the referents, were used to predict binary outcomes of tobacco, alcohol and substance use at 4-weeks poststroke. Higher depression and self-care self-efficacy were associated with reduced odds of smoking and substance use. Greater participation in religious activities was associated with lower odds of alcohol use. We can conclude that incorporating depression treatment and techniques to increase self-care self-efficacy, and encouraging religious participation may help to improve stroke self-care behaviors for underserved and low socioeconomic status individuals. Results are discussed in the context of stroke self-management. PMID:26973890

  12. Invatamantul cu Predarea in Limbile Minoritatilor Nationale din Romania. In Anul Scolar 1992/1993 = The Education System in Romania: Tuition in the Languages of Ethnic Minorities. The School Year 1992/1993 = L'enseignement dispense dans les langues des minorites nationales de Roumanie. L'annee scolaire 1992/1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for National Minorities, Bucharest (Romania).

    Documentation of the Romanian system of language instruction in ethnic minority languages is presented in Romanian, French, and English. It consists of: relevant provisions from the national constitution concerning the rights of ethnic minority members; organization and functioning of the educational system at the elementary, middle, and secondary…

  13. Recommendation for full-day kindergarten for children of low-income and racial/ethnic-minority families.

    PubMed

    Community Preventive Services Task Force

    2014-03-01

    The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends full-day kindergarten programs to improve the health prospects of minority children and children from low-income families, based on strong evidence that, compared with half-day kindergarten or full-day kindergarten on alternating days, full-day programs substantially improve reading and mathematics achievement-determinants of long-term academic and health-related outcomes (e.g., reduced teen pregnancy and risk behaviors). The achievement gains apparent at the beginning of first grade do not, themselves, guarantee academic achievement in later years. Ongoing school environments that support learning and development are essential. PMID:24512873

  14. Partnering in the cultivation of the next generation of ethnic minority nurse scientists: responding to a compelling national agenda.

    PubMed

    Powell, Dorothy L; Gilliss, Catherine L

    2003-12-01

    Health disparities continue to exist between communities of color and the poor and the health of the nation as a whole. Highly competent and culturally sensitive nurse researchers are needed to contribute to the elimination of disparities. There is however, an inadequate supply of nurse researchers of color and an insufficient number of students in the pipeline aspiring to careers as nurse researchers. The purpose of this article is to analyze a partnership model between nursing programs in a Historically Black Colleges/Universities (HBCU) with an evolving research presence and an Ivy League university with an research extensive environment. After four years of collaborating, minority undergraduate students have an increased interest in nursing research and the problems of health disparities, conduct original pilot studies, produce and deliver scholarly papers based on their pilots, publish in referred journals with their mentors, engage in networking with accomplished nurse researchers and leaders, and demonstrate increased enrollment and interest in graduate study. Faculties at both institutions exhibit enhanced competencies in the design and conduct of research related to eliminating disparities and in strengthening their respective research environments. The model demonstrates that the career trajectory of minority nursing students and the research capacity of faculty can be influenced through the deliberate application of elements of the model. PMID:15011943

  15. Multifunctional epoxy composites with natural Moroccan clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsif, M.; Zerouale, A.; Kandri, N. Idrissi; Allali, F.; Sgarbossa, P.; Bartolozzi, A.; Tamburini, S.; Bertani, R.

    2016-05-01

    Two natural Moroccan clays, here firstly completely characterized, have been used as fillers without modification in epoxy composites. Mechanical properties resulted to be improved and a significant antibacterial activity is exhibited by the epoxy composite containing the C2 clay.

  16. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490

  17. Individual, family and offence characteristics of high risk childhood offenders: comparing non-offending, one-time offending and re-offending Dutch-Moroccan migrant children in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood offenders are at an increased risk for developing mental health, social and educational problems later in life. An early onset of offending is a strong predictor for future persistent offending. Childhood offenders from ethnic minority groups are a vulnerable at-risk group. However, up until now, no studies have focused on them. Aims To investigate which risk factors are associated with (re-)offending of childhood offenders from an ethnic minority. Method Dutch-Moroccan boys, who were registered by the police in the year 2006-2007, and their parents as well as a control group (n = 40) were interviewed regarding their individual and family characteristics. Two years later a follow-up analysis of police data was conducted to identify one-time offenders (n = 65) and re-offenders (n = 35). Results All groups, including the controls, showed substantial problems. Single parenthood (OR 6.0) and financial problems (OR 3.9) distinguished one-time offenders from controls. Reading problems (OR 3.8), having an older brother (OR 5.5) and a parent having Dutch friends (OR 4.3) distinguished re-offenders from one-time offenders. First offence characteristics were not predictive for re-offending. The control group reported high levels of emotional problems (33.3%). Parents reported not needing help for their children but half of the re-offender's families were known to the Child Welfare Agency, mostly in a juridical framework. Conclusion The Moroccan subgroup of childhood offenders has substantial problems that might hamper healthy development. Interventions should focus on reaching these families tailored to their needs and expectations using a multi-system approach. PMID:22014276

  18. Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies among racial and ethnic minority adults: results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Robert E.; Ahn, Andrew C.; Davis, Roger B.; O'Connor, Bonnie B.; Eisenberg, David M.; Phillips, Russell S.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among ethnic minority populations is poorly understood. We sought to examine CAM use in Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Alternative Health Supplement to the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), including information on 19 different CAM therapies used in the past 12 months. RESULTS: An estimated 34% of Hispanic, non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults in the United States used at least one CAM therapy (excluding prayer) during the prior 12 months (2002). CAM use was highest for non-Hispanic whites (36%), followed by Hispanics (27%) and non-Hispanic blacks (26%). Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to use herbal medicine, relaxation techniques and chiropractic more frequently than Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks. After controlling for other sociodemographic factors, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black races/ethnicities were associated with less CAM use, with adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) and 0.71 (0.65, 0.78), respectively. Hispanics cited using CAM because conventional medical treatments were too expensive more frequently than non-Hispanic blacks or whites. Hispanics had the highest provider nondisclosure rates (68.5%), followed by non-Hispanic blacks (65.1%) and non-Hispanic whites (58.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Excluding prayer, Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks used CAM less frequently than non-Hispanic whites and were less likely to disclose their use to their healthcare provider. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of the disparities in CAM use. PMID:15868773

  19. Appraisal of literature reviews on end-of-life care for minority ethnic groups in the UK and a critical comparison with policy recommendations from the UK end-of-life care strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of low end-of-life (EoL) care service use by minority ethnic groups in the UK has given rise to a body of research and a number of reviews of the literature. This article aims to review and evaluate literature reviews on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK and assess their suitability as an evidence base for policy. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in thirteen electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Reviews were included if they concerned minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK. Reviews were graded for quality and key themes identified. Results Thirteen reviews (2001-2009) met inclusion criteria. Seven took a systematic approach, of which four scored highly for methodological quality (a mean score of six, median seven). The majority of systematic reviews were therefore of a reasonable methodological quality. Most reviews were restricted by ethnic group, aspect of EoL care, or were broader reviews which reported relevant findings. Six key themes were identified. Conclusions A number of reviews were systematic and scored highly for methodological quality. These reviews provide a good reflection of the primary evidence and could be used to inform policy. The complexity and inter-relatedness of factors leading to low service use was recognised and reflected in reviews' recommendations for service improvement. Recommendations made in the UK End-of-Life Care Strategy were limited in comparison, and the Strategy's evidence base concerning minority ethnic groups was found to be narrow. Future policy should be embedded strongly in the evidence base to reflect the current literature and minimise bias. PMID:21635738

  20. Developing critical consciousness or justifying the system? A qualitative analysis of attributions for poverty and wealth among low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Erin B.; Wolf, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Economic inequality is a growing concern in the United States and globally. The current study uses qualitative techniques to (1) explore the attributions low-income racial/ethnic minority and immigrant women make for poverty and wealth in the U.S., and (2) clarify important links between attributions, critical consciousness development and system justification theory. Methods In-depth interview transcripts from 19 low-income immigrant Dominican and Mexican and native African-American mothers in a large Northeastern city were analyzed using open coding techniques. Interview topics included perceptions of current economic inequality and mobility and experiences of daily economic hardships. Results Almost all respondents attributed economic inequality to individual factors (character flaws, lack of hard work). Structural explanations for poverty and wealth were expressed by less than half the sample and almost always paired with individual explanations. Moreover, individual attributions included system-justifying beliefs such as the belief in meritocracy and equality of opportunity and structural attributions represented varying levels of critical consciousness. Conclusions Our analysis sheds new light on how and why individuals simultaneously hold individual and structural attributions and highlights key links between system justification and critical consciousness. It shows that critical consciousness and system justification do not represent opposite stances along a single underlying continuum, but are distinct belief systems and motivations. It also suggests that the motive to justify the system is a key psychological process impeding the development of critical consciousness. Implications for scholarship and intervention are discussed. PMID:25915116

  1. An examination of how women and underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities experience barriers in biomedical research and medical programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraverty, Devasmita

    Women in medicine and biomedical research often face challenges to their retention, promotion, and advancement to leadership positions (McPhillips et al., 2007); they take longer to advance their careers, tend to serve at less research-intensive institutions and have shorter tenures compared to their male colleagues (White, McDade, Yamagata, & Morahan, 2012). Additionally, Blacks and Hispanics are the two largest minority groups that are vastly underrepresented in medicine and biomedical research in the United States (AAMC, 2012; NSF, 2011). The purpose of this study is to examine specific barriers reported by students and post-degree professionals in the field through the following questions: 1. How do women who are either currently enrolled or graduated from biomedical research or medical programs define and make meaning of gender-roles as academic barriers? 2. How do underrepresented groups in medical schools and biomedical research institutions define and make meaning of the academic barriers they face and the challenges these barriers pose to their success as individuals in the program? These questions were qualitatively analyzed using 146 interviews from Project TrEMUR applying grounded theory. Reported gender-role barriers were explained using the "Condition-Process-Outcome" theoretical framework. About one-third of the females (across all three programs; majority White or Black between 25-35 years of age) reported gender-role barriers, mostly due to poor mentoring, time constraints, set expectations and institutional barriers. Certain barriers act as conditions, causing gender-role issues, and gender-role issues influence certain barriers that act as outcomes. Strategies to overcome barriers included interventions mostly at the institutional level (mentor support, proper specialty selection, selecting academia over medicine). Barrier analysis for the two largest URM groups indicated that, while Blacks most frequently reported racism, gender barriers

  2. What do we know about the attitudes, experiences and needs of Black and minority ethnic carers of people with dementia in the United Kingdom? A systematic review of empirical research findings.

    PubMed

    Johl, Nicholas; Patterson, Tom; Pearson, Lesley

    2016-07-01

    This paper reviews recent literature on the experiences, attitudes and needs of caring for someone with dementia in Black and minority ethnic communities in the United Kingdom. Eight articles, which investigated carer experiences from Black and minority ethnic communities when caring for someone with dementia, were critically appraised. All eight studies used a qualitative methodology. The review identified several themes and issues across the qualitative studies. These included memory loss being viewed as a normal process of ageing, care being perceived as an extension of an existing responsibility, a poor understanding of what support services provide, the influence of migration, the impact of stigma and increased female responsibility. Methodological limitations of the research literature studies are also highlighted and clinically relevant implications are discussed, alongside recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24858553

  3. Career Coaches as a Source of Vicarious Learning for Racial and Ethnic Minority PhD Students in the Biomedical Sciences: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Simon N.; Thakore, Bhoomi K.; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many recent mentoring initiatives have sought to help improve the proportion of underrepresented racial and ethnic minorities (URMs) in academic positions across the biomedical sciences. However, the intractable nature of the problem of underrepresentation suggests that many young scientists may require supplemental career development beyond what many mentors are able to offer. As an adjunct to traditional scientific mentoring, we created a novel academic career “coaching” intervention for PhD students in the biomedical sciences. Objective To determine whether and how academic career coaches can provide effective career-development-related learning experiences for URM PhD students in the biomedical sciences. We focus specifically on vicarious learning experiences, where individuals learn indirectly through the experiences of others. Method The intervention is being tested as part of a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT). Here, we describe a nested qualitative study, using a framework approach to analyze data from a total of 48 semi-structured interviews from 24 URM PhD students (2 interviews per participant, 1 at baseline, 1 at 12-month follow-up) (16 female, 8 male; 11 Black, 12 Hispanic, 1 Native-American). We explored the role of the coach as a source of vicarious learning, in relation to the students’ goal of being future biomedical science faculty. Results Coaches were resources through which most students in the study were able to learn vicariously about how to pursue, and succeed within, an academic career. Coaches were particularly useful in instances where students’ research mentors are unable to provide such vicarious learning opportunities, for example because the mentor is too busy to have career-related discussions with a student, or because they have, or value, a different type of academic career to the type the student hopes to achieve. Implications Coaching can be an important way to address the lack of structured career

  4. Minority scholarships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The American Geological Institute sponsors undergraduate and graduate geoscience scholarships for members of ethnic minority groups. U.S. citizens who are majoring in geology, geophysics, geochemistry, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, planetary geology, or Earth science education, and who are Black, Hispanic or Native American are eligible. Undergraduate awards can be as large as $10,000 a year; graduate awards, $4000 a year. Application deadline is February 1, 1990. Contact AGI Minority Participation Program Scholarships, American Geological Institute, 4220 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22302-1507; tel. 703-379-2480.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affairs topic. Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Other Pacific Islanders There are about 18.2 million people ... also 1.4 million Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders in the United States. According to the ...

  6. The conditional returns to origin-country human capital among Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This study extends the analysis of the economic returns to pre-migration human capital by examining the role of the receiving context, co-ethnic residential concentration, and post-migration investments in human capital. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. The analysis demonstrates that regarding employment, Moroccan immigrants, that is, those originating from former French colonies receive larger returns to their origin-country education and work experience in French- vs. Dutch-speaking regions. Other than the positive interaction effect between co-ethnic residential concentration and work experience on employment, there is little evidence that co-ethnic concentration increases the returns to origin-country human capital. Speaking the host-country language facilitates economic returns to origin-country work experience. Conversely, immigrants who acquire host-country credentials and work experience receive lower returns to origin-country education and experience, suggesting that, at least among low-skilled immigrants, pre- and post-migration human capital substitute rather than complement each other. PMID:24767595

  7. The Under-Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in UK Higher Education: What We Know and What We Don't Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2015-01-01

    In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment…

  8. Mixed dentition analysis in a Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Diagne, F; Diop-Ba, K; Ngom, P I; El Boury, O

    2004-12-01

    The aims of this study were to produce odontometric data for a Moroccan population, to test Tanaka and Johnston and Moyers methods, to derive regression equations and elaborate a specific orthodontic prediction table for Moroccan children. 50 dental casts of Moroccan students (25 males, 25 females, mean age 22.6 years sd 1.35) were used to perform measurements of the greatest mesiodistal widths of all mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars and mandibular incisors with an orthodontic calliper. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in tooth sizes (p = .001). The study revealed close relationships between the total mesiodistal widths of the mandibular permanent incisors and that of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars. The correlation coefficients (r) and the coefficient of determination (R2) were better sexes combined for the maxilla (r = 0.60 ; R2 = 0.36 ) and for the mandible (r = 0.61 ; R2= 0.37). The regression equations elaborated for males and females were used as a basis for establishing an orthodontic prediction table for Moroccan children. PMID:15853270

  9. Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alami, Wali A.; Hodge, Carlton T., Ed.

    The first section of this companion volume to "Moroccan Arabic Intermediate Reader, Part I" (AL 002 041) presents the Arabic script version of the pre-drills in Lessons IA-IIB in that volume. The second and major section comprises 20 lessons consisting of pre-drills, texts, notes, and questions. All material in this volume appears in Arabic script…

  10. Molluscicidal activity of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Hmamouchi, M; Lahlou, M; Agoumi, A

    2000-06-01

    Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus. PMID:10844169

  11. The Moroccan Educational Context: Evolving Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Mayra C.; Ball, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    This article begins an investigation of the educational system of Morocco and its context of language diversity. It examines the Moroccan cultural environment and the ways the multilingualism and education of its people has been and continues to be influenced by geography, colonization periods, religion, and history. The effects of the Educational…

  12. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  13. Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

  14. Underrepresented Racial/Ethnic Minority Graduate Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) Disciplines: A Cross Institutional Analysis of their Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Tanya

    Considering the importance of a diverse science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) research workforce for our country's future, it is troubling that many underrepresented racial minority (URM) students start graduate STEM programs, but do not finish. However, some institutional contexts better position students for degree completion than others. The purpose of this study was to uncover the academic and social experiences, power dynamics, and programmatic/institutional structures URM students face within their graduate STEM programs that hinder or support degree progression. Using a critical socialization framework applied in a cross-comparative qualitative study, I focused on how issues of race, ethnicity, and underrepresentation within the educational contexts shape students' experiences. Data was collected from focus group interviews involving 53 URM graduate students pursuing STEM disciplines across three institution types -- a Predominately White Institution, a Hispanic-Serving Institution, and a Historically Black University. Results demonstrate that when students' relationships with faculty advisors were characterized by benign neglect, students felt lost, wasted time and energy making avoidable mistakes, had less positive views of their experiences, and had more difficulty progressing through classes or research, which could cause them to delay time to degree completion or to leave with a master's degree. Conversely, faculty empowered students when they helped them navigate difficult processes/milestones with regular check-ins, but also allowed students room to make decisions and solve problems independently. Further, faculty set the tone for the overall interactional culture and helping behavior in the classroom and lab contexts; where faculty modeled collaboration and concern for students, peers were likely to do the same. International peers sometimes excluded domestic students both socially and academically, which had a negative affect on

  15. Finding Respondents from Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Nelda; Medina, Alvaro A.; Bocanegra-Alonso, Anabel; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Acosta-Gonzalez, Rosa I.; Ramirez, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    The recruitment of respondents belonging to ethnic minorities poses important challenges in social and health research. This paper reflects on the enablers and barriers to recruitment that we encountered in our research work with persons belonging to ethnic minorities. Additionally, we applied the Matching Model of Recruitment, a theoretical…

  16. The Moroccan Genetic Disease Database (MGDD): a database for DNA variations related to inherited disorders and disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Charoute, Hicham; Nahili, Halima; Abidi, Omar; Gabi, Khalid; Rouba, Hassan; Fakiri, Malika; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2014-03-01

    National and ethnic mutation databases provide comprehensive information about genetic variations reported in a population or an ethnic group. In this paper, we present the Moroccan Genetic Disease Database (MGDD), a catalogue of genetic data related to diseases identified in the Moroccan population. We used the PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases to identify available articles published until April 2013. The Database is designed and implemented on a three-tier model using Mysql relational database and the PHP programming language. To date, the database contains 425 mutations and 208 polymorphisms found in 301 genes and 259 diseases. Most Mendelian diseases in the Moroccan population follow autosomal recessive mode of inheritance (74.17%) and affect endocrine, nutritional and metabolic physiology. The MGDD database provides reference information for researchers, clinicians and health professionals through a user-friendly Web interface. Its content should be useful to improve researches in human molecular genetics, disease diagnoses and design of association studies. MGDD can be publicly accessed at http://mgdd.pasteur.ma. PMID:23860041

  17. Applicability of the Social Development Model to Urban Ethnic Minority Youth: Examining the Relationship between External Constraints, Family Socialization, and Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    The development of preventive interventions targeting adolescent problem behaviors requires a thorough understanding of risk and protective factors for such behaviors. However, few studies examine whether different cultural and ethnic groups share these factors. This study is an attempt to fill a gap in research by examining similarities and differences in risk factors across racial and ethnic groups. The social development model has shown promise in organizing predictors of problem behaviors. This article investigates whether a version of that model can be generalized to youth in different racial and ethnic groups (N = 2,055, age range from 11 to 15), including African American (n = 478), Asian Pacific Islander (API) American (n = 491), multiracial (n = 442), and European American (n = 644) youth. The results demonstrate that common risk factors can be applied to adolescents, regardless of their race and ethnicity. The findings also demonstrate that there are racial and ethnic differences in the magnitudes of relationships among factors that affect problem behaviors. Further study is warranted to develop a better understanding of these differential magnitudes. PMID:21625351

  18. Model Minority Stereotype Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Futoshi

    This paper explores the origin and historical background of the "model minority" stereotype. It includes evidence illustrating problems resulting from the artificial grouping of Asian Americans as one ethnic group and the stereotype's influence on young Asian Americans. In the 1960s, the U.S. media began to portray the model minority through…

  19. Ethnic differences in assisted reproductive technologies outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Trimble; Fujimoto, Victor Y

    2013-09-01

    Disparities in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) outcomes have been identified among ethnic minorities when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. Minority ethnicity has been shown to be an independent predictor of lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in many studies. In this article, we seek to summarize the most recent literature on ethnic difference reported within ART outcomes. We will discuss potential reasons behind these disparities and further explore independent predictors and associations between ethnicity and ART success. PMID:23934696

  20. Globalization, China's Drive for World-Class Universities (211 Project) and the Challenges of Ethnic Minority Higher Education: The Case of Yanbian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2010-01-01

    This case study of Yanbian University, a Korean minority university in China, examines the challenges faced, strategies employed, and resources mobilized by a minority university in its attempt to become a world-class university. Specifically, this case study focuses on how the University is attempting to reach its goals within the context of the…

  1. Mental Health Treatment Barriers among Racial/Ethnic Minority versus White Young Adults 6 Months after Intake at a College Counseling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Regina; Soffer, Ariella; Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Wheeler, Alyssa; Moore, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined mental health treatment barriers following intake at a counseling center among racially/ethnically diverse college students. Methods: College students (N = 122) seen for intake at a college counseling center in 2012-2013 completed self-reports of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and mental health treatment…

  2. The Relative Risk of Cardiovascular Death among Racial and Ethnic Minorities with Metabolic Syndrome: Data from the NHANES-II Mortality Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Martins, David; Tareen, Naureen; Ogedegbe, Godwin; Pan, Deyu; Norris, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The tendency for selected cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors to occur in clusters has led to the description of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The relative impact of the individual risk factor on the overall relative risk (RR) for cardiovascular death from metabolic syndrome is not well established and may differ across the different racial/ethnic groups. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) mortality follow-up (NH2MS), we determined the prevalence and RR of cardiovascular death for individual components in the overall population and across racial and ethnic groups. The prevalence of MetS components varied significantly across gender and racial/ethnic groupings. The RR for CVD also varies for the number and different components of MetS. The adjusted RR for cardiovascular death was highest with diabetes (3.23; 95% CI: 2.70–3.88), elevated blood pressure (2.28; 95% CI: 1.94–2.67) and high triglycerides (1.63; 95% CI: 1.34–2.00). Although the RR for cardiovascular death differs significantly for some of the different components, the overall findings were similar across racial/ethnic groups. The two components that confer the highest risks for death are more prevalent in African Americans. We concluded that the RR of cardiovascular death associated with the diagnosis of MetS varies depending on the number and components used to establish the diagnosis of MetS and the racial/ethnic characteristic of the participants. PMID:18507210

  3. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  4. The structure of feared social situations among race-ethnic minorities and Whites with social anxiety disorder in the United States.

    PubMed

    Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M; Marques, Luana; Simon, Naomi; Robinaugh, Donald J; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2015-12-01

    We investigated feared social situations in individuals with social anxiety disorder from different racial and ethnic groups in the United States. The sample included 247 African Americans, 158 Latinos, and 533 non-Latino Whites diagnosed with social anxiety disorder within the past 12 months from the integrated Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies data set. After randomly splitting the full sample, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis with half of the sample to determine the structure of feared social situations in a more diverse sample than has been used in previous studies. We found evidence for a model consisting of three feared social domains: performance/public speaking, social interaction, and observational. We then conducted a confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample to examine whether this factor structure varied significantly between the race-ethnic groups. Analyses revealed an adequate fit of this model across all three race-ethnic groups, suggesting invariance of the factor structure between the study groups. Broader cultural contexts within which these findings are relevant are discussed, along with important implications for comprehensive, culturally sensitive assessment of social anxiety. PMID:25795220

  5. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  6. Elimination of Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minority Communities: Developing Data Indicators To Assess the Progress of Community-Based Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edberg, Mark C.; Wong, Frank Y.; Woo, Violet; Doong, Tuei

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of a pilot uniform data set (UDS) intended to serve as the primary data collection mechanism for all grants and standard cooperative agreements funded by the U.S. Office of Minority Health. The UDS is the product of a formative research project with implications for other program evaluations. (SLD)

  7. A Study of Selected Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ethnic Minorities Based on the 1970 Census. Volume I: Americans of Spanish Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RJ Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Persons of Spanish Origin are the second largest minority group in the United States. In 1970, they numbered 9.1 million people; 2.4 million of whom were in poverty. These 9.1 million persons are a diverse group of people, from divergent areas of the world, and of different national backgrounds. The separate Spanish groups were designated by the…

  8. Active Summers Matter: Evaluation of a Community-Based Summertime Program Targeting Obesogenic Behaviors of Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnert, Amy M.; Ward, Amanda K.; Burdette, Kimberly A.; Silton, Rebecca L.; Dugas, Lara R.

    2014-01-01

    Low-income minority females are disproportionately affected by obesity. The relevance of summer months to weight gain is often overlooked. Some evidence suggests that summer programming, such as day camps, may offer increased opportunities for structured physical activities resulting in less weight gain. This study examined the effectiveness of…

  9. Educational Equity in the Access to Post-Secondary Education: A Comparison of Ethnic Minorities in China with Aboriginals in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insight into equity issues in post-secondary education by exploring and assessing the history, the reality and the potential developments in higher education for minority students in China, in comparison to post-secondary education for aboriginal students in Canada. It highlights access to post-secondary education by these…

  10. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure update: Heart failure in ethnic minority populations, heart failure and pregnancy, disease management, and quality improvement/assurance programs

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, Jonathan G; McKelvie, Robert S; Costigan, Jeannine; Ducharme, Anique; Estrella-Holder, Estrellita; Ezekowitz, Justin A; Giannetti, Nadia; Haddad, Haissam; Heckman, George A; Herd, Anthony M; Isaac, Debra; Kouz, Simon; Leblanc, Kori; Liu, Peter; Mann, Elizabeth; Moe, Gordon W; O’Meara, Eileen; Rajda, Miroslav; Siu, Samuel; Stolee, Paul; Swiggum, Elizabeth; Zeiroth, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society heart failure (HF) guidelines have published annual focused updates for cardiovascular care providers. The 2010 Canadian Cardiovascular Society HF guidelines update focuses on an increasing issue in the western world – HF in ethnic minorities – and in an uncommon but important setting – the pregnant patient. Additionally, due to increasing attention recently given to the assessment of how care is delivered and measured, two critically important topics – disease management programs in HF and quality assurance – have been included. Both of these topics were written from a clinical perspective. It is hoped that the present update will become a useful tool for health care providers and planners in the ongoing evolution of care for HF patients in Canada. PMID:20386768

  11. TNF A -308G>A polymorphism in Moroccan patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sefri, Hajar; Benrahma, Houda; Charoute, Hicham; Lakbakbi el Yaagoubi, Fouzia; Rouba, Hassan; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Nourlil, Jalal; Abidi, Omar; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2014-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of causes of mortality and morbidity in Moroccan population. The identification of genes implicated in this disease can help to found a specific treatment and to improve the quality of life for type 2 diabetic patients. In this study we analyze the association between a polymorphism (-308G>A) of TNF A promoter gene and T2DM in Moroccan patients. Five hundred and fifty-one individuals (307 patients with T2DM and 244 controls) were genotyped for this polymorphism by PCR-RFLP. This association was further reconsidered by a meta-analysis on 21 studies including 8,187 cases and 7,811 controls. We found that in Moroccan patients the -308A allele is strongly associated with T2DM (p = 0.000002; odds ratio 1.79, 95 % confidence interval 1.41-2.28). Based on our meta-analysis, there was no significant association detected between the TNF A -308G>A polymorphism and risk for T2DM. Our results suggest that the -308G>A polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for the development of T2DM in Moroccan population. On the other hand the meta analysis results led to controversial conclusions in other ethnicities. PMID:24952604

  12. Patient satisfaction: ethnic origin or explanatory model?

    PubMed

    Callan, A; Littlewood, R

    1998-01-01

    Despite concern over their psychiatric treatment, little is known about black and ethnic minority patient satisfaction with psychiatric services and whether perceived 'ethnicity' or discrepant understanding of illness experience is most relevant. Twenty-one white British and 63 ethnic minority patients were interviewed for their opinions on psychiatric in-patient care, their treatment preferences and their explanatory models of their illness. The most significant association with satisfaction was not ethnic origin but the patient's explanatory model of their illness which showed little association with ethnicity whether patients were voluntary or involuntary. Satisfaction is most likely when there is concordance between the patient's and psychiatrist's explanatory model. PMID:9574847

  13. A comparison of the wild food plant use knowledge of ethnic minorities in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve, Yunnan, SW China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wild food plants (WFPs) contribute to the nutrition, economy and even cultural identity of people in many parts of the world. Different factors determine the preference and use of WFPs such as abundance, availability, cultural preference, economic conditions, shortage periods or unsecure food production systems. Understanding these factors and knowing the patterns of selection, use and cultural significance and value of wild food plants for local communities is helpful in setting priorities for conservation and/or domestication of these plants. Thus in this study knowledge of wild food plant use among four groups namely Dai, Lahu, Hani and Mountain Han in Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve ((NRWNNR), Xishuangbanna were documented and analyzed to find the similarity and difference among their plant use. Methods Data on wild food plant use was collected through freelisting and semi-structured interviews and participatory field collection and direct observation. Botanical plant sample specimens were collected, prepared, dried and identified. Results A total of 173 species and subspecies from 64 families and one species of lichen (Ramalina sp.) are used as WFP. There were differences on the saliency of wild food plant species among four ethnic groups. Consensus analysis revealed that knowledge of wild food plant use for each ethnic group differs from others with some variation in each group. Among informant attributes only age was related with the knowledge of wild food plant use, whereas no significant relationship was found between gender and age*gender and informants knowledge of wild food plant use. Conclusion Wild food plants are still used extensively by local people in the NRWNNR, some of them on a daily base. This diversity of wild food plants provide important source of nutrients for the local communities which much of their caloric intake comes from one or few crops. The results also show the role of ethnicity on the preference and use

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Medication, Control, and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension in Bai Ethnic Group in Rural China: The Yunnan Minority Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Minbin; Cha, Xueping; Li, Jun; Yuan, Yuansheng; Wei, Tao; Zhong, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their associated factors among Bai ethnic population in the rural China. Methods A population-based survey was conducted in 2010 with a randomly cluster sampling in rural communities in Dali, southwest China. A total of 2133 adults aged 50 or above were interviewed, and their blood pressure, height, weight and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as a mean SBP≥140 mmHg and/or DBP≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 42.1% (899/2133), and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 40.0%. Among the hypertensive participants, 28.4% (255/899)were aware of their condition, while 24.6% (221/899) took antihypertensive medications, with only 7.5% (67/899) of those achieving blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg). Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of HBP, overweight, and obesity, while protective factors included being lean, and having finished senior high school or above. Conclusions Hypertension prevalence is high among the population of Bai ethnic group in China, while the associated risk factors of hypertension include overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, history of hypertension, and older age. The percentages of hypertensive participants aware of their hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medications were low with an incredibly low proportion of hypertensive patients who kept their hypertension under control. It is suggested that health education and hypertension screening programs be carried out in the area for the high blood pressure prevention and control. PMID:23951030

  15. Minority Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to increase the number of ethnic minorities on the faculties of American colleges and universities, the Ford Foundation is offering fellowships to members of six groups who have been severely underrepresented in academia.In a program administered by the National Research Council (NRC), the Ford Foundation is offering 50 three-year predoctoral fellowships ($14,000 per year, plus a $6000 annual institutional grant) and 25 one-year dissertation fellowships ($18,000 for one year) to Native American Indians, Alaskan natives (Eskimos, Aleuts), Black/African Americans, Mexican Americans/Chicanos, Native Pacific Islanders (Polynesians and Micronesians), and Puerto Ricans. Fellowships will be awarded in the behavioral and social sciences, humanities, engineering, mathematics, physical sciences, life sciences, or interdisciplinary programs composed of two or more of those disciplines. The predoctoral fellowships are intended for beginning graduate students; the dissertation fellowships are designed to provide support for students in their final year.

  16. Genetic ancestry of a Moroccan population as inferred from autosomal STRs

    PubMed Central

    Bentayebi, K.; Abada, F.; Ihzmad, H.; Amzazi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting population substructure and ancestry is a critical issue for both association studies of health behaviors and forensic genetics. Determining aspects of a population's genetic history as potential sources of substructure can aid in design of future genetic studies. Within this context, fifteen autosomal short tandem repeat (STR), were used to examine population genetic structure and hypotheses of the origin of the modern Moroccan population from individuals belonging to three different ethnical groups from Morocco (Arab, Berber and Sahrawi), by comparing their autosomal STR variation with that of neighboring and non-neighboring populations in North Africa, Europe and Middle East as well as proposed ancestral populations in Morocco (Berber). We report on the results that the gradient of North African ancestry accounts for previous observations of low levels of sharing with Near East and a substantially increased gene flow especially from Morocco and Spain. PMID:25606427

  17. Handwriting Moroccan regions recognition using Tifinagh character.

    PubMed

    El Kessab, B; Daoui, C; Bouikhalene, B; Salouan, R

    2015-09-01

    The territorial organization of Morocco during administratives division of 2009 is based on 16 regions. In this work we will create a system of recognition of handwritten words (names of regions) using the Amazigh language is an official language by the Moroccan Royal Institute of Amazigh Culture (IRCAM) (2003a) [1] such as this language is slightly treated by researchers in pattern recognition field that is why we decided to study this language (El Kessab et al., 2013 [3]; El Kessab et al., 2014 [4]) that knowing the state make a decision to computerize the various public sectors by this language. In this context we propose a data set for handwritten Tifinagh regions composed of 1600 image (100 Image for each region). The dataset can be used in one hand to test the efficiency of the Tifinagh region recognition system in extraction of characteristics significatives and the correct identification of each region in classification phase in the other hand. PMID:26966718

  18. Minoritarianism and Ethnic Group Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Robert L.; Reedy, Maybelle A.

    This article contends that the relational aspects of minority ethnic group communication have not been given due attention and that an adequate explication of the concept of minoritarianism is necessary for the better understanding of minority group communication processes. The paper deals with the explication problem and presents the findings of…

  19. Lived Experiences of Racially and Ethnically Underrepresented Minority BSN Students: A Case Study Specifically Exploring Issues Related to Recruitment and Retention.

    PubMed

    Diefenbeck, Cynthia; Michalec, Barret; Alexander, Robbi

    2016-01-01

    The lived experiences of 12 traditionally aged underrepresented minority BSN students in a predominantly white university were explored using a qualitative, semi-structured, e-questionnaire approach. A multistep analysis procedure of the data identified barriers, including negative interactions with and lack of diversity of faculty and peers, deficiency of cultural competency training, lack of academic and financial support, and negative family behaviors. Identified facilitators include a strong desire to be a nurse, family member in the health care profession, and proximity to home. Novel findings include highly polarized responses regarding interactions with faculty and peers and the drive to be a nurse as a unique aspect of general determination. PMID:27164777

  20. "I thought you were Japanese": Ethnic miscategorization and identity assertion.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Matthew D; Garcia, Randi L; Shelton, J Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Across 2 studies we examined how ethnic minorities respond to ethnic miscategorization. Using a 21-day experience sampling procedure (Study 1), we found that ethnic minorities exhibited greater ethnic identity assertion when they had reported being ethnically miscategorized the previous day. Similarly, we found that ethnic minorities who were ethnically miscategorized (vs. not) by a White partner in the laboratory exhibited greater ethnic identity assertion and expressed greater dislike of their partner (Study 2). In both studies, these effects were stronger for individuals whose ethnic identity was central to their self-concept. The implications of these findings for ethnic identity development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25364835